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Sample records for controlled oxalate diets

  1. Role of cellular oxalate in oxalate clearance of patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stone formation and normal controls.

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    Oehlschläger, Sven; Fuessel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Herrmann, Jana; Froehner, Michael; Albrecht, Steffen; Wirth, Manfred P

    2009-03-01

    To examine the cellular, plasma, and urinary oxalate and erythrocyte oxalate flux in patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation vs normal controls. Pathologic oxalate clearance in humans is mostly integrated in calcium oxalate stone formation. An underlying cause of deficient oxalate clearance could be defective transmembrane oxalate transport, which, in many tissues, is regulated by an anion exchanger (SLC26). We studied 2 groups: 40 normal controls and 41 patients with COM stone formation. Red blood cells were divided for cellular oxalate measurement and for resuspension in a buffered solution (pH 7.40); 0.1 mmol/L oxalate was added. The supernatant was measured for oxalate immediately and 1 hour after incubation. The plasma and urinary oxalate were analyzed in parallel. The mean cellular oxalate concentrations were significantly greater in the normal controls (5.25 +/- 0.47 micromol/L) than in those with COM stone formation (2.36 +/- 0.28 micromol/L; P stone formation (0.31 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) than in the controls (0.24 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; P r = 0.49-0.63; P r = -0.29-0.41; P r = -0.30; P r = 0.25; P stone formation. Our data implicate the presence of a cellular oxalate buffer to stabilize plasma and urinary oxalate concentrations in normal controls.

  2. Associations of diet and breed with recurrence of calcium oxalate cystic calculi in dogs.

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    Allen, Heidi S; Swecker, William S; Becvarova, Iveta; Weeth, Lisa P; Werre, Stephen R

    2015-05-15

    To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets. Retrospective cohort study. Animals-135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi. Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi). Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis. Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations.

  3. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

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    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  4. Isolation of oxalic acid tolerating fungi and decipherization of its potential to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through oxalate oxidase like protein.

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    Yadav, Shivani; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Dhanajay P; Arora, Dilip K

    2012-11-01

    Oxalic acid plays major role in the pathogenesis by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum; it lowers the pH of nearby environment and creates the favorable condition for the infection. In this study we examined the degradation of oxalic acid through oxalate oxidase and biocontrol of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. A survey was conducted to collect the rhizospheric soil samples from Indo-Gangetic Plains of India to isolate the efficient fungal strains able to tolerate oxalic acid. A total of 120 fungal strains were isolated from root adhering soils of different vegetable crops. Out of 120 strains a total of 80 isolates were able to grow at 10 mM of oxalic acid whereas only 15 isolates were grow at 50 mM of oxalic acid concentration. Then we examined the antagonistic activity of the 15 isolates against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. These strains potentially inhibit the growth of the test pathogen. A total of three potential strains and two standard cultures of fungi were tested for the oxalate oxidase activity. Strains S7 showed the maximum degradation of oxalic acid (23 %) after 60 min of incubation with fungal extract having oxalate oxidase activity. Microscopic observation and ITS (internally transcribed spacers) sequencing categorized the potential fungal strains into the Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma. Trichoderma sp. are well studied biocontrol agent and interestingly we also found the oxalate oxidase type activity in these strains which further strengthens the potentiality of these biocontrol agents.

  5. Morphological control of strontium oxalate particles by PSMA-mediated precipitation reaction

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    Yu Jiaguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)]. E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Tang Hua [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cheng Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2005-05-15

    In this paper, strontium oxalate particles with different morphologies could be easily obtained by a precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with strontium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of pH, aging time and concentration of PSMA on the phase structures and morphologies of the as-prepared strontium oxalate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that strontium oxalate particles with various morphologies, such as, bi-pyramids, rods, peanuts, and spherical particles, etc., could be obtained by varying the experimental conditions. PSMA promoted the formation of strontium oxalate dihydrate (SOD) phase. Suitable pH values (pH 7 and 8) favor the formation of the peanut-shaped SrC{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. This research may provide new insight into the control of morphologies and phase structures of strontium oxalate particles and the biomimetic synthesis of novel inorganic materials.

  6. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

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    Ja Yeong Jang

    Full Text Available Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10% and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%, were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate. These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.

  7. Morphological control of calcium oxalate particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiaguo; Tang Hua; Cheng Bei; Zhao Xiujian

    2004-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) particles exhibiting different shapes and phase structures were fabricated by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with calcium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) as a crystal modifier at room temperature. The as-obtained products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of reaction conditions including pH, [Ca 2+ ]/[C 2 O 4 2- ] ratio and concentration of PSMA and CaC 2 O 4 on the crystal forms and morphologies of the as-obtained calcium oxalate were investigated. The results show that various crystal morphologies of calcium oxalate, such as parallelograms, plates, spheres, bipyramids etc. can be obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Higher polymer concentration favors formation of the metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. Lower pH is beneficial to the formation of plate-like CaOx crystals. Especially, the monodispersed parallelogram-like CaOx crystals can be produced by PSMA as an additive at pH 2. PSMA may act as a good inhibitor for urolithiasis since it induces the formation of COD and reduces the particle size of CaOx. This research may provide new insight into the morphological control of CaOx particles and the prevention of urolithiasis

  8. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

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    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  9. Fasting urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and breed-matched controls.

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    Furrow, E; Patterson, E E; Armstrong, P J; Osborne, C A; Lulich, J P

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

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    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  11. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

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    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  12. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

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    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  13. Controlled synthesis of porous anhydrous cobalt oxalate nanorods with high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Junmin; He, Lei; Liu, Hui; Han, Tao; Wang, Yongjian; Zhang, Changjin; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: One-dimensional porous anhydrous cobalt oxalate nanorods are prepared via a facile water-controlled coprecipitate method followed by thermal annealing treatment under N 2 at 300 °C. The nanorods are characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the nanorods exhibit high reversible specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (924 mA h g −1 at 50 mA g −1 after 100 cycles and 709 mA h g −1 at 200 mA g −1 after 220 cycles). This remarkable electrochemical performance is attributed to the one-dimensional porous nanostructure that can provide large electrode/electrolyte contact area and short lithium-ion diffusion pathway, meanwhile reduce the volume expansion during the repeated discharge/charge process

  14. Selectivity control of carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate and dimethyl carbonate over gold anode by electrochemical potential.

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    Funakawa, Akiyasu; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Takenaka, Sakae; Otsuka, Kiyoshi

    2004-05-05

    New and unique electrocatalysis of gold for the carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate (DMO) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was found. The selectivity to DMO and DMC could be controlled over gold anode by electrochemical potential, as you like. Drastic changes of gold electrocatalysis was due to changes of the oxidation state of gold, Au0 or Au3+.

  15. Cooperation of phosphates and carboxylates controls calcium oxalate crystallization in ultrafiltered urine.

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    Grohe, Bernd; Chan, Brian P H; Sørensen, Esben S; Lajoie, Gilles; Goldberg, Harvey A; Hunter, Graeme K

    2011-10-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is one of a group of proteins found in urine that are believed to limit the formation of kidney stones. In the present study, we investigate the roles of phosphate and carboxylate groups in the OPN-mediated modulation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), the principal mineral phase found in kidney stones. To this end, crystallization was induced by addition of CaOx solution to ultrafiltered human urine containing either human kidney OPN (kOPN; 7 consecutive carboxylates, 8 phosphates) or synthesized peptides corresponding to residues 65-80 (pSHDHMDDDDDDDDDGD; pOPAR) or 220-235 (pSHEpSTEQSDAIDpSAEK; P3) of rat bone OPN. Sequence 65-80 was also synthesized without the phosphate group (OPAR). Effects on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) formation were studied by scanning electron microscopy. We found that controls form large, partly intergrown COM platelets; COD was never observed. Adding any of the polyelectrolytes was sufficient to prevent intergrowth of COM platelets entirely, inhibiting formation of these platelets strongly, and inducing formation of the COD phase. Strongest effects on COM formation were found for pOPAR and OPAR followed by kOPN and then P3, showing that acidity and hydrophilicity are crucial in polyelectrolyte-affected COM crystallization. At higher concentrations, OPAR also inhibited COD formation, while P3, kOPN and, in particular, pOPAR promoted COD, a difference explainable by the variations of carboxylate and phosphate groups present in the molecules. Thus, we conclude that carboxylate groups play a primary role in inhibiting COM formation, but phosphate and carboxylate groups are both important in initiating and promoting COD formation.

  16. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

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    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  17. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  18. Brood removal or queen caging combined with oxalic acid treatment to control varroa mites (Varroa destructor) in honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera)

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    Few studies of honey bee colonies exist where varroa mite control is achieved by integrating broodless conditions, through either total brood removal or queen caging, in combination with oxalic acid (OA) applications. We observed significant varroa mortality after applications of OA in obtaining bro...

  19. Assembly of an Oxalate Decarboxylase Produced under σK Control into the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

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    Costa, Teresa; Steil, Leif; Martins, Lígia O.; Völker, Uwe; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2004-01-01

    Over 30 polypeptides are synthesized at various times during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, and they are assembled at the surface of the developing spore to form a multilayer protein structure called the coat. The coat consists of three main layers, an amorphous undercoat close to the underlying spore cortex peptidoglycan, a lamellar inner layer, and an electron-dense striated outer layer. The product of the B. subtilis oxdD gene was previously shown to have oxalate decarboxylase activity when it was produced in Escherichia coli and to be a spore constituent. In this study, we found that OxdD specifically associates with the spore coat structure, and in this paper we describe regulation of its synthesis and assembly. We found that transcription of oxdD is induced during sporulation as a monocistronic unit under the control of σK and is negatively regulated by GerE. We also found that localization of a functional OxdD-green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the surface of the developing spore depends on the SafA morphogenetic protein, which localizes at the interface between the spore cortex and coat layers. OxdD-GFP localizes around the developing spore in a cotE mutant, which does not assemble the spore outer coat layer, but it does not persist in spores produced by the mutant. Together, the data suggest that OxdD-GFP is targeted to the interior layers of the coat. Additionally, we found that expression of a multicopy allele of oxdD resulted in production of spores with increased levels of OxdD that were able to degrade oxalate but were sensitive to lysozyme. PMID:14973022

  20. Mimicking the biomolecular control of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth: effect of contiguous glutamic acids.

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    Grohe, Bernd; Hug, Susanna; Langdon, Aaron; Jalkanen, Jari; Rogers, Kem A; Goldberg, Harvey A; Karttunen, Mikko; Hunter, Graeme K

    2012-08-21

    Scanning confocal interference microscopy (SCIM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the adsorption of the synthetic polypeptide poly(l-glutamic acid) (poly-glu) to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and its effect on COM formation. At low concentrations (1 μg/mL), poly-glu inhibits growth most effectively in ⟨001⟩ directions, indicating strong interactions of the polypeptide with {121} crystal faces. Growth in directions was inhibited only marginally by 1 μg/mL poly-glu, while growth in directions did not appear to be affected. This suggests that, at low concentrations, poly-glu inhibits lattice-ion addition to the faces of COM in the order {121} > {010} ≥ {100}. At high concentrations (6 μg/mL), poly-glu resulted in the formation of dumbbell-shaped crystals featuring concave troughs on the {100} faces. The effects on crystal growth indicate that, at high concentrations, poly-glu interacts with the faces of COM in the order {100} > {121} > {010}. This mirrors MD simulations, which predicted that poly-glu will adsorb to a {100} terrace plane (most calcium-rich) in preference to a {121} (oblique) riser plane but will adsorb to {121} riser plane in preference to an {010} terrace plane (least calcium-rich). The effects of different poly-glu concentration on COM growth (1-6 μg/mL) may be due to variations between the faces in terms of growth mechanism and/or (nano)roughness, which can affect surface energy. In addition, 1 μg/mL might not be adequate to reach the critical concentration for poly-glu to significantly pin step movement on {100} and {010} faces. Understanding the mechanisms involved in these processes is essential for the development of agents to reduce recurrence of kidney stone disease.

  1. Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Nano- and Microsized Crystals in the Urine of Calcium Oxalate Stone Patients and Control Subjects

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    Jie Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the properties of different sizes of urinary crystallites between calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi patients and healthy controls. Methods. We studied the average particle size, size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation curve, zeta potential (ζ, conductivity, mobility, aggregation state, and stability of different sizes of urinary crystallites by nanoparticle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy after filtration through a microporous membrane with an aperture size from 0.22 μm to 0.45, 1.2, 3, and 10 μm. Results. The urinary crystallites of the CaOx calculi patients were uneven and much easy to aggregate than those of controls. The number of large-sized crystallites of the patients was significantly more than that of the controls. The main components of the nanosized urinary crystallites in patients were CaOx monohydrate (COM, uric acid, and β-calcium phosphate, and these components were basically similar to those of the microsized urinary crystallites. The urinary crystallites of the calculi patients were easier to aggregate than that of the controls, and the small-sized urinary crystallites were much easier to agglomerate. Conclusions. The urinary system of CaOx calculi patients is unstable and highly susceptible to urinary crystallite aggregation. The rapid aggregation of urinary crystallites may be the key factor affecting urolithiasis formation.

  2. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

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    R. Wagner; O. Möhler; H. Saathoff; M. Schnaiter; T. Leisner

    2010-01-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to ...

  3. Efficacy of repeated trickle applications of oxalic acid in syrup for varroosis control in Apis mellifera: influence of meteorological conditions and presence of brood.

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    Bacandritsos, Nicolaos; Papanastasiou, Iosif; Saitanis, Costas; Nanetti, Antonio; Roinioti, Erifylli

    2007-09-01

    Oxalic acid field trails for the control of varroosis (Varroa destructor) were carried out in an apiary located on the Mt. Imittos (Attica, Greece). The colonies received four successive applications (approximately one every 16 days) with 4.2% oxalic acid (OA) and 60% sugar solution by trickling method with two alternative types of syringes (an automatic self-filling dosing and a single-use) from the broodright to broodless period. The results indicate that the first three applications (from 6th October to 25th November-broodright period) resulted in 65.3% cumulative mite mortality, while only the last application (after the 26th November-broodless period) resulted in 77.3% mite mortality. Very low outern temperatures reduce to the minimum the bee movability, which may result into a slower development of the OA efficacy. No poor colony growth or queen loss were observed even if the bee colonies were received the four successive OA applications with the last one taken place at a very low outern temperature (6.2 degrees C). The trickling method using an automatic-filling syringe seems to be a very quick way for applying oxalic acid in large apiaries (approximately 150hives/h).

  4. Reuse of sewage sludge as a catalyst in ozonation – Efficiency for the removal of oxalic acid and the control of bromate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Gang; Pan, Zhi-Hui; Ma, Jun; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Zhao, Lei; Li, Jun-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sewage sludge was converted into catalyst (SBC) and characterized. ► SBC can enhance oxalic acid degradation in ozonation. ► Surface reaction mechanism is responsible for enhancement of ozonation by SBC. ► SBC can control the formation of bromate in ozonation. ► Several combined reasons for the control of bromate formation are proposed. - Abstract: Sewage derived sludge is produced with an annual amount increase of 2% all over the world and it is an urgent issue to be addressed by human being. In the present study, sludge was converted into sludge-based catalyst (SBC) with ZnCl 2 as activation agent and characterized by several methods (e.g., scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope). Then it was used as a catalyst to enhance the removal of refractory organic matter, oxalic acid, and to control the formation of bromate (BrO 3 − ) in bench semi-continuous ozonation experiments. The effects of various operating parameters on the control of BrO 3 − formation were investigated. Furthermore, the mechanism for the enhancement of organic matter removal and the control of BrO 3 − formation was discussed as well. Results indicate that the combination of SBC with ozone shows a strong synergistic effect, resulting in a notable improvement on oxalic acid removal. A crucial surface reaction mechanism for the enhancement of organic matter removal is proposed on the basis of negative effect of higher pH and no inhibition effect of tert-butanol. The control for BrO 3 − formation was demonstrated and the reason for its control in the process of O 3 /SBC is the combined effect of SBC reductive properties, ozone exposure decrease and hydrogen peroxide concentration increase.

  5. Evaluation of oxalate decarboxylase and oxalate oxidase for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassland, Pierre; Sjöde, Anders; Winestrand, Sandra; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    2010-05-01

    Increased recirculation of process water has given rise to problems with formation of calcium oxalate incrusts (scaling) in the pulp and paper industry and in forest biorefineries. The potential in using oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger for oxalic acid removal in industrial bleaching plant filtrates containing oxalic acid was examined and compared with barley oxalate oxidase. Ten different filtrates from chemical pulping were selected for the evaluation. Oxalate decarboxylase degraded oxalic acid faster than oxalate oxidase in eight of the filtrates, while oxalate oxidase performed better in one filtrate. One of the filtrates inhibited both enzymes. The potential inhibitory effect of selected compounds on the enzymatic activity was tested. Oxalate decarboxylase was more sensitive than oxalate oxidase to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate decarboxylase was not as sensitive to chlorate and chlorite as oxalate oxidase. Up to 4 mM chlorate ions, the highest concentration tested, had no inhibitory effect on oxalate decarboxylase. Analysis of the filtrates suggests that high concentrations of chlorate present in some of the filtrates were responsible for the higher sensitivity of oxalate oxidase in these filtrates. Oxalate decarboxylase was thus a better choice than oxalate oxidase for treatment of filtrates from chlorine dioxide bleaching.

  6. Influence of additives on the structure and microstructure of lanthanides and actinides oxalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidon, Blaise; Vitart, Anne-Lise; Rivenet, Murielle; Arab-Chapelet, Benedicte; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud; Grandjean, Stephane; Abraham, Francis

    2015-07-01

    Oxalic conversion is a well-known process in the nuclear industry where it is used for precipitating plutonium as an oxalate thereafter calcinated into an oxide. As there is a strong relationship between the morphology of the oxalate precursor and that of the resulting oxide, it is of interest to control the oxalate structure and microstructure during the precipitation step. The influence of additives on the precipitation of neodymium (III) oxalates, non-radioactive analogs of actinides (III) oxalates, was explored. With the use of nitrilotri-methylphosphonic acid (NTMP), the structure and microstructure of the neodymium oxalates are different from that obtained without additive. (authors)

  7. Directed synthesis of crystalline plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalates: accessing redox-controlled separations in acidic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runde, Wolfgang; Brodnax, Lia F.; Goff, George S.; Bean, Amanda C.; Scott, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    Both binary and ternary solid complexes of Pu(III) and Pu(IV) oxalates have been previously reported in the literature. However, uncertainties regarding the coordination chemistry and the extent of hydration of some compounds remain mainly because of the absence of any crystallographic characterization. Single crystals of hydrated oxalates of Pu(III), Pu 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 (H 2 O) 6 ·3H 2 O (I) and Pu(IV), KPu(C 2 O 4 ) 2 (OH)·2.5H 2 O (II), were synthesized under moderate hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds I and II are the first plutonium(III) or (IV) oxalate compounds to be structurally characterized via single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Crystallographic data for I: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 11.246(3) A, b = 9.610(3) A, c = 10.315(3) A, Z = 4 and II: monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 23.234(14) A, b = 7.502(4) A, c = 13.029(7) A, Z = 8.

  8. Hydroxyproline Metabolism and Oxalate Synthesis in Primary Hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargue, Sonia; Milliner, Dawn S; Knight, John; Olson, Julie B; Lowther, W Todd; Holmes, Ross P

    2018-06-01

    Background Endogenous oxalate synthesis contributes to calcium oxalate stone disease and is markedly increased in the inherited primary hyperoxaluria (PH) disorders. The incomplete knowledge regarding oxalate synthesis complicates discovery of new treatments. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) metabolism results in the formation of oxalate and glycolate. However, the relative contribution of Hyp metabolism to endogenous oxalate and glycolate synthesis is not known. Methods To define this contribution, we performed primed, continuous, intravenous infusions of the stable isotope [ 15 N, 13 C 5 ]-Hyp in nine healthy subjects and 19 individuals with PH and quantified the levels of urinary 13 C 2 -oxalate and 13 C 2 -glycolate formed using ion chromatography coupled to mass detection. Results The total urinary oxalate-to-creatinine ratio during the infusion was 73.1, 70.8, 47.0, and 10.6 mg oxalate/g creatinine in subjects with PH1, PH2, and PH3 and controls, respectively. Hyp metabolism accounted for 12.8, 32.9, and 14.8 mg oxalate/g creatinine in subjects with PH1, PH2, and PH3, respectively, compared with 1.6 mg oxalate/g creatinine in controls. The contribution of Hyp to urinary oxalate was 15% in controls and 18%, 47%, and 33% in subjects with PH1, PH2, and PH3, respectively. The contribution of Hyp to urinary glycolate was 57% in controls, 30% in subjects with PH1, and synthesis in individuals with PH2 and PH3. In patients with PH1, who have the highest urinary excretion of oxalate, the major sources of oxalate remain to be identified. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Oxalate Content of the Herb Good-King-Henry, Blitum Bonus-Henricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves, stems and buds of Good-King-Henry (Blitum Bonus-Henricus were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. The large, mature leaves contained 42% more total oxalate than in the small leaves and the soluble oxalate content of the large leaves was 33% higher than the smaller leaves. Cooking the mixed leaves, stems and buds in boiling water for two minutes significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate when compared to the raw plant parts. Pesto sauce made from mixed leaves contained 257 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight; this was largely made up of insoluble oxalates (85% of the total oxalate content. Soup made from mixed leaves contained lower levels of total oxalates (44.26 ± 0.49 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight and insoluble oxalate made up 49% of the oxalate contents. The levels of oxalates in the Good-King-Henry leaves were high, suggesting that the leaves should be consumed occasionally as a delicacy because of their unique taste rather than as a significant part of the diet. However, the products made from Good-King-Henry leaves indicated that larger amounts could be consumed as the oxalate levels were reduced by dilution and processing.

  10. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Baal, van J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are

  11. Will seizure control improve by switching from the modified Atkins diet to the traditional ketogenic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Bosarge, Jennifer L; Miranda, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that children can maintain seizure control when the ketogenic diet (KD) is transitioned to the less-restrictive modified Atkins diet (MAD). What is unknown, however, is the likelihood of additional seizure control from a switch from the MAD to the KD. Retrospective information...

  12. Urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy Turkish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Ismail; Çelik, İlknur; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Köse, Kader; Tanrıkulu, Esen; Sahin, Habibe; Yılmaz, Kenan; Öztürk, Ahmet; Yel, Sibel; Gündüz, Zübeyde; Düşünsel, Ruhan

    2017-11-01

    we aimed to establish reference values for urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy children aged 6-15 years and to investigate the relationship between their nutritional habits and oxalate excretion. Random urine specimens from 953 healthy children aged 6-15 years were obtained and analyzed for oxalate and creatinine. Additionally, a 24-h dietary recall form was prepared and given to them. The ingredient composition of the diet was calculated. The children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (69 years, n = 353), Group II (10-12 years, n = 335), and Group III (13-15 years, n = 265). The 95th percentile of the oxalate to creatinine ratio for subjects aged 6-9, 10-12, and 13-15 years were 0.048, 0.042, and 0.042 mg/mg, respectively. The oxalate to creatinine ratio was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 and Group 3. Urinary oxalate excretion was positively correlated with increased protein intake and negatively correlated with age. A significant positive correlation was determined between urinary oxalate excretion and the proline, serine, protein, and glycine content of diet. Dietary proline intake showed a positive correlation with the urine oxalate to creatinine ratio and was found to be an independent predictor for urinary oxalate. These data lend support to the idea that every country should have its own normal reference values to determine the underlying metabolic risk factor for kidney stone disease since regional variation in the dietary intake of proteins and other nutrients can affect normal urinary excretion of oxalate.

  13. Pathology and Epidemiology of Oxalate Nephrosis in Cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Emily P; Church, Molly E; Nemser, Sarah M; Yakes, Betsy Jean; Evans, Eric R; Reimschuessel, Renate; Lemberger, Karin; Thompson, Peter N; Terio, Karen A

    2017-11-01

    To investigate cases of acute oxalate nephrosis without evidence of ethylene glycol exposure, archived data and tissues from cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus) from North America ( n = 297), southern Africa ( n = 257), and France ( n = 40) were evaluated. Renal and gastrointestinal tract lesions were characterized in a subset of animals with ( n = 100) and without ( n = 165) oxalate crystals at death. Crystals were confirmed as calcium oxalate by Raman spectroscopy in 45 of 47 cheetahs tested. Crystals were present in cheetahs from 3.7 months to 15.9 years old. Cheetahs younger than 1.5 years were less likely to have oxalates than older cheetahs ( P = .034), but young cheetahs with oxalates had more oxalate crystals than older cheetahs ( P Cheetahs with oxalate crystals were more likely to have renal amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or colitis and less likely to have glomerular loop thickening or gastritis than those without oxalates. Crystal number was positively associated with renal tubular necrosis ( P ≤ .001), regeneration ( P = .015), and casts ( P ≤ .001) but inversely associated with glomerulosclerosis, renal amyloidosis, and interstitial nephritis. Crystal number was unrelated to the presence or absence of colitis and was lower in southern African than American and European animals ( P = .01). This study found no evidence that coexisting chronic renal disease (amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or glomerulosclerosis), veno-occlusive disease, gastritis, or enterocolitis contributed significantly to oxalate nephrosis. Oxalate-related renal disease should be considered as a potential cause of acute renal failure, especially in young captive cheetahs. The role of location, diet, stress, and genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of oxalate nephrosis in cheetahs warrants further study.

  14. On the americium oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakolupin, S.A.; Korablin, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    The americium oxalate solubility at different nitric (0.0-1 M) and oxalic (0.0-0.4 M) acid concentrations was investigated in the temperature range from 14 to 60 deg C. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was determined. Increasing oxalic acid concentration was found to reduce the americium oxalate solubility. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was noted to be a minimum at low acidity (0.1-0.3 M nitric acid). This is most likely due to Am(C 2 O 4 ) + , Am(C 2 O 4 ) 2 - and Am(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- complex ion formation which have different unstability constants. On the basis of the data obtained, a preliminary estimate was carried out for the product of americium oxalate solubility in nitric acid medium (10 -29 -10 -31 ) and of the one in water (6.4x10 -20 )

  15. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  16. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers

  17. Morphology-controllable synthesis of cobalt oxalates and their conversion to mesoporous Co3O4 nanostructures for application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dewei; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

    2011-07-18

    In this work, one-dimensional and layered parallel folding of cobalt oxalate nanostructures have been selectively prepared by a one-step, template-free, water-controlled precipitation approach by simply altering the solvents used at ambient temperature and pressure. Encouragingly, the feeding order of solutions played an extraordinary role in the synthesis of nanorods and nanowires. After calcination in air, the as-prepared cobalt oxalate nanostructures were converted to mesoporous Co(3)O(4) nanostructures while their original frame structures were well maintained. The phase composition, morphology, and structure of the as-obtained products were studied in detail. Electrochemical properties of the Co(3)O(4) electrodes were carried out using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements by a three-electrode system. The electrochemical experiments revealed that the layered parallel folding structure of mesoporous Co(3)O(4) exhibited higher capacitance compared to that of the nanorods and nanowires. A maximum specific capacitance of 202.5 F g (-1) has been obtained in 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte at a current density of 1 A g(-1) with a voltage window from 0 to 0.40 V. Furthermore, the specific capacitance decay after 1000 continuous charge-discharge cycles was negligible, revealing the excellent stability of the electrode. These characteristics indicate that the mesoporous Co(3)O(4) nanostructures are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  18. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  19. Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Mary; Lawrence, Wendy; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Siân; Baird, Janis; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-06-01

    Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not wholly explained by socio-economic status. Qualitative research carried out in Southampton suggests that women of lower educational attainment may have a poorer diet because they feel they lack control over the food choices they make for themselves and their families. We set out to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, perceived control and quality of diet in a sample of women from Southampton. Cross-sectional study using structured interviews in which women's diet, educational attainment and perceived control were assessed. 19 Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. 372 women, median age 28 years. Quality of diet assessed by prudent diet score produced from principal components analysis of 20-item food frequency questionnaire, and perceived control assessed by a validated questionnaire. Women of lower educational attainment tended to have lower prudent diet scores and lower perceived control scores than women of higher educational attainment. Having a lower prudent diet score was associated with consuming fewer vegetables and vegetable dishes, less wholemeal bread and vegetarian food, and more chips and roast potatoes, meat pies, Yorkshire puddings and pancakes, crisps and snacks, white bread and added sugar. In a regression model both lower educational attainment and lower perceived control were associated with lower prudent diet scores, independent of the effects of confounding factors. However there was an interaction effect such that lower perceived control was only related to prudent diet score in the group of women of lower educational attainment. Women

  20. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G.; Costenoble, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3H{sub 2}O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} (log {beta}1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log {beta}1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10{sup -8} to 9.2 10{sup -9} and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H{sup +}] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10{sup -8}. (authors)

  1. Cerium oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    1987-02-01

    Cerium, a nonradioactive, common stand-in for plutonium in development work, has been used to simulate several plutonium precipitation processes at the Savannah River Laboratory. There are similarities between the plutonium trifluoride and the cerium oxalate precipitations in particle size and extent of plating, but not particle morphology. The equilibrium solubility, precipitation kinetics, particle size, extent of plating, and dissolution characteristics of cerium oxalate have been investigated. Interpretations of particle size and plating based on precipitation kinetics (i.e., nucleation and crystal growth) are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  3. Plasma oxalic acid and calcium levels in oxalate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.

    1967-01-01

    Observations are reported on five cases of suicide or attempted suicide by poisoning with oxalic acid or ethylene glycol. Elevated oxalic acid levels were observed in the plasma, stomach contents, and a number of tissues. Raised oxalic acid levels in plasma were associated with reduced total and ultrafilterable calcium levels. It is suggested that the reduction in plasma total calcium level is due mainly to the deposition of calcium oxalate in the soft tissues, but inhibition of the parathyroid glands may be a contributory factor. Microscopic examination of various tissues indicated that oxalic acid is deposited in the tissues in two forms: (1) crystalline calcium oxalate dihydrate in the kidney and (2) a non-crystalline complex of calcium oxalate and lipid in liver and other tissues. PMID:5602563

  4. Wu-Ling-San formula prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wu-Ling-San (WLS) formula has been proved to prevent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial of WLS in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis prevention. All patients who enrolled were asked to drink enough fluid to urinate at least 2 L ...

  5. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter [H 2 C 2 O 4 ]/[HNO 3 ] 2 . Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory

  6. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  7. Advanced Oxidation: Oxalate Decomposition Testing With Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing

  8. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration

  9. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  10. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  11. Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woottisin, Surachet; Hossain, Rayhan Zubair; Yachantha, Chatchai; Sriboonlue, Pote; Ogawa, Yoshihide; Saito, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the antilithic effect of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on known risk factors for calcium oxalate stones in rats. We divided 30 male Wistar rats into 5 equal groups. Controls were fed a standard diet and the remaining groups received a 3% glycolate diet for 4 weeks to induce hyperoxaluria. One glycolate fed group served as the untreated group and the others were given oral extracts of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa or Phyllanthus amarus at a dose of 3.5 mg daily. We collected 24-hour urine and blood samples. Kidneys were harvested for histological examination. We measured the renal tissue content of calcium and oxalate. The Hibiscus sabdariffa group showed significantly decreased serum oxalate and glycolate, and higher oxalate urinary excretion. The Phyllanthus amarus group showed significantly increased urinary citrate vs the untreated group. Histological examination revealed less CaOx crystal deposition in the kidneys of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus treated rats than in untreated rats. Those rats also had significantly lower renal tissue calcium content than untreated rats. All parameters in the Orthosiphon grandiflorus treated group were comparable to those in the untreated group. Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus decreased calcium crystal deposition in the kidneys. The antilithic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be related to decreased oxalate retention in the kidney and more excretion into urine while that of Phyllanthus amarus may depend on increased urinary citrate. In contrast, administering Orthosiphon grandiflorus had no antilithic effect. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tetraphenylphosphonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. W. Dean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20P+·C2HO4−, two symmetry-independent ion pairs are present. The cations aggregate into puckered sheets via zigzag infinite chains of sixfold phenyl embraces and parallel fourfold phenyl embraces, while the anions form hydrogen-bonded chains between the sheets of cations. In the two independent oxalate anions, the angles between the normals to the two least-squares carboxylate COO planes are unusually large, viz. 72.5 (1 and 82.1 (1°.

  13. Mathematical modeling of control subsystems for CELSS: Application to diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleh, Ahmad; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Kanevsky, Valery

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic control of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) in a closed space habitat is of critical importance. The development of a practical method of control is also a necessary step for the selection and design of realistic subsystems and processors for a CELSS. Diet is one of the dynamic factors that strongly influences, and is influenced, by the operational states of all major CELSS subsystems. The problems of design and maintenance of a stable diet must be obtained from well characterized expert subsystems. The general description of a mathematical model that forms the basis of an expert control program for a CELSS is described. The formulation is expressed in terms of a complete set of time dependent canonical variables. System representation is dynamic and includes time dependent storage buffers. The details of the algorithm are described. The steady state results of the application of the method for representative diets made from wheat, potato, and soybean are presented.

  14. Oxalate: Effect on calcium absorbability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, R.P.; Weaver, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption of calcium from intrinsically labeled Ca oxalate was measured in 18 normal women and compared with absorption of Ca from milk in these same subjects, both when the test substances were ingested in separate meals and when ingested together. Fractional Ca absorption from oxalate averaged 0.100 +/- 0.043 when ingested alone and 0.140 +/- 0.063 when ingested together with milk. Absorption was, as expected, substantially lower than absorption from milk (0.358 +/- 0.113). Nevertheless Ca oxalate absorbability in these women was higher than we had previously found for spinach Ca. When milk and Ca oxalate were ingested together, there was no interference of oxalate in milk Ca absorption and no evidence of tracer exchange between the two labeled Ca species

  15. Neurotoxic effects of carambola in rats: the role of oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Chou, Kang-Ju; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chung, Hsiao-Min

    2002-05-01

    Carambola (star fruit) has been reported to contain neurotoxins that cause convulsions, hiccups, or death in uremic patients, and prolong barbiturate-induced sleeping time in rats. The constituent responsible for these effects remains uncertain. Carambola contains a large quantity of oxalate, which can induce depression of cerebral function and seizures. This study was conducted to investigate the role of oxalate in carambola toxicity in rats. The effects on barbiturate-induced sleeping time and death caused by intraperitoneal administration of carambola juice were observed in Sprague-Dawley rats. To obtain a dose-dependent response curve and evaluate the lethal dose, rats were treated with serial amounts of pure carambola juice diluted with normal saline in a volume of 1:1. To test the role of oxalate in the neurotoxic effect of carambola, either 5.33 g/kg carambola after oxalate removal or 5.33 g/kg of pure carambola juice diluted with normal saline were administered intraperitoneally, while the control group was given normal saline before pentobarbital injection. The effects of carambola and oxalate-removed carambola on barbiturate-induced sleeping time were compared with those of saline. To assess the lethal effect of oxalate in carambola, we gave rats chemical oxalate at comparable concentrations to the oxalate content of carambola. Carambola juice administration prolonged barbiturate-induced sleeping time in a dose-dependent manner. The sleeping time of rats that received normal saline and 1.33 g/kg, 2.67 g/kg, 5.33 g/kg, and 10.67 g/kg of carambola juice were 66 +/- 16.6, 93.7 +/- 13.4, 113.3 +/- 11.4, 117.5 +/- 29.0, and 172.5 +/- 38.8 minutes, respectively. The three higher-dose groups had longer sleeping times than controls (p carambola juice. Four of eight rats in the 10.67-g/kg group and all rats in the 21.33 g/kg and chemical oxalate groups died after seizure. Lethal doses of carambola juice were rendered harmless by the oxalate removal procedure

  16. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts.

  17. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts

  18. Dealing With A Controllable Risk Factor Like Diet In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a silent killer in Nigeria and many parts of the world. Certain factors increase the risk of CVD. While there are controllable factors that contribute and predispose to the development of CVD like diet, exercise, tobacco use, high blood pressure and obesity, there are uncontrollable factors like ...

  19. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture.

  20. Effect of Postharvest Oxalic Acid and Calcium Chloride on Quality Attributes of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables have special importance as a very important part of the human food supply. And from the beginnings of life, man has used these products to supply a part of his food. Nowadays, horticultural products are widely used in the diet. Cherry is one of the deciduous trees in the temperate regions, which is potassium rich. Use of Oxalic acid significantly reduces frost injury in pomegranate fruits during storage at a temperature of 2° C. In fruit trees, the importance of calcium is due to a delay in fruit ripening process and this way products have better portability. Materials and Methods: Firmness test was measured using the FT011 model of penetrometer. For determination of titratable acidity, the 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH titration method was used. Total Soluble solids content (SSC of fruit was measured by a digital refractometer (PAL-1. For determination of vitamin C in fruit juices, titration method with the indicator, 2,6-di-chlorophenolindophenol was used. Fruit juice pH was measured using pH meter model HI 9811.In order to investigate the effect of postharvest soaking treatment with Oxalic acid on the qualitative specifications and storage life of single grain sweet cherry fruit a research was conducted. This experience was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications separately for the two materials. In this experiment Oxalic acid, in four levels (0,4,6 and 8 mM and Calcium chloride in four levels (0, 40, 55 and 70 mM were applied on the single grain sweet cherry fruit in the form of soaking and sampleswith7-day intervals for a period of 28 days from the fridge out and quanti tate and qualitative traits such as stiffness, weight loss, Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C and pH were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that compared with control ones all of the concentrations of Oxalic acid and Calcium chloride caused significant differences in the amount

  1. Electrolytic destruction of oxalate ions in plutonium oxalate supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Talnikar, S.G.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.; Venkataraman, N.

    1996-01-01

    A simple and efficient electrolytic method is described for the destruction of the oxalate ions present in plutonium oxalate supernatant. Using platinum electrode and very little KMnO 4 , in situ generation of Mn 3+ ions is achieved which in turn destroys the oxalate. The use of lower current density helps in achieving maximum current efficiency. The end point is easily detectable by the pink colour of permanganate. By reversing the current, this slight excess of permanganate can be destroyed, thus avoiding the use of hydrogen peroxide. By this simple electrolytic method, the corrosive oxalate ion is completely destroyed and the salt content of the waste solution is considerably reduced. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  2. Destruction of oxalate by reaction with hydrogen peroxide. [Hydrazine oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.; Arwood, P.C.

    1981-09-01

    The destruction of oxalate by oxidation to carbon dioxide using hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative method for the disposal of oxalate in connection with the possible use of an aqueous hydrazine oxalate solution as a scrubbing agent for solvent cleanup in processes for the recovery of uranium, plutonium, and thorium by solvent extraction. The rate of oxidation of oxalate by hydrogen peroxide in acid solution at the reflux temperature was adequate for process application; reaction half-times at 100/sup 0/C were less than one hour when the hydrogen peroxide concentration was greater than 0.5 M. The reaction was first order with respect to both the oxalate and hydrogen peroxide concentrations and had an activation energy of 58.7 kJ/g-mol. The rate increased with the hydrogen ion concentration as (H/sup +/)/sup 0/ /sup 3/ but was not significantly affected by the presence of 100 ppM of uranium or copper in solution. In the near-neutral hydrazine oxalate solutions, the reaction of either component with hydrogen peroxide was too slow for process application.

  3. Hygroscopic properties of oxalic acid and atmospherically relevant oxalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong; Liu, Chang

    2013-04-01

    Oxalic acid and oxalates represent an important fraction of atmospheric organic aerosols, however, little knowledge about the hygroscopic behavior of these particles is known. In this study, the hygroscopic behavior of oxalic acid and atmospherically relevant oxalates (H2C2O4, (NH4)2C2O4, CaC2O4, and FeC2O4) were studied by Raman spectrometry and vapor sorption analyzer. Under ambient relative humidity (RH) of 10-90%, oxalic acid and these oxalates hardly deliquesce and exhibit low hygroscopicity, however, transformation between anhydrous and hydrated particles was observed during the humidifying and dehumidifying processes. During the water adsorption process, conversion of anhydrous H2C2O4, (NH4)2C2O4, CaC2O4, and FeC2O4 to their hydrated particles (i.e., H2C2O4·2H2O, (NH4)2C2O4·H2O, CaC2O4·H2O, and FeC2O4·2H2O) occurred at about 20% RH, 55% RH, 10% RH, and 75% RH, respectively. Uptake of water on hydrated Ca-oxalate and Fe-oxalate particles can be described by a multilayer adsorption isotherm. During the dehumidifying process, dehydration of H2C2O4·2H2O and (NH4)2C2O4·H2O occurred at 5% RH while CaC2O4·H2O and FeC2O4·2H2O did not undergo dehydration. These results implied that hydrated particles represent the most stable state of oxalic acid and oxalates in the atmosphere. In addition, the assignments of Raman shift bands in the range of 1610-1650 cm-1 were discussed according to the hygroscopic behavior measurement results.

  4. Analytical Study of Oxalates Coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana MARTA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the establishing of the oxalates coprecipitation conditions in view of the synthesis of superconducting systems. A systematic analytical study of the oxalates precipitation conditions has been performed, for obtaining superconducting materials, in the Bi Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. For this purpose, the formulae of the precipitates solubility as a function of pH and oxalate excess were established. The possible formation of hydroxo-complexes and soluble oxalato-complexes was taken into account. A BASIC program was used for tracing the precipitation curves. The curves of the solubility versus pH for different oxalate excess have plotted for the four oxalates, using a logaritmic scale. The optimal conditions for the quantitative oxalate coprecipitation have been deduced from the diagrams. The theoretical curves were confirmed by experimental results. From the precursors obtained by this method, the BSCCO superconducting phases were obtained by an appropriate thermal treatment. The formation of the superconducting phases was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  5. Availability of calcium from chemically pure potassium oxalate to the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Sareen, V.K.; Marwah, S.R.; Sharma, K.C.; Bhatia, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the true dige'stibility of calcium in the buffalo calves fed chemically pure potassium oxalate. In each experiments 6 calves were divided into two groups, viz. control and oxalate-fed. The control group was given basal ration consisting of wheat straw, mustard-cake and maize grains. The oxalate-fed group was fed the basal ration supplemented with 60, 100 and 140 g potassium oxalate per day in experiments 1,2, and 3 respectively. The percent true digestibility of calcium was 51.7 and 52.5 in experiment 1, 60.5 and 44.1 in experiment 2, and 59.3 and 44.1 in experiment 3 in the control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. In all the experiments the oxalate was completely broken down in the rumen. The volume of water intake and urine excretion was more in the oxalate-fed groups. The daily alkali output in the urine in terms of N-acid was 0.7 and 1.3 in experiment 1, 1.5 and 2.5 in experiment 2, and 2.1 and 3.8 in experiment 3 in control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. The daily bicarbonate concentration in the urine (in g) was 26.5 and 53.4 in experiment 1, 83.2 and 146.2 in experiment 2, and 132.6 and 222.8 in experiment 3 in control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. Likewise the excretion of oxalate in the urine was more in oxalate-fed groups. On the basis of the results obtained, the reason for the somewhat low true digestibility of calcium in the calves consuming more than 60 g of potassium oxalate/day are discussed. Isotope-dilution technique using 45 CaCl 2 was employed in the study. (auth.)

  6. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  7. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ePaoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g. via ghrelin. However ketone bodies (KB seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture.

  8. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M.; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture. PMID:25698989

  9. Diet and Blood Pressure Control in Chinese Canadians: Cultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in Chinese Canadians and diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The current anti-hypertensive dietary recommendations in hypertension care guidelines lack examination of cultural factors, are not culturally sensitive to ethnic populations, and cannot be translated to Chinese Canadian populations without cultural considerations. Guided by Leininger's Sunrise Model of culture care theory, this paper investigates how cultural factors impact Chinese Canadians' dietary practice. It is proposed that English language proficiency, health literacy, traditional Chinese diet, migration and acculturation, and Traditional Chinese Medicine influence Chinese Canadians' dietary practices. A culturally congruent nursing intervention should be established and tailored according to related cultural factors to facilitate Chinese Canadians' blood pressure control. In addition, further study is needed to test the model adapted from Sunrise Model and understand its mechanism.

  10. Habitual diet and diet quality in Irritable Bowel Syndrome : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, E. F.; Mujagic, Z.; Zhernakova, A.; Hesselink, M. A. M.; Meijboom, S.; Perenboom, C. W. M.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Wijmenga, C.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jonkers, D. M. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet is considered to be a key factor in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and patients tend to exclude food products from their diet in pursue of symptom relief, which may impair diet quality. Methods: We evaluated habitual dietary intake in IBS patients with regard

  11. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  12. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  13. Reaction of hydrazine hydrate with oxalic acid: synthesis and crystal structure of dihydrazinium oxalate

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Premkumar, Thathan; Manivannan, Vadivelu; Saravanan, Kaliannan; Govindarajan, Subbiah

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of oxalic acid with hydrazine hydrate (in appropriate mole ratio) forms the dihydrazinium oxalate under specific experimental condition. The title compound is a molecular salt containing two discrete hydrazinium cations and an oxalate anion. The oxalate anion is perfectly planar and there is a crystallographic centre of symmetry in the middle of the C-C bond. The C-O bond distances are almost equal indicating the presence of resonance in the oxalate ion. The crystal packing is st...

  14. 4-Methoxybenzamidinium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Irrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title hydrated salt, C8H11N2O+·C2HO4−·H2O, was synthesized by a reaction of 4-methoxybenzamidine (4-amidinoanisole and oxalic acid in water solution. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 15.60 (6° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. In the crystal, each amidinium unit is bound to three acetate anions and one water molecule by six distinct N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The ion pairs of the asymmetric unit are joined by two N—H...O hydrogen bonds into ionic dimers in which the carbonyl O atom of the semi-oxalate anion acts as a bifurcated acceptor, thus generating an R12(6 motif. These subunits are then joined through the remaining N—H...O hydrogen bonds to adjacent semi-oxalate anions into linear tetrameric chains running approximately along the b axis. The structure is stabilized by N—H...O and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The water molecule plays an important role in the cohesion and the stability of the crystal structure being involved in three hydrogen bonds connecting two semi-oxalate anions as donor and a benzamidinium cation as acceptor.

  15. Characterization of oxalate-based 237NpO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, D.T.; Burney, G.A.; Smith, P.K.; Sisson, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    238 Pu, a radioisotope heat source, is produced by irradiating reactor targets containing 237 NpO 2 . The neptunium oxide is obtained by precipitating and calcining 237 Np(IV) oxalate. The effects of oxalate precipitation parameters on particle morphology and size distribution of 237 NpO 2 powder were established to provide process controls for fabricating reactor targets

  16. Low salt and low calorie diet does not reduce more body fat than same calorie diet: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Jang, Eun Chul; Cho, Yong Kyun

    2018-02-02

    Recent several observational studies have reported that high salt intake is associated with obesity. But it is unclear whether salt intake itself induce obesity or low salt diet can reduce body fat mass. We investigated whether a low salt diet can reduce body weight and fat amount. The randomized, open-label pilot trial was conducted at a single institution. A total of 85 obese people were enrolled. All participants were served meals three times a day, and provided either a low salt diet or control diet with same calorie. Visceral fat was measured with abdominal computer tomography, while body fat mass and total body water was measured with bio-impedance. Reductions in body weight (-6.3% vs. -5.0%, p = 0.05) and BMI (-6.6% vs. -5.1%, p = 0.03) were greater in the low salt group than in the control group. Extracellular water and total body water were significantly reduced in the low salt group compared to the control group. However, changes in body fat mass, visceral fat area, and skeletal muscle mass did not differ between the two groups. Changes in lipid profile, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR did not differ between the two groups. A two-month low salt diet was accompanied by reduction of body mass index. However, the observed decrease of body weight was caused by reduction of total body water, not by reduction of body fat mass or visceral fat mass.

  17. Successful treatment of sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis with Helichrysum flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaran, Metin; Orhan, Nilüfer; Farahvash, Amirali; Ekin, Hasya Nazlı; Kocabıyık, Murat; Gönül, İpek Işık; Şen, İlker; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    Helichrysum (Asteraceae) flowers, known as "altın otu, yayla çiçeği, kudama çiçeği" , are widely used to remove kidney stones and for their diuretic properties in Turkey. To determine the curative effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M. Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and H. stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on sodium oxalate induced kidney stones. Infusions prepared from the capitulums of HG and HS were tested for their curative effect on calcium oxalate deposition induced by sodium oxalate (70mg/kg i.p.). Following the injection of sodium oxalate for 5 days, plant extracts were administered to rats at two different doses. Potassium citrate was used as positive control. Water intake, urine volume, body, liver and kidney weights were measured; biochemical and hematological analyses were conducted on urine and blood samples. Additionally, histopathological examinations were done on kidney samples. H. stoechas extract showed prominent effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 0.33), whereas number of kidney stones was maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.33). The reduction in the uric acid and oxalate levels of urine samples and the elevation in the urine citrate levels are significant and promising in extract groups. Some hematological, biochemical and enzymatic markers are also ameliorated by the extracts. This is the first report on the curative effect of immortal flowers. Our preliminary study indicated that Helichrysum extracts may be used for treatment of urolithiasis and Helichrysum extracts are an alternative therapy to potassium citrate for patients suffering from kidney stones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2009-12-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States. This study was conducted from June 2001 to September 2008 and involved designing, preparing, and then analyzing five different diets: an experimental phytosterol-deficient control diet, a relatively high-phytosterol diet based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, American Heart Association diet, Atkins lifetime maintenance plan, and a vegan diet. A single day of meals for each diet was homogenized and the resulting composites were analyzed for free, esterified, and glycosylated phytosterols by gas chromatography. Independent samples t tests were used to compare the diets' total phytosterol content. The total phytosterol content of the experimental phytosterol-deficient diet was 64 mg/2,000 kcal, with progressively larger quantities in Atkins, American Heart Association, vegan, and the high-phytosterol Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (163, 340, 445, and 500 mg/2,000 kcal, respectively). Glycosylated phytosterols, which are often excluded from phytosterol analyses, comprised 15.9%+/-5.9% of total phytosterols. In summary, phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets that conform to recommended macronutrient guidelines and are palatable can now be used in controlled feeding studies.

  19. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes...... (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day...... for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups...

  20. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones.

  1. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with 45 Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO 3 and CaCl 2 than from CaC 2 O 4 (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach

  2. Decomposition of oxalate precipitates by photochemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Hyung Yoo; Eung-Ho Kim

    1999-01-01

    A photo-radiation method was applied to decompose oxalate precipitates so that it can be dissolved into dilute nitric acid. This work has been studied as a part of partitioning of minor actinides. Minor actinides can be recovered from high-level wastes as oxalate precipitates, but they tend to be coprecipitated together with lanthanide oxalates. This requires another partitioning step for mutual separation of actinide and lanthanide groups. In this study, therefore, some experimental work of photochemical decomposition of oxalate was carried out to prove its feasibility as a step of partitioning process. The decomposition of oxalic acid in the presence of nitric acid was performed in advance in order to understand the mechanistic behaviour of oxalate destruction, and then the decomposition of neodymium oxalate, which was chosen as a stand-in compound representing minor actinide and lanthanide oxalates, was examined. The decomposition rate of neodymium oxalate was found as 0.003 mole/hr at the conditions of 0.5 M HNO 3 and room temperature when a mercury lamp was used as a light source. (author)

  3. Vibrational studies in aqueous solutions. Part II. The acid oxalate ion and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippey, T. A.

    1980-08-01

    Assignments for oxalic acid in solution are re-examined. A detailed assignment of the IR and Raman spectra of the acid oxalate ion is presented for the first time. Raman spectroscopy is used to study the first ionization of oxalic acid.

  4. Switching adolescent high-fat diet to adult control diet restores neurocognitive alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Boitard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al., 2014; Boitard et al., 2012; Boitard et al., 2015. Here, we assessed whether the effects of adolescent HF consumption on brain function are permanent or reversible. After adolescent exposure to HF, switching to a standard chow diet restored levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and normalized enhanced HPA axis reactivity, amygdala activity and avoidance memory. Therefore, while the adolescent period is highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity, adult exposure to a standard diet appears sufficient to reverse alterations of brain function.

  5. Control of morphology and structure for β-Co nanoparticles from cobalt oxalate and research on its phase-change mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chongqing University of Arts and Science, Chongqing 402160 (China); Xiong, Xiang, E-mail: xiangxiong88@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zou, J.P., E-mail: zoujp@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Deng, Ling [Chengdu Chengliang Tool Group Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610056 (China); Tu, M.J. [Chongqing University of Arts and Science, Chongqing 402160 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Nanoscale precursor β-CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O can be prepared by mechanical solid phase reaction. • Growth mechanism, morphology and crystal structure of β-CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O have been studied. • Internal energy reserves of precursor making it directly generate β-Co in the thermal decomposition reaction. • Martensitic transformation of Co has been studied. • The Co powder will inherit the morphology of its precursor. - Abstract: The face-centered cubic crystal structure β-Co has excellent performance. As the main material to produce high toughness hard alloys and metal cermet, its morphology and structure will have an important impact on the performance of the alloy. This study, based on solid-phase reaction, starting from the crystal structure studied, discussed the effection of the mechanical solid-phase chemical reactions on the morphology of the cobalt precursor structure, researched the cobalt phase change mechanism, and presented a method to prepare nano β-Co. With H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O as raw materials, nano-crystalline cobalt oxalate powders with nearly spherical shape have been prepared by using solid-phase chemical reactions in high-speed ball milling, and then by decomposing at 400–450 °C, the target was prepared. The thermodynamical and IR analysis has been studied. The microstructure of the powders was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM. It has been identified that a spherical, fcc structure, 100 nm β-Co powders was synthesized successfully, which confirmed the theoretical feasibility of this study.

  6. Ketogenic diet does not impair spatial ability controlled by the hippocampus in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Ogura, Yuji; Furuta, Miyako; Kakehashi, Chiaki; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo

    2015-10-05

    A ketogenic diet was recently shown to reduce glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles, decreasing glutamate transmission. We questioned whether a ketogenic diet affects hippocampal function, as glutamate transmission is critically involved in visuospatial ability. In the present study, male Wistar rats were maintained on a ketogenic diet containing 10% protein and 90% fat with complements for 3 weeks to change their energy expenditure from glucose-dependent to fat-dependent. Control rats were fed a diet containing 10% protein, 10% fat, and 80% carbohydrates. The fat-dependent energy expenditure induced by the ketogenic diet led to decreased body weight and increased blood ketone production, though the rats in the two groups consumed the same number of calories. The ketogenic diet did not alter food preferences for the control or high-fat diet containing 10% protein, 45% fat, and 45% carbohydrates. Anxiety in the open field was not altered by ingestion the ketogenic diet. However, rats fed the ketogenic diet performed better in the Y-maze test than rats fed the control diet. No difference was observed between the two groups in the Morris water maze test. Finally, Western blot revealed that the hippocampal expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) was significantly increased in mice fed a ketogenic diet. These results suggest that hippocampal function is not impaired by a ketogenic diet and we speculate that the fat-dependent energy expenditure does not impair visuospatial ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Precipitation of plutonium oxalate from homogeneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.K.; Pius, I.C.; Subbarao, M.; Chinnusamy, A.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the precipitation of plutonium(IV) oxalate from homogeneous solutions using diethyl oxalate is reported. The precipitate obtained is crystalline and easily filterable with yields in the range of 92-98% for precipitations involving a few mg to g quantities of plutonium. Decontamination factors for common impurities such as U(VI), Am(III) and Fe(III) were determined. TGA and chemical analysis of the compound indicate its composition as Pu(Csub(2)Osub(4))sub(2).6Hsub(2)O. Data are obtained on the solubility of the oxalate in nitric acid and in mixtures of nitric acid and oxalic acid of varying concentrations. Green PuOsub(2) obtained by calcination of the oxalate has specifications within the recommended values for trace foreign substances such as chlorine, fluorine, carbon and nitrogen. (author)

  8. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. The nutritional adequacy of a limited vegan diet for a controlled ecological life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. R.; Trumbo, P. R.

    Purdue University, as well as the Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers and NASA Ames Research Center, are investigating approximately 5-10 plants that will be grown hydroponically to provide not only the energy and nutrients, but also the oxygen for humans habitating in Mars and lunar bases. The growth and nutritional status of rats fed either a control diet (adequate in all macro- and micronutrients) or a strict vegetarian diet consisting of 5 (vegan-5) or 10 (vegan-10) candidate crop species were investigated. In addition, vegan-10 diets were supplemented with mineral and/or vitamin mix at a level similar to the control diets to assess the effect of supplementation on nutrient status. The assessment of inedible plant material as an alternative food source was also investigated. Results of this study demonstrated that consumption of the vegan-10 diet significantly improved weight gain of rats compared to that for rats fed the vegan-5 diet. Mineral supplementation, at a level present in the control diet, to the vegan-10 diet improved growth and nutrient status, but growth was significantly lower compared to the control-fed rats. Inclusion of inedible plant material, high in ash content, improved some indices of nutrient status, without improving growth.

  10. Crystal structure of dimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2+·HC2O4−·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH22C2O4 salt and Sn(CH33Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a dimethylammonium cation (Me2NH2+, an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4−, and half a molecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4 situated about an inversion center. From a supramolecular point of view, the three components interact together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2+ cations and the HC2O4− anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4− anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4 molecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four intermolecular interactions with two Me2NH2+ and two HC2O4− ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H...O and two O—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting molecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010, and reinforced by a C—H...O hydrogen bond.

  11. Effects of exercise and diet in nonobese asthma patients - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Meteran, Howraman; Hostrup, Morten

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral interventions focusing on exercise and healthy diet improve asthma control in obese patients with asthma, but whether these interventions can lead to improvements in nonobese patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In a randomized, controlled parallel-group design, we studied...... the effects of an 8-week intervention of either exercise (high-intensity interval training), diet (high protein/low glycemic index), or a combination of the 2, on asthma control and clinical outcomes in nonobese patients with asthma. METHODS: Nonobese adult patients with asthma (n = 149) were randomized to 1...... of 4 groups: an exercise group, a diet group, an exercise + diet group, or a control group. Outcomes included Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score, asthma-related quality-of-life (Asthma-Related Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [AQLQ]) score, inflammatory cell counts in induced sputum, FEV1...

  12. Decontamination effectiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranzini, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study of the decontamination effectiveness of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA mixtures was conducted to assess whether oxalic acid could be removed from decontamination solutions to minimize corrosion. In loop experiments, radioactive specimens from two boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor were suspended in solutions of single acids or in mixtures of reagents at total reagent concentrations of less than 0.1 wt% under conditions similar to those used to decontaminate reactor systems. Rate constants for dissolution of oxides and decontamination factors were measured. Based on the results, it was concluded that under certain conditions, oxalic acid was the most effective reagent for the dissolution of oxides. It was also found, however, that conditions under which effective dissolution occurred in solutions of oxalic acid and/or citric acid were difficult to define and control. EDTA was found to be an effective reagent for dissolution of oxides such that rates of dissolution in EDTA containing solutions at 117 degrees Celsius were comparable to rates in oxalic acid containing solutions. At 90 degrees Celsius, EDTA acted synergistically with oxalic acid such that the rate of dissolution of oxides in citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions was higher than in citric-acid/EDTA solutions. The rates of dissolution of oxides were significantly reduced when 60 mg/kg of ferric ion was added to the citric-acid/oxalic-acid, citric-acid/EDTA and citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions. It was concluded that effective decontaminations of BWR and PWR systems could be achieved with mixtures of citric acid and EDTA

  13. Decomposition of oxalate precipitates by photochemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J.H.; Kim, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    A photo-radiation method was applied to decompose oxalate precipitates so that it can be dissolved into dilute nitric acid. This work has been studied as a part of partitioning of minor actinides. Minor actinides can be recovered from high-level wastes as oxalate precipitates, but they tend to be coprecipitated together with lanthanide oxalates. This requires another partitioning step for mutual separation of actinide and lanthanide groups. In this study, therefore, the photochemical decomposition mechanism of oxalates in the presence of nitric acid was elucidated by experimental work. The decomposition of oxalates was proved to be dominated by the reaction with hydroxyl radical generated from the nitric acid, rather than with nitrite ion also formed from nitrate ion. The decomposition rate of neodymium oxalate, which was chosen as a stand-in compound representing minor actinide and lanthanide oxalates, was found to be 0.003 M/hr at the conditions of 0.5 M HNO 3 and room temperature when a mercury lamp was used as a light source. (author)

  14. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kıraç

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%, 43 (39.8%, and 38 (35.5% of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05. The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate—but not calcium—abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  15. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, William S; Olsen, Maren K; Guyton, John R; Bakst, Ronna P; Westman, Eric C

    2004-05-18

    Low-carbohydrate diets remain popular despite a paucity of scientific evidence on their effectiveness. To compare the effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet program with those of a low-fat, low-cholesterol, reduced-calorie diet. Randomized, controlled trial. Outpatient research clinic. 120 overweight, hyperlipidemic volunteers from the community. Low-carbohydrate diet (initially, carbohydrate daily) plus nutritional supplementation, exercise recommendation, and group meetings, or low-fat diet (fat, low-carbohydrate diet group than the low-fat diet group completed the study (76% vs. 57%; P = 0.02). At 24 weeks, weight loss was greater in the low-carbohydrate diet group than in the low-fat diet group (mean change, -12.9% vs. -6.7%; P fat mass (change, -9.4 kg with the low-carbohydrate diet vs. -4.8 kg with the low-fat diet) than fat-free mass (change, -3.3 kg vs. -2.4 kg, respectively). Compared with recipients of the low-fat diet, recipients of the low-carbohydrate diet had greater decreases in serum triglyceride levels (change, -0.84 mmol/L vs. -0.31 mmol/L [-74.2 mg/dL vs. -27.9 mg/dL]; P = 0.004) and greater increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (0.14 mmol/L vs. -0.04 mmol/L [5.5 mg/dL vs. -1.6 mg/dL]; P low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level did not differ statistically (0.04 mmol/L [1.6 mg/dL] with the low-carbohydrate diet and -0.19 mmol/L [-7.4 mg/dL] with the low-fat diet; P = 0.2). Minor adverse effects were more frequent in the low-carbohydrate diet group. We could not definitively distinguish effects of the low-carbohydrate diet and those of the nutritional supplements provided only to that group. In addition, participants were healthy and were followed for only 24 weeks. These factors limit the generalizability of the study results. Compared with a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet program had better participant retention and greater weight loss. During active weight loss, serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high

  16. Building research in diet and cognition: The BRIDGE randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Lamar, Melissa; Blumenthal, James A; Babyak, Michael; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Blumstein, Lara; Schiffer, Linda; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2017-08-01

    Obesity has been linked to cognitive impairment, cognitive decline and dementia. Given that 38.5% of U.S. adults 60years and older are obese and these numbers are rapidly increasing, strategies to decouple obesity from cognitive decline are needed. Innovative lifestyle strategies that may postpone the onset of subclinical symptoms or even arrest the transition to overt dementia in at-risk individuals are critically needed. Poor diet is central to the development of obesity and diet may affect cognition. Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Furthermore, weight loss through caloric restriction improves cognitive function. This paper describes the Building Research in Diet and CoGnition (BRIDGE) study, a randomized trial examining the effect of the MedDiet, with and without weight loss, on cognitive functioning in obese older adults. Obese (BMI≥30 and ≤50kg/m 2 ) older adults (≥55years) (n=180) will be randomized in a 2:2:1 allocation scheme to: Typical Diet Control; MedDiet alone, without weight loss; or MedDiet lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Both MedDiet intervention groups will meet for one individual session and 27 group sessions over an 8-month period. Individuals in the control group will not receive instruction on changing lifestyle habits. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 8 and 14months. The primary outcome is cognitive functioning; secondary outcomes will include changes in body weight, diet, cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory biomarkers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction. Overweight adults (body mass index 25-49.9 kg/m(2); age 18-65 y, 19% non-white, and 27% men) were randomized to a low-fat, low-glycemic index diet: vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pesco-vegetarian (n = 13), semi-vegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12). Fifty (79%) participants completed the study. In intention-to-treat analysis, the linear trend for weight loss across the five groups was significant at both 2 (P vegan group (-7.5% ± 4.5%) was significantly different from the omnivorous (-3.1% ± 3.6%; P = 0.03), semi-vegetarian (-3.2% ± 3.8%; P = 0.03), and pesco-vegetarian (-3.2% ± 3.4%; P = 0.03) groups. Vegan participants decreased their fat and saturated fat more than the pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous groups at both 2 and 6 mo (P Vegan diets may result in greater weight loss than more modest recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; Hammelman, J.E.; Miller, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    A dynamic model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator is developed to provide a means of predicting plutonium inventory on a continuous basis. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization equations, which describe nucleation and growth phenomena. The model parameters were obtained through the use of batch experimental data. The model has been used to study the approach to steady state, to investigate the response to input transients, and to simulate the control of the precipitation process. 12 refs

  19. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  20. High-fat diets and seizure control in myoclonic-astatic epilepsy: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard-Tremblay, Elisabeth; Berry, Patricia; Owens, Aaron; Cook, William Byron; Sittner, Haley R; Mazzanti, Marta; Huber, Jennifer; Warner, Molly; Shurtleff, Hillary; Saneto, Russell P

    2015-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and Ketogenic Diet (KD) in seizure control within a population of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) patients. This was a retrospective, single center study evaluating the seizure control by high fat diets. Seizure diaries kept by the parents performed seizure counts. All patients met the clinical criteria for MAE. Nine patients met the clinical criteria. We found that both the MAD and KD were efficacious in complete seizure control and allowed other medications to be stopped in seven patients. Two patients had greater than 90% seizure control without medications, one on the KD and the other on the MAD. Seizure freedom has ranged from 13 to 36 months, and during this time four patients have been fully weaned off of diet management. One patient was found to have a mutation in SLC2A1. Our results suggest that strictly defined MAE patients respond to the MAD with prolonged seizure control. Some patients may require the KD for seizure freedom, suggesting a common pathway of increased requirement for fats. Once controlled, those fully responsive to the Diet(s) could be weaned off traditional seizure medications and in many, subsequently off the MAD or KD. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Precipitation stripping of neodymium from carboxylate extractant with aqueous oxalic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Tetuya

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a precipitation stripping method in which neodymium ions are stripped from carboxylate extractant in organic solvent and simultaneously precipitated with aqueous oxalic acid solution. For the single-stage process, a quantitative criterion for precipitating oxalate powders was derived theoretically, and stripping experiments were done under the precipitation conditions. The resultant precipitates were neodymium oxalate, which is completely free from contamination by the carboxylate extractant and the organic solvent. The overall rate of stripping was controlled by the transfer of neodymium carboxylate in the organic solution, indicating that the presence of oxalic acid in the aqueous phase has no effect on the stripping rate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining the conventional stripping and precipitation stages in a solvent extraction process for separation and purification of rare earths

  2. Hydrothermal growth of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kakihana, Masato

    2012-06-01

    A facile and surfactant-free approach has been developed for the synthesis of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex as a precursor and oxalic acid as a reducing and structure-directing agent. The synthesized particles are composed of highly branched nanostructures with unusual cross-linked hierarchical networks. The formation of copper dendrites can be explained in view of both diffusion control and aggregation-based growth model accompanied by the chelation-assisted assembly. Oxalic acid was found to play dual roles as reducing and structure-directing agent based on the investigation results. The understanding on the crystal growth and the roles of oxalic acid provides clear insight into the formation mechanism of hyperbranched metal dendrites.

  3. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joan C.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1975-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-14C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants. PMID:16659288

  4. Dissolution of oxalate precipitate and destruction of oxalate ion by hydrogen peroxide in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung-Ho; Chung, Dong-Yong; Park, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Jae-Hyung

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at developing an oxalate precipitation process, which is applicable to a partitioning of long-lived radionuclides from the high-level radioactive liquid waste. In order to achieve this, a study for decomposition-reaction of oxalic acid by hydrogen peroxide was first carried out. The decomposition rates of H 2 O 2 and oxalic acid increased with an increase of nitric acid concentration, and especially those decomposition rates steeply increased at more than 2 M HNO 3 . Based on this result, the decomposition kinetics of H 2 O 2 and oxalic acid were suggested in this work. Then, the dissolution of oxalate precipitate and the destruction of oxalate ion in the solution were examined. Oxalate precipitates were prepared by adding oxalic acid into a simulated radioactive waste containing 8 metallic elements. The precipitates obtained thereby were dissolved in various nitric acid concentrations and reacted with H 2 O 2 at 90degC. When the oxalates were completely dissolved, most of the oxalates were decomposed by adding H 2 O 2 , but in a slurry state the decomposition yield of the oxalate decreased with an increase of the slurry density in the solution. Such phenomenon was considered to be due to a catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 on a solid surface of oxalate and the decomposition mechanism was explained by a charge transfer from a surface of oxalate solid to H 2 O 2 , producing OH radicals which can destruct H 2 O 2 explosively. Accordingly, the experimental condition for the decomposition of the oxalate precipitates was found to be most favorable at 3 M HNO 3 under the initial concentrations of 0.2 M oxalate and 1 M H 2 O 2 . At 3M HNO 3 , oxalate precipitates could be safely and completely dissolved, and almost decomposed. Additionally, it was observed that the presence of ferric ion in the solution largely affects the decomposition rate of H 2 O 2 . This could be explained by a chain reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferric ion in the solution

  5. Urinary oxalate excretion, as determined by isotope dilution and indirect colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenen, J.A.C.; Boer, P.; Leersum, L. van; Oldenburg, S.J.; Endeman, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and reliable method for the determination of urinary oxalate excretion is described. Urinary oxalate is precipitated with calcium chloride, and the oxalate content of the precipitate is measured by an indirect colorimetric method developed by Neas and Guyon in 1972. For single urine samples, a correction is made for the incompleteness of the precipitation of calcium oxalate by isotope dilution. The range of normal values (5% limits) determined in 52 normal subjects was 0.121-0.325 mmol.24 h - 1 .m - 2 for a 1-day collection period and 0.145-0.301 mmol. 24 h - 1 .m - 2 for a 3-day collection period. The within-assay CV of a control urine with a low oxalate concentration was 9% (n=7) and the between-assay CV for the same control urine was 12% (n=6). When the values obtained for oxalate excretion were normalized to body surface area, there was no significant difference between males and females; the main source of variation was the intra-individual variation. (Auth.)

  6. The bioavailability of oxalate from Oca (Oxalis tuberosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albihn, P B; Savage, G P

    2001-08-01

    It is believed that soluble oxalate has higher bioavailability than insoluble oxalate. Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) is moderately high in oxalate and contains oxalate in soluble form only. We estimated the bioavailability of oxalate in oca based on the urinary excretion of oxalate after oxalate loading with oca to estimate the bioavailability of oxalate in oca. We also clarified whether bioavailability differs in various oxalate loads from the same food source and studied the effect of an additional calcium source on the bioavailability of oxalate from oca. Four men and 4 women ingested 50, 100 and 150 gm. oca as well as 100 gm. oca with 100 gm. sour cream. Oxalate was measured in a 6-hour urine sample from each volunteer. The mean bioavailability of oxalate from oca plus or minus standard deviation was 1.44% +/- 1.31% during the 6-hour period after intake. There was no significant difference in oxalate bioavailability among oxalate intake levels in this study, although oca consumption with sour cream significantly decreased the uptake of oxalate (p oca appears to be similar to that in spinach. However, bioavailability varies among individuals and depends on other constituents of a combined meal.

  7. Effect of Mediterranean Diet in Diabetes Control and Cardiovascular Risk Modification: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eSleiman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes (T2DM with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the potential protective role of Mediterranean diet in diabetic patients. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and HOMA, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes.Outcome/Conclusion: Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the Mediterranean diet along with the possibility of explaining its mechanism.

  8. Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Richard F.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1978-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid functions as a precursor of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulating plants. The present study extends this observation to include Rumex crispus L. (curly dock), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red root pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters), Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet), Halogeton glomeratus M. Bieb. (halogeton), and Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb). Several species with low oxalate content are also examined. When l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is supplied to young seedlings of R. crispus or H. glomeratus, a major portion of the 14C is released over a 24-hour period as 14CO2 and only a small portion is recovered as [14C]oxalate, unlike cuttings from 2- or 4-month-old plants which retain a large part of the 14C as [14C]oxalic acid and release very little 14CO2. Support for an intermediate role of oxalate in the release of 14CO2 from l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is seen in the rapid release of 14CO2 by R. crispus and H. glomeratus seedlings labeled with [14C]oxalic acid. The common origin of oxalic acid carbon in the C1 and C2 fragment from l-ascorbic acid is demonstrated by comparison of 14C content of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulators after cuttings or seedlings are supplied equal amounts of l-[1-14C]- or l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid. Theoretically, l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid will produce labeled oxalic acid containing three times as much 14C as l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid when equal amounts of label are provided. Experimentally, a ratio of 2.7 ± 0.5 is obtained in duplicate experiments with six different species. PMID:16660342

  9. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  10. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies

    OpenAIRE

    Racette, Susan B.; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M.; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify th...

  11. Acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet compares favorably to a step II diet in a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet, as compared with a more typical fat-modified diet, among overweight and obese adults. Through newspaper advertisements, 64 overweight, postmenopausal women were recruited, 59 of whom completed the study. The participants were assigned randomly to a low-fat vegan diet or, for comparison, to a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II (NCEP) diet. At baseline and 14 weeks later, dietary intake, dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, as well as the acceptability and perceived benefits and adverse effects of each diet were assessed. Dietary restraint increased in the NCEP group (P vegan group. Disinhibition and hunger scores fell in each group (P vegan group participants rated their diet as less easy to prepare than their usual diets (P vegan diet is high and not demonstrably different from that of a more moderate low-fat diet among well-educated, postmenopausal women in a research environment.

  12. Oxalates in oca (New Zealand yam) (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L

    1999-12-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.

  13. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin

      Oxalic acid (C2O4H2), the strongest of the organic acids is produced by both brown and white rot decay fungi and has been connected to various aspects of brown- and white rot decay including the Fenton reaction (Green and Highley, 1997; Munir et al.,2001). Oxalic acid is secreted into the wood...... cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  14. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  15. A Mediterranean Diet to Improve Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health: Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-02-16

    The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated efficacy for improving cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet delivers fewer serves of dairy and less dietary calcium than is currently recommended in Australia, which may limit long-term sustainability. The present study aims to evaluate whether a Mediterranean diet with adequate dairy and calcium can improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in an at-risk population, and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. A randomised, controlled, parallel, crossover design trial will compare a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods against a low-fat control diet. Forty participants with systolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg and at least two other risk factors of CVD will undertake each dietary intervention for eight weeks, with an eight-week washout period between interventions. Systolic blood pressure will be the primary measure of interest. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic health, dietary compliance, cognitive function, assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), psychological well-being and dementia risk. This research will provide empirical evidence as to whether the Mediterranean diet can be modified to provide recommended dairy and calcium intakes while continuing to deliver positive effects for cardiovascular and cognitive health. The findings will hold relevance for the field of preventative healthcare and may contribute to revisions of national dietary guidelines.

  16. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  17. The (noneffects of lethal population control on the diet of Australian dingoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Allen

    Full Text Available Top-predators contribute to ecosystem resilience, yet individuals or populations are often subject to lethal control to protect livestock, managed game or humans from predation. Such management actions sometimes attract concern that lethal control might affect top-predator function in ways ultimately detrimental to biodiversity conservation. The primary function of a predator is predation, which is often investigated by assessing their diet. We therefore use data on prey remains found in 4,298 Australian dingo scats systematically collected from three arid sites over a four year period to experimentally assess the effects of repeated broad-scale poison-baiting programs on dingo diet. Indices of dingo dietary diversity and similarity were either identical or near-identical in baited and adjacent unbaited treatment areas in each case, demonstrating no control-induced change to dingo diets. Associated studies on dingoes' movement behaviour and interactions with sympatric mesopredators were similarly unaffected by poison-baiting. These results indicate that mid-sized top-predators with flexible and generalist diets (such as dingoes may be resilient to ongoing and moderate levels of population control without substantial alteration of their diets and other related aspects of their ecological function.

  18. Update on probiotics for the treatment of calcium oxalate stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di ZHANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is one of the common diseases in urinary system, among which calcium oxalate stone is the most common one with a high recurrence rate. An important pathological factor for the formation of calcium oxalate stone is the increased absorption of oxalate from intestine, which leads to a high urine oxalate concentration. Intestinal bacteria known to be able to degrade oxalate includes Oxalobacter formigenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Eubacterium lentum, Providencia rettgeri, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, etc. Among those, Oxalobacter formigenes is the first oxalate-degrading obligate anaerobe found in human, while the rest are just conditioned bacteria with the function to degrade intestinal oxalate. There are three kinds of enzymes in Oxalobacter formigenes involved in the metabolism of oxalate, namely oxalate-formate antiporter (OxlT, formyl-CoA transferase (Frc and oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase (Oxc. Animal experiments have verified that Oxalobacter formigenes could reduce intestinal oxalate absorption by promoting the secretion of oxalate and degradation as well, thus decrease the excretion of urine oxalate. The present review will focus on the research progress of probiotics treatment for the calcium oxalate stones so as to provide reference for further research and development. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.16

  19. Diet, Inflammation, and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Y. Nowlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a growing national health problem affecting 35% of adults ≥20 years of age in the United States. Recently, diabetes has been categorized as an inflammatory disease, sharing many of the adverse outcomes as those reported from cardiovascular disease. Medical nutrition therapy is recommended for the treatment of diabetes; however, these recommendations have not been updated to target the inflammatory component, which can be affected by diet and lifestyle. To assess the current state of evidence for which dietary programs contain the most anti-inflammatory and glycemic control properties for patients with T2D, we conducted an integrative review of the literature. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to May 2012 yielded 786 articles. The final 16 studies met the selection criteria including randomized control trials, quasiexperimental, or cross-sectional studies that compared varying diets and measured inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean and DASH diets along with several low-fat diets were associated with lower inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean diet demonstrated the most clinically significant reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Information on best dietary guidelines for inflammation and glycemic control in individuals with T2D is lacking. Continued research is warranted.

  20. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  1. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A. Z.

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  2. Recovery Ce from Ce - TBP Used Oxalic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwani, MV; Subagiono, R.; Suyanti

    2007-01-01

    Recovery or stripping Ce from Ce - TBP product of monazite sand used oxalic acid. Ce - TBP as organic phase and oxalic acid as aqueous phase and as strong precipitant compound to precipitate metal element. The stripping product as Ce - oxalic precipitate. The influence parameter were percentage of oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce-TBP with oxalic acid, time and rate of stripping. At stripping of 25 ml Ce - TBP used oxalic acid, the optimum condition were achieve at using 5% oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce - TBP : 5% oxalic acid = 1 : 1, time of stripping 7.5 minute and rate of stripping 150 rpm. At the optimum condition was obtained the recovery efficiency was 100%. (author)

  3. Interaction Studies of Dilute Aqueous Oxalic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kandpal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular conductance λm, relative viscosity and density of oxalicacid at different concentration in dilute aqueous solution were measured at 293 K.The conductance data were used to calculate the value association constant.Viscosity and density data were used to calculate the A and B coefficient ofJone-Dole equation and apparent molar volume respectively. The viscosityresults were utilized for the applicability of Modified Jone-Dole equation andStaurdinger equations. Mono oxalate anion acts, as structure maker and thesolute-solvent interaction were present in the dilute aqueous oxalic acid.

  4. Developing a ubiquitous health management system with healthy diet control for metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yao-Chiang; Chen, Kai-Hong; Lin, Hsueh-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Self-management in healthcare can allow patients managing their health data anytime and everywhere for prevention of chronic diseases. This study established a prototype of ubiquitous health management system (UHMS) with healthy diet control (HDC) for people who need services of metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan. System infrastructure comprises of three portals and a database tier with mutually supportive components to achieve functionality of diet diaries, nutrition guides, and health risk assessments for self-health management. With the diet, nutrition, and personal health database, the design enables the analytical diagrams on the interactive interface to support a mobile application for diet diary, a Web-based platform for health management, and the modules of research and development for medical care. For database integrity, dietary data can be stored at offline mode prior to transformation between mobile device and server site at online mode. The UHMS-HDC was developed by open source technology for ubiquitous health management with personalized dietary criteria. The system integrates mobile, internet, and electronic healthcare services with the diet diary functions to manage healthy diet behaviors of users. The virtual patients were involved to simulate the self-health management procedure. The assessment functions were approved by capturing the screen snapshots in the procedure. The proposed system development was capable for practical intervention. This approach details the expandable framework with collaborative components regarding the self-developed UHMS-HDC. The multi-disciplinary applications for self-health management can support the healthcare professionals to reduce medical resources and improve healthcare effects for the patient who requires monitoring personal health condition with diet control. The proposed system can be practiced for intervention in the hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial enterotypes, inferred by the prevotella-to-bacteroides ratio, remained stable during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention with the new nordic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Poulsen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human gut microbiota can be divided into enterotypes based on the abundance of specific bacterial groups; however, the biological significance and stability of these enterotypes remain unresolved. Here, we demonstrated that subjects (n = 62) 18 to 65 years old......, controlled dietary intervention, where the effect of consuming a diet in accord with the new Nordic diet (NND) recommendations as opposed to consuming the average Danish diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota was investigated. In this study, subjects (with and without stratification according to P/B ratio) did...

  6. Weight loss with a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austel, A; Ranke, C; Wagner, N; Görge, J; Ellrott, T

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that Mediterranean diets with a high proportion of olive oil and nuts can be effective for weight management and prevention of cardiovascular disease. It might be difficult for populations with other eating habits to follow such diets. Therefore, a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification through neutral and butter-flavored canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil with two portion-controlled sweet daily snacks was tested in Germany. Randomized waiting-list control study with overweight/grade 1 obese subjects: 12-week self-help modified Mediterranean-type diet, 6 weeks of diet plans and 6 weeks of weight loss maintenance training. Trial duration was 12 months. Intervention group (IG) included 100 participants (average age of 52.4 years, weight 85.1 kg and body mass index (BMI) 30.1 kg/m(2)), waiting-list control group (CG) included 112 participants (52.6 years, 84.1 kg and 30.1 kg/m(2)). Per-protocol weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.2 kg in IG vs 0.4 kg in CG (P ⩽ 0.0001), BMI -1.8 vs -0.1 kg/m(2) (P ⩽ 0.0001), waist circumference -4.7 vs -0.9 cm (P ⩽ 0.0001). Triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol improved significantly in IG but not in CG. One-year dropouts: 44% in IG and 53% in CG. Weight loss after 12 months: 4.2 kg (pooled data). A five-meal modified Mediterranean-type diet with two daily portion-controlled sweet snacks was effective for weight management in a self-help setting for overweight and grade 1 obese subjects. Fat modification through canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil improved blood lipids even at 12 months.

  7. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets Versus Low-Fat Diets on Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Mills, Katherine T.; Yao, Lu; Demanelis, Kathryn; Eloustaz, Mohamed; Yancy, William S.; Kelly, Tanika N.; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low-carbohydrate diets (≤45% of energy from carbohydrates) versus low-fat diets (≤30% of energy from fat) on metabolic risk factors were compared in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Twenty-three trials from multiple countries with a total of 2,788 participants met the predetermined eligibility criteria (from January 1, 1966 to June 20, 2011) and were included in the analyses. Data abstraction was conducted in duplicate by independent investigators. Both low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets lowered weight and improved metabolic risk factors. Compared with participants on low-fat diets, persons on low-carbohydrate diets experienced a slightly but statistically significantly lower reduction in total cholesterol (2.7 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 4.6), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.7 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 6.4), but a greater increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.3 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 1.9, 4.7) and a greater decrease in triglycerides (−14.0 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: −19.4, −8.7). Reductions in body weight, waist circumference and other metabolic risk factors were not significantly different between the 2 diets. These findings suggest that low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective as low-fat diets at reducing weight and improving metabolic risk factors. Low-carbohydrate diets could be recommended to obese persons with abnormal metabolic risk factors for the purpose of weight loss. Studies demonstrating long-term effects of low-carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular events were warranted. PMID:23035144

  8. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Nakata

    Full Text Available The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants.

  9. Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel. P V DALAL. ∗ and K B SARAF. Postgraduate Department of Physics, Pratap College, Amalner 425 401, India. MS received 16 March 2008; revised 5 April 2010. Abstract. Single crystals of strontium oxalate have been grown by using strontium chloride and oxalic acid in.

  10. Smad signaling pathway in pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the involvement of Smad signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats to provide a reference for clinical treatment. Methods: Clean SD rats were randomly divided into 3 group, namely the control group, model group and pirfenidone group. Ethylene glycol + αhydroxy vitamin D3 was used as a stone-inducing agent to replicate the renal calcium oxalate stone model. Rats in the pirfenidone group were treated with pirfenidone intragastric administration. The serum Cr, BUN and 24-hour oxalate and calcium in renal tissues were assayed. The expressions of Bax/ Bcl2 protein, Caspase3 protein, TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins were detected by the fluorescent quantitation PCR method. Results: Compared with the rats of the control group, the results showed that the levels of serum BUN, Cr and 24-hour oxalate in rats of the model group were increased greatly, Bax and Caspase3 mRNA also increased while the level of Bcl2 decreased significantly, and the expressions of TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins increased distinctly as well (P<0.01. These abnormal parameters could be normalized effectively by pirfenidone. Conclusions: Activated TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats.

  11. Effects of potassium oxalate on knoop hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S M A; Malacarne-Zanon, J; Carvalho, R M; Alves, M C; De Goes, M F; Anido-Anido, A; Carrilho, M R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives may be affected by the pretreatment of acid-etched dentin with potassium oxalate desensitizer. Unerupted human third molars were cut into crown segments by removing the occlusal enamel and roots. The pulp chamber of these crown segments was connected to a syringe barrel filled with phosphate-buffered saline so that the moisture of dentin was maintained during the bonding procedures. Three etch-and-rinse adhesives-two two-step systems (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], One-Step [OS]) and one three-step system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [MP])-were applied to acid-etched dentin that had been treated (experimental groups) or not (control groups) with potassium oxalate (BisBlock). The Knoop hardness (KHN) of adhesives was taken at different sites of the outer surface of the adhesive-bonded dentin. The KHN of the three tested adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin treated with potassium oxalate was significantly lower than that exhibited by the respective controls (not treated with oxalate; padhesive, the treatment with potassium oxalate reduced the adhesives' KHN (psystem exhibiting the lowest KHN compared with the MP and SB systems.

  12. Improving diet and physical activity: 12 lessons from controlling tobacco smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Yach, Derek; McKee, Martin; Lopez, Alan D; Novotny, Tom

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of Oxford Vision 2020, a partnership dedicated to preventing the forecast worldwide growth of chronic diseases, the authors suggest that 12 lessons learnt from attempts to control tobacco smoking could be used to tackle the chronic disease epidemics evolving from unhealthy diets and a lack of physical activity

  13. Low sodium diet and pregnancy-induced hypertension: a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuist, M.; Bonsel, G. J.; Zondervan, H. A.; Treffers, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of the standard policy in the Netherlands to prescribe a sodium restricted diet to prevent or to treat mild pregnancy-induced hypertension. Multi-centre randomised controlled trial between April 1992 and April 1994. Seven practices of independent midwives and one

  14. A randomized controlled trial of the ketogenic diet in refractory childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, D.A.J.E.; de Kinderen, R.J.A.; Vles, J.S.H.; de Louw, A.J.A.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Majoie, H.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) during the first 4 months of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in refractory epilepsy patients aged 1–18 years. Methods: Children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy, not eligible for epilepsy surgery, were

  15. Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of total diet replacements for weight control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    or authoritative bodies. Derived from the minimum content of macronutrients, the Panel proposed a minimum energy content of total diet replacements for weight control of 2 510 kJ/day (600 kcal/day). The Panel also advised on potential conditions and restrictions of use for these products....

  16. Oxalate metal complexes in aerosol particles: implications for the hygroscopicity of oxalate-containing particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to weaken the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play an important role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is an important component of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected for this purpose using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and can thus increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, while complexes with various polyvalent metal ions such as Ca and Zn are not hygroscopic, which cannot contribute to the increase of the CCN activity of aerosols. Based on the concentrations of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not always increase the hygroscopicity of aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is advisable that the cooling effect of organic aerosols should be estimated by including the

  17. Treatment of chronic portal--systemic encephalopathy with vegetable and animal protein diets. A controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, M; Márquez, M A; Garcia Ramos, G; Ramos-Uribe, M H; Vargas, F; Villalobos, A; Ramos, C

    1982-12-01

    A controlled crossover clinical comparison of 40-g/day and 80-g/day vegetable protein diets vs a 40-g/day meat protein diet plus neomycin-milk of magnesia (as control therapy) was performed on 10 cirrhotic patients with mild chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy. The 40-g vegetable protein diet had a high fiber volume and contained low methionine and low aromatic amino acids. The 80-g vegetable protein diet was rich in branched-chain amino acids and fiber, with a similar content of sulfur-containing amino acids as compared to the 40-g meat protein diet. Serial semiquantitative assessments were done, including mental state, asterixis, number connection tests, electroencephalograms and blood ammonia levels. No patient developed deep coma while ingesting either vegetable protein diet or neomycin-milk of magnesia plus 40-g meat protein diet. A significant improvement in the number connection test times was observed during the 40-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) and during the 80-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) as compared to their previous 40-g meat protein--neomycin periods. In addition, during the period of 80-g vegetable protein diet, the patients showed a significant improvement in their electroencephalograms (P less than 0.05). The frequency of bowel movements significantly increased (P less than 0.05) during the 80-g vegetable protein diet period. During the 40-g vegetable protein diet, two cirrhotic--diabetic patients experienced hypoglycemia. Three patients complained of the voluminous 80-g vegetable protein diet. Patients with mild portal--systemic encephalopathy may be adequately controlled with vegetable protein diets as a single therapy.

  18. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. CRiS KCT0001771.

  19. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Lee

    Full Text Available Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D; however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals.Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46 or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47 for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks.The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017. When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%. The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks.Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms.CRiS KCT0001771.

  20. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate on the ... The test plant was sown in aluminium-polluted soil (conc. ... The perseverance of the test plant in the aluminium spiked soil is an indication of adaptation to the stress ...

  1. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  2. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    acid and ammonium oxalate on the prevalence of microorganisms and removal of aluminum in soil by bitter leaf plant (Vernonia ... highest accumulation of aluminium in the root (16.92mg/kg); however concentrations of aluminium in the roots were .... whereas the sulphate was 13.75mg/kg. Table 2: The total colony count of ...

  3. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David JA; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health. Objective: We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids. Design: Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74. Results: Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (−4.4 kg in the vegan group and −3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A1c changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A1c changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were −0.34 and −0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A1c changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were −0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  4. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-05-01

    Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health. We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids. Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74. Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (-4.4 kg in the vegan group and -3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A(1c) changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were -0.34 and -0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were -0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03). Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00276939.

  5. Dietary and medication adjustments to improve seizure control in patients treated with the ketogenic diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selter, Jessica H.; Turner, Zahava; Doerrer, Sarah C.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike anticonvulsant drugs and vagus nerve stimulation, there are no guidelines regarding adjustments to ketogenic diet regimens to improve seizure efficacy once the diet has been started. A retrospective chart review was performed of 200 consecutive patients treated with the ketogenic diet at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2007-2013. Ten dietary and supplement changes were identified, along with anticonvulsant adjustments. A total of 391 distinct interventions occurred, of which 265 were made specifically to improve seizure control. Adjustments lead to >50% further seizure reduction in-18%, but only 3% became seizure-free. The benefits of interventions did not decrease over time. There was a trend towards medication adjustments being more successful than dietary modifications (24% vs. 15%, p = 0.08). No single dietary change stood out as the most effective, but calorie changes were largely unhelpful (10% with additional benefit). PMID:24859788

  6. Dietary and medication adjustments to improve seizure control in patients treated with the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selter, Jessica H; Turner, Zahava; Doerrer, Sarah C; Kossoff, Eric H

    2015-01-01

    Unlike anticonvulsant drugs and vagus nerve stimulation, there are no guidelines regarding adjustments to ketogenic diet regimens to improve seizure efficacy once the diet has been started. A retrospective chart review was performed of 200 consecutive patients treated with the ketogenic diet at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2007 to 2013. Ten dietary and supplement changes were identified, along with anticonvulsant adjustments. A total of 391 distinct interventions occurred, of which 265 were made specifically to improve seizure control. Adjustments led to >50% further seizure reduction in 18%, but only 3% became seizure-free. The benefits of interventions did not decrease over time. There was a trend towards medication adjustments being more successful than dietary modifications (24% vs 15%, P = .08). No single dietary change stood out as the most effective, but calorie changes were largely unhelpful (10% with additional benefit). © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of selected oxalate-degrading probiotic bacteria: potential applications in the prevention and treatment of hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, Silvana; Scilironi, Cristina; Michelotti, Angela; Samuele, Alberta; Borella, Fabio; Daglia, Maria; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-03-01

    Oxalate (Ox) is a very common component of the human diet, capable to collect in the renal tissue and bind calcium to form calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. A supersaturation of CaOx crystal may cause nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The inflammation derived from the CaOx crystal accumulation, together with innate or secondary renal alterations, could strongly affect the renal function. In this case a consumption of probiotics with either oxalate-degrading activity at intestinal level and systemic anti-inflammatory activity could be an alternative approach to treat the subjects with excess of urinary oxalate excretion. 11 strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria), already included in the list of bacteria safe for the human use, were investigated for their capability to degrade oxalate by mean of RP-HPLC-UV method and modulate inflammation in an in vitro model system based on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Four promising bacterial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14, Bifidobacterium breve PBS077, Bifidobacterium longum PBS078) were identified as innovative biological tools for the prevention and the therapeutic treatment of hyperoxaluria and the inflammatory events associated to the Ox accumulation. The oxalate-degrading activity of some probiotics and their capability to modulate the release of inflammation mediators could be exploited as a new nutraceutical and therapeutic approach for the treatment of oxalate accumulation and the related inflammatory state. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. SAFETY EVALUATION OF OXALIC ACID WASTE RETRIEVAL IN SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) 241-C-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the safety evaluation of the process of retrieving sludge waste from single-shell tank 241-C-106 using oxalic acid. The results of the HAZOP, safety evaluation, and control allocation/decision are part of the report. This safety evaluation considers the use of oxalic acid to recover residual waste in single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This is an activity not addressed in the current tank farm safety basis. This evaluation has five specific purposes: (1) Identifying the key configuration and operating assumptions needed to evaluate oxalic acid dissolution in SST 241-C-106. (2) Documenting the hazardous conditions identified during the oxalic acid dissolution hazard and operability study (HAZOP). (3) Documenting the comparison of the HAZOP results to the hazardous conditions and associated analyzed accident currently included in the safety basis, as documented in HNF-SD-WM-TI-764, Hazard Analysis Database Report. (4) Documenting the evaluation of the oxalic acid dissolution activity with respect to: (A) Accident analyses described in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), and (B) Controls specified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (TSR). (5) Documenting the process and results of control decisions as well as the applicability of preventive and/or mitigative controls to each oxalic acid addition hazardous condition. This safety evaluation is not intended to be a request to authorize the activity. Authorization issues are addressed by the unreviewed safety question (USQ) evaluation process. This report constitutes an accident analysis

  9. Validity of electronic diet recording nutrient estimates compared to dietitian analysis of diet records: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient int...

  10. Restrictive Diet Control as a Means of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudek, Matthew R; Luyet, Francois; Herringa, Ryan J; Knox, Barbara L

    2018-03-01

    We have recently encountered a series of cases where an obese caretaker is juxtaposed to a severely starved, malnourished dependent. The cases described all share a common characteristic: that the primary perpetrator was an obese caretaker who tried to exert absolute control over their victim's daily life in a way that included either a severe restriction or complete denial of food. Because the pathophysiology of both child abuse and obesity are incredibly complex and multifactorial, these cases are presented to encourage further discussion and more rigorous investigation into the validity of a hypothesis that has been derived from this set of cases: that the obesity of a child's caretaker may be an additional risk factor for child maltreatment by starvation.

  11. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  12. Influence of a high fibre diet on glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P A; Maskell, E; Rawlings, J M; Nash, A S; Markwell, P J

    2002-02-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate a high fibre diet used in the management of 10 dogs with naturally occurring insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Following baseline measurements of health and glycaemic control, the dogs were fed a canned diet containing a blend of insoluble and soluble dietary fibres and were monitored during the ensuing four months. Switching to the high fibre diet was associated with significantly lower mean 24-hour and postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, which were maintained over the study period. The high fibre diet was also associated with significant reductions in plasma concentrations of fructosamine, glycated haemoglobin, free glycerol and cholesterol, and there were significant improvements in dog activity and demeanour. Bodyweight declined during the fourth month of feeding the diet, which is likely to have resulted from underfeeding relative to increased activity. The results indicate that a high fibre diet can significantly improve glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

  13. Preventive treatment of calcium oxalate crystal deposition with immortal flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Onaran, Metin; Şen, İlker; Işık Gönül, İpek; Aslan, Mustafa

    2015-04-02

    A number of medicinal plants are used for their diuretic, urolithiatic and anti-inflammatory effects on urinary system problems in Turkey and the most common traditional remedy for kidney stones is the tea of immortal flowers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the preventive effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M.Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and Helichrysum stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on formation of kidney stones. Sodium oxalate (Ox-70mg/kg intraperitoneally) was used to induce kidney stones on Wistar albino rats. At the same time, two different doses of the plant extracts (HG: 62.5 and 125mg/kg; HS: 78 and 156mg/kg) were dissolved in the drinking water and administered to animals for 5 days. Potassium citrate was used as positive control in the experiments. During the experiment, water intake, urine volume and body weights of the animals were recorded. At the end of the experiments, liver, kidney and body weights of the animals were determined; biochemical analysis were conducted on urine, blood and plasma samples. Histopathological changes in kidney tissues were examined and statistical analysis were evaluated. HS extract showed the highest preventive effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 1.16), whereas a number of kidney stones were maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.66). Helichrysum extracts decreased urine oxalate and uric acid levels and increased citrate levels significantly. In addition, Helichrysum extracts regulated the negative changes in biochemical and hematological parameters occurred after Ox injection. We conclude that Helichrysum extracts could reduce the formation and growth of kidney stones in Ox-induced urolithiasis and can be beneficial for patients with recurrent stones. In addition, this is the first study on the preventive effect of immortal flowers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Favorable impact of a vegan diet with exercise on hemorheology: implications for control of diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2002-06-01

    A little-noticed clinical report indicates that a low-fat, whole-food vegan diet, coupled with daily walking exercise, leads to rapid remission of neuropathic pain in the majority of type 2 diabetics expressing this complication. Concurrent marked improvements in glycemic control presumably contribute to this benefit, but are unlikely to be solely responsible. Consideration should be given to the possibility that improved blood rheology - decreased blood viscosity and increased blood filterability - plays a prominent role in mediating this effect. There is considerable evidence that neural hypoxia, secondary to impaired endoneurial microcirculatory perfusion, is a crucial etiologic factor in diabetic neuropathy; the unfavorable impact of diabetes on hemorheology would be expected to exacerbate endoneurial ischemia. Conversely, measures which improve blood fluidity would likely have a beneficial impact on diabetic neuropathy. There is indeed evidence that vegan diets, as well as exercise training, tend to decrease the viscosity of both whole blood and plasma; reductions in hematocrit and in fibrinogen may contribute to this effect. The fact that vegan diets decrease the white cell count is suggestive of an improvement in blood filterability as well; filterability improves with exercise training owing to an increase in erythrocyte deformability. Whether these measures influence the activation of leukocytes in diabetics - an important determinant of blood filterability - remains to be determined. There are various reasons for suspecting that a vegan diet can reduce risk for other major complications of diabetes - retinopathy, nephropathy, and macrovascular disease - independent of its tendency to improve glycemic control in type 2 patients. The vegan diet/exercise strategy represents a safe, 'low-tech' approach to managing diabetes that deserves far greater attention from medical researchers and practitioners.

  15. Oxalate complexation in dissolved carbide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Bokelund, H.; Valkiers, S.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that the oxalic acid produced in the dissolution of mixed uranium, plutonium carbides in nitric acid can account for the problems of incomplete uranium and plutonium extraction on the Purex process. Moreover, it was demonstrated that other identified products such as benzene polycarboxylic acids are either too insoluble or insufficiently complexing to be of concern. The stability constants for oxalate complexing of UO 2 +2 and Pu +4 ions (as UO 2 (C 2 O 4 ), Pu(C 2 O 4 ) 2+ and Pu(C 2 O 4 ) 2 , respectively) were measured in nitrate solutions of 4.0 molar ionic strength (0-4 M HNO 3 ) by extraction of these species with TBP. (orig.)

  16. Effect of dentin pretreatment with potassium oxalate: analysis of microtensile bond strengths and morphologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; De Andrade, Ana Karina Maciel; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Braz, Rodivan

    2012-02-01

    An effective and stable bond is the most desirable characteristic of contemporary adhesive systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of potassium oxalate on dentin/resin bond strength. Dentin on the occlusal surface of human premolars was exposed and etched with 35% phosphoric acid, to receive 3% monohydrated potassium oxalate and the following adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SMO; 3M/ESPE) and Prime & Bond NT (PBO; Dentsply), followed by the application of resin composite (Z250; 3M/ESPE). The control groups (SM and PB) did not receive potassium oxalate application. The prepared teeth were kept in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and 12 months. They were then cut longitudinally into sticks with a bond area of ∼0.8 mm(2) for submission to the microtensile bond strength test. The data were analyzed by two-factor ANOVA, Tamhane's paired comparisons, and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). The hybrid layer formed was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis of the surfaces treated with PB revealed shorter resin tags associated with the application of potassium oxalate, whereas SM showed tags similar to those without potassium oxalate. A significant difference was shown between the two storage times for each of the protocols. There was a significant difference among SMO, SM, and PBO (24 h), as well as among SM, SMO, and PBO, and between PB and PBO (12 months). The application of potassium oxalate before conventional adhesive systems may result in alteration of the bond strength between dentin and resin composite, depending on the material. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Use of dietary indices to control for diet in human gut microbiota studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Ruth C E; Jackson, Matthew A; Pallister, Tess; Skinner, Jane; Spector, Tim D; Welch, Ailsa A; Steves, Claire J

    2018-04-25

    Environmental factors have a large influence on the composition of the human gut microbiota. One of the most influential and well-studied is host diet. To assess and interpret the impact of non-dietary factors on the gut microbiota, we endeavoured to determine the most appropriate method to summarise community variation attributable to dietary effects. Dietary habits are multidimensional with internal correlations. This complexity can be simplified by using dietary indices that quantify dietary variance in a single measure and offer a means of controlling for diet in microbiota studies. However, to date, the applicability of different dietary indices to gut microbiota studies has not been assessed. Here, we use food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data from members of the TwinsUK cohort to create three different dietary measures applicable in western-diet populations: The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Healthy Food Diversity index (HFD-Index). We validate and compare these three indices to determine which best summarises dietary influences on gut microbiota composition. All three indices were independently validated using established measures of health, and all were significantly associated with microbiota measures; the HEI had the highest t values in models of alpha diversity measures, and had the highest number of associations with microbial taxa. Beta diversity analyses showed the HEI explained the greatest variance of microbiota composition. In paired tests between twins discordant for dietary index score, the HEI was associated with the greatest variation of taxa and twin dissimilarity. We find that the HEI explains the most variance in, and has the strongest association with, gut microbiota composition in a western (UK) population, suggesting that it may be the best summary measure to capture gut microbiota variance attributable to habitual diet in comparable populations.

  18. Addition of calcium compounds to reduce soluble oxalate in a high oxalate food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Wen-Chun; Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is often used as a base vegetable to make green juices that are promoted as healthy dietary alternatives. Spinach is known to contain significant amounts of oxalates, which are toxic and, if consumed regularly, can lead to the development of kidney stones. This research investigates adding 50-500mg increments of calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate and calcium sulphate to 100g of raw homogenates of spinach to determine whether calcium would combine with the soluble oxalate present in the spinach. Calcium chloride was the most effective additive while calcium carbonate was the least effective. The formation of insoluble oxalate after incubation at 25°C for 30min is a simple practical step that can be incorporated into the juicing process. This would make the juice considerably safer to consume on a regular basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies in the solubility of Pu(III) oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasilkar, S P; Khedekar, N B; Chander, K; Jadhav, V; Jain, H C [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Fuel Reprocessing Div.

    1994-11-01

    Studies have been carried out on the solubility of Pu(III) oxalate by precipitation of Pu(III) oxalate from varying concentrations of HNO[sub 3]/HCl (0.5-2.0M) solutions and also by equilibrating freshly prepared Pu(III) oxalate with solutions containing varying concentrations of HNO[sub 3]/HCl, oxalic acid and ascorbic acid. Pu(III) solutions in HNO[sub 3] and HCl media were prepared by reduction of Pu(IV) with ascorbic acid. 0.01-0.10M ascorbic acid concentration in the aqueous solution was maintained as holding reductant. The solubility of Pu(III) oxalate was found to be a minimum in 0.5M-1M HNO[sub 3]/HCl solutions containing 0.05M ascorbic acid and 0.2M excess oxalic acid in the supernatant. (author) 6 refs.; 6 tabs.

  20. Not merely a question of self-control: The longitudinal effects of overeating behaviors, diet quality and physical activity on dieters' perceived diet success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Hartmann, Christina

    2016-12-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted between 2010 (T1) and 2014 (T2) on a random sample from the general Swiss population (N = 2781, 46% male). Results showed that dieters (restrained eaters) who reported lack of success in T2 were overweight in T1, had higher levels of emotional and external eating, overeating, and ambivalence toward eating palatable food in T1, and a significantly increased body mass index (BMI) in the period between T1 and T2. Dieters who reported success in T2 had maintained a normal BMI between T1 and T2, had a higher diet quality in T1 and had maintained regular physical activity for at least one year before T2. The logistic regression revealed that high levels of dispositional self-control provided the most important predictor of being a successful dieter. When controlling for dispositional self-control, high levels of emotional eating, overeating, and ambivalence in T1, together with increases in these levels between T1 and T2, were associated with a decreased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. High levels of diet quality in T1 and the maintenance of regular physical activity were associated with an increased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. Results suggest that diet success and failure is a long-term phenomenon, partly but not fully explained by dispositional self-control. Independent of self-control persistent patterns of overeating due to emotional eating and ambivalent feelings toward eating palatable food, also explain long-term diet failure. A high diet quality and maintenance of regular physical activity accounted for dieters' long-term success. This is the first study that examined the long-term psychological and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Features of atopic dermatitis in children with oxalic acid dysmetabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Stoieva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the features of atopic dermatitis in children with concomitant metabolic disturbances of oxalic acid. The influence of metabolic shifts was evaluated by clinical presentation, morphofunctional parameters of the skin and the features of oxalic acid metabolites excretion. In this study, a high incidence of dysmetabolic changes was identified, their significance was determined by the involvement of different systems for oxalic acid products excretion. The increased concentration of oxalate in the urine and in the exhaled air condensate had irritant effect and is associated with the hereditary metabolic disorders, early manifestation of atopy symptoms and the intensity of skin itching, with moderate increase of immunoglobulin E level.

  2. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Thanh, Hang; Phan Vu, Hai; Vu Van, Hai; Le Duc, Ngoan; Le Minh, Tuan; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM) while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35%) of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%). There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%). The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption. PMID:28231080

  3. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Du Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35% of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%. There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%. The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption.

  4. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  5. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was −12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3–16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12–36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10–26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3–12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: −1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6–12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: −1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3–14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Conclusion: Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise. PMID:24172297

  6. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Kari; Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was -12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3-16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12-36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10-26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3-12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: -1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6-12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: -1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3-14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise.

  7. Effect of a diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C

    2016-10-01

    A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.

  8. Uranyl oxalate hydrates: structures and IR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesting, P.A.; Porter, N.J.; Burns, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The novel compound (UO 2 ) 2 C 2 O 4 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (UrOx2A) and the previously studied compound UO 2 C 2 O 4 (H 2 O) 3 (UrOx3) have been synthesized by mild hydrothermal methods. Single crystal diffraction data collected at 125 K using MoK α radiation and a CCD-based area detector were used to solve and refine the crystal structures by full-matrix least-squares techniques to agreement indices (UrOx2A, UrOx3) wR 2 = 0.037, 0.049 for all data, and R1 0.015, 0.024 calculated for 1285, 2194 unique reflections respectively. The compound UrOx2A is triclinic, space group P1, Z = 1, a = 5.5353(4), b 6.0866(4), c = 7.7686(6) Aa, α = 85.6410(10) , β = 89.7740(10) , γ = 82.5090(10) , V = 258.74(3) Aa 3 . The compound UrOx3 is monoclinic, space group P2 1 /c, Z = 4, a = 5.5921(4), b = 16.9931(13), c = 9.3594(7) Aa, β = 99.5330(10) , V = 877.11(11) Aa 3 . The structures consist of chains of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids connected by oxalate groups and, in UrOx2A, hydroxyl groups; UrOx2A is also notable for its high (2:1) ratio of uranyl to oxalate groups, higher than any observed in other published structures of uranyl oxalates. The structure determined for UrOx3, previously studied by Jayadevan and Chackraburtty (1972); Mikhailov et al. (1999) is in agreement with the previous results; however, the increased precision of the present low-temperature structure refinement allows for the assignment of H atom positions based on the difference Fourier map of electron density. The infrared spectra of these two materials collected at room temperature are also presented and compared with previous work on uranyl oxalate systems. (orig.)

  9. Effect of low-protein diet on kidney function in diabetic nephropathy: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezu, Uru; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yoshinobu; Sakuma, Mio; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ueda, Shinichiro

    2013-05-28

    To evaluate the effect of low-protein diet on kidney function in patients with diabetic nephropathy. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register and University Hospital Medical Information Network-Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) from inception to 10 December 2012. Internet searches were also carried out with general search engines (Google and Google Scholar). Randomised controlled trials that compared low-protein diet versus control diet and assessed the effects on kidney function, proteinuria, glycaemic control or nutritional status. The primary outcome was a change in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The secondary outcomes were changes in proteinuria, post-treatment value of glycated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and post-treatment value of serum albumin. The results were summarised as the mean difference for continuous outcomes and pooled by the random effects model. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted regarding patient characteristics, intervention period, methodological quality and assessment of diet compliance. The assessment of diet compliance was performed based on the actual protein intake ratio (APIR) of the low-protein diet group to the control group. We identified 13 randomised controlled trials enrolling 779 patients. A low-protein diet was associated with a significant improvement in GFR (5.82 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 95% CI 2.30 to 9.33, I(2)=92%; n=624). This effect was consistent across the subgroups of type of diabetes, stages of nephropathy and intervention period. However, GFR was improved only when diet compliance was fair (8.92, 95% CI 2.75 to 15.09, I(2)=92% for APIR <0.9 and 0.03, 95% CI -1.49 to 1.56, I(2)=90% for APIR ≥0.9). Proteinuria and serum albumin were not differed between the groups. HbA1c was slightly but significantly decreased in the low-protein diet

  10. Effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision in Chinese women with perimenopausal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S; Mao, L; Chen, X; Bai, W

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision on menopausal symptoms and diet/exercise habits. The randomized controlled study enrolled 60 patients with perimenopausal syndrome (Kupperman Menopause Index (KMI) score ≥15). The participants were randomized into either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30). Women were interviewed with questionnaires about perimenopausal symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit. Their height and weight were measured. Women in the intervention group received health education, diet supervision and exercise supervision twice a week while those in the control group continued as normal. The total KMI score, scores of individual symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit were measured after intervention. The total KMI score, the individual KMI scores for paresthesia, irritability, depression/suspicious, fatigue, arthralgia/myalgia, and palpitations of the intervention group were significantly lower compared with the control group after intervention. The intake of cereal, meat, fats and oils of the intervention group were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline. The percentage of women with a regular exercise habit was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group after intervention. Twelve weeks intervention of health education combining diet and exercise supervision could improve perimenopausal symptoms and help the patients establish good living habits.

  11. Carbohydrate- vs fat-controlled diet effect on weight loss and coronary artery disease risk: a pilot feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Masri, Basem; Hogg, Jeannette; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Chiu, Ya-Lin

    2010-10-01

    This pilot study compared weight loss and serum indicators of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk between 2 weight loss (energy-deficit) diets, one controlled for carbohydrate as a percentage of total calories and the other controlled for fat as percentage of total calories. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 diets and fed on an outpatient basis for 70 days, after which they followed their diets using their own resources for an additional 70 days. Energy deficit for the diets was determined by indirect calorimetry with a 500- to 750-calorie per day adjustment. Weight and CAD risk indicators and serum lipid and C-reactive protein levels were measured at baseline, day 70, and day 140. The study was completed by 16 of 20 participants who were able to comply with the feeding portion of the study as well as with follow-up appointments during the second (self-management) period of the study. Participants lost weight in both diet groups (24.4 lbs, carbohydrate controlled; 18.5 lbs, fat controlled), and serum CAD risk factors decreased in both groups. There were no significant differences in CAD risk factors between diet groups, although there was a trend toward lighter low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size in the carbohydrate-controlled group. During the self-management portion of the study, weight loss stalled or regained from loss during the previous feeding period. The results, although underpowered, are consistent with recent studies in which macronutrient ratio of total calories in diet did not affect degree of weight loss and in which carbohydrate-controlled diets produced a predominance of lighter LDLs.

  12. Reaction of Hydrazine Hydrate with Oxalic Acid: Synthesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2013-11-28

    Nov 28, 2013 ... The title compound is a molecular salt containing two discrete hydrazinium cations and an oxalate anion. The oxalate ... RESEARCH ARTICLE ... Scheme and reaction showing the simple experimental procedure for the preparation of .... 7 A.I. Vogel, A Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, 4th edn.,.

  13. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  14. Spectroscopic properties of Pr -doped erbium oxalate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic properties of praseodymium ions-doped erbium oxalate ... solution with specific gravity 1.04 g/cm3 was mixed homogeneously with 0.5 M oxalic ... of concentrated nitric acid were transferred carefully and gently through the wall ...

  15. Radiolysis of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundo, Y; Ono, I [Industrial Research Inst. of Kanagawa Prefecture, Yokohama (Japan); Ogawa, T

    1975-01-01

    The dissolution state of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution is different according to the pH. The yellowish brown titanium complex produced by the reaction of titanium potassium oxalate and hydrogen peroxide seems to be different in its structure according to the pH. Considering these points, gamma-ray irradiation was carried out on the sample by dissolving titanium potassium oxalate in purified water under the conditions of oxygen saturation and nitrogen saturation, and the relation between irradiation dose and the production of titanium complex was determined. On the basis of the experimental result, the mechanism of forming hydrogen peroxide was presumed. The radiation source used was 2,000 Ci of /sup 60/Co. For photometric analysis, a 139 type photoelectric spectrophotometer of Hitachi Ltd. was used. From the experimental results, in neutral water, titanium potassium oxalate exists in the state that two oxalic acid ions are coordinated to titanyl ion, while in case of the pH lowered by the addition of sulfuric acid, it can exist in the state that one oxalic acid ion is coordinated to titanyl ion. The yield of hydrogen peroxide produced by irradiating titanium potassium oxalate aqueous solution with gamma-ray is the sum of the molecular product from water and the radiolysis product from titanium potassium oxalate.

  16. Probable functions of calcium oxalate crystals in different tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Representatives of seven major edible aroid accessions were screened for calcium oxalate using standard histochemical methods. All the accessions were noted to contain calcium oxalate in the forms of raphide bundles and intra-amylar crystals. The crystals were widely present in all parts of the plants including spongy ...

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of actinide oxalate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, C.

    2011-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a well-known reagent to recover actinides thanks to the very low solubility of An(IV) and An(III) oxalate compounds in acidic solution. Therefore, considering mixed-oxide fuel or considering minor actinides incorporation in ceramic fuel materials for transmutation, oxalic co-conversion is convenient to synthesize mixed oxalate compounds, precursors of oxide solid solutions. As the existing oxalate single crystal syntheses are not adaptable to the actinide-oxalate chemistry or to their manipulation constrains in gloves box, several original crystal growth methods were developed. They were first validate and optimized on lanthanides and uranium before the application to transuranium elements. The advanced investigations allow to better understand the syntheses and to define optimized chemical conditions to promote crystal growth. These new crystal growth methods were then applied to a large number of mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) or An1(IV)-An2(IV) systems and lead to the formation of the first original mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) and An1(IV)-An2(IV) oxalate single crystals. Finally thanks to the first thorough structural characterizations of these compounds, single crystal X-ray diffraction, EXAFS or micro-RAMAN, the particularly weak oxalate-actinide compounds structural database is enriched, which is essential for future studied nuclear fuel cycles. (author) [fr

  18. Unusual calcium oxalate crystals in ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Meagher, E P; Sanders, H D; Frohlich, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient poisoned with ethylene glycol exhibited the symptoms of (1) hysteria, (2) metabolic acidosis with both a large anion gap and osmolal gap, and (3) crystalluria. However, the shape of the urinary crystals was prismatic and resembled hippurate rather than the expected dipyramidal calcium oxalate dihydrate. X-ray crystallography positively identified them as calcium oxalate monohydrate.

  19. Manganese oxalate nanorods as ballistic modifier for composite solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Supriya [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India); Chawla, Mohit [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Siril, Prem Felix, E-mail: prem@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Singh, Gurdip [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Manganese oxalate nanorods were prepared using mild thermal precipitation and aging. • The nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for solid propellants. • The nanorods sensitized the thermolysis of ammonium perchlorate. • Controlled thermal decomposition of nanorods yielded manganese oxide nanoparticles. • MnO nanoparticles formed insitu in the condensed phase enhance the burning rates. - Abstract: Rod-shaped nanostructures of manganese oxalate (MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized via mild thermal precipitation and aging process. Chemical composition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was confirmed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies revealed the crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to study the structural features of the nanorods. The MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for the burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants (CSPs). Thermal analysis using TGA-DSC showed that MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods sensitized the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the CSPs. Controlled thermal decomposition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods resulted in the formation of managanese oxide nanoparticles with mesoporosity. A plausible mechanism for the burning rate enhancement using MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was proposed.

  20. Acute oxalate nephropathy caused by ethylene glycol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Woong Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (EG is a sweet-tasting, odorless organic solvent found in many agents, such as anti-freeze. EG is composed of four organic acids: glycoaldehyde, glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid in vivo. These metabolites are cellular toxins that can cause cardio-pulmonary failure, life-threatening metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression, and kidney injury. Oxalic acid is the end product of EG, which can precipitate to crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the tubular lumen and has been linked to acute kidney injury. We report a case of EG-induced oxalate nephropathy, with the diagnosis confirmed by kidney biopsy, which showed acute tubular injury of the kidneys with extensive intracellular and intraluminal calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal depositions.

  1. Liver fat is reduced by an isoenergetic MUFA diet in a controlled randomized study in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Prinster, Anna; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Lucia; Mangione, Anna; Vitelli, Alessandra; Mazzarella, Raffaella; Longobardo, Margaret; Mancini, Marcello; Vigorito, Carlo; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of qualitative dietary changes and the interaction with aerobic exercise training on liver fat content independent of weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. With use of a factorial 2 × 2 randomized parallel-group design, 37 men and 8 women, aged 35-70 years, with type 2 diabetes in satisfactory blood glucose control on diet or diet plus metformin treatment were assigned to one of the following groups for an 8-week period: 1) high-carbohydrate/high-fiber/low-glycemic index diet (CHO/fiber group), 2) high-MUFA diet (MUFA group), 3) high-carbohydrate/high-fiber/low-glycemic index diet plus physical activity program (CHO/fiber+Ex group), and 4) high-MUFA diet plus physical activity program (MUFA+Ex group). Before and after intervention, hepatic fat content was measured by (1)H NMR. Dietary compliance was optimal and body weight remained stable in all groups. Liver fat content decreased more in MUFA (-29%) and MUFA+Ex (-25%) groups than in CHO/fiber (-4%) and CHO/fiber+Ex groups (-6%). Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, including baseline values as covariate, showed a significant effect on liver fat content for diet (P = 0.006), with no effects for exercise training (P = 0.789) or diet-exercise interaction (P = 0.712). An isocaloric diet enriched in MUFA compared with a diet higher in carbohydrate and fiber was associated with a clinically relevant reduction of hepatic fat content in type 2 diabetic patients independent of an aerobic training program and should be considered for the nutritional management of hepatic steatosis in people with type 2 diabetes.

  2. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  3. Test-based exclusion diets in gastro-esophageal reflux disease patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Michele; Zuliani, Giovanni; Cassol, Francesca; Fusetti, Nadia; Zeni, Elena; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Soavi, Cecilia; Gullini, Sergio

    2014-12-07

    To investigate the clinical response of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms to exclusion diets based on food intolerance tests. A double blind, randomized, controlled pilot trial was performed in 38 GERD patients partially or completely non-responders to proton pump inhibitors (PPI) treatment. Fasting blood samples from each patients were obtained; leukocytotoxic test was performed by incubating the blood with a panel of 60 food items to be tested. The reaction of leukocytes (rounding, vacuolization, lack of movement, flattening, fragmentation or disintegration of cell wall) was then evaluated by optical microscopy and rated as follows: level 0 = negative, level 1 = slightly positive, level 2 = moderately positive, and level 3 = highly positive. A "true" diet excluding food items inducing moderate-severe reactions, and a "control" diet including them was developed for each patient. Then, twenty patients received the "true" diet and 18 the "control" diet; after one month (T1) symptoms severity was scored by the GERD impact scale (GIS). Hence, patients in the "control" group were switched to the "true" diet, and symptom severity was re-assessed after three months (T2). At baseline (T0) the mean GIS global score was 6.68 (range: 5-12) with no difference between "true" and control group (6.6 ± 1.19 vs 6.7 ± 1.7). All patients reacted moderately/severely to at least 1 food (range: 5-19), with a significantly greater number of food substances inducing reaction in controls compared with the "true" diet group (11.6 vs 7.0, P < 0.001). Food items more frequently involved were milk, lettuce, brewer's yeast, pork, coffee, rice, sole asparagus, and tuna, followed by eggs, tomato, grain, shrimps, and chemical yeast. At T1 both groups displayed a reduction of GIS score ("true" group 3.3 ± 1.7, -50%, P = 0.001; control group 4.9 ± 2.8, -26.9%, P = 0.02), although the GIS score was significantly lower in "true" vs "control" group (P = 0.04). At T2, after the diet

  4. Anti-Transforming Growth Factor β IgG Elicits a Dual Effect on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization and Progressive Nephrocalcinosis-Related Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Stefanie; Grill, Julia Felicitas; Ma, Qiuyue; Bäuerle, Tobias; Jordan, Jutta; Smolle, Michaela; Böhland, Claudia; Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Crystallopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by intrinsic or environmental microparticles or crystals, promoting tissue inflammation and scarring. Certain proteins interfere with crystal formation and growth, e.g., with intrarenal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation, a common cause of kidney stone disease or nephrocalcinosis-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that immunoglobulins can modulate CaOx microcrystal formation and crystal growth and that therefore, biological IgG-based drugs designed to specifically target disease modifying proteins would elicit a dual effect on the outcome of CaOx-related crystallopathies. Indeed, both the anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)β IgG and control IgG1 antibody impaired CaOx crystallization in vitro , and decreased intrarenal CaOx crystal deposition and subsequent CKD in mice on an oxalate-rich diet compared to oxalate-fed control mice. However, the TGFβ-specific IgG antibody showed nephroprotective effects beyond those of control IgG1 and substantially reduced interstitial fibrosis as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging, silver and α-smooth muscle actin staining, RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry for pro-fibrotic macrophages. Suppressing interstitial fibrosis slowed the decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to treatment with control IgG1 [slope of m  = -8.9 vs. m  = -14.5 μl/min/100 g body weight (BW)/day, Δ = 38.3%], an increased GFR at the end of the study (120.4 vs. 42.6 μl/min/100 g BW, Δ = 64.6%), and prolonged end stage renal disease (ESRD)-free renal survival by 10 days (Δ = 38.5%). Delayed onset of anti-TGFβ IgG from day 7 was no longer effective. Our results suggest that biological drugs can elicit dual therapeutic effects on intrinsic crystallopathies, such as anti-TGFβ IgG antibody treatment inhibits CaOx crystallization as well as interstitial fibrosis in nephrocalcinosis-related CKD.

  5. Anti-Transforming Growth Factor β IgG Elicits a Dual Effect on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization and Progressive Nephrocalcinosis-Related Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Steiger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystallopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by intrinsic or environmental microparticles or crystals, promoting tissue inflammation and scarring. Certain proteins interfere with crystal formation and growth, e.g., with intrarenal calcium oxalate (CaOx crystal formation, a common cause of kidney stone disease or nephrocalcinosis-related chronic kidney disease (CKD. We hypothesized that immunoglobulins can modulate CaOx microcrystal formation and crystal growth and that therefore, biological IgG-based drugs designed to specifically target disease modifying proteins would elicit a dual effect on the outcome of CaOx-related crystallopathies. Indeed, both the anti-transforming growth factor (TGFβ IgG and control IgG1 antibody impaired CaOx crystallization in vitro, and decreased intrarenal CaOx crystal deposition and subsequent CKD in mice on an oxalate-rich diet compared to oxalate-fed control mice. However, the TGFβ-specific IgG antibody showed nephroprotective effects beyond those of control IgG1 and substantially reduced interstitial fibrosis as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging, silver and α-smooth muscle actin staining, RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry for pro-fibrotic macrophages. Suppressing interstitial fibrosis slowed the decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR compared to treatment with control IgG1 [slope of m = −8.9 vs. m = −14.5 μl/min/100 g body weight (BW/day, Δ = 38.3%], an increased GFR at the end of the study (120.4 vs. 42.6 μl/min/100 g BW, Δ = 64.6%, and prolonged end stage renal disease (ESRD-free renal survival by 10 days (Δ = 38.5%. Delayed onset of anti-TGFβ IgG from day 7 was no longer effective. Our results suggest that biological drugs can elicit dual therapeutic effects on intrinsic crystallopathies, such as anti-TGFβ IgG antibody treatment inhibits CaOx crystallization as well as interstitial fibrosis in nephrocalcinosis-related CKD.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Low FODMAP Diet vs. Modified NICE Guidelines in US Adults with IBS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Shanti L; Chey, William D; Han-Markey, Theresa; Ball, Sarah; Jackson, Kenya

    2016-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the role of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We report results from the first randomized controlled trial of the low FODMAP diet in US adults with IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D). The objectives were to compare the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet vs. a diet based upon modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (mNICE) on overall and individual symptoms in IBS-D patients. This was a single-center, randomized-controlled trial of adult patients with IBS-D (Rome III) which compared 2 diet interventions. After a 2-week screening period, eligible patients were randomized to a low FODMAP or mNICE diet for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients reporting adequate relief of IBS-D symptoms ≥50% of intervention weeks 3-4. Secondary outcomes included a composite end point which required response in both abdominal pain (≥30% reduction in mean daily pain score compared with baseline) and stool consistency (decrease in mean daily Bristol Stool Form of ≥1 compared with baseline), abdominal pain and stool consistency responders, and other key individual IBS symptoms assessed using daily questionnaires. After screening, 92 subjects (65 women, median age 42.6 years) were randomized. Eighty-four patients completed the study (45 low FODMAP, 39 mNICE). Baseline demographics, symptom severity, and nutrient intake were similar between groups. Fifty-two percent of the low FODMAP vs. 41% of the mNICE group reported adequate relief of their IBS-D symptoms (P=0.31). Though there was no significant difference in the proportion of composite end point responders (P=0.13), the low FODMAP diet resulted in a higher proportion of abdominal pain responders compared with the mNICE group (51% vs. 23%, P=0.008). Compared with baseline scores, the low FODMAP diet led to greater reductions in average daily scores of abdominal pain, bloating

  7. [Weight control behaviors in dieting adolescent girls and their relation to body dissatisfaction and obsession with thinness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M Liliana A; Morán, Javier K; Frez, Scarlett H; Lagos, Carola O; Marín, María Paz F; de los Ángeles Pinto B, María; Suzarte, Érika A

    2015-01-01

    Obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction can lead adolescents to follow unsupervised diets, which could result in risky weight control behaviors such as fasting, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives. The aim of the current study is to examine weight control behaviors in dieting adolescents and relate them to body dissatisfaction (BD) and obsession with thinness (OT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 adolescents from Valparaiso public schools to investigate risky weight control behaviors due to BD and OT scales from the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), comparing restrained eaters and non-restrained eaters. A total of 43% adolescents had followed a weight loss diet without medical supervision. The dieters had higher BD and OT values. Moderate to severe food restriction, based on expert judgment, was observed in 29.6%, and differences in the presence and severity of purging behaviors were found between the 2 groups. One third of the adolescents studied followed diets without professional supervision and had higher BD and OT values, as well as risky weight control behaviors. Overweight and obese adolescents followed more restrictive diets and developed riskier weight control behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. New indium selenite-oxalate and indium oxalate with two- and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Junjun; Li Guodong; Chen Jiesheng

    2009-01-01

    Two new indium(III) compounds with extended structures, [In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ].2H 2 O (I) and [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ][In(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] 2 .5H 2 O (II), have been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a=5.2596(11) A, b=6.8649(14) A, c=9.3289(19) A, α=101.78(3) o , β=102.03(3) o , γ=104.52(3) o , while compound II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Fdd2, with a=15.856(3) A, b=31.183(6) A, c=8.6688(17) A. In compound I, indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form two-dimensional (2D) In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers, separated by non-coordinating water molecules. In compound II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered channels. - Graphical abstract: Two new indium(III) compounds have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. In I, the indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form 2D In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers. In II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered ring channels

  9. Factors behind nonadherence to diet regimens among obese adults in Tanta, Egypt: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Ali, Ehab A; Atlam, Salwa A; Ghareeb, Wessam A

    2016-03-01

    Nonadherence to diet regimens is a major cause of treatment failure in the field of obesity management. It varies according to the study design and the type of intervention. In weight loss clinical trials, nonadherence rates range from 10 to 80%. Strategies to reduce dropout rates rely on precise identification of factors leading to premature program termination. The aim of this research was to study factors behind nonadherence to diet regimens among obese adults in Tanta, Egypt. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out during the year 2014 in an obesity management private clinic in Tanta, Gharbia Governorate, Egypt. The study included two groups of 150 participants each (adherents and nonadherents) matched for sex and BMI. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, weight changes, dieting, and behavioral, psychological, and medical factors. Personal perspectives on potential factors contributing to nonadherence to diet regimens were also investigated. Factors significantly associated with probabilities high probability of to loss of adherence to diet regimens were as follows: younger age, urban residence, higher educational levels, obesity of grades I and III, a higher frequency of previous weight loss trials, consumption of fruits and vegetables less than that recommended (diet regimens were as follows: unsatisfactory results (37.3%), difficulties in dieting practices (33.3%), logistics (30.0%), and fading of motives (27.3%). Obese individuals seeking weight reduction with young age, urban residence, higher educational levels, a higher frequency of previous weight loss trials, higher weight loss expectations, and those with perceived unsatisfactory results are more prone to lose their adherence to diet regimens. Individuals with factors of nonadherence should receive extra care to avoid their withdrawal from diet programs and to improve clinical outcomes.

  10. Effect of the Mediterranean diet on cognition and brain morphology and function: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radd-Vagenas, Sue; Duffy, Shantel L; Naismith, Sharon L; Brew, Bruce J; Flood, Victoria M; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-03-01

    Observational studies of the Mediterranean diet suggest cognitive benefits, potentially reducing dementia risk. We performed the first published review to our knowledge of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating Mediterranean diet effects on cognition or brain morphology and function, with an additional focus on intervention diet quality and its relation to "traditional" Mediterranean dietary patterns. We searched 9 databases from inception (final update December 2017) for RCTs testing a Mediterranean compared with alternate diet for cognitive or brain morphology and function outcomes. Analyses were based on 66 cognitive tests and 1 brain function outcome from 5 included studies (n = 1888 participants). The prescribed Mediterranean diets varied considerably between studies, particularly with regards to quantitative food advice. Only 8/66 (12.1%) of individual cognitive outcomes at trial level significantly favored a Mediterranean diet for cognitive performance, with effect sizes (ESs) ranging from small (0.32) to large (1.66), whereas 2 outcomes favored controls. Data limitations precluded a meta-analysis. Of 8 domain composite cognitive scores from 2 studies, the 3 (Memory, Frontal, and Global function) from PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) were significant, with ESs ranging from 0.39 to 1.29. A posttest comparison at a second PREDIMED site found that the Mediterranean diet modulates the effect of several genotypes associated with dementia risk for some cognitive outcomes, with mixed results. Finally, the risk of low-plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor was reduced by 78% (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.90) in those who consumed a Mediterranean diet compared to control diet at 3 y in this trial. There was no benefit of the Mediterranean diet for incident cognitive impairment or dementia. Five RCTs of the Mediterranean diet and cognition have been published to date. The data are mostly nonsignificant, with small ESs. However, the

  11. A new polymorph of magnesium oxalate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-An Chen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, catena-poly[[diaquamagnesium(II]-μ-oxalato], [Mg(C2O4(H2O2]n, there is one Mg atom in an octahedral coordination with site symmetry 222, a unique C atom of the oxalate anion lying on a twofold axis, an O atom of the anion in a general position and a water O atom at a site with imposed twofold rotation symmetry. The Mg2+ ions are ligated by water molecules and bridged by the anions to form chains that are held together by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure of the title compound has already been reported in a different space group [Lagier, Pezerat & Dubernat (1969. Rev. Chim. Miner. 6, 1081–1093; Levy, Perrotey & Visser (1971. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. pp. 757–761].

  12. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, Erik; Forssell, Henrik

    2014-07-28

    Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.1-9.2 kg (p = 0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p = 0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 37-44) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 35-43) (p = 0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects.

  13. Residential radon exposure, diet and lung cancer: a case-control study in a Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Francesco; Forastiere, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Quarto, Maria; Axelson, Olav

    2005-05-10

    We performed a case-control study in Lazio, a region in central Italy characterized by high levels of indoor radon, Mediterranean climate and diet. Cases (384) and controls (404) aged 35-90 years were recruited in the hospital. Detailed information regarding smoking, diet and other risk factors were collected by direct interview. Residential history during the 30-year period ending 5 years before enrollment was ascertained. In each dwelling, radon detectors were placed in both the main bedroom and the living room for 2 consecutive 6-month periods. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for time-weighted radon concentrations using both categorical and continuous unconditional logistic regression analysis and adjusting for smoking, diet and other variables. Radon measurements were available from 89% and 91% of the time period for cases and controls, respectively. The adjusted ORs were 1.30 (1.03-1.64), 1.48 (1.08-2.02), 1.49 (0.82-2.71) and 2.89 (0.45-18.6) for 50-99, 100-199, 200-399 and 400+ Bq/m(3), respectively, compared with 0-49 Bq/m(3) (OR = 1; 0.56-1.79). The excess odds ratio (EOR) per 100 Bq/m(3) was 0.14 (-0.11, 0.46) for all subjects, 0.24 (-0.09, 0.70) for subjects with complete radon measurements and 0.30 (-0.08, 0.82) for subjects who had lived in 1 or 2 dwellings. There was a tendency of higher risk estimates among subjects with low-medium consumption of dietary antioxidants (EOR = 0.32; -0.19, 1.16) and for adenocarcinoma, small cell and epidermoid cancers. This study indicates an association, although generally not statistically significant, between residential radon and lung cancer with both categorical and continuous analyses. Subjects with presumably lower uncertainty in the exposure assessment showed a higher risk. Dietary antioxidants may act as an effect modifier.

  14. A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. McKay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh. K.Koch. We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity. After 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet, changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-β were significantly greater than after the control diet (p < 0.05. Pecan consumption also lowered the risk of cardiometabolic disease as indicated by a composite score reflecting changes in clinically relevant markers. Thus, compared to the control diet, the pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk.

  15. A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Diane L; Eliasziw, Misha; Chen, C Y Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2018-03-11

    Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans ( Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch). We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity. After 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet, changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-β) were significantly greater than after the control diet ( p Pecan consumption also lowered the risk of cardiometabolic disease as indicated by a composite score reflecting changes in clinically relevant markers. Thus, compared to the control diet, the pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk.

  16. Differences in Weight Loss Between Persons on Standard Balanced vs Nutrigenetic Diets in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankwich, Karen A; Egnatios, Jeremy; Kenyon, Mandy L; Rutledge, Thomas R; Liao, Patricia S; Gupta, Samir; Herbst, Karen L; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2015-09-01

    Many companies provide genetic tests for obesity-related polymorphisms (nutrigenetics) and make dietary recommendations for weight loss that are based on the results. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether more participants who followed a nutrigenetic-guided diet lost ≥5% of their body weight than participants on a standard balanced diet for 8 and 24 weeks. We performed a prospective study of 51 obese or overweight U.S. veterans on an established weight management program at the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (the MOVE! program). Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on a nutrigenetic-guided diet (balanced, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, or Mediterranean; n = 30) or a standard balanced diet (n = 21). Nutrigenetic diets were selected on the basis of results from the Pathway FIT test. There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants on the balanced diet vs the nutrigenetic-guided diet who lost 5% of their body weight at 8 weeks (35.0% ± 20.9% vs 26.9% ± 17.1%, respectively; P = .28) or at 24 weeks. Both groups had difficulty adhering to the diets. However, adherence to the nutrigenetic-guided diet correlated with weight loss (r = 0.74; P = 4.0 × 10(-5)), but not adherence to standard therapy (r = 0.34; P = .23). Participants who had low-risk polymorphisms for obesity lost more weight than all other participants at 8 weeks (5.0% vs 2.9%, respectively; P = .02) and had significantly greater reductions in body mass index (6.4% vs 3.6%, respectively; P = .03) and waist circumference (6.5% vs 2.6%, respectively; P = .02) at 24 weeks. In a prospective study, a nutrigenetic-based diet did not increase weight loss compared with a standard balanced diet. However, genetic features can identify individuals most likely to benefit from a balanced diet weight loss strategy; these findings require further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01859403. Copyright © 2015 AGA

  17. Differences in Weight Loss Between Persons on Standard Balanced vs Nutrigenetic Diets in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Mandy L.; Rutledge, Thomas R.; Liao, Patricia S.; Gupta, Samir; Herbst, Karen L.; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Many companies provide genetic tests for obesity-related polymorphisms (nutrigenetics) and make dietary recommendations for weight loss based on the results. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether more participants who followed a nutrigenetic-guided diet lost ≥5% of their body weight than participants on a standard balanced diet, for 8 and 24 weeks. Methods We performed a prospective study of 51 obese or overweight US veterans on an established weight management program at the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (the MOVE! Program). Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on a nutrigenetic-guided diet (balanced, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, or Mediterranean; n=30) or a standard balanced diet (n=21). Nutrigenetic diets were selected based on results from the Pathway FIT test (Pathway Genomics; San Diego, CA). Results There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants on the balanced diet vs the nutrigenetic-guided diet who lost 5% of their body weight at 8 weeks (35.0%±20.9% vs 26.9%±17.1%, respectively; P=.28) or at 24 weeks. Both groups had difficulty adhering to the diets. However, adherence to the nutrigenetic-guided diet correlated with weight loss (r=0.74; P= 4.0 × 10−5), but not adherence to standard therapy (r=0.34; P=.23). Participants who had low-risk polymorphisms for obesity lost more weight than all other participants at 8 weeks (5.0% vs 2.9%, respectively; P=.02), and had significantly greater reductions in body mass index (6.4% vs 3.6% respectively; P=.03) and waist circumference (6.5% vs 2.6% respectively; P=.02) at 24 weeks. Conclusions In a prospective study, a nutrigenetic-based diet did not increase weight loss compared with a standard balanced diet. However, genetic features can identify individuals most likely to benefit from a balanced diet weight loss strategy; these findings require further investigation. ClincialTrials.gov number: NCT01859403

  18. Synthesis of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine oxalate from rejected liquid rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaogang; Yang, Jingjing; Zhang, Youzhi

    2018-02-01

    The rejected liquid propellant unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) was converted to UDMH oxalate, which has commercial value. The UDMH oxalate structure and stability were investigated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric analysis. The results indicate that UDMH oxalate has good thermal and aqueous solution stability, a melting point of 144 °C, an initial decomposition temperature of 180 °C, and a peak wavelength of UV in aqueous solution at λ = 204 nm. This disposal method of rejected UDMH is highly efficient and environmentally safe.

  19. Heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate on native oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, L.; Pattillo, M.J.; Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The aqueous deposition of calcium oxalate onto colloidal oxides has been studied as a model system for understanding heterogeneous nucleation processes of importance in biomimetic synthesis of ceramic thin films. Calcium oxalate nucleation has been monitored by measuring induction times for nucleation using Constant Composition techniques and by measuring nucleation densities on extended oxide surfaces using an atomic force microscope. Results show that the dependence of calcium oxalate nucleation on solution supersaturation fits the functional form predicted by classical nucleation theories. Anionic surfaces appear to promote nucleation better than cationic surfaces, lowering the effective energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation

  20. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors during adolescence: associations with 10-year changes in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Standish, Amber R

    2012-01-01

    Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors are common among adolescents and questions exist regarding their long-term effect on weight status. To examine 10-year longitudinal associations between dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. A diverse population-based sample of middle school and high school adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) was followed up for 10 years. Participants (N = 1,902) completed surveys in 1998-1999 (Project EAT-I), 2003-2004 (Project EAT-II), and 2008-2009 (Project EAT-III). Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at Time 1 and Time 2 were used to predict 10-year changes in BMI at Time 3, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and Time 1 BMI. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 predicted greater BMI increases at Time 3 in males and females, as compared with no use of these behaviors. For example, females using unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 increased their BMI by 4.63 units as compared with 2.29 units in females not using these behaviors (p meals and reporting eating very little (females and males), use of food substitutes (males), and use of diet pills (females). Findings clearly indicate that dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors, as reported by adolescents, predict significant weight gain over time. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calorie restriction in overweight seniors: response of older adults to a dieting study: the CROSSROADS randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marilyn C; Bodner, Eric V; Brown, Cynthia J; Bryan, David; Buys, David R; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Wingo, Brooks C; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling obese older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), and functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article.

  2. Field Assessment of Yeast- and Oxalic Acid-generated Carbon Dioxide for Mosquito Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    SentinelTM, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap, sugar- fermenting yeast, electrolyzed oxalic acid INTRODUCTION Successful vector-borne...and Eisen 2008). Population data from trap surveil- lance provide key information for the develop- ment of disease risk assessment models (Diuk- Wasser...generated by a fermentation chamber, in which yeast metabolized sucrose. This source had been shown to attract various mosquito species in field and

  3. Primary properties of MDF using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid pretreated rice straw particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Yiqiang Wu; Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect the oxalic acid (OA) and steam pretreatment on the primary properties of rice straw medium-density fiberboard (MDF). The results show the IB strength increased about 9.6% and 13.4% for steam-treated MDF (PC) and OA-treated MDF compared with raw control panels, while OA pretreatment has a slight negative effect...

  4. New Nordic Diet versus Average Danish Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial Revealed Healthy Long-Term Effects of the New Nordic Diet by GC-MS Blood Plasma Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco; Acar, Evrim; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Dragsted, Lars O; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-06-03

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state.

  5. [Reduction of juvenile obesity by programmed physical exercise and controlled diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sente, Jelena; Jakonić, Dragoslav; Smajić, Miroslav; Mihajlović, Ilona; Vasić, Goran; Romanov, Romana; Marić, Lela

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is the most common disease of nutrition and is the consequence of reduced movement. Unfortunately, this problem is increasingly present in juvenile age, so that the pediatric outpatient offices are dominated by obese young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the effects of the reducing treatment for juvenile obesity conducted by programmed physical exercise and controlled diet. We tested a sample of 136 respondents of both sexes (76 girls and 60 boys) aged 13 +/- 0.6 years. This prospective study took 3 months in 2007 using the experimental methods of longitudinal weather precision. The data obtained after the measurement were processed by the use of statistical programs to calculate the basic and dispersion parameters. To determine the difference between the initial and final measurements we applied the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences in the variables system in the space were determined by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results of ANOVA in the form of F values indicated that the differences between the initial and final measurements in all parameters of circumference dimensionality and subcutaneous fat tissue are significant (p = 0.00). Also, differences in parameters of body constitution and indicators of alimentation showed a high statistical significance (p = 0.00). The results of multivariante analysis (MANOVA), using Wilk's Lambda test, also indicated that the differences between initial and final measurements in the area of anthropometric measures and indicators of alimentation and constitution, were statistically significant (p = 0.00). Application of physical exercise and controlled diet leads to a significant reduction of anthropometric parameters and anthropological indicators of alimentation.

  6. Effects of diet and exercise training on neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Tonacio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypothesized that weight loss by diet (D or diet plus exercise training (D + ET would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m², D + ET (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m², and nonadherent (NA, N = 9, 35 ± 2 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m² groups. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was measured by microneurography and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Mental stress was elicited by a 3-min Stroop color word test. Weight loss was similar between D and D + ET groups (87 ± 2 vs 79 ± 2 and 85 ± 2 vs 76 ± 2 kg, respectively, P < 0.05 with a significant reduction in MSNA during mental stress (58 ± 2 vs 50 ± 2, P = 0.0001, and 59 ± 3 vs 50 ± 2 bursts/100 beats, P = 0.0001, respectively, although the magnitude of the response was unchanged. Forearm vascular conductance during mental stress was significantly increased only in D + ET (2.74 ± 0.22 vs 3.52 ± 0.19 units, P = 0.02. Weight loss reduces MSNA during mental stress in obese women. The increase in forearm vascular conductance after weight loss provides convincing evidence for D + ET interventions as a nonpharmacologic therapy of human obesity.

  7. Compliance with the gluten-free diet: the role of locus of control in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Anna; Zanchi, Chiara; Martelossi, Stefano; Di Leo, Grazia; Not, Tarcisio; Ventura, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    To verify whether subjects with celiac disease (CD) have a different locus of control (LoC) compared with healthy subjects, and to evaluate the relationship between LoC and compliance with a prescribed gluten-free diet (GFD) and quality of life (QoL). We studied 156 subjects on a GFD (mean age, 10 years) and 353 healthy controls (mean age, 12 years). All subjects completed tests on the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale; the subjects with CD also completed a questionnaire to measure compliance with dietary treatment and the disease's impact on QoL. There was no difference in LoC values between patients with CD and controls. Subjects with CD with good dietary compliance had a more internal LoC compared with those who were not compliant (P = .01). Patients who reported a satisfactory QoL had a more internal LoC compared with those who reported negative affects on QoL due to CD (P = .01). Our study confirms the usefulness of the LoC concept for identifying those patients who might be at risk for dietary transgression. Given the enhanced, psychological, and social well being that can result from adherence to a GFD, educational and psychological support can help internalize the LoC in those patients at risk for dietary transgression. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implications for the formation mechanism of oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM were studied using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD region in China. Oxalic-acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, elemental and organic carbon (ECOC, biomass burning (BB, heavy metal (HM, secondary (Sec, sodium-potassium (NaK, and dust. Oxalic acid was found predominantly mixing with sulfate and nitrate during the whole sampling period, likely due to aqueous-phase reactions. In summer, oxalic-acid-containing particle number and ozone concentration followed a very similar trend, which may reflect the significant contribution of photochemical reactions to oxalic acid formation. The HM particles were the most abundant oxalic acid particles in summer and the diurnal variations in peak area of iron and oxalic acid show opposite trends, which suggests a possible loss of oxalic acid through the photolysis of iron oxalato-complexes during the strong photochemical activity period. In wintertime, carbonaceous particles contained a substantial amount of oxalic acid as well as abundant carbon clusters and BB markers. The general existence of nitric acid in oxalic-acid-containing particles indicates an acidic environment during the formation process of oxalic acid. The peak areas of nitrate, sulfate and oxalic had similar temporal change in the carbonaceous type oxalic acid particles, and the organosulfate-containing oxalic acid particles correlated well with total oxalic acid particles during the haze episode, which suggests that the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.

  9. Studies on the decomposition of oxalic acid by nitric acid in presence of catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, D.M.; Pius, I.C.; Chaudhury, S.

    2015-01-01

    Impure Plutonium oxalate generated from the recovery of plutonium from waste solutions may require further purification via anion exchange. Conventionally, plutonium oxalate is converted to oxide in a furnace and the oxide is dissolved in Conc. HNO 3 containing HF and purified by anion exchange route. Studies initiated on the decomposition of oxalic acid with Conc. HNO 3 to facilitate direct dissolution of plutonium oxalate and quantitative destruction of oxalate are discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was direc...

  11. Salubrious effect of C-phycocyanin against oxalate-mediated renal cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shukkur Muhammed; Asokan, Devarajan; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Kalaiselvi, Periandavan; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2004-10-01

    C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein pigment found in some blue green algae (Spirulina platensis) with nutritional and medicinal properties, was investigated for its efficacy on sodium oxalate-induced nephrotoxicity in experimentally induced urolithic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Hyperoxaluria was induced in two of these groups by intraperitoneal infusion of sodium oxalate (70 mg/kg), and a pretreatment of phycocyanin (100 mg/kg) as a single oral dosage was given to one of these groups by 1 h prior to sodium oxalate infusion challenges. The study also encompasses an untreated control group and a phycocyanin-alone treated drug control group. The extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated in terms of renal concentrations of MDA, conjugated diene and hydroperoxides. The following assay was performed in the renal tissue (a) antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, (b) glutathione metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), (c) the low molecular weight antioxidants (GSH, vitamins E and C) and protein carbonyl content. The increased concentrations of MDA, conjugated diene and hydroperoxide (index of the lipid peroxidation) were controlled (P antioxidants were appreciably increased (P antioxidants. It was noticed that the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione metabolizing enzymes were considerably stabilized in rats pretreated with phycocyanin. We suggest that phycocyanin protects the integrity of the renal cell by stabilizing the free radical mediated LPO and protein carbonyl, as well as low molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes in renal cells. Thus, the present analysis reveals that the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin protects the renal cell against oxalate-induced injury and may be a nephroprotective agent.

  12. Determination of alkaloids and oxalates in some selected food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Source of samples. Samples ... until the colour of solution changed from salmon pink colour to a faint yellow colour. .... Effect of cooking on the soluble and insoluble oxalate content of some New ...

  13. Charge dynamics in conducting polyaniline–metal oxalate composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Polyaniline; metal oxalate composites; charge transport; mobile and fixed spins; VRH conduc- tion mechanism ... Al, Mn and Co on doping into Pani improve the poly- merization ... dopants on charge dynamics with EPR and other tech- niques.

  14. The effect of processing and preservation methods on the oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    vegetables and consequently the associated food safety problems. Keywords: .... vegetables prepared in slightly two different ... Table 2: Oxalate levels of selected leafy vegetables as a function of cooking method and the interplay of freezing.

  15. The Response of Paraburkholderia terrae Strains to Two Soil Fungi and the Potential Role of Oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ul Haq

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungal-associated Paraburkholderia terrae strains in soil have been extensively studied, but their sensing strategies to locate fungi in soil have remained largely elusive. In this study, we investigated the behavior of five mycosphere-isolated P. terrae strains [including the type-3 secretion system negative mutant BS001-ΔsctD and the type strain DSM 17804T] with respect to their fungal-sensing strategies. The putative role of oxalic acid as a signaling molecule in the chemotaxis toward soil fungi, as well as a potential carbon source, was assessed. First, all P. terrae strains, including the type strain, were found to sense, and show a chemotactic response toward, the different levels of oxalic acid (0.1, 0.5, and 0.8% applied at a distance. The chemotactic responses were faster and stronger at lower concentrations (0.1% than at higher ones. We then tested the chemotactic responses of all strains toward exudates of the soil fungi Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and Trichoderma asperellum 302 used in different dilutions (undiluted, 1:10, 1:100 diluted versus the control. All P. terrae strains showed significant directed chemotactic behavior toward the exudate source, with full-strength exudates inciting the strongest responses. In a separate experiment, strain BS001 was shown to be able to grow on oxalate-amended (0.1 and 0.5% mineral medium M9. Chemical analyses of the fungal secretomes using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, next to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, indeed revealed the presence of oxalic acid (next to glycerol, acetic acid, formic acid, and fumaric acid in the supernatants of both fungi. In addition, citric acid was found in the Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten exudates. Given the fact that, next to oxalic acid, the other compounds can also serve as C and energy sources for P. terrae, the two fungi clearly offer ecological benefits to this bacterium. The oxalic acid released by the two fungi may have

  16. Measurement of plutonium oxalate in thermal neutron coincidence counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Erkkila, B.H.

    1979-01-01

    A coincidence neutron counting method has been developed for assaying batches of plutonium oxalate. Using counting data from two concentric rings of 3 He detectors, corrections are made for the effects that water has on the coincidence neutron count rate. Batches of plutonium oxalate varying from 750 to 1000 g of plutonium and from 34 to 54% water are assayed with an average accuracy of +-3%

  17. Oxalate Encapsulation in Aqueous Medium by Tripodal Urea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1H-NMR titration studies: All 1H-NMR titration experiments for L1 and L2 were conducted on a Bruker 300 MHz spectrometer at 298 K respectively. Potassium oxalate dihydrate (K2C2O4.2H2O) was used to prepare the stock solution of anion in DMSO-d6:D2O (1:1.1) solvent system. Lower solubility of potassium oxalate in ...

  18. Optimization of precipitation conditions of thorium oxalate precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    Thorium precipitation in the form of difficultly soluble oxalate has been investigated. The equation binding the concentration of metal with the nitric acid in the initial solution and quantity of a precipitator necessary for minimization of desired product losses is derived. The graphical solution of this equation for a case, when the oxalic acid with 0.78 mol/l concentration is the precipitator, is presented

  19. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide

  20. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å 6.2378(12; b(Å 7,1115(14; c(Å 10.489(2; α(° 94.65(3; β(° 100.12(3; γ(° 97.78(3. The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both oxalic acid and hydrogen oxalate anion act as polydentate bridging ligands. Centrosymmetric sodium cations are bounded by hydrogen oxalate anions through a system of H bonds involving the molecules of oxalic acid. In the lattice, the 3D structure stabilized by H bonds is formed.

  1. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  2. Oxalate quantification in hemodialysate to assess dialysis adequacy for primary hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojing; Voskoboev, Nikolay V; Wannarka, Stacie L; Olson, Julie B; Milliner, Dawn S; Lieske, John C

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH) overproduce oxalate which is eliminated via the kidneys. If end-stage kidney disease develops they are at high risk for systemic oxalosis, unless adequate oxalate is removed during hemodialysis (HD) to equal or exceed ongoing oxalate production. The purpose of this study was to validate a method to measure oxalate removal in this unique group of dialysis patients. Fourteen stable patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PH on HD were included in the study. Oxalate was measured serially in hemodialysate and plasma samples in order to calculate rates of oxalate removal. HD regimens were adjusted according to a given patient's historical oxalate production, amount of oxalate removal at dialysis, residual renal clearance of oxalate, and plasma oxalate levels. After a typical session of HD, plasma oxalate was reduced by 78.4 ± 7.7%. Eight patients performed HD 6 times/week, 2 patients 5 times/week, and 3 patients 3 times/week. Combined oxalate removal by HD and the kidneys was sufficient to match or exceed endogenous oxalate production. After a median period of 9 months, pre-dialysis plasma oxalate was significantly lower than initially (75.1 ± 33.4 vs. 54.8 ± 46.6 mmol/l, p = 0.02). This methodology can be used to individualize the dialysis prescription of PH patients to prevent oxalosis during the time they are maintained on HD and to reduce risk of oxalate injury to a transplanted kidney.

  3. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation, characterization and catalytic effects of copper oxalate nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, Inder Pal Singh; Dubey, Reena; Srivastava, Pratibha

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Prepared copper oxalate nanocrystals were characterized by FE-SEM and bright field TEM micrographs. Its catalytic activity was evaluated on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate using TG and TG-DSC techniques. Highlights: ► Preparation of nanocrystals (∼9.0 nm) of copper oxalate using Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O, oxalic acid and acetone under thermal conditions. ► Method is simple and novel. ► Characterization using XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and ED pattern. ► Catalytic activity of copper oxalate nanocrystals on AP thermal decomposition using thermal techniques (TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay). ► Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP + CONs using isoconversional and model fitting kinetic approaches. - Abstract: Recent work has described the preparation and characterization of copper oxalate nanocrystals (CONs). It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). The catalytic activity of CONs on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and composite solid propellants (CSPs) has been done by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ignition delay measurements. Burning rate of CSPs was also found to be enhanced in presence of copper oxalate nanocrystals. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP with and without CONs has also been investigated. The model free (isoconversional) and model-fitting kinetic approaches have been applied to data for isothermal TG decomposition.

  5. (Dimethylphosphorylmethanaminium hydrogen oxalate–oxalic acid (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bialek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of (dimethylphosphorylmethanamine (dpma with oxalic acid in ethanol yielded the title solvated salt, C3H11NOP+·C2HO4−·0.5C2H2O4. Its asymmetric unit consists of one dpmaH+ cation, one hydrogen oxalate anion and a half-molecule of oxalic acid located around a twofold rotation axis. The H atom of the hydrogen oxalate anion is statistically disordered over two positions that are trans to each other. The hydrogen oxalate monoanion is not planar (bend angle ∼16° whereas the oxalic acid molecule shows a significantly smaller bend angle (∼7°. In the crystal, the components are connected by strong O—H...O and much weaker N—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of layers extending parallel to (001. The structure was refined from a racemically twinned crystal with twin components in an approximate 1:1 ratio.

  6. Oxalic acid biosynthesis and oxalacetate acetylhydrolase activity in Streptomyces cattleya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, D.R.; Inamine, E.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to producing the antibiotic thienamycin, Streptomyces cattleya accumulates large amounts of oxalic acid during the course of a fermentation. Washed cell suspensions were utilized to determine the specific incorporation of carbon-14 into oxalate from a number of labeled organic and amino acids. L-[U- 14 C]aspartate proved to be the best precursor, whereas only a small percentage of label from [1,5- 14 C]citrate was found in oxalate. Cell-free extracts catalyzed the formation of [ 14 C]oxalate and [ 14 C]acetate from L-[U- 14 C]aspartate. When L-[4- 14 C]aspartate was the substrate only [ 14 C]acetate was formed. The cell-free extracts were found to contain oxalacetate acetylhydrolase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalate and acetate. The enzyme is constitutive and is analogous to enzymes in fungi that produce oxalate from oxalacetate. Properties of the crude enzyme were examined

  7. Acute oxalate nephropathy after ingestion of star fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Fang, H C; Chou, K J; Wang, J S; Chung, H M

    2001-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of star fruit (carambola) has not been reported before. We report the first two cases. These patients developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and backache within hours of ingesting large quantities of sour carambola juice; then acute renal failure followed. Both patients needed hemodialysis for oliguric acute renal failure, and pathologic examinations showed typical changes of acute oxalate nephropathy. The renal function recovered 4 weeks later without specific treatment. Sour carambola juice is a popular beverage in Taiwan. The popularity of star fruit juice is not compatible with the rare discovery of star fruit-associated acute oxalate nephropathy. Commercial carambola juice usually is prepared by pickling and dilution processes that reduce oxalate content markedly, whereas pure fresh juice or mild diluted postpickled juice for traditional remedies, as used in our cases, contain high quantities of oxalate. An empty stomach and dehydrated state may pose an additional risk for development of renal injury. To avoid acute oxalate nephropathy, pure sour carambola juice or mild diluted postpickled juice should not be consumed in large amounts, especially on an empty stomach or in a dehydrated state.

  8. Queen survival and oxalic acid residues in sugar stores after summer application against Varroa destructor in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Donders, J.N.L.C.; Stratum, van P.; Blacquière, T.; Dooremalen, van C.

    2012-01-01

    Methods using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are widely applied. In this study, the effects of an OA spray application in early summer on the survival of young and old queens, and on OA residues in sugar stores were investigated. A questionnaire

  9. The comparability of oxalate excretion and oxalate:creatinine ratio in the investigation of primary hyperoxaluria: review of data from a referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford-Mobley, Oliver; Tims, Christopher; Rumsby, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Urine oxalate measurement is an important investigation in the evaluation of renal stone disease. Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a rare inherited metabolic disease characterised by persistently elevated urine oxalate, but the diagnosis may be missed in adults until renal failure has developed. Urine oxalate results were reviewed to compare oxalate:creatinine ratio and oxalate excretion, and to estimate the potential numbers of undiagnosed PH. Urine oxalate results from August 2011 to April 2013 were reviewed. Oxalate excretion and oxalate:creatinine ratio were evaluated for 24 h collections and ratio alone for spot urine samples. Oxalate:creatinine ratio and oxalate excretion were moderately correlated (R=0.63) in 24-h urine collections from patients aged 18 years and above. Sex-related differences were found requiring implementation of male and female reference ranges for oxalate:creatinine ratio. Of samples with both ratio and excretion above the reference range, 7% came from patients with confirmed PH. There were 24 patients with grossly elevated urine oxalate who had not been evaluated for PH. Oxalate:creatinine ratio and oxalate excretion were discordant in many patients, which is likely to be a result of intra-individual variation in creatinine output and imprecision in the collection itself. Some PH patients had urine oxalate within the reference range on occasion, and therefore it is not possible to exclude PH on the finding of a single normal result. A significant number of individuals had urine oxalate results well above the reference range who potentially have undiagnosed PH and are consequently at risk of renal failure. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Short-cut recovery of cobalt and lithium was directly obtained using oxalic acid. • Short-cut recovery process was optimized for a high recovery rate. • Leaching process was controlled by chemical reaction. • Leaching order of the sampling LiCoO{sub 2} using oxalic acid was first proposed. - Abstract: With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L{sup −1} solid–liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO{sub 2} of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of uranyl squarates and squarate-oxalates: hydrolysis trends and in situ oxalate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Clare E; Cahill, Christopher L

    2010-07-19

    We report the synthesis of two uranyl squarates and two mixed-ligand uranyl squarate-oxalates from aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions. These products exhibit a range of uranyl building units from squarates with monomers in (UO(2))(2)(C(4)O(4))(5).6NH(4).4H(2)O (1; a = 16.731(17) A, b = 7.280(8) A, c = 15.872(16) A, beta = 113.294(16) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/c) and chains in (UO(2))(2)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(C(4)O(4)) (2; a = 12.909(5) A, b = 8.400(3) A, c = 10.322(4) A, beta = 100.056(7) degrees , monoclinic, C2/c) to two squarate-oxalate polymorphs with dimers in (UO(2))(2)(OH)(C(4)O(4))(C(2)O(4)).NH(4).H(2)O (3; a = 9.0601(7) A, b = 15.7299(12) A, c = 10.5108(8) A, beta = 106.394(1) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/n; and 4; a = 8.4469(6) A, b = 7.7589(5) A, c = 10.5257(7) A, beta = 105.696(1) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/m). The dominance at low pH of monomeric species and the increasing occurrence of oligomeric species with increasing pH suggests that uranyl hydrolysis, mUO(2)(2+) + nH(2)O right harpoon over left harpoon [(UO(2))(m)(OH)(n)](2m-n) + nH(+), has a significant role in the identity of the inorganic building unit. Additional factors that influence product assembly include in situ hydrolysis of squaric acid to oxalic acid, dynamic metal to ligand concentration, and additional binding modes resulting from the introduction of oxalate anions. These points and the effects of uranyl hydrolysis with changing pH are discussed in the context of the compounds presented herein.

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels : a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. Design: Randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over study. Setting: The study was performed at TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands. Subjects: Ten

  13. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women : a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.S.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Bakker, M.; Hendriks, J.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein

  14. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souverein, Olga W; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Freese, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    concentrations. Furthermore, a prediction model of fruit and vegetable intake based on these biomarkers and subject characteristics (i.e. age, sex, BMI and smoking status) was established. Data from twelve diet-controlled intervention studies were obtained to develop a prediction model for fruit and vegetable...

  15. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  16. Effect of rearing diet on the infection rate in flies released for the control of tsetse populations by sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, I.

    1990-01-01

    In areas where sleeping sickness is endemic, it is the practice of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes to give sterilized males a bloodmeal before release into the wild in order to reduce the risk of these released flies acting as disease vectors. This strategy has been adopted because of experimental evidence which showed that it was essential to infect flies at their first feed to establish a Tripanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b rhodesiense infection in tsetse flies. The aim of the work was to test artificial tsetse diets produced in the IAEA Laboratory at Seibersdorf in order to determine whether they were as effective as whole blood in inhibiting T. brucei sensu lato (sl) infections in flies. Seven artificial diets were tested with T.b. rhodesiense; Glossina morsitans morsitans males were fed one meal of the diet and then starved for 3 days before the infective feed. None of these diets significantly altered the infection rate of the treated flies and the seven groups produced statistically homogeneous results, with a mean midgut rate of 16% (control flies fed pig blood: 17%). Flies infected as tenerals with the same trypanosome stock produced midgut rates of 61%. Three of the diets were also tested with a T. congolense stock. There were no significant differences between flies fed artificial (mean midgut infection rate: 15%) and whole blood diets (19%). G. m. morsitans infected as tenerals with this trypanosome stock produced midgut rates of 66%. As with T. brucei sl infections, teneral flies were far more likely to develop a T. congolense infection than fed flies; this result suggests that all the tsetse flies used in SIT programmes should be fed before release in order to reduce the risk both to man and his livestock. Artificial diets are as effective as whole blood in inhibiting trypanosome infections. The effect of bloodmeal on the fly infection rates is discussed in relation to lectin production in fed flies. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Atmospheric production of oxalic acid/oxalate and nitric acid/nitrate in the Tampa Bay airshed: Parallel pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelango, P. Kalyani; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Al-Horr, Rida S.

    Oxalic acid is the dominant dicarboxylic acid (DCA), and it constitutes up to 50% of total atmospheric DCAs, especially in non-urban and marine atmospheres. A significant amount of particulate H 2Ox/oxalate (Ox) occurred in the coarse particle fraction of a dichotomous sampler, the ratio of oxalate concentrations in the PM 10 to PM 2.5 fractions ranged from 1 to 2, with mean±sd being 1.4±0.2. These results suggest that oxalate does not solely originate in the gas phase and condense into particles. Gaseous H 2Ox concentrations are much lower than particulate Ox concentrations and are well correlated with HNO 3, HCHO, and O 3, supporting a photochemical origin. Of special relevance to the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) is the extent of nitrogen deposition in the Tampa Bay estuary. Hydroxyl radical is primarily responsible for the conversion of NO 2 to HNO 3, the latter being much more easily deposited. Hydroxyl radical is also responsible for the aqueous phase formation of oxalic acid from alkenes. Hence, we propose that an estimate of rad OH can be obtained from H 2Ox/Ox production rate and we accordingly show that the product of total oxalate concentration and NO 2 concentration approximately predicts the total nitrate concentration during the same period.

  18. The new Nordic diet - consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that a healthy diet with high emphasis on nutritious, low-energy components such as fruits, vegetables, and seafood tends to be more costly for consumers. Derived from the ideas from the New Nordic Cuisine – and inspired by the Mediterranean diet, the New Nordic...... expenditure of the ADD as represented in the unadjusted intervention (ADD-i) amounted to 36.02 DKK for the participants. The daily food expenditure in the unadjusted New Nordic Diet (NND-i) costs 44.80 DKK per day per head, and is hence about 25% more expensive than the Average Danish Diet (or about 17% when...... adjusting for energy content of the diet). Adjusting for price incentives in a real market setting, the estimated cost of the Average Danish Diet is reduced by 2.50 DKK (ADD-m), compared to the unadjusted ADD-i diet, whereas the adjusted cost of the New Nordic Diet (NND-m) is reduced by about 3.50 DKK...

  19. Energy exchangers with LCT as a precision method for diet control in LCHADD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozrzymas, Renata; Konikowska, Klaudia; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) is a rare genetic disease. The LCHADD treatment is mainly based on special diet. In this diet, energy from long-chain triglycerides (LCT) cannot exceed 10%, however energy intake from the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) should increase. The daily intake of energy should be compatible with energy requirements and treatment should involve frequent meals including during the night to avoid periods of fasting. In fact, there are no recommendations for total content of LCT in all of the allowed food in the LCHADD diet. The aim of the study was to present a new method of diet composition in LCHADD with the use of blocks based on energy exchangers with calculated LCT content. In the study, the diet schema was shown for calculating the energy requirements and LCT content in the LCHADD diet. How to create the diet was also shown, based on a food pyramid developed for patients with LCHADD. The blocks will make it possible, in a quick and simple way, to create a balanced diet which provides adequate energy value, essential nutrients and LCT content. This method can be used by doctors and dietitians who specialize in treating rare metabolic diseases. It can also be used by patients and their families for accurate menu planning with limited LCT content.

  20. Low-frequency magnetic field effect on solubility of oxalate type human organominerals in water in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PopkovV.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine low-frequency AMF effect on dissolution of urinary stone material in vitro in water with human urinary stones (oxalate type. Materials and Methods. The structural changes in aqueous solutions may occur when exposed to low-frequency alternating magnetic fields (AMF. It depends on chemical composition of the solutions under the study. Results. Organic components (63.1 %, leading to the density decrease of the solution, urea (18.8%, leading to its increase, and oxalic acid (19.7% have been determined in stone composition. The decrease of transmittance T (% by the time of oxalate dissolution has indicated increase in concentration of dissolved sample. The sample has been exposed to AMF of 2-9 Hz on the background of the control sample. The growth of this dependence with AMF increasing of 11-22 Hz has established less concentration of dissolved sample in the test solution than in the control one. Conclusion. The main task has been to determine the influence of AMF of 2-22 Hz on solubility of urinary stones placed in water for an hour. The article is to conclude that maximal solubility of oxalate mineral sample by AMF of 2-22 Hz has been reached. It is 14% more than in the control solution. The effectiveness of AMF influence on solubility of organomineral decreases with frequency increasing. It has been confirmed by photometric and areometric measurements.

  1. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  2. Oxalic acid induced hydrothermal synthesis of single crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, V.B.; Adhyapak, P.V.; Suryavanshi, S.S.; Mulla, I.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report synthesis of 1D tungsten oxide using a hydrothermal route at 170 °C. • Oxalic acid plays an important role in the formation of 1D nanostructure. • Monoclinic transforms to hexagonal phase with increment in reaction duration. -- Abstract: One-dimensional single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods have been synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. The controlled morphology of tungsten oxide was obtained by using sodium tungstate and oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 170 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h. The obtained tungsten oxides were investigated by using XRD, SEM and HRTEM techniques. In order to understand the role of organic inducer on the shape, size and phase formation of WO 3 was prepared with and without organic inducer. On heating of sodium tungstate without organic inducer for 72 h at 170 °C in the hydrothermal unit we obtain nanoparticles of monoclinic WO 3 , however, on addition of oxalic acid a single phase hexagonal WO 3 with distinct nanorods was formed. On addition of oxalic acid a systematic emergence of nanorod-like morphology was obtained with incrementing reaction times from 24 h to 48 h. The 72 h reaction generates self-assembled 20–30 nm diameter and 4–5 μm long h-WO 3 bundles of nanorods. The XRD studies show hexagonal structure of tungsten oxide, while SAED reveals its single crystalline nature. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum shows a characteristic blue emission peak at 3 eV (410 nm). Raman spectra provide the evidence of hexagonal structure with stretching vibrations (830 cm −1 ) for 72 h of heating at 170 °C

  3. Oxalic acid induced hydrothermal synthesis of single crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, V.B. [School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413255 (India); Adhyapak, P.V. [Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (C-MET), Pune 411008 (India); Suryavanshi, S.S., E-mail: sssuryavanshi@rediffmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413255 (India); Mulla, I.S., E-mail: ismulla2001@gmail.com [Emeritus Scientist (CSIR), Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (C-MET), Pune 411008 (India)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • We report synthesis of 1D tungsten oxide using a hydrothermal route at 170 °C. • Oxalic acid plays an important role in the formation of 1D nanostructure. • Monoclinic transforms to hexagonal phase with increment in reaction duration. -- Abstract: One-dimensional single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods have been synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. The controlled morphology of tungsten oxide was obtained by using sodium tungstate and oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 170 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h. The obtained tungsten oxides were investigated by using XRD, SEM and HRTEM techniques. In order to understand the role of organic inducer on the shape, size and phase formation of WO{sub 3} was prepared with and without organic inducer. On heating of sodium tungstate without organic inducer for 72 h at 170 °C in the hydrothermal unit we obtain nanoparticles of monoclinic WO{sub 3}, however, on addition of oxalic acid a single phase hexagonal WO{sub 3} with distinct nanorods was formed. On addition of oxalic acid a systematic emergence of nanorod-like morphology was obtained with incrementing reaction times from 24 h to 48 h. The 72 h reaction generates self-assembled 20–30 nm diameter and 4–5 μm long h-WO{sub 3} bundles of nanorods. The XRD studies show hexagonal structure of tungsten oxide, while SAED reveals its single crystalline nature. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum shows a characteristic blue emission peak at 3 eV (410 nm). Raman spectra provide the evidence of hexagonal structure with stretching vibrations (830 cm{sup −1}) for 72 h of heating at 170 °C.

  4. Kinetic study of nucleation and crystal growth during oxalic precipitation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, Murielle

    1999-01-01

    In spite of an extensive use in chemical industry, most of precipitation processes are based on global and empirical knowledge. However, in the recent years, fundamental and phenomenological theories have been developed and they can be used to better understand the mechanisms of precipitation of plutonium IV oxalate, which is a significant stage of the irradiated fuel reprocessing. For this reason, appropriate methods were developed to study nucleation and crystal growth kinetics in a nuclear environment under a wide range of operating conditions. Each phenomena was studied individually in order to reduce the free parameters of the System. This study bears on the oxalates of plutonium and elements which simulate plutonium behaviour during the precipitation, neodymium III and uranium IV. A compact apparatus of a specific construction was used for nucleation measurements in accordance with the Nielsen's method. The state of the mixing was characterised at the reactor scale (macro-mixing) and at molecular scale (micro-mixing). The experimental results for the studied oxalates are in good agreement with the Volmer and Weber's theory. We propose primary nucleation kinetic laws over a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, non-stoichiometric conditions, acidity...). An original method, using a high seed charge, was developed for the determination of crystal growth kinetics, in a batch crystallizer. The crystal growth rate is first order with respect to the supersaturation and the kinetic constant follows an Arrhenius type relation with activation energies of 14, 29 and 36 kJ.mol -1 for respectively neodymium III, uranium IV and plutonium IV oxalates. The overall growth process is surface integration controlled, with a screw dislocation mechanism. [fr

  5. Changes in Energy Intake and Diet Quality during an 18-Month Weight-Management Randomized Controlled Trial in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Goetz, Jeannine R; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Gibson, Cheryl A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2018-06-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are at risk for poor diet quality. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine whether two different weight-loss diets affect energy intake, macronutrient intake, and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) during a 6-month weight-loss period and 12-month weight-management period, and to examine differences in energy intake, macronutrient intake, and HEI-2010 between groups. Overweight/obese adults with IDDs took part in an 18-month randomized controlled trial and were assigned to either an enhanced Stop Light Diet utilizing portion-controlled meals or a conventional diet consisting of reducing energy intake and following the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Proxy-assisted 3-day food records were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months, and were analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research software. HEI-2010 was calculated using the data from Nutrition Data System for Research. The study took place from June 2011 through May 2014 in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. This was a secondary analysis of a weight-management intervention for adults with IDDs randomized to an enhanced Stop Light Diet or conventional diet, to examine differences in energy intake, macronutrient intake, and HEI-2010 across time and between groups. Independent- and paired-samples t tests and general mixed modeling for repeated measures were performed to examine group differences and changes at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months between the enhanced Stop Light Diet and conventional diet groups. One hundred and forty six participants (57% female, mean±standard deviation age=36.2±12.0 years) were randomized to either the enhanced Stop Light Diet or conventional diet group (77 enhanced Stop Light Diet, 69 conventional diet) and provided data for analysis at baseline, 124 completed the 6-month weight-loss period, and 101 completed

  6. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, B.; Pamplona, M.; Selvaggi, R.; Miliani, C.; Matteini, M.; Sgamellotti, A.; Brunetti, B.

    2007-01-01

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments

  7. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Pamplona, M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica do Instituto Superior Tecnico Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Selvaggi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Miliani, C. [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)]. E-mail: miliani@thch.unipg.it; Matteini, M. [CNR Istituto, Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali (ICVBC), Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Edifico C-50019, Florence (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Brunetti, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments.

  8. Calcium oxalate crystals: an integral component of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum/Brassica carinata pathosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret B Uloth

    Full Text Available Oxalic acid is an important virulence factor for disease caused by the fungal necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, yet calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals have not been widely reported. B. carinata stems were infected with S. sclerotiorum and observed using light microscopy. Six hours post inoculation (hpi, CaOx crystals were evident on 46% of stem sections and by 72 hpi on 100%, demonstrating that the secretion of oxalic acid by S. sclerotiorum commences before hyphal penetration. This is the first time CaOx crystals have been reported on B. carinata infected with S. sclerotiorum. The shape of crystals varied as infection progressed. Long tetragonal rods were dominant 12 hpi (68% of crystal-containing samples, but by 72 hpi, 50% of stems displayed bipyramidal crystals, and only 23% had long rods. Scanning electron microscopy from 24 hpi revealed CaOx crystals in all samples, ranging from tiny irregular crystals (< 0.5 μm to large (up to 40 μm highly organized arrangements. Crystal morphology encompassed various forms, including tetragonal prisms, oval plates, crystal sand, and druses. Large conglomerates of CaOx crystals were observed in the hyphal mass 72 hpi and these are proposed as a strategy of the fungus to hold and detoxify Ca2+ions. The range of crystal morphologies suggests that S. sclerotiorum growth and infection controls the form taken by CaOx crystals.

  9. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  10. The use of tanniferous plant in the goat diet as alternative to parasite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surama Freitas Zanini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of pink pepper meal supplementation (PPM in the dairy goats diet as an antiparasitic agent compared with ionophore, the monensin sodium. A total of 18 female Saanen goats, were distributed in a completely randomized in groups of three treatments and six replications, consisting of the experimental groups: negative control (did not receive anticoccidial agent or PPS, group 1 (supplemented with 30% of PPM and group 2 (supplemented with anticoccidial agent – monensin sodium. There was a significant effect of treatments on voluntary feed intake on growing phases (P ? 0.05. Furthermore, the animals treated with PPM had the lowest food consumption compared with the other treatments (P ? 0.05, but without negative effect on live body weight. In general, at both phases of rearing, it was not detected significant difference between the voluntary feed intake of control group and with monensin sodium supplementation (P > 0.05, but the food consumption in the control group did not result on increase of live body weight probably due to sanitary challenges such as gastrointestinal parasites. The opposite was observed in animals treated with monensin sodium that had the highest body weight (P ? 0.05 that did not differ from animals fed with pink pepper (P > 0.05. By the way, in the growth phase our results revealed significantly effect of treatments on live body weight (P ? 0.05. Animals fed with pink pepper supplementation had a greater live body weight compared with the control (P ? 0.05 and similar to those supplemented with the monensin sodium (P > 0.05. The number of oocysts per gram of faeces was lower in animals treated with PPS that differed significantly from control (P ? 0.05. Regarding the count number of eggs per gram of faeces OPG, it was not detected significant effect of treatments (P> 0.05. It was found that the pink pepper supplementation was effective in the control of gastrointestinal parasites of

  11. Diet-Related Risk Factors for Leprosy: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Inge; van Muiden, Lisanne; Alam, Khorshed; Bowers, Robert; Hossain, Md. Anwar; Kispotta, Kolpona; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Background Food shortage was associated with leprosy in two recent studies investigating the relation between socioeconomic factors and leprosy. Inadequate intake of nutrients due to food shortage may affect the immune system and influence the progression of infection to clinical leprosy. We aimed to identify possible differences in dietary intake between recently diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects. Methods In a leprosy endemic area of Bangladesh, newly diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects were interviewed about their socioeconomic situation, health and diet. Dietary intakes were recorded with a 24-hour recall, from which a Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) was calculated. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) was filled out for every participant. Using logistic regression, a univariate, block wise multivariate, and an integrated analysis were carried out. Results 52 leprosy cases and 100 control subjects were included. Food shortage was more common, dietary diversity was lower and household food insecurity was higher in the patient group. Patients consumed significantly less items from the DDS food groups ‘Meat and fish’ and ‘Other fruits and vegetables.’ Lower food expenditure per capita, lower BMI, lower DDS and absence of household food stocks are the main factors associated with an increased risk of having leprosy. Conclusion Low income families have only little money to spend on food and consequently have a low intake of highly nutritious non-rice foods such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables. Development of clinical leprosy could be explained by deficiencies of the nutrients that these foods normally provide. PMID:25965879

  12. Pregnancy and lactation alter biomarkers of biotin metabolism in women consuming a controlled diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-12-01

    Biotin functions as a cofactor for several carboxylase enzymes with key roles in metabolism. At present, the dietary requirement for biotin is unknown and intake recommendations are provided as Adequate Intakes (AIs). The biotin AI for adults and pregnant women is 30 μg/d, whereas 35 μg/d is recommended for lactating women. However, pregnant and lactating women may require more biotin to meet the demands of these reproductive states. The current study sought to quantify the impact of reproductive state on biotin status response to a known dietary intake of biotin. To achieve this aim, we measured a panel of biotin biomarkers among pregnant (gestational week 27 at study entry; n = 26), lactating (postnatal week 5 at study entry; n = 28), and control (n = 21) women who participated in a 10- to 12-wk feeding study providing 57 μg of dietary biotin/d as part of a mixed diet. Over the course of the study, pregnant women excreted 69% more (vs. control; P biotin-dependent methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase is impaired. Interestingly, urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (3-HIA-carnitine), a downstream metabolite of 3-HIA, was 27% lower (P = 0.05) among pregnant (vs. control) women, a finding that may arise from carnitine inadequacy during gestation. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in plasma biotin, urinary biotin, or urinary bisnorbiotin between pregnant and control women. Lactating women excreted 76% more (vs. control; P = 0.001) of the biotin catabolite bisnorbiotin, indicating that lactation accelerates biotin turnover and loss. Notably, with respect to control women, lactating women excreted 23% less (P = 0.04) urinary 3-HIA and 26% less (P = 0.05) urinary 3-HIA-carnitine, suggesting that lactation reduces leucine catabolism and that these metabolites may not be useful indicators of biotin status during lactation. Overall, these data demonstrate significant alterations in markers of biotin metabolism during pregnancy and lactation and

  13. Pregnancy and Lactation Alter Biomarkers of Biotin Metabolism in Women Consuming a Controlled Diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biotin functions as a cofactor for several carboxylase enzymes with key roles in metabolism. At present, the dietary requirement for biotin is unknown and intake recommendations are provided as Adequate Intakes (AIs). The biotin AI for adults and pregnant women is 30 μg/d, whereas 35 μg/d is recommended for lactating women. However, pregnant and lactating women may require more biotin to meet the demands of these reproductive states. Objective: The current study sought to quantify the impact of reproductive state on biotin status response to a known dietary intake of biotin. Methods: To achieve this aim, we measured a panel of biotin biomarkers among pregnant (gestational week 27 at study entry; n = 26), lactating (postnatal week 5 at study entry; n = 28), and control (n = 21) women who participated in a 10- to 12-wk feeding study providing 57 μg of dietary biotin/d as part of a mixed diet. Results: Over the course of the study, pregnant women excreted 69% more (vs. control; P biotin-dependent methylcrotonyl–coenzyme A carboxylase is impaired. Interestingly, urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (3-HIA-carnitine), a downstream metabolite of 3-HIA, was 27% lower (P = 0.05) among pregnant (vs. control) women, a finding that may arise from carnitine inadequacy during gestation. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in plasma biotin, urinary biotin, or urinary bisnorbiotin between pregnant and control women. Lactating women excreted 76% more (vs. control; P = 0.001) of the biotin catabolite bisnorbiotin, indicating that lactation accelerates biotin turnover and loss. Notably, with respect to control women, lactating women excreted 23% less (P = 0.04) urinary 3-HIA and 26% less (P = 0.05) urinary 3-HIA-carnitine, suggesting that lactation reduces leucine catabolism and that these metabolites may not be useful indicators of biotin status during lactation. Conclusions: Overall, these data demonstrate significant alterations in markers of

  14. Elements of mental hygiene and diet as factor of control chronical renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a syndrome which is caused by gradual progressive and irreversible reduction of kidney function. CKD has become a global health care problem. From a mental hygiene point of view, the aim of this study is to present the most important stressors in patients with CKD. Knowledge and recognition of everything that influences the increase of stress in people with CKD, on one hand leads to an improvement of understanding , and on the other gives us possibilities to prevent or at least reduce the negative effects of stress. Furthermore, patients with CKD often have anxiety and depressive symptoms which overlap with the clinical symptomatology of kidney disease, which is mostly caused by uremia. We have given certain suggestions for early depression screening in patients with CKD by analyzing previously conducted research. As far as diet is concerned, research suggests that patients with CKD should be prescribed a low protein diet which delays the progression of CKD, reduces the metabolical disbalance and delays the need for dialysis. A traditional diet focused on protein intake without a special selection of meals is recommended. Other recommendations are vegan diet as well as vegan diet with supplements. Furthermore, a diet without proteins with pastas without proteins, bread and other carbohydrates. There are also recommendations for a low protein diet with supplements with an intake of only 0.3 g/kg BM/protein a day with an addition of proteins from vegetables, amino and keto acids. Finally, it should be mentioned that comorbidities should be taken into consideration when prescribing a diet for patients with CKD. It is necessary for the patient to be compliant with the recommended diet.

  15. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Jonsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design: The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28 and from control families in the same rural area (n=37 was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results: Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions: Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings.

  16. Differential Effects of High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Diet Composition on Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Normal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trapala, María A.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Torres-Lopez, Jorge E.; Mendez, Jose D.; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; Olvera-Hernández, Viridiana; Palma-Cordova, Leydi C.; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    The macronutrient component of diets is critical for metabolic control and insulin action. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high fat diets (HFDs) vs. high carbohydrate diets (HCDs) on metabolic control and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Thirty animals divided into five groups (n = 6) were fed: (1) Control diet (CD); (2) High-saturated fat diet (HSFD); (3) High-unsaturated fat diet (HUFD); (4) High-digestible starch diet, (HDSD); and (5) High-resistant starch diet (HRSD) during eight weeks. HFDs and HCDs reduced weight gain in comparison with CD, however no statistical significance was reached. Calorie intake was similar in both HFDs and CD, but rats receiving HCDs showed higher calorie consumption than other groups, (p < 0.01). HRSD showed the lowest levels of serum and hepatic lipids. The HUFD induced the lowest fasting glycemia levels and HOMA-IR values. The HDSD group exhibited the highest insulin resistance and hepatic cholesterol content. In conclusion, HUFD exhibited the most beneficial effects on glycemic control meanwhile HRSD induced the highest reduction on lipid content and did not modify insulin sensitivity. In both groups, HFDs and HCDs, the diet constituents were more important factors than caloric intake for metabolic disturbance and insulin resistance. PMID:22754464

  17. The mediating effect of Mediterranean diet on the relation between smoking and colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontou, Niki; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Soupos, Nick; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Linos, Athena; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-10-01

    The protective role of Mediterranean diet (MD) and the detrimental effect of smoking on colorectal cancer (CRC) have already been shown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential mediating effect of MD on the association between the aforementioned factor (smoking) and CRC. It is a case-control study. Two hundred fifty consecutive patients with CRC (63 ± 12 years, 59% males) and 250 age-sex group-matched controls, both from the area of Attica, were studied. Various socio-demographic, clinical, lifestyle (including detailed smoking habits) and dietary characteristics were measured. Adherence to the MD was evaluated using the MedDietScore (theoretical range 0-55). Each unit increase in the MedDietScore was associated with 13% lower likelihood of CRC (P Smoking habits were associated with 2.9-fold the likelihood of CRC among participants who were away from the MD (i.e. MedDietScore smoking habits with CRC, suggesting indirect benefits of adherence to this dietary pattern with regards to CRC morbidity and mortality.

  18. Surface analysis of transition metal oxalates: Damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenakin, S.P., E-mail: chenakin@imp.kiev.ua [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Institute of Metal Physics, Nat. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, Akad. Vernadsky Blvd. 36, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Szukiewicz, R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Barbosa, R.; Kruse, N. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, 155 Wegner Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6515 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Gas evolution from the Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation is studied. • A comparative study of the damage caused by X-rays in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is carried out. • Effect of Ar{sup +} bombardment on the structure and composition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. - Abstract: The behavior of transition metal oxalates in vacuum, under X-ray irradiation and low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment was studied. A comparative mass-spectrometric analysis was carried out of gas evolution from the surface of Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation. The rates of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} liberation from the oxalates were found to be in an inverse correlation with the temperatures of dehydration and decomposition, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study the X-ray induced damage in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} by measuring the various XP spectral characteristics and surface composition of the oxalates as a function of time of exposure to X-rays. It was shown that Cu oxalate underwent a significantly faster degradation than Ni oxalate and demonstrated a high degree of X-ray induced reduction from the Cu{sup 2+} to the Cu{sup 1+} chemical state. 500 eV Ar{sup +} sputter cleaning of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} for 10 min was found to cause a strong transformation of the oxalate structure which manifested itself in an appreciable alteration of the XP core-level and valence band spectra. The analysis of changes in stoichiometry and comparison of XP spectra of bombarded oxalate with respective spectra of a reference carbonate CoCO{sub 3} implied that the bombardment-induced decomposition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} gave rise to the formation of CoO-like and disordered CoCO{sub 3}-like phases.

  19. Corrosion and impedance studies on magnesium alloy in oxalate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.M.; Tammam, Riham H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in 0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 containing different additives as Br - , Cl - or Silicate. → The corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 ). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. → For the other added ions Br - or Cl - , the corrosion rate is higher than the blank. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in oxalate solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). The effect of oxalate concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate increases with increasing oxalate concentration. The effect of added ions (Br - , Cl - or SiO 3 2- ) on the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloy in 0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 solution at 298 K, was investigated. It was found that the corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 ). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. However, for the other added ions Br - or Cl - , the corrosion rate is higher than the blank.

  20. Corrosion and impedance studies on magnesium alloy in oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M., E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Tammam, Riham H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} containing different additives as Br{sup -}, Cl{sup -} or Silicate. > The corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. > For the other added ions Br{sup -} or Cl{sup -}, the corrosion rate is higher than the blank. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in oxalate solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). The effect of oxalate concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate increases with increasing oxalate concentration. The effect of added ions (Br{sup -}, Cl{sup -} or SiO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) on the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloy in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} solution at 298 K, was investigated. It was found that the corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. However, for the other added ions Br{sup -} or Cl{sup -}, the corrosion rate is higher than the blank.

  1. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  2. Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, T.; Rodgers, A.

    1998-09-01

    Crystallization of calcium oxalate was studied in minimally diluted (92%) urine using a mixed suspension mixed product crystallizer in series with a Malvern particle sizer. The crystallization was initiated by constant flow of aqueous sodium oxalate and urine into the reaction vessel via two independent feed lines. Because the Malvern cell was in series with the reaction vessel, noninvasive measurement of particle sizes could be effected. In addition, aliquots of the mixed suspension were withdrawn and transferred to a Coulter counter for crystal counting and sizing. Steady-state particle size distributions were used to determine nucleation and growth kinetics while scanning electron microscopy was used to examine deposited crystals. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first, the effect of the concentration of the exogenous sodium oxalate was investigated while in the second, the effect of temperature was studied. Calcium oxalate nucleation and growth rates were found to be dependent on supersaturation levels inside the crystallizer. However, while growth rate increased with increasing temperature, nucleation rates decreased. The favored phases were the trihydrate at 18°C, the dihydrate at 38° and the monohydrate at 58°C. The results of both experiments are in agreement with those obtained in other studies that have been conducted in synthetic and in maximally diluted urine and which have employed invasive crystal counting and sizing techniques. As such, the present study lends confidence to the models of urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes which currently prevail in the literature.

  3. Randomised controlled trial of food elimination diet based on IgG antibodies for the prevention of migraine like headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Joy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that food intolerance may be a precipitating factor for migraine like headaches. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay Test and subsequent dietary elimination advice for the prevention of migraine like headaches. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Community based volunteers in the UK. Participants Volunteers who met the inclusion criteria for migraine like headaches and had one or more food intolerance were included in the study. Participants received either a true diet (n = 84 or a sham diet (n = 83 sheet. Participants were advised to remove the intolerant foods from their diet for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Number of headache days over a 12 week period (item A MIDAS questionnaire. Other measures includes the total MIDAS score and total HIT-6 score. Results The results indicated a small decrease in the number of migraine like headaches over 12 weeks, although this difference was not statistically significant (IRR 1.15 95% CI 0.94 to 1.41, p = 0.18. At the 4 week assessment, use of the ELISA test with subsequent diet elimination advice significantly reduced the number of migraine like headaches (IRR 1.23 95%CI 1.01 to 1.50, p = 0.04. The disability and impact on daily life of migraines were not significantly different between the true and sham diet groups. Conclusions Use of the ELISA test with subsequent diet elimination advice did not reduce the disability or impact on daily life of migraine like headaches or the number of migraine like headaches at 12 weeks but it did significantly reduce the number of migraine like headaches at 4 weeks. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRTCN89559672

  4. A case-control study of diet and gastric cancer in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Decarli, A; D'Avanzo, B; Franceschi, S

    1987-10-15

    Dietary factors in the aetiology of stomach cancer were investigated using data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 206 histologically confirmed carcinomas and 474 control subjects in hospital for acute, non-digestive conditions, unrelated to any of the potential risk factors for gastric cancer. Dietary histories concerned the frequency of consumption per week of 29 selected food items (including the major sources of starches, proteins, fats, fibres, vitamins A and C, nitrates and nitrites in the Italian diet) and subjective scores for condiments and salt intake. Pasta and rice (the major sources of starch), polenta (a porridge made of maize) and ham were positively related with gastric cancer risk, whereas green vegetables and fresh fruit as a whole (and specifically citrus fruit) and selected fibre-rich aliments (such as whole-grain bread or pasta) showed protective effects on gastric cancer risk. Allowance for major identified potential distorting factors (chiefly indicators of socio-economic status) reduced the positive association with pasta or rice consumption, but did not appreciably modify any of the other risk estimates. When a single logistic model was fitted including all food items significant in univariate analysis, the 3 items remaining statistically significant were green vegetables (relative risk, RR = 0.27 for upper vs. lower tertile), polenta (RR = 2.32) and ham (RR = 1.60). Indices of beta-carotene and ascorbate intake were negatively and strongly related with gastric cancer risk, but the association with these micronutrients was no longer evident after simultaneous allowance for various food items. An approximately 7-fold difference in risk was found between extreme quintiles of a scale measuring major positive and negative associations.

  5. Controlling of bacterial flora contaminating animal diet and its components by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Helal, G.A.; El-Hady, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The total bacterial counts in complete diets were found to range between 10 3 -10 5 cells/g, which they ranged between 10 2 and 10 6 in the main components. One hundred and sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from the animal diet samples and found to be gram positive belonging to three genera: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus. The most radioresistant bacteria isolated at 7.5 KGy were identified as B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B.circulans and B.laterosporus. The D 1 0 values for the bacteria contaminated the diet samples ranged between 928 Gy and 2199 Gy. Meanwhile, the D 1 0 values of staph.aureus and Strapt.faecalis artificially contaminated the diet were 400 Gy and 1136 Gy, respectively. It could be recommended from obtained results that dose level of 10 KGy is quite sufficient to eliminate all pathogens from animal diets or their components. In addition, it decreases the microbial count to minimum counts and hence increases the diet shelf life.1 fig.,4 tab

  6. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Ilana; Stampfer, Meir J; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shai, Iris

    2009-04-01

    Data are limited as to whether participants in diet trials truly adhere to their assigned diet and the factors that affect their adherence. We evaluated success and adherence in a two-year dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT) in which 322 moderately obese participants (mean age 52 yrs, mean body-mass-index (BMI) 31 kg/m(2), 86% men) were randomized to one of three groups: low-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate diets. Overall compliance at month-24 was 85%, with 90% in low-fat, 85% in Mediterranean, and 78% in low-carbohydrate diet (p = .042 between groups). Attrition was higher in women (29% vs. 14% men, p = .001) and current smokers (25% vs. 14% among maintainers, p = 0.04). In a multivariate model, independent predictors of dropping-out were: higher baseline BMI (OR = 1.11; CI: 1.03-1.21) and less weight loss at month-6 (OR = 1.20; CI: 1.1-1.3). In a multivariate model, greater weight loss achieved at month-6 was the main predictor associated with success in weight loss (> 5%) over 2 years (OR = 1.5; CI: 1.35-1.67). Self-reported complete adherence score to diet was greater on low-carbohydrate diet (p low-fat) until month-6, but dropped overall from 81% at month-1 to 57% at month-24. Holidays were a trigger to a significant decrease in adherence followed by a partial rebound. Changes in diet composition from month-1 to month-12 were more pronounced in the multi-stage low-carbohydrate diet-group (p < .05). Generally, the most irresistible restricted food items were cookies (45% of dieters) and fruits (30%). Among the physically active (n = 107), 44% reported a tendency to eat less after exercising compared to 10% who tended to eat more. Initial 6-month reduction in weight is the main predictor of both long-term retention and success in weight loss. Special attention is needed for women, current smokers, and during holidays. Physical activity is associated with subsequent reduction in energy intake.

  7. Low energy density diet, weight loss maintenance, and risk of cardiovascular disease following a recent weight reduction program: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golgis Karimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the effects of a low energy dense diet on weight maintenance and cardiovascular risks following a recent weight reduction. Therefore, we assessed if weight maintenance, lipid profiles, and glycemic control differ between low energy density (LED diet and usual diet consumers following a recent weight reduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study in a parallel design, we recruited 70 patients with the history of weight reduction in the recent 1 year. LED diet contained 30% fat, 15% protein, and 55% carbohydrate was administered to the test group, and a usual diet including 35% fat, 15% protein, and 50% carbohydrate was prescribed to the control group for 7 months. Dietary intake was assessed by using 3 days food records. Biochemical markers and anthropometric measures were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Weight reduced in LED diet consumers compared to usual diet consumers (−0.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4%, P = 0.002. The results was the same regarding waist circumference (−0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1%, P = 0.004. Fasting blood sugar also decreased in LED diet group (−9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.4 ± 1.0%, P = 0.0001. LED diet group had a drop in percent change of their total cholesterol (−0.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.05 ± 0.4%, P = 0.04 and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.8 ± 0.9 vs. −0.3 ± 0.9%, P = 0.002. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed beneficial effects of LED diet on attenuating weight regain in subjects with history of recent weight reduction. It might be derived from higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber among LED diet than usual diet consumers.

  8. Crystal structure of di?methyl?ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid)

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Waly; Gueye, Ndongo; Crochet, Aur?lien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, H?l?ne

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2 +?HC2O4 ??0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu)3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH2)2C2O4 salt and Sn(CH3)3Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a di?methyl?ammonium cation (Me2NH2 +), an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4 ?), and half a mol?ecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) situated about an inversion center. From a supra?molecular point of view, the t...

  9. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  10. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Heng-Yen; Whittaker, Mei M.; Bouveret, Romaric; Berna, Anne; Bernier, Francois; Whittaker, James W.

    2007-01-01

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an α-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 10 4 U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions

  11. NDA technique for the assay of wet plutonium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Canada, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantitatively measure batches of wet plutonium oxalate. The method is based on a count of coincidence neutrons to which a correction is applied for the effects of neutron moderation by water. A therma-neutron coincidence counter (TNC) with two concentric rings of 3 He detectors provides the signal needed for the water correction. The signal is the ratio of neutron counts between the detector rings that changes with the percent of water in plutonium oxalate. To evaluate the measurement technique, 26 batches of plutonium oxalate were measured in an in-line TNC. The evaluation showed the measurements to be essentially unbiased and precise to 2.2%

  12. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, R.M.; Sims, H.E.; Taylor, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or ‘finishing’ processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO_2 product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles. - Highlights: • Critical review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions. • New analysis of relationship between SSA and calcination temperature. • New SEM

  13. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, R.M.; Sims, H.E.; Taylor, R.J., E-mail: robin.j.taylor@nnl.co.uk

    2015-10-15

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or ‘finishing’ processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO{sub 2} product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles. - Highlights: • Critical review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions. • New analysis of relationship between SSA and calcination temperature.

  14. Crystal structure of di­methyl­ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Waly; Gueye, Ndongo; Crochet, Aurélien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2 +·HC2O4 −·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu)3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH2)2C2O4 salt and Sn(CH3)3Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a di­methyl­ammonium cation (Me2NH2 +), an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4 −), and half a mol­ecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) situated about an inversion center. From a supra­molecular point of view, the three components inter­act together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2 + cations and the HC2O4 − anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4 − anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4) mol­ecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four inter­molecular inter­actions with two Me2NH2 + and two HC2O4 − ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H⋯O and two O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting mol­ecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010), and reinforced by a C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. PMID:25995858

  15. Diet Quality of patients with chronic Chagas disease in a tertiary hospital: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pereira de Castilhos

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status has been implicated in the modulation of the immune response, possibly augmenting the pathogenesis of Chagas disease (Cd. We evaluated diet quality and nutritional status in adults and elderly patients with chronic Cd in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: A case-control study of Cd patients was conducted, paired for gender, age, and co-morbidities with non-Cd patients. Anthropometric measurements and food frequency questionnaire was used, and diet quality was assessed by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-off points were used to determine the dietary micronutrient adequacy. The Cd group was further grouped according to Los Andes classification. RESULTS: The study participants were 67 ± 10 years old, 73.6% elderly and 63% female. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal fat was high in both groups; however, Cd group showed a lower prevalence of obesity and increased risk of disease according to waist circumference classification. There was no difference in BHEI-R score between groups (p=0.145. The Cd group had sodium and saturated fat intake above recommendations and low intake of unsaturated fat, vitamin D, E, selenium, magnesium, and dairy products; but higher intake of iron. According to Los Andes classification, group III presented lower intake of whole fruit and dietary fiber. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Cd were overweight and the quality of their diet was unsatisfactory based on the recommended diet components for age and sex.

  16. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K.; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75) versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73) on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of d...

  17. Serum Hyperglycemia Might Be Not Related to Fat Composition of Diet and Vegetable Composition of Diet Might Improve Sugar Control in Taiwanese Diabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Ya-Lin; Kuo, Shi-Ching; Chiang, Chih-Fan; Chiang, Cheng-Yang; Lin, Yu-Fang; Weng, Pei-Chen; Hu, Fang-Ching; Wu, Jing-Hui; Lai, Chien-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This is an Asian study, which was designed to examine the correlations between biochemical data and food composition of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods: One hundred and seventy Taiwanese diabetic patients were enrolled. The correlations between biochemical data and diet composition (from 24-hour recall of intake food) of these patients were explored (Spearman correlation, p < 0.05). Diet components were also correlated with each other to show diet characteristics of diabetic p...

  18. Interaction of Celestine Concentrate and Reagent Grade SrSO4 with Oxalate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Obut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of reagent grade strontium sulphate and celestine concentrate with aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, sodiumoxalate and ammonium oxalate for the production of strontium carbonate were investigated for different oxalate compound:SrSO4 moleratios and reaction times using x-ray diffraction analysis and dissolution tests. Under the same experimental conditions, it was foundthat aqueous oxalic acid and sodium oxalate solutions had no or little effect on reagent grade strontium sulphate or celestineconcentrate, but aqueous ammonium oxalate solution converted them into strontium oxalate hydrate. Strontium carbonate was obtainedat conversion ratios of 74.7% for the celestine concentrate and 84.6 % for the reagent grade strontium sulphate by the decompositionof the obtained strontium oxalate hydrate at 600 °C under air atmosphere.

  19. Continuous glucose profiles in obese and normal-weight pregnant women on a controlled diet: metabolic determinants of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Kristin A; Gerard, Lori; Jensen, Dalan R; Kealey, Elizabeth H; Hernandez, Teri L; Reece, Melanie S; Barbour, Linda A; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2011-10-01

    We sought to define 24-h glycemia in normal-weight and obese pregnant women using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) while they consumed a habitual and controlled diet both early and late in pregnancy. Glycemia was prospectively measured in early (15.7 ± 2.0 weeks' gestation) and late (27.7 ± 1.7 weeks' gestation) pregnancy in normal-weight (n = 22) and obese (n = 16) pregnant women on an ad libitum and controlled diet. Fasting glucose, triglycerides (early pregnancy only), nonesterified fatty acids (FFAs), and insulin also were measured. The 24-h glucose area under the curve was higher in obese women than in normal-weight women both early and late in pregnancy despite controlled diets. Nearly all fasting and postprandial glycemic parameters were higher in the obese women later in pregnancy, as were fasting insulin, triglycerides, and FFAs. Infants born to obese mothers had greater adiposity. Maternal BMI (r = 0.54, P = 0.01), late average daytime glucose (r = 0.48, P fasting insulin (r = 0.49, P fasting triglycerides (r = 0.67, P fasting FFAs (r = 0.54, P obese women without diabetes have higher daytime and nocturnal glucose profiles than normal-weight women despite a controlled diet both early and late in gestation. Body fat in infants, not birth weight, was related to maternal BMI, glucose, insulin, and FFAs, but triglycerides were the strongest predictor. These metabolic findings may explain higher rates of infant macrosomia in obese women, which might be targeted in trials to prevent excess fetal growth.

  20. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2015-09-17

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (low-fat diet (fat, fat; n = 73) on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (-16.8 ng/mL (-32.0 to -1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  1. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75 versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73 on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL; p = 0.009 and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL; p = 0.031 than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  2. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  3. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in Pereskia species (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2009-01-01

    Calcium oxalate druses were isolated from the stems and leaves of six Pereskioideae family members and investigated by infrared spectroscopy, showing that in all samples the biomineral was present in the form of whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O. As Pereskia is thought to represent the "ancestral" condition of the leafless stem-succulent cacti, these results suggest that the biomineralization of calcium oxalate in Cactaceae represents a primitive characteristic of the group and also support a close genetic relationship between Pereskia and Opuntia.

  4. Arthritis associated with calcium oxalate crystals in an anephric patient treated with peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, A.; Ryan, L.M.; McCarty, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid

  5. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  6. A new method for the analysis of soluble and insoluble oxalate in pulp and paper matrices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for determining soluble and insoluble forms of oxalate in pulp and paper samples by ion chromatography. Methanesulphonic acid is used to dissolve insoluble oxalate, and total oxalate is then determined by ion...

  7. Oxaloacetate hydrolase, the C-C bond lyase of oxalate secreting fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Joosten, H.J.; Niu, W.; Zhao, Z.; Mariano, P.S.; McCalman, M.; Kan, van J.; Schaap, P.J.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.

    2007-01-01

    Oxalate secretion by fungi is known to be associated with fungal pathogenesis. In addition, oxalate toxicity is a concern for the commercial application of fungi in the food and drug industries. Although oxalate is generated through several different biochemical pathways, oxaloacetate

  8. Correlation between oxalic acid production and copper tolerance in Wolfiporia cocos

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Clausen; Frederick Green; B. M. Woodward; J. W. Evans; R. C. DeGroot

    2000-01-01

    The increased interest in copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. Due in part to accumulation of oxalic acid by brown-rot fungi and visualization of copper oxalate crystals in wood decayed by known copper-tolerant decay fungi, oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by...

  9. The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Natale, Francesco; Torino, Annarita; Capasso, Rosanna; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Pironti, Erica; Santoro, Elena; Calabrò, Raffaele; Verrotti, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function of the big vessels of the neck and on cardiac diastolic function, in a cohort of epileptic children and young adults treated with the ketogenic diet. Patients were recruited based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) patients who were or had been on the ketogenic diet for a time period of at least six months. Each patient underwent measurement of carotid intima media thickness, carotid artery stiffness, echocardiography, and diastolic function assessment. Patients with drug resistant epilepsy, matched for number, age and sex and never treated with ketogenic diet, were recruited as controls. The population study was composed by 43 epilepsy patients (23 males), aged between 19 months and 31 years (mean 11 years). Twenty-three patients were or had been treated with ketogenic diet, and 20 had never been on it (control group). Subjects treated with the ketogenic diet had higher arterial stiffness parameters, including AIx and β-index and higher serum levels of cholesterol or triglycerides compared to those who had never been on the diet (control group) (pketogenic diet, before the increase of the intima media thickness. This supports that arterial stiffness is an early marker of vascular damage. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K.; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (low-fat diet (low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons. PMID:26393645

  11. The use of microemulsions for the synthesis of oxalate precursors of YBaCuO superconduction oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Muhammed, M.

    1992-01-01

    Although emulsion technique has been used as an advanced separation method, little attention has been paid to the particular feature of emulsions as a powerful reaction media for synthesis of powders, e.g., precipitation of fine particles. In the present paper, the authors report the use of some microemulsion systems as a reaction media in a controlled coprecipitation of the oxalate precursors of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ceramics. The phase diagram of the system: oil (hydrocarbon) - surfactant (Aerosol Orange T) - water, in the absence and presence of nitric/oxalic acids and nitrates, have been systematically investigated. Several hydrocarbons, n-hexane, n-haptene and n-octane have been tested. The different stability regions of microemulsions have been determined. The oxalate coprecipitation of Y, Ba and Cu from nitrate solution was studied under various operating conditions, pH, ratio of oil/surfactant/water and ratio of Y/Ba/Cu/.H 2 C 2 O 4 2 . The chemical and morphological properties of the oxalate powders obtained in the microemulsion systems have been examined by different techniques, e.g., ICP, TGA, XRD and SEM. By XRD, the optimum products are found to be amorphous oxalate composite with exact required stoichiometry and high homogeneity. The average size of the dispersed particles is 50-70 nm while the mean diameter of the agglomerates is around 300 nm. The best sinters bulk sample has T, (R = 0) at 92 K. These powders are used as fine precursors for the synthesis of high T c superconducting ceramics as bulk material and particularly thick films

  12. Surface activation of MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets by oxalic acid for enhanced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junshu; Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yongli; Du, Yucheng; Yang, Yilong; Jia, Xinjian

    2017-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Visible light driven photoreduction of Cr(VI) over MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets is enhanced via oxalic acid surface complex to generate activation layer. - Highlights: • MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets are crystallized by a surface capping route of sulfonate groups. • Oxalic acid on MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets forms an excited surface complex hybrid layer. • Surface activation enhances visible-light induced reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III). - Abstract: MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets (P-MNOs) is selectively crystallized by using surface capping ligand with functional sulfonate group (sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate), which binds to the (131) surface of MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} inducing the morphology-controlled crystallization of MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} materials. Surface modification of photoactive P-MNOs with electron-rich oxalic acid ligands establishes an excited surface complex layer on phase-pure P-MNO as evidenced by spectroscopic analyses (FT-IR, UV–vis, Raman, PL, etc.), and thus more efficiently photocatalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) than solely P-MNOs or oxalic acid under visible light (λ > 420 nm) via a ligand-to-metal interfacial electron transfer pathway. However, the interaction between oxalic acid and MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} is highly dependent upon the morphology of solid MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} substrate due to the higher surface-area-to-volume ratio and higher surface activity of (131) planes in the sheet-like morphology. This study could assist the construction of stable niobate material systems to allow a versatile solid surface activation for establishing more energy efficient and robust catalysis process under visible light.

  13. Hormones and Diet, but Not Body Weight, Control Hypothalamic Microglial Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Ottaway, Nickki; Schriever, Sonja C.; Legutko, Beata; García-Cáceres, Cristina; de la Fuente, Esther; Mergen, Clarita; Bour, Susanne; Thaler, Joshua P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Filosa, Jessica; Stern, Javier E.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schwartz, Michael W.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory

  14. Dieting and the self-control of eating in everyday environments: An experience sampling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, W.; Adriaanse, Marieke; Vohs, K.D.; Baumeister, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The literature on dieting has sparked several debates over how restrained eaters differ from unrestrained eaters in their self-regulation of healthy and unhealthy food desires and what distinguishes successful from unsuccessful dieters. We addressed these debates using a four-component

  15. Synthesis, Crystal structure and Characterization of a New Oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in a slightly distorted octahedral environment, by two O atoms from two water molecules and four O atoms of two oxalate anions acting as chelating ligands. ... component for building up supramolecular systems and for participating in hydrogen bonding ... heating rate of 10◦C min−1. 2.2 Synthesis of the complex. Aqueous ...

  16. Computational and experimental studies on oxalic acid imprinted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: rkkawadkar@chm.vnit.ac.in. MS received 13 ... vent or porogen to form a pre-polymerization complex, followed by .... tered off and the filtrate was analysed for oxalic acid by. UV/VIS ... The experimental binding data were fitted to the.

  17. Competitive adsorption and photodegradation of salicylate and oxalate on goethite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Bajt, O.; Mailhot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 221-227 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : goethite * oxalate * salicylate Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  18. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  19. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hession, M; Rolland, C; Kulkarni, U; Wise, A; Broom, J

    2009-01-01

    There are few studies comparing the effects of low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets with low-fat/high-carbohydrate diets for obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. This systematic review focuses on randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate diets compared with low-fat/low-calorie diets. Studies conducted in adult populations with mean or median body mass index of > or =28 kg m(-2) were included. Thirteen electronic databases were searched and randomized controlled trials from January 2000 to March 2007 were evaluated. Trials were included if they lasted at least 6 months and assessed the weight-loss effects of low-carbohydrate diets against low-fat/low-calorie diets. For each study, data were abstracted and checked by two researchers prior to electronic data entry. The computer program Review Manager 4.2.2 was used for the data analysis. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences between the groups for weight, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols and systolic blood pressure, favouring the low-carbohydrate diet. There was a higher attrition rate in the low-fat compared with the low-carbohydrate groups suggesting a patient preference for a low-carbohydrate/high-protein approach as opposed to the Public Health preference of a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective at 6 months and are as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to 1 year. More evidence and longer-term studies are needed to assess the long-term cardiovascular benefits from the weight loss achieved using these diets.

  20. Diet and Pre-eclampsia: A Prospective Multicentre Case-Control Study in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeshaw, Mulualem; Abebe, Fantu; Bedimo, Melkamu; Asart, Anemaw

    2015-06-01

    Pre-eclampsia is one of the most commonly encountered hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that accounts for 20-80% of maternal mortality in developing countries, including Ethiopia. For many years, diet has been suggested to play a role in pre-eclampsia. However, the hypotheses have been diverse with inconsistent results across studies, and this has not been studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary habits on the incidence of pre-eclampsia in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia A prospective multicentre unmatched case-control study was conducted among 453 (151 cases and 302 controls) pregnant women attending antepartum or intrapartum care in public health facilities of Bahir Dar City from June to September 2014. The interviewer conducted a face-to-face interview, measured the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and collected the mid-pregnancy haemoglobin level from clinical notes using a standardized and pretested questionnaire. Epi Info 3.5.3 was used for data entry and cleaning, while IBM SPSS Statistics 20 was used for data analysis. Backward stepwise unconditional logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the strength of association of predictive variables with the outcome variable and to control for the effect of confounding variables. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. For every 1-cm increase of MUAC, there was an increase in the incidence rate of pre-eclampsia by a factor of 1.35 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 1.51). A higher incidence of pre-eclampsia was found in women who reported to have consumed coffee daily during pregnancy (AOR=1.78, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.05). Similarly, for women who had anaemia during the first trimester, the incidence of pre-eclampsia was 2.5 times higher than their counterparts (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 7.61). This study also revealed consumption of fruit or vegetables at least three times a week during pregnancy to be protective

  1. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  2. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  3. Randomised controlled trial of effect of whole soy replacement diet on features of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Woo, Jean; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; He, Qiqiang; Xie, Yao Jie; Tse, Lap Ah; Chen, Bailing; Su, Xue-Fen; Lao, Xiang-Qian; Wong, Carmen; Chan, Ruth; Ling, Wen-Hua

    2016-09-27

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a public health problem in postmenopausal women. Whole soy foods are rich in unsaturated fats, high quality plant protein and various bioactive phytochemicals that may have a beneficial role in the management of MetS. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of whole soy replacement diet on the features of MetS among postmenopausal women. This will be a 12-month, randomised, single-blind, parallel controlled trial among 208 postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. After 4 weeks' run-in, subjects will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups, whole soy replacement group or control group, each for 12 months. Subjects in the whole soy group will be required to include four servings of whole soy foods (containing 25 g soy protein) into their daily diet iso-calorically, replacing red or processed meat and high fat dairy products. Subjects in the control group will remain on a usual diet. The outcome measures will include metabolic parameters as well as a 10-year risk for ischaemic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesise that the whole soy substitution diet will notably improve features of MetS in postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. The study will have both theoretical and practical significance. If proven effective, the application of the whole soy replacement diet model will be a safe, practical and economical strategy for MetS prevention and treatment. Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The results will be disseminated via conference presentations and papers in academic peer reviewed journals. Data files will be deposited in an accessible repository. NCT02610322. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) s...

  5. Co-precipitation of plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pius, I.C.; Noronha, D.M.; Chaudhury, Satyajeet

    2017-01-01

    Co-precipitation of plutonium and americium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate has been investigated for the removal of these long lived α-active nuclides from waste solutions. Effect of concentration of bismuth and oxalic acid on the co-precipitation of Pu(IV) from 3 M HNO_3 has been investigated. Similar experiments were also carried out from 3.75 M HNO_3 on co-precipitation of Am(III) to optimize the conditions of precipitation. Strong co-precipitation of Pu(IV) and Am(III) with bismuth oxalate indicate feasibility of treatment of plutonium and americium bearing waste solutions. (author)

  6. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Karin E; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-08-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 36 lean, healthy men to a 40% hypercaloric diet for 6 weeks or a eucaloric control diet and measured intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), abdominal fat using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with a glucose isotope tracer before and after the diet intervention. The caloric surplus consisted of fat and sugar (high-fat-high-sugar; HFHS) or sugar only (high-sugar; HS) and was consumed together with, or between, the three main meals, thereby increasing meal size or meal frequency. All hypercaloric diets similarly increased body mass index (BMI). Increasing meal frequency significantly increased IHTG (HFHS mean relative increase of 45%; P = 0.016 and HS mean relative increase of 110%; P = 0.047), whereas increasing meal size did not (2-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] size versus frequency P = 0.03). Abdominal fat increased in the HFHS-frequency group (+63.3 ± 42.8 mL; P = 0.004) and tended to increase in the HS-frequency group (+46.5 ± 50.7 mL; P = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease in the HFHS-frequency group while peripheral insulin sensitivity was not affected. A hypercaloric diet with high meal frequency increased IHTG and abdominal fat independent of caloric content and body weight gain, whereas increasing meal size did not. This study suggests that snacking, a common feature in the Western diet, independently contributes to hepatic steatosis and obesity. ( www

  7. Effect of lifestyle on asthma control in Japanese patients: importance of periodical exercise and raw vegetable diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikura, Motoyasu; Yi, Siyan; Ichimura, Yasunori; Hori, Ai; Izumi, Shinyu; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kudo, Koichiro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT), and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The proportions of total control (ACT = 25), well controlled (ACT = 20-24), and poorly controlled (ACT smoking status and alcohol drinking were not associated with asthma control. On the other hand, younger age (smoking, periodical exercise (> 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week), and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week) were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.

  8. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  9. Factors associated with colorectal cancer in the context of the Mediterranean diet: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Biondi, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Basile, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that increased adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) may prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between health-related characteristics and CRC in the context of the MD. This was a case-control study conducted on a sample of 338 consecutive patients with a first diagnosis of CRC recruited in an urban facility in the city of Catania, southern Italy, and matched with 676 apparently healthy subjects without clinical symptoms or signs of any type of cancer. Data regarding sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics were collected, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern was assessed using the MedDietScore. A significant association between a greater adherence to the MD and lower odds of having cancer (odds ratio = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.75) was found. Also, smoking status, family history of CRC, obesity, diabetes, physical activity, and high intake of alcohol were significantly associated with CRC, but only among subjects less adherent to the MD. MD was associated with a less detrimental effects of several health-related characteristics associated with CRC, suggesting potential benefits of adherence to this dietary pattern with regards to CRC risk factors.

  10. Ad libitum Mediterranean and Low Fat Diets both Significantly Reduce Hepatic Steatosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Sherriff, Jill L; Ching, Helena L; Jeffrey, Garry P; Buckley, Rachel F; Tibballs, Jonathan; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Garas, George; Adams, Leon A

    2018-05-05

    Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF). Hepatic steatosis was determined via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). From a total of 56 subjects enrolled, 49 subjects completed the intervention and 48 were included for analysis. During the intervention, subjects on the MD had significantly higher total and monounsaturated fat but lower carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared to LF subjects (pfat reduction between the groups (p=0.32), with mean (SD) relative reductions of 25.0% (±25.3%) in LF and 32.4% (±25.5%) in MD. Liver enzymes also improved significantly in both groups. Weight loss was minimal and not different between groups [-1.6 (±2.1)kg in LF vs -2.1 (±2.5)kg in MD, (p=0.52)]. Within-group improvements in the Framingham risk score, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and HbA1c were observed in the MD (all pvs. 64%, p=0.048). Ad libitum low fat and Mediterranean diets both improve hepatic steatosis to a similar degree. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-05-01

    Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: -1.8%, -12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, -7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: -2.1%, -8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, -5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effect of Six-Month Diet Intervention on Sleep among Overweight and Obese Men with Chronic Insomnia Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30–65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28 or control (n = 21 groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1–3 times per week; 300–500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.

  13. Evaluation of a simplified modified Atkins diet for use by parents with low levels of literacy in children with refractory epilepsy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Goel, Shaiphali; Jain, Puneet; Agarwala, Anuja; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-11-01

    This study was planned to develop and evaluate a simple, easy-to-understand variation of the modified Atkins diet, for use by parents with low levels of literacy in children with refractory epilepsy. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a simplified version of the modified Atkins diet was developed. In the second phase this was evaluated in children aged 2-14 years who had daily seizures despite the appropriate use of at least two anticonvulsant drugs, in an open-label randomized-controlled-trial. Children were randomized to receive either the simplified modified Atkins diet or no dietary intervention for a period of 3 months with the ongoing anticonvulsant medications being continued unchanged in both the groups. Reduction in seizure frequency was the primary outcome-measure. Data was analyzed using intention to treat approach. Adverse effects were also studied. (Clinical trial identifier NCT0189989). Forty-one children were randomly assigned to the diet-group, and 40 were assigned to the control-group. Two patients discontinued the diet during the study period. The proportion of children with>50% seizure reduction was significantly higher in the diet group as compared to the control group (56.1% vs 7.5%, pliteracy. This diet was found to be feasible, efficacious and well tolerated in children with refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of lifestyle on asthma control in Japanese patients: importance of periodical exercise and raw vegetable diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyasu Iikura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. METHODS: The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT, and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The proportions of total control (ACT = 25, well controlled (ACT = 20-24, and poorly controlled (ACT 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week, and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.

  15. Multiple behavior changes in diet and activity: a randomized controlled trial using mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H Gene; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C; Epstein, Leonard H; Demott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-05-28

    Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit and vegetable intake, high sedentary leisure time, and low physical activity to 1 of 4 treatments: increase fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, decrease fat and sedentary leisure, decrease fat and increase physical activity, and increase fruit/vegetable intake and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided 3 weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up, incentives were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the 4 diet and activity behaviors at the end of treatment and at 5-month follow-up. Of the 204 individuals randomized, 200 (98.0%) completed follow-up. The increase fruits/vegetables and decrease sedentary leisure treatments improved more than the other 3 treatments (P improved less than the other 3 treatments (P mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes.

  16. Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study, an open-label randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, R; Béné, M C; Spazzafumo, L; Pinto, A; Donini, L M; Pryen, F; Charrouf, Z; Valentini, L; Lochs, H; Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Blanc-Bisson, C; Buccolini, F; Brigidi, P; Franceschi, C; d'Alessio, P A

    2016-08-01

    Eating habits may influence the life span and the quality of ageing process by modulating inflammation. The RISTOMED project was developed to provide a personalized and balanced diet, enriched with or without nutraceutical compounds, to decrease and prevent inflammageing, oxidative stress and gut microbiota alteration in healthy elderly people. This paper focused on the effect on inflammation and metabolism markers after 56 days of RISTOMED diet alone or supplementation with three nutraceutical compounds. A cohort of 125 healthy elderly subjects was recruited and randomized into 4 arms (Arm A, RISTOMED diet; Arm B, RISTOMED diet plus VSL#3 probiotic blend; Arm C, RISTOMED diet plus AISA d-Limonene; Arm D, RISTOMED diet plus Argan oil). Inflammatory and metabolism parameters as well as the ratio between Clostridium cluster IV and Bifidobacteria (CL/B) were collected before and after 56 days of dietary intervention, and their evolution compared among the arms. Moreover, participants were subdivided according to their baseline inflammatory parameters (erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein, fibrinogen, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alfa (TNF-α), and Interleukin 6) in two clusters with low or medium-high level of inflammation. The evolution of the measured parameters was then examined separately in each cluster. Overall, RISTOMED diet alone or with each nutraceutical supplementation significantly decreased ESR. RISTOMED diet supplemented with d-Limonene resulted in a decrease in fibrinogen, glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-IR. The most beneficial effects were observed in subjects with a medium-high inflammatory status who received RISTOMED diet with AISA d-Limonene supplementation. Moreover, RISTOMED diet associated with VSL#3 probiotic blend induced a decrease in the CL/B ratio. Overall, this study emphasizes the beneficial anti-inflammageing effect of RISTOMED diet supplemented with nutraceuticals to control the inflammatory status of elderly

  17. Role of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin in calcium oxalate crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the defenses against nephrolithiasis is provided by macromolecules that modulate the nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention of crystals in the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to determine the behavior of two of these proteins, Tamm-Horsfall and uromodulin, in calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. We studied a group of 10 male stone formers who had formed at least one kidney stone composed of calcium oxalate. They were classified as having idiopathic nephrolithiasis and had no well-known metabolic risk factors involved in kidney stone pathogenesis. Ten normal men were used as controls, as was a group consisting of five normal women and another consisting of five pregnant women. Crystallization was induced by a fixed supersaturation of calcium oxalate and measured with a Coulter Counter. All findings were confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The number of particulate material deposited from patients with Tamm-Horsfall protein was higher than that of the controls (P<0.001. However, Tamm-Horsfall protein decreased the particle diameter of the stone formers when analyzed by the mode of the volume distribution curve (P<0.002 (5.64 ± 0.55 µm compared to 11.41 ± 0.48 µm of uromodulin; 15.94 ± 3.93 µm and 12.45 ± 0.97 µm of normal men Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 8.17 ± 1.57 µm and 9.82 ± 0.95 µm of normal women Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 12.17 ± 1.41 µm and 12.99 ± 0.51 µm of pregnant Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively. Uromodulin produced fewer particles than Tamm-Horsfall protein in all groups. Nonetheless, the total volume of the crystals produced by uromodulin was higher than that produced by Tamm-Horsfall protein. Our results indicate a different effect of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin. This dual behavior suggests different functions. Tamm-Horsfall protein may act on nucleation and inhibit crystal aggregation, while

  18. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  19. Correlation between oxalic acid production and tolerance of Tyromyces palustris strain TYP-6137 to N',N-naphthaloylhydroxamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Arango; Patricia K. Lebow; Frederick III Green

    2009-01-01

    Eleven strains of T. palustris were evaluated for mass loss and production of phosphate buffer soluble oxalic acid on pine wood blocks treated with 0.5% N’,N-naphthaloylhydroxamine (NHA) in a soil-block test. After 12 weeks higher percentage mass loss was observed in control groups for 10 strains, while TYP-6137 was shown to be tolerant with no difference between the...

  20. Novel Inorganic Coordination Polymers Based on Cadmium Oxalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P. A.; Neeraj, S.; Vaidhyanathan, R.; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2002-06-01

    Three new cadmium oxalate coordination polymers, I-III, with extended layered structures have been synthesized in the presence of imidazole. While I was prepared by the reaction between imidazolium oxalate and Cd, II and III were synthesized from their constituents using hydrothermal methods. [Cd(C2O4)(C3N2H4)]∞ (I): monoclinic, space group P21/c (no. 14), a=8.7093(1) Å, b=9.9477(3) Å, c=8.4352 Å, β=93.796(1)°, Z=4; [Cd(C2O4)2(C3N2H4)3(H2O)]∞ (II): monoclinic, space group P21/c (no. 14), a=7.8614(2) Å, b=14.9332(3) Å, c=15.9153(4) Å β=94.587(1)°, Z=4; [Cd(C2O4)2(C3N2H4)3(H2O)]∞ (III): monoclinic, space group P21/c (no. 14), a=11.844(2) Å, b=9.066(1) Å, c=18.583(2) Å, β=103.84(2)°, Z=4. While the structure of I is made from CdO5N distorted octahedra linked with oxalate, II and III are built-up from CdO6N, CdO5N2 distorted pentagonal bi-pyramids connected to oxalate units. The framework formulas of II and III are identical and their structures closely related. In all the cases, the networking between the Cd-O/N polyhedra and oxalates give rise to layered architectures with the amine molecules pointing in a direction perpendicular to the layers (in the inter-lamellar region). The difference in the linkages between the oxalates and the Cd atoms in I-III, produces unusual Cd-O-Cd one-dimensional chains, which have been observed for the first time.

  1. A Drosophila genetic model of nephrolithiasis: transcriptional changes in response to diet induced stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Vera Y; Turney, Benjamin W

    2017-11-28

    Urolithiasis is a significant healthcare issue but the pathophysiology of stone disease remains poorly understood. Drosophila Malpighian tubules were known to share similar physiological function to human renal tubules. We have used Drosophila as a genetic model to study the transcriptional response to stone formation secondary to dietary manipulation. Wild-type male flies were raised on standard medium supplemented with lithogenic agents: control, sodium oxalate (NaOx) and ethylene glycol (EG). At 2 weeks, Malpighian tubules were dissected under polarized microscope to visualize crystals. The parallel group was dissected for RNA extraction and subsequent next-generation RNA sequencing. Crystal formation was visualized in 20%(±2.2) of flies on control diet, 73%(±3.6) on NaOx diet and 84%(±2.2) on EG diet. Differentially expressed genes were identified in flies fed with NaOx and EG diet comparing with the control group. Fifty-eight genes were differentially expressed (FDR <0.05, p < 0.05) in NaOx diet and 20 genes in EG diet. The molecular function of differentially expressed genes were assessed. Among these, Nervana 3, Eaat1 (Excitatory amino acid transporter 1), CG7912, CG5404, CG3036 worked as ion transmembrane transporters, which were possibly involved in stone pathogenesis. We have shown that by dietary modification, stone formation can be manipulated and visualized in Drosophila Malpighian tubules. This genetic model could be potentially used to identify the candidate genes that influence stone risk hence providing more insight to the pathogenesis of human stone disease.

  2. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of 3 ad libitum diets on the maintenance of an initial weight loss of >or=8% and risk factors for CVD and diabetes during...... a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...... as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped...

  3. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  4. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Emelie; Edholm, Peter; Ponsot, Elodie; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Hellmén, Erik; Nilsson, Andreas; Engfeldt, Peter; Cederholm, Tommy; Risérus, Ulf; Kadi, Fawzi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 ± 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Inflammatory potential of diet and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer in a large case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Rosato, Valentina; Garavello, Werner; Serraino, Diego; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    Diet and inflammation have been suggested to be important risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer. We examined the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII™) and oral and pharyngeal cancer in a large case-control study conducted between 1992 and 2009 in Italy. This study included 946 cases with incident, histologically confirmed oral and pharyngeal cancer, and 2,492 controls hospitalized for acute non-neoplastic diseases. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed by a valid 78-item food frequency questionnaire and was adjusted for nonalcohol energy intake using the residual approach (E-DII™). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for age, sex, non-alcohol energy intake, study center, year of interview, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking. Subjects with higher DII scores (i.e., with a more pro-inflammatory diet) had a higher risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer, the OR being 1.80 (95% CI 1.36-2.38) for the highest versus the lowest DII quartile and 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) for a one-unit increase (8% of the DII range). When stratified by selected covariates, a stronger association was observed among women (OR quartile4 v.1 3.30, 95% CI 1.95-5.57). We also observed a stronger association for oral cancers and a strong combined effect of higher DII score and tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption on oral and pharyngeal cancer. These results indicate that the pro-inflammatory potential of the diet, as shown by higher DII scores, is associated with higher odds of oral and pharyngeal cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  6. The Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Li; Wang, Qi; Hong, Yong; Ojo, Omorogieva; Jiang, Qing; Hou, Yun-Ying; Huang, Yu-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2018-05-23

    In China, a low-fat diet (LFD) is mainly recommended to help improve blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) has been shown to be effective in improving blood glucose levels in America and England. A few studies, primarily randomized controlled trials, have been reported in China as well. Firstly, we designed two 'six-point formula' methods, which met the requirements of LCD and LFD, respectively. Fifty-six T2DM patients were recruited and randomly allocated to the LCD group ( n = 28) and the LFD group ( n = 28). The LCD group received education about LCD's six-point formula, while the LFD group received education about LFD's six-point formula. The follow-up time was three months. The indicators for glycemic control and other metabolic parameters were collected and compared between the two groups. Forty-nine patients completed the study. The proportions of calories from three macronutrients the patients consumed met the requirements of LCD and LFD. Compared to the LFD group, there was a greater decrease in HbA1c level in the LCD group (-0.63% vs. -0.31%, p < 0.05). The dosages of insulin and fasting blood glucoses (FBG) in the third month were lower than those at baseline in both groups. Compared with baseline values, body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol (TC) in the LCD group were significantly reduced in the third month ( p < 0.05); however, there were no statistically significant differences in the LFD group. LCD can improve blood glucose more than LFD in Chinese patients with T2DM. It can also regulate blood lipid, reduce BMI, and decrease insulin dose in patients with T2DM. In addition, the six-point formula is feasible, easily operable, and a practical educational diet for Chinese patients with T2DM.

  7. A randomised, controlled, crossover study of the effect of diet on angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) through modification of the gut microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blædel, Trine; Holm, Jacob B.; Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer

    2016-01-01

    -fat milk or as a result of fermentation of inulin. This study investigated whether a standardised diet either high in fat content or supplemented with inulin powder would increase plasma ANGPTL4 in overweight men and whether this increase was mediated through a compositional change of the gut microbiota....... The study had a crossover design with three arms, where participants were given a standardised isoenergetic diet supplemented with inulin powder, whole-fat milk or water (control). Plasma and urine samples were collected before and after each intervention period. Faecal samples and adipose tissue biopsies...... of bifidobacteria following the inulin diet was higher, compared with the control diet. However, the changes in microbiota were not associated with plasma ANGPTL4 and the overall composition of the microbiota did not change between the dietary periods. Although weight was maintained throughout the dietary periods...

  8. Precipitation behavior of uranium in multicomponent solution by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.J.; Kim, I.S.; Lee, W.K.; Shin, H.S.; Ro, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    A study on the precipitation of uranium by oxalic acid was carried out in a multicomponent solution. The precipitation method is usually applied to the treatment of radioactive waste and the recovery of uranium from a uranium-scrap contaminated with impurities. In these cases, the problem is how to increase the precipitation yield of target element and to prevent impurities from coprecipitation. The multicomponent solution in the present experiment was prepared by dissolving U, Nd, Cs and Sr in nitric acid. The effects of concentrations of oxalic acid and ascorbic acid on the precipitation yield and purity of uranium were observed. As results of the study, the maximum precipitation yield of uranium is revealed to be about 96.5% and the relative precipitation ratio of Nd, Cs and Sr versus uranium are discussed at the condition of the maximum precipitation yield of uranium, respectively. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. The metabolic and ecological interactions of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the Mammalian gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron W; Dearing, Denise

    2013-12-06

    Oxalate-degrading bacteria comprise a functional group of microorganisms, commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Oxalate is a plant secondary compound (PSC) widely produced by all major taxa of plants and as a terminal metabolite by the mammalian liver. As a toxin, oxalate can have a significant impact on the health of mammals, including humans. Mammals do not have the enzymes required to metabolize oxalate and rely on their gut microbiota for this function. Thus, significant metabolic interactions between the mammalian host and a complex gut microbiota maintain the balance of oxalate in the body. Over a dozen species of gut bacteria are now known to degrade oxalate. This review focuses on the host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions that regulate the degradation of oxalate by the gut microbiota. We discuss the pathways of oxalate throughout the body and the mammalian gut as a series of differentiated ecosystems that facilitate oxalate degradation. We also explore the mechanisms and functions of microbial oxalate degradation along with the implications for the ecological and evolutionary interactions within the microbiota and for mammalian hosts. Throughout, we consider questions that remain, as well as recent technological advances that can be employed to answer them.

  10. Diet and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meat, skinned poultry and fish nonfat dairy products sugar-free drinks like diet soda. Controlling your weight will lower your chance ... with your doctor and dietitian to keep your diet and blood sugar in good control. Where can I get more ...

  11. Oxalic acid has an additional, detoxifying function in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose Heller

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the diseases caused by the necrotroph plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is not well understood. To investigate the role of oxalic acid during infection high resolution, light-, scanning-, transmission electron microscopy and various histochemical staining methods were used. Our inoculation method allowed us to follow degradation of host plant tissue around single hyphae and to observe the reaction of host cells in direct contact with single invading hyphae. After penetration the outer epidermal cell wall matrix appeared degraded around subcuticular hyphae (12-24 hpi. Calcium oxalate crystals were detected in advanced (36-48 hpi and late (72 hpi infection stages, but not in early stages. In early infection stages, surprisingly, no toxic effect of oxalic acid eventually secreted by S. sclerotiorum was observed. As oxalic acid is a common metabolite in plants, we propose that attacked host cells are able to metabolize oxalic acid in the early infection stage and translocate it to their vacuoles where it is stored as calcium oxalate. The effects, observed on healthy tissue upon external application of oxalic acid to non-infected, living tissue and cell wall degradation of dead host cells starting at the inner side of the walls support this idea. The results indicate that oxalic acid concentrations in the early stage of infection stay below the toxic level. In plant and fungi oxalic acid/calcium oxalate plays an important role in calcium regulation. Oxalic acid likely could quench calcium ions released during cell wall breakdown to protect growing hyphae from toxic calcium concentrations in the infection area. As calcium antimonate-precipitates were found in vesicles of young hyphae, we propose that calcium is translocated to the older parts of hyphae and detoxified by building non-toxic, stable oxalate crystals. We propose an infection model where oxalic acid plays a detoxifying role in late infection stages.

  12. Binding abilities of copper to phospholipids and transport of oxalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šádek, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 5 (2015), s. 831-837 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : copper cations * dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (lecithin) * ESI-MS * impedance spectroscopy * oxalic acid * voltammetry * membrane Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.131, year: 2015

  13. Hafnium(IV) complexation with oxalate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, Mitchell T.; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullmanm, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-08-01

    Appropriate management of fission products in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is crucial in developing advanced reprocessing schemes. The addition of aqueous phase complexing agents can prevent the co-extraction of these fission products. A solvent extraction technique was used to study the complexation of Hf(IV) - an analog to fission product Zr(IV) - with oxalate at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4} utilizing a {sup 175+181}Hf radiotracer. The mechanism of the solvent extraction system of 10{sup -5} M Hf(IV) in 1 M HClO{sub 4} to thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene demonstrated a 4{sup th}-power dependence in both TTA and H{sup +}, with Hf(TTA){sub 4} the only extractable species. The equilibrium constant for the extraction of Hf(TTA){sub 4} was determined to be log K{sub ex}=7.67±0.07 (25±1 C, 1 M HClO{sub 4}). The addition of oxalate to the aqueous phase decreased the distribution ratio, indicating aqueous Hf(IV)-oxalate complex formation. Polynomial fits to the distribution data identified the formation of Hf(ox){sup 2+} and Hf(ox){sub 2(aq)} and their stability constants were measured at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4}. van't Hoff analysis was used to calculate Δ{sub r}G, Δ{sub r}H, and Δ{sub r}S for these species. Stability constants were observed to increase at higher temperature, an indication that Hf(IV)-oxalate complexation is endothermic and driven by entropy.

  14. Beneficial effect of a polyphenol-rich diet on cardiovascular risk: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noad, Rebecca L; Rooney, Ciara; McCall, Damian; Young, Ian S; McCance, David; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V; McKeown, Pascal P

    2016-09-01

    There is previous epidemiological evidence that intake of polyphenol-rich foods has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to investigate the effect of increasing dietary polyphenol intake on microvascular function in hypertensive participants. All participants completed a 4-week run-in phase, consuming chocolate. Subjects were then randomised to continue with the low-polyphenol diet for 8 weeks or to consume a high-polyphenol diet of six portions F&V (including one portion of berries/day and 50 g of dark chocolate). Endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh) and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside) vasodilator responses were assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography. Compliance with the intervention was measured using food diaries and biochemical markers. Final analysis of the primary endpoint was conducted on 92 participants. Between-group comparison of change in maximum % response to ACh revealed a significant improvement in the high-polyphenol group (p=0.02). There was a significantly larger increase in vitamin C, carotenoids and epicatechin in the high-polyphenol group (between-group difference pchocolate results in a significant improvement in an established marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive participants. NCT01319786. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system in a food service unit serving immuno-suppressed patient diets / E.E. Vermeulen

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Emma Emmerenza

    2006-01-01

    Main aim: To supply recommendations to implement a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) system in a hospital food service unit serving low bacterial diets in order to prevent or decrease the infection rates in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) patients. Objectives: Firstly, to investigate the current food safety and hygiene status in a hospital food service unit, serving low bacterial diets, by means of a questionnaire and bacterial swabs taken from the...

  16. Bio-physical characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosa of celiac patients: comparison with control subjects and effect of gluten free diet-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanacci Vincenzo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal mucosa is leaky in celiac disease (CD, and this alteration may involve changes in hydrophobicity of the mucus surface barrier in addition to alteration of the epithelial barrier. The aims of our study were i to compare duodenal hydrophobicity as an index of mucus barrier integrity in CD patients studied before (n = 38 and during gluten- free diet (GFD, n = 68, and in control subjects (n = 90, and ii to check for regional differences of hydrophobicity in the gastro-intestinal tract. Methods Hydrophobicity was assessed by measurement of contact angle (CA (Rame Hart 100/10 goniometer generated by a drop of water placed on intestinal mucosal biopsies. Results CA (mean ± SD of distal duodenum was significantly lower in CD patients (56° ± 10° than in control subjects (69° ± 9°, p corpus > rectum > duodenum > oesophagus > ileum. Conclusions We conclude that the hydrophobicity of duodenal mucous layer is reduced in CD patients, and that the resulting decreased capacity to repel luminal contents may contribute to the increased intestinal permeability of CD. This alteration mirrors the severity of the mucosal lesions and is not completely reverted by gluten-free diet. Intestinal hydrophobicity exhibits regional differences in the human intestinal tract.

  17. Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Wener, Mark H.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Duggan, Catherine; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Kong, Angela; Mason, Caitlin E.; Wang, Ching-Yun; Blackburn, George L.; Bain, Carolyn E.; Thompson, Henry J.; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N=118), aerobic exercise (225 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N=117), combined diet+exercise (N=117) or control (N=87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity and age. 438 (N=1 in diet+exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, p-value) 0.92mg/L (0.53–1.31, Pdiet and 0.87mg/L (0.51–1.23, Pdiet+exercise groups. IL-6 decreased by 0.34pg/ml (0.13–0.55, P=0.001) in the diet and 0.32pg/ml (0.15–0.49, Pdiet+exercise groups. Neutrophil counts decreased by 0.31×109/L (0.09–0.54, P=0.006) in the diet and 0.30×109/L (0.09–0.50, P=0.005) in the diet+exercise groups. Diet and diet+exercise participants with ≥5% weight loss reduced inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, SAA, and IL-6) compared to controls. The diet and diet+exercise groups reduced hs-CRP in all subgroups of baseline BMI, waist circumference, CRP level, and fasting glucose. Our findings indicate that a caloric restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction. PMID:22549948

  18. Effect of heat treatment on the structure of incorporated oxalate species and photoluminescent properties of porous alumina films formed in oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevsky, I.; Jagminas, A.; Hemeltjen, S.; Goedel, W. A.

    2008-09-01

    The present work focuses on the use of IR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectral measurements for studying the treatment temperature effect on the compositional and luminescent properties of oxalic acid alumina films. In line with the recent researches we have also found that heat treatment of porous alumina films formed in oxalic acid leads to considerable changes in their photoluminescence properties: upon annealing the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) increases reaching a maximum at the temperature of around 500 °C and then decreases. IR spectra of as-grown and heat-treated films have proved that PL emission in the anodic alumina films is related with the state of 'structural' oxalate species incorporated in the oxide lattice. These results allowed us to conclude that PL behavior of oxalic acid alumina films can be explained through the concept of variations in the bonding molecular orbitals of incorporated oxalate species including σ- and π-bonds.

  19. Primary Nonfunction of Renal Allograft Secondary to Acute Oxalate Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Parasuraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nonfunction (PNF accounts for 0.6 to 8% of renal allograft failure, and the focus on causes of PNF has changed from rejection to other causes. Calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition is common in early allograft biopsies, and it contributes in moderate intensity to higher incidence of acute tubular necrosis and poor graft survival. A-49-year old male with ESRD secondary to polycystic kidney disease underwent extended criteria donor kidney transplantation. Posttransplant, patient developed delayed graft function (DGF, and the biopsy showed moderately intense CaOx deposition that persisted on subsequent biopsies for 16 weeks, eventually resulting in PNF. The serum oxalate level was 3 times more than normal at 85 μmol/L (normal <27 μmol/L. Allograft nephrectomy showed massive aggregates of CaOx crystal deposition in renal collecting system. In conclusion, acute oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of DGF since optimal management could change the outcome of the allograft.

  20. Liquid waste processing from plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium (III) oxalate filtrates contain about 0.2M oxalic acid, 0.09M ascorbic acid, 0.05M hydrazine, 1M nitric acid and 20-100 mg/l of plutonium. The developed treatment of liquid wastes consist in two main steps: a) Distillation to reduce up to 10% of the initial volume and refluxing to destroy organic material. Then, the treated solution is suitable to adjust the plutonium at the tetravalent state by addition of hydrogen peroxide and the nitric molarity up to 8.6M. b) Recovery and purification of plutonium by anion exchange using two columns in series containing Dowex 1-X4 resin. With the proposed process, it is possible to transform 38 litres of filtrates with 40mg/l of Pu into 0.1 l of purified solution with 15-20g/l of Pu. This solution is suitable to be recycled in the Pu (III) oxalate precipitation process. This process has several potential advantages over similar liquid waste treatments. These include: 1) It does not increase the liquid volume. 2) It consumes only few reagents. 3) The operations involved are simple, requiring limited handling and they are feasible to automatization. 4) The Pu recovery factor is about 99%. (Author) [es

  1. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and weight regain after diet in type 2 diabetes: results from the randomised controlled POWER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Kirsten A; Buijks, Hanneke I M; Verhoeven, Adrie J M; Mulder, Monique T; Özcan, Behiye; van 't Spijker, Adriaan; Timman, Reinier; Busschbach, Jan J; Sijbrands, Eric J

    2018-04-01

    Weight-loss programmes for adults with type 2 diabetes are less effective in the long term owing to regain of weight. Our aim was to determine the 2 year effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy (group-CBT) programme in weight maintenance after diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, using a randomised, parallel, non-blinded, pragmatic study design. We included 158 obese adults (median BMI 36.3 [IQR 32.5-40.0] kg/m 2 ) with type 2 diabetes from the outpatient diabetes clinic of Erasmus MC, the Netherlands, who achieved ≥5% weight loss on an 8 week very low calorie diet. Participants were randomised (stratified by weight loss) to usual care or usual care plus group-CBT (17 group sessions). The primary outcomes were the between-group differences after 2 years in: (1) body weight; and (2) weight regain. Secondary outcomes were HbA 1c levels, insulin dose, plasma lipid levels, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, quality of life, fatigue, physical activity, eating disorders and related cognitions. Data were analysed using linear mixed modelling. During the initial 8 week dieting phase, the control group (n = 75) lost a mean of 10.0 (95% CI 9.1, 10.9) kg and the intervention group (n = 83) lost 9.2 (95% CI 8.4, 10.0) kg (p = 0.206 for the between-group difference). During 2 years of follow-up, mean weight regain was 4.7 (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) kg for the control group and 4.0 (95% CI 2.3, 5.6) kg for the intervention group, with a between-group difference of -0.7 (95% CI -3.1, 1.6) kg (p = 0.6). The mean difference in body weight at 2 years was -1.2 (95% CI -7.7, 5.3) kg (p = 0.7). None of the secondary outcomes differed between the two groups. Despite increased treatment contact, a group-CBT programme for long-term weight maintenance after an initial ≥5% weight loss from dieting in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes was not superior to usual care alone. Trialregister.nl NTR2264 FUNDING: The

  2. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 containing an artificial oxalate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin secretes oxalic acid and solubilizes rock phosphate in acidic alfisols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    Full Text Available Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah, Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2 transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4 secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2 transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2 containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil.

  4. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Una; Spence, Michelle; Courtney, C Hamish; McKinley, Michelle C; Ennis, Cieran N; McCance, David R; McEneny, Jane; Bell, Patrick M; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    Low-fat hypocaloric diets reduce insulin resistance and prevent type 2 diabetes in those at risk. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are advocated as an alternative, but reciprocal increases in dietary fat may have detrimental effects on insulin resistance and offset the benefits of weight reduction. We investigated a low-fat (20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) versus a low-carbohydrate (60% fat, 20% carbohydrate) weight reduction diet in 24 overweight/obese subjects ([mean +/- SD] BMI 33.6 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), aged 39 +/- 10 years) in an 8-week randomized controlled trial. All food was weighed and distributed, and intake was calculated to produce a 500 kcal/day energy deficit. Insulin action was assessed by the euglycemic clamp and insulin secretion by meal tolerance test. Body composition, adipokine levels, and vascular compliance by pulse-wave analysis were also measured. Significant weight loss occurred in both groups (P loss with no difference between groups (P = 0.71). The change in overall systemic arterial stiffness was, however, significantly different between diets (P = 0.04); this reflected a significant decrease in augmentation index following the low-fat diet, compared with a nonsignificant increase within the low-carbohydrate group. This study demonstrates comparable effects on insulin resistance of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets independent of macronutrient content. The difference in augmentation index may imply a negative effect of low-carbohydrate diets on vascular risk.

  6. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Mason, Ashley E; Kim, Sarah; Goldman, Veronica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bayandorian, Hovig; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2017-02-13

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend. The aim was to determine whether an online intervention based on our previous recommendations (an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet with lifestyle factors; "intervention") or an online diet program based on the American Diabetes Associations' "Create Your Plate" diet ("control") would improve glycemic control and other health outcomes among overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this pilot feasibility study, we randomized overweight adults (body mass index ≥25) with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA 1c ] 6.5%-9.0%) to a 32-week online intervention based on our previous recommendations (n=12) or an online diet program based around a plate method diet (n=13) to assess the impact of each intervention on glycemic control and other health outcomes. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed by mixed-effects linear regression to compare outcomes by group. At 32 weeks, participants in the intervention group reduced their HbA 1c levels more (estimated marginal mean [EMM] -0.8%, 95% CI -1.1% to -0.6%) than participants in the control group (EMM -0.3%, 95% CI -0.6% to 0.0%; P=.002). More than half of the participants in the intervention group (6/11, 55%) lowered their HbA 1c to less than 6.5% versus 0% (0/8) in the control group (P=.02). Participants in the intervention group lost more weight (EMM -12.7 kg, 95% CI -16.1 to -9.2 kg) than participants in the control group (EMM -3.0 kg

  7. Nutritional intervention with hypocaloric diet for weight control in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vivian Penner de; Emerich, Deisy Ribas; Mesquita, Maria Luiza Guedes de; Paternez, Ana Carolina Almada Colucci; Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues; Pina Neto, João Monteiro de; Teixeira, Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz

    2016-04-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal alleles in the proximal region of the long arm of chromosome 15. Low inhibitory control and hyperphagia are two of the most severe neurobehavioral symptoms of the syndrome. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of nutritional training program with the use hypocaloric diet for weight control in a group of five children and adolescents with PWS. The intervention program consisted of 10 sessions for parents' orientation during 8months. Patients had their anthropometric measures assessed (weight, height and body mass index - BMI). The main results indicate weight maintenance, height increase, and BMI decrease after intervention. These results were considered indicators of the program's efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A randomized controlled cross-over trial investigating the effect of anti-inflammatory diet on disease activity and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis: the Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADIRA) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkvist, Anna; Bärebring, Linnea; Gjertsson, Inger; Ellegård, Lars; Lindqvist, Helen M

    2018-04-20

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects 0.5-1.0% of the population, and where many patients in spite of modern pharmacological treatment fail to reach remission. This affects physical as well as mental wellbeing and leads to severely reduced quality of life and reduced work capacity, thus yielding high individual as well as societal costs. As a complement to modern pharmacological treatment, lifestyle intervention should be evaluated as a treatment option. Scientific evidence exists for anti-inflammatory effects by single foods on RA, but no study exists where these foods have been combined to obtain maximum effect and thus offer a substantial improvement in patient life quality. The main goal of the randomized cross-over trial ADIRA (Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis) is to test the hypothesis that an anti-inflammatory diet intervention, compared to a regular diet, will decrease disease activity and improve quality of life in patients with stable established RA. In total, 50 RA patients with moderate disease activity are randomized to receive initially either a portfolio diet based on several food items with suggested anti-inflammatory effects or a control diet during 2 × 10 weeks with 3 months wash-out between diets. Food bags are delivered weekly by a home food delivery chain and referred to as the fiber bag and the protein bag, respectively, to partially blind participants. Both groups continue with regular pharmacological treatment. Known food biomarkers will be analyzed to measure intervention compliance. Impact on disease severity (measured by DAS28, a composite score which predicts disability and progression of RA), risk markers for cardiovascular disease and quality of life are evaluated after each diet regimen. Metabolomics will be used to evaluate the potential to predict responders to dietary treatment. A health economic evaluation is also included. The nutritional status of patients with RA often is

  9. Biosynthesis of l-Ascorbic Acid and Conversion of Carbons 1 and 2 of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid Occurs within Individual Calcium Oxalate Crystal Idioblasts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostman, Todd A.; Tarlyn, Nathan M.; Loewus, Frank A.; Franceschi, Vincent R.

    2001-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid (AsA) and its metabolic precursors give rise to oxalic acid (OxA) found in calcium oxalate crystals in specialized crystal idioblast cells in plants; however, it is not known if AsA and OxA are synthesized within the crystal idioblast cell or transported in from surrounding mesophyll cells. Isolated developing crystal idioblasts from Pistia stratiotes were used to study the pathway of OxA biosynthesis and to determine if idioblasts contain the entire path and are essentially independent in OxA synthesis. Idioblasts were supplied with various 14C-labeled compounds and examined by micro-autoradiography for incorporation of 14C into calcium oxalate crystals. [14C]OxA gave heavy labeling of crystals, indicating the isolated idioblasts are functional in crystal formation. Incubation with [1-14C]AsA also gave heavy labeling of crystals, whereas [6-14C]AsA gave no labeling. Labeled precursors of AsA (l-[1-14C]galactose; d-[1-14C]mannose) also resulted in crystal labeling, as did the ascorbic acid analog, d-[1-14C]erythorbic acid. Intensity of labeling of isolated idioblasts followed the pattern OxA > AsA (erythorbic acid) > l-galactose > d-mannose. Our results demonstrate that P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts synthesize the OxA used for crystal formation, the OxA is derived from the number 1 and 2 carbons of AsA, and the proposed pathway of ascorbic acid synthesis via d-mannose and l-galactose is operational in individual P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts. These results are discussed with respect to fine control of calcium oxalate precipitation and the concept of crystal idioblasts as independent physiological compartments. PMID:11161021

  10. Development of formula diet of different caloric intake for control of blood sugar in type-2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.A.; Bano, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    During this one year randomized study dietary therapy was conducted to develop a formula diet and was compiled by 70 % of subjects. The primary aim of this Study was to maintain blood glucose as near to normal as possible. Diabetes is essentially caused by over consumption particularly carbohydrates and lack of exercise. Therefore, the key to managing it is changing these behaviors. It is critical to balance your diet with about 40% carbohydrates, 30% protein and 30% high quality healthy fats and consume unrefined, low glycemic index, complex carbohydrates. To make dietary regimen easy and convenient for our patients who were mostly illiterate or with moderate education. This project was undertaken for the development of dietary formula of different caloric intake in Pakistani population. Fifty type-2 diabetic and non obese (males and females) with maximum five year duration of the disease and age range between 30- 50 years were selected as study group while 30 control subjects without diabetes were also selected. Each individual screened for fasting blood glucose serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol at the start and follow up of the study. HbA1c only measured during follow up period. In this study blood glucose reduced from 278.70+- 33.4 mg/dl to 194.5+-28.0 mg/dl P<0.001, serum cholesterol reduced from 204.30+-46.50 mg/dl to 180.0+-36.0 mg/dl (P<0.01) and LDL--Cholesterol from 124.70+-29.10 mg/dl to 110.0 +- 35.7 mg/dl during follow up period of six months. HbA1c changed from 11.5 % to 8.4 %. Adherence to the formula diet plan thus played an important role in reducing blood glucose levels in type-2 diabetic patients. (author)

  11. Personality profiles and risk diet behaviors--a case-control study on teenagers from Timis County, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Cristina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2014-01-01

    In the study we conducted we aimed at investigating the relation between personality profiles and risk diet behaviors in teenagers. This study was a case-control one and we applied 2 questionnaires (Freiburg Personality Inventory--FPI with 212 items) and CORT 2004 (items Q94-Q116 of diet behavior) on a sample of 2908 teenagers (51.5% girls and 48.5% boys). Cronbach's alpha index was 0.802 for FPI and 0.730 for items Q101-Q109 of CORT. Personality profiles were built by an Excel 2003 Program. Statistical analysis was realized with SPSS 16 program applying Chi square (chi2) and gamma (gamma) correlation. Personality features of teenagers with high and without risk diet behavior were analyzed. Results obtained: personality profiles and statistical results indicated the existence of a significant statistical difference of aggressiveness and domination between teenagers with high and no consumption of butter and/or lard (Q103) (chi2 = 6.872, Sig. 0.032 and chi2 = 6.922, Sig. 0.031 respectively), of juices from the market (Q106) (chi2 = 9.055, Sig. 0.011 and chi2 = 14.571, Sig. 0.001 respectively). Aggressiveness correlated with consumption of fried potatoes (Q109) (chi2 = 6.144, Sig. 0.046) too. Correlation gamma indicated direct proportional relations of aggressiveness with: Q103 (gamma = 0.215, Sig. 0.017), Q106 (gamma = 0.224, Sig. 0.004), Q109 (gamma = 0.242, Sig. 0.012); and of domination with: Q103 (gamma = 0.234, Sig. 0.008), Q106 (gamma = 0.073, Sig. 0.000). In conclusion, there is a direct proportional relation between consumption of: butter/lard, juices from the market and teenagers' aggressiveness, domination; and a similar relation between consumption of fried potatoes and aggressiveness.

  12. A blinded randomized controlled trial evaluating the usefulness of a novel diet (aminoprotect care) in dogs with spontaneous food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Kurata, Keigo; Paps, Judy S; Masuda, Kenichi

    2007-10-01

    Aminoprotect Care (APC) is a novel diet composed of aminoacids, potato proteins and corn starch. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Maltese-Beagle atopic (MBA) dogs hypersensitive to corn exhibited clinical signs and changes in immunological markers after being fed APC. The study was designed as a blinded randomized controlled crossover experiment. Ten MBA dogs with signs of allergy within five days of ingesting corn were selected. Dogs were randomized to be fed either their maintenance diet with corn or APC for five days. After a washout of two weeks, diets were switched. Before and daily during each intervention, skin lesions were graded by an investigator while pruritus was assessed by another. Before and at the end of each intervention, the percentage of circulating CD4+CCR4+, corn-activated CD4+ T-lymphocytes and serum corn-specific IgE levels were measured and ratios of post:pre values calculated. During this trial, pruritus and skin lesions increased significantly in MBA dogs when ingesting corn while no such increase occurred when fed APC. Total, median and maximal pruritus values were significantly higher in MBA dogs ingesting corn compared to APC. There were no significant differences between interventions in the immunological parameters assessed. In summary, even though APC contains corn starch to which corn-sensitive MBA dogs often react, the ingestion of APC did not lead to significant increases in skin lesions or pruritus. Aminoprotect Care might prove valuable for management of food allergies. These experimental observations must be validated in large field studies.

  13. DASH for asthma: A pilot study of the DASH diet in not-well-controlled adult asthma⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Strub, Peg; Lavori, Phillip W.; Buist, A. Sonia; Camargo, Carlos A.; Nadeau, Kari C.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Xiao, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study aims to provide effect size confidence intervals, clinical trial and intervention feasibility data, and procedural materials for a full-scale randomized controlled trial that will determine the efficacy of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) as adjunct therapy to standard care for adults with uncontrolled asthma. The DASH diet encompasses foods (e.g., fresh fruit, vegetables, and nuts) and antioxidant nutrients (e.g., vitamins A, C, E, and zinc) with potential benefits for persons with asthma, but it is unknown whether the whole diet is beneficial. Participants (n = 90) will be randomized to receive usual care alone or combined with a DASH intervention consisting of 8 group and 3 individual sessions during the first 3 months, followed by at least monthly phone consultations for another 3 months. Follow-up assessments will occur at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure is the 7-item Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire, a validated composite measure of daytime and nocturnal symptoms, activity limitations, rescue medication use, and percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second. We will explore changes in inflammatory markers important to asthma pathophysiology (e.g., fractional exhaled nitric oxide) and their potential to mediate the intervention effect on disease control. We will also conduct pre-specified subgroup analyses by genotype (e.g., polymorphisms on the glutathione S transferase gene) and phenotype (e.g., atopy, obesity). By evaluating a dietary pattern approach to improving asthma control, this study could advance the evidence base for refining clinical guidelines and public health recommendations regarding the role of dietary modifications in asthma management. PMID:23648395

  14. Improved weight management using genetic information to personalize a calorie controlled diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florou Anna

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene-environment studies demonstrate variability in nutrient requirements depending upon individual variations in genes affecting nutrient metabolism and transport. This study investigated whether the inclusion of genetic information to personalize a patient's diet (nutrigenetics could improve long term weight management. Methods Patients with a history of failures at weight loss were offered a nutrigenetic test screening 24 variants in 19 genes involved in metabolism. 50 patients were in the nutrigenetic group and 43 patients attending the same clinic were selected for comparison using algorithms to match the characteristics: age, sex, frequency of clinical visits and BMI at initial clinic visit. The second group of 43 patients did not receive a nutrigenetic test. BMI reduction at 100 and > 300 days and blood fasting glucose were measured. Results After 300 days of follow-up individuals in the nutrigenetic group were more likely to have maintained some weight loss (73% than those in the comparison group (32%, resulting in an age and gender adjusted OR of 5.74 (95% CI 1.74–22.52. Average BMI reduction in the nutrigenetic group was 1.93 kg/m2(5.6% loss vs. an average BMI gain of 0.51 kg/m2(2.2% gain (p 100 mg/dL, 57% (17/30 of the nutrigenetic group but only 25% (4/16 of the non-tested group had levels reduced to 90 days of weight management therapy (OR for lowering glucose to Conclusion Addition of nutrigenetically tailored diets resulted in better compliance, longer-term BMI reduction and improvements in blood glucose levels.

  15. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-03-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  16. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-01-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added 14 CO 2 was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle

  17. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  18. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate ('Eco-Atkins') diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-02-05

    Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Change in body weight. 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to -6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and -5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) -1.1 kg (-2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) -0.49 mmol/L (-0.70 to -0.28), pvegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516.

  19. Correlation between the development of calcium oxalate stones and polymorphisms in the fibronectin gene in the Uighur population of the Xinjiang region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, M; Aekeper, A; Yuan, L Y; Alim, T; Du, G J; Abdusamat, A; Wu, G W; Aniwer, Y

    2015-10-29

    Here, we have investigated the correlation between calcium oxalate stone formation and Fn gene polymorphisms in urinary calculi patients among the Uighur population (Xinjiang region). In this case control study, genomic DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of 129 patients with calcium oxalate stones (patient group) and 94 normal people (control group) was used to genotype polymorphisms in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subsequently, the association between different genotypes and susceptibility to calcium oxalate stone formation was compared among the patient and control groups. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene among the patient and control groups. The genotype distributions of the three loci complied with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results of allele frequencies of the patient/control group for polymorphisms in the rs6725958 site of the Fn gene were C = 179 (69.92%)/119 (63.30%) and A = 77 (30.08%)/69 (36.70%), in the rs10202709 site were C = 245 (95.70%)/176 (93.63%) and T = 11 (4.30%)/12 (6.38%), and in the rs35343655 site of the Fn gene were A = 139 (54.30%)/87 (46.28%) and G = 117 (45.70%)/101 (53.72%). We observed no significant differences between the three SNPs and development of calcium oxalate stones. Polymorphisms in rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 of the Fn gene had no obvious effect on the susceptibility to the development of calcium oxalate stones in the Uighur population, residing in the Xinjiang region of China.

  20. Effect of low glycemic load diet with and without wheat bran on glucose control in gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A low-glycemic index diet is effective in blood glucose control of diabetic subjects, reduces insulin requirement in women with gestation diabetes mellitus (GDM and improves pregnancy outcomes when used from beginning of the second trimester. However there are limited reports to examine the effect of low glycemic load (LGL diet and fiber on blood glucose control and insulin requirement of women with GDM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of low glycemic load diet with and without fiber on reducing the number of women with GDM requiring insulin. Materials and Methods: All GDM women (n = 31 were randomly allocated to consume either a LGL diet with Fiber or LGL diet. Results: We found that 7 (38.9% of 18 women with GDM in Fiber group and 10 (76.9% in "Without Fiber" group required insulin treatment. Conclusion: The LGL diet with added fiber for women with GDM dramatically reduced the number needing for insulin treatment.

  1. Removal of plutonium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions using anion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasar, U.M.; Pawar, S.M.; Joshi, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    An anion exchange method using Amberlyst A-26 (MP) resin was developed for removal of Pu from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions without destroying oxalate. The method consists of sorption of Pu(IV) on Amberlyst A-26, a macroporous anion exchange resin, from nitric acid-oxalic acid medium in the presence of Al(NO 3 ) 3 . Pu(IV) breakthrough capacity of Amberlyst A-26 using synthetic feed solution was determined. (author)

  2. Short-Term Hypocaloric High-Fiber and High-Protein Diet Improves Hepatic Steatosis Assessed by Controlled Attenuation Parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanow, Anita; Teutsch, Melanie; Walle, Hardy; Grünhage, Frank; Lammert, Frank; Stokes, Caroline S

    2016-06-16

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases and increases the risk of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Current standard treatment focuses on lifestyle interventions. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term low-calorie diet on hepatic steatosis, using the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) as quantitative tool. In this prospective observational study, 60 patients with hepatic steatosis were monitored during a hypocaloric high-fiber, high-protein diet containing 1,000 kcal/day. At baseline and after 14 days, we measured hepatic fat contents using CAP during transient elastography, body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum liver function tests and lipid profiles using standard clinical-chemical assays. The median age was 56 years (25-78 years); 51.7% were women and median body mass index was 31.9 kg/m(2) (22.4-44.8 kg/m(2)). After 14 days, a significant CAP reduction (14.0%; Pdiet, together with reductions of body composition parameters, serum lipids, and liver enzymes, pointing to the dynamics of hepatic lipid turnover.

  3. Including pork in the Mediterranean diet for an Australian population: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial assessing cardiovascular risk and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-12-22

    The Mediterranean diet is characterised by the high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and nuts; moderate consumption of fish, poultry, eggs and dairy; and low consumption of red meat and sweets. Cross sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies indicate that a Mediterranean diet may be effective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, previous research suggests that an Australian population may find red meat restrictions difficult, which could affect long term sustainability of the diet. This paper outlines the protocol for a randomised controlled trial that will assess the cardiovascular and cognitive benefits of a Mediterranean diet modified to include 2-3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork. A 24-week cross-over design trial will compare a modified Mediterranean diet with a low-fat control diet in at-risk men and women. Participants will follow each of the two diets for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. Home measured systolic blood pressure will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes will include body mass index, body composition, fasting blood lipids, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, erythrocyte fatty acids, cognitive function, psychological health and well-being, and dementia risk. To our knowledge this research is the first to investigate whether an alternate source of protein can be included in the Mediterranean diet to increase sustainability and feasibility for a non-Mediterranean population. Findings will be significant for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and age-related decline, and may inform individuals, clinicians and public health policy. ACTRN12616001046493 . Registered 5 August 2016.

  4. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  5. The Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Function among Healthy Older Adults in a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial: The MedLey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alissa; Bryan, Janet; Wilson, Carlene; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Davis, Courtney R; Murphy, Karen J

    2016-09-20

    Evidence from a limited number of randomised controlled intervention trials (RCTs) have shown that a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and enhance cognitive function among healthy older adults. However, there are currently no data in non-Mediterranean older adult populations. The present study aimed to address this gap by examining the effect of a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) for six months on aspects of cognitive function in a randomised controlled intervention trial (the MedLey study) that extended for a duration of 18 months. In the final analysed cohort, a total of 137 men and women (mean age of 72.1 ± 5.0 years) randomly assigned to either a MedDiet or control diet (HabDiet) (i.e., habitual dietary intake), were assessed on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, including 11 individual tests. In multivariable-adjusted models, the MedDiet group did not perform significantly better than the HabDiet control group for executive functioning (adjusted mean differences: +2.53, 95% CI -2.59 to 7.65, p = 0.33); speed of processing (adjusted mean differences: +3.24, 95% CI -1.21 to 7.70, p = 0.15); memory (adjusted mean differences: +2.00, 95% CI -3.88 to 7.88, p = 0.50); visual-spatial ability (adjusted mean differences: +0.21, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.81, 0.48); and overall age-related cognitive performance (adjusted mean differences: +7.99, 95% CI -4.00 to 19.9, p = 0.19). In conclusion, this study did not find evidence of a beneficial effect of a MedDiet intervention on cognitive function among healthy older adults.

  6. The Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Function among Healthy Older Adults in a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial: The MedLey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Knight

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from a limited number of randomised controlled intervention trials (RCTs have shown that a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and enhance cognitive function among healthy older adults. However, there are currently no data in non-Mediterranean older adult populations. The present study aimed to address this gap by examining the effect of a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet for six months on aspects of cognitive function in a randomised controlled intervention trial (the MedLey study that extended for a duration of 18 months. In the final analysed cohort, a total of 137 men and women (mean age of 72.1 ± 5.0 years randomly assigned to either a MedDiet or control diet (HabDiet (i.e., habitual dietary intake, were assessed on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, including 11 individual tests. In multivariable-adjusted models, the MedDiet group did not perform significantly better than the HabDiet control group for executive functioning (adjusted mean differences: +2.53, 95% CI −2.59 to 7.65, p = 0.33; speed of processing (adjusted mean differences: +3.24, 95% CI −1.21 to 7.70, p = 0.15; memory (adjusted mean differences: +2.00, 95% CI −3.88 to 7.88, p = 0.50; visual-spatial ability (adjusted mean differences: +0.21, 95% CI −0.38 to 0.81, 0.48; and overall age-related cognitive performance (adjusted mean differences: +7.99, 95% CI −4.00 to 19.9, p = 0.19. In conclusion, this study did not find evidence of a beneficial effect of a MedDiet intervention on cognitive function among healthy older adults.

  7. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  8. A randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet versus no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Maternal weight and maternal weight gain during pregnancy exert a significant influence on infant birth weight and the incidence of macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia is associated with an increase in both adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome, and also confers a future risk of childhood obesity. Studies have shown that a low glycaemic diet is associated with lower birth weights, however these studies have been small and not randomised 1 2 . Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women, and maternal weight influences this recurrence risk 3 . Methods\\/Design We propose a randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet vs. no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia. Secundigravid women whose first baby was macrosomic, defined as a birth weight greater than 4000 g will be recruited at their first antenatal visit. Patients will be randomised into two arms, a control arm which will receive no dietary intervention and a diet arm which will be commenced on a low glycaemic index diet. The primary outcome measure will be the mean birth weight centiles and ponderal indices in each group. Discussion Altering the source of maternal dietary carbohydrate may prove to be valuable in the management of pregnancies where there has been a history of fetal macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women. This randomised control trial will investigate whether or not a low glycaemic index diet can affect this recurrence risk. Current Controlled Trials Registration Number ISRCTN54392969

  9. Studies on removal of plutonium from oxalic acid containing hydrochloric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadse, D R; Noronha, D M; Joshi, A R [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Solution containing hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid and considerable quantities of plutonium may be generated while recycling of scrap produced during the metallic fuel fabrication. Plutonium from such waste is normally recovered by anion exchange method after the destruction of oxalic acid using suitable oxidising agent. Solvent extraction and ion exchange methods are being explored in this laboratory for recovery of Pu from oxalic acid containing HCl solutions without prior destruction of oxalic acid. This paper describes the results on the determination of distribution ratios for extraction of Pu(IV) from hydrochloric acid using Aliquot-336 or HDEHP under varying experimental conditions. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Switching to a 10-day Mediterranean-style diet improves mood and cardiovascular function in a controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaime; Pase, Matthew; Pipingas, Andrew; Raubenheimer, Jessica; Thurgood, Madeline; Villalon, Lorena; Macpherson, Helen; Gibbs, Amy; Scholey, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Even short-term adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet may benefit aspects of psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of switching to a 10-d Mediterranean-style diet on mood, cognition, and cardiovascular measures. Using a crossover design, 24 women were randomly assigned to either the diet change (where they switched to a Mediterranean-style diet) or no diet change (normal diet) condition for 10 days before switching to the other condition for the same duration. Mood, cognition, and cardiovascular measures of blood pressure, blood flow velocity, and arterial stiffness were assessed at baseline and at the completion of the two diets (days 11 and 22). Independent of whether the Mediterranean-style diet was undertaken before or after the crossover, it was associated with significantly elevated contentment and alertness, and significantly reduced confusion. Additionally, aspects of cognition, such as memory recall, improved significantly as a result of switching to the Mediterranean-style diet. Regarding cardiovascular measures, there was a significant reduction in augmentation pressure associated with the Mediterranean-style diet intervention, but blood flow velocity through the common carotid artery did not change. This Mediterranean-style diet has the potential to enhance aspects of mood, cognition, and cardiovascular function in a young, healthy adult sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Control of seizures by ketogenic diet-induced modulation of metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Ryan M; Wu, Guoyao; Akabani, Gamal; Aramayo, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is too complex to be considered as a disease; it is more of a syndrome, characterized by seizures, which can be caused by a diverse array of afflictions. As such, drug interventions that target a single biological pathway will only help the specific individuals where that drug's mechanism of action is relevant to their disorder. Most likely, this will not alleviate all forms of epilepsy nor the potential biological pathways causing the seizures, such as glucose/amino acid transport, mitochondrial dysfunction, or neuronal myelination. Considering our current inability to test every individual effectively for the true causes of their epilepsy and the alarming number of misdiagnoses observed, we propose the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as an effective and efficient preliminary/long-term treatment. The KD mimics fasting by altering substrate metabolism from carbohydrates to fatty acids and ketone bodies (KBs). Here, we underscore the need to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms governing the KD's modulation of various forms of epilepsy and how a diverse array of metabolites including soluble fibers, specific fatty acids, and functional amino acids (e.g., leucine, D-serine, glycine, arginine metabolites, and N-acetyl-cysteine) may potentially enhance the KD's ability to treat and reverse, not mask, these neurological disorders that lead to epilepsy.

  12. Low carbohydrate diet and improved glycaemic control in a patient with type one diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Eiswirth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an adult female with type 1 diabetes, whose HbA1c was trending at 58 mmol/mol (7.5% for the past 3 years. In August 2016, she reduced her total daily carbohydrate intake to 30–50 g and adjusted her other macronutrients to compensate for the calorific deficit. Her HbA1c fell to 34 mmol/mol (5.3% by January 2017 and average daily blood glucose readings decreased significantly from 10.4 to 6.1 mmol/L. Moreover, she observed a marked reduction of average daily glucose variability. Notably, there were no significant episodes of hypo- or hyperglycaemia and her lipid profile remained static. Subjectively, she described an improvement in her quality of life and the dietary transition was extremely well tolerated. We discuss these findings in detail and the potential clinical benefits for patients with type 1 diabetes that can be gained by following a low carbohydrate diet.

  13. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic...... improvement. DESIGN: We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. RESULTS: After weight loss......: In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight maintenance. The determination of the lipid composition during an LCD enables...

  14. Self-Efficacy, Self-Care, and Metabolic Control in Persons with Type 2, Diet and Exercised Controlled Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    ... (Diabetes control and Complications Trial, 1993). Nurses' understanding of diabetes management coupled with a holistic view of person makes them the optimal professionals to facilitate patient movement toward tight metabolic control...

  15. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  16. Quality of Life after Diet or Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight to Obese Postmenopausal Women: The SHAPE-2 Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A M; van der Palen, Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J; Peeters, Petra H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss, and that exercise-induced weight loss is more effective for this than diet-induced weight loss. The SHAPE-2 trial was primarily designed to evaluate any additional effect of weight loss by exercise compared with a comparable amount of weight loss by diet on biomarkers relevant for breast cancer risk. In the present analysis we focus on HRQoL. We randomly assigned 243 eligible women to a diet (n = 97), exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Both interventions aimed for 5-6 kg weight loss. HRQoL was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks by the SF-36 questionnaire. Data of 214 women were available for analysis. Weight loss was 4.9 kg (6.1%) and 5.5 kg (6.9%) with diet and exercise, respectively. Scores of the SF-36 domain 'health change' increased significantly by 8.8 points (95% CI 1.6;16.1) with diet, and by 20.5 points (95% CI 13.2;27.7) with exercise when compared with control. Direct comparison of diet and exercise showed a statistically significantly stronger improvement with exercise. Both intervention groups showed a tendency towards improvements in most other domains, which were more pronounced in the exercise group, but not statistically different from control or each other. In a randomized trial in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women a comparable 6%-7% weight loss was achieved by diet-only or mainly by exercise and showed improvements in physical and mental HRQoL domains, but results were not statistically significant in either the diet or exercise group. However, a modest weight loss does lead to a positive change in self-perceived health status. This effect was significantly larger with exercise-induced weight loss than with comparable diet

  17. Quality of Life after Diet or Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight to Obese Postmenopausal Women: The SHAPE-2 Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn A M van Gemert

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss, and that exercise-induced weight loss is more effective for this than diet-induced weight loss.The SHAPE-2 trial was primarily designed to evaluate any additional effect of weight loss by exercise compared with a comparable amount of weight loss by diet on biomarkers relevant for breast cancer risk. In the present analysis we focus on HRQoL. We randomly assigned 243 eligible women to a diet (n = 97, exercise (n = 98, or control group (n = 48. Both interventions aimed for 5-6 kg weight loss. HRQoL was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks by the SF-36 questionnaire.Data of 214 women were available for analysis. Weight loss was 4.9 kg (6.1% and 5.5 kg (6.9% with diet and exercise, respectively. Scores of the SF-36 domain 'health change' increased significantly by 8.8 points (95% CI 1.6;16.1 with diet, and by 20.5 points (95% CI 13.2;27.7 with exercise when compared with control. Direct comparison of diet and exercise showed a statistically significantly stronger improvement with exercise. Both intervention groups showed a tendency towards improvements in most other domains, which were more pronounced in the exercise group, but not statistically different from control or each other.In a randomized trial in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women a comparable 6%-7% weight loss was achieved by diet-only or mainly by exercise and showed improvements in physical and mental HRQoL domains, but results were not statistically significant in either the diet or exercise group. However, a modest weight loss does lead to a positive change in self-perceived health status. This effect was significantly larger with exercise-induced weight loss than with comparable

  18. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec

  19. Effect of a high-fat Mediterranean diet on bodyweight and waist circumference: a prespecified secondary outcomes analysis of the PREDIMED randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Ramon; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Fiol, Miquel; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Sorlí, José V; Muñoz, Miguel A; Basora-Gallisá, Josep; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Ros, Emilio

    2016-08-01

    Because of the high density of fat, high-fat diets are perceived as likely to lead to increased bodyweight, hence health-care providers are reluctant to recommend them to overweight or obese individuals. We assessed the long-term effects of ad libitum, high-fat, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diets on bodyweight and waist circumference in older people at risk of cardiovascular disease, most of whom were overweight or obese. PREDIMED was a 5 year parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial done in primary care centres affiliated to 11 hospitals in Spain. 7447 asymptomatic men (aged 55-80 years) and women (aged 60-80 years) who had type 2 diabetes or three or more cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with a computer-generated number sequence to one of three interventions: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (n=2543); Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (n=2454); or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat; n=2450). Energy restriction was not advised, nor was physical activity promoted. In this analysis of the trial, we measured bodyweight and waist circumference at baseline and yearly for 5 years in the intention-to-treat population. The PREDIMED trial is registered with ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN35739639. After a median 4·8 years (IQR 2·8-5·8) of follow-up, participants in all three groups had marginally reduced bodyweight and increased waist circumference. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in bodyweight in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group was -0·43 kg (95% CI -0·86 to -0·01; p=0·044) and in the nut group was -0·08 kg (-0·50 to 0·35; p=0·730), compared with the control group. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in waist circumference was -0·55 cm (-1·16 to -0·06; p=0·048) in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group and -0·94 cm (-1·60 to -0·27; p=0·006) in the nut group, compared with the control group. A long-term intervention with an

  20. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  1. Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gatti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A gluten-free diet (GFD is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”, or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”. A and B diets included gluten-free (GF products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score and intestinal permeability tests (IPT, were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  2. Association Study of Klotho Gene Polymorphism With Calcium Oxalate Stones in The Uyghur Population of Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdusamat; Tursun, Halmurat; Talat, Alim; Abla, Akpar; Muhtar, Erpan; Zhang, Tao; Mahmut, Murat

    2017-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between Klotho gene polymorphisms andcalcium oxalate stones in Xinjiang Uyghur people. We compared 128 patients with calcium oxalate stones (case group) and 94 healthypeople (control group), detected the genotype and allele distributions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)of the Klotho gene (rs3752472, rs650439, and rs1207568) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The distributions of the genotype and allele frequencies of the SNPs were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the two groups. There were statistically significant differences between the genotype andallele distributions of rs3752472 between the case and control groups; the allele frequencies in the case/controlgroups were C = 240 (93.7%)/151 (80.3%) and T = 16 (6.3%)/37 (19.7%). There was no statistically significantdifference in the genotype distribution of rs650439 between the case and control groups, but there was a differencein the allele distribution; the allele frequencies in the case/control groups were A = 202 (78.9%)/143 (57.2%) andT = 54 (21.1%)/107 (42.8%). There were no statistically significant differences in genotype and allele distributionsbetween the case and control groups of rs1207568; the allele frequencies in the case/control groups were C = 194(71.3%)/145 (77.1%) and T = 78 (28.7%)/43 (22.9%). In rs3752472, the risk for patients with the C and A allelesincreased by 3.675 and 2.799 times, respectively. The rs3752472 and rs650439 SNPs are related to the risk of calcium oxalate stones in Xinjiang Uyghurpeople, and might be one of the risk factors.

  3. Plasma biochemistry and urinalysis variables of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without oxalate nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K Natasha; Haynes, Julie I; Boardman, Wayne; Breed, William G; Taggart, David A; Rich, Brian; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    Oxalate nephrosis is a highly prevalent disease in the Mount Lofty Ranges koala population in South Australia, but associated clinicopathologic findings remain undescribed. The aims of this study were to determine plasma biochemical and urinalysis variables, particularly for renal function and urinary crystal morphology and composition, in koalas with oxalate nephrosis. Blood and urine samples from Mount Lofty Ranges koalas with oxalate nephrosis were compared with those unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition from Mount Lofty and Kangaroo Island, South Australia and Moggill, Queensland. Plasma and urine biochemistry variables were analyzed using a Cobas Bio analyzer, and urinary oxalate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary crystal composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Azotemia (urea > 6.6 mmol/L, creatinine > 150 μmol/L) was found in 93% of koalas with oxalate nephrosis (n = 15). All azotemic animals had renal insufficiency (urine specific gravity [USG] < 1.035), and in 83%, USG was < 1.030. Koalas with oxalate nephrosis were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Urinary crystals from koalas with oxalate nephrosis had atypical morphology and were composed of calcium oxalate. Mount Lofty Ranges koalas unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition had renal insufficiency (43%), although only 14% had USG < 1.030 (n = 7). Unaffected Mount Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island koalas were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Koalas with oxalate nephrosis from the Mount Lofty Ranges had renal insufficiency, hyperoxaluria, and pathognomonic urinary crystals. The findings of this study will aid veterinary diagnosis of this disease. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Alain J; Nordmann, Abigail; Briel, Matthias; Keller, Ulrich; Yancy, William S; Brehm, Bonnie J; Bucher, Heiner C

    2006-02-13

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular for weight loss. However, evidence from individual trials about benefits and risks of these diets to achieve weight loss and modify cardiovascular risk factors is preliminary. We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to identify trials comparing the effects of low-carbohydrate diets without restriction of energy intake vs low-fat diets in individuals with a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) of at least 25. Included trials had to report changes in body weight in intention-to-treat analysis and to have a follow-up of at least 6 months. Two reviewers independently assessed trial eligibility and quality of randomized controlled trials. Five trials including a total of 447 individuals fulfilled our inclusion criteria. After 6 months, individuals assigned to low-carbohydrate diets had lost more weight than individuals randomized to low-fat diets (weighted mean difference, -3.3 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.3 to -1.4 kg). This difference was no longer obvious after 12 months (weighted mean difference, -1.0 kg; 95% CI, -3.5 to 1.5 kg). There were no differences in blood pressure. Triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values changed more favorably in individuals assigned to low-carbohydrate diets (after 6 months, for triglycerides, weighted mean difference, -22.1 mg/dL [-0.25 mmol/L]; 95% CI, -38.1 to -5.3 mg/dL [-0.43 to -0.06 mmol/L]; and for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, weighted mean difference, 4.6 mg/dL [0.12 mmol/L]; 95% CI, 1.5-8.1 mg/dL [0.04-0.21 mmol/L]), but total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values changed more favorably in individuals assigned to low-fat diets (weighted mean difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after 6 months, 5.4 mg/dL [0.14 mmol/L]; 95% CI, 1.2-10.1 mg/dL [0.03-0.26 mmol/L]). Low-carbohydrate, non-energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as

  5. Low-protein diet for conservative management of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-04-01

    Recent data pose the question whether conservative management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by means of a low-protein diet can be a safe and effective means to avoid or defer transition to dialysis therapy without causing protein-energy wasting or cachexia. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the controlled clinical trials with adequate participants in each trial, providing rigorous contemporary evidence of the impact of a low-protein diet in the management of uraemia and its complications in patients with CKD. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and other sources for controlled trials on CKD to compare clinical management of CKD patients under various levels of dietary protein intake or to compare restricted protein intake with other interventions. Studies with similar patients, interventions, and outcomes were included in the meta-analyses. We identified 16 controlled trials of low-protein diet in CKD that met the stringent qualification criteria including having 30 or more participants. Compared with diets with protein intake of >0.8 g/kg/day, diets with restricted protein intake (disease, and a trend towards lower rates of all-cause death. In addition, very-low-protein diets (protein intake kidney function and reduction in the rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. Safety and adherence to a low-protein diet was not inferior to a normal protein diet, and there was no difference in the rate of malnutrition or protein-energy wasting. In this pooled analysis of moderate-size controlled trials, a low-protein diet appears to enhance the conservative management of non-dialysis-dependent CKD and may be considered as a potential option for CKD patients who wish to avoid or defer dialysis initiation and to slow down the progression of CKD, while the risk of protein-energy wasting and cachexia remains minimal. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia

  6. Effects of Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet on androgens, antioxidant status and body composition in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi-Yazdi, M; Karimi-Zarchi, M; Salehi-Abargouei, A; Fallahzadeh, H; Nadjarzadeh, A

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease in reproductive age women. The present study aimed to determine the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on reproductive hormones, plasma total antioxidant status and anthropometric indices in overweight and obese PCOS women. In this randomised controlled clinical trial, 60 women with PCOS were randomly assigned to one of two diets with energy restriction: the DASH diet and a control diet. The DASH and control diets consisted of 50-55% carbohydrate, 15-20% protein and 25-30% total fat. The DASH diet was designed to be rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains and low-fat dairy products, as well as low in saturated fats, cholesterol, refined grains and sweets. In the present study, the anthropometric indices, body composition, total testosterone, androstenedione, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picryylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity were measured before and after 3 months. The consumption of DASH diet compared to the control diet was associated with a significant reduction in weight [-5.78 (1.91) kg versus -4.34 (2.87) kg, P = 0.032], body mass index (BMI) [-2.29 (0.15) kg m -2 versus -1.69 (0.20) kg m -2 , P = 0.02], fat mass [-3.23(1.66) kg versus -2.13 (1.26) kg, P = 0.008] and serum androstenedione [-1.75 (1.39) ng mL -1 versus -1.02 (0.72) ng mL -1 , P-value = 0.019]. Increased concentrations of SHBG [28.80 (21.71) versus 11.66(18.82) nmol L -1 , P = 0.003) and DPPH scavenging activity [30.23% (19.09) versus 12.97% (25.12) were also found in the DASH group. The DASH diet could improve weight loss, BMI and fat mass. Furthermore, it could result in a significant reduction in serum androstenedione and a significant increase in antioxidant status and SHBG. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Newsome, Alan E; Newsome, Thomas M; Dickman, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time, especially in areas where

  8. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Molsher

    Full Text Available Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo, has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time

  9. A Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention for breast cancer survivors: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Eun Sook; Jung, Kyung Hae; Noh, Dong-Young

    2014-12-01

    Regular exercise and dietary practices have been shown to affect the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival of breast cancer patients. The current study aimed to investigate whether the WSEDI was a feasible and primarily effective method for promoting exercise and dietary behaviours for breast cancer patients. A 12-week randomized, controlled trial. Oncology outpatient treatment clinics at 3 university hospitals and 1 National Cancer Center in South Korea. Fifty-nine breast cancer patients who had received curative surgery and completed primary cancer treatment within 12 months prior to the study and who had been diagnosed with stage 0-III cancers within 2 years prior to the study were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which used a Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention program incorporating transtheoretical model (TTM)-based strategies (n=29), or to the control group, which used a 50-page educational booklet on exercise and diet (n=28). The intervention efficacy was measured at the baseline and 12 weeks via a Web-based survey that addressed the promotion of exercise and consumption of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (F&V) per day, dietary quality, HRQOL, anxiety, depression, fatigue, motivational readiness, and self-efficacy. The proportion of subjects who performed at least moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least 150 min per week; ate 5 servings of F&V per day; and had overall improvements in dietary quality, physical functioning and appetite loss (HRQOL), fatigue, and motivational readiness was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The self-efficacy with respect to exercise and F&V consumption was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. A Web-based program that targets changes in exercise and dietary behaviours might be effective for breast cancer survivors if the TTM theory has been used to inform the program strategy, although

  10. Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Alfano, Catherine M; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Wener, Mark H; Campbell, Kristin L; Duggan, Catherine; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Kong, Angela; Mason, Caitlin E; Wang, Ching-Yun; Blackburn, George L; Bain, Carolyn E; Thompson, Henry J; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-05-01

    Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N = 118), aerobic exercise (225 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N = 117), combined diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte, and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and age. Four hundred and thirty-eight (N = 1 in diet + exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, P value): 0.92 mg/L (0.53-1.31, P restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction. ©2012 AACR

  11. Mediterranean diet cools down the inflammatory milieu in type 2 diabetes: the MÉDITA randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Petrizzo, Michela; Scappaticcio, Lorenzo; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2016-12-01

    Mediterranean-style diets provide cardiovascular benefits and increase insulin sensitivity. There is little evidence that adherence to Mediterranean diet may influence the levels of the inflammatory milieu in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess whether Mediterranean diet influences both C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, and whether adherence to Mediterranean diet affects their circulating levels. In a two-arm, single-center trial, 215 men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a Mediterranean diet (n = 108, 54 males and 54 females) or a low-fat diet (n = 107, 52 males and 55 females), with a total follow-up of 8.1 years. At baseline visit and at 1 year, body weight, HOMA index, CRP, and adiponectin and its fractions were assessed. Adherence to the diets was assessed by calculating the Mediterranean-diet score. At 1 year, CPR fell by 37 % and adiponectin rose by 43 % in the Mediterranean diet group, while remaining unchanged in the low-fat diet group. The pattern of adiponectin fractions (high and non-high molecular weight) showed a response similar to that of total adiponectin. Diabetic patients with the highest scores (6-9 points) of adherence to Mediterranean diet had lower circulating CRP level and higher circulating total adiponectin levels than the diabetic patients who scored Mediterranean diet cools down the inflammatory milieu of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Digestibility and nutrient utilisation of soybean bran-based diets in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiku, S.O.E.; Alao, I.A.; Tiamiyu, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    The digestibility and utilisation of two soybean bran-based diets and two fishmeal-based diets serving as control, at optimal (30%) and suboptimal (20%) protein levels were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus. These were Diet I (Control)-fishmeal based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet II (Control) - fishmeal based diet at 20% crude protein, Diet III - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet IV - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 20%. Dry matter digestibility differed i...

  13. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid)-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I)).

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-01-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid)-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I)) was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å) 6.2378(12); b(Å) 7,1115(14); c(Å) 10.489(2); α(°) 94.65(3); β(°) 100.12(3); γ(°) 97.78(3). The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both ox...

  14. Ultrafine yttria-stabilized zirconia powders prepared by pyrolysis of a metal-oxalate-cellulose complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov`eva, L.V.; Bashmakov, I.A.; Kaputskii, F.N. [Research Institute of Physicochemical Problems, Minsk (Belarus)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Preparation of high-purity submicron powders with uniform particles is a key stage in the fabrication of high-quality ceramics. For this purpose, chemical methods are commonly used. Recently, pyrolysis of salt-cellulose compositions has gained acceptance for the preparation of mixed oxide powders. This method ensures control of the morphology and particle size of the resultant powders. In this work, the authors present an environmentally safe method for preparing ZrO{sub 2}-based powders from metal-oxalate-cellulose complexes (MOCC) used as precursors instead of soluble metal salts physisorbed on the cellulose surface. The powders obtained by this method feature higher dispersity than their commercially available analogs.

  15. Social media interventions for diet and exercise behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gillian; Hamm, Michele P; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Vandermeer, Ben; Hartling, Lisa

    2014-02-12

    To conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the use of social media to promote healthy diet and exercise in the general population. MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge and ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis (2000-2013). RCTs of social media interventions promoting healthy diet and exercise behaviours in the general population were eligible. Interventions using social media, alone or as part of a complex intervention, were included. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. We describe the studies according to the target populations, objectives and nature of interventions, outcomes examined, and results and conclusions. We extracted data on the primary and secondary outcomes examined in each study. Where the same outcome was assessed in at least three studies, we combined data in a meta-analysis. 22 studies were included. Participants were typically middle-aged Caucasian women of mid-to-high socioeconomic status. There were a variety of interventions, comparison groups and outcomes. All studies showed a decrease in programme usage throughout the intervention period. Overall, no significant differences were found for primary outcomes which varied across studies. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences in changes in physical activity (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.13 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.30), 12 studies) and weight (SMD -0.00 (95% CI -0.19 to 0.19), 10 studies); however, pooled results from five studies showed a significant decrease in dietary fat consumption with social media (SMD -0.35 (95% CI -0.68 to -0.02)). Social media may provide certain advantages for public health interventions; however, studies of social media interventions to date relating to healthy lifestyles tend to show low levels of participation and do not show significant differences between groups in key outcomes.

  16. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  17. Equilibrium aluminium hydroxo-oxalate phases during initial clay formation; H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid-Na + system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Halka; Horvath, Laszlo; Ingri, Nils; Sjöberg, Staffan

    1986-09-01

    The conditions necessary for initial clay formation have been studied in different model systems comprising different organic acids besides Si and Al. In the present paper the solid phases and the precipitation boundary characterizing the subsystem H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid (H 2L) are discussed. pH and tyndallometric measurements were performed in an ionic medium of 0.6 M Na(Cl) at 25 °C. The two phases Al 3(OH) 7(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase I) and NaAl(OH) 2(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase II) determine the precipitation boundary. The following formation constants for the two phases were deduced: lgβ1 = lg([ Al3+] -3[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 9 = -21.87 ± 0.08 and lgβ11 = lg([ Al3+] -1[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 4 = -5.61 ± 0.06. Phase I exists in the range [ Al] tot≥ 10 -4.4moldm-3,[ H2C2O4] tot ≥ 10 -4.9moldm-3 and at pH oxalic-rich natural waters. The more soluble sodium phase is unlikely to exist in natural waters. The two phases are metastable relative to crystalline gibbsite and may be considered as the first precipitation step in the transition from aqueous Al oxalates down to stable Al hydroxide. Model calculations illustrating these competing hydrolysis-complexation reactions are discussed in terms of predominance and speciation diagrams. The solid phases have been characterized by X-ray analysis of powders, TGA and IR spectra, and tentative structures are proposed. Phase I seems to be an octahedral layer structure, in which 3/5 of the octahedral sites between two close packed oxygen sheets are occupied by Al 3+ and the oxalate ion acts as a bridge ligand between two aluminium atoms. Phase II forms a more open sheet structure and has ion exchange properties. Powder data for a phase crystallized from the studied solution after a year are also presented. This phase, Na 4Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 4 · 10H 2O, supports the results from the equilibrium analysis of recent solution data by SJöBERG and ÖHMAN (1985), who have found the dinuclear complex Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 44- to exist in a

  18. Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerlin Alona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrocapsiate (DCT is a natural safe food ingredient which is structurally related to capsaicin from chili pepper and is found in the non-pungent pepper strain, CH-19 Sweet. It has been shown to elicit the thermogenic effects of capsaicin but without its gastrointestinal side effects. Methods The present study was designed to examine the effects of DCT on both adaptive thermogenesis as the result of caloric restriction with a high protein very low calorie diet (VLCD and to determine whether DCT would increase post-prandial energy expenditure (PPEE in response to a 400 kcal/60 g protein liquid test meal. Thirty-three subjects completed an outpatient very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day providing 120 g/day protein over 4 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive either DCT capsules three times per day (3 mg or 9 mg or placebo. At baseline and 4 weeks, fasting basal metabolic rate and PPEE were measured in a metabolic hood and fat free mass (FFM determined using displacement plethysmography (BOD POD. Results PPEE normalized to FFM was increased significantly in subjects receiving 9 mg/day DCT by comparison to placebo (p Conclusions These data provide evidence for postprandial increases in thermogenesis and fat oxidation secondary to administration of dihydrocapsiate. Trial registration clinicaltrial.govNCT01142687

  19. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hà Vũ Hồng Nguyễn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L. and golden (Actinidia chinensis L. were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW, while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  20. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-03-05

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green ( Actinidia deliciosa L . ) and golden ( Actinidia chinensis L . ) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  1. an oxalate-peroxide complex used in the preparation of doped barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, S.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of homogeneously doped barium titanate, which can be applied in non-linear dielectric elements. Ba and Ti salts are dissolved, mixed with hydrogen peroxide and added to a solution of ammonium oxalate, resulting in the formation of an insoluble peroxo-oxalate

  2. Optimization of the conditions for the precipitation of thorium oxalate. II. Minimization of the product losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, E.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskii, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The precipitation of thorium as a poorly soluble oxalate was investigated. An equation relating the concentrations of the metal and nitric acid in the initial solution and the amount of precipitant required to minimize the product losses was derived. A graphical solution of the equation is presented for the case where the precipitant is oxalic acid at a concentration of 0.78 M

  3. Influencing the solubility of oxalates for the preparation of ceramic powders from mixed precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, C.; Fischer, S.; Fischer, St.; Chebani, M.Kh.

    1991-01-01

    Based on investigations of the solubility of oxalate with 140 Ba, 64 Cu and 59 Fe, techniques for quantitative oxalate coprecipitation were developed. Addition of organic solvents lowers the solubility and leads to a smaller particle size of products. (orig.) [de

  4. Microbial growth on oxalate by a route not involving glyoxylate carboligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Maureen A.; Quayle, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    1. The metabolism of oxalate by the pink-pigmented organisms, Pseudomonas AM1, Pseudomonas AM2, Protaminobacter ruber and Pseudomonas extorquens has been compared with that of the non-pigmented Pseudomonas oxalaticus. 2. During growth on oxalate, all the organisms contain oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, formate dehydrogenase and oxalyl-CoA reductase. This is consistent with oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide taking place via oxalyl-CoA, formyl-CoA and formate as intermediates, and also reduction of oxalate to glyoxylate taking place via oxalyl-CoA. 3. The pink-pigmented organisms, when grown on oxalate, contain l-serine–glyoxylate aminotransferase and hydroxypyruvate reductase but do not contain glyoxylate carboligase. The converse of this obtains in oxalate-grown Ps. oxalaticus. This indicates that, in contrast with Ps. oxalaticus, synthesis of C3 compounds from oxalate by the pink-pigmented organisms occurs by a variant of the `serine pathway' used by Pseudomonas AM1 during growth on C1 compounds. 4. Evidence in favour of this scheme is provided by the finding that a mutant of Pseudomonas AM1 that lacks hydroxypyruvate reductase is not able to grow on oxalate. PMID:5472155

  5. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-07

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels.

  6. Aspects of calcium oxalate crystallization: theory, in vitro studies, and in vivo implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A

    1999-11-01

    There are three main approaches to urolithiasis research: theory, basic science, and clinical implementation. Although each approach has yielded meaningful results, there does not appear to be complete synergy between them. This article examines these approaches as they pertain to urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes. Theoretical calculations were performed to examine the role of oxalate concentration on calcium oxalate supersaturation. The effects of magnesium, citrate, and combinations thereof on calcium oxalate crystallization kinetics were examined in a mixed suspension, mixed product removal crystallizer. Finally, male volunteers were given supplements of calcium alone and binary combinations of calcium, magnesium, and citrate to investigate their effects on the urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Calculations showed that oxalate is 23 times more potent than calcium in its effect on the supersaturation of calcium oxalate. In the in vitro experiments, magnesium and citrate reduced the growth and nucleation kinetics as well as the supersaturation. In combination, these two components were more effective than the individual components in reducing the growth rate and the supersaturation. All of the supplements favorably altered the kinetic and thermodynamic risk factors. Calcium was the most effective in reducing the urinary excretion of oxalate. Articulation of these three approaches is essential for the meaningful investigation and understanding of urolithiasis.

  7. The effects of copper proximity on oxalate production in Fibroporia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie M. Jenkins; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green III

    2014-01-01

    Copper remains a key component used in wood preservatives available today. However, the observed tolerance of several critical wood rotting organisms continues to be problematic. Tolerance to copper has been linked to the production and accumulation of oxalate, which precipitates copper into insoluble copper-oxalate crystals, thus inactivating copper ions. The purpose...

  8. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Viscosities; oxalic acid and its salts; water + THF mixtures; structure-breakers. 1. Introduction ... has found its application in the organic syntheses as manifested from ... water. In other words, these results indicate that oxalic acid and its salts mix ...

  9. Determining the biochemical properties of the Oxalate Biosynthetic Component (Obc)1 from Burkholderia mallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxalic acid is produced by a variety of organisms ranging from simple microbes to complex animals. This acid has been proposed to fulfill various physiological and pathological functions which vary between organisms. In bacteria from the Burkholderia genus, oxalate secretion has been shown to be quo...

  10. The oxalic acid biosynthetic activity of Burkholderia mallei is encoded by a single locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although it is known that oxalic acid provides a selective advantage to the secreting microbe, our understanding of how this acid is biosynthesized remains incomplete. This study reports the identification, cloning, and partial characterization of the oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme from the animal ...

  11. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene...

  12. In vitro selection of rape variants resistant to oxalic acid using haploid stem apexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yifei; Huang Jianhua; Lu Ruiju; Sun Yuefang; Zhou Runmei; Zhou Zhijiang; Xie Zhujie; Liu Chenghong

    2002-01-01

    Mutagenic treatment was made of the haploid stem apexes rape strain '9841' and '9885' with Pingyangmycin. As a result of positive selection with oxalic acid providing selection pressure, variants with significantly higher tolerance to oxalic acid than the original ones were obtained. 3 germplasm with significantly higher resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than cultivar Hu You 12 were selected from field test

  13. Self-Efficacy, Self-Care, and Metabolic Control in Persons with Type 2, Diet and Exercised Controlled Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    .... psychological determinants of self-care and metabolic control must be explored. Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) has demonstrated its importance in behavioral modification but has been minimally investigated in diabetes...

  14. Reconstruction of the drive underlying food intake and its control by leptin and dieting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of food and the expenditure of calories is modelled by a system of differential equations. The state variables are the amount of calories stored in adipose tissue and the level of plasma leptin. The model has as input a drive that controls the intake of food. This drive consists of a

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise and diet on liver fat in pre-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Sulin; Ge, Jun; Zhao, Can; Le, Shenglong; Yang, Yifan; Ke, Dandan; Wu, Na; Tan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaobo; Du, Xiaming; Sun, Jianqin; Wang, Renwei; Shi, Yongyong; Borra, Ronald J. H.; Parkkola, Riitta; Wiklund, Petri; Lu, Dajiang

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to assess whether aerobic exercise (AEx) training and a fibre-enriched diet can reduce hepatic fat content (HFC) and increase glycaemic control in pre-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Six-hundred-and-three patients from seven clinics in Yangpu

  16. Evaluation of calculated energy and macronutrient contents of diets provided in controlled dietary intervention trials by chemical analysis of duplicate portions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, E.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Trijsburg, L.E.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Dutch food composition databases (Dutch-FCDB) are accurate enough to plan experimental diets with specified amounts of energy and macronutrients. From 2003 to 2012, 10 controlled dietary intervention trials lasting from 2 to 13 weeks were

  17. Methyl-Deficient Diets and Risks of Breast Cancer Among African-American Women: A Case-Control Study by Methylation Status of the ER Gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Kangmin

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report of our case-control study testing the hypothesis that methyl-deficient diets are more likely to be related to breast cancer with methylated CpG islands of the estrogen-receptor (ER) gene...

  18. Behaviour of Pu-IV with various ion exchangers in solutions containing nitric acid and oxalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.; Ali, S.A.

    1982-02-01

    The distribution of Pu-IV on the ion exchangers Dowex 50W-X8, Dowex 1-X8 und Dowex Chelating Resin Al-X8 in the presence of various concentrations of nitric acid and oxalate were investigated. The results indicate that nitric acid and oxalic acid influence each other during complexation of Pu-IV with oxalate ions solutions containing nitric acid it is not possible to neglect the formation of Pu-IV nitrate complexes. The complex Pu(IV) (C 2 O 4 ) 3 2 - only is formed in solutions containing low nitric acid and high oxalic acid concentrations. The separation of Pu-IV in Dowex Chelating Resin from nitric acid solution in the presence of higher oxalate concentrations is possible, provided that the nitric acid concentration is lower than 0.25 molar [fr

  19. Facile fabrication of cobalt oxalate nanostructures with superior specific capacitance and super-long cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhua; Si, Conghui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wanfeng; Dong, Chaoqun; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal oxalate materials have shown huge competitive advantages for applications in supercapacitors. Herein, nanostructured cobalt oxalate supported on cobalt foils has been facilely fabricated by anodization, and could directly serve as additive/binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The as-prepared cobalt oxalate electrodes present superior specific capacitance of 1269 F g-1 at the current density of 6 A g-1 in the galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Moreover, the retained capacitance is as high as 87.2% as the current density increases from 6 A g-1 to 30 A g-1. More importantly, the specific capacitance of cobalt oxalate retains 91.9% even after super-long cycling of 100,000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with cobalt oxalate (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) demonstrates excellent capacitive performance with high energy density and power density.

  20. Effect of oxalic acid on the optical, thermal, dielectric and mechanical behaviour of ADP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the addition, over a concentration range from 1 to 5 mol%, of oxalic acid on the growth rate, optical transparency, hardness, dielectric behaviour, and SHG efficiency of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals grown by slow evaporation method has been investigated. UV-Vis studies show that the transparency of the oxalic acid added crystals decreased gradually. Thermal studies indicate that the decomposition temperatures of the crystal are decreased in oxalic acid added ADP crystals. It is observed from the dielectric measurements that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increase with increase in temperature for all the crystals. Vicker's microhardness study reveals that the addition of higher concentration of oxalic acid decreases the hardness of the crystal. SHG efficiency of 1 mol% of oxalic acid is higher than the pure ADP.

  1. Effects of Juice Processing on Oxalate Contents in Carambola Juice Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nha K; Nguyen, Ha V H

    2017-09-01

    Effects of processing methods including pressing, enzyme-assisted extraction, lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus, and alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on total and soluble oxalate contents of carambola juices were studied. In comparison with pressing, the use of enzyme increased juice yields (15.89-17.29%), but resulted in higher total oxalate (1.60-1.73 times) and soluble oxalate contents (1.16-1.49 times). In addition, extension of enzyme incubation periods led to an increase in soluble oxalate contents in the products (p carambola juices. These results suggested that carambola juice products should only be consumed moderately, and that alcohol fermentation could be a potential method to reduce oxalate contents in foods in order to prevent the risks of forming kidney stones.

  2. Community-Based Participatory Research to Promote Healthy Diet and Nutrition and Prevent and Control Obesity Among African-Americans: a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Smith, Selina A

    2017-04-01

    The literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches for promoting healthy diet and nutrition and preventing and controlling obesity in African-American communities was systematically reviewed as part of the planning process for new research. CBPR studies of diet, nutrition, and weight management among African-Americans were identified from 1989 through October 31, 2015, using PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases and MeSH term and keyword searches. A total of 16 CBPR studies on healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management among African-Americans were identified; outcome evaluation results were available for all but two. Of the remaining 14 studies, 11 focused on adults, 1 on children, and 2 on both children and adults. Eight studies employed CBPR methods to address diet, nutrition, and weight management in church settings. Four had a cluster-randomized controlled design. Others had a pre-post test, quasi-experimental, or uncontrolled design. Only one study addressed four levels of the socioecological model; none addressed all five levels of the model. The studies identified in this review indicate that CBPR approaches can be effective for promoting healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management among African-American adults, but there is a need for additional studies with rigorous study designs that overcome methodologic limitations of many existing studies. There is only limited evidence for the effectiveness of CBPR approaches for promoting healthy eating and weight control among African-American children and adolescents. To address health disparities, additional CBPR studies are needed to promote healthy diet, nutrition, and weight management in African-American communities. Of particular interest are multilevel CBPR studies that include interventions aimed at multiple levels of the socioecological model.

  3. An analysis of diet quality, how it controls fatty acid profiles, isotope signatures and stoichiometry in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hood-Nowotny

    Full Text Available Knowing the underlying mechanisms of mosquito ecology will ensure effective vector management and contribute to the overall goal of malaria control. Mosquito populations show a high degree of population plasticity in response to environmental variability. However, the principle factors controlling population size and fecundity are for the most part unknown. Larval habitat and diet play a crucial role in subsequent mosquito fitness. Developing the most competitive insects for sterile insect technique programmes requires a "production" orientated perspective, to deduce the most effective larval diet formulation; the information gained from this process offers us some insight into the mechanisms and processes taking place in natural native mosquito habitats.Fatty acid profiles and de-novo or direct assimilation pathways, of whole-individual mosquitoes reared on a range of larval diets were determined using pyrolysis gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. We used elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure individual-whole-body carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous values and to assess the impact of dietary quality on subsequent population stoichiometry, size, quality and isotopic signature. Diet had the greatest impact on fatty acid (FA profiles of the mosquitoes, which exhibited a high degree of dietary routing, characteristic of generalist feeders. De-novo synthesis of a number of important FAs was observed. Mosquito C:N stoichiometry was fixed in the teneral stage. Dietary N content had significant influence on mosquito size, and P was shown to be a flexible pool which limited overall population size.Direct routing of FAs was evident but there was ubiquitous de-novo synthesis suggesting mosquito larvae are competent generalist feeders capable of survival on diet with varying characteristics. It was concluded that nitrogen availability in the larval diet controlled teneral mosquito size and that teneral CN ratio is a sex- and

  4. Exploring the Therapeutic Mechanism of Desmodium styracifolium on Oxalate Crystal-Induced Kidney Injuries Using Comprehensive Approaches Based on Proteomics and Network Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiebin Hou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a Chinese medicinal herb, Desmodium styracifolium (Osb. Merr (DS has been applied clinically to alleviate crystal-induced kidney injuries, but its effective components and their specific mechanisms still need further exploration. This research first combined the methods of network pharmacology and proteomics to explore the therapeutic protein targets of DS on oxalate crystal-induced kidney injuries to provide a reference for relevant clinical use.Methods: Oxalate-induced kidney injury mouse, rat, and HK-2 cell models were established. Proteins differentially expressed between the oxalate and control groups were respectively screened using iTRAQ combined with MALDI-TOF-MS. The common differential proteins of the three models were further analyzed by molecular docking with DS compounds to acquire differential targets. The inverse docking targets of DS were predicted through the platform of PharmMapper. The protein–protein interaction (PPI relationship between the inverse docking targets and the differential proteins was established by STRING. Potential targets were further validated by western blot based on a mouse model with DS treatment. The effects of constituent compounds, including luteolin, apigenin, and genistein, were investigated based on an oxalate-stimulated HK-2 cell model.Results: Thirty-six common differentially expressed proteins were identified by proteomic analysis. According to previous research, the 3D structures of 15 major constituents of DS were acquired. Nineteen differential targets, including cathepsin D (CTSD, were found using molecular docking, and the component-differential target network was established. Inverse-docking targets including p38 MAPK and CDK-2 were found, and the network of component-reverse docking target was established. Through PPI analysis, 17 inverse-docking targets were linked to differential proteins. The combined network of component-inverse docking target-differential proteins was

  5. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  6. Effect of processing and cooking on total and soluble oxalate content in frozen root vegetables prepared for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. LISIEWSKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxalate content of beetroot, carrot, celeriac and parsnip after freezing by traditional and modified methods (the latter resulting in a convenience food product, and after the preparation of frozen products for consumption was evaluated. The highest content of total and soluble oxalates (105 and 82 mg 100 g-1 fresh matter was found in beetroot. The lowest proportion (55% of soluble oxalates was noted in celeriac; this proportion was higher in the remaining vegetables, being broadly similar for each of them. Blanching brought about a significant decrease in total and soluble oxalates in fresh vegetables. Cooking resulted in a higher loss of oxalates. The level of oxalates in products prepared for consumption directly after freezing approximated that before freezing. Compared with the content before freezing, vegetables prepared for consumption by cooking after frozen storage contained less oxalates, except for total oxalates in parsnip and soluble oxalates in beetroot and celeriac. The highest ratio of oxalates to calcium was found in raw beetroot; it was two times lower in raw carrot; five times lower in raw celeriac; and eight times lower in raw parsnip. These ratios were lower after technological and culinary processing. The percentage of oxalate bound calcium depended on the species; this parameter was not significantly affected by the procedures applied. The true retention of oxalates according to Judprasong et al. (2006 was lower than retention calculated taking its content in 100 g fresh matter into account.;

  7. Enzymatic mechanism of oxalate production in the TCA and glyoxylate pathways using various isolates of Antrodia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Jenkins; S.V. Diehl; C.A. Clausen; F. Green

    2011-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi produce oxalate in large amounts; however, levels of accumulation and function vary by species. Copper-tolerant fungi, like Antrodia radiculosa, produce and accumulate high levels of oxalate in response to copper. Oxalate biosynthesis in copper-tolerant fungi has been linked to the glyoxylate and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles. Within these two cycles...

  8. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part I, Evaluating oxalic acid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Clausen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, three possible improvements to a remediation process for chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated wood were evaluated. The process involves two steps: oxalic acid extraction of wood fiber followed by bacterial culture with Bacillus licheniformis CC01. The three potential improvements to the oxalic acid extraction step were (1) reusing oxalic acid for...

  9. The Management with a Low Oxalate Diet of Abdominal Migraine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Date received: 24 July 1973. that it suggests a dominant inheritance. and this ... Golden syrup. Bread. Milk-less than. 500 ml daily. Peanuts. Sugar. Cheese. Lemons. Coffee. Section A. Fruit and foods in no circumstances to be taken. whether fresh. canned. or in jam. syrup. or beverage*. • Foods containing more than 10 mg ...

  10. Physical simulation of precipitation of radioactive element oxalates by using the harmless neodymium oxalate for studying the agglomeration phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalleman, Sophie; Bertrand, Murielle; Plasari, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic precipitation is usually applied in nuclear industry to process radioactive wastes or to recover actinides from a multicomponent solution.This paper deals with the development of methods adapted to a nuclear environment in order to study the agglomeration phenomena during actinide oxalic precipitation.These methods are previously set up with harmless elements that simulate the actinide behaviour: the lanthanides. A parametric study is carried out to quantify the influence of operating parameters on the agglomeration kernel and to determine a kinetic law for this mechanism. The experimental study is performed in a continuous-MSMPR precipitator at steady-state. The method is based on the resolution of two population balances using the moment approach, one for elementary crystals and the other for agglomerates. Provided that the kinetic rates of nucleation and growth are known, the agglomeration kernel can be obtained from a mathematical treatment of the experimental particle size distributions. Results point out that experimental crystal sizes are consistent with an independent kernel. It appears that the agglomeration kernel is directly proportional to supersaturation, increases with temperature but is limited by ionic strength and shear rate. (authors)

  11. Effect of a high protein meat diet on muscle and cognitive functions: A randomised controlled dietary intervention trial in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lene H.; Kondrup, Jens; Zellner, Maria

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundRecommendations to use other criteria than N-balance for defining protein requirements have been proposed. However, little evidence to support other measures such as physiological functions is available. ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of a usual (UP) versus a high protein (HP) diet...... the intervention period where they were assigned to either a UP or a High Protein (HP) diet (3.0 g protein/kg BW) for 3-wks with controlled intake of food and beverages. Blood and urine samples were taken along with measurements of physiological functions at baseline and at the end of the intervention period...... on muscle function, cognitive function, quality of life and biochemical regulators of protein metabolism. DesignA randomised intervention study was conducted with 23 healthy males (aged 19–31 yrs). All subjects consumed a Usual Protein (UP) diet (1.5 g protein/kg BW) for a 1-wk run-in period before...

  12. Long-term ketogenic diet contributes to glycemic control but promotes lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Qin, Juliang; Zhao, Yihan; Shi, Jueping; Lan, Rong; Gan, Yunqiu; Ren, Hua; Zhu, Bing; Qian, Min; Du, Bing

    2016-04-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been widely used in weight and glycemic control, although potential side effects of long-term KD treatment have caused persistent concern. In this study, we hypothesized that the KD would ameliorate the progression of diabetes but lead to disruptions in lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of diabetes. In type 2 diabetic mouse model, mice were fed a high-fat diet and administered streptozotocin treatment before given the test diets for 8 weeks. Subsequently, ameliorated glucose and insulin tolerance in KD-fed diabetic mice was found, although the body weight of high-fat diet- and KD-fed mice was similar. Interestingly, the weight of adipose tissue in KD mice was greater than in the other groups. The KD diet resulted in higher serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in diabetic mice. Moreover, the KD-fed mice showed greater hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice fed the KD showed significant changes in several key genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein, fibroblast growth factor 21, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which are all important in metabolism. In summary, KD ameliorates glucose and insulin tolerance in a mouse model of diabetes, but severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis were observed, which should be considered carefully in the long-term application of KD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, [corrected] controlled trial (SYSDIET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, Lea; Rejnmark, Lars; Carlberg, Carsten; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Risérus, Ulf; Savolainen, Markku J; Thorsdottir, Inga; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2014-06-01

    At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors. In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (≥300 g/week, including ≥200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention. At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (healthy Nordic diet (P healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes. Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.

  14. Association between mediterranean diet and non-fatal cardiovascular events, in the context of anxiety and depression disorders: a case/case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J; Ntziou, Evangelia; Kostapanos, Michael S; Nikolaou, Vassilios; Vemmos, Konstantinos N; Goudevenos, John A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Mediterranean diet on the likelihood of having a non-fatal cardiovascular outcome, taking into account anxiety and depression status. This was a case-control study with individual matching by age and sex. During 2009-2010, 1000 participants were enrolled; 250 were consecutive patients with a first acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 250 were consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke, and 500 were population-based control subjects, one-for-one matched to the patients by age and sex. Among other characteristics, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore, anxiety was assessed with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y-2, while depressive symptomatology was evaluated by the Zung Depression Rating Scale. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower likelihood of ACS and ischemic stroke, even after adjusting for anxiety or depression (ACS: OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.87-0.98 and 0.93, 0.88-0.98, respectively; ischemic stroke: 0.91, 0.84-0.98 and 0.90, 0.83-0.97, respectively). For both ACS and stroke patients, anxiety and depression were associated with a higher likelihood of ACS and stroke. When stratifying for depression or anxiety status, the Mediterranean diet remained a significantly protective factor only for people with low levels of depression and anxiety for ACS, and only for people with low levels of anxiety, as far as stroke was concerned. Anxiety and depression seem to play a mediating role in the protective relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the likelihood of developing cardiovascular events.

  15. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Jaster, Brent; Seidl, Kim; Green, Amber A; Talpers, Stanley

    2006-08-01

    We sought to investigate whether a low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (n = 50). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 22 weeks. Forty-three percent (21 of 49) of the vegan group and 26% (13 of 50) of the ADA group participants reduced diabetes medications. Including all participants, HbA(1c) (A1C) decreased 0.96 percentage points in the vegan group and 0.56 points in the ADA group (P = 0.089). Excluding those who changed medications, A1C fell 1.23 points in the vegan group compared with 0.38 points in the ADA group (P = 0.01). Body weight decreased 6.5 kg in the vegan group and 3.1 kg in the ADA group (P vegan group and 10.7% in the ADA group (P = 0.02). After adjustment for baseline values, urinary albumin reductions were greater in the vegan group (15.9 mg/24 h) than in the ADA group (10.9 mg/24 h) (P = 0.013). Both a low-fat vegan diet and a diet based on ADA guidelines improved glycemic and lipid control in type 2 diabetic patients. These improvements were greater with a low-fat vegan diet.

  16. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  17. Calorie Restriction in Overweight SeniorS: Response of Older Adults to a Dieting Study: The CROSSROADS Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Marilyn C.; Bodner, Eric V.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Bryan, David; Buys, David R.; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; Wingo, Brooks C.; Ard, Jamy

    2014-01-01

    © 2014,Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling obese older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose t...

  18. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cailleau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa, has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi. Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate

  19. A Commercially Available Portion-Controlled Diet Program Is More Effective for Weight Loss than a Self-Directed Diet: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Cook

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo examine changes in weight and related outcomes in response to a commercial weight loss program compared to a self-directed diet in adults with overweight or obesity.DesignParticipants were randomly assigned [stratified by body mass index (BMI and age] to a commercial weight loss program (n = 38 or to a self-directed Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet (n = 40 for a 16-week period. Daily energy intake goals were 1,500 kcal/d for men and 1,200 kcal/d for women, except for the first week of the commercial program (1,000 kcal/d. This study was registered at http://ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03017443.ParticipantsPrimarily Caucasian (71% women (n = 61 and men (n = 17 from the greater metropolitan area of the city of Chicago, IL, USA. with a mean baseline BMI of 34.4 kg/m2, body weight of 95.7 kg, and age of 50.4 years.ResultsData = mean (95% CI. At week 16, the commercial program group lost significantly more body weight [−5.9 (−7.5, −4.3 kg vs. −1.8 (−2.9, −0.8 kg; or −6.4 vs. −1.8% of initial body weight, respectively], fat mass [−4.4 (−5.7, −3.1 kg vs. −1.2 (−2.1, −0.4 kg] and total body circumference (chest + waist + hip + upper arm + thigh [−16.9 (−21.5, −12.3 cm vs. −5.8 (−9.0, −2.6 cm] (p < 0.01 for all. Additionally, more participants in the commercial program group lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight, defined as ≥5% of initial body weight, at week 16 (58% vs. 13%, p < 0.001.ConclusionThe commercial program resulted in greater weight loss and improvements in body composition/anthropometric parameters compared to a self-directed DASH diet over a 16-week period. Some important limitations were that no objective measurements of dietary intake or physical activity were collected to potentially ascertain the independent or combined effects of these components on weight loss (or lack thereof. Additionally, future

  20. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to −6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and −5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) −1.1 kg (−2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) −0.49 mmol/L (−0.70 to −0.28), pvegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516. PMID:24500611

  1. The Diuretic Action of Weak and Strong Alcoholic Beverages in Elderly Men: A Randomized Diet-Controlled Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhuis, Kristel C M M; Wijnen, Annemarthe H C; Sierksma, Aafje; Calame, Wim; Tieland, Michael

    2017-06-28

    With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB), non-alcoholic wine (NAW), and water (W)) were tested in a diet-controlled randomized crossover trial. For the alcoholic beverages, alcohol intake equaled a moderate amount of 30 g. An equal volume of beverage was given for the non-alcoholic counterpart. After consumption, the urine output was collected every hour for 4 h and the total 24 h urine output was measured. AW and S resulted in a higher cumulative urine output compared to NAW and W during the first 4 h (effect size: 0.25 mL p 0.40, p > 0.10). AB and NAB did not differ at any time point (effect size: -0.02 mL p > 0.70). For urine osmolality, and the sodium and potassium concentration, the findings were in line. In conclusion, only moderate amounts of stronger alcoholic beverages, such as wine and spirits, resulted in a short and small diuretic effect in elderly men.

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men.

  3. Leptin activates oxytocin neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in both control and diet-induced obese rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Perello

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to reduce body weight and fat mass. Recent studies suggest that parvocellular oxytocin (OXT neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN can mediate body weight reduction through inhibition of food intake and increased energy expenditure. However, the role of OXT neurons of the PVN as a primary target of leptin has not been investigated. Here, we studied the potential role of OXT neurons of the PVN in leptin-mediated effects on body weight regulation in fasted rats. We demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (ICV leptin activates STAT3 phosphorylation in OXT neurons of the PVN, showed that this occurs in a subpopulation of OXT neurons that innervate the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, and provided further evidence suggesting a role of OXT to mediate leptin's actions on body weight. In addition, our results indicated that OXT neurons are responsive to ICV leptin and mediate leptin effects on body weight in diet induced obese (DIO rats, which are resistant to the anorectic effects of the hormone. Thus, we conclude that leptin targets a specific subpopulation of parvocellular OXT neurons of the PVN, and that this action may be important for leptin's ability to reduce body weight in both control and obese rats.

  4. Study on the Key Technology of High Purity Strontium Titanate Powder Synthesized from Oxalic Acid Co-sediment Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoguo; Dong, Yingnan; Li, Yingjie; Niu, Wei; Tang, Jian; Ding, Shuang; Li, Meiyang

    2017-09-01

    Oxalate coprecipitation is applied in this paper, high purity titanium tetrachloride, and after the purification of strontium chloride, match with a certain concentration of solution, oxalate and strontium chloride and titanium tetrachloride in 1.005:1.000 make strontium titanium mixture ratio, slowly under 60°C to join in oxalic acid solution, aging around 4 h, get oxygen titanium strontium oxalate (SrTiO(C2O4)2 • 4H2 ) precipitation, after washing, drying and other process made oxygen titanium strontium oxalate powder.

  5. (Di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium hydrogen oxalate–oxalic acid (2/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Bialek, Sebastian; Clemens, Rebecca; Reiss, Guido J.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of (di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanamine (dpma) with oxalic acid in ethanol yielded the title solvated salt, C3H11NOP+·C2HO4 −·0.5C2H2O4. Its asymmetric unit consists of one dpmaH+ cation, one hydrogen oxalate anion and a half-mol­ecule of oxalic acid located around a twofold rotation axis. The H atom of the hydrogen oxalate anion is statistically disordered over two positions that are trans to each other. The hydrogen oxalate monoanion is not planar (bend angle ∼16°) whereas the ox...

  6. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Williams, James C. Jr.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny

  7. Optimization of air-sparged plutonium oxalate/hydroxide precipitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderHeyden, W.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Fife, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The high cost of waste management and experimental work makes numerical modeling an inexpensive and attractive tool for optimizing and understanding complex chemical processes. Multiphase open-quotes bubbleclose quotes columns are used extensively at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for a variety of different applications. No moving parts and efficient mixing characteristics allow them to be used in glovebox operations. Initially, a bubble column for oxalate precipitations is being modeled to identify the effect of various design parameters such as, draft tube location, air sparge rate and vessel geometry. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric models have been completed and successfully compared to literature data. Also, a preliminary three-dimensional model has been completed. These results are discussed in this report along with future work

  8. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing event DP-3O5423-1, nontransgenic near-isoline control, or commercial reference soybean meal, hulls, and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Hinds, M; Sanders, C; Layton, R; Lamb, I; Delaney, B

    2008-12-01

    DP-3Ø5423-1 (305423) is a genetically modified soybean that was produced by biolistic insertion of the gm-fad2-1 gene fragment and gm-hra genes into the germline of soybean seeds. Expression of gm-fad2-1 results in greater concentrations of oleic acid (18:1) by suppressing expression of the endogenous FAD2-1 gene, which encodes an n-6 fatty acid desaturase enzyme that catalyzes desaturation of 18:1 to linoleic acid (18:2). The GM-HRA protein expressed by the gm-hra gene is a modified version of the soybean acetolactate synthase enzyme that is used as a selectable marker during transformation. A 42-d feeding trial was conducted with broiler chickens to compare the nutritional performance of 305423 soybeans with nontransgenic soybeans. Diets were prepared using processed fractions (meal, hulls, and oil) from 305423 soybean plants. For comparison, additional diets were produced with soybean fractions obtained from a nontransgenic near-isoline (control) and nontransgenic commercial Pioneer brand varieties (93B86, 93B15, and 93M40). Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases. Starter, grower, and finisher diets contained 26.5, 23, and 21.5% soybean meal, respectively. Soybean hulls and oil were added at 1.0 and 0.5%, respectively, across all diets in each phase. No statistically significant differences were observed in growth performance (BW, mortality, feed efficiency), organ yield (liver and kidney), or carcass yield (breast, thigh, leg, wing, and abdominal fat) variables between broilers consuming diets prepared with isolated fractions from 305423 or near-isoline control soybean. Additionally, all performance and carcass variables from control and 305423 soybean treatment groups fell within tolerance intervals constructed for each response variable using data from broilers fed diets prepared with reference soybean fractions. Based on the results from this study, it was concluded that 305423 soybeans were nutritionally

  9. Maternal Diet and Insulin-Like Signaling Control Intergenerational Plasticity of Progeny Size and Starvation Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Hibshman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal effects of environmental conditions produce intergenerational phenotypic plasticity. Adaptive value of these effects depends on appropriate anticipation of environmental conditions in the next generation, and mismatch between conditions may contribute to disease. However, regulation of intergenerational plasticity is poorly understood. Dietary restriction (DR delays aging but maternal effects have not been investigated. We demonstrate maternal effects of DR in the roundworm C. elegans. Worms cultured in DR produce fewer but larger progeny. Nutrient availability is assessed in late larvae and young adults, rather than affecting a set point in young larvae, and maternal age independently affects progeny size. Reduced signaling through the insulin-like receptor daf-2/InsR in the maternal soma causes constitutively large progeny, and its effector daf-16/FoxO is required for this effect. nhr-49/Hnf4, pha-4/FoxA, and skn-1/Nrf also regulate progeny-size plasticity. Genetic analysis suggests that insulin-like signaling controls progeny size in part through regulation of nhr-49/Hnf4, and that pha-4/FoxA and skn-1/Nrf function in parallel to insulin-like signaling and nhr-49/Hnf4. Furthermore, progeny of DR worms are buffered from adverse consequences of early-larval starvation, growing faster and producing more offspring than progeny of worms fed ad libitum. These results suggest a fitness advantage when mothers and their progeny experience nutrient stress, compared to an environmental mismatch where only progeny are stressed. This work reveals maternal provisioning as an organismal response to DR, demonstrates potentially adaptive intergenerational phenotypic plasticity, and identifies conserved pathways mediating these effects.

  10. Diet and dietary supplement intervention trials for the prevention of prostate cancer recurrence: a review of the randomized controlled trial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, Cheri L; de Boer, Johan G; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2008-12-01

    We review the effect of diet and dietary supplement interventions on prostate cancer progression, recurrence and survival. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify diet and dietary supplement intervention studies in men with prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen or prostate specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate serum biomarker of prostate cancer recurrence and/or survival. Of the 32 studies identified 9 (28%) were randomized controlled trials and the focus of this review. In these studies men had confirmed prostate cancer and elevated or increasing prostate specific antigen. Only 1 trial included men with metastatic disease. When body mass index was reported, men were overweight or obese. A significant decrease in prostate specific antigen was observed in some studies using a low fat vegan diet, soy beverage or lycopene supplement. While not often reported as an end point, a significant increase in prostate specific antigen doubling time was observed in a study on lycopene supplementation. In only 1 randomized controlled trial in men undergoing orchiectomy was a survival end point of fewer deaths with lycopene supplementation reported. A limited number of randomized controlled trials were identified in which diet and dietary supplement interventions appeared to slow disease progression in men with prostate cancer, although results vary. Studies were limited by reliance on the surrogate biomarker prostate specific antigen, sample size and study duration. Well designed trials are warranted to expand knowledge, replicate findings and further assess the impact of diet and dietary supplement interventions on recurrence and treatment associated morbidities.

  11. Structural diversity of the lanthanide oxalates: Condensation of neodymium oxygen polyhedra under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, A.; Rivenet, M.; Abraham, F.; De Almeida, L.; Grandjean, S.

    2013-01-01

    New neodymium hydroxo-oxalate and oxalate [Nd 6 (H 2 O) 6 (C 2 O 4 ) 7 (OH) 4 ].4H 2 O (1) and [Nd 2 (H 2 O) 4 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 ].2H 2 O (2) were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150 C between neodymium nitrate and oxalic acid solutions at pH = 10-11 obtained by adding various monoamines. The structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The two compounds crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c and a = 17.4384 (11), b = 8.1717 (5), c = 12.9929 (7), β = 94.66 (1) degrees, V = 1845.38 (19) (Angstroms) 3 , Z = 2 for 1 and a = 9.8249 (2) Angstroms, b = 8.2487 (2) Angstroms, c = 10.1911 (3) Angstroms, β = 99.09 (1), V = 815.53 (4) (Angstroms) 3 , Z = 2 for 2. Full matrix least-squares refinement yielded R1 = 0.0365 and 0.0267 for 6033 and 3382 independent reflections for 1 and 2 respectively. In 2, the three-dimensional neodymium oxalate arrangement results from dimeric units of edge shared NdO 9 polyhedra connected through oxalate ions acting as bis-bidentate. In 1, the neodymium atoms are connected through μ2-OH and μ3-OH ions to form a hexa-nuclear inorganic core [Nd 6 (OH) 4 (H 2 O) 6 ] with an un-precedently reported geometry leading to a hexa-nuclear polyhedra block. The blocks are connected through an O-O bridge involving two oxygen atoms of two oxalate ions to build a centipede-like ribbon. The ribbons are further connected through oxalate ions to form a three dimensional neodymium oxalate arrangement. In 1, oxalates adopt four distinct bridging modes of coordination, μ2, μ3, μ4 and μ5. (authors)

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned

  13. Enhanced nitrogen availability in karst ecosystems by oxalic acid release in the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujing ePan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In karst ecosystems, a high level of CaCO3 enhances the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM and causes nitrogen (N and/or phosphorus (P limitation in plants. Oxalic acid has been suggested to be involved in the nutrient-acquisition strategy of plants because its addition can temporarily relieve nutrient limitation. Therefore, understanding how oxalic acid drives N availability may help support successful vegetation restoration in the karst ecosystems of southwest China. We tested a model suggested by Clarholm et al. (2015 where oxalate reacts with Ca bridges in SOM, thus exposing previously protected areas to enzymatic attacks in a way that releases N for local uptake. We studied the effects of oxalic acid, microbial biomass C (MBC, and β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG on potential N mineralization rates in rhizosphere soils of four plant species (two shrubs and two trees in karst areas. The results showed that rhizosphere soils of shrubs grown on formerly deforested land had significantly lower oxalic acid concentrations and NAG activity than that of trees in a 200-year-old forest. The levels of MBC in rhizosphere soils of shrubs were significantly lower than those of trees in the growing season, but the measure of shrubs and trees were similar in the non-growing season; the potential N mineralization rates showed a reverse pattern. Positive relationships were found among oxalic acid, MBC, NAG activity, and potential N mineralization rates for both shrubs and trees. This indicated that oxalic acid, microbes, and NAG may enhance N availability for acquisition by plants. Path analysis showed that oxalic acid enhanced potential N mineralization rates indirectly through inducing microbes and NAG activities. We found that the exudation of oxalic acid clearly provides an important mechanism that allows plants to enhance nutrient acquisition in karst ecosystems.

  14. Dietary Broccoli Lessens Development of Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer in Mice Given Diethylnitrosamine and Fed a Western or Control Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ju; Wallig, Matthew A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2016-03-01

    The high-fat and high-sugar Westernized diet that is popular worldwide is associated with increased body fat accumulation, which has been related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Without treatment, NAFLD may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer with a high mortality rate. The consumption of broccoli in the United States has greatly increased in the last 2 decades. Epidemiologic studies show that incorporating brassica vegetables into the daily diet lowers the risk of several cancers, although, to our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate HCC prevention through dietary broccoli. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary broccoli on hepatic lipid metabolism and the progression of NAFLD to HCC. Our hypothesis was that broccoli decreases both hepatic lipidosis and the development of HCC in a mouse model of Western diet-enhanced liver cancer. Adult 5-wk-old male B6C3F1 mice received a control diet (AIN-93M) or a Western diet (high in lard and sucrose, 19% and 31%, wt:wt, respectively), with or without freeze-dried broccoli (10%, wt:wt). Starting the following week, mice were treated once per week with diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 45 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally at ages 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 12 wk). Hepatic gene expression, lipidosis, and tumor outcomes were analyzed 6 mo later, when mice were 9 mo old. Mice receiving broccoli exhibited lower hepatic triglycerides (P broccoli feeding (P = 0.006), whereas microsomal triglyceride transfer protein was upregulated (P = 0.045), supporting the finding that dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triglycerides. Long-term consumption of whole broccoli countered both NAFLD development enhanced by a Western diet and hepatic tumorigenesis induced by DEN in male B6C3F1 mice. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  16. Substitution or addition? How overweight and obese adults incorporate vegetables into their diet during a randomized controlled vegetable feeding trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: When attempting to eat healthier, individuals may add vegetables to their diet (addition) without changing other eating behaviors. Alternatively, individuals adding vegetables may decrease consumption of other foods (substitution). Distinguishing between the two means of incorporation of ...

  17. Influence of oxalic acid on the dissolution kinetics of manganese oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunov, E. B.; Artamonova, I. V.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics and electrochemical processes of the dissolution of manganese oxides with various oxidation states in sulfuric acid solutions containing oxalate ion additives is studied under variable conditions (concentration, pH, temperature). The parameters favoring a higher degree of the dissolution of manganese oxides in acidic media are determined. The optimal conditions are found for the dissolution of manganese oxides in acidic media in the presence of oxalate ions. The mechanism proposed for the dissolution of manganese oxides in sulfuric acid solutions containing oxalic acid is based on the results of kinetic and electrochemical studies. The steps of the dissolution mechanism are discussed.

  18. Complexation of Am(III) by oxalate in NaClO4 media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Chen, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The complexation of Am(III) by oxalate has been investigated in solutions of NaClO 4 up to 9.0 M ionic strength at 25 degrees C. The dissociation constants of oxalic acid were determined by potentiometric titration, while the stability constants of the Am(III)-oxalate complexation were measured by the solvent extraction technique. A thermodynamic model was constructed to predict the apparent equilibrium constants at different ionic strengths by applying the Pitzer equation using parameters for the Na + -HOx - , Na + -Ox - , AmOx + -ClO 4 - , and Na + -Am(Ox) 2 - interactions obtained by fitting the data

  19. Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joensson Eva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-carbohydrate diets in the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes seem intuitively attractive due to their potent antihyperglycemic effect. We previously reported that a 20 % carbohydrate diet was significantly superior to a 55–60 % carbohydrate diet with regard to bodyweight and glycemic control in 2 non-randomised groups of obese diabetes patients observed closely over 6 months. The effect beyond 6 months of reduced carbohydrate has not been previously reported. The objective of the present study, therefore, was to determine to what degree the changes among the 16 patients in the low-carbohydrate diet group at 6-months were preserved or changed 22 months after start, even without close follow-up. In addition, we report that, after the 6 month observation period, two thirds of the patients in the high-carbohydrate changed their diet. This group also showed improvement in bodyweight and glycemic control. Method Retrospective follow-up of previously studied subjects on a low carbohydrate diet. Results The mean bodyweight at the start of the initial study was 100.6 ± 14.7 kg. At six months it was 89.2 ± 14.3 kg. From 6 to 22 months, mean bodyweight had increased by 2.7 ± 4.2 kg to an average of 92.0 ± 14.0 kg. Seven of the 16 patients (44% retained the same bodyweight from 6 to 22 months or reduced it further; all but one had lower weight at 22 months than at the beginning. Initial mean HbA1c was 8.0 ± 1.5 %. After 6 and 12 months it was 6.6 ± 1.0 % and 7.0 ± 1.3 %, respectively. At 22 months, it was still 6.9 ± 1.1 %. Conclusion Advice on a 20 % carbohydrate diet with some caloric restriction to obese patients with type 2 diabetes has lasting effect on bodyweight and glycemic control.

  20. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  1. Preparation of nuclear purity beryllium oxalate tri-hydrate; Preparation d'oxalate de beryllium trihydrate de purete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcorte, M; Lecocq, A; Rigaud, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In this report we have gathered the whole of the knowledge acquired by our group during the campaign for preparation of beryllium oxalate we carried out through the first half year of 1962. The reader shall find in the first place information and bibliographic data gathered by Miss OLLIVIER, documentalist of the Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. We then describe the original process perfected in the laboratories, and the production techniques we employed for the semi-large operative units. Finally, we publish the results we obtained on one hand on the chemical aspect, in the industrial meaning of the term, which is to-day concerning the ponderal output, on the other hand on the analytical aspect as you can evidently not dissociate the quantity of substance produced from its purity. (authors) [French] Nous avons reuni dans ce document l'ensemble des connaissances acquises par notre groupe pendant la campagne de preparation d'oxalate de beryllium que nous avons effectuee au cours du 1er semestre 1962. Le lecteur y trouvera en premier lieu les renseignements et donnees bibliographiques rassembles par Mlle OLLIVIER, documentaliste a la Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. Nous decrivons ensuite le procede original mis au point dans les laboratoires et les techniques de fabrication que nous avons utilisees pour des unites operatoires demi-grand. Pour terminer nous publions les resultats obtenus, d'une part sur le plan chimique, au sens industriel du terme, c'est-a-dire du point de vue rendement ponderal, d'autre part sur le plan analytique puisqu'on ne peut evidemment pas dissocier la quantite de produit fabrique, de sa purete. (auteurs)

  2. Efficacy and safety of a very-low-protein diet when postponing dialysis in the elderly: a prospective randomized multicenter controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Giuliano; Viola, Battista F; Parrinello, Giovanni; De Biase, Vincenzo; Como, Giovanna; Franco, Vincenzo; Garibotto, Giacomo; Zubani, Roberto; Cancarini, Giovanni C

    2007-05-01

    A supplemented very-low-protein diet (sVLPD) seems to be safe when postponing dialysis therapy. Prospective multicenter randomized controlled study designed to assess the noninferiority of diet versus dialysis in 1-year mortality assessed by using intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. Italian uremic patients without diabetes older than 70 years with glomerular filtration rate of 5 to 7 mL/min (0.08 to 0.12 mL/s). Randomization to an sVLPD (diet group) or dialysis. The sVLPD is a vegan diet (35 kcal; proteins, 0.3 g/kg body weight daily) supplemented with keto-analogues, amino acids, and vitamins. Patients following an sVLPD started dialysis therapy in the case of malnutrition, intractable fluid overload, hyperkalemia, or appearance of uremic symptoms. Mortality, hospitalization, and metabolic markers. 56 patients were randomly assigned to each group, median follow-up was 26.5 months (interquartile range, 40), and patients in the diet group spent a median of 10.7 months (interquartile range, 11) following an sVLPD. Forty patients in the diet group started dialysis treatment because of either fluid overload or hyperkalemia. There were 31 deaths (55%) in the dialysis group and 28 deaths (50%) in the diet group. One-year observed survival rates at intention to treat were 83.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.5 to 94.0) in the dialysis group versus 87.3% (95% CI, 78.9 to 96.5) in the diet group (log-rank test for noninferiority, P < 0.001; for superiority, P = 0.6): the difference in survival was -3.6% (95% CI, -17 to +10; P = 0.002). The hazard ratio for hospitalization was 1.50 for the dialysis group (95% CI, 1.11 to 2.01; P < 0.01). The unblinded nature of the study, exclusion of patients with diabetes, and incomplete enrollment. An sVLPD was effective and safe when postponing dialysis treatment in elderly patients without diabetes.

  3. A multifunctional diet improves cardiometabolic-related biomarkers independently of weight changes: an 8-week randomized controlled intervention in healthy overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Juscelino; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2016-10-01

    A multifunctional diet (MFD) was previously shown to reduce blood lipids, CRP and blood pressure in a 4-week intervention under weight-maintenance conditions. Here, MFD effects were evaluated in an 8-week intervention with no restriction for weight changes. Healthy subjects consumed MFD (23 subjects) or a control diet (CD) devoid of the functional components (24 subjects) in a "free-living" randomized controlled experiment. MFD included several functional concepts: low-glycemic-impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds and plant stanols. Measured outcomes were fasting blood values of lipids, glucose, insulin, GGT, CRP, HbA1c, PAI-1, GLP-1, GLP-2, body weight, blood pressure and breath hydrogen. At baseline, participants were 51-72 years old, with BMI between 25 and 34 and fasting glycemia  ≤ 6.1 mmol/L. Consumption of both diets resulted in similar weight loss after 8 weeks (-4 %; P  diets, which remained significant after adjustment for body weight. Reduced systolic blood pressure, circulating GGT, HbA1c and insulin concentrations were observed with both MFD and CD with no difference between diets. The Reynolds cardiovascular risk score was decreased by 36 % (P  <  0.0001) with MFD. MFD increased breath hydrogen levels (120 %; P  <  0.05). Consumption of MFD decreased blood lipids and improved several other aspects of the cardiometabolic risk profile. This effect was not dependent on weight loss.

  4. Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenglei; Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Jiajing; Fu, Yuanqing; Li, Duo

    2015-10-27

    Vegetarian diets exclude all animal flesh and are being widely adopted by an increasing number of people; however, effects on blood lipid concentrations remain unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the overall effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library through March 2015. Studies were included if they described the effectiveness of vegetarian diets on blood lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride). Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated for net changes by using a random-effects model. We performed subgroup and univariate meta-regression analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. Eleven trials were included in the meta-analysis. Vegetarian diets significantly lowered blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the pooled estimated changes were -0.36 mmol/L (95% CI -0.55 to -0.17; PVegetarian diets did not significantly affect blood triglyceride concentrations, with a pooled estimated mean difference of 0.04 mmol/L (95% CI -0.05 to 0.13; P=0.40). This systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that vegetarian diets effectively lower blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Such diets could be a useful nonpharmaceutical means of managing dyslipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Enhanced 400-m sprint performance in moderately trained participants by a 4-day alkalizing diet: a counterbalanced, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Mirjam; Eibl, Angi Diana; Platen, Petra

    2018-05-31

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) is an alkalizing agent and its ingestion is used to improve anaerobic performance. However, the influence of alkalizing nutrients on anaerobic exercise performance remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of an alkalizing versus acidizing diet on 400-m sprint performance, blood lactate, blood gas parameters, and urinary pH in moderately trained adults. In a randomized crossover design, eleven recreationally active participants (8 men, 3 women) aged 26.0 ± 1.7 years performed one trial under each individual's unmodified diet and subsequently two trials following either 4 days of an alkalizing (BASE) or acidizing (ACID) diet. Trials consisted of 400-m runs at intervals of 1 week on a tartan track in a randomized order. We found a significantly lower 400-m performance time for the BASE trial (65.8 ± 7.2 s) compared with the ACID trial (67.3 ± 7.1 s; p = 0.026). In addition, responses were significantly higher following the BASE diet for blood lactate (BASE: 16.3 ± 2.7; ACID: 14.4 ± 2.1 mmol/L; p = 0.32) and urinary pH (BASE: 7.0 ± 0.7; ACID: 5.5 ± 0.7; p = 0.001). We conclude that a short-term alkalizing diet may improve 400-m performance time in moderately trained participants. Additionally, we found higher blood lactate concentrations under the alkalizing diet, suggesting an enhanced blood or muscle buffer capacity. Thus, an alkalizing diet may be an easy and natural way to enhance 400-m sprint performance for athletes without the necessity of taking artificial dietary supplements.

  6. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  7. Treatment of metabolic syndrome by combination of physical activity and diet needs an optimal protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Lac, Gérard; Courteix, Daniel; Doré, Eric; Chapier, Robert; Roszyk, Laurence; Sapin, Vincent; Lesourd, Bruno

    2012-09-17

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein intake has been set at 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day for senior. To date, no consensus exists on the lower threshold intake (LTI = RDA/1.3) for the protein intake (PI) needed in senior patients ongoing both combined caloric restriction and physical activity treatment for metabolic syndrome. Considering that age, caloric restriction and exercise are three increasing factors of protein need, this study was dedicated to determine the minimal PI in this situation, through the determination of albuminemia that is the blood marker of protein homeostasis. Twenty eight subjects (19 M, 9 F, 61.8 ± 6.5 years, BMI 33.4 ± 4.1 kg/m²) with metabolic syndrome completed a three-week residential programme (Day 0 to Day 21) controlled for nutrition (energy balance of -500 kcal/day) and physical activity (3.5 hours/day). Patients were randomly assigned in two groups: Normal-PI (NPI: 1.0 g/kg/day) and High-PI (HPI: 1.2 g/kg/day). Then, patients returned home and were followed for six months. Albuminemia was measured at D0, D21, D90 and D180. At baseline, PI was spontaneously 1.0 g/kg/day for both groups. Albuminemia was 40.6 g/l for NPI and 40.8 g/l for HPI. A marginal protein under-nutrition appeared in NPI with a decreased albuminemia at D90 below 35 g/l (34.3 versus 41.5 g/l for HPI, p treatment based on restricted diet and exercise in senior people with metabolic syndrome, the lower threshold intake for protein must be set at 1.2 g/kg/day to maintain blood protein homeostasis.

  8. Structure and dynamics of solvated hydrogenoxalate and oxalate anions: theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroutil, O.; Minofar, Babak; Kabeláč, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2016), s. 210 ISSN 1610-2940 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ab initio molecular dynamics * oxalic acid anions * Potential energy surface Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.425, year: 2016

  9. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  10. Oxalate content of different drinkable dilutions of tea infusions after different brewing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of different brewing times and diluting on oxalate content of loose-packed black teas consumed in Tabriz, Iran. The oxalate content of black teas after brewing for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes was measured in triplicate by enzymatic assay. In order to attain the most acceptable dilution of tea infusions, tea samples which were brewed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes were diluted two (120 ml), three (80 ml) and four (60 ml) times respectively. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentrations associated with increased brewing times (Pbrewing times, respectively. There were significant differences between the mean oxalate content of different dilutions after brewing for 15, 30 and 60 minutes (Pbrewing times and different dilution was below the recommended levels. Therefore, it seems that consumption of black tea several times per day would not pose significant health risk in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals.

  11. Thermal, FT–IR and dielectric studies of gel grown sodium oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Institute of Diploma Studies, Nirma University of Science and Technology, Ahmedabad 384 481, India. MS received 29 ... dielectric response at various frequencies of applied field. ... 1987). Many oxalates exist in nature, for example, copper.

  12. Impact of an active patient education program on gastrointestinal symptoms in women with celiac disease following a gluten-free diet: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Lisa Ring; Friedrichsen, Maria; Göransson, Anne; Hallert, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Despite living with a gluten-free diet, Swedish women with celiac disease report a higher rate of gastrointestinal symptoms than women without the disease. This study was designed to assess the impact of active patient education on gastrointestinal symptoms in women with a gluten-free diet. A total of 106 Swedish women, aged 20 years or older, with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet for a minimum of 5 years took part in a randomized controlled trial. The intervention group (n = 54) underwent a 10-session educational program, "Celiac School," based on problem-based learning. Controls (n = 52) were sent information regarding celiac disease at home. The outcome measure was gastrointestinal symptoms at 10 weeks and 6 months after intervention, assessed with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. After 10 weeks of "Celiac School," the participating women reported significant improvements that remained 6 months later (p = .029). The controls did not improve significantly. A comparison of the development of scores, from baseline to 10 weeks, could not demonstrate a significant difference in the overall index between the 2 groups but showed a significant improvement concerning 1 of its components, namely the index reflecting Abdominal Pain (p = .007). Intervention methods should be refined to reach an even more pronounced effect.

  13. MRP-1 and BCRP Promote the Externalization of Phosphatidylserine in Oxalate-treated Renal Epithelial Cells: Implications for Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YiFu; Yu, ShiLiang; Gan, XiuGuo; Zhang, Ze; Wang, Yan; Wang, YingWei; An, RuiHua

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the oxalate-induced redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in renal epithelial cell membranes. A western blot analysis was used to examine the MRP-1 and BCRP expression levels. Surface-expressed PS was detected by the annexin V-binding assay. The cell-permeable fluorogenic probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to measure the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. A rat model of hyperoxaluria was obtained using 0.5% ethylene glycol and 1.0% ammonium chloride. In addition, certain animals received verapamil (50 mg/kg body weight), which is a common inhibitor of MRP-1 and BCRP. The degree of nephrolithiasis was assessed histomorphometrically using sections stained by Pizzolato method and by measuring the calcium oxalate crystal content in the renal tissue. Oxalate produced a concentration-dependent increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP. Treatment with MK571 and Ko143 (MRP-1- and BCRP-specific inhibitors, respectively) significantly attenuated the oxalate-induced PS externalization. Adding the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly reduced MRP-1 and BCRP expression. In vivo, markedly decreased nephrocalcinosis was observed compared with that in the rat model of hyperoxaluria without verapamil treatment. Oxalate induces the upregulation of MRP-1 and BCRP, which act as phospholipid floppases causing PS externalization in the renal epithelial cell membrane. The process is mediated by intracellular ROS production. The ROS-mediated increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP can play an important role in hyperoxaluria-promoted calcium oxalate urolithiasis by facilitating phosphatidylserine redistribution in renal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad; Rafi Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi; Zainab Awaen Al-Ebady; Thulfuqar Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy...

  15. Utilisation of sugarcane trash and other cellulosic wastes for production of oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, J D; Modak, H M; Ramaiah, N A; Jadhav, S J

    1988-01-01

    The nitric acid oxidation process was developed for the production of oxalic acid from sugarcane trash, groundnut shells, corn cobs and rice husks. Good yields of oxalic acid from the above raw materials were obtained under optimum conditions, with sugarcane trash as the preferable raw material. The absorption of waste nitrogen oxide gases in aqueous NaOH to get a valuable by-product, sodium nitrite, was also successful.

  16. Recovery of plutonium from oxalate supernatant using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) from oxalate supernatant was carried out employing varying concentrations of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP). Near quantitative extraction of Pu(IV) from an aqueous solution of 0.2M oxalic acid and 3M HNO 3 was possible employing 0.05M PMBP solution in xylene. Extraction studies at different uranium loading conditions were carried out and conditions for quantitative stripping were arrived at. (author). 2 refs., 4 tabs

  17. In-cloud oxalate formation in the global troposphere: a 3-D modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Myriokefalitakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids attract increasing attention as contributors to atmospheric acidity, secondary organic aerosol mass and aerosol hygroscopicity. Oxalic acid is globally the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, formed via chemical oxidation of gas-phase precursors in the aqueous phase of aerosols and droplets. Its lifecycle and atmospheric global distribution remain highly uncertain and are the focus of this study. The first global spatial and temporal distribution of oxalate, simulated using a state-of-the-art aqueous-phase chemical scheme embedded within the global 3-dimensional chemistry/transport model TM4-ECPL, is here presented. The model accounts for comprehensive gas-phase chemistry and its coupling with major aerosol constituents (including secondary organic aerosol. Model results are consistent with ambient observations of oxalate at rural and remote locations (slope = 1.16 ± 0.14, r2 = 0.36, N = 114 and suggest that aqueous-phase chemistry contributes significantly to the global atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol. In TM4-ECPL most oxalate is formed in-cloud and less than 5 % is produced in aerosol water. About 62 % of the oxalate is removed via wet deposition, 30 % by in-cloud reaction with hydroxyl radical, 4 % by in-cloud reaction with nitrate radical and 4 % by dry deposition. The in-cloud global oxalate net chemical production is calculated to be about 21–37 Tg yr−1 with almost 79 % originating from biogenic hydrocarbons, mainly isoprene. This condensed phase net source of oxalate in conjunction with a global mean turnover time against deposition of about 5 days, maintain oxalate's global tropospheric burden of 0.2–0.3 Tg, i.e. 0.05–0.1 Tg-C that is about 5–9 % of model-calculated water soluble organic carbon burden.

  18. Evidence of a natural marine source of oxalic acid and a possible link to glyoxal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Decesari, Stefano; Carbone, Claudio; Finessi, Emanuela; Fuzzi, Sandro; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Sciare, Jean; Burrows, John P.; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Ervens, Barbara; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Facchini, Maria Cristina

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents results supporting the existence of a natural source of oxalic acid over the oceans. Oxalate was detected in "clean-sector" marine aerosol samples at Mace Head (Ireland) (53°20'N, 9°54'W) during 2006, and at Amsterdam Island (37°48'S, 77°34'E) from 2003 to 2007, in concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 39 ng m-3 and from 0.31 to 17 ng m-3, respectively. The oxalate concentration showed a clear seasonal trend at both sites, with maxima in spring-summer and minima in fall-winter, being consistent with other marine biogenic aerosol components (e.g., methanesulfonic acid, non-sea-salt sulfate, and aliphatic amines). The observed oxalate was distributed along the whole aerosol size spectrum, with both a submicrometer and a supermicrometer mode, unlike the dominant submicrometer mode encountered in many polluted environments. Given its mass size distribution, the results suggest that over remote oceanic regions oxalate is produced through a combination of different formation processes. It is proposed that the cloud-mediated oxidation of gaseous glyoxal, recently detected over remote oceanic regions, may be an important source of submicrometer oxalate in the marine boundary layer. Supporting this hypothesis, satellite-retrieved glyoxal column concentrations over the two sampling sites exhibited the same seasonal concentration trend of oxalate. Furthermore, chemical box model simulations showed that the observed submicrometer oxalate concentrations were consistent with the in-cloud oxidation of typical marine air glyoxal mixing ratios, as retrieved by satellite measurements, at both sites.

  19. Steps toward improving diet and exercise for cancer survivors (STRIDE): a quasi-randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frensham, Lauren J; Zarnowiecki, Dorota M; Parfitt, Gaynor; Stanley, Rebecca M; Dollman, James

    2014-06-13

    Cancer survivorship rates have increased in developed countries largely due to population ageing and improvements in cancer care. Survivorship is a neglected phase of cancer treatment and is often associated with adverse physical and psychological effects. There is a need for broadly accessible, non-pharmacological measures that may prolong disease-free survival, reduce or alleviate co-morbidities and enhance quality of life. The aim of the Steps TowaRd Improving Diet and Exercise (STRIDE) study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an online-delivered physical activity intervention for increasing walking in cancer survivors living in metropolitan and rural areas of South Australia. This is a quasi-randomised controlled trial. The intervention period is 12-weeks with 3-month follow-up. The trial will be conducted at a university setting and community health services in South Australia. Participants will be insufficiently active and aged 18 years or older. Participants will be randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. All participants will receive a pedometer but only the intervention group will have access to the STRIDE website where they will report steps, affect and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise daily. Researchers will use these variables to individualise weekly step goals to increase walking.The primary outcome measure is steps per day. The secondary outcomes are a) health measures (anthropometric and physiological), b) dietary habits (consumption of core foods and non-core foods) and c) quality of life (QOL) including physical, psychological and social wellbeing. Measures will be collected at baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. This protocol des