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Sample records for controlled oxalate diets

  1. A CONTROLLED METABOLIC DIET REDUCES CALCIUM OXALATE SUPERSATURATION BUT NOT OXALATE EXCRETION AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

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    Pang, Ran; Linnes, Michael; O’Connor, Helen M.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric; Lieske, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the effect of controlled metabolic diet on reducing urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation in subjects with hyperoxaluric nephrolithiasis after potentially malabsorptive forms of bariatric surgery. Materials and Methods Subjects with a history of CaOx kidney stones and mild hyperoxaluria after bariatric surgery (n=9) collected baseline 24-hour urine samples while on a free choice diet. They were then placed on a controlled diet low in oxalate (70 – 80 mg/day), normal in calcium (1000 mg/day), and moderate in protein prior to 2 final 24-hour urine collections. Results Overall urinary CaOx supersaturation fell from 1.97 ± 0.49 delta Gibbs (DG) on the free choice diet to 1.13 ± 0.75 DG on the controlled diet (P0.05), contributing to the significant CaOx supersaturation change. Conclusions A controlled metabolic diet normal in calcium, moderate in protein and reduced in oxalate can positively impact urinary CaOx supersaturation after bariatric surgery. However, this diet did not appear to decrease urinary oxalate excretion. Therefore, restriction of dietary oxalate alone may not be enough to reduce urinary oxalate excretion to normal levels in this group of known enteric hyperoxaluric patients. Additional strategies may be necessary, such as use of oral calcium supplements as oxalate binders and a lower fat diet. PMID:22554593

  2. Controlled metabolic diet reduces calcium oxalate supersaturation but not oxalate excretion after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ran; Linnes, Michael P; O'Connor, Helen M; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric; Lieske, John C

    2012-08-01

    To identify the effect of a controlled metabolic diet on reducing urinary calcium oxalate (CaOx) supersaturation in subjects with hyperoxaluric nephrolithiasis after potentially malabsorptive forms of bariatric surgery. Subjects with a history of CaOx kidney stones and mild hyperoxaluria after bariatric surgery (n = 9) collected baseline 24-hour urine samples while consuming a free choice diet. They were then instructed to consume a controlled diet low in oxalate (70-80 mg/d), normal in calcium (1000 mg/d), and moderate in protein before 2 final 24-hour urine collections. Overall, the urinary CaOx supersaturation decreased from 1.97 ± 0.49 delta Gibbs (DG) with the free choice diet to 1.13 ± 0.75 DG with the controlled diet (P .05), contributing to the significant CaOx supersaturation change. A controlled metabolic diet normal in calcium, moderate in protein, and reduced in oxalate can positively affect urinary CaOx supersaturation after bariatric surgery. However, this diet did not appear to decrease urinary oxalate excretion. Therefore, restriction of dietary oxalate alone might not be enough to reduce urinary oxalate excretion to normal levels in this group of patients with known enteric hyperoxaluria. Additional strategies could be necessary, such as the use of oral calcium supplements as oxalate binders and a lower fat diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diet, but not oral probiotics, effectively reduces urinary oxalate excretion and calciumoxalate supersaturation

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    Lieske, John C.; Tremaine, William J.; De Simone, Claudio; O’Connor, Helen M.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Goldfarb, David S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of a controlled diet and two probiotic preparations on urinary oxalate excretion, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, in patients with mild hyperoxaluria. Patients were randomized to a placebo, a probiotic, or a synbiotic preparation. This tested whether these probiotic preparations can increase oxalate metabolism in the intestine and/or decrease oxalate absorption from the gut. Patients were maintained on a controlled diet to remove the confounding variable of differing oxalate intake from food. Urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation on the controlled diet were significantly lower compared with baseline on a free-choice diet. Neither study preparation reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor calcium oxalate supersaturation. Fecal lactobacilli colony counts increased on both preparations, whereas enterococcal and yeast colony counts were increased on the synbiotic. Total urine volume and the excretion of oxalate and calcium were all strong independent determinants of urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Hence, dietary oxalate restriction reduced urinary oxalate excretion, but the tested probiotics did not influence urinary oxalate levels in patients on a restricted oxalate diet. However, this study suggests that dietary oxalate restriction is useful for kidney stone prevention. PMID:20736987

  4. Influence of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion.

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    Thomas, E; von Unruh, G E; Hesse, A

    2008-09-01

    To compare quantitatively the effect of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion. Eight healthy volunteers (three men and five women, mean age 28.6+/-6.3) were studied. Each volunteer performed the [(13)C(2)]oxalate absorption test thrice on a low-oxalate mixed diet, thrice on a low-oxalate vegetarian diet and thrice on a high-oxalate vegetarian diet. For each test, the volunteers had to adhere to an identical diet and collect their 24-h urines. In the morning of the second day, a capsule containing [(13)C(2)]oxalate was ingested. On the low-oxalate vegetarian diet, mean intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly to 15.8+/-2.9% (P=0.012) and 0.414+/-0.126 mmol/day (P=0.012), compared to the mixed diet. On the high-oxalate vegetarian diet, oxalate absorption (12.5+/-4.6%, P=0.161) and urinary excretion (0.340+/-0.077 mmol/day, P=0.093) did not change significantly, compared to the mixed diet. A vegetarian diet can only be recommended for calcium oxalate stone patients, if the diet (1) contains the recommended amounts of divalent cations such as calcium and its timing of ingestion to a meal rich in oxalate is considered and (2) excludes foodstuffs with a high content of nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, which are able to chelate calcium.

  5. The control of Varroa destructor using oxalic acid.

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    Gregorc, Ales; Planinc, I

    2002-05-01

    Twenty-four honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were used to monitor the efficacy of a solution of 2.9% oxalic acid (OA) and 31.9% sugar against the mite Varroa destructor. Mite mortality was established prior to and after OA treatments, which were conducted in August and September. The treatments resulted in 37% mite mortality as opposed to 1.11% in the controls. OA treatment conducted in September on previously untreated colonies resulted in 25% mite mortality. OA treatments in October and November resulted in approximately 97% mite mortality. These results suggest that OA is effective during the broodless period and less effective when applied to colonies with capped broods. The possible use of OA against the Varroa mite in honeybee colonies as an alternative to routine chemical treatments is discussed.

  6. Influence of acidifying or alkalinizing diets on bone mineral density and urine relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy cats.

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    Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A; Cox, Sherry K; Moyers, Tamberlyn D

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of acidifying or alkalinizing diets on bone mineral density and urine relative supersaturation (URSS) with calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy cats. 6 castrated male and 6 spayed female cats. 3 groups of 4 cats each were fed diets for 12 months that differed only in acidifying or alkalinizing properties (alkalinizing, neutral, and acidifying). Body composition was estimated by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and 48-hour urine samples were collected for URSS determination. Urine pH differed significantly among diet groups, with the lowest urine pH values in the acidifying diet group and the highest values in the alkalinizing diet group. Differences were not observed in other variables except urinary ammonia excretion, which was significantly higher in the neutral diet group. Calcium oxalate URSS was highest in the acidifying diet group and lowest in the alkalinizing diet group; struvite URSS was not different among groups. Diet was not significantly associated with bone mineral content or density. Urinary undersaturation with calcium oxalate was achieved by inducing alkaluria. Feeding an alkalinizing diet was not associated with URSS with struvite. Bone mineral density and calcium content were not adversely affected by diet; therefore, release of calcium from bone caused by feeding an acidifying diet may not occur in healthy cats.

  7. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid

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    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease. PMID:27258452

  8. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

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    Ja Yeong Jang

    Full Text Available Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10% and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%, were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate. These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.

  9. Use of oxalic acid to control Varroa destructor in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Akyol, Ethem; YENİNAR, Halil

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on reducing Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) populations in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the fall. Twenty honeybee colonies, in wooden Langstroth hives, were used in this experiment. Average Varroa infestation levels (%) of the OA and control groups were 25.87% and 24.57% on adult workers before the treatments. The OA treatments were applied twice, on 3 November and 13 November 2006. Average Varroa infestation ...

  10. Urinary Calcium and Oxalate Excretion in Healthy Adult Cats Are Not Affected by Increasing Dietary Levels of Bone Meal in a Canned Diet

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and fa...

  11. Nucleation Controlled Growth of Cadmium Oxalate Crystals in Agar Gel and Their Characterization

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    P. V. Dalal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfect single crystals of cadmium oxalate have been grown using the slow and controlled reaction between cadmium acetate and oxalic acid in agar gel media at ambient temperature, resulting in the formation of insoluble product Cd(COO2. Different methods for growing crystals were adopted. The optimum conditions were employed in each method by varying the concentration of gel and reactants, gel setting time, and so forth. Prismatic, transparent single crystal about 20 times larger than the crystals obtained in various other methods at the interstitial by adding impurities in the gel was obtained. The grown crystals was characterized with the help of FT-IR studies and triclinic system of crystals were supported with lattice parameters a = 8.803 A0, b = 22.352 A0, c = 5.706 A0, α = 95.74 A0, β = 90.92 A0, γ = 117.01 A0, and V = 994.69 A03, calculated from X-ray diffractogram.

  12. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

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    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  13. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

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    Nadine Passlack

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A, 18.5 (B and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C and 16.1 (A, 17.6 (B and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C. Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between, and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox, the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  14. Wu-Ling-San formula prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis - a prospective randomized controlled trial.

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    Lin, Eugene; Ho, Lin; Lin, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Min-Ho; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Wu-Ling-San (WLS) formula has been proved to prevent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial of WLS in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis prevention. All patients who enrolled were asked to drink enough fluid to urinate at least 2 L daily during the study period. A 24-hour urine collection was performed to establish the baseline levels of multiple urinary parameters before taking the medicine. The patients were randomized and divided into two groups. The medication group took 2 gm WLS formula three times daily for 1 month. The control group took 2 gm placebo three times daily for 1 month. A 24-hour urine collection was performed to evaluate multiple urinary and serum parameters from all patients during the study period. A total of 39 patients were enrolled and 28 patients completed the study. Fourteen patients were allocated to WLS group and 14 patients to placebo group. After treatment, the mean urine output level increased to 2796.4 ± 525.7 ml/day (percentage of change, 13.9 %) in the WLS formula group. With placebo therapy, the mean decreased slightly to 2521.4 ± 762.7ml/day (percentage of change, -5.7 %). The percentage of change was significantly different between the two groups (independent t-test, P=0.02). No patient complained of side effects, such as fatigue, dizziness, musculoskeletal symptoms, or gastrointestinal disturbance. WLS formula is a promising adjunct to surgical and medical management of kidney stones. Active therapy with WLS formula has a positive effect on diuresis without leading to electrolyte imbalance.

  15. Oxalic acid for the control of varroosis in honey bee colonies - a review

    OpenAIRE

    RADEMACHER, Eva; Harz, Marika

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The review summarizes research results on the use of oxalic acid as an acaricide in honey bee colonies. Three different treatment techniques (i.e. trickling, evaporation and spraying) have been developed for the application of oxalic acid. Detailed information is given on the efficacy against Varroa destructor, tolerability by Apis mellifera, protective procedures for the user, residue situation and consumer safety, as well as recommendations for use.

  16. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

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    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  17. Enrofloxacinium oxalate.

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    Yamuna, Thammarse S; Kaur, Manpreet; Anderson, Brian J; Jasinski, Jerry P; Yathirajan, H S

    2014-02-01

    The title salt, 2C19H23FN3O3 (+)·C2O4 (2-) {systematic name: bis-[4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quino-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium] oxalate}, crystallizes with two independent monocations (A and B) and an oxalate dianion (C) in the asymmetric unit. The piperazinium ring in both the cations adopts a slightly disordered chair conformation. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring are 50.6 (5)° (A) and 62.2 (5)° (B). In each of the cations, a single O-H⋯O intra-molecular hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, the oxalate anions inter-act with the cations through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O inter-actions, forming R 2 (2)(8) graph-set ring motifs. Weak C-H⋯F inter-actions along with further C-H⋯O inter-actions are observed between the cations, forming zigzag chains along [001]. In addition, π-π stacking inter-actions are observed with centroid-centroid distances of 3.5089 (13), 3.5583 (13), 3.7900 (13) and 3.7991 (13) Å.

  18. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

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    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  19. Urinary excretion of orally administered oxalic acid in saccharin and o-phenylphenol-fed NMRI mice.

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    Salminen, E; Salminen, S

    1986-01-01

    Both saccharin and o-phenylphenol have been suggested to be carcinogenic to the urinary bladder in experimental animals, but the mechanism has remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary saccharin and o-phenylphenol on the urinary excretion of dietary oxalic acid. Male NMRI mice were gradually adapted to either 3% o-phenylphenol or 5% saccharin in their diet. Having being adapted to these diets for 1 week or after consuming them for 3 months, the animals were fasted for 6 h and given a 2.5-microCi oral dose of U-14C-oxalic acid. Dosed animals were kept in metabolism cages for 48 h to monitor urinary and fecal excretion of the label. Adaptation to dietary o-phenylphenol appeared to increase the urinary excretion of orally administered U-14C-oxalic acid when food and water were available during urinary and fecal collections. Adaptation to dietary saccharin had little effect on urinary oxalate levels when compared to control animals. These results indicate that changes in urinary oxalate levels should be more carefully studied in connection with potential urinary bladder carcinogens to avoid the possibility of bladder irritation by increased urinary oxalate excretion.

  20. Brood removal or queen caging combined with oxalic acid treatment to control varroa mites (Varroa destructor) in honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera)

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    Few studies of honey bee colonies exist where varroa mite control is achieved by integrating broodless conditions, through either total brood removal or queen caging, in combination with oxalic acid (OA) applications. We observed significant varroa mortality after applications of OA in obtaining bro...

  1. Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Nano- and Microsized Crystals in the Urine of Calcium Oxalate Stone Patients and Control Subjects

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    Jie Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the properties of different sizes of urinary crystallites between calcium oxalate (CaOx calculi patients and healthy controls. Methods. We studied the average particle size, size distribution, intensity-autocorrelation curve, zeta potential (ζ, conductivity, mobility, aggregation state, and stability of different sizes of urinary crystallites by nanoparticle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy after filtration through a microporous membrane with an aperture size from 0.22 μm to 0.45, 1.2, 3, and 10 μm. Results. The urinary crystallites of the CaOx calculi patients were uneven and much easy to aggregate than those of controls. The number of large-sized crystallites of the patients was significantly more than that of the controls. The main components of the nanosized urinary crystallites in patients were CaOx monohydrate (COM, uric acid, and β-calcium phosphate, and these components were basically similar to those of the microsized urinary crystallites. The urinary crystallites of the calculi patients were easier to aggregate than that of the controls, and the small-sized urinary crystallites were much easier to agglomerate. Conclusions. The urinary system of CaOx calculi patients is unstable and highly susceptible to urinary crystallite aggregation. The rapid aggregation of urinary crystallites may be the key factor affecting urolithiasis formation.

  2. Oxalate catabolism in Arabidopsis

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    Oxalic acid is found in most plant species and can serve beneficial roles that protect the plant from a variety of environmental stresses. Excessive amounts of oxalate, however, can be detrimental to plant health. Thus, careful coordination of oxalate metabolism is needed. Despite the important impa...

  3. Inhibition of oxalate nephrolithiasis with Ammi visnaga (AI-Khillah).

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    Khan, Z A; Assiri, A M; Al-Afghani, H M; Maghrabi, T M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Ammi visnaga seeds on experimentally - induced kidney stones - in male Wistar albino rats. Oxalate nephrolithiasis was experimentally induced by 3% glycolic acid (added in their diet) given for the period of four weeks. A highly significant amount of deposits were found in the kidneys, which were analyzed quantitatively. These deposits were mainly of calcium oxalate in composition. Daily oral (gavage) treatment with Ammi visnaga (500 mg/kg) highly reduced the incidence of nephrolithiasis (calcium oxalate deposition in the kidneys). Ammi visnaga seeds extract showed highly potent diuretic activity. The reduction in body weight, increase in kidneys weight, increase in water intake, decrease in urine output found in glycolic acid control group were prevented to various extent on Ammi visnaga treatment; and the values became to insignificant difference with control group. The changes in weights of liver, heart and lungs of the three groups were insignificant. Uraemia and hyperbilirubinaemia observed in glycolic acid control group were found to be ameliorated by Ammi visnaga seed extract treatment.

  4. Efficacy of repeated trickle applications of oxalic acid in syrup for varroosis control in Apis mellifera: influence of meteorological conditions and presence of brood.

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    Bacandritsos, Nicolaos; Papanastasiou, Iosif; Saitanis, Costas; Nanetti, Antonio; Roinioti, Erifylli

    2007-09-01

    Oxalic acid field trails for the control of varroosis (Varroa destructor) were carried out in an apiary located on the Mt. Imittos (Attica, Greece). The colonies received four successive applications (approximately one every 16 days) with 4.2% oxalic acid (OA) and 60% sugar solution by trickling method with two alternative types of syringes (an automatic self-filling dosing and a single-use) from the broodright to broodless period. The results indicate that the first three applications (from 6th October to 25th November-broodright period) resulted in 65.3% cumulative mite mortality, while only the last application (after the 26th November-broodless period) resulted in 77.3% mite mortality. Very low outern temperatures reduce to the minimum the bee movability, which may result into a slower development of the OA efficacy. No poor colony growth or queen loss were observed even if the bee colonies were received the four successive OA applications with the last one taken place at a very low outern temperature (6.2 degrees C). The trickling method using an automatic-filling syringe seems to be a very quick way for applying oxalic acid in large apiaries (approximately 150hives/h).

  5. Chronic metabolic acidosis reduces urinary oxalate excretion and promotes intestinal oxalate secretion in the rat.

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    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Urinary oxalate excretion is reduced in rats during a chronic metabolic acidosis, but how this is achieved is not clear. In this report, we re-examine our prior work on the effects of a metabolic acidosis on urinary oxalate handling [Green et al., Am J Physiol Ren Physiol 289(3):F536-F543, 2005], offering a more detailed analysis and interpretation of the data, together with new, previously unpublished observations revealing a marked impact on intestinal oxalate transport. Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with 0.28 M ammonium chloride in their drinking water for either 4 or 14 days followed by 24 h urine collections, blood-gas and serum ion analysis, and measurements of (14)C-oxalate fluxes across isolated segments of the distal colon. Urinary oxalate excretion was significantly reduced by 75% after just 4 days compared to control rats, and this was similarly sustained at 14 days. Oxalate:creatinine clearance ratios indicated enhanced net re-absorption of oxalate by the kidney during a metabolic acidosis, but this was not associated with any substantive changes to serum oxalate levels. In the distal colon, oxalate transport was dramatically altered from net absorption in controls (6.20 ± 0.63 pmol cm(-2) h(-1)), to net secretion in rats with a metabolic acidosis (-5.19 ± 1.18 and -2.07 ± 1.05 pmol cm(-2) h(-1) at 4 and 14 days, respectively). Although we cannot rule out modifications to bi-directional oxalate movements along the proximal tubule, these findings support a gut-kidney axis in the management of oxalate homeostasis, where this shift in renal handling during a metabolic acidosis is associated with compensatory adaptations by the intestine.

  6. Will seizure control improve by switching from the modified Atkins diet to the traditional ketogenic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Bosarge, Jennifer L; Miranda, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that children can maintain seizure control when the ketogenic diet (KD) is transitioned to the less-restrictive modified Atkins diet (MAD). What is unknown, however, is the likelihood of additional seizure control from a switch from the MAD to the KD. Retrospective informatio...

  7. Electron imaging of calcium oxalate crystals in beagle dogs’ urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa I. Mohamaden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate crystalluria appears to be a common problem in most of small animal clinics. This current study aimed at inducing a condition of oxalate crystalluria in beagles and record the primary changes in canine blood and urine on response to oxalates injection. 15 dogs were divided into two groups; those in the treatment group were injected intravenously with 0.5 M potassium oxalate and the dogs of control group were injected with physiological saline for five successive days. Urine test revealed a significant decrease in urinary creatinine and urinary urea nitrogen levels. The ultrastructural examination of urine sediment showed typical and atypical phases of calcium oxalate crystals and the X-ray defractionation of these crystals showed high content of calcium in addition to other minerals. Therefore potassium oxalate injection may provide an example of calcium oxalate crystalluria which may answer some question around the pathogenesis of this problem in dogs.

  8. Ketogenic diet versus gluten free casein free diet in autistic children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashidy, Omnia; El-Baz, Farida; El-Gendy, Yasmin; Khalaf, Randa; Reda, Dina; Saad, Khaled

    2017-08-14

    Many diet regimens were studied for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past few years. Ketogenic diet is gaining attention due to its proven effect on neurological conditions like epilepsy in children. Forty-five children aged 3-8 years diagnosed with ASD based on DSM-5 criteria were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally divided into 3 groups, first group received ketogenic diet as modified Atkins diet (MAD), second group received gluten free casein free (GFCF) diet and the third group received balanced nutrition and served as a control group. All patients were assessed in terms of neurological examination, anthropometric measures, as well as Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Treatment Evaluation Test (ATEC) scales before and 6 months after starting diet. Both diet groups showed significant improvement in ATEC and CARS scores in comparison to control group, yet ketogenic scored better results in cognition and sociability compared to GFCF diet group. Depending on the parameters measured in our study, modified Atkins diet and gluten free casein free diet regimens may safely improve autistic manifestations and could be recommended for children with ASD. At this stage, this study is a single center study with a small number of patients and a great deal of additional wide-scale prospective studies are however needed to confirm these results. UMIN-CTR Study Design: trial Number UMIN000021433.

  9. Directed synthesis of crystalline plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalates: accessing redox-controlled separations in acidic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runde, Wolfgang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brodnax, Lia F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goff, George S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bean, Amanda C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Both binary and ternary solid complexes of Pu(III) and Pu(IV) oxalates have been previously reported in the literature. However, uncertainties regarding the coordination chemistry and the extent of hydration of some compounds remain mainly because of the absence of any crystallographic characterization. Single crystals of hydrated oxalates of Pu(III), Pu{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O (I) and Pu(IV), KPu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){center_dot}2.5H{sub 2}O (II), were synthesized under moderate hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds I and II are the first plutonium(III) or (IV) oxalate compounds to be structurally characterized via single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Crystallographic data for I: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 11.246(3) A, b = 9.610(3) A, c = 10.315(3) A, Z = 4 and II: monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 23.234(14) A, b = 7.502(4) A, c = 13.029(7) A, Z = 8.

  10. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Baal, van J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are availab

  11. Risk factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chika C; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Pearl, David L; Yang, Mingyin; Wang, Mansen; Blois, Shauna L; Lund, Elizabeth M; Dewey, Cate E

    2014-08-01

    Calcium oxalate urolithiasis results from the formation of aggregates of calcium salts in the urinary tract. Difficulties associated with effectively treating calcium oxalate urolithiasis and the proportional increase in the prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths relative to other urolith types over the last 2 decades has increased the concern of clinicians about this disease. To determine factors associated with the development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States, a retrospective case-control study was performed. A national electronic database of medical records of all dogs evaluated between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States was reviewed. Dogs were selected as cases at the first-time diagnosis of a laboratory-confirmed urolith comprised of at least 70% calcium oxalate (n=452). Two sets of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis diagnosis were randomly selected after the medical records of all remaining dogs were reviewed: urinalysis examination was a requirement in the selection of one set (n=1808) but was not required in the other set (n=1808). Historical information extracted included urolith composition, dog's diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, date of diagnosis, and urinalysis results. Multivariable analysis showed that the odds of first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were significantly (P30 mg/dL (OR: 1.55, 1.04-2.30). Patient demographics and urinalysis results are important factors that can support risk assessment and early identification of canine oxalate urolithiasis. Therefore, periodic urolith screening and monitoring of urine parameters should be encouraged for dogs at risk of developing these uroliths.

  12. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  13. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  14. Urinary supersaturation with respect to brushite in patients suffering calcium oxalate lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Y; Boistelle, R; Olmer, M

    1990-01-01

    The urines of 23 stone-formers presenting repeated calcium oxalate lithiasis and 12 control subjects were collected at six different time periods daily. Supersaturations for calcium oxalate and brushite (DCPD) were calculated using ionic and solubility products. Urines of both groups were supersaturated for calcium oxalate but only urines of the stone-formers were supersaturated for brushite, the most simple calcium phosphate which nucleates very easily at the urinary pH. This fact suggests that the core of the calcium oxalate stone could be made of either a calcium oxalate crystallite or a brushite seed onto which hetergeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate can take place.

  15. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G.; Costenoble, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3H{sub 2}O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} (log {beta}1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log {beta}1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10{sup -8} to 9.2 10{sup -9} and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H{sup +}] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10{sup -8}. (authors)

  16. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Oxalic Acid and Its application in Lathyrus sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ze-Yi; XING Geng-Mei; LI Zhi-Xiao

    2003-01-01

    @@ Oxalic acid is one of the most common nutrient chelators in the human diet found in many vegetables, such as mushroom, spinach, fresh kidney beans, rhubarb leaves and beet leaves. Some recent reports demonstrate that oxalate plays an important role in resistance stress metabolism and steady state regulation in plant. [1

  17. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  18. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration

  19. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  20. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  1. Will seizure control improve by switching from the modified Atkins diet to the traditional ketogenic diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Bosarge, Jennifer L; Miranda, Maria J; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Kang, Hoon Chul; Kim, Heung Dong

    2010-12-01

    It has been reported that children can maintain seizure control when the ketogenic diet (KD) is transitioned to the less-restrictive modified Atkins diet (MAD). What is unknown, however, is the likelihood of additional seizure control from a switch from the MAD to the KD. Retrospective information was obtained from 27 patients who made this dietary change from four different institutions. Ten (37%) patients had ≥10% additional seizure reduction with the KD over the MAD, of which five became seizure-free. The five children who did not improve on the MAD failed to improve when transitioned to the KD. A higher incidence of improvement with the KD occurred for those with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (70% vs. 12% for all other etiologies, p = 0.004), including all who became seizure-free. These results suggest that the KD probably represents a "higher dose" of dietary therapy than the MAD, which may particularly benefit those with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy.

  2. Tetraphenylphosphonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. W. Dean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20P+·C2HO4−, two symmetry-independent ion pairs are present. The cations aggregate into puckered sheets via zigzag infinite chains of sixfold phenyl embraces and parallel fourfold phenyl embraces, while the anions form hydrogen-bonded chains between the sheets of cations. In the two independent oxalate anions, the angles between the normals to the two least-squares carboxylate COO planes are unusually large, viz. 72.5 (1 and 82.1 (1°.

  3. Determination of urine oxalate level in rats with renal calcium oxalate calculus by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qiu-shi; Ba, Yuan-ming; Luo, Jun-hua; Dai, Qi

    2015-02-01

    To establish a method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining the urine oxalate levle in rats with renal calcium oxalate calculus. Totally 24 SPF Wistar healthy male rats were randomly divided into control group(n=12)and ethylene glycol (EG) group (n=12). Rats in EG group were administered intragastrically with 2% ammonium chloride (AC)2 ml/rat per day+1% ethylene glycol (EG), along with free access to drinking water.The control group was fed with deionized water, along with the intragastric administration of normal saline (1 ml per day). Twenty-eight days after modelling, the 24-hour urine samples were collected, and the urine oxalic acid levels were determined using HPLC and the results were compared with those of catalytic spectrophotometry using oxidation of methyl. During the HPLC, the samples were separated on Aglient 5TC-C18 (250×4.6 mm,5 Μm), eluted with mixture of methanol (0.1 mol/L) and ammonium acetate (15:85) at 1.2 ml/min, and detected at 314 nm, with the column temperature being 20 ℃. The standard curves of high and low concentrations of oxalic acid were y=5909.1x+378730, R² =0.9984 and y=7810.5x-16635, R² =0.9967,respectively. The lowest detectable concentration in this method was 5 Μg/ml. The linear high concentration range of oxalate stood at 62.50-2000.00 Μg/ml, and the linear low concentration range of oxalate stood at 6.25-100.00 Μg/ml. Its average recovery was 95.1%, and its within-day and day-to-day precisions were 3.4%-10.8% and 3.8%-9.4%. Both HPLC and catalytic spectrophotometry showed significantly higher urinary oxalic acid concentration and 24 h urine oxalate level in EG group compared with the control group [urinary oxalic acid concentration: (736.35 ± 254.52) Μg/ml vs.(51.56 ± 36.34) Μg/ml,(687.35 ± 234.53) Μg/ml vs.(50.24 ± 42.34) Μg/ml;24 h urine oxalate level: (11.23 ± 4.12)mg vs.(0.87 ± 0.45)mg,(9.89 ± 3.55)mg vs. (0.77 ± 0.65)mg; all P0.05). HPLC is a simple, rapid, and precise method

  4. Effect of Postharvest Oxalic Acid and Calcium Chloride on Quality Attributes of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables have special importance as a very important part of the human food supply. And from the beginnings of life, man has used these products to supply a part of his food. Nowadays, horticultural products are widely used in the diet. Cherry is one of the deciduous trees in the temperate regions, which is potassium rich. Use of Oxalic acid significantly reduces frost injury in pomegranate fruits during storage at a temperature of 2° C. In fruit trees, the importance of calcium is due to a delay in fruit ripening process and this way products have better portability. Materials and Methods: Firmness test was measured using the FT011 model of penetrometer. For determination of titratable acidity, the 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH titration method was used. Total Soluble solids content (SSC of fruit was measured by a digital refractometer (PAL-1. For determination of vitamin C in fruit juices, titration method with the indicator, 2,6-di-chlorophenolindophenol was used. Fruit juice pH was measured using pH meter model HI 9811.In order to investigate the effect of postharvest soaking treatment with Oxalic acid on the qualitative specifications and storage life of single grain sweet cherry fruit a research was conducted. This experience was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications separately for the two materials. In this experiment Oxalic acid, in four levels (0,4,6 and 8 mM and Calcium chloride in four levels (0, 40, 55 and 70 mM were applied on the single grain sweet cherry fruit in the form of soaking and sampleswith7-day intervals for a period of 28 days from the fridge out and quanti tate and qualitative traits such as stiffness, weight loss, Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C and pH were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that compared with control ones all of the concentrations of Oxalic acid and Calcium chloride caused significant differences in the amount

  5. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  6. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  7. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  8. Analytical Study of Oxalates Coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana MARTA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the establishing of the oxalates coprecipitation conditions in view of the synthesis of superconducting systems. A systematic analytical study of the oxalates precipitation conditions has been performed, for obtaining superconducting materials, in the Bi Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. For this purpose, the formulae of the precipitates solubility as a function of pH and oxalate excess were established. The possible formation of hydroxo-complexes and soluble oxalato-complexes was taken into account. A BASIC program was used for tracing the precipitation curves. The curves of the solubility versus pH for different oxalate excess have plotted for the four oxalates, using a logaritmic scale. The optimal conditions for the quantitative oxalate coprecipitation have been deduced from the diagrams. The theoretical curves were confirmed by experimental results. From the precursors obtained by this method, the BSCCO superconducting phases were obtained by an appropriate thermal treatment. The formation of the superconducting phases was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  9. Controlled evaluation of slimming diets: use of television for recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Woolfe, R; Rantzen, E

    1990-10-13

    352 overweight men and women took part in a six-week controlled trial of seven slimming regimens versus a placebo diet. They were recruited through a popular television programme. The findings showed that three regimens ('Bai-Lin Tea', the 'Grapefruit Pill', and the 'Natural Vitality' pill) were ineffective. Reduction in energy intake either by meal replacement or by dietary modification led to successful weight loss. Commercial slimming clubs were the most effective measures. Television and other media could be used to test other hypotheses with randomisation experiments.

  10. Determination of residues in honey after treatments with formic and oxalic acid under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Stefan; Charrière, Jean-Daniel; IMDORF, Anton; KILCHENMANN, Verena; Fluri, Peter

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Formic acid and oxalic acid field trials for control of Varroa destructor were carried out in autumn according to the Swiss prescriptions during three successive years in different apiaries in Switzerland. The following parameters were determined in honey that was harvested the year after treatment: formic acid, oxalic acid and free acidity. The following range of values were found in honeys of untreated colonies: formic acid, from 17 to 284 mg/kg, n = 34; oxalic acid,...

  11. Aluminum-activated Oxalate Secretion does not Associate with Internal Content among Some Oxalate Accumulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li Yang; Lei Zhang; Shao Jian Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Although aluminum (AI)-activated secretion of oxalate has been considered to be an Important AI-exclusion mechanism,whether it is a general response in oxalate accumulators and related to oxalate content in roots are still not clear.Here,we examined the oxalate secretion and oxalate content in some oxalate accumulators,and investigated the role of oxalate secretion in AI resistance.When oxalate content in amaranth roots was decreased by about 50% with the increased ratio of NH4+-N to NO3——N in nutrient solution,the amount of AI-activated oxalate secretion still remained constant.There was no relationship between the content of the water soluble oxalate in four species of oxalate accumulators and the amount of the AI-activated oxalate secretion in roots.Furthermore,oxalate secretion is poorly associated with AI resistance among these species.Based on the above results,we concluded that although all of the oxalate accumulators tested could secrete oxalate rapidly,the density of anion channels in plasma membrane may play a more important role in AI-activated oxalate secretion.Key words: aluminum toxicity; Amaranthus; anion channel; oxalate accumulator; oxalate secretion.

  12. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  13. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  14. Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳健明; 姚秀琼; 苏泽轩; 崔福斋

    2003-01-01

    Crystallization of calcium oxalate is studied mainly in the diluted healthy urine using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and is compared with the crystallization in the diluted pathological urine. It suggests that the average sizes of calcium oxalate crystals are not in direct proportion to the concentrations of Ca2+ and Ox2- ions. Only in the concentration range of 0.60-0.90 mmol/L can larger size of CaOx crystals appear. When the concentrations of Ca2+ and Ox2- ions are 1.20, 0.80, 0.60, 0.30 and 0.15 mmol/L in the healthy urine, the average sizes of calcium oxalate crystallites are 9.5 × 6.5, 20.0 × 13.5 and 15.0 μm × 10.0 μm, respectively, for the former three samples after 6 d crystallization. No crystal appears even after 30 d crystallization for the samples of concentrations of 0.30 and 0.15 mmol/L due to their low supersaturations. The results theoretically explain why the probability of stone forming is clinically not in direct proportion to the concentrations of Ca 2+ and Ox2- ions. Laser scattering technology also confirms this point. The reason why healthy human has no risk of urinary stone but stone-formers have is that there are more urinary macromolecules in healthy human urines than that in stone-forming urines. These macromolecules may control the transformation in CaOx crystal structure from monohydrate calcium oxalate (COM) to dihydrate calcium oxalate (COD). COD has a weaker affinity for renal tubule cell membranes than COM. No remarkable effect of the crystallization time is observed on the crystal morphology of CaOx. All the crystals are obtuse hexagon. However, the sizes and the number of CaOx crystals can be affected by the crystallization time. In the early stage of crystallization (1-6 d), the sizes of CaOx crystals increase and the number of crystal particles changes little as increasing the crystallization time due to growth control. In the middle and late stages (6-30 d), the number of crystals increases markedly while the

  15. Laboratory evaluation for a potential birth control diet for fruit fly sterilization insect technique (SIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A potential fruit fly steilizing diet was evaluated on fertility, mating, survival, and protein anaylsis for fruit fly species in Hawaii. Insects were continuously fed an agar diet with lufenuron(LFN) for an initial 7d after emergence and then switched to a control diet to simulate the actual field ...

  16. [The evaluation of anti-nutritive components in beer on the example of oxalic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Agnieszka; Baca, Elzbieta; Baranowski, Krzysztof; Michałowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Food in its composition contains anti-nutritional substances that reduces or prevents the use of valuable nutrients. The oxalic acid, as phytate and dietary fiber, occurs naturally in foods of plant origin, to which the beer is classified. The negative effect of oxalic acid is reducing the bioavailability of calcium and magnesium, and disorder of metabolism of the body's absorption of these elements from the diet. The excess of oxalic acid and its salt in the diet contributes to the formation of certain diseases, such as oxalate urolithiasis, osteoporosis, arthritis, etc. Due to the diuretic effect of beer, drinking moderate amounts of it is recommended as a preventive and support urinary tract disorders. The aim of this study was to determine and comparison the oxalic acid content in selected beers available on the Polish market. Fifty seven samples of beer were used for this study. These samples were divided into three groups depending on the alcohol concentration declared by the producers (1st group--below 5.5% vol., 2nd group--from 5.5 to 6.5% vol., 3rd group--above 6.5% vol.). The beer samples were incubated in the ultrasonic bath for 15 minutes following pH adjustments up to pH = 2 with the 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid to transform calcium oxalates into soluble form, then filtered. The oxalic acid concentration was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with conductivity detection. The concentration of oxalic acid in tested samples of beer ranged from 1.8 to 30.3 mg/L. No considerable differences between the concentration of oxalic acid in the three tested group of beer with the various content of the alcohol were found. Basing on the average concentrations of the oxalic acid in the different groups of the tested beers the positive trend in oxalic acid concentration related to the increase of alcohol could be observed. The very low concentration of oxalic acid allows to classify beer as food product safe for the human health in terms of low

  17. Ketogenic diet does not impair spatial ability controlled by the hippocampus in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Ogura, Yuji; Furuta, Miyako; Kakehashi, Chiaki; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo

    2015-10-05

    A ketogenic diet was recently shown to reduce glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles, decreasing glutamate transmission. We questioned whether a ketogenic diet affects hippocampal function, as glutamate transmission is critically involved in visuospatial ability. In the present study, male Wistar rats were maintained on a ketogenic diet containing 10% protein and 90% fat with complements for 3 weeks to change their energy expenditure from glucose-dependent to fat-dependent. Control rats were fed a diet containing 10% protein, 10% fat, and 80% carbohydrates. The fat-dependent energy expenditure induced by the ketogenic diet led to decreased body weight and increased blood ketone production, though the rats in the two groups consumed the same number of calories. The ketogenic diet did not alter food preferences for the control or high-fat diet containing 10% protein, 45% fat, and 45% carbohydrates. Anxiety in the open field was not altered by ingestion the ketogenic diet. However, rats fed the ketogenic diet performed better in the Y-maze test than rats fed the control diet. No difference was observed between the two groups in the Morris water maze test. Finally, Western blot revealed that the hippocampal expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) was significantly increased in mice fed a ketogenic diet. These results suggest that hippocampal function is not impaired by a ketogenic diet and we speculate that the fat-dependent energy expenditure does not impair visuospatial ability.

  18. The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: a controlled dietary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, T C; Kneale, C J; Tasevska, N; Kuhnle, G G C

    2012-11-01

    The "trophic level enrichment" between diet and body results in an overall increase in nitrogen isotopic values as the food chain is ascended. Quantifying the diet-body Δ(15) N spacing has proved difficult, particularly for humans. The value is usually assumed to be +3-5‰ in the archaeological literature. We report here the first (to our knowledge) data from humans on isotopically known diets, comparing dietary intake and a body tissue sample, that of red blood cells. Samples were taken from 11 subjects on controlled diets for a 30-day period, where the controlled diets were designed to match each individual's habitual diet, thus reducing problems with short-term changes in diet causing isotopic changes in the body pool. The Δ(15) N(diet-RBC) was measured as +3.5‰. Using measured offsets from other studies, we estimate the human Δ(15) N(diet-keratin) as +5.0-5.3‰, which is in good agreement with values derived from the two other studies using individual diet records. We also estimate a value for Δ(15) N(diet-collagen) of ≈6‰, again in combination with measured offsets from other studies. This value is larger than usually assumed in palaeodietary studies, which suggests that the proportion of animal protein in prehistoric human diet may have often been overestimated in isotopic studies of palaeodiet.

  19. Clinical investigation on gastric oxalate absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 叶章群; 曾令启; 杨为民

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the stomach role in exogenous oxalate absorption.Methods The kinetic variation of urinary oxalate excretion (mg/min) in 10 healthy adults and 8 patients who underwent total gastrectomy was investigated before and after an oral spinach oxalate load. The bioavailability of the oxalate load in the healthy adults was calculated and compared with that in the patients.Results The oxalate content in the oral spinach load was 2567-2670 mg. The urinary oxalate excretion (mg/min) in the 10 healthy adults increased significantly 20 minutes after loading (this increase was compared against their basic oxalate excretion level of 0.0331±0.0203). Further observations after loading include: a first peak of oxalate excretion 40 minutes after loading; an oxalate excretion level double that of the basic level after 60 minutes (0.0732±0.0294) and a second peak appearing at 3 hours (P<0.01). A "first peak" (0.063%±0.062%) was not in any of the patients who underwent a total gastrectomy. Furthermore, a bioavailability of oxalate, which was 50% lower than that in the healthy subjects, appeared 60 minutes after loading (0.098%±0.071%, P<0.01). Conclusions The stomach is a powerful oxalate absorption organ under normal physiological conditions. Further investigation on the relationship between stomach dysfunction and urinary calcium oxalate formation is needed.

  20. Factors associated with diet barriers in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Leung, Doris Yin-ping; Sit, Janet Wing-hung; Li, Xiao-mei; Wu, Yu-ning; Yang, Miao-yan; Gao, Cui-xia; Hui, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background The study was conducted to investigate the diet barriers perceived by patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and examine the associations between diet barriers and sociodemographic characteristics, medical condition, and patient-centered variables. Methods Secondary subgroup analyses were conducted based on the responses of 246 adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes from a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Diet barriers were captured by the Diet Barriers subscale of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire. Participants also completed validated measures of diet knowledge, empowerment level, and appraisal of diabetes. Multiple regression techniques were used for model building, with a hierarchical block design to determine the separate contribution of sociodemographic characteristics, medical condition, and patient-centered variables to diet barriers. Results Diet barriers were moderately evident (2.23±0.86) among Chinese patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. The feeling of deprivation as a result of complying with a diet was the most recognized diet barrier (3.24±1.98), followed by “eating away from home” (2.79±1.82). Significantly higher levels of diet barriers were observed among those with lower levels of diet knowledge (β=−0.282, P<0.001) and empowerment (β=−0.190, P=0.015), and more negative appraisal (β=0.225, P=0.003). Conclusion Culturally tailored, patient-centered intervention programs that acknowledge individuals’ preferences and allow for flexibility in diet management should be launched. Interventions programs that could enhance diet knowledge, promote positive appraisal, and improve empowerment level might effectively address diet barriers perceived by patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. PMID:26834464

  1. The ZONE Diet and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulnig, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue, which contributes to obesity-associated complications such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The increased inflammatory response seems to be directly related to modern nutrition, particularly aspects of fat quality and macronutrient composition. We have recently published an observational study investigating the practicability and effects of a combined dietary intervention with increased relative protein content and low-glycemic-index carbohydrates, supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on metabolic control and inflammatory parameters in real-life situations in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary efficacy parameter was the change in HbA1c, and secondary parameters included change in systemic inflammation (measured by ultrasensitive C-reactive protein), body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Counseling a protein-enriched and low-glycemic-index diet supplemented with long-chain omega-3 PUFAs in a real-life clinical setting improved glycemic control, waist circumference, and silent inflammation in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin;

    cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  3. Switching adolescent high-fat diet to adult control diet restores neurocognitive alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Boitard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al., 2014; Boitard et al., 2012; Boitard et al., 2015. Here, we assessed whether the effects of adolescent HF consumption on brain function are permanent or reversible. After adolescent exposure to HF, switching to a standard chow diet restored levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and normalized enhanced HPA axis reactivity, amygdala activity and avoidance memory. Therefore, while the adolescent period is highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity, adult exposure to a standard diet appears sufficient to reverse alterations of brain function.

  4. Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction. Overweight adults (body mass index 25-49.9 kg/m(2); age 18-65 y, 19% non-white, and 27% men) were randomized to a low-fat, low-glycemic index diet: vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pesco-vegetarian (n = 13), semi-vegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12). Fifty (79%) participants completed the study. In intention-to-treat analysis, the linear trend for weight loss across the five groups was significant at both 2 (P diets may result in greater weight loss than more modest recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparative Study on Several Models of Experimental Renal Calcium Oxalate Stones Formation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jihong; CAO Zhenggno; ZHANG Zhaohui; ZHOU Siwei; YE Zhangqun

    2007-01-01

    In order to compare the effects of several experimental renal calcium oxalate stones formation models in rats and to find a simple and convenient model with significant effect of calcium oxalate crystals deposition in the kidney, several rat models of renal calcium oxalate stones formation were induced by some crystal-inducing drugs (CID) including ethylene glycol (EG), ammonium chloride (AC), vitamin D3 [1α(OH)VitD3, alfacalcidol], calcium gluconate, ammonium oxalate, gentamicin sulfate, L-hydroxyproline. The rats were fed with drugs given singly or unitedly. At the end of experiment, 24-h urines were collected and the serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the extents of calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the renal tissue, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion were measured. The serum Cr levels in the stone-forming groups were significantly higher than those in the control group except for the group EG+L-hydroxyproline, group calcium gluconate and group oxalate. Blood BUN concentration was significantly higher in rats fed with CID than that in control group except for group EG+L-hydroxyproline and group ammonium oxalate plus calcium gluconate. In the group of rats administered with EG plus Vitamin D3, the deposition of calcium oxalate crystal in the renal tissue and urinary calcium excretion were significantly greater than other model groups. The effect of the model induced by EG plus AC was similar to that in the group induced by EG plus Vitamin D3. EG plus Vitamin D3 or EG plus AC could stably and significantly induced the rat model of renal calcium oxalate stones formation.

  6. Exercise is more effective than diet control in preventing high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Kengo; Kubota, Masakazu; Kuzuya, Akira; Sasaki, Kazuki; Hayashida, Naoko; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Uemura, Maiko; Kihara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shimohama, Shun; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2012-06-29

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some dietary patterns, specifically high fat diet (HFD), increase the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Thus, interventions targeting HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions may be effective in preventing the development of AD. We previously demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-overexpressing transgenic mice fed HFD showed worsening of cognitive function when compared with control APP mice on normal diet. Moreover, we reported that voluntary exercise ameliorates HFD-induced memory impairment and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. In the present study, we conducted diet control to ameliorate the metabolic abnormality caused by HFD on APP transgenic mice and compared the effect of diet control on cognitive function with that of voluntary exercise as well as that of combined (diet control plus exercise) treatment. Surprisingly, we found that exercise was more effective than diet control, although both exercise and diet control ameliorated HFD-induced memory deficit and Aβ deposition. The production of Aβ was not different between the exercise- and the diet control-treated mice. On the other hand, exercise specifically strengthened the activity of neprilysin, the Aβ-degrading enzyme, the level of which was significantly correlated with that of deposited Aβ in our mice. Notably, the effect of the combination treatment (exercise and diet control) on memory and amyloid pathology was not significantly different from that of exercise alone. These studies provide solid evidence that exercise is a useful intervention to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in transgenic model mice of AD.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of total diet replacements for weight control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    to induce a substantial energy deficit in overweight or obese adults who wish to lose weight and replace the whole diet in the context of energy-restricted diets for weight reduction. In this opinion, the Panel proposed a minimum protein content based on a Population Reference Intake for protein adjusted......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the essential composition of total diet replacements for weight control. Total diet replacements for weight control are intended...... or authoritative bodies. Derived from the minimum content of macronutrients, the Panel proposed a minimum energy content of total diet replacements for weight control of 2 510 kJ/day (600 kcal/day). The Panel also advised on potential conditions and restrictions of use for these products....

  8. The nutritional adequacy of a limited vegan diet for a controlled ecological life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. R.; Trumbo, P. R.

    Purdue University, as well as the Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers and NASA Ames Research Center, are investigating approximately 5-10 plants that will be grown hydroponically to provide not only the energy and nutrients, but also the oxygen for humans habitating in Mars and lunar bases. The growth and nutritional status of rats fed either a control diet (adequate in all macro- and micronutrients) or a strict vegetarian diet consisting of 5 (vegan-5) or 10 (vegan-10) candidate crop species were investigated. In addition, vegan-10 diets were supplemented with mineral and/or vitamin mix at a level similar to the control diets to assess the effect of supplementation on nutrient status. The assessment of inedible plant material as an alternative food source was also investigated. Results of this study demonstrated that consumption of the vegan-10 diet significantly improved weight gain of rats compared to that for rats fed the vegan-5 diet. Mineral supplementation, at a level present in the control diet, to the vegan-10 diet improved growth and nutrient status, but growth was significantly lower compared to the control-fed rats. Inclusion of inedible plant material, high in ash content, improved some indices of nutrient status, without improving growth.

  9. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones.

  10. Factors associated with diet barriers in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng L

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Li Cheng,1 Doris Yin-ping Leung,1 Janet Wing-hung Sit,1 Xiao-mei Li,2 Yu-ning Wu,3 Miao-yan Yang,4 Cui-xia Gao,5 Rong Hui6 1The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Ma Liu Shui, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong; 2The Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Xi’an Jiaotong University, 3The Department of Endocrinology, The Ninth Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 4The Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 5The Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, 6The Department of Endocrinology, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Background: The study was conducted to investigate the diet barriers perceived by patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and examine the associations between diet barriers and sociodemographic characteristics, medical condition, and patient-centered variables. Methods: Secondary subgroup analyses were conducted based on the responses of 246 adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes from a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Diet barriers were captured by the Diet Barriers subscale of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire. Participants also completed validated measures of diet knowledge, empowerment level, and appraisal of diabetes. Multiple regression techniques were used for model building, with a hierarchical block design to determine the separate contribution of sociodemographic characteristics, medical condition, and patient-centered variables to diet barriers. Results: Diet barriers were moderately evident (2.23±0.86 among Chinese patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. The feeling of deprivation as a result of complying with a diet was the most recognized diet barrier (3.24±1.98, followed by “eating away from home” (2.79±1.82. Significantly higher levels of diet barriers were

  11. Effect of mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Dana; Al-Badri, Marwa R; Azar, Sami T

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the relationship between Mediterranean diet and diabetes control. The result of these studies was conflicting. Some were able to elicit a protective role, while others showed no added benefit. As a result; we decided to conduct a systematic review to have a better understanding of the relationship between adherence to Mediterranean diet and diabetes control. A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective, and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes. Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long

  12. [Relationship between low-protein diet and hypertension control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciaruso, B

    2008-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is found in almost all patients with chronic kidney disease. The US Kidney Foundation guidelines recommend a pressure target for chronic kidney disease patients (130/80 mmHg) that may be difficult to reach because of the reduced sodium excretion in these patients and the widespread use of vasodilator drugs. Reducing the dietary protein intake may help to lower the dietary sodium load. The 130/80 mmHg target has been reached in 30% of stage 4 and 5 patients only after six months of a very low-protein diet supplemented with keto-analogues and essential amino acids. However, even moderate reductions of dietary sodium intake are useful in patients with compromised renal function, as was shown by Koomans et al more than 20 years ago. Blood pressure levels are lower in vegetarians, possibly also because of the reduced sodium content of potassium-rich vegetarian diets. Diets rich in unrefined cereals, vegetables, fruit and low-fat cheese may be useful in patients with chronic kidney disease. Commercial low-protein preparations may help to design diets that are both low in sodium, potassium and phosphorus and adequate for caloric needs.

  13. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N

    2015-05-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence of overweight and obesity among their children and had consistent beneficial effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and inflammation in both parents and children. After 1 year, mainly the HP effects were maintained. Putative genes have been identified that suggest this diet to be particularly effective in 67% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books in several languages.

  14. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p amaranth (p amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

  15. Control of morphology and structure for β-Co nanoparticles from cobalt oxalate and research on its phase-change mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chongqing University of Arts and Science, Chongqing 402160 (China); Xiong, Xiang, E-mail: xiangxiong88@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zou, J.P., E-mail: zoujp@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Deng, Ling [Chengdu Chengliang Tool Group Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610056 (China); Tu, M.J. [Chongqing University of Arts and Science, Chongqing 402160 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Nanoscale precursor β-CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O can be prepared by mechanical solid phase reaction. • Growth mechanism, morphology and crystal structure of β-CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O have been studied. • Internal energy reserves of precursor making it directly generate β-Co in the thermal decomposition reaction. • Martensitic transformation of Co has been studied. • The Co powder will inherit the morphology of its precursor. - Abstract: The face-centered cubic crystal structure β-Co has excellent performance. As the main material to produce high toughness hard alloys and metal cermet, its morphology and structure will have an important impact on the performance of the alloy. This study, based on solid-phase reaction, starting from the crystal structure studied, discussed the effection of the mechanical solid-phase chemical reactions on the morphology of the cobalt precursor structure, researched the cobalt phase change mechanism, and presented a method to prepare nano β-Co. With H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O as raw materials, nano-crystalline cobalt oxalate powders with nearly spherical shape have been prepared by using solid-phase chemical reactions in high-speed ball milling, and then by decomposing at 400–450 °C, the target was prepared. The thermodynamical and IR analysis has been studied. The microstructure of the powders was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM. It has been identified that a spherical, fcc structure, 100 nm β-Co powders was synthesized successfully, which confirmed the theoretical feasibility of this study.

  16. Kinetics of wet air oxidation of glyoxalic acid and oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shende, R.V.; Mahajani, V.V. (Univ. of Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology)

    1994-12-01

    Oxidation of lower molecular weight monobasic and dibasic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, glyoxalic acid, and oxalic acid is often the rate-controlling step during wet air oxidation (WAO) of an aqueous waste stream exhibiting very high chemical oxygen demand (COD). The kinetics of WAO of glyoxalic acid and oxalic acid was studied in absence and presence of a cupric sulfate catalyst in the temperature range of 120--245 C and oxygen partial pressure of 0.345--1.380 MPa. The wet oxidation of oxalic acid was found to require more severe conditions as compared to glyoxalic acid. The reaction mechanism and kinetic model have been discussed.

  17. Is there a role for pentosan polysulfate in the prevention of calcium oxalate stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marklyn; Monga, Manoj

    2003-12-01

    The clinical role for pentosan polysulfate (PPS) in the prevention of calcium oxalate urolithiasis is not known. Crystallization and aggregation are important steps in calcium oxalate stone formation, and PPS has been shown to inhibit these steps, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, PPS has a role in repairing injured urothelium and inhibiting adhesion to epithelial defects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study appears warranted to assess the utility of PPS in the prevention of recurrent calcium oxalate stones.

  18. High-fat diets and seizure control in myoclonic-astatic epilepsy: a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard-Tremblay, Elisabeth; Berry, Patricia; Owens, Aaron; Cook, William Byron; Sittner, Haley R; Mazzanti, Marta; Huber, Jennifer; Warner, Molly; Shurtleff, Hillary; Saneto, Russell P

    2015-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and Ketogenic Diet (KD) in seizure control within a population of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) patients. This was a retrospective, single center study evaluating the seizure control by high fat diets. Seizure diaries kept by the parents performed seizure counts. All patients met the clinical criteria for MAE. Nine patients met the clinical criteria. We found that both the MAD and KD were efficacious in complete seizure control and allowed other medications to be stopped in seven patients. Two patients had greater than 90% seizure control without medications, one on the KD and the other on the MAD. Seizure freedom has ranged from 13 to 36 months, and during this time four patients have been fully weaned off of diet management. One patient was found to have a mutation in SLC2A1. Our results suggest that strictly defined MAE patients respond to the MAD with prolonged seizure control. Some patients may require the KD for seizure freedom, suggesting a common pathway of increased requirement for fats. Once controlled, those fully responsive to the Diet(s) could be weaned off traditional seizure medications and in many, subsequently off the MAD or KD. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  20. [Quality of carbohydrates in the diet and their effect on metabolic control of type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincheira, Daniela; Morgado, Romina; Alviña, Marcela; Vega, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the parameters of metabolic control and quality of carbohydrates (CHO) of the diet in individuals with type 2 diabetes, controlled with diet and/or Metformin. In 108 men and women aged between 18 and 60 years, glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) between 6% and 10%, without sulfonylureas or insulin theraphy; were examined through two separate surveys of 24-hour recall. The CHO intake, GI, GL of diet was analyzed. Values of HbA1c were collected from medical records. Data was tabulated in SPSS version 17 software. The Pearson correlation test was used to analyze the degree of association between variables, considering significant at p diet and HbA1c levels in the individuals. In conclusion the study showed that the quality of CHO, mainly GI, are strongly associated with metabolic control of DM 2.

  1. Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Yi; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hu, Frank B; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarian diets may promote weight loss, but evidence remains inconclusive. PubMed, EMBASE and UpToDate databases were searched through September 22, 2014, and investigators extracted data regarding study characteristics and assessed study quality among selected randomized clinical trials. Population size, demographic (i.e., gender and age) and anthropometric (i.e., body mass index) characteristics, types of interventions, follow-up periods, and trial quality (Jadad score) were recorded. The net changes in body weight of subjects were analyzed and pooled after assessing heterogeneity with a random effects model. Subgroup analysis was performed based on type of vegetarian diet, type of energy restriction, study population, and follow-up period. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included, involving a total of 1151 subjects who received the intervention over a median duration of 18 weeks. Overall, individuals assigned to the vegetarian diet groups lost significantly more weight than those assigned to the non-vegetarian diet groups (weighted mean difference, -2.02 kg; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: -2.80 to -1.23). Subgroup analysis detected significant weight reduction in subjects consuming a vegan diet (-2.52 kg; 95 % CI: -3.02 to -1.98) and, to a lesser extent, in those given lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets (-1.48 kg; 95 % CI: -3.43 to 0.47). Studies on subjects consuming vegetarian diets with energy restriction (ER) revealed a significantly greater weight reduction (-2.21 kg; 95 % CI: -3.31 to -1.12) than those without ER (-1.66 kg; 95 % CI: -2.85 to -0.48). The weight loss for subjects with follow-up of Vegetarian diets appeared to have significant benefits on weight reduction compared to non-vegetarian diets. Further long-term trials are needed to investigate the effects of vegetarian diets on body weight control.

  2. Low-fat, plant-based diet in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijayshree; Marracci, Gail; Kim, Edward; Spain, Rebecca; Cameron, Michelle; Overs, Shannon; Riddehough, Andrew; Li, David K B; McDougall, John; Lovera, Jesus; Murchison, Charles; Bourdette, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    The role that dietary interventions can play in multiple sclerosis (MS) management is of huge interest amongst patients and researchers but data evaluating this is limited. Possible effects of a very-low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on MS related progression and disease activity as measured by brain imaging and MS related symptoms have not been evaluated in a randomized-controlled trial. Despite use of disease modifying therapies (DMT), poor quality of life (QOL) in MS patients can be a significant problem with fatigue being one of the common disabling symptoms. Effective treatment options for fatigue remain limited. Emerging evidence suggests diet and vascular risk factors including obesity and hyperlipidemia may influence MS disease progression and improve QOL. To evaluate adherence, safety and effects of a very-low-fat, plant-based diet (Diet) on brain MRI, clinical [MS relapses and disability, body mass index (BMI)] and metabolic (blood lipids and insulin) outcomes, QOL [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and fatigue [Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS)], in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). This was a randomized-controlled, assessor-blinded, one-year long study with 61 participants assigned to either Diet (N=32) or wait-listed (Control, N=29) group. The mean age (years) [Control-40.9±8.48; Diet-40.8±8.86] and the mean disease duration (years) [Control -5.3±3.86; Diet-5.33±3.63] were comparable between the two groups. There was a slight difference between the two study groups in the baseline mean expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score [Control-2.22±0.90; Diet-2.72±1.05]. Eight subjects withdrew (Diet, N=6; Control, N=2). Adherence to the study diet based on monthly Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was excellent with the diet group showing significant difference in the total fat caloric intake compared to the control group [total fat intake/total calories averaged ~15% (Diet) versus ~40% (Control)]. The two groups

  3. Effect of Mediterranean Diet in Diabetes Control and Cardiovascular Risk Modification: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eSleiman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes (T2DM with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the potential protective role of Mediterranean diet in diabetic patients. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and HOMA, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes.Outcome/Conclusion: Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the Mediterranean diet along with the possibility of explaining its mechanism.

  4. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannon Mary C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has been to develop a diet for people with type 2 diabetes that does not require weight loss, oral agents, or insulin, but that still controls the blood glucose concentration. Our overall goal is to enable the person with type 2 diabetes to control their blood glucose by adjustment in the composition rather than the amount of food in their diet. Methods This paper is a brief summary and review of our recent diet-related research, and the rationale used in the development of diets that potentially are useful in the treatment of diabetes. Results We determined that, of the carbohydrates present in the diet, absorbed glucose is largely responsible for the food-induced increase in blood glucose concentration. We also determined that dietary protein increases insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Fat does not significantly affect blood glucose, but can affect insulin secretion and modify the absorption of carbohydrates. Based on these data, we tested the efficacy of diets with various protein:carbohydrate:fat ratios for 5 weeks on blood glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. The results were compared to those obtained in the same subjects after 5 weeks on a control diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat ratio of 15:55:30. A 30:40:30 ratio diet resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose area and % total glycohemoglobin (%tGHb. A 30:20:50 ratio diet resulted in a 38% decrease in 24-hour glucose area, a reduction in fasting glucose to near normal and a decrease in %tGHb from 9.8% to 7.6%. The response to a 30:30:40 ratio diet was similar

  5. Crystal structure of dimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2+·HC2O4−·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH22C2O4 salt and Sn(CH33Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a dimethylammonium cation (Me2NH2+, an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4−, and half a molecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4 situated about an inversion center. From a supramolecular point of view, the three components interact together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2+ cations and the HC2O4− anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4− anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4 molecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four intermolecular interactions with two Me2NH2+ and two HC2O4− ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H...O and two O—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting molecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010, and reinforced by a C—H...O hydrogen bond.

  6. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbo...

  7. Aggregation of Calcium Phosphate and Oxalate Phases in the Formation of Renal Stones

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human kidney stones are comprised of multiple calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals encasing a calcium phosphate nucleus. The physiochemical mechanism of nephrolithiasis has not been well determined on the molecular level; this is crucial to the control and prevention of renal stone formation. This work investigates the role of phosphate ions on the formation of calcium oxalate stones; recent work has identified amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as a rapidly forming initi...

  8. Acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet compares favorably to a step II diet in a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet, as compared with a more typical fat-modified diet, among overweight and obese adults. Through newspaper advertisements, 64 overweight, postmenopausal women were recruited, 59 of whom completed the study. The participants were assigned randomly to a low-fat vegan diet or, for comparison, to a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II (NCEP) diet. At baseline and 14 weeks later, dietary intake, dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, as well as the acceptability and perceived benefits and adverse effects of each diet were assessed. Dietary restraint increased in the NCEP group (P vegan group. Disinhibition and hunger scores fell in each group (P vegan group participants rated their diet as less easy to prepare than their usual diets (P vegan diet is high and not demonstrably different from that of a more moderate low-fat diet among well-educated, postmenopausal women in a research environment.

  9. Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between vegetarian diets and improvements in glycemic control in diabetes, although this relationship is not well established. No meta-analysis of these studies has been performed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials examining the association between vegetarian diets and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. The electronic databases Medline, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in any language through December 9, 2013. The following criteria were used for study inclusion: (I) age of participants >20 years; (II) vegetarian diet as intervention; (III) mean difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and/or fasting blood glucose levels used as outcomes; and (IV) controlled trials, duration ≥4 weeks. Exclusion criteria were: (I) not an original investigation; (II) duplicate samples; (III) diabetes other than type 2; (IV) multiple interventions; and (V) uncontrolled studies. The data collected included study design, baseline population characteristics, dietary data, and outcomes. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Differences in HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels associated with vegetarian diets were assessed. Of 477 studies identified, six met the inclusion criteria (n=255, mean age 42.5 years). Consumption of vegetarian diets was associated with a significant reduction in HbA1c [-0.39 percentage point; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.62 to -0.15; P=0.001; I(2)=3.0; P for heterogeneity =0.389], and a non-significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration (-0.36 mmol/L; 95% CI, -1.04 to 0.32; P=0.301; I(2)=0; P for heterogeneity =0.710), compared with consumption of comparator diets. Consumption of vegetarian diets is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. PROSPERO registration number is CRD42013004370.

  10. Enzymatic Method for Rapid Determination of Oxalic Acid in Bleaching Filtrates from the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Feng; SJ(O)DE Anders; NILVEBRANT Nils-Olof; J(O)NSSON Leif J.

    2005-01-01

    Bleaching with oxygen-containing agents and recirculation of process streams in the pulp and paper industry has increased the accumulation of oxalic acid and danger for precipitation of calcium oxalate encrusts, scaling. Analysis and control of oxalic acid in bleaching filtrates is therefore becoming increasingly important in the pulp and paper industry.Chromatographic methods, such as IC and HPLC, are generally more time-consuming but are valuable as standard methods for determination of oxalic acid. However, the instrumentation needed is expensive and stationary. In this study, an enzymatic method based on oxalate oxidase and peroxidase was developed to determine oxalic acid in authentic bleaching filtrates using a spectrophotometer. The results showed that bleaching filtrates contain some compounds interfering with the enzymatic method.Pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal was a successful approach for decreasing problems with interference. By using dilution followed by charcoal treatment, the results obtained from five bleaching filtrates with the colorimetric method correlated very well with those obtained using IC. This study offers a selective, fast and mobile analysis method to determine oxalic acid in bleaching filtrates from the pulp and paper industry. The convenient enzyme-based method improves the possibilities for control of critical oxalic acid concentrations in closed-loop bleaching streams.

  11. Stability Constants of Technetium (IV) Oxalate Complexes as a Function of Ionic Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yuanxian; Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2006-03-01

    Solvent extraction methods were used to determine the stability constants of Tc(IV) with oxalate anions in NaCl solutions ranging in concentration from 0.5 M to 2.0 M. All experiments were conducted in an atmosphere-controlled chamber under Ar atmosphere (< 1.0ppm O2). A reducing agent (hydrazine) was used during extractions to maintain technetium in the tetravalent oxidation state. Independent tests confirmed that the oxidation state of technetium did not change during extractions. The distribution ratio of Tc(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentration of oxalic acid increased. At the oxalic acid concentrations used in these experiments, the complexes TcO(Ox) and TcO(Ox)22- were found to be the dominant aqueous species. Based on these data, the thermodynamic stability constants of Tc(IV) with oxalate complexes were calculated by the Specific Ion Interaction Theory (SIT).

  12. A Mediterranean Diet to Improve Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health: Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-02-16

    The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated efficacy for improving cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet delivers fewer serves of dairy and less dietary calcium than is currently recommended in Australia, which may limit long-term sustainability. The present study aims to evaluate whether a Mediterranean diet with adequate dairy and calcium can improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in an at-risk population, and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. A randomised, controlled, parallel, crossover design trial will compare a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods against a low-fat control diet. Forty participants with systolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg and at least two other risk factors of CVD will undertake each dietary intervention for eight weeks, with an eight-week washout period between interventions. Systolic blood pressure will be the primary measure of interest. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic health, dietary compliance, cognitive function, assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), psychological well-being and dementia risk. This research will provide empirical evidence as to whether the Mediterranean diet can be modified to provide recommended dairy and calcium intakes while continuing to deliver positive effects for cardiovascular and cognitive health. The findings will hold relevance for the field of preventative healthcare and may contribute to revisions of national dietary guidelines.

  13. A Mediterranean Diet to Improve Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health: Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T.; Davis, Courtney R.; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.; Woodman, Richard J.; Keage, Hannah A. D.; Murphy, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated efficacy for improving cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet delivers fewer serves of dairy and less dietary calcium than is currently recommended in Australia, which may limit long-term sustainability. The present study aims to evaluate whether a Mediterranean diet with adequate dairy and calcium can improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in an at-risk population, and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. A randomised, controlled, parallel, crossover design trial will compare a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods against a low-fat control diet. Forty participants with systolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg and at least two other risk factors of CVD will undertake each dietary intervention for eight weeks, with an eight-week washout period between interventions. Systolic blood pressure will be the primary measure of interest. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic health, dietary compliance, cognitive function, assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), psychological well-being and dementia risk. This research will provide empirical evidence as to whether the Mediterranean diet can be modified to provide recommended dairy and calcium intakes while continuing to deliver positive effects for cardiovascular and cognitive health. The findings will hold relevance for the field of preventative healthcare and may contribute to revisions of national dietary guidelines. PMID:28212320

  14. Artificial photosynthesis of oxalate and oxalate-based polymer by a photovoltaic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Shan; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Lijie; Zou, Qingsong; Li, Shiqiang; Mo, Haitao; Zhu, Pingchuan; Cen, Weijian; Wang, Shuangfei

    2014-01-01

    A photovoltaic reactor was designed for artificial photosynthesis, based on the reactions involved in high energy hydrogen atoms, which were produced from water electrolysis. Water and CO2, under the conditions studied, were converted to oxalate (H2C2O4) and a polymer. This was the first time that the oxalates and oxalate-based polymer were produced from the artificial photosynthesis process.

  15. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Mavropoulos John C; Yancy William S; Westman Eric C; Marquart Megan; McDuffie Jennifer R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were ra...

  16. The (noneffects of lethal population control on the diet of Australian dingoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Allen

    Full Text Available Top-predators contribute to ecosystem resilience, yet individuals or populations are often subject to lethal control to protect livestock, managed game or humans from predation. Such management actions sometimes attract concern that lethal control might affect top-predator function in ways ultimately detrimental to biodiversity conservation. The primary function of a predator is predation, which is often investigated by assessing their diet. We therefore use data on prey remains found in 4,298 Australian dingo scats systematically collected from three arid sites over a four year period to experimentally assess the effects of repeated broad-scale poison-baiting programs on dingo diet. Indices of dingo dietary diversity and similarity were either identical or near-identical in baited and adjacent unbaited treatment areas in each case, demonstrating no control-induced change to dingo diets. Associated studies on dingoes' movement behaviour and interactions with sympatric mesopredators were similarly unaffected by poison-baiting. These results indicate that mid-sized top-predators with flexible and generalist diets (such as dingoes may be resilient to ongoing and moderate levels of population control without substantial alteration of their diets and other related aspects of their ecological function.

  17. Renal peroxidative changes mediated by oxalate: the protective role of fucoidan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Coothan Kandaswamy; Josephine, Anthony; Preetha, Sreenivasan P; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan; Sundarapandiyan, Rajaguru

    2006-10-04

    Oxalate, one of the major constituents of renal stones is known to induce free radicals which damage the renal membrane. Damaged epithelia might act as nidi for stone formation aggravating calcium oxalate precipitation during hyperoxaluria. In the present study, the beneficial effects of fucoidan on oxalate-induced free radical injury were investigated. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Hyperoxaluria was induced in two groups by administration of 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and one of them was treated with fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.wt subcutaneously commencing from the 8th day of induction. A control and drug control (fucoidan alone) was also included in the study. The extent of renal injury in hyperoxaluria was evident from the increased activities of alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, beta-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in urine. There was a positive correlation between plasma malondialdehyde levels and renal membrane damage indicating a striking relation between free radical formation and cellular injury. Increased protein carbonyl and decreased thiols further exemplified the oxidative milieu prevailing during hyperoxaluria. Decreased renal membrane ATPases accentuated the renal membrane damage induced by oxalate. Renal microscopic analysis showed abnormal findings in histology as an evidence of oxalate damage. The above biochemical and histopathological discrepancies were abrogated with fucoidan administration, indicating its protective role in oxalate mediated peroxidative injury.

  18. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    acid and ammonium oxalate on the prevalence of microorganisms and removal of ... of water and applied at different time intervals; application on a day prior to .... and residual soil composition after plant exposure for 3 months. Treatment. C.

  19. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of total diet replacements for weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the essential composition of total diet replacements for weight control. Total diet replacements for weight control are intended to induce a substantial energy deficit in overweight or obese adults who wish to lose weight and replace the whole diet in the context of energy-restricted diets for weight reduction. In this opinion, the Panel proposed a minimum protein content based on a Population Reference Intake for protein adjusted for the overweight or obese (75 g/day, a minimum carbohydrate content based on the obligatory glucose demands of the brain (30 g/day and minimum contents of linoleic acid (11 g/day, α-linolenic acid (1.4 g/day and micronutrients based on reference values established either by the Panel or by other scientific or authoritative bodies. Derived from the minimum content of macronutrients, the Panel proposed a minimum energy content of total diet replacements for weight control of 2 510 kJ/day (600 kcal/day. The Panel also advised on potential conditions and restrictions of use for these products.

  1. Diet, Inflammation, and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Y. Nowlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a growing national health problem affecting 35% of adults ≥20 years of age in the United States. Recently, diabetes has been categorized as an inflammatory disease, sharing many of the adverse outcomes as those reported from cardiovascular disease. Medical nutrition therapy is recommended for the treatment of diabetes; however, these recommendations have not been updated to target the inflammatory component, which can be affected by diet and lifestyle. To assess the current state of evidence for which dietary programs contain the most anti-inflammatory and glycemic control properties for patients with T2D, we conducted an integrative review of the literature. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to May 2012 yielded 786 articles. The final 16 studies met the selection criteria including randomized control trials, quasiexperimental, or cross-sectional studies that compared varying diets and measured inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean and DASH diets along with several low-fat diets were associated with lower inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean diet demonstrated the most clinically significant reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Information on best dietary guidelines for inflammation and glycemic control in individuals with T2D is lacking. Continued research is warranted.

  2. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  3. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A. Z.

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  4. Basal metabolic rate in carnivores is associated with diet after controlling for phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Williams, Joseph B

    2005-01-01

    Studies of basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimum metabolic rate of postabsorptive, inactive endotherms while in their rest phase and thermal neutral zone, have contributed significantly to our understanding of animal energetics. Besides body mass, the main determinant of BMR, researchers have invoked diet and phylogenetic history as important factors that influence BMR, although their relative importance has been controversial. For 58 species within the Carnivora, we tested the hypothesis that BMR is correlated with home range size, a proxy for level of activity, and diet, using conventional least squares regression (CLSR) and regression based on phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). Results showed that BMR of Carnivora was positively correlated with home range size after controlling for body mass, regardless of the statistical method employed. We also found that diet and mass-adjusted home range size were correlated. When we simultaneously tested the effect of diet and mass-adjusted home range on mass-adjusted BMR, home range size was insignificant because of its colinearity with diet. Then we eliminated home range size from our model, and diet proved to be significant with both CLSR and PIC. We concluded that species that eat meat have larger home ranges and higher BMR than species that eat vegetable matter. To advance our understanding of the potential mechanisms that might explain our results, we propose the "muscle performance hypothesis," which suggests that selection for different muscle fiber types can account for the differences in BMR observed between meat eaters and vegetarian species within the Carnivora.

  5. Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Richard F.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1978-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid functions as a precursor of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulating plants. The present study extends this observation to include Rumex crispus L. (curly dock), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red root pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters), Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet), Halogeton glomeratus M. Bieb. (halogeton), and Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb). Several species with low oxalate content are also examined. When l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is supplied to young seedlings of R. crispus or H. glomeratus, a major portion of the 14C is released over a 24-hour period as 14CO2 and only a small portion is recovered as [14C]oxalate, unlike cuttings from 2- or 4-month-old plants which retain a large part of the 14C as [14C]oxalic acid and release very little 14CO2. Support for an intermediate role of oxalate in the release of 14CO2 from l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is seen in the rapid release of 14CO2 by R. crispus and H. glomeratus seedlings labeled with [14C]oxalic acid. The common origin of oxalic acid carbon in the C1 and C2 fragment from l-ascorbic acid is demonstrated by comparison of 14C content of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulators after cuttings or seedlings are supplied equal amounts of l-[1-14C]- or l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid. Theoretically, l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid will produce labeled oxalic acid containing three times as much 14C as l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid when equal amounts of label are provided. Experimentally, a ratio of 2.7 ± 0.5 is obtained in duplicate experiments with six different species. PMID:16660342

  6. Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, R F; Loewus, F A

    1978-04-01

    l-Ascorbic acid functions as a precursor of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulating plants. The present study extends this observation to include Rumex crispus L. (curly dock), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red root pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters), Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet), Halogeton glomeratus M. Bieb. (halogeton), and Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb). Several species with low oxalate content are also examined.When l-[1-(14)C]ascorbic acid is supplied to young seedlings of R. crispus or H. glomeratus, a major portion of the (14)C is released over a 24-hour period as (14)CO(2) and only a small portion is recovered as [(14)C]oxalate, unlike cuttings from 2- or 4-month-old plants which retain a large part of the (14)C as [(14)C]oxalic acid and release very little (14)CO(2). Support for an intermediate role of oxalate in the release of (14)CO(2) from l-[1-(14)C]ascorbic acid is seen in the rapid release of (14)CO(2) by R. crispus and H. glomeratus seedlings labeled with [(14)C]oxalic acid.The common origin of oxalic acid carbon in the C1 and C2 fragment from l-ascorbic acid is demonstrated by comparison of (14)C content of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulators after cuttings or seedlings are supplied equal amounts of l-[1-(14)C]- or l-[UL-(14)C]ascorbic acid. Theoretically, l-[1-(14)C]ascorbic acid will produce labeled oxalic acid containing three times as much (14)C as l-[UL-(14)C]ascorbic acid when equal amounts of label are provided. Experimentally, a ratio of 2.7 +/- 0.5 is obtained in duplicate experiments with six different species.

  7. Case-control assessment of diet and lung cancer risk in African Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, P C; Hursting, S D; Duphorne, C M; Jiang, H; Honn, S E; Chang, S; Spitz, M R

    1997-01-01

    In this case-control study we determined whether dietary differences underlie some of the ethnic and sex differences in US lung cancer rates. We examined the relationship between diet and lung cancer development in 137 lung cancer cases (93 African Americans and 44 Mexican Americans) and 187 controls (78 African Americans and 109 Mexican Americans). Cases reported a higher daily mean total fat intake (p fruits (p = 0.02). Ethnic differences in diet were also observed: Mexican Americans consumed less total fat (p fruits (p lung cancer risk (p fruit consumption and lung cancer risk (p = 0.05). In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that diet, particularly high fat consumption and low fruit and vegetable consumption, contributes (independent of cigarette smoking) to the excess lung cancer risk in African-American men, who have the highest lung cancer rates in the United States.

  8. Diet and alcohol as risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, B; Johansson, I; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and diet, assessed as both macronutrients and dietary patterns, increased the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through a nested case-control design in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) cohort. Individuals in the VIP who had developed RA after the dietary survey were identified from medical records at the department of rheumatology at the University Hospital, Umeå (n = 386), and matched to 1,886 controls from the same database. Diet was assessed as food groups, as macronutrients and as scores of dietary patterns, namely the carbohydrate-restricted diet score, the Mediterranean diet score and the healthy diet indicator score. When analysing the dietary patterns, consumption of food groups and different macronutrients, a significant association was found in the highest tertile of carbohydrate-restricted diet among the cases with a subsequent anti-CCP-positive disease 1.40 (1.02-1.92), as well as in the highest tertile of protein consumption among smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-2.95). However, after additional adjustment for sodium intake, these associations were no longer statistically significant. No association was observed between alcohol consumption and the risk of RA. To summarize, there were no significant associations between diet, or alcohol consumption, and the risk of development of RA within this cohort. The lack of any significant associations of alcohol consumption may be explained by a low consumption in the studied population overall or alternatively by methodological issues raised recently.

  9. Microbial enterotypes, inferred by the prevotella-to-bacteroides ratio, remained stable during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention with the new nordic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Poulsen, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    with central obesity and components of metabolic syndrome could be grouped into two discrete groups simply by their relative abundance of Prevotella spp. divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Furthermore, we showed that these groups remained stable during a 6-month......, controlled dietary intervention, where the effect of consuming a diet in accord with the new Nordic diet (NND) recommendations as opposed to consuming the average Danish diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota was investigated. In this study, subjects (with and without stratification according to P/B ratio) did...

  10. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Liu, Yuan-Ting; Zhang, Xing-Lan; Lu, Yun-Kai; Xu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-02-25

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed). After adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors, greater diet quality scores on the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I-but not on the aMed-showed a significant association with a lower risk of NPC (p-trends, <0.001-0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing the extreme quartiles of the three significant scores were 0.47 (0.32-0.68) (HEI-2005), 0.48 (0.33-0.70) (aHEI), and 0.43 (0.30-0.62) (DQI-I). In gender-stratified analyses, the favorable association remained significant in men but not in women. We found that adherence to the predefined dietary patterns represented by the HEI-2005, aHEI, and DQI-I scales predicted a lower risk of NPC in adults from south China, especially in men.

  11. Adipocyte Metabolic Pathways Regulated by Diet Control the Female Germline Stem Cell Lineage in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Shinya; Armstrong, Alissa R; Sampson, Leesa L; Laws, Kaitlin M; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Nutrients affect adult stem cells through complex mechanisms involving multiple organs. Adipocytes are highly sensitive to diet and have key metabolic roles, and obesity increases the risk for many cancers. How diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways influence normal stem cell lineages, however, remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster has highly conserved adipocyte metabolism and a well-characterized female germline stem cell (GSC) lineage response to diet. Here, we conducted an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis to identify diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways that control the female GSC lineage. On a rich (relative to poor) diet, adipocyte Hexokinase-C and metabolic enzymes involved in pyruvate/acetyl-CoA production are upregulated, promoting a shift of glucose metabolism toward macromolecule biosynthesis. Adipocyte-specific knockdown shows that these enzymes support early GSC progeny survival. Further, enzymes catalyzing fatty acid oxidation and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in adipocytes promote GSC maintenance, whereas lipid and iron transport from adipocytes controls vitellogenesis and GSC number, respectively. These results show a functional relationship between specific metabolic pathways in adipocytes and distinct processes in the GSC lineage, suggesting the adipocyte metabolism-stem cell link as an important area of investigation in other stem cell systems. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Characterization of calcium oxalates generated as biominerals in cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2002-02-01

    The chemical composition and morphology of solid material isolated from various Cactaceae species have been analyzed. All of the tested specimens deposited high-purity calcium oxalate crystals in their succulent modified stems. These deposits occurred most frequently as round-shaped druses that sometimes coexist with abundant crystal sand in the tissue. The biominerals were identified either as CaC(2)O(4).2H(2)O (weddellite) or as CaC(2)O(4).H(2)O (whewellite). Seven different species from the Opuntioideae subfamily showed the presence of whewellite, and an equal number of species from the Cereoideae subfamily showed the deposition of weddellite. The chemical nature of these deposits was assessed by infrared spectroscopy. The crystal morphology of the crystals was visualized by both conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Weddellite druses were made up of tetragonal crystallites, whereas those from whewellite were most often recognized by their acute points and general star-like shape. These studies clearly demonstrated that members from the main traditional subfamilies of the Cactaceae family could synthesize different chemical forms of calcium oxalate, suggesting a definite but different genetic control. The direct relationship established between a given Cactaceae species and a definite calcium oxalate biomineral seems to be a useful tool for plant identification and chemotaxonomy.

  13. Characterization of Calcium Oxalates Generated as Biominerals in Cacti1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V.; Baran, Enrique J.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical composition and morphology of solid material isolated from various Cactaceae species have been analyzed. All of the tested specimens deposited high-purity calcium oxalate crystals in their succulent modified stems. These deposits occurred most frequently as round-shaped druses that sometimes coexist with abundant crystal sand in the tissue. The biominerals were identified either as CaC2O4.2H2O (weddellite) or as CaC2O4.H2O (whewellite). Seven different species from the Opuntioideae subfamily showed the presence of whewellite, and an equal number of species from the Cereoideae subfamily showed the deposition of weddellite. The chemical nature of these deposits was assessed by infrared spectroscopy. The crystal morphology of the crystals was visualized by both conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Weddellite druses were made up of tetragonal crystallites, whereas those from whewellite were most often recognized by their acute points and general star-like shape. These studies clearly demonstrated that members from the main traditional subfamilies of the Cactaceae family could synthesize different chemical forms of calcium oxalate, suggesting a definite but different genetic control. The direct relationship established between a given Cactaceae species and a definite calcium oxalate biomineral seems to be a useful tool for plant identification and chemotaxonomy. PMID:11842173

  14. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  15. Powdered sugar shake to monitor and oxalic acid treatments to control varroa mites (Parasitiformes: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective monitoring and alternative strategies to control the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Truemann (Parasitiformes: Varroidae), (varroa) are crucial for determining when to apply effective treatments to honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies. Using simpl...

  16. Impulse control in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex counteracts post-diet weight regain in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygandt, Martin; Mai, Knut; Dommes, Esther; Ritter, Kerstin; Leupelt, Verena; Spranger, Joachim; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-04-01

    A variety of studies suggest that efficient treatments to induce short-term dietary success in obesity exist. However, sustained maintenance of reduced weight is rare as a large proportion of patients start to regain weight when treatment is discontinued. Thus, from a clinical perspective, it would be desirable to identify factors that counteract post-diet weight regain across longer time-scales. To address this question, we extended our previous work on neural impulse control mechanisms of short-term dietary success in obesity and now investigated the mechanisms counteracting long-term weight regain after a diet. Specifically, we measured neural impulse control during a delay discounting task with fMRI at two time points, i.e. the beginning ('T0') and the end ('T12') of a one-year follow-up interval after a 12-week diet. Then, we tested whether activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) at T0 and whether activity changes across the follow-up period (T0-T12) are linked to success in weight maintenance. The analyses conducted show that control-related DLPFC activity at T0 was coupled to the degree of success in weight maintenance. Consistently, also behavioral measures of control were linked to the degree of success in maintenance. A direct comparison of neural and behavioral control parameters for prognostic weight change modeling revealed that neural signals were more informative. Taken together, neural impulse control in the DLPFC measured with fMRI directly after a diet predicts real-world diet success in obese patients across extended time periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular risk profile: a diet controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klopping-Ketelaars, W.A.; Klurft, C.; Berg, van den H.; Kok, F.J.; Poppel, van G.

    2001-01-01

    Interventions: During 4 weeks 24 volunteers consumed a standardised meal, consisting of 500 g/day fruit and vegetables and 200 ml/day fruit juice ('high' group) and 23 volunteers consumed 100 g/day fruit and vegetables ('low' group) with an energy and fat controlled diet. Results: Final total choles

  18. Theoretical and baseline considerations for diet and weight control of diabetes among blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, S K; Ewart, C K

    1990-11-01

    This article outlines theoretical considerations for diet and weight control of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and identifies factors that may be of particular importance in influencing the success of diet and weight control of NIDDM in the Black population. Long-term adherence to dietary or weight-control regimens requires that the patient evaluate and restructure established eating and physical activity patterns. With the use of the social action theory as a conceptual framework, this complex behavioral change task can be understood as a function of the interplay of various self-regulatory mechanisms. These mechanisms are influenced by the person's capabilities for making changes, his/her physical condition and general health status, the physical and social environmental context, and the person's material and social resources. Many of these factors may differ for Blacks and Whites in a direction that suggests a lesser potential for effective diet and weight-loss therapy among Black NIDDM patients. For example, compared with Whites, Blacks are more likely to have limited incomes, low educational attainment, ambivalence about weight control, multiple health problems, and high-fat high-sodium low-fiber diets or food preferences. However, some evidence suggests that state-of-the-art counseling approaches can be as effective for Blacks as for Whites. The challenge is to adapt the types of approaches suggested by the social action theory for culturally appropriate and cost-effective delivery in Black community health-care settings.

  19. Analysis of stable isotopes in fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  20. Stable isotope analysis of fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  1. Effects of Low Glycemic Index Diets on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinhua; Heng, Weijun; Gao, Jianbo

    2016-05-01

    Studies of the effects of low glycemic index (LGI) diets on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reported conflicting findings.The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM patients.We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for studies of the effects of LGI diets in GDM patients. We performed a meta-analysis of the effects of the LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on GDM outcomes. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- and fixed-effects models.Five RCTs involving 302 participants were included in our meta-analysis. No statistically significant differences in the risks of cesarean section delivery, large for gestational age, and small for gestational age were observed. The risk of macrosomia in the LGI groups was significantly lower (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.71; P = 0.008) than that in the control groups. Our subgroup analysis of the effects of DF showed that LGI diets with an increased level of DF, relative to the control diet, reduced the risk of macrosomia beyond that of the LGI diets alone (RR: 0.17 vs 0.47, respectively). The subgroup analysis also showed that LGI diets in which the level of DF was approximately equivalent to that in the control diets significantly reduced the risk of insulin usage (RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P = 0.01).The LGI diets reduced the risk of macrosomia in GDM patients, and LGI diets with added DF reduced the risk of macrosomia further. The LGI diets with levels of DF approximately equivalent to that in the control diets reduced the risk of insulin usage in GDM patients.

  2. Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinales, Luis Alonso

    The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal

  3. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Lee

    Full Text Available Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D; however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals.Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46 or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47 for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks.The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017. When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%. The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks.Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms.CRiS KCT0001771.

  4. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. CRiS KCT0001771.

  5. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  6. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David JA; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health. Objective: We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids. Design: Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74. Results: Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (−4.4 kg in the vegan group and −3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A1c changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A1c changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were −0.34 and −0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A1c changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were −0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  7. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-05-01

    Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health. We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids. Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74. Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (-4.4 kg in the vegan group and -3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A(1c) changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were -0.34 and -0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were -0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03). Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00276939.

  8. Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D.; Levin, Susan M.; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested an association between vegetarian diets and improvements in glycemic control in diabetes, although this relationship is not well established. No meta-analysis of these studies has been performed. Methods To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials examining the association between vegetarian diets and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Data source: The electronic databases Medline, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in any language through December 9, 2013. Study selection: The following criteria were used for study inclusion: (I) age of participants >20 years; (II) vegetarian diet as intervention; (III) mean difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and/or fasting blood glucose levels used as outcomes; and (IV) controlled trials, duration ≥4 weeks. Exclusion criteria were: (I) not an original investigation; (II) duplicate samples; (III) diabetes other than type 2; (IV) multiple interventions; and (V) uncontrolled studies. Data extraction and synthesis: The data collected included study design, baseline population characteristics, dietary data, and outcomes. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main outcomes and measures: Differences in HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels associated with vegetarian diets were assessed. Results Of 477 studies identified, six met the inclusion criteria (n=255, mean age 42.5 years). Consumption of vegetarian diets was associated with a significant reduction in HbA1c [−0.39 percentage point; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.62 to −0.15; P=0.001; I2=3.0; P for heterogeneity =0.389], and a non-significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration (−0.36 mmol/L; 95% CI, −1.04 to 0.32; P=0.301; I2=0; P for heterogeneity =0.710), compared with consumption of comparator diets. Conclusions Consumption of vegetarian diets is

  9. Dietary and medication adjustments to improve seizure control in patients treated with the ketogenic diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selter, Jessica H.; Turner, Zahava; Doerrer, Sarah C.; Kossoff, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike anticonvulsant drugs and vagus nerve stimulation, there are no guidelines regarding adjustments to ketogenic diet regimens to improve seizure efficacy once the diet has been started. A retrospective chart review was performed of 200 consecutive patients treated with the ketogenic diet at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2007-2013. Ten dietary and supplement changes were identified, along with anticonvulsant adjustments. A total of 391 distinct interventions occurred, of which 265 were made specifically to improve seizure control. Adjustments lead to >50% further seizure reduction in-18%, but only 3% became seizure-free. The benefits of interventions did not decrease over time. There was a trend towards medication adjustments being more successful than dietary modifications (24% vs. 15%, p = 0.08). No single dietary change stood out as the most effective, but calorie changes were largely unhelpful (10% with additional benefit). PMID:24859788

  10. Dietary and medication adjustments to improve seizure control in patients treated with the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selter, Jessica H; Turner, Zahava; Doerrer, Sarah C; Kossoff, Eric H

    2015-01-01

    Unlike anticonvulsant drugs and vagus nerve stimulation, there are no guidelines regarding adjustments to ketogenic diet regimens to improve seizure efficacy once the diet has been started. A retrospective chart review was performed of 200 consecutive patients treated with the ketogenic diet at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2007 to 2013. Ten dietary and supplement changes were identified, along with anticonvulsant adjustments. A total of 391 distinct interventions occurred, of which 265 were made specifically to improve seizure control. Adjustments led to >50% further seizure reduction in 18%, but only 3% became seizure-free. The benefits of interventions did not decrease over time. There was a trend towards medication adjustments being more successful than dietary modifications (24% vs 15%, P = .08). No single dietary change stood out as the most effective, but calorie changes were largely unhelpful (10% with additional benefit).

  11. Diet liberalization and metabolic control in type I diabetic outpatients treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Sonnenberg, G E; Stanitzek-Schmidt, I; Best, F; Altenähr, H; Berger, M

    1982-01-01

    In 10 type I diabetic outpatients treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), dietary habits and metabolic control were investigated. Under conditions of a conventional diabetes diet (including 5-6 meals per day and a strictly planned meal intake) as well as under a "less restricted diabetes diet" (e.g., free choice of number, timing, and amount of carbohydrate intake) near normoglycemia could be achieved. Mean daily blood glucose levels did not change significantly when the patients' nutrition was alternated between both diets. During the "less restricted diabetes diet," the patients opted for a rather high fat intake (51 +/- 5% fat, 34 +/- 5% carbohydrate, and 15 +/- 2% protein). Despite this unintended dietary behavior, serum lipids and body weight remained normal after an observation period of 4-6 mo. It is concluded that during permanent near normoglycemia achieved by CSII a partial liberalization of the diabetes diet does not introduce any short-term or long-term metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  12. [Osteoporosis diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, B; Neuenschwander, B; Perrelet, R; Lippuner, K

    2000-03-01

    Bone requires a wide variety of nutrients to develop normally and to maintain itself after growth. Most important--in the sense that bony abnormalities are associated with their deficiencies--are protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, C and K, zinc, manganese and copper. The nutrients most likely to be deficient in citizens of industrialized countries are calcium and vitamin D. In this review of the current literature about nutritional aspects of osteoporosis, we have focused on factors influencing calcium requirement: the principal interacting nutrients are sodium, protein, caffeine, fiber, oxalate, phytate, and the acid/alkaline ash character of the overall diet. Fiber and caffeine decrease calcium absorption from the gut and typically exert relatively minor effects, while sodium, protein and the acid/alkaline balance of the diet increase urinary excretion of calcium and are of much greater significance for the calcium homeostasis. Alkali buffers, whether vegetables or fruits reverse this urinary calcium loss. As long as accompanied by adequate calcium intake, protein-rich diet is not deleterious to bone: a calcium-to-protein ratio of 20:1 (mg calcium/g protein) is recommended. Whether a nutrition-based therapeutic approach to osteoporosis is feasible in the near future is yet unclear: at least there are some recent promising data from in-vitro as well as from rat studies showing that extracts taken from various vegetables, mainly from the onion family inhibit bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of healthy; and the dietary intervention had a duration of 6 months or longer. Results from individual studies were pooled as weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effect model. In all, eleven RCT with 1369 participants met all the set eligibility criteria. Compared with participants on LF diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol.

  14. A 12-week low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet improves metabolic health outcomes over a control diet in a randomised controlled trial with overweight defence force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; McPhee, Julia; Harris, Nigel; Williden, Micalla; Prendergast, Kate; Schofield, Grant

    2017-07-12

    Overweight, obesity, and poor health is becoming a global concern for defence force personnel. Conventional nutrition guidelines are being questioned for their efficacy in achieving optimal body composition and long-term health. This study compared the effects of a 12-week low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a conventional, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight reduction and metabolic health outcomes in at-risk New Zealand Defence Force personnel. In this randomised controlled trial, 41 overweight personnel were assigned to intervention and control groups. Weight, waist circumference, fasting lipids, and glycaemic control were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Within-group change scores were analysed using the t statistic and interpreted using a p resistance; moderate, likely beneficial effects for HDL cholesterol, triglyceride:HDLc ratio and HbA1c; and a small, likely harmful effect for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This dietary approach shows promise for short-term weight loss and improved metabolic health outcomes conditions compared with mainstream recommendations. It should be offered to defence force personnel at least as a viable alternative means to manage their weight and health.

  15. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  16. Chronic stress and calcium oxalate stone disease: is it a potential recurrence risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoz-Fabregas, Montserrat; Ibarz-Servio, Luis; Edo-Izquierdo, Sílvia; Doladé-Botías, María; Fernandez-Castro, Jordi; Roca-Antonio, Josep

    2013-04-01

    Chronic emotional stress is associated with increased cortisol release and metabolism disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of chronic stress on calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease and its recurrence. A total of 128 patients were enrolled in this case-control study over a period of 20 months. All patients were CaOx stone formers with a recent stone episode (chronic stress were evaluated with self-reported validated questionnaires measuring stressful life events, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, burnout and satisfaction with life. An ad hoc self-reporting questionnaire was designed to evaluate stress-related specifically to stone episodes. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine cortisol levels and urinary composition. In addition, epidemiological data, socioeconomic information, diet and incidences of metabolic syndrome (MS) were reported. Overall, no significant differences were observed in the scores of cases and controls on any of the questionnaires dealing with stress. The number (p chronic stress, the number and intensity of stressful life events were higher in RS than in FS. These differences correlate with variations in blood and urinary levels and with metabolic disorders, indicating an association between chronic stress and risk of recurrent CaOx stone formation.

  17. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants.

  18. Smad signaling pathway in pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the involvement of Smad signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats to provide a reference for clinical treatment.Methods: Clean SD rats were randomly divided into 3 group, namely the control group, model group and pirfenidone group. Ethylene glycol + αhydroxy vitamin D3 was used as a stone-inducing agent to replicate the renal calcium oxalate stone model. Rats in the pirfenidone group were treated with pirfenidone intragastric administration. The serum Cr, BUN and 24-hour oxalate and calcium in renal tissues were assayed. The expressions of Bax/Bcl2 protein, Caspase3 protein, TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins were detected by the fluorescent quantitation PCR method.Results:Compared with the rats of the control group, the results showed that the levels of serum BUN, Cr and 24-hour oxalate in rats of the model group were increased greatly,BaxandCaspase3 mRNA also increased while the level ofBcl2 decreased significantly, and the expressions of TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins increased distinctly as well (P<0.01). These abnormal parameters could be normalized effectively by pirfenidone.Conclusions:Activated TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats.

  19. Calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI): an alternative method for distinguishing nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bowei; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Ungjaroenwathana, Wattanachai; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Srisa-Art, Monpichar; Supaprom, Thavorn; Insin, Numpon; Boonla, Chanchai

    2014-01-01

    Urinary supersaturation triggers lithogenic crystal formation. We developed an alternative test, designated calcium oxalate crystallization index (COCI), to distinguish nephrolithiasis patients from healthy individuals based on their urinary crystallization capability. The effect of urine volume, oxalate, phosphate, citrate, potassium, and sodium on COCI values was investigated. COCI values were determined in 24-hr urine obtained from nephrolithiasis patients (n=72) and matched healthy controls (n=71). Increases in urine oxalate and phosphate and decreases in urine volume and citrate resulted in significantly increased COCI values. The urinary COCI in nephrolithiasis patients was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals. Two healthy subjects who had elevated COCI values were found to have asymptomatic kidney calculi. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of the urinary COCI test of 0.9499 (95%CI: 0.9131-0.9868) for distinguishing between nephrolithiasis and healthy subjects. At the cutoff of 165 mg oxalate equivalence/day, the urinary COCI test provided sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy amounts of 83.33%, 97.18%, and 90.21%, respectively. Urinary COCI values were primarily dependent on urine volume, oxalate, and phosphate. The test provided high sensitivity and specificity for clinically discriminating nephrolithiasis patients from healthy controls. It might be used to detect individuals with asymptomatic kidney calculi.

  20. A case‐control study of diet and prostate cancer in Japan: possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonoda, Tomoko; Nagata, Yoshie; Mori, Mitsuru; Miyanaga, Naoto; Takashima, Naomi; Okumura, Koji; Goto, Ken; Naito, Seiji; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2004-01-01

    The age‐adjusted incidence of prostate cancer is low in Japan, and it has been suggested that the traditional Japanese diet, which includes many soy products, plays a preventive role against prostate cancer...

  1. Vibrational spectra of the two hydrates of strontium oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Maria C; Torres, María M; Palacios, Daniel; González-Baró, Ana C; Baran, Enrique J

    2015-02-25

    The infrared and Raman spectra of the two hydrates of strontium oxalate, SrC2O4⋅H2O and SrC2O4⋅2H2O, were recorded and discussed on the basis of their structural peculiarities and in comparison with the spectra of the related calcium oxalates and other previously investigated metallic oxalates.

  2. Favorable impact of a vegan diet with exercise on hemorheology: implications for control of diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2002-06-01

    A little-noticed clinical report indicates that a low-fat, whole-food vegan diet, coupled with daily walking exercise, leads to rapid remission of neuropathic pain in the majority of type 2 diabetics expressing this complication. Concurrent marked improvements in glycemic control presumably contribute to this benefit, but are unlikely to be solely responsible. Consideration should be given to the possibility that improved blood rheology - decreased blood viscosity and increased blood filterability - plays a prominent role in mediating this effect. There is considerable evidence that neural hypoxia, secondary to impaired endoneurial microcirculatory perfusion, is a crucial etiologic factor in diabetic neuropathy; the unfavorable impact of diabetes on hemorheology would be expected to exacerbate endoneurial ischemia. Conversely, measures which improve blood fluidity would likely have a beneficial impact on diabetic neuropathy. There is indeed evidence that vegan diets, as well as exercise training, tend to decrease the viscosity of both whole blood and plasma; reductions in hematocrit and in fibrinogen may contribute to this effect. The fact that vegan diets decrease the white cell count is suggestive of an improvement in blood filterability as well; filterability improves with exercise training owing to an increase in erythrocyte deformability. Whether these measures influence the activation of leukocytes in diabetics - an important determinant of blood filterability - remains to be determined. There are various reasons for suspecting that a vegan diet can reduce risk for other major complications of diabetes - retinopathy, nephropathy, and macrovascular disease - independent of its tendency to improve glycemic control in type 2 patients. The vegan diet/exercise strategy represents a safe, 'low-tech' approach to managing diabetes that deserves far greater attention from medical researchers and practitioners.

  3. Commercial weight loss diets meet nutrient requirements in free living adults over 8 weeks: A randomised controlled weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Ian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of commercial weight loss programmes on macronutrient composition and micronutrient adequacy over a 2 month period. Design Adults were randomly allocated to follow the Slim Fast Plan, Weight Watchers Pure Points Programme, Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution, or Rosemary Conley's "Eat Yourself Slim" Diet & Fitness Plan. Setting A multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Subjects 293 adults, mean age 40.3 years and a mean BMI 31.7 (range 27–38 were allocated to follow one of the four diets or control group. Subjects completed a 7-day food and activity diary at baseline (prior to randomisation and after 2 months. Diet records were analysed for nutrient composition using WinDiets (research version. Results A significant shift in the macronutrient composition of the diet with concurrent alteration of the micronutrient profile was apparent with all diets. There was no evidence to suggest micronutrient deficiency in subjects on any of the dietary regimens. However, those sub-groups with higher needs for specific micronutrients, such as folate, iron or calcium may benefit from tailored dietary advice. Conclusion The diets tested all resulted in considerable macronutrient change and resulted in an energy deficit indicating dietary compliance. Health professionals and those working in community and public health should be reassured of the nutritional adequacy of the diets tested. Trial Registration Number NCT00327821

  4. Oxalate metal complexes in aerosol particles: implications for the hygroscopicity of oxalate-containing particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to weaken the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play an important role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is an important component of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected for this purpose using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and can thus increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, while complexes with various polyvalent metal ions such as Ca and Zn are not hygroscopic, which cannot contribute to the increase of the CCN activity of aerosols. Based on the concentrations of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not always increase the hygroscopicity of aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is advisable that the cooling effect of organic aerosols should be estimated by including the

  5. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  6. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315029412

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  7. Maternal Diet and Weight at 3 Months Postpartum Following a Pregnancy Intervention with a Low Glycaemic Index Diet: Results from the ROLO Randomised Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Horan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy increases the risk of being overweight at a later time period, particularly when there is excessive gestational weight gain. There remains a paucity of data into the effect of low glycaemic index (GI pregnancy interventions postpartum. Aim: To examine the impact of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on maternal diet 3 months postpartum. Methodology: This analysis examined the diet, weight and lifestyle of 460 participants of the ROLO study 3 months postpartum. Questionnaires on weight, physical activity, breastfeeding, supplement use, food label reading and dietary habits were completed. Results: The intervention group had significantly greater weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum than the control group (1.3 vs. 0.1 kg, p = 0.022. The intervention group reported greater numbers following a low glycaemic index diet (p < 0.001 and reading food labels (p = 0.032 and had a lower glycaemic load (GL (128 vs. 145, p = 0.014 but not GI (55 vs. 55, p = 0.809 than controls. Conclusions: Low GI dietary interventions in pregnancy result in improved health-behaviours and continued reported compliance at 3 months postpartum possibly through lower dietary GL as a result of portion control. Greater levels of weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum in the intervention group may have important positive implications for overweight and obesity.

  8. Decreased renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase activity in calcium oxalate calculi patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊汇; 刘继红; 章咏裳; 叶章群; 王少刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the activity of vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis compared with healthy individuals and to assess its relationship to the renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Methods Renal parenchymas were harvested from urolithic patients and renal tumor patients undergoing nephrectomy. The renal carboxylase activity was evaluated as the radioactivity of [14C] labeled sodium bicarbonate in carboxylic reactions in vitro using β-liquid scintillation counting. Results Significantly reduced activity of renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase was observed in the urolithic group as compared with normal controls (P<0.01). Conclusion It suggests that the reduced carboxylase activity observed in the urolithic patients may play an important role in the course of renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

  9. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving d Employer Matching Gifts d Gifts of Stock or Securities d Giving Circles Golden Circle Circle ... health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low Carb Omega- ...

  10. Diuron degradation in irradiated, heterogeneous iron/oxalate systems: the rate-determining step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazellier, P; Sulzberger, B

    2001-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the various factors that control the kinetics of diuron degradation in irradiated, aerated suspensions containing goethite (alpha-FeOOH) and oxalate, in the following denoted as heterogeneous photo-Fenton systems. In these systems, attack by hydroxyl radicals (HO.) was the only pathway of diuron degradation. Studies were conducted in systems containing initially 80 or 200 mg L(-1) goethite (corresponding to 0.9 or 2.25 mM total iron) and 20, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 microM oxalate at 3 heterogeneous photo-Fenton systems.

  11. A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robyn N; Mann, Neil J; Braue, Anna; Mäkeläinen, Henna; Varigos, George A

    2007-07-01

    Although the pathogenesis of acne is currently unknown, recent epidemiologic studies of non-Westernized populations suggest that dietary factors, including the glycemic load, may be involved. The objective was to determine whether a low-glycemic-load diet improves acne lesion counts in young males. Forty-three male acne patients aged 15-25 y were recruited for a 12-wk, parallel design, dietary intervention incorporating investigator-blinded dermatology assessments. The experimental treatment was a low-glycemic-load diet composed of 25% energy from protein and 45% from low-glycemic-index carbohydrates. In contrast, the control situation emphasized carbohydrate-dense foods without reference to the glycemic index. Acne lesion counts and severity were assessed during monthly visits, and insulin sensitivity (using the homeostasis model assessment) was measured at baseline and 12 wk. At 12 wk, mean (+/-SEM) total lesion counts had decreased more (P=0.03) in the low-glycemic-load group (-23.5 +/- 3.9) than in the control group (-12.0 +/- 3.5). The experimental diet also resulted in a greater reduction in weight (-2.9 +/- 0.8 compared with 0.5 +/- 0.3 kg; Pdiet. The improvement in acne and insulin sensitivity after a low-glycemic-load diet suggests that nutrition-related lifestyle factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of acne. However, further studies are needed to isolate the independent effects of weight loss and dietary intervention and to further elucidate the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  12. Self-selected unrefined and refined carbohydrate diets do not affect metabolic control in pump-treated diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhaus, A; Chantelau, E

    1988-03-01

    This study investigated whether unrefined or refined carbohydrate diets have any effect on metabolic control and on insulin requirement in near-normoglycaemic Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic out-patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Two females and 8 males (aged 27 +/- 9 years; diabetes duration 13 +/- 8 years; duration of insulin pump therapy 22 +/- 5 months; means +/- SD) participated in a randomised cross-over study with two 6-week periods on self-selected refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets respectively. As a result, energy intake differed between the experimental diets (2372 +/- 669 kcal/day on unrefined diet vs 2757 +/- 654 kcal/day on refined diet, p = 0.04), as did the fibre intake (18 +/- 5 g/day with the refined carbohydrate diet vs 35 +/- 13 g/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, p = 0.02). The composition of nutrients was approximately 40% carbohydrate, 45% fat, and 13% protein with both diets. Body weight, HbA1c, daily mean blood glucose (7.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) and serum lipids remained virtually unchanged during the entire study. Insulin requirement varied between 40.1 +/- 7.9 U/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, and 42.5 +/- 10.1 U/day with the refined carbohydrate diet (NS). Thus, neither the refined nor the unrefined carbohydrate diet affected insulin requirement and metabolic control in these near-normoglycaemic, normolipaemic, non-obese, insulin-pump-treated Type 1 diabetic patients.

  13. Citric and Oxalic Acids Effect on Pb and Zn Uptake by Maize and Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinmin; Hou Yanlin; Jie Xiaolei

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of citric and oxalic acids effect on Pb and Zn uptake by corn and winter wheat.The experiment was employed with citric acid (CA)applied at 3 rates (0, 1.5 and 3.0 mmol kg-1 soil),oxalic acid (OA) at 3 rates (0, 1.5 and 3.0mmol kg-1soil) and citric acid combined with oxalic acid (1.5mmol citric acid combined with 1.5 mmol oxalic acid kg-1). Two types of soil were chose in the experiment.One was collected from the agricultural soil near a battery-recycling factory in Anhui province, China (site A) and the other was collected from a Pb-Zn mine residues in Hunan province, China (site B). The results showed that soil pH varied with the different treatment of citric and oxalic acids. However, there were no differences in all the treatments. 3.0mmol CA kg-1 soil addition significantly increased the concentrations of the CaCl2-extractable Pb and Zn and other treatments have no significantly increased.The highest shoot concentrations of Pb and Zn in both species occurred in application of 3.0 mmol CA/kg-1 soil and shoot concentrations of Pb and Zn in both species were significantly higher than the controls in this treatment. Shoot yields declined with application of citric and oxalic acids, indicating that the plants were sensitive to the toxicity of the metals or the amendments. The highest Pb uptake values by maize and wheat were112.3 and 77.2 μg pot-1in soil of site A, and occurred with the control and 3.0 mmol CA/kg-1 soil respectively.

  14. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Kari; Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was -12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3-16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12-36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10-26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3-12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: -1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6-12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: -1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3-14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise.

  15. Effect of a diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesund, E R; Bere, E; Sagedal, L R; Vistad, I; Øverby, N C

    2016-10-01

    A mother's diet during pregnancy has the potential to influence both her own and her child's short- and long-term health. This paper reports the effects of a randomized controlled diet intervention during pregnancy on dietary behavior post-intervention as reported in late pregnancy. The diet intervention was part of a lifestyle intervention targeting both diet and physical activity behaviors among nulliparous women participating in the randomized controlled Norwegian Fit for Delivery study (NFFD). Eligible women were enrolled in early pregnancy from eight healthcare clinics in southern Norway between 2009 and 2013. The diet intervention was based on 10 dietary recommendations that were conveyed during two counseling sessions by phone and in a pamphlet describing the recommendations and their simplified rationale. A diet score was constructed from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and used to assess intervention effect on dietary behavior (score range 0-10). Between-group dietary differences post-intervention were estimated with analysis of covariance, with adjustment for baseline diet. A total of 508 women completed the FFQ both at baseline and post-intervention. There were no between-group differences in diet score and subscales at baseline. Post-intervention, the intervention group had higher overall diet score (control: 4.61, intervention: 5.04, P=0.013) and favorable dietary behavior in seven of the 10 dietary domains: 'consumption of water relative to total beverage consumption' (P=0.002), 'having vegetables with dinner' (P=0.027), 'choosing fruits and vegetables for between-meal snacks' (P=0.023), 'buying small portion sizes of unhealthy foods' (P=0.010), 'limiting sugar intake' (P=0.005), 'avoiding eating beyond satiety' (P=0.009) and 'reading food labels' (P=0.011). The NFFD diet intervention improved dietary behavior. Potential long-term clinical influence in mother and child will be investigated in further studies.

  16. Urolithiasis in a herd of beef cattle associated with oxalate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-02-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  17. Urolithiasis in a Herd of Beef Cattle Associated with Oxalate Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-01-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  18. Screening of oxalate degrading lactic acid bacteria of food origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Murru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A screening for oxalate degrading abilities was initially carried on within Lactic Acid Bacteria cultures of different food origin. Seventy-nine strains were drop-inoculated onto MRS agar plates containing calcium oxalate. By comparing colonies diameters, 31 strains were used to inoculate, in parallel, MRS and MRS modified by sodium oxalate addition. Differences in the strains’ growth were assessed by colony forming unit counts. For two strains, the growth in oxalate enriched medium was significantly higher; while, for eleven strains an opposite behaviour was recorded. Two strains – probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus LbGG and Enterococcus faecalis 59 – were chosen. The first strain appeared to be able to metabolize oxalate more efficiently than the other tested cultures, while strain 59 appeared unable to gather advantage by oxalates and, indeed, appeared to be inhibited by the salt presence in the medium. Outcomes revealed that higher glucose concentrations may favour oxalates utilization. In MRS with oxalate, but without glucose, citrate was completely metabolized. Evaluation along time confirmed that the oxalate degradation is more significant in presence of glucose. Outcomes may represent a good start for the development of a safe and even probiotic culture able to lower the oxalates content of food.

  19. Crystal and molecular structures of alkali oxalates: first proof of a staggered oxalate anion in the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebier, Robert E; Vensky, Sascha; Panthöfer, Martin; Jansen, Martin

    2003-03-10

    The molecular and crystal structures of solvent-free potassium, rubidium, and cesium oxalates have been determined ab initio from high-resolution synchrotron and X-ray laboratory powder patterns. In the case of potassium oxalate K(2)C(2)O(4) (a = 10.91176(7) A, b = 6.11592(4) A, c = 3.44003(2) A, orthorhombic, Pbam, Z = 2), the oxalate anion is planar, whereas in cesium oxalate Cs(2)C(2)O(4) (a = 6.62146(5) A, b = 11.00379(9) A, c = 8.61253(7) A, beta = 97.1388(4) degrees, monoclinic, P2(1)/c, Z = 4) it exhibits a staggered conformation. For rubidium oxalate at room temperature, two polymorphs exist, one (beta-Rb(2)C(2)O(4)) isotypic to potassium oxalate (a = 11.28797(7) A, b = 6.29475(4) A, c = 3.62210(2) A, orthorhombic, Pbam, Z = 2) and the other (alpha-Rb(2)C(2)O(4)) isotypic to cesium oxalate (a = 6.3276(1) A, b = 10.4548(2) A, c = 8.2174(2) A, beta = 98.016(1) degrees, monoclinic, P2(1)/c, Z = 4). The potassium oxalate structure can be deduced from the AlB(2) type, and the cesium oxalate structure from the Hg(99)As type, respectively. The relation between the two types of crystal structures and the reason for the different conformations of the oxalate anion are discussed.

  20. 米氮平与草酸艾司西酞普兰治疗老年期抑郁症的对照观察%Control observation of mirtazapine and escitalopram oxalate for treating senile depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 刘京惠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine combined with escitalopram oxalate for treating senile depression .Methods 64 cases of senile depression conforming to the CCMD‐3 diagnostic criteria of depression were randomly divided into two groups and treated by mirtazapine and escitalopram oxalate respectively . The Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD) and the treatment emergent symptom scale(TESS) were adopted to evalu‐ate the efficacy and the adverse reactions before treatment and at 1 ,2 ,4 ,6 weekend after treatment .Results The HAMD scores after 1 week in the mirtazapine group and the escitalopram oxalate group were decreased significantly , and the difference had statistical significance (P0 .05);the adverse reactions of mirtazapine were mainly dizziness ,drowsiness ,constipation ,increased appetite and weight gain ,which of escitalopram oxalate were mainly nausea and vomiting ,sweating ,insomnia and headache .Conclusion Mirtazapine and escitalopram oxalate have the similar efficacy for treating senile depression .%目的:评价米氮平和艾司西酞普兰对老年抑郁症的疗效和安全性。方法对符合《中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准(第3版)》(CCMD‐3)抑郁症诊断标准的64例老年期抑郁症患者,随机分为两组,分别予米氮平和草酸艾司西酞普兰治疗。应用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和药物不良反应量表(TESS)在治疗前和治疗后第1、2、4、6周末评定其疗效和不良反应。结果米氮平组与草酸艾司西酞普兰组HAMD评分在1周后明显下降,与1周前差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),1周末米氮平组HAMD评分低于草酸艾司西酞普兰组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);米氮平的不良反应以头晕、嗜睡、便秘、食欲增加、体质量增加为主,草酸艾司西酞普兰以恶心呕吐、出汗、失眠、头痛为主。结论米氮平与草酸艾司西酞普兰对老年期抑郁患者疗效相仿。

  1. Effects of food-cue exposure on dieting-related goals: a limitation to counteractive-control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter; Pliner, Patricia

    2008-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of exposure to a food cue on the self-reported importance of dieting in those with low, medium, and high levels of dietary restraint. The results indicated that exposure to a food cue bolstered dieting-related goals in those who were low in dietary restraint but had no effect on the importance of dieting-related goals for those with medium or high levels of dietary restraint. The results demonstrate that exposure to temptations may differentially affect self-control processes depending on an individuals' level of dietary restraint.

  2. Effects of temperature and sodium carboxylate additives on mineralization of calcium oxalate in silica gel systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Jianming; DENG; Suiping; LI; Xiangping; TAN; Yanh

    2004-01-01

    [1]Ouyang, J. M., Yao, X. Q., Su, Z. X. et al., Simulation of calcium oxalate stone in Vitro, Science in China, Ser. B, 2003, 46(3):234-242.[2]Xu, S. H., Chen, J. Q., Zhou, H., Nepidemiological study of renal calculus in Shenshen region, Chin. J. Urol. (in Chinese), 1999,20(11): 655-657.[3]Bretherton, T., Rodgers, A., Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine, J. Crystal Growth, 1998, 192: 448-455.[4]Grover, P. K., Ryall, R. L., Effect of seed crystals of uric acid and monosodium urate on the crystallization of CaOxa in undiluted human urine in vitro, Clin. Sci., 1997, 92: 205-213.[5]Laube, N., Mohr, B., Hesse, A., Laser-probe-based investigation of the evolution of particle size distributions of calcium oxalate particles formed in artificial urines, J. Crystal Growth, 2001, 233:367-374.[6]Tunik, L., Fueredi-Milhofer, H., Garti, N., Adsorption of sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate onto calcium oxalate crystals, Langmuir,1998, 14: 3351-3355.[7]Cody, A. M., Cody, R. D., Calcium oxalate trihydrate phase control by structurally-specific carboxylic acids, J. Cryst. Growth,1994, 135: 234-245.[8]Ouyang, J. M., Duan, L., Tieke, B., Effects of carboxylic acids on the crystal growth of calcium oxalate nanoparticles in lecithin-water liposome systems, Langmuir, 2003, 19: 8980-8985.[9]Guo, S., Ward, M. D., Wesson, J. A., Direct visualization of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization and dissolution with atomic force microscopy and the role of polymeric additives,Langmuir, 2002, 18:4284-4291.[10]Yasui, T., Sato, M., Fujita, K., Effects of citrate on renal stone formation and osteopontin expression in a rat urolithiasis model,Urol. Res., 2001,29: 50-56.[11]Ouyang, J. M., Deng, S. P., Controlled and uncontrolled crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of citric acid, Dalton Transactions, 2003, (14): 2846-2851.[12]Khan, S. R., Whalen, P. O., Glenton, P. A., Heterogeneous nucleation of

  3. In vitro tests to assess the effectiveness of tamarind (Tamarindus indicus) and oxalic acid solutions against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez C., Víctor

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro assay was performed to measure the acaricidal effectiveness of crude-extract of tamarind (Tamarindus indicus) to control the engorged female cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). In addition, a product formulated with oxalic acid (OA) was tested. Parameters measured were percentage of oviposition inhibition and control rate. The best result was obtained with oxalic acid to twice the concentration recommended by the manufacturer for varroa control, followed by the tamarind pulp at...

  4. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  5. Western-style diet impairs stimulus control by food deprivation state cues. Implications for obesogenic environments☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Camille H.; Martin, Ashley A.; Jones, Sabrina; Hargrave, Sara L.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    In western and westernized societies, large portions of the population live in what are considered to be “obesogenic” environments. Among other things, obesogenic environments are characterized by a high prevalence of external cues that are associated with highly palatable, energy-dense foods. One prominent hypothesis suggests that these external cues become such powerful conditioned elicitors of appetitive and eating behavior that they overwhelm the internal, physiological mechanisms that serve to maintain energy balance. The present research investigated a learning mechanism that may underlie this loss of internal relative to external control. In Experiment 1, rats were provided with both auditory cues (external stimuli) and varying levels of food deprivation (internal stimuli) that they could use to solve a simple discrimination task. Despite having access to clearly discriminable external cues, we found that the deprivation cues gained substantial discriminative control over conditioned responding. Experiment 2 found that, compared to standard chow, maintenance on a “western-style” diet high in saturated fat and sugar weakened discriminative control by food deprivation cues, but did not impair learning when external cues were also trained as relevant discriminative signals for sucrose. Thus, eating a western-style diet contributed to a loss of internal control over appetitive behavior relative to external cues. We discuss how this relative loss of control by food deprivation signals may result from interference with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes, forming the basis of a vicious-cycle of excessive intake, body weight gain, and progressive cognitive decline that may begin very early in life. PMID:26002280

  6. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (<1000 kcal/d). Design: We conducted a systematic review by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and EMBASE from January 1981 to February 2013. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated weight-loss maintenance strategies after a VLCD/LCD period. Two authors performed independent data extraction by using a predefined data template. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Results: Twenty studies with a total of 27 intervention arms and 3017 participants were included with the following treatment categories: anti-obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was −12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3–16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12–36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10–26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3–12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: −1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6–12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: −1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3–14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Conclusion: Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise. PMID:24172297

  7. Kinetic study of oxalic acid inhibition on enzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S M; Moon, K D; Lee, C Y

    2000-06-01

    Oxalic acid has a strong antibrowning activity. The inhibitory pattern on catechol-PPO model system appeared to be competitive, with a K(i) value of 2.0 mM. When the PPO was incubated with oxalic acid, the activity was not recovered via dialysis, but the inactivated enzyme partially recovered its activity when cupric ion was added. Comparing the relative antibrowning effectiveness of oxalic acid with other common antibrowning agents, oxalic acid with I(50) value of 1.1 mM is as effective as kojic acid and more potent than cysteine and glutathione.

  8. Antilithiatic Activity of phlorotannin rich extract of Sarghassum Wightii on Calcium Oxalate Urolithiais – In Vitro and In VivoEvaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sujatha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Urolithiasis is a common urological disorder responsible for serious human affliction and cost to the society with a high recurrence rate. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the phlorotannin rich extract of Sargassum wightii using suitable in vitro and in vivo models to provide scientific evidence for its antilithiatic activity.Materials and Methods:To explore the effect of Sargassum wightii on calcium oxalate crystallization, in vitro assays like crystal nucleation, aggregation and crystal growth were performed. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced in male Sprague dawley rats using a combination of gentamicin and calculi producing diet (5% ammonium oxalate and rat pellet feed. The biochemical parameters like calcium, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, sodium and potassium were evaluated in urine, serum and kidney homogenates. Histopathological studies were also done to confirm the biochemical findings.Results:The yield of Sargassum wightii extract was found to be 74.5 gm/kg and confirmed by quantitative analysis. In vitro experiments with Sargassum wightii showed concentration dependent inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth supported by SEM analysis. In the in vivo model, Sargassum wightiireduced both calcium and oxalate supersaturation in urine, serum and deposition in the kidney. The biochemical results were supported by histopathological studies.Conclusion:The findings of the present study suggest that Sargassum wightii has the ability to prevent nucleation, aggregation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Sargassum wightii has better preventive effect on calcium oxalate stone formation indicating its strong potential to develop as a therapeutic option to prevent recurrence of urolithiasis.

  9. A case-control study of diet and lung cancer in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; Xu, T; Lin, Q; Wang, C; Zhao, F; Wang, G; Chen, Y; Yang, Y

    1997-06-11

    A case-control study involving interviews with 227 lung-cancer cases and 227 matched hospital controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province in northeast China to examine the influence of dietary factors on the risk of developing lung cancer. Lung-cancer cases were all incident cases judged to be suitable candidates for tumor removal by surgery. Controls were selected among hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic and non-lung disease. The overall male lung-cancer risks associated with cigarette smoking were similar to those reported in other Chinese studies but quite low compared to risks in Western countries. However, the subjects in this study were relatively young (average age 53.2), had started to smoke on average at a relatively old age (21.3 years), and only smoked an average of 18.7 cigarettes per day. Lung-cancer risk was not strongly associated with any of the nutrients examined, when all cases were compared to all controls. However, the data were suggestive of differences in the relationship of diet to risk among smokers and non-smokers. Cautious interpretation is required because of the wide confidence intervals due to limited sample size. Among the smokers, only higher beta-carotene was associated with estimates suggesting a lowered risk. Among non-smokers, the evidence suggested that increased vegetable consumption might reduce risk, consumption of any fruit might reduce risk but beta-carotene was unrelated to risk. The differences observed in the relationship of diet to lung-cancer risk between Chinese smokers and non-smokers warrant further study.

  10. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  11. [Weight control behaviors in dieting adolescent girls and their relation to body dissatisfaction and obsession with thinness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M Liliana A; Morán, Javier K; Frez, Scarlett H; Lagos, Carola O; Marín, María Paz F; de los Ángeles Pinto B, María; Suzarte, Érika A

    2015-01-01

    Obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction can lead adolescents to follow unsupervised diets, which could result in risky weight control behaviors such as fasting, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives. The aim of the current study is to examine weight control behaviors in dieting adolescents and relate them to body dissatisfaction (BD) and obsession with thinness (OT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 adolescents from Valparaiso public schools to investigate risky weight control behaviors due to BD and OT scales from the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), comparing restrained eaters and non-restrained eaters. A total of 43% adolescents had followed a weight loss diet without medical supervision. The dieters had higher BD and OT values. Moderate to severe food restriction, based on expert judgment, was observed in 29.6%, and differences in the presence and severity of purging behaviors were found between the 2 groups. One third of the adolescents studied followed diets without professional supervision and had higher BD and OT values, as well as risky weight control behaviors. Overweight and obese adolescents followed more restrictive diets and developed riskier weight control behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  12. Effect of low glycemic load diet on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in poorly-controlled diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Amir; Afaghi, Ahmad; Sarreshtehdari, Majied

    2011-12-29

    Different carbohydrate diets have been administrated to diabetic patients to evaluate the glycemic response, while Poor-controlled diabetes is increasing world wide. To investigate the role of an alternative carbohydrate diet on glycemic control, we explored the effect of a low glycemic load (Low GL)-high fat diet on glycemic response and also glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of poor-controlled diabetes patients. Hundred poorly-controlled diabetes patients, HbA1c > 8, age 52.8 ± 4.5 y, were administrated a low GL diet , GL = 67 (Energy 1800 kcal; total fat 36%; fat derived from olive oil and nuts 15%; carbohydrate 42%; protein 22%) for 10 weeks. Patients did their routine life style program during intervention. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c before and after intervention with significant reduction were: 169 ± 17, 141 ± 12; 8.85% (73 mmol/mol) ± 0.22%, and 7.81% (62 mmol/mol) ± 0.27%; respectively (P HbA1c by 1.1% (11 mmol/mol) ± 0.3% (P=0.001). There was positive moderate correlation between HbA1c concentration before intervention and FBS reduction after intervention (P diet can be effective in glycemic control.

  13. Snack bars with high soy protein and isoflavone content for use in diets to control dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Luciana Pereira; Iakmiu Camargo Pereira, Alissana Ester; Lazaretti, Marcela Marta; Barbosa, Décio Sabattini; Carreira, Clisia Mara; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Grossmann, Maria Victoria Eiras

    2012-02-01

    The objective was to develop a cereal bar product rich in isoflavones and soy protein to be used in diets for controlling dyslipidaemia. A soy snack bar with 39.88 g/100 g dietary fibre, 34.25 g/100 g protein, 100.39 mg/100 g isoflavones and 245.47 kcal/100 g was produced. The shelf life of the product was tested over a period of 6 months. The hardness, water activity and darkness of the snack bars increased with storage time. Clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the soy snack bar on the lipid profiles of 22 dyslipidaemic subjects for a period of 45 days. There was a decrease in levels of triglycerides (TGs) (- 20%) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (+8%) comparing with baseline values. Therefore, relatively high intakes of soy protein and isoflavones in moderately hypercholesterolaemic subjects (>200 mg/dl) may have a moderately beneficial effect on plasma lipid profiles, as TG and HDL-c levels, without additional diet restrictions.

  14. Evaluation Of Sludge Heel Dissolution Efficiency With Oxalic Acid Cleaning At Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudduth, Christie; Vitali, Jason; Keefer, Mark

    2014-01-08

    The chemical cleaning process baseline strategy at the Savannah River Site was revised to improve efficiency during future execution of the process based on lessons learned during previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning activities and to account for operational constraints imposed by safety basis requirements. These improvements were also intended to transcend the difficulties that arise from waste removal in higher rheological yield stress sludge tanks. Tank 12 implemented this improved strategy and the bulk oxalic acid cleaning efforts concluded in July 2013. The Tank 12 radiological removal results were similar to previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning campaigns despite the fact that Tank 12 contained higher rheological yield stress sludge that would make removal more difficult than the sludge treated in previous cleaning campaigns. No appreciable oxalate precipitation occurred during the cleaning process in Tank 12 compared to previous campaigns, which aided in the net volume reduction of 75-80%. Overall, the controls established for Tank 12 provide a template for an improved cleaning process.

  15. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of Y2O3 Nano-Powder from Yttrium Oxalate under Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ling

    2005-01-01

    High purity Y2O3 nano-powders was synthesized directly from solution of industrial YCl3 by method of oxalate precipitation through super-micro-reactors made by complex non-ionic surfactant. The purity and diameter of Y2O3 particles were controlled by such processing parameters as concentration of YCl3 and oxalic acid and complex non-ionic surfactant etc. TEM photomicrographs show that Y2O3 particles are spherical in shape, with an average diameter of less than 30 nm. Test results certify that the purity and particle diameter as well as the dispersion of Y2O3 nano-powder depend on the concentrations of YCl3, oxalic acid and complex non-ionic surfactant. The optimum ranges of the concentrations for YCl3 and complex non-ionic surfactant when the diameter of Y2O3 particles is smaller than 100 nm are 0.43~1.4 mol·L-1 and 0.031~0.112 mol·L-1 respectively, while the mass fraction range of oxalic acid is 10%~18%. The purity of Y2O3 nano-powder tested by ICP-AES analysis is 99.99%.

  17. [Urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation beyond nephrolithiasis. Relationship with tubulointerstitial damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Angerosa, Margarita; Stella, Inés; Ferder, León; Inserra, Felipe

    2003-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the urinary ion activity product (IAP) of calcium oxalate (CaOx), as an index of urinary CaOx supersaturation (SS), is higher in renal stone formers than in normal subjects. Besides, the relation between CaOx SS and lithogenesis, crystal CaOx exposition can produce tubular cell as well as renal interstitial lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CaOx SS and tubulointerstitial (TI) damage in an animal model of hyperoxaluria. During four weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats received: G1 (n = 8) control regular water, and G2 (n = 8) 1% ethylene glycol (ETG) (precursor for oxalates) in drinking water. In order to evaluate urinary CaOx SS, IAP assessed by Tisselius formula was performed. At the end of the study, renal lesions were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Animals from G2 (ETG) presented higher (p intersticial fibrosis; e) interstitial alpha-smooth muscle actin; f) collagen type III; g) TI TGF beta 1 compared with G1 (control). Rats from G2 (ETG) presented a high correlation between urinary CaOx SS and most of the TI damage parameters evaluated, in especial with interstitial fibrosis. Both, inflammatory infiltrates and urinary CaOx SS were the most significant variables related to interstitial fibrosis. Finally, since hyperoxaluric animals showed higher urinary CaOx SS associated with higher renal TI damage, the results from this study suggest the presence of a tight link between urinary CaOx SS and renal TI damage. Considering these findings we think that urinary CaOx SS control rises in importance beyond nephrolithiasis.

  18. Crystal structure of (ferrocenylmethyldimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Ndiaye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt, [Fe(C5H5(C8H13N](HC2O4, consists of discrete (ferrocenylmethyldimethylammonium cations and hydrogen oxalate anions. The anions are connected through a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond, forming linear chains running parallel to [100]. The cations are linked to the anions through bifurcated N—H...(O,O′ hydrogen bonds. Weak C—H...π interactions between neighbouring ferrocenyl moieties are also observed.

  19. Microbial Enterotypes, Inferred by the Prevotella-to-Bacteroides Ratio, Remained Stable during a 6-Month Randomized Controlled Diet Intervention with the New Nordic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Tine R.; Poulsen, Sanne K.; Larsen, Thomas M.; Bahl, Martin I.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human gut microbiota can be divided into enterotypes based on the abundance of specific bacterial groups; however, the biological significance and stability of these enterotypes remain unresolved. Here, we demonstrated that subjects (n = 62) 18 to 65 years old with central obesity and components of metabolic syndrome could be grouped into two discrete groups simply by their relative abundance of Prevotella spp. divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Furthermore, we showed that these groups remained stable during a 6-month, controlled dietary intervention, where the effect of consuming a diet in accord with the new Nordic diet (NND) recommendations as opposed to consuming the average Danish diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota was investigated. In this study, subjects (with and without stratification according to P/B ratio) did not reveal significant changes in 35 selected bacterial taxa quantified by quantitative PCR (ADD compared to NND) resulting from the dietary interventions. However, we found higher total plasma cholesterol within the high-P/B group than in the low-P/B group after the intervention. We propose that stratification of humans based simply on their P/B ratio could allow better assessment of possible effects of interventions on the gut microbiota and physiological biomarkers. PMID:24296500

  20. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  1. The new Nordic diet - consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2013-01-01

    Diet (NND) has been developed as a palatable, healthy and sustainable diet based on products from the Nordic region. The objective of the study is to investigate economic consequences for the consumers of the NND, compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD). Methods: Combine quantity data from......, compared to the unadjusted NND-i. The distribution of food cost is however much more heterogeneous among consumers within the NND than within the ADD. Conclusion: On average, the New Nordic Diet is 24-25 per cent more expensive than an Average Danish Diet at the current market prices in Denmark (and 16......Background: Several studies suggest that a healthy diet with high emphasis on nutritious, low-energy components such as fruits, vegetables, and seafood tends to be more costly for consumers. Derived from the ideas from the New Nordic Cuisine – and inspired by the Mediterranean diet, the New Nordic...

  2. Calorie restriction in overweight seniors: response of older adults to a dieting study: the CROSSROADS randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marilyn C; Bodner, Eric V; Brown, Cynthia J; Bryan, David; Buys, David R; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Wingo, Brooks C; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling obese older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), and functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article.

  3. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  4. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  5. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  6. [Formation of oxalate in oxaliplatin injection diluted with infusion solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Seiji; Yamamoto, Kie; Shimazu, Kounosuke; Sugiura, Toshimune; Baba, Kaori; Sato, Ayaka; Goromaru, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Hara, Keiko; Shinohara, Yoshitake; Takahashi, Kojiro

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin use can cause acute peripheral neuropathy characterized by sensory paresthesias, which are markedly exacerbated by exposure to cold temperatures, and is a dose-limiting factor in the treatment of colorectal cancer.Oxalate is eliminated in a series of nonenzymatic conversions of oxaliplatin in infusion solutions or biological fluids.Elimination of oxalate from oxaliplatin has been suggested as one of the reasons for the development of acute neuropathy.In this study, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)-based method to detect oxalate formation, and investigated the time dependent formation of oxalate in oxaliplatin diluted with infusion solutions.The results obtained showed that the amount of oxalate in the solution corresponded to 1.6% of oxaliplatin 8 h after oxaliplatin dilution with a 5% glucose solution. On the other hand, oxalate formation from oxaliplatin diluted with a saline solution was ten-fold higher than that from oxaliplatin diluted with the 5% glucose solution.Most patients who were intravenously injected with oxaliplatin experienced venous pain.As a preventive measure against venous pain, dexamethasone was added to the oxaliplatin injection.We measured the amount of oxalate formed in the dexamethasone-containing oxaliplatin injection diluted with a 5% glucose solution.The amount of oxalate formed when dexamethasone was added did not differ significantly from that formed when dexamethasone was not added.Thus, there are no clinical problems associated with the stability of oxaliplatin solutions.

  7. Production of oxalic acid by some fungi infected tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faboya, O; Ikotun, T; Fatoki, O S

    1983-01-01

    Oxalic acid (as oxalate) was detected in four tubers commonly used for food in Nigeria-Dioscorea rotundata (White yam), Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato), Ipomoea batatas (Sweet potato), and Manihot esculenta (cassava). Whereas healthy I. batata had the highest oxalic acid content, healthy M. esculenta contained the lowest. When all tubers were artifically inoculated with four fungi-Penicillium oxalicum CURIE and THOM, Aspergillus niger VAN TIEGH, A. flavus and A. tamarii KITA, there was an increase in oxalate content/g of tuber tissue. The greatest amount of oxalate was produced by P. oxalicum in D. rotundata tuber. Consistently higher amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in infected sweet potato tuber than in any other tuber and consistently lower amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in Irish potato tuber. Differences in the carbohydrate type present in the tubers and in the biosynthesis pathway are thought to be responsible for variation in the production of oxalate in the different tubers by the four fungi used.

  8. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  9. Manganese oxalate nanorods as ballistic modifier for composite solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Supriya [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India); Chawla, Mohit [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Siril, Prem Felix, E-mail: prem@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Singh, Gurdip [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Manganese oxalate nanorods were prepared using mild thermal precipitation and aging. • The nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for solid propellants. • The nanorods sensitized the thermolysis of ammonium perchlorate. • Controlled thermal decomposition of nanorods yielded manganese oxide nanoparticles. • MnO nanoparticles formed insitu in the condensed phase enhance the burning rates. - Abstract: Rod-shaped nanostructures of manganese oxalate (MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized via mild thermal precipitation and aging process. Chemical composition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was confirmed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies revealed the crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to study the structural features of the nanorods. The MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for the burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants (CSPs). Thermal analysis using TGA-DSC showed that MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods sensitized the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the CSPs. Controlled thermal decomposition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods resulted in the formation of managanese oxide nanoparticles with mesoporosity. A plausible mechanism for the burning rate enhancement using MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was proposed.

  10. Reduction of juvenile obesity by programmed physical exercise and controlled diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sente Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obesity is the most common disease of nutrition and is the consequence of reduced movement. Unfortunately, this problem is increasingly present in juvenile age, so that the pediatric outpatient offices are dominated by obese young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the effects of the reducing treatment for juvenile obesity conducted by programmed physical exercise and controlled diet. Methods. We tested a sample of 136 respondents of both sexes (76 girls and 60 boys aged 13 ± 0.6 years. This prospective study took 3 months in 2007 using the experimental methods of longitudinal weather precision. The data obtained after the measurement were processed by the use of statistical programs to calculate the basic and dispersion parameters. To determine the difference between the initial and final measurements we applied the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA and differences in the variables system in the space were determined by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results. The results of ANOVA in the form of F values indicated that the differences between the initial and final measurements in all parameters of circumference dimensionality and subcutaneous fat tissue are significant (p = 0.00. Also, differences in parameters of body constitution and indicators of alimentation showed a high statistical significance (p = 0.00. The results of multivariante analysis (MANOVA, using Wilk's Lambda test, also indicated that the differences between initial and final measurements in the area of anthropometric measures and indicators of alimentation and constitution, were statistically significant (p = 0.00. Conclusion. Application of physical exercise and controlled diet leads to a significant reduction of anthropometric parameters and anthropological indicators of alimentation.

  11. Effects of diet and exercise training on neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Tonacio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypothesized that weight loss by diet (D or diet plus exercise training (D + ET would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m², D + ET (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m², and nonadherent (NA, N = 9, 35 ± 2 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m² groups. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was measured by microneurography and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Mental stress was elicited by a 3-min Stroop color word test. Weight loss was similar between D and D + ET groups (87 ± 2 vs 79 ± 2 and 85 ± 2 vs 76 ± 2 kg, respectively, P < 0.05 with a significant reduction in MSNA during mental stress (58 ± 2 vs 50 ± 2, P = 0.0001, and 59 ± 3 vs 50 ± 2 bursts/100 beats, P = 0.0001, respectively, although the magnitude of the response was unchanged. Forearm vascular conductance during mental stress was significantly increased only in D + ET (2.74 ± 0.22 vs 3.52 ± 0.19 units, P = 0.02. Weight loss reduces MSNA during mental stress in obese women. The increase in forearm vascular conductance after weight loss provides convincing evidence for D + ET interventions as a nonpharmacologic therapy of human obesity.

  12. Modified Atkins diet in adult with refractory epilepsy: A controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad; Okhovat, Ali Asghar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Mehvari, Jafar; Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2017-04-04

    Background: The usefulness of the modified Atkins diet (mAD) in refractory epilepsy in adults has been rarely investigated. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of mAD in adult with refractory epilepsy. Methods: In a controlled randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 66 refractory adult epileptic cases from February 2010 to December 2012. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, case groups (22 patients) used antiepileptic drugs and mAD and control group (32 patients) only use antiepileptic drugs. The primary outcome was at least 50% decrement in seizure frequency after 2 months of therapy. Results: No significant difference was shown in our data between groups regarding baseline characteristic. The differences of mean seizure attack after 2 months (P 50% seizure decrease at 1 and after 2 months and 12 (35.3%) had 50% decrease in seizure frequency. Furthermore, in mAD group, the mean urinary ketone positivity was 1.75 ± 0.28 and increasing liver enzyme was shown 5 cases (14.7%) in mAD group and 5 cases (15.6%) in control group (P < 0.050). Conclusion: The mAD may be effective as a cotherapy treatment for adults with refractory epilepsy and decrease 2.19 times seizure frequency in comparison with control groups. Trials with the more tolerant dietary regime, with larger sample size and longer duration, should be performed in future.

  13. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gogebakan, O.; Kohl, A.; Osterhoff, M.A. (Martin A.); Baak, M. A.; Jebb, S. A.; Papadaki, A.; Martinez, J A; Handjieva Darlenska, T.; Hlavaty, P.; Weickert, M.O.; Holst, C; Saris, W.H.; Astrup, A; Pfeiffer, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes). METHODS AND RESULTS: DiOGenes is a pan-European controlled dietary intervention study in 932 overweight adults who first lost body weight on an 8-week low-calorie diet and were then randomized to 1 of 5 ad libitum diets for 26 week...

  14. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  15. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, C., E-mail: christelle.tamain@cea.fr [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Arab-Chapelet, B. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Rivenet, M. [University Lille Nord de France, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Grandjean, S. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, F. [University Lille Nord de France, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-04-15

    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O, Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, M{sub 2+x}[Pu{sup IV}{sub 2−x}Pu{sup III}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 5}]·nH{sub 2}O and M{sub 1−x}[Pu{sup III}{sub 1−x}Pu{sup IV}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O]·nH{sub 2}O. It is the first time that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds. - Graphical abstract: Two new single crystal growth methods dedicated to actinide oxalate compounds. - Highlights: • Use of diester as oxalate precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Use of actinide oxide as precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Crystal growth of Pu(III) and Am(III) oxalates. • Crystal growth of mixed Pu(III)/Pu(IV) oxalates.

  16. Relevance of dietary protein concentration and quality as risk factors for the formation of calcium oxalate stones in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paßlack, Nadine; Burmeier, Hannes; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary protein for the development of feline calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths has not been conclusively clarified. The present study evaluated the effects of a varying dietary protein concentration and quality on critical indices for the formation of CaOx uroliths. Three diets with a high protein quality (10-11 % greaves meal/diet) and a varying crude protein (CP) concentration (35, 44 and 57 % in DM) were compared. Additionally, the 57 % CP diet was compared with a fourth diet that had a similar CP concentration (55 % in DM), but a lower protein quality (34 % greaves meal/diet). The Ca and oxalate (Ox) concentrations were similar in all diets. A group of eight cats received the same diet at the same time. Each feeding period was divided into a 21 d adaptation period and a 7 d sampling period to collect urine. There were increases in urinary volume, urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with CaOx with increasing dietary protein concentrations. Urinary pH ranged between 6·34 and 6·66 among all groups, with no unidirectional effect of dietary protein. Lower renal Ca excretion was observed when feeding the diet with the lower protein quality, however, the underlying mechanism needs further evaluation. In conclusion, although the observed higher urinary volume is beneficial, the increase in urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary RSS CaOx associated with a high-protein diet may be critical for the development of CaOx uroliths in cats.

  17. Diet as risk for lung cancer: a Swedish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Gosta; Rylander, Ragnar

    2002-01-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to study lung cancer in relation to dietary habits, occupational exposure, and living in urban or country areas. Suspect lung cancer cases in West Sweden and population controls were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire. The study comprised 177 female and 359 male cases and 916 controls. The cases mainly comprised former and current smokers (82% female, 95% male). For the analysis, cases were divided into the histological diagnoses adenocarcinoma and squamous cell, small cell, and adenosquamous cell carcinomas, as well as into smoking categories. A high frequency of consumption of vegetables was significantly related to a lower risk for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell and adenosquamous cell carcinoma among men and adenocarcinoma among women. A low odds ratio in the highest quartile of vegetable consumption in men was seen in all smoking categories. There were no significant protective effects from fruit in the different lung cancer subgroups, although a significant trend was found for heavy-smoking females. A high consumption of milk was related to an increased risk for lung cancer, especially adenosquamous cell carcinoma. The results suggest that the protective effect or risk due to dietary factors may affect different forms of lung cancer. The results from this as well as previous studies suggest a complex interaction between diet and lung cancer risk, involving the types of lung cancer as well as consumption patterns in the population.

  18. Diet-related risk factors for leprosy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Inge; van Muiden, Lisanne; Alam, Khorshed; Bowers, Robert; Hossain, Md Anwar; Kispotta, Kolpona; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2015-05-01

    Food shortage was associated with leprosy in two recent studies investigating the relation between socioeconomic factors and leprosy. Inadequate intake of nutrients due to food shortage may affect the immune system and influence the progression of infection to clinical leprosy. We aimed to identify possible differences in dietary intake between recently diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects. In a leprosy endemic area of Bangladesh, newly diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects were interviewed about their socioeconomic situation, health and diet. Dietary intakes were recorded with a 24-hour recall, from which a Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) was calculated. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) was filled out for every participant. Using logistic regression, a univariate, block wise multivariate, and an integrated analysis were carried out. 52 leprosy cases and 100 control subjects were included. Food shortage was more common, dietary diversity was lower and household food insecurity was higher in the patient group. Patients consumed significantly less items from the DDS food groups 'Meat and fish' and 'Other fruits and vegetables.' Lower food expenditure per capita, lower BMI, lower DDS and absence of household food stocks are the main factors associated with an increased risk of having leprosy. Low income families have only little money to spend on food and consequently have a low intake of highly nutritious non-rice foods such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables. Development of clinical leprosy could be explained by deficiencies of the nutrients that these foods normally provide.

  19. Vegetarian diet and reduced uterine fibroids risk: A case-control study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Wu, Yanting; Lu, Qing; Ren, Mulan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a vegetarian diet correlates with a potential reduced risk of uterine fibroids. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Southeast University Zhongda Hospital between February 2010 and December 2014. Cases included 600 Chinese Han women with uterine fibroids (case group) whose clinical diagnosis dated back no more than 1 year. Controls were 600 patients without uterine fibroids as well as healthy volunteers (control group). All of the information gathered through the questionnaire survey was analyzed for the risk factors of the uterine fibroids pathogenesis. The multifactor analysis showed that women with uterine fibroids reported a less frequent consumption of broccoli (odds ratio [OR]: 0.552; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.316-0.964), cabbage (OR: 0.446; 95%CI: 0.211-0.943), Chinese cabbage (OR: 0.311; 95%CI: 0.102-0.946), tomato (OR: 0.453; 95%CI: 0.241-0.853), and apple (OR: 0.416; 95%CI: 0.213-0.814) (P < 0.05). The original evidence from this epidemiological investigation shows that a high consumption of broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomato and apple seems to be a protective factor for uterine fibroids. We suggest that greater intake of fresh fruits and cruciferous vegetables may be able to reduce the incidence of uterine fibroids. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. The role of diets, food, and nutrients in the prevention and control of hypertension and prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimko, Michelle L; Mensah, George A

    2010-11-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for death worldwide, even surpassing tobacco use, high blood glucose, high blood cholesterol, and obesity. Globally, the estimated prevalence of hypertension is nearly 1 billion persons with an annual mortality of almost 7.5 million deaths. In the United States, hypertension affects an estimated 65 million Americans, and is the leading risk-factor cause of death in women and only second to tobacco use as a contributory cause of death in men. Multiple sources of data from prospective observational, cohort, and randomized controlled clinical trials show that hypertension and its complications are highly preventable when the raised blood pressure is prevented, or treated and controlled. To promote positive behavior change and create a broader impact on public health, it has become necessary to leverage multilevel stakeholders such as all health care providers, researchers, policy makers, schools, the food industry, and the general public to drive policy changes and future innovation from research and development endeavors, and to emphasize the importance of diet-related lifestyle modifications to effectively prevent and control hypertension and prehypertension.

  1. Peripheral endocannabinoid signaling controls hyperphagia in western diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argueta, Donovan A; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2017-03-15

    The endocannabinoid system in the brain and periphery plays a major role in controlling food intake and energy balance. We reported that tasting dietary fats was met with increased levels of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, in the rat upper small intestine, and pharmacological inhibition of this local signaling event dose-dependently blocked sham feeding of fats. We now investigated the contribution of peripheral endocannabinoid signaling in hyperphagia associated with chronic consumption of a western-style diet in mice ([WD] i.e., high fat and sucrose). Feeding patterns were assessed in male C57BL/6Tac mice maintained for 60days on WD or a standard rodent chow (SD), and the role for peripheral endocannabinoid signaling at CB1Rs in controlling food intake was investigated via pharmacological interventions. In addition, levels of the endocannabinoids, 2-AG and anandamide, in the upper small intestine and circulation of mice were analyzed via liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to evaluate diet-related changes in endocannabinoid signaling and the potential impact on food intake. Mice fed WD for 60days exhibited large increases in body weight, daily caloric intake, average meal size, and rate of feeding when compared to control mice fed SD. Inhibiting peripheral CB1Rs with the peripherally-restricted neutral cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, AM6545 (10mg/kg), significantly reduced intake of WD during a 6h test, but failed to modify intake of SD in mice. AM6545 normalized intake of WD, average meal size, and rate of feeding to levels found in SD control mice. These results suggest that endogenous activity at peripheral CB1Rs in WD mice is critical for driving hyperphagia. In support of this hypothesis, levels of 2-AG and anandamide in both, jejunum mucosa and plasma, of ad-libitum fed WD mice increased when compared to SC mice. Furthermore, expression of genes for primary components of the endocannabinoid

  2. Pork meat increases iron absorption from a 5-day fully controlled diet when compared to a vegetarian diet with similar vitamin C and phytic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Kristensen, Mette; Hels, Ole; Morberg, Catrine; Marving, Jens; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge

    2005-07-01

    Meat increases absorption of non-haem iron in single-meal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate, over a 5 d period, the potential increasing effect of consumption of pork meat in a whole diet on the fractional absorption of non-haem iron and the total absorption of iron, when compared to a vegetarian diet. A randomised cross-over design with 3 x 5 d whole-diet periods with diets containing Danish-produced meat, Polish-produced meat or a vegetarian diet was conducted. Nineteen healthy female subjects completed the study. All main meals in the meat diets contained 60 g of pork meat and all diets had high phytic acid content (1250 mumol/d). All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope (59)Fe and absorption of iron was measured in a whole body counter. The non-haem iron absorption from the Danish meat diet was significantly higher compared to the vegetarian diet (P=0.031). The mean fractional absorption of non-haem iron was 7.9 (se1.1), 6.8 (se 1.0) and 5.3 (se 0.6) % for the Danish and Polish meat diets and vegetarian diet, respectively. Total absorption of iron was higher for both meat diets compared to the vegetarian diet (Danish meat diet: P=0.006, Polish meat diet: P=0.003). The absorption ratios of the present study were well in accordance with absorption ratios estimated using algorithms on iron bioavailability. Neither the meat diets nor the vegetarian diets fulfilled the estimated daily requirements of absorbed iron in spite of a meat intake of 180 g/d in the meat diets.

  3. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels : a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. Design: Randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over study. Setting: The study was performed at TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands. Subjects: Ten middle-ag

  4. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners’ body type, partners’ attempts to manage respondents’ eating behaviors, and partners’ own health behaviors on respondents’ health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior. PMID:28033428

  5. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners' body type, partners' attempts to manage respondents' eating behaviors, and partners' own health behaviors on respondents' health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p behavior modeling mechanism in obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior.

  6. The new Nordic diet - consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2013-01-01

    expenditure of the ADD as represented in the unadjusted intervention (ADD-i) amounted to 36.02 DKK for the participants. The daily food expenditure in the unadjusted New Nordic Diet (NND-i) costs 44.80 DKK per day per head, and is hence about 25% more expensive than the Average Danish Diet (or about 17% when...

  7. A new polymorph of magnesium oxalate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-An Chen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, catena-poly[[diaquamagnesium(II]-μ-oxalato], [Mg(C2O4(H2O2]n, there is one Mg atom in an octahedral coordination with site symmetry 222, a unique C atom of the oxalate anion lying on a twofold axis, an O atom of the anion in a general position and a water O atom at a site with imposed twofold rotation symmetry. The Mg2+ ions are ligated by water molecules and bridged by the anions to form chains that are held together by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure of the title compound has already been reported in a different space group [Lagier, Pezerat & Dubernat (1969. Rev. Chim. Miner. 6, 1081–1093; Levy, Perrotey & Visser (1971. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. pp. 757–761].

  8. A previously unknown oxalyl-CoA synthetase is important for oxalate catabolism in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxalate is produced by several catabolic pathways in plants. The best characterized pathway for subsequent oxalate degradation is via oxalate oxidase, but some species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have no oxalate oxidase activity. Previously, an alternative pathway was proposed in which oxalyl-CoA...

  9. The impact of low-carbohydrate diet on glycemic control in Native Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Shafaq Khairi,1 Babak Torabi Sagvand,2 Syed Kamal Nasser3 1Southeastern Regional Physician Services, Lumberton, NC, 2Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 3Southeastern Regional Medical Center, Lumberton, NC, USA Abstract: Many studies have shown that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD is a safe and effective intervention to improve glycemic control. However, published data are limited regarding the use of carbohydrate restriction in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in the Native Americans, in a real-world clinical practice setting. We evaluated the efficacy of an LCD on 50 obese Native Americans with either type 2 DM or impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG in a primary care/obesity medicine practice. The primary intervention was an LCD defined as an intake of <20 g of carbohydrates per day. The intervention involved providing an educational handout and behavioral counseling assisted by a dedicated weight loss coordinator. We evaluated the effects of this intervention on hemoglobin A1c, body weight, blood pressure, and lipid parameters. The subjects were evaluated at baseline and 6 months. The subjects underwent additional safety and counseling visits throughout the study. Subjects were considered completers if they had baseline and 6-month measurements. The mean age was 55.0±10.9 years, and 66.7% were female. Subjects had significant improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.4%±0.9%, in subjects with DM, P<0.0001, fasting blood glucose (-15±4.9 mg/dL, in subjects with IFG, P<0.0001, and body mass index (-4.0±1.7 kg/m2, P<0.0001. An LCD can lead to clinically and statistically significant improvement in glycemic control and body weight among obese subjects with type 2 DM or IFG over a 6-month period. The results suggest that carbohydrate restriction can be an effective real-world intervention in a primarily Native American clinical practice. However, further studies are needed

  10. Influence of Amitraz and Oxalic Acid on the Cuticle Proteolytic System of Apis mellifera L. Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Borsuk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work verifies that amitraz and oxalic acid treatment affect honeybee cuticle proteolytic enzymes (CPE. Three bee groups were monitored: oxalic acid treatment, amitraz treatment, control. Electrophoresis of hydrophilic and hydrophobic CPE was performed. Protease and protease inhibitor activities (in vitro and antifungal/antibacterial efficiencies (in vivo, were analyzed. Amitraz and oxalic acid treatment reduced hydrophobic, but did not affect hydrophilic, protein concentrations and reduced both hydrophilic and hydrophobic body surface asparagine and serine protease activities in relation to most substrates and independently of pH. The activities of natural cuticle inhibitors of acidic, neutral, and alkaline proteases were suppressed as a result of the treatments, corresponding with reduced antifungal and antibacterial activity. Electrophoretic patterns of low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight proteases and protease inhibitors were also affected by the treatments.

  11. The use of tanniferous plant in the goat diet as alternative to parasite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surama Freitas Zanini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of pink pepper meal supplementation (PPM in the dairy goats diet as an antiparasitic agent compared with ionophore, the monensin sodium. A total of 18 female Saanen goats, were distributed in a completely randomized in groups of three treatments and six replications, consisting of the experimental groups: negative control (did not receive anticoccidial agent or PPS, group 1 (supplemented with 30% of PPM and group 2 (supplemented with anticoccidial agent – monensin sodium. There was a significant effect of treatments on voluntary feed intake on growing phases (P ? 0.05. Furthermore, the animals treated with PPM had the lowest food consumption compared with the other treatments (P ? 0.05, but without negative effect on live body weight. In general, at both phases of rearing, it was not detected significant difference between the voluntary feed intake of control group and with monensin sodium supplementation (P > 0.05, but the food consumption in the control group did not result on increase of live body weight probably due to sanitary challenges such as gastrointestinal parasites. The opposite was observed in animals treated with monensin sodium that had the highest body weight (P ? 0.05 that did not differ from animals fed with pink pepper (P > 0.05. By the way, in the growth phase our results revealed significantly effect of treatments on live body weight (P ? 0.05. Animals fed with pink pepper supplementation had a greater live body weight compared with the control (P ? 0.05 and similar to those supplemented with the monensin sodium (P > 0.05. The number of oocysts per gram of faeces was lower in animals treated with PPS that differed significantly from control (P ? 0.05. Regarding the count number of eggs per gram of faeces OPG, it was not detected significant effect of treatments (P> 0.05. It was found that the pink pepper supplementation was effective in the control of gastrointestinal parasites of

  12. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  13. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  14. Diet-related risk factors for leprosy: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Wagenaar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food shortage was associated with leprosy in two recent studies investigating the relation between socioeconomic factors and leprosy. Inadequate intake of nutrients due to food shortage may affect the immune system and influence the progression of infection to clinical leprosy. We aimed to identify possible differences in dietary intake between recently diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects.In a leprosy endemic area of Bangladesh, newly diagnosed leprosy patients and control subjects were interviewed about their socioeconomic situation, health and diet. Dietary intakes were recorded with a 24-hour recall, from which a Dietary Diversity Score (DDS was calculated. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS was filled out for every participant. Using logistic regression, a univariate, block wise multivariate, and an integrated analysis were carried out.52 leprosy cases and 100 control subjects were included. Food shortage was more common, dietary diversity was lower and household food insecurity was higher in the patient group. Patients consumed significantly less items from the DDS food groups 'Meat and fish' and 'Other fruits and vegetables.' Lower food expenditure per capita, lower BMI, lower DDS and absence of household food stocks are the main factors associated with an increased risk of having leprosy.Low income families have only little money to spend on food and consequently have a low intake of highly nutritious non-rice foods such as meat, fish, milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables. Development of clinical leprosy could be explained by deficiencies of the nutrients that these foods normally provide.

  15. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups...... achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence......% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books...

  16. Elements of mental hygiene and diet as factor of control chronical renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a syndrome which is caused by gradual progressive and irreversible reduction of kidney function. CKD has become a global health care problem. From a mental hygiene point of view, the aim of this study is to present the most important stressors in patients with CKD. Knowledge and recognition of everything that influences the increase of stress in people with CKD, on one hand leads to an improvement of understanding , and on the other gives us possibilities to prevent or at least reduce the negative effects of stress. Furthermore, patients with CKD often have anxiety and depressive symptoms which overlap with the clinical symptomatology of kidney disease, which is mostly caused by uremia. We have given certain suggestions for early depression screening in patients with CKD by analyzing previously conducted research. As far as diet is concerned, research suggests that patients with CKD should be prescribed a low protein diet which delays the progression of CKD, reduces the metabolical disbalance and delays the need for dialysis. A traditional diet focused on protein intake without a special selection of meals is recommended. Other recommendations are vegan diet as well as vegan diet with supplements. Furthermore, a diet without proteins with pastas without proteins, bread and other carbohydrates. There are also recommendations for a low protein diet with supplements with an intake of only 0.3 g/kg BM/protein a day with an addition of proteins from vegetables, amino and keto acids. Finally, it should be mentioned that comorbidities should be taken into consideration when prescribing a diet for patients with CKD. It is necessary for the patient to be compliant with the recommended diet.

  17. An oxalyl-CoA dependent pathway of oxalate catabolism plays a role in regulating calcium oxalate crystal accumulation and defending against oxalate-secreting phytopathogens in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considering the widespread occurrence of oxalate in nature and its broad impact on a host of organisms, it is surprising that so little is known about the turnover of this important acid. In plants, oxalate oxidase is the most well studied enzyme capable of degrading oxalate, but not all plants pos...

  18. Tissue storage and control of cholesterol metabolism in man on high cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintão, E C; Brumer, S; Stechhahn, K

    1977-03-01

    The possibility of accumulation of tissue cholesterol in human beings submitted to high cholesterol feeding was investigated in liver biopsies and through fecal sterol balance studies. Feeding to 10 individuals 3.1 to 3.4 g/day of cholesterol for 3 weeks raised the mean serum level from 293 to 349 mg/100 ml, namely 19%, whereas the liver cholesterol content was 417 mg/100 g of wet weight. In 10 control cases eating 0.1--0.4 g/day of cholesterol serum cholesterol remained stable throughout the experimental period and the liver cholesterol content was 256 mg/100 g. Difference of liver colesterol level between the two groups was 62%. In 7 patients submitted to two periods of balance investigation on a cholesterol-free synthetic formula diet respectively prior to (PI) and after (PIII) eating the high cholesterol solid food from 4 to 15 weeks (PII), fecal steroid excretion in PIII exceeded PI in 3 patients. Such data are a direct evidence for the existence of an efficient system to release acutely stored cholesterol. In one patient bile acid excretion accounted for the difference between PIII and PI.

  19. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Jonsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design: The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28 and from control families in the same rural area (n=37 was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results: Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions: Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings.

  20. Diet in 1-year-old farm and control children and allergy development: results from the FARMFLORA birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Karin; Green, My; Barman, Malin; Sjöberg, Agneta; Brekke, Hilde K.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Background A farming environment confers strong protection against allergy development. We have previously shown that farming mothers consume more full-fat dairy than control mothers, who instead consume more low-fat dairy, margarine, and oils; margarine and oil intake was associated with increased risk of allergy development in their children. Objectives The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in diet between children in farming and control families at 1 year of age, to investigate the relation between the diets of the mothers and their children, and to relate the children's diet to allergy development. Design The diet of 1-year-old children from dairy farming families (n=28) and from control families in the same rural area (n=37) was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls, followed by 24-h food diaries. Allergy was diagnosed by pediatricians at 3 years of age using strict predefined criteria. Results Farm children had a higher intake of farm milk, whole cream, cholesterol, saturated fat, and fat in total and tended to eat more butter, while controls consumed more carbohydrates and poultry and tended to eat more margarine. Farm children also had higher intakes of homemade porridge/gruel, oily fish, and iodine. The intake of butter and whole milk in children and mothers correlated significantly in farm families but not in controls. A weak negative association was found between seafood intake and allergy development, while allergy was positively associated with the intake of pork as well as zinc in the control group; these intakes also correlated with each other. Conclusions Consistent with mothers in farming families, the children consumed more full-fat dairy and saturated fat than did controls, but this could not be linked to the low risk of allergy in the farming group. Seafood intake might protect against allergy development, in accordance with earlier findings. PMID:27534847

  1. Microstructure of Yttria-Doped Ceria as a Function of Oxalate Co-Precipitation Synthesis Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissonneau, Laurent; Mathieu, Aurore; Tormos, Brigitte; Martin-Garin, Anna

    2016-12-01

    In sodium fast reactors (SFR), dissolved oxygen in sodium can be monitored via potentiometric sensors with an yttria-doped thoria electrolyte. Yttria-doped ceria (YDC) was chosen as a surrogate material to validate the process of such sensors. The material must exhibit high density and a fine grain microstructure to be resistant to the corrosion by liquid sodium and thermal shocks. Thus, the oxalic co-precipitation route was chosen to avoid milling steps that could bring impurity incorporation which is suspected to induce grain boundary corrosion in sodium. The powder and sintered pellets examination show that the synthesis conditions are of primary importance on the process yield, the oxalate powder microstructure and, eventually, on the ceramic density and microstructure. The impurity content was limited by controlling the synthesis, calcination, and sintering steps.

  2. IN-SITU MONITORING OF CORROSION DURING A LABORATORY SIMULATION OF OXALIC ACID CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B; John Mickalonis, J; Michael Poirier, M; John Pareizs, J; David Herman, D; David Beam, D; Samuel Fink, S; Fernando Fondeur, F

    2007-10-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will disperse or dissolve precipitated metal oxides as part of radioactive waste tank closure operations. Previously SRS used oxalic acid to accomplish this task. To better understand the conditions of oxalic acid cleaning of the carbon steel waste tanks, laboratory simulations of the process were conducted to determine the corrosion rate of carbon steel and the generation of gases such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Open circuit potential measurements, linear polarization measurements, and coupon immersion tests were performed in-situ to determine the corrosion behavior of carbon steel during the demonstration. Vapor samples were analyzed continuously to determine the constituents of the phase. The combined results from these measurements indicated that in aerated environments, such as the tank, that the corrosion rates are manageable for short contact times and will facilitate prediction and control of the hydrogen generation rate during operations.

  3. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of effect of whole soy replacement diet on features of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne; Hao, Yuan-tao; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean; Wong, Samuel Yeung-shan; He, Qiqiang; Tse, Lap Ah; Chen, Bailing; Su, Xue-fen; Lao, Xiang-qian; Wong, Carmen; Chan, Ruth; Ling, Wen-hua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a public health problem in postmenopausal women. Whole soy foods are rich in unsaturated fats, high quality plant protein and various bioactive phytochemicals that may have a beneficial role in the management of MetS. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of whole soy replacement diet on the features of MetS among postmenopausal women. Methods and analysis This will be a 12-month, randomised, single-blind, parallel controlled trial among 208 postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. After 4 weeks' run-in, subjects will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups, whole soy replacement group or control group, each for 12 months. Subjects in the whole soy group will be required to include four servings of whole soy foods (containing 25 g soy protein) into their daily diet iso-calorically, replacing red or processed meat and high fat dairy products. Subjects in the control group will remain on a usual diet. The outcome measures will include metabolic parameters as well as a 10-year risk for ischaemic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesise that the whole soy substitution diet will notably improve features of MetS in postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. The study will have both theoretical and practical significance. If proven effective, the application of the whole soy replacement diet model will be a safe, practical and economical strategy for MetS prevention and treatment. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The results will be disseminated via conference presentations and papers in academic peer reviewed journals. Data files will be deposited in an accessible repository. Trial registration number NCT02610322. PMID:27678545

  5. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å 6.2378(12; b(Å 7,1115(14; c(Å 10.489(2; α(° 94.65(3; β(° 100.12(3; γ(° 97.78(3. The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both oxalic acid and hydrogen oxalate anion act as polydentate bridging ligands. Centrosymmetric sodium cations are bounded by hydrogen oxalate anions through a system of H bonds involving the molecules of oxalic acid. In the lattice, the 3D structure stabilized by H bonds is formed.

  6. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on glycemic control in outpatients with severe type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakai Kenji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that a loosely restricted 45%-carbohydrate diet led to greater reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c compared to high-carbohydrate diets in outpatients with mild type 2 diabetes (mean HbA1c level: 7.4% over 2 years. To determine whether good glycemic control can be achieved with a 30%-carbohydrate diet in severe type 2 diabetes, 33 outpatients (15 males, 18 females, mean age: 59 yrs with HbA1c levels of 9.0% or above were instructed to follow a low-carbohydrate diet (1852 kcal; %CHO:fat:protein = 30:44:20 for 6 months in an outpatient clinic and were followed to assess their HbA1c levels, body mass index and doses of antidiabetic drugs. HbA1c levels decreased sharply from a baseline of 10.9 ± 1.6% to 7.8 ± 1.5% at 3 months and to 7.4 ± 1.4% at 6 months. Body mass index decreased slightly from baseline (23.8 ± 3.3 to 6 months (23.5 ± 3.4. Only two patients dropped out. No adverse effects were observed except for mild constipation. The number of patients on sulfonylureas decreased from 7 at baseline to 2 at 6 months. No patient required inpatient care or insulin therapy. In summary, the 30%-carbohydrate diet over 6 months led to a remarkable reduction in HbA1c levels, even among outpatients with severe type 2 diabetes, without any insulin therapy, hospital care or increase in sulfonylureas. The effectiveness of the diet may be comparable to that of insulin therapy.

  7. Randomised controlled trial of food elimination diet based on IgG antibodies for the prevention of migraine like headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Joy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that food intolerance may be a precipitating factor for migraine like headaches. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay Test and subsequent dietary elimination advice for the prevention of migraine like headaches. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Community based volunteers in the UK. Participants Volunteers who met the inclusion criteria for migraine like headaches and had one or more food intolerance were included in the study. Participants received either a true diet (n = 84 or a sham diet (n = 83 sheet. Participants were advised to remove the intolerant foods from their diet for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Number of headache days over a 12 week period (item A MIDAS questionnaire. Other measures includes the total MIDAS score and total HIT-6 score. Results The results indicated a small decrease in the number of migraine like headaches over 12 weeks, although this difference was not statistically significant (IRR 1.15 95% CI 0.94 to 1.41, p = 0.18. At the 4 week assessment, use of the ELISA test with subsequent diet elimination advice significantly reduced the number of migraine like headaches (IRR 1.23 95%CI 1.01 to 1.50, p = 0.04. The disability and impact on daily life of migraines were not significantly different between the true and sham diet groups. Conclusions Use of the ELISA test with subsequent diet elimination advice did not reduce the disability or impact on daily life of migraine like headaches or the number of migraine like headaches at 12 weeks but it did significantly reduce the number of migraine like headaches at 4 weeks. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRTCN89559672

  8. Partially hydrolysed guar gum supplemented comminuted chicken diet in persistent diarrhoea: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    N. Alam; Meier, R.; Sarker, S; Bardhan, P.; Schneider, H.; Gyr, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Partially hydrolysed guar gum (Benefiber) added to a diet is fermented in the colon, producing short chain fatty acids, which improve intestinal function, including colonic salt and water absorption.

  9. Queen survival and oxalic acid residues in sugar stores after summer application against Varroa destructor in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Donders, J.N.L.C.; Stratum, van P.; Blacquière, T.; Dooremalen, van C.

    2012-01-01

    Methods using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are widely applied. In this study, the effects of an OA spray application in early summer on the survival of young and old queens, and on OA residues in sugar stores were investigated. A questionnaire

  10. Queen survival and oxalic acid residues in sugar stores after summer application against Varroa destructor in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Donders, J.N.L.C.; Stratum, van P.; Blacquière, T.; Dooremalen, van C.

    2012-01-01

    Methods using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are widely applied. In this study, the effects of an OA spray application in early summer on the survival of young and old queens, and on OA residues in sugar stores were investigated. A questionnaire

  11. Diet Composition Exacerbrates or Attenuates Soman Toxicity in Rats: Implied Metabolic Control of Nerve Agent Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    approximated 50 % in the standard and choline-enriched diet groups, but equaled 87% in the ketogenic diet group. Body weight loss was significantly...epileptic disorders (6 Hz audiogenic seizures, pentylenetetrazole [PTZ], kainic acid [KA], pilocarpine, etc.), the KD has been shown to elevate seizure...elevated sugar intake (glucose or high fructose corn syrup in drinking water) exacerbates the toxicity of parathion poisoning, an organophos- phorus

  12. Oxalic acid biosynthesis and oxalacetate acetylhydrolase activity in Streptomyces cattleya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, D R; Inamine, E

    1987-11-15

    In addition to producing the antibiotic thienamycin, Streptomyces cattleya accumulates large amounts of oxalic acid during the course of a fermentation. Washed cell suspensions were utilized to determine the specific incorporation of carbon-14 into oxalate from a number of labeled organic and amino acids. L-[U-14C]aspartate proved to be the best precursor, whereas only a small percentage of label from [1,5-14C]citrate was found in oxalate. Cell-free extracts catalyzed the formation of [14C]oxalate and [14C]acetate from L-[U-14C]aspartate. When L-[4-14C]aspartate was the substrate only [14C]acetate was formed. The cell-free extracts were found to contain oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalate and acetate. The enzyme is constitutive and is analogous to enzymes in fungi that produce oxalate from oxalacetate. Properties of the crude enzyme were examined.

  13. Oxalic acid biosynthesis and oxalacetate acetylhydrolase activity in Streptomyces cattleya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, D.R.; Inamine, E.

    1987-11-15

    In addition to producing the antibiotic thienamycin, Streptomyces cattleya accumulates large amounts of oxalic acid during the course of a fermentation. Washed cell suspensions were utilized to determine the specific incorporation of carbon-14 into oxalate from a number of labeled organic and amino acids. L-(U-/sup 14/C)aspartate proved to be the best precursor, whereas only a small percentage of label from (1,5-/sup 14/C)citrate was found in oxalate. Cell-free extracts catalyzed the formation of (/sup 14/C)oxalate and (/sup 14/C)acetate from L-(U-/sup 14/C)aspartate. When L-(4-/sup 14/C)aspartate was the substrate only (/sup 14/C)acetate was formed. The cell-free extracts were found to contain oxalacetate acetylhydrolase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalate and acetate. The enzyme is constitutive and is analogous to enzymes in fungi that produce oxalate from oxalacetate. Properties of the crude enzyme were examined.

  14. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Ilana; Stampfer, Meir J; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shai, Iris

    2009-04-01

    Data are limited as to whether participants in diet trials truly adhere to their assigned diet and the factors that affect their adherence. We evaluated success and adherence in a two-year dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT) in which 322 moderately obese participants (mean age 52 yrs, mean body-mass-index (BMI) 31 kg/m(2), 86% men) were randomized to one of three groups: low-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate diets. Overall compliance at month-24 was 85%, with 90% in low-fat, 85% in Mediterranean, and 78% in low-carbohydrate diet (p = .042 between groups). Attrition was higher in women (29% vs. 14% men, p = .001) and current smokers (25% vs. 14% among maintainers, p = 0.04). In a multivariate model, independent predictors of dropping-out were: higher baseline BMI (OR = 1.11; CI: 1.03-1.21) and less weight loss at month-6 (OR = 1.20; CI: 1.1-1.3). In a multivariate model, greater weight loss achieved at month-6 was the main predictor associated with success in weight loss (> 5%) over 2 years (OR = 1.5; CI: 1.35-1.67). Self-reported complete adherence score to diet was greater on low-carbohydrate diet (p low-fat) until month-6, but dropped overall from 81% at month-1 to 57% at month-24. Holidays were a trigger to a significant decrease in adherence followed by a partial rebound. Changes in diet composition from month-1 to month-12 were more pronounced in the multi-stage low-carbohydrate diet-group (p < .05). Generally, the most irresistible restricted food items were cookies (45% of dieters) and fruits (30%). Among the physically active (n = 107), 44% reported a tendency to eat less after exercising compared to 10% who tended to eat more. Initial 6-month reduction in weight is the main predictor of both long-term retention and success in weight loss. Special attention is needed for women, current smokers, and during holidays. Physical activity is associated with subsequent reduction in energy intake.

  15. Diet quality in obese/overweight individuals with/without metabolic syndrome compared to normal weight controls

    OpenAIRE

    Yosaee, Somaye; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nazari Nasab, Mahdiyeh; Khosravi, Ahmad; Alinavaz, Mina; Hosseini, Banafshe; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a serious public health concern worldwide; however, the pathogenesis of this disease has not been yet cleared. This study aimed to compare diet quality in obese/overweight participants with/without metabolic syndrome with normal weight controls. Methods: This was a comparative study on 147 Iranian adults under treatment at the Endocrinology Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. They were assigned into three groups (normal weight, obese weigh...

  16. Effect of low-glycemic load diet on changes in cardiovascular risk factors in poorly controlled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One dietary strategy aimed at improving both diabetes control and control of cardiovascular risk factors is the use of low glycemic index diets. These diets have been reported to be beneficial in controlling diabetes, and also increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, lower serum triglyceride, and reduce glycated protein. Aim: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of a low glycemic index-low glycemic load (GL = 67-77 diet on lipids and blood glucose of poorly controlled diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: In an intervention study, 100 poorly controlled diabetic patients (age 52.8 ± 4.5 years who were taking insulin or on oral medication underwent administration of low GL diet (GL = 67-77; energy = 1800-2200 kcal, total fat = 36%, fat derived from olive oil and nuts 15%, carbohydrate = 41%, protein = 22% for 10 weeks. Patients were recommended to follow their regular lifestyle. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL, triglyceride, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, weight, and body mass index (BMI were measured before and 10 weeks after the intervention. Results: Before intervention, initial blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were 205.9 ± 21.6 and 181.5 ± 22.2, respectively, and were reduced to 182.6 ± 18.2 and 161.6 ± 16.7, respectively, after 10 weeks intervention (P < 0.001. LDL reduced and HDL increased significantly. The HbA1c percentage reduced by 12% (from 8.85 ± 0.22% to 7.81 ± 0.27% (P < 0.001, and also their weight significantly reduced from 74.0 ± 5 kg to 70.7 ± 4.6 kg (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that low GL diet having lower carbohydrate amount and higher fat content is an appropriate strategy in blood lipid and glucose response control of poorly controlled diabetic patients.

  17. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Mason, Ashley E; Kim, Sarah; Goldman, Veronica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bayandorian, Hovig; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2017-02-13

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend. The aim was to determine whether an online intervention based on our previous recommendations (an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet with lifestyle factors; "intervention") or an online diet program based on the American Diabetes Associations' "Create Your Plate" diet ("control") would improve glycemic control and other health outcomes among overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this pilot feasibility study, we randomized overweight adults (body mass index ≥25) with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 6.5%-9.0%) to a 32-week online intervention based on our previous recommendations (n=12) or an online diet program based around a plate method diet (n=13) to assess the impact of each intervention on glycemic control and other health outcomes. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed by mixed-effects linear regression to compare outcomes by group. At 32 weeks, participants in the intervention group reduced their HbA1c levels more (estimated marginal mean [EMM] -0.8%, 95% CI -1.1% to -0.6%) than participants in the control group (EMM -0.3%, 95% CI -0.6% to 0.0%; P=.002). More than half of the participants in the intervention group (6/11, 55%) lowered their HbA1c to less than 6.5% versus 0% (0/8) in the control group (P=.02). Participants in the intervention group lost more weight (EMM -12.7 kg, 95% CI -16.1 to -9.2 kg) than participants in the control group (EMM -3.0 kg, 95

  18. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2015-09-17

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, saturated fat; n = 73) on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (-16.8 ng/mL (-32.0 to -1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  19. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75 versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73 on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL; p = 0.009 and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL; p = 0.031 than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  20. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Pamplona, M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica do Instituto Superior Tecnico Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Selvaggi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Miliani, C. [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)]. E-mail: miliani@thch.unipg.it; Matteini, M. [CNR Istituto, Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali (ICVBC), Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Edifico C-50019, Florence (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Brunetti, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments.

  1. Calcium oxalate crystals: an integral component of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum/Brassica carinata pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloth, Margaret B; Clode, Peta L; You, Ming Pei; Barbetti, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Oxalic acid is an important virulence factor for disease caused by the fungal necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, yet calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals have not been widely reported. B. carinata stems were infected with S. sclerotiorum and observed using light microscopy. Six hours post inoculation (hpi), CaOx crystals were evident on 46% of stem sections and by 72 hpi on 100%, demonstrating that the secretion of oxalic acid by S. sclerotiorum commences before hyphal penetration. This is the first time CaOx crystals have been reported on B. carinata infected with S. sclerotiorum. The shape of crystals varied as infection progressed. Long tetragonal rods were dominant 12 hpi (68% of crystal-containing samples), but by 72 hpi, 50% of stems displayed bipyramidal crystals, and only 23% had long rods. Scanning electron microscopy from 24 hpi revealed CaOx crystals in all samples, ranging from tiny irregular crystals (Crystal morphology encompassed various forms, including tetragonal prisms, oval plates, crystal sand, and druses. Large conglomerates of CaOx crystals were observed in the hyphal mass 72 hpi and these are proposed as a strategy of the fungus to hold and detoxify Ca2+ions. The range of crystal morphologies suggests that S. sclerotiorum growth and infection controls the form taken by CaOx crystals.

  2. Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: a controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Stonehouse Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C; Hanekom, Susanna M; White, Zelda

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the effects of a high walnut diet and a high unsalted cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, parallel, controlled study design, sixty-four subjects having the metabolic syndrome (twenty-nine men, thirty-five women) with a mean age of 45 (sd 10) years and who met the selection criteria were all fed a 3-week run-in control diet. Hereafter, participants were grouped according to gender and age and then randomized into three groups receiving a controlled feeding diet including walnuts, or unsalted cashew nuts or no nuts for 8 weeks. Subjects were required to have lunch at the metabolic ward of the Nutrition Department of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). Both the walnut and the unsalted cashew nut intervention diets had no significant effect on the HDL-cholesterol, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, serum fructosamine, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentrations when compared to the control diet. Low baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the cashew nut group may have masked a possible nut-related benefit. Plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.04) in the cashew nut group compared to the control group. By contrast, serum fructosamine was unchanged in the cashew nut group while the control group had significantly increased (P = 0.04) concentrations of this short-term marker of glycaemic control. Subjects displayed no improvement in the markers of the metabolic syndrome after following a walnut diet or a cashew nut diet compared to a control diet while maintaining body weight.

  3. Synthesis of water-dispersible silver nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of water-soluble silver oxalate precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Takanari; Saito, Kota; Matsuda, Yukiko; Sato, Ibuki; Kon, Hiroki; Uruma, Keirei; Ishizaki, Manabu; Kanaizuka, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Ohya, Norimasa; Kurihara, Masato

    2014-08-01

    Silver oxalate, one of the coordination polymer crystals, is a promising synthetic precursor for transformation into Ag nanoparticles without any reducing chemicals via thermal decomposition of the oxalate ions. However, its insoluble nature in solvents has been a great disadvantage, especially for systematic control of crystal growth of the Ag nanoparticles, while such control of inorganic nanoparticles has been generally performed using soluble precursors in homogeneous solutions. In this paper, we document our discovery of water-soluble species from the reaction between the insoluble silver oxalate and N,N-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane. The water-soluble species underwent low-temperature thermal decomposition of the oxalate ions at 30 °C with evolution of CO2 to reduce Ag+ to Ag0. Water-dispersible Ag nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized from the water-soluble species in the presence of gelatin via similar thermal decomposition at 100 °C. The gelatin-protected and water-dispersible Ag nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 25.1 nm appeared. In addition, antibacterial activity of the prepared water-dispersible Ag nanoparticles has been preliminarily investigated.

  4. Evaluation of ferric oxalate as an agent for use during surgery to prevent post-operative root hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H L; Yeh, C T; Smith, F; Burgett, F G; Richards, P; Shyr, Y; O'Neal, R

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6% ferric oxalate solution applied during periodontal surgery to prevent post-operative tooth hypersensitivity. Twenty-five adult patients with similar bilateral periodontal defects participated in this study. Data were collected at baseline (1 week prior to surgery) and 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks following surgery. Sensitivity level was determined using the visual analog scale (VAS) with the following stimuli: 1) mechanical stimulation with a No. 23 dental explorer; 2) water at 50 degrees C; 3) ice; and 4) electric pulp tester (EPT). Teeth were randomly assigned to either test (6% ferric oxalate in 0.9% saline) or control (0.9% saline) groups. Solutions were applied to the exposed root surfaces for 1 minute during surgery. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, paired t-test, and Pearson's correlation test. Results from this study demonstrated statistically significant reduction in the responses to thermal stimuli, especially cold, between groups treated with ferric oxalate as compared to those treated with saline. For the cold test the difference increased with time from baseline to 6 weeks. Statistically significant (P surgery. There were no differences at any time period between the test and control groups when tactile or EPT techniques were used. In addition, there was no correlation between sensitivity and other clinical parameters. It was concluded from this study that 6% ferric oxalate was effective in reducing post-surgical cold sensitivity when applied during periodontal surgical procedures.

  5. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  6. Diet and lifestyle interventions in postpartum women in China: study design and rationale of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Juan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Doing the month", or "sitting month", is a traditional practice for postpartum women in China and other Asian countries, which includes some taboos against well-accepted healthy diet and lifestyles in general population. Previous studies have shown this practice may be associated with higher prevalence of postpartum problems. The current multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT aims to evaluate outcomes of diet and lifestyle interventions in Chinese postpartum women. Methods/Design The current multicenter RCT will be conducted in three representative areas in China, Shandong province, Hubei province and Guangdong province, which locate in northern, central and southern parts of China, respectively. Women who attend routine pregnancy diagnosis in hospitals or maternal healthcare centers will be invited to take part in this study. At least 800 women who meet our eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n > = 400 and the control group (n > = 400. A three-dimension comprehensive intervention strategy, which incorporates intervention measures simultaneously to individual postpartum woman, their family members and community environment, will be utilized to maximize the effectiveness of intervention. Regular visiting and follow-up will be done in both group; nutrition and health-related measurements will be assessed both before and after the intervention. Discussion To our knowledge, this current study is the first and largest multicenter RCT which focus on the effectiveness of diet and lifestyle intervention on reducing the incidence rate of postpartum diseases and improving health status in postpartum women. We hypothesize that the intervention will reduce the incidence rates of postpartum diseases and improve nutrition and health status due to a balanced diet and reasonable lifestyle in comparison with the control condition. If so, the results of our study will provide

  7. The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Natale, Francesco; Torino, Annarita; Capasso, Rosanna; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Pironti, Erica; Santoro, Elena; Calabrò, Raffaele; Verrotti, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function of the big vessels of the neck and on cardiac diastolic function, in a cohort of epileptic children and young adults treated with the ketogenic diet. Patients were recruited based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) patients who were or had been on the ketogenic diet for a time period of at least six months. Each patient underwent measurement of carotid intima media thickness, carotid artery stiffness, echocardiography, and diastolic function assessment. Patients with drug resistant epilepsy, matched for number, age and sex and never treated with ketogenic diet, were recruited as controls. The population study was composed by 43 epilepsy patients (23 males), aged between 19 months and 31 years (mean 11 years). Twenty-three patients were or had been treated with ketogenic diet, and 20 had never been on it (control group). Subjects treated with the ketogenic diet had higher arterial stiffness parameters, including AIx and β-index and higher serum levels of cholesterol or triglycerides compared to those who had never been on the diet (control group) (pketogenic diet, before the increase of the intima media thickness. This supports that arterial stiffness is an early marker of vascular damage. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of a simplified modified Atkins diet for use by parents with low levels of literacy in children with refractory epilepsy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Goel, Shaiphali; Jain, Puneet; Agarwala, Anuja; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-11-01

    This study was planned to develop and evaluate a simple, easy-to-understand variation of the modified Atkins diet, for use by parents with low levels of literacy in children with refractory epilepsy. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a simplified version of the modified Atkins diet was developed. In the second phase this was evaluated in children aged 2-14 years who had daily seizures despite the appropriate use of at least two anticonvulsant drugs, in an open-label randomized-controlled-trial. Children were randomized to receive either the simplified modified Atkins diet or no dietary intervention for a period of 3 months with the ongoing anticonvulsant medications being continued unchanged in both the groups. Reduction in seizure frequency was the primary outcome-measure. Data was analyzed using intention to treat approach. Adverse effects were also studied. (Clinical trial identifier NCT0189989). Forty-one children were randomly assigned to the diet-group, and 40 were assigned to the control-group. Two patients discontinued the diet during the study period. The proportion of children with>50% seizure reduction was significantly higher in the diet group as compared to the control group (56.1% vs 7.5%, pAtkins diet was developed for use by parents with low levels literacy. This diet was found to be feasible, efficacious and well tolerated in children with refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. DETERMINATION OF OXALATE ION DOPANT LEVEL IN POLYPYRROLE USING FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric T; Benally, Kristal J; GreyEyes, Shawn D; McKenzie, Jason T

    A pellet method using standard addition and FT-IR was used to estimate oxalate ion doping levels in electrosynthesized polypyrrole. The method is useful for materials where removal of analyte from an insoluble material is problematic. Here, electrosynthesized oxalate doped polypyrrole is dispersed in potassium bromide. Spikes of sodium oxalate are added and the mixtures pressed into pellets. The oxalate carbonyl absorption peak is then used to quantify the amount of oxalate present in the polypyrrole. The mass fraction of oxalate dopant in polypyrrole was determined to be 0.4 ± 0.1 % and coincides with the original synthesis solution composition.

  10. Efficacy of Ipomoea batatas (Caiapo) on diabetes control in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvik, Bernhard; Neuffer, Beatrice; Pacini, Giovanni

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the tolerability, efficacy, and mode of action of Caiapo, an extract of white sweet potatoes, on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 61 type 2 diabetic patients treated by diet were given 4 g Caiapo (n = 30; mean age 55.2 +/- 2.1 years; BMI 28.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) or placebo (n = 31; mean age 55.6 +/- 1.5 years; BMI 27.6 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2)) once daily for 12 weeks. Each subject underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 months to assess 2-h glucose levels. Additionally, fasting blood glucose, HbA(1c), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. After treatment with Caiapo, HbA(1c) decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from 7.21 +/- 0.15 to 6.68 +/- 0.14%, whereas it remained unchanged (P = 0.23) in subjects given placebo (7.04 +/- 0.17 vs. 7.10 +/- 0.19%). Fasting blood glucose levels decreased (P < 0.001) in the Caiapo group (143.7 +/- 1.9 vs. 128.5 +/- 1.7 mg/dl) and did not change in the placebo group (144.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 138.2 +/- 2.1 mg/dl; P = 0.052). A decrease in body weight was observed in both the placebo group (P = 0.0027) and in the Caiapo group (P < 0.0001), probably due to a better- controlled lifestyle. In the Caiapo group, body weight was related to the improvement in glucose control (r = 0.618; P < 0.0002). Two-hour glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in the Caiapo group (193.3 +/- 10.4 vs. 162.8 +/- 8.2 mg/dl) compared with the placebo group (191.7 +/- 9.2 vs. 181.0 +/- 7.1 mg/dl). Mean cholesterol at the end of the treatment was significantly lower in the Caiapo group (214.6 +/- 11.2 mg/dl) than in the placebo group (248.7 +/- 11.2 mg/dl; P < 0.05). No significant changes in triglyceride levels or blood pressure were observed, and Caiapo was well tolerated without significant adverse effects. This study confirms the beneficial effects of Caiapo on plasma glucose as well as cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. For the first time

  11. Drug dosage protocol for calcium oxalate stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya

    2009-12-01

    In earlier studies, we have confirmed that in most patients with calcium oxalate stone formation, a combination of allopurinol and pyridoxine is best suited for treatment and prevention of the stone forming process. The objective of this study is to identify the most effective directed medical treatment of urinary stones. The drug dose adjustment was based on clinical, radiological, biochemical, and microscopic parameters. 444 patients with proved calcium oxalate stone disease who were getting a combination of allopurinol and pyridoxine for a minimum period of 36 months were enrolled in this prospective study. The dosage schedule of these patients was recorded. Dosage adjustment was made depending upon the various clinical, biochemical, microscopic, and radiological changes during the study period. The dosage schedules were in six categories, namely very high dose chemotherapy (VHDC), i.e. allopurinol 600 mg/day and pyridoxine 240 mg/day, high-dose chemotherapy (HDC), i.e. allopurinol 300 mg/day and pyridoxine 120 mg/day, moderate dose prophylaxis (MDP), i.e. allopurinol 200 mg/day and pyridoxine 80 mg/day, low-dose prophylaxis (LDP), i.e. allopurinol 100 mg/day and pyridoxine 40 mg/day, and very low-dose prophylaxis (VLDP), i.e. allopurinol 50 mg/day and pyridoxine 20 mg/day and intermittent VLDP, wherein the VLDP was given on alternate months and still later at longer intervals. The temporary risk was assessed at each visit and dosage adjustment was made. The effect of the intervention was assessed during the next visit. All the patients involved in the study needed dose adjustment. The following schedules were initiated: VHDC (12) 3.5%, HDC (103) 23.2%, MDP (78) 17.57%, or LDP (251) 56.53%. Patients who defaulted for more than a month were excluded from the study. During each visit for follow up, all patients were advised change over of dose depending upon the clinical situation at the time of review. Patients on VHDC were advised reduction to lower doses

  12. Surface analysis of transition metal oxalates: Damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenakin, S.P., E-mail: chenakin@imp.kiev.ua [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Institute of Metal Physics, Nat. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, Akad. Vernadsky Blvd. 36, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Szukiewicz, R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Barbosa, R.; Kruse, N. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, 155 Wegner Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6515 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Gas evolution from the Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation is studied. • A comparative study of the damage caused by X-rays in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is carried out. • Effect of Ar{sup +} bombardment on the structure and composition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. - Abstract: The behavior of transition metal oxalates in vacuum, under X-ray irradiation and low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment was studied. A comparative mass-spectrometric analysis was carried out of gas evolution from the surface of Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation. The rates of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} liberation from the oxalates were found to be in an inverse correlation with the temperatures of dehydration and decomposition, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study the X-ray induced damage in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} by measuring the various XP spectral characteristics and surface composition of the oxalates as a function of time of exposure to X-rays. It was shown that Cu oxalate underwent a significantly faster degradation than Ni oxalate and demonstrated a high degree of X-ray induced reduction from the Cu{sup 2+} to the Cu{sup 1+} chemical state. 500 eV Ar{sup +} sputter cleaning of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} for 10 min was found to cause a strong transformation of the oxalate structure which manifested itself in an appreciable alteration of the XP core-level and valence band spectra. The analysis of changes in stoichiometry and comparison of XP spectra of bombarded oxalate with respective spectra of a reference carbonate CoCO{sub 3} implied that the bombardment-induced decomposition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} gave rise to the formation of CoO-like and disordered CoCO{sub 3}-like phases.

  13. Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style diet in relation to glioma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisi-Kohansal, Sanaz; Shayanfar, Mehdi; Mohammad-Shirazi, Minoo; Tabibi, Hadi; Sharifi, Giuve; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-03-28

    Data on the association of adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style and glioma are scarce. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to the DASH-style diet and glioma in Iranian adults. In this study, 128 pathologically confirmed cases of glioma were recruited from hospitals and 256 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from other wards of the hospital. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 126-item validated FFQ. Adherence to the DASH-style diet was followed considering the healthy and non-healthy foods emphasised in the DASH dietary pattern. After controlling for potential confounders, individuals with the greatest adherence to the DASH diet were 72 % less likely to have glioma compared with those with the lowest adherence (OR 0·28; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·57). Individuals with the highest consumption of fruits had lower odds for having glioma compared with those with the lowest intake (OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·14, 0·68). A protective association was also observed between consumption of legumes and nuts and risk of glioma (OR 0·23; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·53). We found a significant positive association between red and processed meat (OR 2·60; 95 % CI 1·16, 5·81) and salt intakes (OR 2·87; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·34) and risk of glioma, after taking all potential confounders into account. Adherence to the DASH-style dietary pattern was inversely associated with glioma. In addition, some components of the DASH diet, including red meats and salt intakes, were positively associated with glioma. Consumption of nuts and legumes as well as fruits was inversely associated with glioma. Prospective cohort studies are required to confirm our findings.

  14. Computational and experimental studies on oxalic acid imprinted polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran Kumar Tadi; R V Motghare

    2013-03-01

    Computational approach plays an important role to pre-evaluate the interactions between template and functional monomer, so that to choose functional monomer having stronger interactions with template during synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Hence template-monomer interactions in pre-polymerization were mainly focused. In this paper, computational chemistry was applied to screen the number of mol of functional monomer that interacts with one mol of template. Intermolecular interactions between oxalic acid and acrylamide have been investigated. The binding energies Ebind were calculated by DFT (B3LYP) level of theory with the 6−31+G(d,p) basis set. It was found that four mol of acrylamide were sufficient to interact with one mol of oxalic acid in the pre-polymerization mixture. Four possible conformations and frequency calculations were performed to locate minima. Oxalic acid specific bulk polymer was obtained by the thermal initiated free radical co-polymerization of acrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate with oxalic acid as template and acetonitrile as porogen. The synthesized MIP efficiently adsorbed oxalic acid from aqueous solutions. The binding parameters ofMIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) were compared by Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms.

  15. Modulation of polyepoxysuccinic acid on crystallization of calcium oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanqing [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Yongming, E-mail: tangym@njtech.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Xu, Jinqiu; Zhang, Dongqin [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Lu, Gang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Jing, Wenheng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The influence of polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA) on the phase composition and crystal morphology of calcium oxalate was investigated in this paper. It was found that the presence of PESA inhibited the growth of the monoclinic calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal and promoted the nucleation of the tetragonal calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). In addition, with the increase in PESA concentration, the aggregation of COD crystals was reduced but the particle size was increased. Under the conditions of low calcium-to-oxalate ratio and high CaOx concentration, PESA could not effectively stabilize the formation of COD. Based on molecular dynamic simulations, the adsorption of PESA on CaOx crystal faces was confirmed. - Graphical abstract: Introduction of PESA into crystallization solutions promotes the formation of calcium oxalate dehydrate and modifies the morphology of crystals. - Highlights: • PESA induces the formation of COD at low supersaturation. • Establishment of Ca-rich surface augments the adsorption of PESA. • At Ca/Ox=0.5 PESA cannot induce the formation of COD compared with Ca/Ox=2. • Interaction of PESA with COM faces is stronger than that with COD faces.

  16. EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olubodun Obasa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica seed meal (FMS to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g. Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet, 25% (FMS25, 50% (FMS50, 75% (FMS75 and 100% (FMS100 levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for 84 days. Alkaloids were highest (2.32% among the anti-nutritional factors analyzed in FMS, while oxalate (0.84% was lowest. Potassium was highest (8.91 mg/g among the minerals, while copper was lowest (0.01 mg/g. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 in fish fed diets FMS0 and FMS50. The fish fed diet FMS0 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (1.88. Protein digestibility decreased (p<0.05 as dietary FMS increased, while carbohydrate digestibility gave an inverse relationship. Results obtained show that FMS could replace yellow maize at 50% level without affecting growth, nutrient utilization and apparent protein digestibility in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

  17. Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Figueiredo-Silva, A C; Kaushik, S J; Haidar, M N; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2012-10-28

    It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an 'oxystatic control of FI in fish'). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE ('high' v. 'low'); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source ('starch' v. 'fat'). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg(0·8) per d) was significantly lower (9·5%) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P theory), oxygen consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia.

  18. Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaitheeswari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.Materials and Methods:The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.Results:The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.Conclusion:Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

  19. In vitro effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajij Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. is widely used in the management of urolithiasis in Unani system of medicine. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the hydro alcoholic extract of A. capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallisation by in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The study includes crystallization, nucleation and aggregation assay. Crystallization was induced by addition of 50 μl of 0.1 M sodium oxalate in whole urine in the absence and the presence of extract at different concentrations (0.50 mg, 0.75 mg and 1 mg. The nucleation and aggregation rates were followed at 620 nm after mixing calcium chloride and sodium oxalate solution and in a buffered solution containing calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, respectively. The rate was evaluated by comparing the slope of turbidity in the presence of extract with that of control using the spectrophotometer. Crystals in the urine were also analysed by light microscopy. Results and Conclusion: Extract of the test drug inhibited the crystallization in solution; less and smaller particles were observed in the presence of extract. These results were further confirmed in the nucleation assay, though the rate of nucleation was not inhibited but number of crystals was found to be decreased. The test drug also inhibited crystal aggregation. It can be concluded therefore, that the test drug possesses significant antilithiasic activity.

  20. High-sensitivity microchip electrophoresis determination of inorganic anions and oxalate in atmospheric aerosols with adjustable selectivity and conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Scott D; Schwandner, Florian M; Hering, Susanne V; Collett, Jeffrey L; Henry, Charles S

    2009-02-27

    A sensitive and selective separation of common anionic constituents of atmospheric aerosols, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and oxalate, is presented using microchip electrophoresis. The optimized separation is achieved in under 1 min and at low background electrolyte ionic strength (2.9 mM) by combining a metal-binding electrolyte anion (17 mM picolinic acid), a sulfate-binding electrolyte cation (19 mM HEPBS), a zwitterionic surfactant with affinity towards weakly solvated anions (19 mM N-tetradecyl,N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propansulfonate), and operation in counter-electroosmotic flow (EOF) mode. The separation is performed at pH 4.7, permitting pH manipulation of oxalate's mobility. The majority of low-concentration organic acids are not observed at these conditions, allowing for rapid subsequent injections without the presence of interfering peaks. Because the mobilities of sulfate, nitrate, and oxalate are independently controlled, other minor constituents of aerosols can be analyzed, including nitrite, fluoride, and formate if desired using similar separation conditions. Contact conductivity detection is utilized, and the limit of detection for oxalate (S/N=3) is 180 nM without stacking. Sensitivity can be increased with field-amplified sample stacking by injecting from dilute electrolyte with a detection limit of 19 nM achieved. The high-sensitivity, counter-EOF operation, and short analysis time make this separation well-suited to continuous online monitoring of aerosol composition.

  1. Explaining the intention-behaviour gap in gluten-free diet adherence: The moderating roles of habit and perceived behavioural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Emily J; Sainsbury, Kirby; Smith, Lauren; Mullan, Barbara A

    2015-05-01

    Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet is the only treatment for coeliac disease. Nonetheless, many individuals with the disease struggle to achieve and maintain strict adherence. While the theory of planned behaviour is useful for predicting gluten-free diet adherence, an intention-behaviour gap remains. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of habit and perceived behavioural control in moderating the intention-behaviour relationship in gluten-free diet adherence. A significant three-way interaction was found such that the association between intention and adherence was dependent on both perceived behavioural control and habit. Implications for both theory and intervention design are discussed.

  2. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  3. Effect of lifestyle on asthma control in Japanese patients: importance of periodical exercise and raw vegetable diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikura, Motoyasu; Yi, Siyan; Ichimura, Yasunori; Hori, Ai; Izumi, Shinyu; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kudo, Koichiro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT), and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The proportions of total control (ACT = 25), well controlled (ACT = 20-24), and poorly controlled (ACT smoking status and alcohol drinking were not associated with asthma control. On the other hand, younger age (smoking, periodical exercise (> 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week), and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week) were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.

  4. The influence of scale inhibitors on calcium oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J.S. [Calgon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Precipitation of calcium oxalate is a common occurrence in mammalian urinary tract deposits and in various industrial processes such as paper making, brewery fermentation, sugar evaporation, and tannin concentration. Between pH 3.5 to 4.5 the driving force for calcium oxalate precipitation increases almost by three fold. It is a complicated process to predict both the nature of a deposit and at which stage of a multi-effect evaporator a particular mineral will deposit, as this depends on temperature, pH, total solids, and kinetics of mineralization. It is quite a challenge to inhibit calcium oxalate precipitation in the pH range of 4--6. Al{sup 3+} ions provide excellent threshold inhibition in this pH range and can be used to augment traditional inhibitors such as polyphosphates and polycarboxylates.

  5. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Heng-Yen; Whittaker, Mei M.; Bouveret, Romaric; Berna, Anne; Bernier, François; Whittaker, James W.

    2007-01-01

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an α-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4×104 U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions. PMID:17399681

  6. Oxalic acid adsorption states on the clean Cu(110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Sara

    2016-11-01

    Carboxylic acids are known to assume a variety of configurations on metallic surfaces. In particular oxalic acid on the Cu(110) surface has been proposed to assume a number of upright configurations. Here we explore with DFT calculations the possible structures that oxalic acid can form on copper 110 at different protonation states, with particular attention at the possibility of forming structures composed of vertically standing molecules. In its fully protonated form it is capable of anchoring itself on the surface thanks to one of its hydrogen-free oxygens. We show the monodeprotonated upright molecule with two oxygens anchoring it on the surface to be the lowest energy conformation of a single oxalic molecules on the Cu(110) surface. We further show that it is possible for this configuration to form dense hexagonally arranged patterns in the unlikely scenario in which adatoms are not involved.

  7. THORIUM OXALATE-URANYL ACETATE COUPLED PROCEDURE FOR THE SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1959-08-11

    The recovery of fission products from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in acid and thorium oxalate is precipitated in ihe solution formed, whereby the fission products are carried on the thorium oxalate. The separated thorium oxalate precipitate is then dissolved in an aqueous oxalate solution and the solution formed is acidified, limiting ihe excess acidity to a maximum of 2 N, whereby thorium oxalate precipitates and carries lanthanum-rareearth- and alkaline-earth-metal fission products while the zirconium-fission-product remains in solution. This precipitate, too, is dissolved in an aqaeous oxalate solution at elevated temperature, and lanthanum-rare-earth ions are added to the solution whereby lanthanum-rare-earth oxalate forms and the lanthanum-rare-earth-type and alkalineearth-metal-type fission products are carried on the oxalate. The precipitate is separated from the solution.

  8. Interaction of Celestine Concentrate and Reagent Grade SrSO4 with Oxalate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Obut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of reagent grade strontium sulphate and celestine concentrate with aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, sodiumoxalate and ammonium oxalate for the production of strontium carbonate were investigated for different oxalate compound:SrSO4 moleratios and reaction times using x-ray diffraction analysis and dissolution tests. Under the same experimental conditions, it was foundthat aqueous oxalic acid and sodium oxalate solutions had no or little effect on reagent grade strontium sulphate or celestineconcentrate, but aqueous ammonium oxalate solution converted them into strontium oxalate hydrate. Strontium carbonate was obtainedat conversion ratios of 74.7% for the celestine concentrate and 84.6 % for the reagent grade strontium sulphate by the decompositionof the obtained strontium oxalate hydrate at 600 °C under air atmosphere.

  9. Hormones and diet, but not body weight, control hypothalamic microglial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Ottaway, Nickki; Schriever, Sonja C; Legutko, Beata; García-Cáceres, Cristina; de la Fuente, Esther; Mergen, Clarita; Bour, Susanne; Thaler, Joshua P; Seeley, Randy J; Filosa, Jessica; Stern, Javier E; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schwartz, Michael W; Tschöp, Matthias H; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory processes within the hypothalamus. To further investigate the metabolic causes and molecular underpinnings of such glial activation, we analyzed the microglial activity in wild-type (WT), monogenic obese ob/ob (leptin deficient), db/db (leptin-receptor mutation), and Type-4 melanocortin receptor knockout (MC4R KO) mice on either a HFD or on standardized chow (SC) diet. Following HFD exposure, we observed a significant increase in the total number of ARC microglia, immunoreactivity of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1-ir), cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68-ir), and ramification of microglial processes. The ob/ob mice had significantly less iba1-ir and ramifications. Leptin replacement rescued these phenomena. The db/db mice had similar iba1-ir comparable with WT mice but had significantly lower CD68-ir and more ramifications than WT mice. After 2 weeks of HFD, ob/ob mice showed an increase of iba1-ir, and db/db mice showed increase of CD68-ir. Obese MC4R KO mice fed a SC diet had comparable iba1-ir and CD68-ir with WT mice but had significantly more ramifications than WT mice. Intriguingly, treatment of DIO mice with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduced microglial activation independent of body weight. Our results show that diet type, adipokines, and gut signals, but not body weight, affect the presence and activity levels of hypothalamic microglia in obesity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multiple Behavior Change in Diet and Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H.G.; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T.; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C.; Epstein, Leonard H.; DeMott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. Methods To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit/vegetable intakes, high sedentary leisure time and low physical activity to one of four treatments: increase fruit/vegetable and physical activity; decrease fat and sedentary leisure; decrease fat and increase physical activity; increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided three weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up they were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the four diet and activity behaviors at end of treatment and five month follow-up. Results Of those randomized, 200 (98%) completed follow-up. The increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure treatment improved more than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Specifically, fruit/vegetables increased from 1.2 servings/day to 5.5; sedentary leisure decreased from 219.2 minutes/day to 89.3; saturated fat decreased from 12.0% of calories consumed to 9.5%. Differences between treatment groups were maintained through follow-up. Traditional dieting (decrease fat and increase physical activity) improved less than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Conclusions Remote coaching supported by mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes. PMID:22636824

  11. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin monotherapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlöf, K; Cefalu, W T; Kim, K-A; Alba, M; Usiskin, K; Tong, C; Canovatchel, W; Meininger, G

    2013-01-01

    Aims Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in development for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin were evaluated in subjects with T2DM inadequately controlled with diet and exercise. Methods In this 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, subjects (N = 584) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo once daily. Primary endpoint was the change from baseline in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at week 26. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of subjects achieving HbA1c canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg compared with placebo (−0.77, −1.03 and 0.14%, respectively; p canagliflozin doses significantly decreased FPG, 2-h PPG, body weight and systolic BP (p canagliflozin versus placebo; rates of serious AEs and AE-related discontinuations were low and similar across groups. Incidences of genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections and osmotic diuresis-related AEs were higher with canagliflozin; these led to few discontinuations. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was low across groups. Conclusion Canagliflozin treatment improved glycaemic control, reduced body weight and was generally well tolerated in subjects with T2DM inadequately controlled with diet and exercise. PMID:23279307

  12. Effect of lifestyle on asthma control in Japanese patients: importance of periodical exercise and raw vegetable diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyasu Iikura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. METHODS: The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT, and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The proportions of total control (ACT = 25, well controlled (ACT = 20-24, and poorly controlled (ACT 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week, and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.

  13. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective: To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks.Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight (n = 12 or artificial sweeteners (n = 11 as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight% and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits. The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0 and after the intervention (week 10 fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch.After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10, postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet.A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects.

  14. Stress- and diet-induced fat gain is controlled by NPY in catecholaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Lee, I-Chieh J; Enriquez, Rondaldo F; Lau, Jackie; Vähätalo, Laura H; Baldock, Paul A; Savontaus, Eriika; Herzog, Herbert

    2014-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and noradrenaline are commonly co-expressed in sympathetic neurons. Both are key regulators of energy homeostasis and critical for stress-coping. However, little is known about the specific function of NPY in the catecholaminergic system in these regulations. Here we show that mice with NPY expression only in the noradrenergic and adrenergic cells of the catecholaminergic system (catNPY) exhibited exacerbated diet-induced obesity, lower body and brown adipose tissue temperatures compared to WT and NPY(-/-) mice under a HFD. Furthermore, chronic stress increased adiposity and serum corticosterone level in WT but not NPY(-/-) mice. Re-introducing NPY specifically to the catecholaminergic system in catNPY mice restored stress responsiveness associated with increased respiratory exchange ratio and decreased liver pACC to tACC ratio. These results demonstrate catecholaminergic NPY signalling is critical in mediating diet- and chronic stress-induced fat gain via effects on diet-induced thermogenesis and stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels and lipogenic capacity.

  15. Effect of Six-Month Diet Intervention on Sleep among Overweight and Obese Men with Chronic Insomnia Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30–65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28 or control (n = 21 groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1–3 times per week; 300–500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.

  16. Effect of Six-Month Diet Intervention on Sleep among Overweight and Obese Men with Chronic Insomnia Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Wang, Kun; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Wiklund, Petri; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2016-11-23

    Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30-65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1-3 times per week; 300-500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.

  17. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  18. Prevalence of coeliac disease in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and effect of gluten-free diet on calcaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soma; Saini, Savita; Makharia, Govind K; Datta Gupta, Siddhartha; Goswami, Ravinder

    2016-04-01

    Patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH) require variable doses of calcium and 1-α-(OH)D. The reasons for such variability are not clear. As autoimmune mechanisms may play a role in IH, there is a possibility of coexistent coeliac disease with calcium/vitamin D malabsorption. We assessed the prevalence of coeliac disease and antitissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (anti-tTGAbs) in IH and analysed the effect of a gluten-free diet on calcaemic control. A total of 171 patients with IH and 126 healthy controls were screened for anti-tTGAb. IH patients with anti-tTGAb >20 RU/ml underwent duodenoscopy and intestinal biopsy; those with biopsy-proven coeliac disease were followed up on a gluten-free diet. Eleven of 171 (6·4%) patients with IH and seven of 126 (5·6%) controls had anti-tTGAb (P = 0·81). There was no difference in the clinical and biochemical parameters at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up of 7·2 ± 4·8 year (mean serum total calcium = 1·88 ± 0·16 vs 1·82 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·52; phosphorus = 1·81 ± 0·17 vs 1·87 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·53) in IH patients with and without anti-tTGAb. Although CaSRAb positivity was comparable in the two groups, IH patients with anti-tTGAb had higher TPOAb positivity (45·5% vs 12·8%, P = 0·02). Coeliac disease was diagnosed in only 2/9 patients with IH on biopsy, both of whom showed improved calcaemic control with a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of coeliac autoimmunity (6·4%) and coeliac disease (1·2%) in patients with IH seems to be similar to that in the general population. Notwithstanding this modest prevalence, it is important to be aware of the potential occurrence of coeliac disease with IH and the beneficial effect of a gluten-free diet on calcium control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study, an open-label randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, R; Béné, M C; Spazzafumo, L; Pinto, A; Donini, L M; Pryen, F; Charrouf, Z; Valentini, L; Lochs, H; Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Blanc-Bisson, C; Buccolini, F; Brigidi, P; Franceschi, C; d'Alessio, P A

    2016-08-01

    Eating habits may influence the life span and the quality of ageing process by modulating inflammation. The RISTOMED project was developed to provide a personalized and balanced diet, enriched with or without nutraceutical compounds, to decrease and prevent inflammageing, oxidative stress and gut microbiota alteration in healthy elderly people. This paper focused on the effect on inflammation and metabolism markers after 56 days of RISTOMED diet alone or supplementation with three nutraceutical compounds. A cohort of 125 healthy elderly subjects was recruited and randomized into 4 arms (Arm A, RISTOMED diet; Arm B, RISTOMED diet plus VSL#3 probiotic blend; Arm C, RISTOMED diet plus AISA d-Limonene; Arm D, RISTOMED diet plus Argan oil). Inflammatory and metabolism parameters as well as the ratio between Clostridium cluster IV and Bifidobacteria (CL/B) were collected before and after 56 days of dietary intervention, and their evolution compared among the arms. Moreover, participants were subdivided according to their baseline inflammatory parameters (erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein, fibrinogen, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alfa (TNF-α), and Interleukin 6) in two clusters with low or medium-high level of inflammation. The evolution of the measured parameters was then examined separately in each cluster. Overall, RISTOMED diet alone or with each nutraceutical supplementation significantly decreased ESR. RISTOMED diet supplemented with d-Limonene resulted in a decrease in fibrinogen, glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-IR. The most beneficial effects were observed in subjects with a medium-high inflammatory status who received RISTOMED diet with AISA d-Limonene supplementation. Moreover, RISTOMED diet associated with VSL#3 probiotic blend induced a decrease in the CL/B ratio. Overall, this study emphasizes the beneficial anti-inflammageing effect of RISTOMED diet supplemented with nutraceuticals to control the inflammatory status of elderly

  20. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  1. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in Pereskia species (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2009-01-01

    Calcium oxalate druses were isolated from the stems and leaves of six Pereskioideae family members and investigated by infrared spectroscopy, showing that in all samples the biomineral was present in the form of whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O. As Pereskia is thought to represent the "ancestral" condition of the leafless stem-succulent cacti, these results suggest that the biomineralization of calcium oxalate in Cactaceae represents a primitive characteristic of the group and also support a close genetic relationship between Pereskia and Opuntia.

  2. Microwave studies on double rare earth oxalate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth, Anit [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Joseph, Cyriac [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Paul, Issac [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Ittyachen, M.A. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Mathew, K.T. [Microwave Imaging and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 (India)]. E-mail: ktm@cusat.ac.in; Lonappan, Anil [Microwave Imaging and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 (India); Jacob, Joe [Microwave Imaging and Material Research Laboratory, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022 (India)

    2005-01-25

    Rare earth compounds are recognized for outstanding physical, magnetic and optical properties. The oxalates and molybdates have gained importance for their various properties, which find applications in electro and accusto optical devices. This paper reports the microwave dielectric studies on double rare earth oxalate crystals. Using the cavity perturbation technique dielectric parameters such as complex permittivity and conductivity at microwave frequencies is determined. Using X-ray diffraction study the crystalline nature of the samples was established. The molecular and crystal structures were identified by IR analysis.

  3. Concentration and size distribution of particulate oxalate in marine and coastal atmospheres - Implication for the increased importance of oxalate in nanometer atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianfeng; Li, Kai; Zhu, Yujiao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    In literature, particulate oxalate has been widely studied in the total suspended particles (TSP), particles 100 nm. In this article, we measured oxalate's concentrations in size-segregated atmospheric particles down to 10 nm or 56 nm during eight campaigns performed at a semi-urban coastal site, over the marginal seas of China and from the marginal seas to the northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO) in 2012-2015. When the sum of the oxalate's concentration in particles pollution event. Mode analysis results of particulate oxalate and the correlation between oxalate and sulfate suggested that the elevated concentrations of oxalate in PM10 were mainly related to enhanced in-cloud formation of oxalate via anthropogenic precursors. Size distribution data in the total of 136 sets of samples also showed approximately 80% of particulate oxalate's mass existing in atmospheric particles >100 nm. Consistent with previous studies, particulate oxalate in particles >100 nm was a negligible ionic component when comparing to particulate SO42- in the same size range. However, the mole ratios of oxalate/sulfate in particles 100 nm atmospheric particles such as PM2.5, PM10, TSP, etc.

  4. Determining the Structure of Oxalate Anion Using Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Coupled with Gaussian Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen I.; Pullman, David P.

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory project for the upper-division physical chemistry laboratory is described, and it combines IR and Raman spectroscopies with Gaussian electronic structure calculations to determine the structure of the oxalate anion in solid alkali oxalates and in aqueous solution. The oxalate anion has two limiting structures whose vibrational spectra…

  5. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  6. Oxaloacetate hydrolase, the C-C bond lyase of oxalate secreting fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Joosten, H.J.; Niu, W.; Zhao, Z.; Mariano, P.S.; McCalman, M.; Kan, van J.; Schaap, P.J.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.

    2007-01-01

    Oxalate secretion by fungi is known to be associated with fungal pathogenesis. In addition, oxalate toxicity is a concern for the commercial application of fungi in the food and drug industries. Although oxalate is generated through several different biochemical pathways, oxaloacetate acetylhydrolas

  7. An observational pilot study on the effect of Gomutra Haritaki, diet control and exercise in the management of Sthaulya (obesity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarathi, Ritesh A.; Dwivedi, Rambabu; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: India is currently witnessing rising numbers of people in the middle-class who are obese. A lot of the Indian population has started relying on processed foods that contain a huge percentage of trans-fat, sugars, and other unhealthy and artificial ingredients. Obesity is considered the core of many diseases. Increased weight carries significant health risks for some cancers, diabetes, heart diseases and strokes. Junk food, alcohol and sedentary lifestyle are leading us to silent self destruction, making one in every five Indian men and women either obese or overweight. Aim: To determine the effect of Gomutra Haritaki on Sthaulya. Materials and Methods: An observational pilot study on the effect of Gomutra Haritaki, diet control and exercise in the management of Sthaulya (obesity) was conducted on 21 patients. Enrolled patients were screened on the basis of clinical findings and allocated into two groups. Trial group received Gomutra Haritaki (6 g/day in three divided doses) while control group received placebo capsules in the same dose for 8 weeks. Result: Statistically highly significant relief was found in weight reduction (P < 0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.01) in both groups. Control group has shown better results against trial group. Conclusion: These results prove the impact of diet and exercise in the management of Sthaulya. PMID:25558156

  8. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention: the Diet, Obesity and Genes randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne; Hager, Jörg; Masoodi, Mojgan

    2016-09-01

    An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic improvement. We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. After weight loss, a lipid signature identified 2 groups of patients who were comparable at baseline but who differed in their capacities to lose weight and improve glycemic control. Six months after the LCD, one group had significant glycemic improvement [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) mean change: -0.92; 95% CI: -1.17, -0.67)]. The other group showed no improvement in glycemic control (HOMA-IR mean change: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.64, 0.13). These differences were sustained for ≥1 y after the LCD. The same conclusions were obtained with other endpoints (Matsuda index and fasting insulin and glucose concentrations). Significant differences between the 2 groups were shown in leptin gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies. Significant differences were also observed in weight-related endpoints (body mass index, weight, and fat mass). The lipid signature allowed prediction of which subjects would be considered to be insulin resistant after 6 mo of weight maintenance [validation's receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC): 71%; 95% CI: 62%, 81%]. This model outperformed a clinical data-only model (validation's ROC AUC: 61%; 95% CI: 50%, 71%; P = 0.01). In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight

  9. Effects of a Paleolithic diet with and without supervised exercise on fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control: a randomized controlled trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waling, Maria; Isaksson, Andreas; Tellström, Anna; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Brage, Søren; Ryberg, Mats; Svensson, Michael; Olsson, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    Background Means to reduce future risk for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes are urgently needed. Methods Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes (age 59±8 years) followed a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks. Participants were randomized to either standard care exercise recommendations (PD) or 1-h supervised exercise sessions (aerobic exercise and resistance training) three times per week (PD-EX). Results For the within group analyses, fat mass decreased by 5.7 kg (IQR: −6.6, −4.1; pPaleolithic diet improves fat mass and metabolic balance including insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Supervised exercise training may not enhance the effects on these outcomes, but preserves lean mass in men and increases cardiovascular fitness. PMID:27235022

  10. Benefits of a Paleolithic diet with and without supervised exercise on fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control: a randomized controlled trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Julia; Stomby, Andreas; Waling, Maria; Isaksson, Andreas; Tellström, Anna; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Brage, Søren; Ryberg, Mats; Svensson, Michael; Olsson, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    Means to reduce future risk for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes are urgently needed. Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes (age 59 ± 8 years) followed a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks. Participants were randomized to either standard care exercise recommendations (PD) or 1-h supervised exercise sessions (aerobic exercise and resistance training) three times per week (PD-EX). For the within group analyses, fat mass decreased by 5.7 kg (IQR: -6.6, -4.1; p Paleolithic diet improves fat mass and metabolic balance including insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Supervised exercise training may not enhance the effects on these outcomes, but preserves lean mass in men and increases cardiovascular fitness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Diet in the treatment of renal lithiasis. Pathophysiological basis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Armando L; Spivacow, Francisco R; Del Valle, Elisa E

    2013-01-01

    The composition of urine is influenced by diet and changes in dietary factors have been proposed to modify the risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Nutrients that have been implicated include calcium, oxalate, sodium, animal protein, magnesium and potassium. There is significant evidence showing that a high calcium diet is associated with a reduction of lithogenic risk. One of the possible mechanisms to explain this apparent paradox is that the higher intake of calcium in the intestine binds with dietary oxalate, reducing its absorption and urinary excretion. Oxalate from the diet seems to provide only a small contribution to excretion and dietary restriction is appropriate only in those with hyperoxaluria and hyperabsorption. Observational studies have shown a positive and independent association between sodium intake and the formation of new kidney stones. Consumption of animal protein creates an acid load that increases urinary excretion of calcium and uric acid and reduced citrate, all factors that could participate in the genesis of stones. Potassium-rich foods increase urinary citrate because of its alkali content. In prospective observational studies, diets rich in magnesium were associated with a lower risk of kidney stone formation in men. In conclusion, diet is a key element in the management of the patient with kidney stones but always subordinated to present metabolic risk factors.

  12. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  13. Long-term complications in Estonian galactosemia patients with a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbi, K; Uudelepp, M-L; Joost, K; Zordania, R; Õunap, K

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate long-term complications and measure urinary galactose and galactitol excretion in classical galactosemia patients in Estonia who have been treated with a less restricted lactose-free diet and metabolic control. Our study group consisted of five classical galactosemia patients aged 7-14 years and diagnosed since 1996 in Estonia. Their diet eliminates lactose present in dairy foods, but we did not restrict the consumption of mature cheeses, fruits and vegetables. All patients had normal growth, except for one patient who was overweight at the last evaluation. In three patients mental and speech development was normal. One patient, number 1, who was diagnosed latest (at 6 weeks of age), had moderate mental retardation, verbal dyspraxia, extrapyramidal signs and bilateral cataracts. In both patients with developmental problems, a brain MRI showed bilateral subcortical changes in the cerebral white matter. Of four females, only patient 4 (p.Q188R homozygote) has premature ovarian insufficiency. Urinary galactose and galactitol content were retrospectively measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and refractive-index detection from urinary samples that were preserved during the years 1996-2009. Galactose ranged from 60 to 600 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=4-6), and galactitol ranged from 70 to 1200 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=2-4), which was 10-100 and 17-300 times higher than the respective reference ranges for galactose and galactitol. We conclude that a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control performed in Estonian classical galactosemia patients does not change long-term outcome compared to previously published studies.

  14. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic profile in Chinese women: a randomised controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Geng; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Chen, Xiafei; Tang, Lixin; Feng, Ying; Shai, Iris; Stampfer, Meir J; Hu, Frank B; Lin, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the potential adherence to and the effectiveness of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with a habitually high carbohydrate intake. In the present controlled feeding trial, fifty overweight or obese women (age 47·9 (sem 0·9) years; BMI 26·7 (sem 0·3) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to a LC non-energy-restricted diet (initial carbohydrate intake 20 g/d, with a 10 g increase weekly) or an energy-restricted (ER) diet (carbohydrate intake 156-205 g/d, ER to 5021 or 6276 kJ/d, 35% average energy reduction) for 12 weeks. Over the intervention period, the two diets had comparable compliance (96%) and self-reported acceptability. At week 12, carbohydrate intake in the LC and ER groups contributed to 36·1 and 51·1% of total energy, respectively (P diets showed similarly decreased mean body weight (LC - 5·27 (95% CI - 6·08, - 4·46) kg; ER - 5·09 (95% CI - 5·50, - 4·67) kg, P = 0·67) and percentage of fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (LC - 1·19 (95% CI - 1·88, - 0·50)%; ER - 1·56 (95% CI - 2·20, - 0·92)%, P = 0·42), participants in the LC group had greater reductions in the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol (P= 0·03) and also in the ratio of TAG:HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·01) than those in the ER group. The present 12-week diet trial suggested that both a LC non-energy-restricted diet and an ER diet were acceptable to Chinese women and both diets were equally effective in reducing weight and fat mass. Moreover, the LC diet showed beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles.

  15. Appetite control and biomarkers of satiety with vegetarian (soy) and meat-based high-protein diets for weight loss in obese men: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Madalina; Fyfe, Claire; Horgan, Graham; Johnstone, Alexandra M

    2014-08-01

    There is limited evidence with regard to the effect of different sources of protein on appetite during weight loss. Vegetarian and meat-based high-protein diets may have contrasting effects on appetite and biomarkers of protein-induced satiety. The aim was to assess appetite response to meat or vegetarian high-protein weight-loss (HPWL) diets in obese men to monitor plasma amino acid profile and gut peptide response as potential satiety biomarkers. Twenty obese [body mass index (in kg/m²): 34.8] men participated in a dietary intervention study. After 3 d of a maintenance diet, they were provided in a crossover design with either a vegetarian HPWL (Soy-HPWL) or a meat-based HPWL (Meat-HPWL) diet for 2 wk. Both diets comprised 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate, provided to measured resting metabolic rate. Body weight and the motivation to eat were measured daily. Plasma satiety biomarkers were collected during a test-meal challenge (5 h) at the end of each diet period. Over the 2 wk, subjects lost, on average, 2.41 and 2.27 kg with consumption of the Soy- and Meat-HPWL diets, respectively [P = 0.352; SE of the difference (SED): 0.1]. ANOVA confirmed that subjectively rated hunger (P = 0.569; SED: 3.8), fullness (P = 0.404; SED: 4.1), desire to eat (P = 0.356; SED: 3.7), preservation of lean body mass (P = 0.334; SED: 0.2), and loss of percentage fat mass (P = 0.179; SED: 0.2) did not differ between the 2 HPWL diets. There were differences in absolute concentrations of ghrelin and peptide YY between the 2 HPWL diets, although the response as net area under the curve was not different. Appetite control and weight loss were similar for both HPWL diets. Gut hormone profile was similar between the diets, which suggests that vegetarian diets can be as effective as meat-based diets for appetite control during weight loss. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Impact of low-carbohydrate diet on renal function: a meta-analysis of over 1000 individuals from nine randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyabu, Chikako; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Fukuda, Takuya; Tanaka, Muhei; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to clarify the effect of low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) on renal function in overweight and obese individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Literature searches were performed using EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library until December 2015. We selected articles that reported human studies from their inception until December 2015 in English using the following searching terms: 'Low carbohydrate diet' AND ('Clinical trial' OR 'Clinical study' OR 'Clinical investigation' OR 'Observational study' OR 'Cohort study'). We compared the effects of LCD on renal function, defined as change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), assessed in randomised-controlled trials. We calculated the mean change in eGFR and the mean change in standard deviations by eGFR or creatinine clearance, and compared the mean change in eGFR and standard deviations in LCD with those in the control diet using fixed-effects models. We selected nine randomised controlled trials including 1687 participants (861 were fed LCD and 826 were fed the control diet). The mean change in eGFR in the LCD group was -4·7 to 24·0 ml/min per 1·73 m2 and that in the control diet group was -4·1 to 10·8 ml/min per 1·73 m2. The mean change in eGFR in the LCD group was greater than that in the control diet (0·13 ml/min per 1·73 m2; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·26). In the present meta-analysis, we identified that the increase in eGFR was greater in LCD compared with the control diet in overweight and obese individuals without CKD.

  17. Mediterranean Diet and Health: Food Effects on Gut Microbiota and Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Del Chierico

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet (MD is considered one of the healthiest dietary models. Many of the characteristic components of the MD have functional features with positive effects on health and wellness. The MD adherence, calculated through various computational scores, can lead to a reduction of the incidence of major diseases (e.g., cancers, metabolic and cardiovascular syndromes, neurodegenerative diseases, type 2 diabetes and allergy. Furthermore, eating habits are the main significant determinants of the microbial multiplicity of the gut, and dietary components influence both microbial populations and their metabolic activities from the early stages of life. For this purpose, we present a study proposal relying on the generation of individual gut microbiota maps from MD-aware children/adolescents. The maps, based on meta-omics approaches, may be considered as new tools, acting as a systems biology-based proof of evidence to evaluate MD effects on gut microbiota homeostasis. Data integration of food metabotypes and gut microbiota “enterotypes” may allow one to interpret MD adherence and its effects on health in a new way, employable for the design of targeted diets and nutraceutical interventions in childcare and clinical management of food-related diseases, whose onset has been significantly shifted early in life.

  18. Clinical evaluation of ferric oxalate in relieving dentine hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, D G; Newman, H N; Davies, E H; Bulman, J S; Troullos, E S; Curro, F A

    2004-03-01

    Previous in vitro permeability and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the oxalate ion in dentine permeability reduction and effective tubule occlusion. The aim of this randomized double-blind, split mouth 4-week clinical study, therefore was to determine whether a 1-min application of ferric oxalate (Sensodyne Sealant) on exposed root dentine was effective in reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Thirteen subjects [8F:5M, mean age 46.2 (s.d. 4.15) years] completed the study. The subjective response was evaluated by tactile, thermal and evaporative methods of assessment. Data were collected at baseline and post-application at +5 min and 4 weeks. Analysis was based on paired t-test (P=0.05) and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests. No statistically significant differences were noted between ferric oxalate and placebo preparations at +5 min and 4 weeks for any of the test stimuli. There was, however, a clear trend towards immediate reduction (+5 min) in DH reverting back to baseline values at 4 weeks with the exception of the Biomat Thermal Probe mean values, which maintained the reductions in DH compared with placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that a 1-min application of ferric oxalate is both rapid and effective in reducing DH although its long-term effectiveness still needs to be determined.

  19. In vivo Drosophilia genetic model for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Taku; Cabrero, Pablo; Berkholz, Donald S; Bondeson, Daniel P; Ritman, Erik L; Thompson, James R; Dow, Julian A T; Romero, Michael F

    2012-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a major public health problem with a complex and varied etiology. Most stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx), with dietary excess a risk factor. Because of complexity of mammalian system, the details of stone formation remain to be understood. Here we have developed a nephrolithiasis model using the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, which has a simple, transparent kidney tubule. Drosophilia reliably develops CaOx stones upon dietary oxalate supplementation, and the nucleation and growth of microliths can be viewed in real time. The Slc26 anion transporter dPrestin (Slc26a5/6) is strongly expressed in Drosophilia kidney, and biophysical analysis shows that it is a potent oxalate transporter. When dPrestin is knocked down by RNAi in fly kidney, formation of microliths is reduced, identifying dPrestin as a key player in oxalate excretion. CaOx stone formation is an ancient conserved process across >400 My of divergent evolution (fly and human), and from this study we can conclude that the fly is a good genetic model of nephrolithiasis.

  20. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  1. Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate by photoacoustics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivabarathy; S Natarajan; S K Ramakrishnan; K Ramachandran

    2004-10-01

    Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate is studied by using TG, DTA and photoacoustic spectroscopy. A sharp transition at 378 K by photoacoustics is observed whereas at the same temperature the endothermic energy change observed by TG and DTA is not very sharp. This is discussed in detail with reference to the other known data for the organic crystals.

  2. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2016-05-17

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  3. Crystal growth and morphology of calcium oxalates and carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the research described in this thesis is to establish a relationship between the crystal structure and morphology of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate crystals grown from aqueous solutions. Starting point is the PBC (Periodic Bond Chain) theory formulated by Hartman and Perdo

  4. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E; Kim, Sarah; Goldman, Veronica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bayandorian, Hovig; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend. Objective The aim was to determine whether an online intervention based on our previous recommendations (an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet with lifestyle factors; “intervention”) or an online diet program based on the American Diabetes Associations’ “Create Your Plate” diet (“control”) would improve glycemic control and other health outcomes among overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this pilot feasibility study, we randomized overweight adults (body mass index ≥25) with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 6.5%-9.0%) to a 32-week online intervention based on our previous recommendations (n=12) or an online diet program based around a plate method diet (n=13) to assess the impact of each intervention on glycemic control and other health outcomes. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed by mixed-effects linear regression to compare outcomes by group. Results At 32 weeks, participants in the intervention group reduced their HbA1c levels more (estimated marginal mean [EMM] –0.8%, 95% CI –1.1% to –0.6%) than participants in the control group (EMM –0.3%, 95% CI –0.6% to 0.0%; P=.002). More than half of the participants in the intervention group (6/11, 55%) lowered their HbA1c to less than 6.5% versus 0% (0/8) in the control group (P=.02). Participants in the intervention group lost more weight (EMM –12.7 kg, 95% CI –16.1 to

  5. Bio-physical characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosa of celiac patients: comparison with control subjects and effect of gluten free diet-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanacci Vincenzo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal mucosa is leaky in celiac disease (CD, and this alteration may involve changes in hydrophobicity of the mucus surface barrier in addition to alteration of the epithelial barrier. The aims of our study were i to compare duodenal hydrophobicity as an index of mucus barrier integrity in CD patients studied before (n = 38 and during gluten- free diet (GFD, n = 68, and in control subjects (n = 90, and ii to check for regional differences of hydrophobicity in the gastro-intestinal tract. Methods Hydrophobicity was assessed by measurement of contact angle (CA (Rame Hart 100/10 goniometer generated by a drop of water placed on intestinal mucosal biopsies. Results CA (mean ± SD of distal duodenum was significantly lower in CD patients (56° ± 10° than in control subjects (69° ± 9°, p corpus > rectum > duodenum > oesophagus > ileum. Conclusions We conclude that the hydrophobicity of duodenal mucous layer is reduced in CD patients, and that the resulting decreased capacity to repel luminal contents may contribute to the increased intestinal permeability of CD. This alteration mirrors the severity of the mucosal lesions and is not completely reverted by gluten-free diet. Intestinal hydrophobicity exhibits regional differences in the human intestinal tract.

  6. In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Valentini; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Khymenets, Olha; de la Torre, Rafael; Saez, Guillermo; Tormos, Maria del Carmen; Toledo, Estefania; Marti, Amelia; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz Mendez, Maria Victoria; Fito, Montserrat

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether benefits associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) and virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption could be mediated through changes in the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes. A randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial in healthy volunteers (n=90) aged 20 to 50 yr was performed. Three-month intervention groups were as follows: 1) TMD with VOO (TMD+VOO), 2) TMD with washed virgin olive oil (TMD+WOO), and 3) control with participants' habitual diet. WOO was similar to VOO, but with a lower polyphenol content (55 vs. 328 mg/kg, respectively). TMD consumption decreased plasma oxidative and inflammatory status and the gene expression related with both inflammation [INF-gamma (INFgamma), Rho GTPase-activating protein15 (ARHGAP15), and interleukin-7 receptor (IL7R)] and oxidative stress [adrenergic beta(2)-receptor (ADRB2) and polymerase (DNA-directed) kappa (POLK)] in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All effects, with the exception of the decrease in POLK expression, were particularly observed when VOO, rich in polyphenols, was present in the TMD dietary pattern. Our results indicate a significant role of olive oil polyphenols in the down-regulation of proatherogenic genes in the context of a TMD. In addition, the benefits associated with a TMD and olive oil polyphenol consumption on cardiovascular risk can be mediated through nutrigenomic effects.

  7. Transcellular oxalate and Cl- absorption in mouse intestine is mediated by the DRA anion exchanger Slc26a3, and DRA deletion decreases urinary oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freel, Robert W; Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2013-10-01

    Active transcellular oxalate transport in the mammalian intestine contributes to the homeostasis of this important lithogenic anion. Several members of the Slc26a gene family of anion exchangers have a measurable oxalate affinity and are expressed along the gut, apically and basolaterally. Mouse Slc26a6 (PAT1) targets to the apical membrane of enterocytes in the small intestine, and its deletion results in net oxalate absorption and hyperoxaluria. Apical exchangers of the Slc26a family that mediate oxalate absorption have not been established, yet the Slc26a3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] protein is a candidate mediator of oxalate uptake. We evaluated the role of DRA in intestinal oxalate and Cl(-) transport by comparing unidirectional and net ion fluxes across short-circuited segments of small (ileum) and large (cecum and distal colon) intestine from wild-type (WT) and DRA knockout (KO) mice. In WT mice, all segments demonstrated net oxalate and Cl(-) absorption to varying degrees. In KO mice, however, all segments exhibited net anion secretion, which was consistently, and solely, due to a significant reduction in the absorptive unidirectional fluxes. In KO mice, daily urinary oxalate excretion was reduced 66% compared with that in WT mice, while urinary creatinine excretion was unchanged. We conclude that DRA mediates a predominance of the apical uptake of oxalate and Cl(-) absorbed in the small and large intestine of mice under short-circuit conditions. The large reductions in urinary oxalate excretion underscore the importance of transcellular intestinal oxalate absorption, in general, and, more specifically, the importance of the DRA exchanger in oxalate homeostasis.

  8. The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Arriaga, Julio C; Jalal, Diana; Rivard, Christopher; McFann, Kim; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Vázquez, Armando; Ruiz, Arturo; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Jimenez, Carlos Roncal; Johnson, Richard J; Lozada, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    One of the proposed causes of obesity and metabolic syndrome is the excessive intake of products containing added sugars, in particular, fructose. Although the ability of excessive intake of fructose to induce metabolic syndrome is mounting, to date, no study has addressed whether a diet specifically lowering fructose but not total carbohydrates can reduce features of metabolic syndrome. A total of 131 patients were randomized to compare the short-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets-a low-fructose diet vs a moderate natural fructose diet-on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters. Patients were randomized to receive 1500, 1800, or 2000 cal diets according to sex, age, and height. Because natural fructose might be differently absorbed compared with fructose from added sugars, we randomized obese subjects to either a low-fructose diet (diet with natural fruit supplements (50-70 g/d) and compared the effects of both diets on the primary outcome of weight loss in a 6-week follow-up period. Blood pressure, lipid profile, serum glucose, insulin resistance, uric acid, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and quality of life scores were included as secondary outcomes. One hundred two (78%) of the 131 participants were women, mean age was 38.8 ± 8.8 years, and the mean body mass index was 32.4 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). Each intervention diet was associated with significant weight loss compared with baseline. Weight loss was higher in the moderate natural fructose group (4.19 ± 0.30 kg) than the low-fructose group (2.83 ± 0.29 kg) (P = .0016). Compared with baseline, each intervention diet was associated with significant improvement in secondary outcomes. Reduction of energy and added fructose intake may represent an important therapeutic target to reduce the frequency of obesity and diabetes. For weight loss achievement, an energy-restricted moderate natural fructose diet was superior to a low-fructose diet.

  9. Immobilization of oxalate-degrading enzymes into p(HEMA) for inhibiting encrustation on ureteral stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, James Kenneth

    Ureteral stents develop calcium-bearing deposits, called encrustation, that diminish their biocompatibility due to complications, such as chronic abrasion to the lumen of the ureter wall and subsequent infection. A reduction of encrustation, namely calcium oxalate, will improve the lifetime, health care costs, and infection resistance of such devices. The purpose of this research project is to study oxalate-degrading enzymes entrapped into a coating material that will control the interface to the urinary environment for ureteral stents. The coating material was a lightly crosslinked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA)) matrix in which the active enzymes were entrapped within the bulk material's free volume. The swelling of p(HEMA) films was comparable in ddH2O and urine. This hydrophilic matrix allows oxalate anions to diffuse into the bulk so that enzyme activity against oxalate can lower its local concentration, and thereby reduce the supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Oxalate oxidase (OxO) and oxalate decarboxylase (OxDc) were the oxalate-degrading enzymes examined herein. Michaelis Menten kinetic models were applied to free and immobilized enzyme activity. A substrate inhibition model was applied to OxO. The free form of OxO had a Vmax of 1.8 +/- 0.1 muM/min-mug, a km of 1.8 +/- 0.1 mM, and a ks of 35.4 +/- 3.7 mM while the immobilized form had a Vmax of 1.2 +/- 0.2 muM/min-mug, a km of 4.1 +/- 0.6 mM, and a ks of 660 +/- 140 mM. The free form of OxDc had a Vmax of 23.5 +/- 1.4 muM/min-mug and a km of 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM while the immobilized form had a Vmax of 5.0 +/- 1.9 muM/min-mug and km of 23.2 +/- 9.1 mM. The enzyme activity was measured to indicate viable application conditions for the coating, such as storing the films in urine over time. The maximum activity was shown at pH 4.2 to 4.5 and activity drops to be negligible by pH 7.0. Storing the enzyme at pH 6.1 exhibited a larger retained activity than storing at pH 4.2, yet storing in urine showed

  10. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...... as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped.......6%) groups than in the control group (2.6 +/- 0.5%) (P fasting insulin decreased by 2.6 +/- 3.5 pmol/L, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance by 0.17 +/- 0.13, and the ratio of LDL to HDL by 0.33 +/- 0.13; in the LF group, these variables increased by 4.3 +/- 3...

  11. The effects of oxalate-containing products on the exposed dentine surface: an SEM investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, D G; Mordan, N J; Sinodinou, A D; Tang, J Y; Knowles, J C; Gibson, I R

    2001-11-01

    In-office products containing oxalates have been claimed to be clinically effective in reducing dentine sensitivity, although there has been limited supporting clinical data. The rationale for their use appears to be based on their potential to act as occluding and/or nerve desensitizing agents. Four commercially available oxalate-containing products were applied to etched dentine discs and the extent of tubule occlusion was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Tenure Quick (aluminium oxalate), Sensodyne Sealant (ferric oxalate) and MS Coat (oxalic acid) covered the dentine surface and occluded the tubules. However, Butler Protect (potassium oxalate) did not cover the surface to any great extent but provided some occlusion. The presence of oxalates after application to glass slides and dentine discs was examined using thin film X-ray diffraction. From samples on glass, only potassium oxalate could be clearly identified (JCPDS 14-0845). No oxalate was detected on dentine discs in either thin film geometry or standard theta two theta mode. We have demonstrated that professionally applied in-office products containing oxalate are capable of covering the dentine surface and/or occluding the tubules to varying degrees. However, X-ray diffraction analysis was unable to confirm the oxalate profile for all products as described in the available commercial literature.

  12. Plasma biochemistry and urinalysis variables of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without oxalate nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K Natasha; Haynes, Julie I; Boardman, Wayne; Breed, William G; Taggart, David A; Rich, Brian; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    Oxalate nephrosis is a highly prevalent disease in the Mount Lofty Ranges koala population in South Australia, but associated clinicopathologic findings remain undescribed. The aims of this study were to determine plasma biochemical and urinalysis variables, particularly for renal function and urinary crystal morphology and composition, in koalas with oxalate nephrosis. Blood and urine samples from Mount Lofty Ranges koalas with oxalate nephrosis were compared with those unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition from Mount Lofty and Kangaroo Island, South Australia and Moggill, Queensland. Plasma and urine biochemistry variables were analyzed using a Cobas Bio analyzer, and urinary oxalate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary crystal composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Azotemia (urea > 6.6 mmol/L, creatinine > 150 μmol/L) was found in 93% of koalas with oxalate nephrosis (n = 15). All azotemic animals had renal insufficiency (urine specific gravity [USG] Koalas with oxalate nephrosis were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P koalas with oxalate nephrosis had atypical morphology and were composed of calcium oxalate. Mount Lofty Ranges koalas unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition had renal insufficiency (43%), although only 14% had USG koalas were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P Koalas with oxalate nephrosis from the Mount Lofty Ranges had renal insufficiency, hyperoxaluria, and pathognomonic urinary crystals. The findings of this study will aid veterinary diagnosis of this disease. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Real-Time kinetic studies of Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora oxalate oxidase using a luminescent oxygen sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC, an enzyme of the bicupinsuperfamily, catalyzes the decomposition of oxalate into carbondioxide and formate at an optimal pH of 4.3 in the presence ofoxygen. However, about 0.2% of all reactions occur through anoxidase mechanism that consumes oxygen while producing twoequivalents of carbon dioxide and one equivalent of hydrogenperoxide. The kinetics of oxidase activity were studied bymeasuring the consumption of dissolved oxygen over time using a luminescent oxygen sensor. We describe the implementation of and improvements to the oxygen consumption assay. The oxidase activity of wild type OxDC was compared to that of the T165V OxDC mutant, which contains an impaired flexible loop covering the active site. The effects of various carboxylic acid-based buffers on the rate of oxidase activity were also studied. These results were compared to the oxidase activity of oxalate oxidase (OxOx, a similar bicupin enzyme that only carries out oxalate oxidation. Thetemperature dependence of oxidase activity was analyzed, andpreliminary results offer an estimate for the overall activationenergy of the oxidase reaction within OxDC. The data reported here thus provide insights into the mechanism of the oxidase activity of OxDC.

  14. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  15. Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes: stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 44 months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joensson Eva A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-carbohydrate diets, due to their potent antihyperglycemic effect, are an intuitively attractive approach to the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes. We previously reported that a 20% carbohydrate diet was significantly superior to a 55–60% carbohydrate diet with regard to bodyweight and glycemic control in 2 groups of obese diabetes patients observed closely over 6 months (intervention group, n = 16; controls, n = 15 and we reported maintenance of these gains after 22 months. The present study documents the degree to which these changes were preserved in the low-carbohydrate group after 44 months observation time, without close follow-up. In addition, we assessed the performance of the two thirds of control patients from the high-carbohydrate diet group that had changed to a low-carbohydrate diet after the initial 6 month observation period. We report cardiovascular outcome for the low-carbohydrate group as well as the control patients who did not change to a low-carbohydrate diet. Method Retrospective follow-up of previously studied subjects on a low carbohydrate diet. Results The mean bodyweight at the start of the initial study was 100.6 ± 14.7 kg. At six months it was 89.2 ± 14.3 kg. From 6 to 22 months, mean bodyweight had increased by 2.7 ± 4.2 kg to an average of 92.0 ± 14.0 kg. At 44 months average weight has increased from baseline g to 93.1 ± 14.5 kg. Of the sixteen patients, five have retained or reduced bodyweight since the 22 month point and all but one have lower weight at 44 months than at start. The initial mean HbA1c was 8.0 ± 1.5%. After 6, 12 and 22 months, HbA1c was 6.1 ± 1.0%, 7.0 ± 1.3% and 6.9 ± 1.1% respectively. After 44 months mean HbA1c is 6.8 ± 1.3%. Of the 23 patients who have used a low-carbohydrate diet and for whom we have long-term data, two have suffered a cardiovascular event while four of the six controls who never changed diet have suffered several

  16. Role of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin in calcium oxalate crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the defenses against nephrolithiasis is provided by macromolecules that modulate the nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention of crystals in the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to determine the behavior of two of these proteins, Tamm-Horsfall and uromodulin, in calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. We studied a group of 10 male stone formers who had formed at least one kidney stone composed of calcium oxalate. They were classified as having idiopathic nephrolithiasis and had no well-known metabolic risk factors involved in kidney stone pathogenesis. Ten normal men were used as controls, as was a group consisting of five normal women and another consisting of five pregnant women. Crystallization was induced by a fixed supersaturation of calcium oxalate and measured with a Coulter Counter. All findings were confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The number of particulate material deposited from patients with Tamm-Horsfall protein was higher than that of the controls (P<0.001. However, Tamm-Horsfall protein decreased the particle diameter of the stone formers when analyzed by the mode of the volume distribution curve (P<0.002 (5.64 ± 0.55 µm compared to 11.41 ± 0.48 µm of uromodulin; 15.94 ± 3.93 µm and 12.45 ± 0.97 µm of normal men Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 8.17 ± 1.57 µm and 9.82 ± 0.95 µm of normal women Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively; 12.17 ± 1.41 µm and 12.99 ± 0.51 µm of pregnant Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin, respectively. Uromodulin produced fewer particles than Tamm-Horsfall protein in all groups. Nonetheless, the total volume of the crystals produced by uromodulin was higher than that produced by Tamm-Horsfall protein. Our results indicate a different effect of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin. This dual behavior suggests different functions. Tamm-Horsfall protein may act on nucleation and inhibit crystal aggregation, while

  17. A randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of a low glycemic index (GI) diet on body mass index in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alice P S; Choi, Kai Chow; Chan, Ruth S M; Lok, Kris; Ozaki, Risa; Li, Albert M; Ho, Chung Shun; Chan, Michael H M; Sea, Mandy; Henry, C Jeyakumar; Chan, Juliana C N; Woo, Jean

    2014-02-19

    The role of a low glycemic index (GI) diet in the management of adolescent obesity remains controversial. In this study, we aim to evaluate the impact of low GI diet versus a conventional Chinese diet on the body mass index (BMI) and other obesity indices of obese adolescents. Obese adolescents aged 15-18 years were identified from population-recruited, territory-wide surveys. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥95th percentile of Hong Kong local age- and sex-specific references. Eligible subjects were randomized to either an intervention with low GI diet (consisting of 45-50% carbohydrate, 30-35% fat and 15-20% protein) or conventional Chinese diet as control (consisting of 55-60% carbohydrate, 25-30% fat and 10-15% protein). We used random intercept mixed effects model to compare the differential changes across the time points from baseline to month 6 between the 2 groups. 104 obese adolescents were recruited (52 in low GI group and 52 in control group; 43.3% boys). Mean age was 16.7 ± 1.0 years and 16.8 ±1.0 years in low GI and control group respectively. 58.7% subjects completed the study at 6 months (65.4% in low GI group and 51.9% in control group). After adjustment for age and sex, subjects in the low GI group had a significantly greater reduction in obesity indices including BMI, body weight and waist circumference (WC) compared to subjects in the control group (all p GI group compared to the conventional group (p = 0.018). Low GI diet in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle modification program may be an alternative to conventional diet in the management of obese adolescents. ClinicalTrials.gov Ref. No: NCT01278563.

  18. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  19. Dependence of bisphenol A photodegradation on the initial concentration of oxalate in the lepidocrocite-oxalate complex system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jun; LI Fang-bai; LAN Chong-yu; LIU Cheng-shuai; LI Xiao-min; LUAN Tian-gang

    2006-01-01

    To understand the degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in natural environment with existence of iron oxides and carboxylic acids, the dependence ofbisphenol A (BPA) photodegradation on the initial concentration ofoxalate (Cox) in lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) aqueous suspension was investigated under both UV and visible lights in this study. Lepidocrocite powder was home-prepared by a hydrothermal process. It was found that BPA degradation was promoted greatly in the presence of oxalate owing to the formation of lepidocrocite-oxalate complex. And there was an optimal Cox, which was 2.0 and 2.4 mmol/L, under UV and visible lights, respectively. The first-order kinetic constant, k value increased 38 times from 0.17 × 10-2 min-1 in the absence of oxalate to 6.39 × 10-2 min-1 in the presence ofoxalate with an optimal Cox (2.0 mmol/L) under UV irradiation, and almost 306 times from 0.02 × 10-2 min-1 in the absence ofoxalate to 6.11 × 10-2 min-1 in the presence of oxalate with an optimal Cox (2.4 mmol/L) under visible irradiation. The BPA degradation rate increased and the first-order kinetic constants decreased with the increase in BPA initial concentration. The dependence of the variation of pH value, total-Fe and Fe2+ during the photoreaction on Cox was also investigated.The pH value increased obviously with the reaction time. Total-Fe increased dramatically at the first 5 min and then decreased quickly under UV irradiation and slowly under visible irradiation. The initial concentration of oxalate is a main factor to affect BPA photodegradation in aqueous suspension under both UV and visible lights.

  20. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate ('Eco-Atkins') diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-02-05

    Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Change in body weight. 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to -6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and -5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) -1.1 kg (-2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) -0.49 mmol/L (-0.70 to -0.28), pvegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516.

  1. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  2. Effect of low glycemic load diet with and without wheat bran on glucose control in gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A low-glycemic index diet is effective in blood glucose control of diabetic subjects, reduces insulin requirement in women with gestation diabetes mellitus (GDM and improves pregnancy outcomes when used from beginning of the second trimester. However there are limited reports to examine the effect of low glycemic load (LGL diet and fiber on blood glucose control and insulin requirement of women with GDM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of low glycemic load diet with and without fiber on reducing the number of women with GDM requiring insulin. Materials and Methods: All GDM women (n = 31 were randomly allocated to consume either a LGL diet with Fiber or LGL diet. Results: We found that 7 (38.9% of 18 women with GDM in Fiber group and 10 (76.9% in "Without Fiber" group required insulin treatment. Conclusion: The LGL diet with added fiber for women with GDM dramatically reduced the number needing for insulin treatment.

  3. Clinical and histological effect of a low glycaemic load diet in treatment of acne vulgaris in Korean patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Yoon, Ji Young; Hong, Jong Soo; Jung, Jae Yoon; Park, Mi Sun; Suh, Dae Hun

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary factors, specifically glycaemic load, may be involved in the pathogenesis of acne. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and histological effects on acne lesions of a low glycaemic load diet. A total of 32 patients with mild to moderate acne were randomly assigned to either a low glycaemic load diet or a control group diet, and completed a 10-week, parallel dietary intervention trial. Results indicate successful lowering of the glycaemic load. Subjects within the low glycaemic group demonstrated significant clinical improvement in the number of both non-inflammatory and inflammatory acne lesions. Histopathological examination of skin samples revealed several characteristics, including reduced size of sebaceous glands, decreased inflammation, and reduced expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, and interleukin-8 in the low glycaemic load group. A reduction in glycaemic load of the diet for 10 weeks resulted in improvements in acne.

  4. A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A

    2013-02-01

    Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks.

  5. Marginal zone B cells control the response of follicular helper T cells to a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nus, Meritxell; Sage, Andrew P; Lu, Yuning; Masters, Leanne; Lam, Brian Y H; Newland, Stephen; Weller, Sandra; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Raffort, Juliette; Marcus, Damiënne; Finigan, Alison; Kitt, Lauren; Figg, Nichola; Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Kneilling, Manfred; Yeo, Giles S H; Binder, Christoph J; de la Pompa, José Luis; Mallat, Ziad

    2017-05-01

    Splenic marginal zone B (MZB) cells, positioned at the interface between circulating blood and lymphoid tissue, detect and respond to blood-borne antigens. Here we show that MZB cells in mice activate a homeostatic program in response to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and regulate both the differentiation and accumulation of T follicular helper (TFH) cells. Feeding mice an HCD resulted in upregulated MZB cell surface expression of the immunoregulatory ligand PDL1 in an ATF3-dependent manner and increased the interaction between MZB cells and pre-TFH cells, leading to PDL1-mediated suppression of TFH cell motility, alteration of TFH cell differentiation, reduced TFH abundance and suppression of the proatherogenic TFH response. Our findings reveal a previously unsuspected role for MZB cells in controlling the TFH-germinal center response to a cholesterol-rich diet and uncover a PDL1-dependent mechanism through which MZB cells use their innate immune properties to limit an exaggerated adaptive immune response.

  6. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: a diet-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Rasa; Hayes, Jennifer H; Raatz, Susan K; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Khaliq, Waseem; Jacobs, David R; Key, Nigel S; Morawski, Bozena M; Kaiser, Daniel; Bank, Alan J; Gross, Myron

    2015-02-01

    Habitual intake of black tea has been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trial results evaluating the effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have been inconsistent. Several factors could explain these mixed results, in particular, uncontrolled confounding caused by lifestyle factors (eg, diet). This diet-controlled clinical trial estimates the effect of black tea flavonoid consumption on cholesterol concentrations in 57 borderline hypercholesterolemic individuals (total cholesterol concentrations between 190 and 260 mg/dL [4.9 and 6.7 mmol/L]). A double-blind, randomized crossover trial was conducted in Minneapolis, MN, from April 2002 through April 2004 in which key conditions were tightly controlled to minimize possible confounding. Participants consumed a controlled low-flavonoid diet plus 5 cups per day of black tea or tea-like placebo during two 4-week treatment periods. The flavonoid-free caffeinated placebo matched the tea in color and taste. Differences in cholesterol concentrations at the end of each treatment period were evaluated via linear mixed models. Differences among those treated with tea vs placebo were 3.43 mg/dL (0.09 mmol/L) (95% CI -7.08 to 13.94) for total cholesterol, -1.02 mg/dL (-0.03 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.34 to 9.30) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 0.58 mg/dL (0.02 mmol/L) (95% CI -2.98 to 4.14) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 15.22 mg/dL (0.17 mmol/L) (95% CI -40.91 to 71.35) for triglycerides, and -0.39 mg/dL (-0.01 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.16 to 10.38) for low-density lipoprotein plus high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio decreased by -0.1 units (95% CI -0.41 to 0.21). No results were statistically or clinically significant. The intake of 5 cups of black tea per day did not alter the lipid profile of borderline hypercholesterolemic subjects

  7. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  8. The Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Function among Healthy Older Adults in a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial: The MedLey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Knight

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from a limited number of randomised controlled intervention trials (RCTs have shown that a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of cognitive decline and enhance cognitive function among healthy older adults. However, there are currently no data in non-Mediterranean older adult populations. The present study aimed to address this gap by examining the effect of a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet for six months on aspects of cognitive function in a randomised controlled intervention trial (the MedLey study that extended for a duration of 18 months. In the final analysed cohort, a total of 137 men and women (mean age of 72.1 ± 5.0 years randomly assigned to either a MedDiet or control diet (HabDiet (i.e., habitual dietary intake, were assessed on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, including 11 individual tests. In multivariable-adjusted models, the MedDiet group did not perform significantly better than the HabDiet control group for executive functioning (adjusted mean differences: +2.53, 95% CI −2.59 to 7.65, p = 0.33; speed of processing (adjusted mean differences: +3.24, 95% CI −1.21 to 7.70, p = 0.15; memory (adjusted mean differences: +2.00, 95% CI −3.88 to 7.88, p = 0.50; visual-spatial ability (adjusted mean differences: +0.21, 95% CI −0.38 to 0.81, 0.48; and overall age-related cognitive performance (adjusted mean differences: +7.99, 95% CI −4.00 to 19.9, p = 0.19. In conclusion, this study did not find evidence of a beneficial effect of a MedDiet intervention on cognitive function among healthy older adults.

  9. A randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet versus no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Maternal weight and maternal weight gain during pregnancy exert a significant influence on infant birth weight and the incidence of macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia is associated with an increase in both adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome, and also confers a future risk of childhood obesity. Studies have shown that a low glycaemic diet is associated with lower birth weights, however these studies have been small and not randomised 1 2 . Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women, and maternal weight influences this recurrence risk 3 . Methods\\/Design We propose a randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet vs. no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia. Secundigravid women whose first baby was macrosomic, defined as a birth weight greater than 4000 g will be recruited at their first antenatal visit. Patients will be randomised into two arms, a control arm which will receive no dietary intervention and a diet arm which will be commenced on a low glycaemic index diet. The primary outcome measure will be the mean birth weight centiles and ponderal indices in each group. Discussion Altering the source of maternal dietary carbohydrate may prove to be valuable in the management of pregnancies where there has been a history of fetal macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women. This randomised control trial will investigate whether or not a low glycaemic index diet can affect this recurrence risk. Current Controlled Trials Registration Number ISRCTN54392969

  10. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  11. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  12. Multiple indicators of poor diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes are associated with higher body mass index percentile but not glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L; Lipsky, Leah M; Laffel, Lori M B; Mehta, Sanjeev N

    2012-11-01

    Diet is a cornerstone of type 1 diabetes treatment, and poor diet quality may affect glycemic control and other health outcomes. Yet diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes remains understudied. To evaluate multiple indicators of diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their associations with hemoglobin A1c and body mass index percentile. In this cross-sectional study, participants completed 3-day diet records, and data were abstracted from participants' medical records. Diet quality indicators included servings of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) score; Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 score (NRF 9.3); and glycemic index. Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes ≥ 1 year, aged 8 to 18 years, were recruited at routine clinic visits. Of 291 families enrolled, 252 provided diet data. Associations of diet quality indicators to HbA1c and body mass index percentile were examined using analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. Participants demonstrated low adherence to dietary guidelines; mean HEI-2005 score was 53.4 ± 11.0 (range = 26.7 to 81.2). Intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains was less than half the recommended amount. Almost half of the participants' daily energy intake was derived from refined-grain products, desserts, chips, and sweetened beverages. Higher fruit (P = 0.04) and whole-grain (P = 0.03) intake were associated with lower HbA1c in unadjusted, but not adjusted analyses; vegetable intake, HEI-2005 score, NRF 9.3 score, and glycemic index were not associated with HbA1c. Higher fruit (P = 0.01) and whole-grain (P = 0.04) intake and NRF 9.3 score (P = 0.02), but not other diet quality indicators, were associated with lower body mass index percentile in adjusted analyses. Data demonstrate poor diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes and provide support for the importance of diet quality for weight management. Future research on determinants of

  13. Diet control on carbon isotopic composition of land snail shell carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZongXiu; GU ZhaoYan; WU NaiQin; XU Bing

    2007-01-01

    Carbon isotope compositions for both the carbonate shells and soft bodies (organic tissue) of living land snails collected mostly from the Loess Plateau, China have been measured. The result shows that δ13C values range from -13.1‰ to -4.3‰ for the aragonite shell samples and from -26.8‰ to -18.0‰ for the soft body samples. Although the shells are enriched in 13C relative to the bodies averagely by 14.2(±0.8)‰, the shell δ13Ca values are closely correlated to the body δ13Corg values, expressed as δ13Ca = 1.021 δ13Corg + 14.38 (R = 0.965; N = 31). This relationship indicates that δ13Ca is primarily a function of the isotopic composition of the snail diets since previous studies have proved that the snail body is the same as their food in carbon isotope composition. In other words, carbon isotope compo-sition of the carbonate shell can be used as a proxy to estimate the dietary 13C abundance of the land snails. The data also support that the 13C enrichment of the carbonate shells results mainly from the equilibrium fractionations between the metabolic CO2, HCO3- in the hemolymph and shell aragonite, and partially from kinetic fractionations when snail shells form during their activity.

  14. Genetic Mutation of Vitamin K-dependent Gamma-glutamyl Car-boxylase Domain in Patients with Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankun QIAO; Tao WANG; Jun YANG; Jihong LIU; Xiaoxin GONG; Xiaolin GUO; Shaogang WANG; Zhangqun YE

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the exon mutation of vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX or VKDC) in patients with calcium oxalate urolithasis, renal cortex and peripheral blood sam-ples were obtained from severe hydronephrosis patients (with or without calculi), and renal tumor pa-tients undergoing nephrectomy. GGCX mutations in all 15 exons were examined in 44 patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis (COU) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denatured high pressure liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and confirmed by sequencing. Mutation was not found in all COU samples compared to the controls. These data demonstrated that functional GGCX mutations in all 15 exons do not occur in most COU patients. It was suggested that there may be no significant association between the low activity and mutation of GGCX in COU.

  15. Optimal Macronutrient Content of the Diet for Adolescents With Prediabetes; RESIST a Randomised Control Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garnett, Sarah P; Gow, Megan; Ho, Mandy; Baur, Louise A; Noakes, Manny; Woodhead, Helen J; Broderick, Carolyn R; Burrell, Susie; Chisholm, Kerryn; Halim, Jocelyn; De, Sukanya; Steinbeck, Katherine; Srinivasan, Shubha; Ambler, Geoffrey R; Kohn, Michael R; Cowell, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    ...: This study was a randomized controlled trial, known as Researching Effective Strategies to Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Children and Teenagers, in 2 hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Participants...

  16. Natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soils: results from aromatic model compounds and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan G; Kotte, Karsten; Schöler, Heinz F

    2013-02-05

    Oxalic acid is the smallest dicarboxylic acid and plays an important role in soil processes (e.g., mineral weathering and metal detoxification in plants). We have first proven its abiotic formation in soils and investigated natural abiotic degradation processes based on the oxidation of soil organic matter, enhanced by Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) as hydroxyl radical suppliers. Experiments with the model compound catechol and further hydroxylated benzenes were performed to examine a common degradation pathway and to presume a general formation mechanism of oxalic acid. Two soil samples were tested for the release of oxalic acid and the potential effects of various soil parameters on oxalic acid formation. Additionally, the soil samples were treated with different soil sterilization methods to prove the oxalic acid formation under abiotic soil conditions. Different series of model experiments were conducted to determine a range of factors including Fe(3+), H(2)O(2), reaction time, pH, and chloride concentration on oxalic acid formation. Under certain conditions, catechol is degraded up to 65.6% to oxalic acid referring to carbon. In serial experiments with two soil samples, oxalic acid was produced, and the obtained results are suggestive of an abiotic degradation process. In conclusion, Fenton-like conditions with low Fe(3+) concentrations and an excess of H(2)O(2) as well as acidic conditions were required for an optimal oxalic acid formation. The presence of chloride reduced oxalic acid formation.

  17. Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, K; Kiyosue, A; Inoue, S; Ueda, N; Tokudome, T; Yang, J; Langkilde, A M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled by diet and exercise. Patients received placebo or dapagliflozin (5 or 10 mg) once daily for 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Patients (N = 261) had modestly elevated baseline HbA1c (mean ≈ 7.5%) and most had mild or moderate renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate range 43-103 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Greater reductions in mean HbA1c level were observed with dapagliflozin (5 mg, -0.41%; 10 mg, -0.45%) than with placebo (-0.06%) at week 24 and these were greater in patients with higher baseline HbA1c levels. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was also significantly reduced with dapagliflozin (5 mg, -8.6 mg/dl; 10 mg, -13.7 mg/dl) compared with placebo (+5.8 mg/dl). Dapagliflozin significantly reduced body weight (5 mg, -2.13 kg; 10 mg, -2.22 kg) compared with placebo (-0.84 kg). Overall, 47.7 and 64.8% of patients with dapagliflozin 5 and 10 mg, respectively, and 51.7% with placebo experienced ≥ 1 adverse event, mostly mild or moderate, and unrelated to study treatment. Two patients on dapagliflozin 10 mg reported hypoglycaemia. Four patients across all groups reported events suggestive of genital infection and four of urinary tract infection. No events of pyelonephritis were reported. Dapagliflozin (5 and 10 mg) was well tolerated and effective in reducing HbA1c, FPG and body weight over 24 weeks in Japanese patients with T2DM inadequately controlled by diet and exercise. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Diet and prostate cancer risk with specific focus on dairy products and dietary calcium: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Sara; Mabrouk, Jihène Ben; Shatenstein, Bryna; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Ghadirian, Parviz

    2010-07-01

    Despite the prevalence of prostate cancer worldwide, only a few risk factors have been well-established. The role of diet, especially of dairy products, in the etiology of prostate cancer is still controversial. This study assessed the association of dietary components, particularly dairy products and dietary calcium, on prostate cancer risk in a case-control study of 197 cases and an equal number of individually matched controls recruited in Montreal, Canada. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered in which the usual consumption frequency and amounts consumed of more than 200 food items were recorded. We found a twofold increased risk of prostate cancer associated with an increased intake of dairy products {Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.19; 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) 1.22-3.94}. A significant trend of decreasing prostate cancer risk with higher intake was found for legumes, nuts, finfish/shellfish and for alpha-tocopherol after adjustment for calcium intake. Milk was the only dairy product significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, with OR = 2.27; 95% CI (1.25-4.09) for the highest versus lowest quartiles of consumption. Calcium, the main micronutrient contained in dairy products, showed only a borderline association with prostate cancer risk (P = 0.09), with slightly higher risk for higher calcium intake. In conclusion, this study supports the hypothesis that dairy products, especially milk, are involved in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms by which the various nutrients in dairy products and total diet may interact to influence this risk remain unknown.

  19. The effect of a high-protein, low glycemic-load diet versus a conventional, high glycemic-load diet on biochemical parameters associated with acne vulgaris: a randomized, investigator-masked, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robyn N; Mann, Neil J; Braue, Anna; Mäkeläinen, Henna; Varigos, George A

    2007-08-01

    No previous study has sought to examine the influence of dietary composition on acne vulgaris. We sought to compare the effect of an experimental low glycemic-load diet with a conventional high glycemic-load diet on clinical and endocrine aspects of acne vulgaris. A total of 43 male patients with acne completed a 12-week, parallel, dietary intervention study with investigator-masked dermatology assessments. Primary outcomes measures were changes in lesion counts, sex hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. At 12 weeks, total lesion counts had decreased more in the experimental group (-21.9 [95% confidence interval, -26.8 to -19.0]) compared with the control group (-13.8 [-19.1 to -8.5], P = .01). The experimental diet also reduced weight (P = .001), reduced the free androgen index (P = .04), and increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (P = .001) when compared with a high glycemic-load diet. We could not preclude the role of weight loss in the overall treatment effect. This suggests nutrition-related lifestyle factors play a role in acne pathogenesis. However, these preliminary findings should be confirmed by similar studies.

  20. Preparation, spectral and thermal studies of neodymium zirconyl oxalate hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, V.B.; Mehrotra, P.N. (Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    Neodymium zirconyl oxalate (NdZrOX) is prepared and characterized by chemical analysis and IR spectral studies. Its thermal decomposition was investigated using DTA, TG, DTG, x-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Based on thermogravimetry and isothermal studies a probable mechanism for the decomposition is proposed. The decomposition proceeds mainly through three stages: dehydration between RT-413 K; decomposition of oxalate between 413-943 K; and decomposition of the carbonate between 1028-1235 K to give a mixed oxide. The IR spectra and x-ray diffraction studies are made for identification of the intermediates. X-ray diffraction studies of the end product indicates that it belongs to cubic crystal system.

  1. Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Dalal; K B Saraf

    2011-04-01

    Single crystals of strontium oxalate have been grown by using strontium chloride and oxalic acid in agar–agar gel media at ambient temperature. Different methods for growing crystals were adopted. The optimum conditions were employed in each method by varying concentration of gel and reactants, and gel setting time etc. Transparent prismatic bi-pyramidal platy-shaped and spherulite crystals were obtained in various methods. The grown crystals were characterized with the help of FT–IR studies and monoclinic system of crystals were supported with lattice parameters = 9.67628 Å, = 6.7175 Å, = 8.6812 Å, = 113.566°, and = 521.84 Å3 calculated from X-ray diffractogram.

  2. Bis(l-serinium oxalate dihydrate: polymorph II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kulik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A corrected and improved structure of the polymorph II of 2C3H8NO3+·C2O42−·2H2O, based on single-crystal data, is presented. The structure is refined with anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms and all H atoms are located. Due to the charged moieties, the structure is classified as a molecular salt. Intermolecular O—H...O−, O—H...O and N+—H...O−hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure. The l-serinium cations and oxalate anions form a network of channels in [100] direction, filled with the water molecules of crystallization. The dihedral angle between the CO2 units of the oxalate dianion is 10.2 (3°

  3. Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Simona; Caporelli, Nicole; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Barbato, Maria; Roggero, Paola; Malamisura, Basilio; Iacono, Giuseppe; Budelli, Andrea; Gesuita, Rosaria; Catassi, Carlo; Lionetti, Elena

    2013-01-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24264227

  4. Oats in the diet of children with celiac disease: preliminary results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Simona; Caporelli, Nicole; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Barbato, Maria; Roggero, Paola; Malamisura, Basilio; Iacono, Giuseppe; Budelli, Andrea; Gesuita, Rosaria; Catassi, Carlo; Lionetti, Elena

    2013-11-20

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet "A", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "B"), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet "B", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "A"). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  5. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  6. Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gatti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A gluten-free diet (GFD is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”, or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”. A and B diets included gluten-free (GF products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score and intestinal permeability tests (IPT, were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  7. 姜黄素干预对乙二醇诱导的大鼠肾草酸钙结石形成的影响%Effects of curcumin intervention on ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢锋; 张士青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of curcumin intervention on ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats. Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into single nephrolithiasis induction group (calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis induced by 1% ethylene glycol drinking), nephrolithiasis induction + curcumin intervention group (1% ethylene glycol drinking + intragastric administration of 20 mg o kg-1 o d-1 curcumin), single curcumin group (deionized water drinking + intragastric administration of 20 mg o kg-1 o d-1 curcumin) and blank control group (deionized water drinking), with 8 rats in each group. Before and after the experiment (4 weeks after treatment), serum and urine concentrations of ionized calcium and magnesium, urine oxalic acid, urine citric acid and serum concentration of creatinine were measured in rats. Rats were sacrificed, renal tissues were obtained, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in renal tissues were determined, the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tissues was observed with HE staining, and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL method. Results Compared with blank control group, the urine oxalic acid, apoptosis index of renal tubular epithelial cells, content of MDA in renal tissues and serum concentration of creatinine were moderately higher, and the urine concentration of ionized magnesium, urine content of citric acid and activity of T-SOD in renal tissues were moderately lower in single curcumin group. Compared with single nephrolithiasis induction group, the urine oxalic acid, apoptosis index of renal tubular epithelial cells and content of MDA in renal tissues were significantly decreased, and the Urine concentration of ionized magnesium, urine content of citric acid and activity of T-SOD in renal tissues were significantly increased in nephrolithiasis induction + curcumin intervention group ( P < 0. 05

  8. Equilibrium studies of oxalate and aluminum containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to develop data on the solubility and conditions leading to precipitation of sodium oxalate, sodium nitrate, Bayerite (a polymorph of gibbsite, Al(OH)3), and sodium aluminosilicate solids recently found in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The data generated will be used to improve the OLI Systems thermodynamic database for these compounds allowing better prediction of solids formation by the modeling software in the future.

  9. Neutral tripodal receptors towards efficient trapping of oxalate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjan Dutta; Bijit Chowdhury; Purnandhu Bose; Pradyut Ghosh

    2014-09-01

    Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) based pentafluorophenyl urea and 4-cyanophenyl thiourea receptors have shown encapsulation of oxalate (C2O$^{2−}_{4}$) in semi-aqueous environment. A single crystal X-ray study shows trapping of planar conformer of C2O$^{2−}_{4}$ in both the cases. Further solution state binding of C2O$^{2−}_{4}$ is probed by 1H-NMR titration study in semi-aqueous solvent.

  10. Conductivity of Oxalic Acid in Aqueous Solution at Low Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪良; 韩世钧

    2005-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a weak and unsymmetrical bi-basic acid. There exist dissociation and association equilibria among the species in aqueous solution. The molar conductivity of the solution is the sum of the ionic contributions.Based on this idea, a new prediction equation of ionic conductivity was proposed at low concentration. The molar conductivities of the solution and its relevant ions were calculated respectively. The results obtained were in good agreement with those from experiments and the Quint-Viallard equation.

  11. Hafnium(IV) complexation with oxalate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, Mitchell T.; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullmanm, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-08-01

    Appropriate management of fission products in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is crucial in developing advanced reprocessing schemes. The addition of aqueous phase complexing agents can prevent the co-extraction of these fission products. A solvent extraction technique was used to study the complexation of Hf(IV) - an analog to fission product Zr(IV) - with oxalate at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4} utilizing a {sup 175+181}Hf radiotracer. The mechanism of the solvent extraction system of 10{sup -5} M Hf(IV) in 1 M HClO{sub 4} to thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene demonstrated a 4{sup th}-power dependence in both TTA and H{sup +}, with Hf(TTA){sub 4} the only extractable species. The equilibrium constant for the extraction of Hf(TTA){sub 4} was determined to be log K{sub ex}=7.67±0.07 (25±1 C, 1 M HClO{sub 4}). The addition of oxalate to the aqueous phase decreased the distribution ratio, indicating aqueous Hf(IV)-oxalate complex formation. Polynomial fits to the distribution data identified the formation of Hf(ox){sup 2+} and Hf(ox){sub 2(aq)} and their stability constants were measured at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4}. van't Hoff analysis was used to calculate Δ{sub r}G, Δ{sub r}H, and Δ{sub r}S for these species. Stability constants were observed to increase at higher temperature, an indication that Hf(IV)-oxalate complexation is endothermic and driven by entropy.

  12. In vitro formation of Ca-oxalates and the mineral glushinskite by fungal interaction with carbonate substrates and seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kolo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vitro formation of Ca-oxalates and glushinskite through fungal interaction with carbonate substrates and seawater. In the first experiment, thin-sections prepared from dolomitic rock samples of Terwagne Formation (Carboniferous, Viséan, northern France served as substrates. The thin sections placed in Petri dishes were exposed to fungi grown from naturally existing airborne spores. In the second experiment, fungal growth and mineral formation was monitored using only standard seawater (SSW as substrate. Fungal growth media consisted of a high protein/carbohydrates and sugar diet with demineralised water for irrigation. Fungal growth process reached completion under uncontrolled laboratory conditions. The fungal interaction and attack on the carbonate substrates resulted in the formation of Ca-oxalates (weddellite CaC2O4·2(H2O, whewellite (CaC2O4·(H2O and glushinskite MgC2O4·2(H2O associated with the destruction of the original substrate and its replacement by the new minerals. The seawater substrate resulted also in the formation of glushinskite and Ca-oxalates. Both of Ca and Mg were mobilized from the experimental substrates by fungi. The newly formed minerals and textural changes caused by fungal attack on the carbonate substrate were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX, x-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The results document the role of microorganisms in biomineralization, neo-mineral formation and sediment diagenesis. They also reveal the capacity of living fungi to interact with liquid substrates and precipitate new minerals. This work is the first report on the in vitro formation of the mineral glushinskite through fungal-carbonate and sea water substrates interactions processes.

  13. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic evaluation of oxalate-degrading transgenic soybean in response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calla, Bernarda; Blahut-Beatty, Laureen; Koziol, Lisa; Zhang, Yunfang; Neece, David J; Carbajulca, Doris; Garcia, Alexandre; Simmonds, Daina H; Clough, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Oxalate oxidases (OxO) catalyse the degradation of oxalic acid (OA). Highly resistant transgenic soybean carrying an OxO gene and its susceptible parent soybean line, AC Colibri, were tested for genome-wide gene expression in response to the necrotrophic, OA-producing pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using soybean cDNA microarrays. The genes with changed expression at statistically significant levels (overall F-test P-value cut-off of 0.0001) were classified into functional categories and pathways, and were analysed to evaluate the differences in transcriptome profiles. Although many genes and pathways were found to be similarly activated or repressed in both genotypes after inoculation with S. sclerotiorum, the OxO genotype displayed a measurably faster induction of basal defence responses, as observed by the differential changes in defence-related and secondary metabolite genes compared with its susceptible parent AC Colibri. In addition, the experiment presented provides data on several other transcripts that support the hypothesis that S. sclerotiorum at least partially elicits the hypersensitive response, induces lignin synthesis (cinnamoyl CoA reductase) and elicits as yet unstudied signalling pathways (G-protein-coupled receptor and related). Of the nine genes showing the most extreme opposite directions of expression between genotypes, eight were related to photosynthesis and/or oxidation, highlighting the importance of redox in the control of this pathogen.

  15. A culturally adapted telecommunication system to improve physical activity, diet quality, and medication adherence among hypertensive African-Americans: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneault, Jeffrey P; Dedier, Julien J; Wright, Julie A; Heeren, Timothy; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Morisky, Donald E; Rudd, Peter; Friedman, Robert H

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is more prevalent and clinically severe among African-Americans than whites. Several health behaviors influence blood pressure (BP) control, but effective, accessible, culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple behaviors are lacking. We evaluated a culturally adapted, automated telephone system to help hypertensive, urban African-American adults improve their adherence to their antihypertensive medication regimen and to evidence-based guidelines for dietary behavior and physical activity. We randomized 337 hypertensive primary care patients to an 8-month automated, multi-behavior intervention or to an education-only control. Medication adherence, diet, physical activity, and BP were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for 1 year. Data were analyzed using longitudinal modeling. The intervention was associated with improvements in a measure of overall diet quality (+3.5 points, p telecommunications systems can promote self-management of diet and energy balance in urban African-Americans.

  16. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Newsome, Thomas M.; Dickman, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators—mesopredators—often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time, especially in areas

  17. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Newsome, Alan E; Newsome, Thomas M; Dickman, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time, especially in areas where

  18. High protein diet maintains glucose production during exercise-induced energy deficit: a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaneda-Sceppa Carmen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metabolism are mitigated by increased dietary protein. Methods Nineteen men ([mean ± SD] 23 ± 2 y, VO2peak 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1 were divided into three groups, two consuming moderate (MP; 0.9 g protein kg-1 d-1, and one high (HP; 1.8 g protein kg-1 d-1 protein diets (55% energy from carbohydrate for 11 days. Following 4 days of energy balance (D1-4, energy expenditure was increased for 7 days (D5-12 in all groups. Energy intake was unchanged in two, creating a 1000 kcal d-1 deficit (DEF-MP, DEF-HP; n = 6, both groups, whereas energy balance was maintained in the third (BAL-MP, n = 7. Biochemical markers of substrate metabolism were measured during fasting rest on D4 and D12, as were GP and contribution of gluconeogenesis to endogenous glucose production (fgng using 4-h primed, continuous infusions of [6,6-2H2]glucose (dilution-method and [2-13C]glycerol (MIDA technique. Glycogen breakdown (GB was derived from GP and fgng. Results Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels increased, and plasma glucose and insulin declined from D4 to D12, regardless of group. DEF-MP experienced decreased plasma GP from D4 to D12 ([mean change ± SD] 0.24 ± 0.24 mg·kg-1·min-1, due to reduced GB from D4 (1.40 ± 0.28 mg·kg-1·min-1 to D12 (1.16 ± 0.17 mg·kg-1·min-1, P -1·min-1, respectively by maintaining GB. Conclusion Exercise-induced energy deficit decreased GP and additional dietary protein mitigated that effect.

  19. High protein diet maintains glucose production during exercise-induced energy deficit: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Montain, Scott J; Rood, Jennifer; Pikosky, Matthew A; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Glickman, Ellen; Young, Andrew J

    2011-04-28

    Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP) to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metabolism are mitigated by increased dietary protein. Nineteen men ([mean ± SD] 23 ± 2 y, VO2peak 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1) were divided into three groups, two consuming moderate (MP; 0.9 g protein kg-1 d-1), and one high (HP; 1.8 g protein kg-1 d-1) protein diets (55% energy from carbohydrate) for 11 days. Following 4 days of energy balance (D1-4), energy expenditure was increased for 7 days (D5-12) in all groups. Energy intake was unchanged in two, creating a 1000 kcal d-1 deficit (DEF-MP, DEF-HP; n = 6, both groups), whereas energy balance was maintained in the third (BAL-MP, n = 7). Biochemical markers of substrate metabolism were measured during fasting rest on D4 and D12, as were GP and contribution of gluconeogenesis to endogenous glucose production (fgng) using 4-h primed, continuous infusions of [6,6-2H2]glucose (dilution-method) and [2-13C]glycerol (MIDA technique). Glycogen breakdown (GB) was derived from GP and fgng. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels increased, and plasma glucose and insulin declined from D4 to D12, regardless of group. DEF-MP experienced decreased plasma GP from D4 to D12 ([mean change ± SD] 0.24 ± 0.24 mg·kg-1·min-1), due to reduced GB from D4 (1.40 ± 0.28 mg·kg-1·min-1) to D12 (1.16 ± 0.17 mg·kg-1·min-1), P < 0.05. Conversely, BAL-MP and DEF-HP sustained GP from D4 to D12 ([mean change ± SD] 0.1 ± 0.5 and 0.0 ± 0.2 mg·kg-1·min-1, respectively) by maintaining GB. Exercise-induced energy deficit decreased GP and additional dietary protein mitigated that effect.

  20. Mediterranean diet cools down the inflammatory milieu in type 2 diabetes: the MÉDITA randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Petrizzo, Michela; Scappaticcio, Lorenzo; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2016-12-01

    Mediterranean-style diets provide cardiovascular benefits and increase insulin sensitivity. There is little evidence that adherence to Mediterranean diet may influence the levels of the inflammatory milieu in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess whether Mediterranean diet influences both C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiponectin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, and whether adherence to Mediterranean diet affects their circulating levels. In a two-arm, single-center trial, 215 men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a Mediterranean diet (n = 108, 54 males and 54 females) or a low-fat diet (n = 107, 52 males and 55 females), with a total follow-up of 8.1 years. At baseline visit and at 1 year, body weight, HOMA index, CRP, and adiponectin and its fractions were assessed. Adherence to the diets was assessed by calculating the Mediterranean-diet score. At 1 year, CPR fell by 37 % and adiponectin rose by 43 % in the Mediterranean diet group, while remaining unchanged in the low-fat diet group. The pattern of adiponectin fractions (high and non-high molecular weight) showed a response similar to that of total adiponectin. Diabetic patients with the highest scores (6-9 points) of adherence to Mediterranean diet had lower circulating CRP level and higher circulating total adiponectin levels than the diabetic patients who scored Mediterranean diet cools down the inflammatory milieu of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Effect of a controlled-release urea supplement on rumen fermentation in sheep fed a diet of sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum), corn stubble (Zea mays) and King grass (Pennisetum purpureum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, D C.; Galina, H M.; Pérez-Gil, R F.; Sanginés, G L.; Aguilera, B A.; Haenlein, G F.W.

    2001-03-01

    Four cannulated sheep were used to study ruminal fermentation of a diet consisting of 60% sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum), 30% corn stubble (Zea mays), 10% King grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 0% (control), 10, 20 or 30% controlled-release urea supplement (CRUS) (diets 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Average ruminal pH did not differ among diets (P>0.05), but during the first 6h of sampling tended to be higher for CRUS diets. Ammonia concentrations were higher (P0.05). Total amounts of ruminal VFA were lowest (P<0.01) in controls, while CRUS diets produced more of these energy sources. Supplementation of the high fiber diets with 10, 20 or 30% CRUS increasingly improved rumen fermentation, ammonia supply and VFA production. The results show that low quality forages (up to 70% DMI) can be used efficiently by sheep when conditions for ruminal microorganism are improved with a controlled-release urea supplement.

  2. Acute oxalate poisoning attributable to ingestion of curly dock (Rumex crispus) in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, R J; Martin, T; Burrows, G E; Taylor, D S; Rice, L E

    1990-06-15

    Ten of 100 mature ewes were afflicted with acute oxalate toxicosis within 40 hours after being temporarily penned in a lot that contained considerable growing Rumex crispus (curly dock). Clinical signs of toxicosis included excess salivation, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency. Affected ewes were markedly hypocalcemic and azotemic. Oxalate crystals were not observed in urine. Gross postmortem lesions were minimal and nondiagnostic in 2 ewes that died peracutely, but perirenal edema and renal tubular degeneration were clearly observable in ewes euthanatized on the third day of toxicosis. Diagnosis of oxalate toxicosis was confirmed by histopathologic findings. Samples of Rumex spp contained 6.6 to 11.1% oxalic acid on a dry-weight basis, a concentration comparable with that in other oxalate-containing plants that have caused acute oxalate toxicosis.

  3. Cruciferous vegetable supplementation in a controlled diet study alters the serum peptidome in a GSTM1-genotype dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with the risk of several cancers. Isothiocyanates (ITC are hypothesized to be the major bioactive constituents contributing to these cancer-preventive effects. The polymorphic glutathione-S-transferase (GST gene family encodes several enzymes which catalyze ITC degradation in vivo. Methods We utilized high throughput proteomics methods to examine how human serum peptides (the "peptidome" change in response to cruciferous vegetable feeding in individuals of different GSTM1 genotypes. In two randomized, crossover, controlled feeding studies (EAT and 2EAT participants consumed a fruit- and vegetable-free basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with cruciferous vegetables. Serum samples collected at the end of the feeding period were fractionated and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry spectra were obtained. Peak identification/alignment computer algorithms and mixed effects models were used to analyze the data. Results After analysis of spectra from EAT participants, 24 distinct peaks showed statistically significant differences associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Twenty of these peaks were driven by their GSTM1 genotype (i.e., GSTM1+ or GSTM1- null. When data from EAT and 2EAT participants were compared by joint processing of spectra to align a common set, 6 peaks showed consistent changes in both studies in a genotype-dependent manner. The peaks at 6700 m/z and 9565 m/z were identified as an isoform of transthyretin (TTR and a fragment of zinc α2-glycoprotein (ZAG, respectively. Conclusions Cruciferous vegetable intake in GSTM1+ individuals led to changes in circulating levels of several peptides/proteins, including TTR and a fragment of ZAG. TTR is a known marker of nutritional status and ZAG is an adipokine that plays a role in lipid mobilization. The results of this study present evidence that the GSTM1

  4. Social media interventions for diet and exercise behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gillian; Hamm, Michele P; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Vandermeer, Ben; Hartling, Lisa

    2014-02-12

    To conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the use of social media to promote healthy diet and exercise in the general population. MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge and ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis (2000-2013). RCTs of social media interventions promoting healthy diet and exercise behaviours in the general population were eligible. Interventions using social media, alone or as part of a complex intervention, were included. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. We describe the studies according to the target populations, objectives and nature of interventions, outcomes examined, and results and conclusions. We extracted data on the primary and secondary outcomes examined in each study. Where the same outcome was assessed in at least three studies, we combined data in a meta-analysis. 22 studies were included. Participants were typically middle-aged Caucasian women of mid-to-high socioeconomic status. There were a variety of interventions, comparison groups and outcomes. All studies showed a decrease in programme usage throughout the intervention period. Overall, no significant differences were found for primary outcomes which varied across studies. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences in changes in physical activity (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.13 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.30), 12 studies) and weight (SMD -0.00 (95% CI -0.19 to 0.19), 10 studies); however, pooled results from five studies showed a significant decrease in dietary fat consumption with social media (SMD -0.35 (95% CI -0.68 to -0.02)). Social media may provide certain advantages for public health interventions; however, studies of social media interventions to date relating to healthy lifestyles tend to show low levels of participation and do not show significant differences between groups in key outcomes.

  5. Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerlin Alona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrocapsiate (DCT is a natural safe food ingredient which is structurally related to capsaicin from chili pepper and is found in the non-pungent pepper strain, CH-19 Sweet. It has been shown to elicit the thermogenic effects of capsaicin but without its gastrointestinal side effects. Methods The present study was designed to examine the effects of DCT on both adaptive thermogenesis as the result of caloric restriction with a high protein very low calorie diet (VLCD and to determine whether DCT would increase post-prandial energy expenditure (PPEE in response to a 400 kcal/60 g protein liquid test meal. Thirty-three subjects completed an outpatient very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day providing 120 g/day protein over 4 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive either DCT capsules three times per day (3 mg or 9 mg or placebo. At baseline and 4 weeks, fasting basal metabolic rate and PPEE were measured in a metabolic hood and fat free mass (FFM determined using displacement plethysmography (BOD POD. Results PPEE normalized to FFM was increased significantly in subjects receiving 9 mg/day DCT by comparison to placebo (p Conclusions These data provide evidence for postprandial increases in thermogenesis and fat oxidation secondary to administration of dihydrocapsiate. Trial registration clinicaltrial.govNCT01142687

  6. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into ...

  7. Determining the Biochemical Properties of the Oxalate Biosynthetic Component (Obc)1 from Burkholderia mallei

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Peter M.; Nakata, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Oxalic acid is produced by a variety of organisms ranging from simple microbes to complex animals. This acid has been proposed to fulfill various physiological and pathological functions which vary between organisms. In bacteria from the Burkholderia genus, oxalate secretion has been shown to be quorum sensing dependent and to support pathogenicity and cell viability. In light of the critical roles of oxalate in Burkholderia as well as other organisms, it is surprising that our understanding ...

  8. Determination of common anions in oxalate by ion chromatography coupled with UV photolysis pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Lin Cao; Ming Li Ye; Wei De Lv; Guang Wen Pan; Ting Ting Zhang; Zhong Yang Hu; Li Na Liang; Yan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A new and simple method was developed to determine anions in oxalate of analytical reagent grade.After UV photolysis with optimal 1% H2O2 in 10,000 mg/L oxalate in the fabricated photoreactor,sample was directly injected into IC system.Satisfactory linearity,detections limits,good repeatability and spiked recovery were obtained.The method was successfully applied to determine anions in two commercial oxalate samples.

  9. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy Associated with Orlistat: A Case Report with a Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Orlistat is a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor used for weight reduction in obese individuals. Enteric hyperoxaluria caused by orlistat leads to oxalate absorption. Acute oxalate nephropathy is a rare complication of treatment with orlistat. Herein we report a patient presenting with acute renal failure which improved minimal with intravenous hydration. She was found to have oxalate crystals on renal biopsy. Patient admitted orlistat use over the counter for weight reduction on further quest...

  10. Reconstruction of the drive underlying food intake and its control by leptin and dieting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of food and the expenditure of calories is modelled by a system of differential equations. The state variables are the amount of calories stored in adipose tissue and the level of plasma leptin. The model has as input a drive that controls the intake of food. This drive consists of a coll

  11. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, I.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Berkelaar, E.; Schut, E.; Penders, R.; Hoenderdos, K.; Jong, de M.C.; Wichers, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a

  12. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome : a randomized controlled pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Inge; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Berkelaar, Evert; Schut, Erik; Penders, Ria; Hoenderdos, Karine; Wichers, Harry J.; Jong, Miek C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a

  13. A randomised, controlled, crossover study of the effect of diet on angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) through modification of the gut microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blædel, Trine; Holm, Jacob B.; Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer

    2016-01-01

    . The study had a crossover design with three arms, where participants were given a standardised isoenergetic diet supplemented with inulin powder, whole-fat milk or water (control). Plasma and urine samples were collected before and after each intervention period. Faecal samples and adipose tissue biopsies...

  14. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome : a randomized controlled pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Inge; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Berkelaar, Evert; Schut, Erik; Penders, Ria; Hoenderdos, Karine; Wichers, Harry J.; Jong, Miek C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a Paleolit

  15. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, I.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Berkelaar, E.; Schut, E.; Penders, R.; Hoenderdos, K.; Jong, de M.C.; Wichers, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a Paleolith

  16. An analysis of diet quality, how it controls fatty acid profiles, isotope signatures and stoichiometry in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hood-Nowotny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the underlying mechanisms of mosquito ecology will ensure effective vector management and contribute to the overall goal of malaria control. Mosquito populations show a high degree of population plasticity in response to environmental variability. However, the principle factors controlling population size and fecundity are for the most part unknown. Larval habitat and diet play a crucial role in subsequent mosquito fitness. Developing the most competitive insects for sterile insect technique programmes requires a "production" orientated perspective, to deduce the most effective larval diet formulation; the information gained from this process offers us some insight into the mechanisms and processes taking place in natural native mosquito habitats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fatty acid profiles and de-novo or direct assimilation pathways, of whole-individual mosquitoes reared on a range of larval diets were determined using pyrolysis gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. We used elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure individual-whole-body carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous values and to assess the impact of dietary quality on subsequent population stoichiometry, size, quality and isotopic signature. Diet had the greatest impact on fatty acid (FA profiles of the mosquitoes, which exhibited a high degree of dietary routing, characteristic of generalist feeders. De-novo synthesis of a number of important FAs was observed. Mosquito C:N stoichiometry was fixed in the teneral stage. Dietary N content had significant influence on mosquito size, and P was shown to be a flexible pool which limited overall population size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Direct routing of FAs was evident but there was ubiquitous de-novo synthesis suggesting mosquito larvae are competent generalist feeders capable of survival on diet with varying characteristics. It was concluded that nitrogen availability in the larval diet

  17. EFFECTS OF LYSINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MINERAL RETENTION OF BROILER CHICKENS FED RAW BENNE SEED BASED DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akanji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of raw benne seed (RBS, Sesamum indicum with or without lysine supplementation on the performance characteristics and mineral retention of broiler chickens. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days. One hundred and forty unsexed day old  broiler chicks (Marshall strain were used for the study. RBS was incorporated into the diets at 15% and 30% levels and  supplemented with  0%, 0.25% and 0.5% of lysine, respectively. Average  weekly feed intake in birds fed the control diet and 15% RBS based diet supplemented with 0.25 % and 0.5% lysine were not significantly different, but significantly (P<0.05 higher than those fed other diets. Feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P<0.05 reduced in birds fed 30% RBS with or without lysine supplementation. At 0.25% and 0.5% lysine supplementation, significant (P<0.05 increases were obtained in the retention of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and iron in birds fed 15% RBS based diets, but markedly reduced in those fed 30% RBS  based diets. The reductions in the performance characteristics of the birds fed 30% RBS diets with or without lysine can be attributed to interactions in the toxic effects of the higher intakes anti-nutritional factors like tannin, oxalate and phytate.  In conclusion,  the response indices were better enhanced when 15% RBS supplemented with 0.5% lysine was fed to the birds.

  18. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E

    1985-01-01

    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant.

  19. Cruciferous vegetable feeding alters UGT1A1 activity: diet- and genotype-dependent changes in serum bilirubin in a controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sandi L; Peterson, Sabrina; Chen, Chu; Makar, Karen W; Schwarz, Yvonne; King, Irena B; Li, Shuying S; Li, Lin; Kestin, Mark; Lampe, Johanna W

    2009-04-01

    Chemoprevention by isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables occurs partly through up-regulation of phase II conjugating enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). UGT1A1 glucuronidates bilirubin, estrogens, and several dietary carcinogens. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism reduces transcription compared with the wild-type, resulting in decreased enzyme activity. Isothiocyanates are metabolized by glutathione S-transferases (GST); variants may alter isothiocyanate clearance such that response to crucifers may vary by genotype. We evaluated, in a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial in humans (n = 70), three test diets (single- and double-"dose" cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous) compared with a fruit and vegetable-free basal diet. We measured serum bilirubin concentrations on days 0, 7, 11, and 14 of each 2-week feeding period to monitor UGT1A1 activity and determined effects of UGT1A1*28 and GSTM1/GSTT1-null variants on response. Aggregate bilirubin response to all vegetable-containing diets was statistically significantly lower compared with the basal diet (P cruciferous diets compared with basal (P cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared with basal, and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared with single-dose cruciferous (P vegetable-containing diets compared with basal (P < 0.02 for all). Evaluation of the effects of diet stratified by GST genotype revealed some statistically significant genotypic differences; however, the magnitude was similar and not statistically significant between genotypes. These results may have implications for altering carcinogen metabolism through dietary intervention, particularly among UGT1A1*28/*28 individuals.

  20. A human strain of Oxalobacter (HC-1) promotes enteric oxalate secretion in the small intestine of mice and reduces urinary oxalate excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Marguerite; Freel, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Enteric oxalate secretion that correlated with reductions in urinary oxalate excretion was previously reported in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria, and in wild type (WT) mice colonized with a wild rat strain (OXWR) of Oxalobacter (Am J Physiol 300:G461–G469, 2010). Since a human strain of the bacterium is more likely to be clinically used as a probiotic therapeutic, we tested the effects of HC-1 in WT. Following artificial colonization of WT mice with HC-1, the bacteria were confirmed to be present in the large intestine and, unexpectedly, detected in the small intestine for varying periods of time. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether the presence of HC-1 promoted intestinal secretion in the more proximal segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, we determined whether HC-1 colonization led to reductions in urinary oxalate excretion in these mice. The results show that the human Oxalobacter strain promotes a robust net secretion of oxalate in the distal ileum as well as in the caecum and distal colon and these changes in transport correlate with the beneficial effect of reducing renal excretion of oxalate. We conclude that OXWR effects on intestinal oxalate transport and oxalate homeostasis are not unique to the wild rat strain and that, mechanistically, HC-1 has significant potential for use as a probiotic treatment for hyperoxaluria especially if it is also targeted to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim...... of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control......) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1.93, 2.42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1.08, 1.47)), legumes (22 (95...

  2. Long-term ketogenic diet contributes to glycemic control but promotes lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Qin, Juliang; Zhao, Yihan; Shi, Jueping; Lan, Rong; Gan, Yunqiu; Ren, Hua; Zhu, Bing; Qian, Min; Du, Bing

    2016-04-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been widely used in weight and glycemic control, although potential side effects of long-term KD treatment have caused persistent concern. In this study, we hypothesized that the KD would ameliorate the progression of diabetes but lead to disruptions in lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of diabetes. In type 2 diabetic mouse model, mice were fed a high-fat diet and administered streptozotocin treatment before given the test diets for 8 weeks. Subsequently, ameliorated glucose and insulin tolerance in KD-fed diabetic mice was found, although the body weight of high-fat diet- and KD-fed mice was similar. Interestingly, the weight of adipose tissue in KD mice was greater than in the other groups. The KD diet resulted in higher serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in diabetic mice. Moreover, the KD-fed mice showed greater hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice fed the KD showed significant changes in several key genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein, fibroblast growth factor 21, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which are all important in metabolism. In summary, KD ameliorates glucose and insulin tolerance in a mouse model of diabetes, but severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis were observed, which should be considered carefully in the long-term application of KD.

  3. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Jaster, Brent; Seidl, Kim; Green, Amber A; Talpers, Stanley

    2006-08-01

    We sought to investigate whether a low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (n = 50). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 22 weeks. Forty-three percent (21 of 49) of the vegan group and 26% (13 of 50) of the ADA group participants reduced diabetes medications. Including all participants, HbA(1c) (A1C) decreased 0.96 percentage points in the vegan group and 0.56 points in the ADA group (P = 0.089). Excluding those who changed medications, A1C fell 1.23 points in the vegan group compared with 0.38 points in the ADA group (P = 0.01). Body weight decreased 6.5 kg in the vegan group and 3.1 kg in the ADA group (P vegan group and 10.7% in the ADA group (P = 0.02). After adjustment for baseline values, urinary albumin reductions were greater in the vegan group (15.9 mg/24 h) than in the ADA group (10.9 mg/24 h) (P = 0.013). Both a low-fat vegan diet and a diet based on ADA guidelines improved glycemic and lipid control in type 2 diabetic patients. These improvements were greater with a low-fat vegan diet.

  4. A pilot study on the impact of a low fructose diet and allopurinol on clinic blood pressure among overweight and prehypertensive subjects: a randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Rodríguez Castellanos, Francisco E; Jalal, Diana; Villalobos-Martín, Maria; Salazar, Jonathan; Vazquez-Rangel, Armando; Johnson, Richard J; Sanchez-Lozada, L Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Fructose and sodium intake have been associated with hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Although various mechanisms are involved, fructose causes hypertension partly through rising intracellular and serum uric acid. To date, there are no studies in adults that have evaluated the impact of low fructose diets and allopurinol on prehypertensive and overweight subjects. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of low fructose diet and allopurinol or placebo on blood pressure (BP) and metabolic syndrome components The study was a controlled clinical trial and consisted of two phases; in the first phase of intervention (4 weeks), patients were randomized to either low fructose diet (34 patients) or control diet (38 patients). In the second phase of intervention (weeks 4-8), the same groups continued with the same diet prescriptions but were further randomized to receive placebo or allopurinol (300 mg/d). Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BP, anthropometric measures, and laboratory data were determined at baseline, weeks 4 and 8. Seventy-two patients were included in the trial. At the end of the dietary phase, both diet groups significantly reduced their BP, but there were no between-group differences. Compared to placebo, at the end of follow-up, subjects in the allopurinol group had a lower clinic systolic blood pressure and this was significant within- and between-group comparisons. The percentage of dippers was higher in the allopurinol group, and weight was reduced significantly despite the absence of caloric restriction Allopurinol was associated with a significant reduction in clinic BP, an increase in the percentage of dippers, and significant weight loss. Larger studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet-quality scores and risk of hip fractures in elderly urban Chinese in Guangdong, China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, F F; Xue, W Q; Cao, W T; Wu, B H; Xie, H L; Fan, F; Zhu, H L; Chen, Y M

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study compared the associations of four widely used diet-quality scoring systems with the risk of hip fractures and assessed their utility in elderly Chinese. We found that individuals avoiding a low-quality diet have a lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Few studies examined the associations of diet-quality scores on bone health, and no studies were available in Asians and compared their validity and utility in a study. We assessed the associations and utility of four widely used diet-quality scoring systems with the risk of hip fractures. A case-control study of 726 patients with hip fractures (diagnosed within 2 weeks) aged 55-80 years and 726 age- (within 3 years) and gender-matched controls was conducted in Guangdong, China (2009-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire with face-to-face interviews, and the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005, 12 items), the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI, 8 items), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I, 17 items), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMed, 9 items) (the simplest one) were calculated. All greater values of the diet-quality scores were significantly associated with a similar decreased risk of hip fractures (all p trends quality scores were 0.29 (0.18, 0.46) (HEI-2005), 0.20 (0.12, 0.33) (aHEI), 0.25 (0.16, 0.39) (DQI-I), and 0.28 (0.18, 0.43) (aMed) in total subjects; and the corresponding ORs ranged from 0.04 to 0.27 for men and from 0.26 to 0.44 for women (all p trends quality diet is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures, and the aMed score is the best scoring system due to its equivalent performance and simplicity for the user.

  6. Effects of exercise and diet interventions on obesity-related sleep disorders in men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep is essential for normal and healthy living. Lack of good quality sleep affects physical, mental and emotional functions. Currently, the treatments of obesity-related sleep disorders focus more on suppressing sleep-related symptoms pharmaceutically and are often accompanied by side effects. Thus, there is urgent need for alternative ways to combat chronic sleep disorders. This study will investigate underlying mechanisms of the effects of exercise and diet intervention on obesity-related sleep disorders, the role of gut microbiota in relation to poor quality of sleep and day-time sleepiness, as well as the levels of hormones responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. Methods/design Participants consist of 330 (target sample) Finnish men aged 30 to 65 years. Among them, we attempt to randomize 180 (target sample) with sleep disorders into exercise and diet intervention. After screening and physician examination, 101 men with sleep disorders are included and are randomly assigned into three groups: exercise (n = 33), diet (n = 35), and control (n = 33). In addition, we attempt to recruit a target number of 150 healthy men without sleep disorders as the reference group. The exercise group undergoes a six-month individualized progressive aerobic exercise program based on initial fitness level. The diet group follows a six month specific individualized diet program. The control group and reference group are asked to maintain their normal activity and diet during intervention. Measurements are taken before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes include objective sleep measurements by polysomnography and a home-based non-contact sleep monitoring system, and subjective sleep evaluation by questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures include anthropometry, body composition, fitness, sleep disorder-related lifestyle risk factors, composition of gut microbiota and adipose tissue metabolism, as well as specific hormone and neurotranmitter levels and

  7. Pre-illness changes in dietary habits and diet as a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni; Maconi; Sandro; Ardizzone; Claudia; Cucino; Cristina; Bezzio; Antonio; Giampiero; Russo; Gabriele; Bianchi; Porro

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), before diagnosis modify dietary habits, and to investigate the pre-illness diet in patients with recent IBD in comparison with an age-matched healthy control group. METHODS: Overall, 83 new cases of IBD (41 ulcerative colitis, 42 Crohn's disease) and 160 healthy controls were studied. Portions per week of 34 foods and beverages before onset of symptoms were recorded using a validated questionnaire. Duration of symptoms before IBD diagnos...

  8. Metal complexation inhibits the effect of oxalic acid in aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to cancel the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play a key role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is one of the major components of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan with fractionation based on particle size using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid can act as CCN because of its hygroscopic properties, while metal complexes are not hygroscopic, and so cannot be CCN. Based on the concentration of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not act as CCN in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is possible that the cooling effect of organic aerosols assumed in various climate modeling studies is overestimated because of the lack of information on metal oxalate complexes in aerosols.

  9. Expression of an oxalate decarboxylase impairs the necrotic effect induced by Nep1-like protein (NLP) of Moniliophthora perniciosa in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leonardo F; Dias, Cristiano V; Cidade, Luciana C; Mendes, Juliano S; Pirovani, Carlos P; Alvim, Fátima C; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Aragão, Francisco J L; Cascardo, Júlio C M; Costa, Marcio G C

    2011-07-01

    Oxalic acid (OA) and Nep1-like proteins (NLP) are recognized as elicitors of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants, which is crucial for the pathogenic success of necrotrophic plant pathogens and involves reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine the importance of oxalate as a source of ROS for OA- and NLP-induced cell death, a full-length cDNA coding for an oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes, which converts OA into CO(2) and formate, was overexpressed in tobacco plants. The transgenic plants contained less OA and more formic acid compared with the control plants and showed enhanced resistance to cell death induced by exogenous OA and MpNEP2, an NLP of the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. This resistance was correlated with the inhibition of ROS formation in the transgenic plants inoculated with OA, MpNEP2, or a combination of both PCD elicitors. Taken together, these results have established a pivotal function for oxalate as a source of ROS required for the PCD-inducing activity of OA and NLP. The results also indicate that FvOXDC represents a potentially novel source of resistance against OA- and NLP-producing pathogens such as M. perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

  10. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Inge; Muskiet, Frits Aj; Berkelaar, Evert; Schut, Erik; Penders, Ria; Hoenderdos, Karine; Wichers, Harry J; Jong, Miek C

    2014-10-11

    The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Next we searched for outcome variables that might become favourably influenced by a Paleolithic-type diet and may provide new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome. In addition, more information on feasibility and designing an innovative dietary research program on the basis of a Palaeolithic-type diet was obtained. Thirty-four subjects, with at least two characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, were randomized to a two weeks Palaeolithic-type diet (n = 18) or an isoenergetic healthy reference diet, based on the guidelines of the Dutch Health Council (n = 14). Thirty-two subjects completed the study. Measures were taken to keep bodyweight stable. As primary outcomes oral glucose tolerance and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal circumference, blood pressure, glucose, lipids) were measured. Secondary outcomes were intestinal permeability, inflammation and salivary cortisol. Data were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Subjects were 53.5 (SD9.7) year old men (n = 9) and women (n = 25) with mean BMI of 31.8 (SD5.7) kg/m2. The Palaeolithic-type diet resulted in lower systolic blood pressure (-9.1 mmHg; P = 0.015), diastolic blood pressure (-5.2 mmHg; P = 0.038), total cholesterol (-0.52 mmol/l; P = 0.037), triglycerides (-0.89 mmol/l; P = 0.001) and higher HDL-cholesterol (+0.15 mmol/l; P = 0.013), compared to reference. The number of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome decreased with 1.07 (P = 0.010) upon the Palaeolithic-type diet, compared to reference. Despite efforts to keep bodyweight stable, it decreased in the Palaeolithic group compared to reference (-1.32 kg; P = 0.012). However, favourable effects remained after post-hoc adjustments for this

  11. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to −6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and −5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) −1.1 kg (−2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) −0.49 mmol/L (−0.70 to −0.28), p<0.001 and −0.34 mmol/L (−0.57 to −0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (−0.57 (−0.83, −0.32), p<0.001 and −0.05 (−0.09, −0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss

  12. Leptin activates oxytocin neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in both control and diet-induced obese rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Perello

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to reduce body weight and fat mass. Recent studies suggest that parvocellular oxytocin (OXT neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN can mediate body weight reduction through inhibition of food intake and increased energy expenditure. However, the role of OXT neurons of the PVN as a primary target of leptin has not been investigated. Here, we studied the potential role of OXT neurons of the PVN in leptin-mediated effects on body weight regulation in fasted rats. We demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (ICV leptin activates STAT3 phosphorylation in OXT neurons of the PVN, showed that this occurs in a subpopulation of OXT neurons that innervate the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, and provided further evidence suggesting a role of OXT to mediate leptin's actions on body weight. In addition, our results indicated that OXT neurons are responsive to ICV leptin and mediate leptin effects on body weight in diet induced obese (DIO rats, which are resistant to the anorectic effects of the hormone. Thus, we conclude that leptin targets a specific subpopulation of parvocellular OXT neurons of the PVN, and that this action may be important for leptin's ability to reduce body weight in both control and obese rats.

  13. The role of parental control and modelling in predicting a child's diet and relationship with food after they leave home. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Emma; Ogden, Jane

    2014-05-01

    Research indicates that parental control and parental modelling are key factors in shaping a child's eating behaviour. To date, however, little is known about how these factors influence a child's diet once they have left home. This prospective study evaluated the extent to which a parent's own behaviour and their use of control over food whilst their child was still living at home predicted their child's relationship with food once they had begun to live independently. Parent/child dyads (n=93) took part in the study. Parents completed baseline measures of parental control practices (overt control, covert control and pressure to eat), their own diet (unhealthy snacks, unhealthy meals, healthy foods) and eating behaviours (emotional, uncontrolled and restrained eating). At one year follow up, once their child had left home, the child completed measures of their own diet and eating behaviours. The results showed a clear role for modelling with concordance between a child's intake of unhealthy snacks and emotional eating and their parents' own reports of these behaviours. Furthermore, the child's intake of healthy foods was also predicted by their parent's behaviour although there was both concordance and discordance between parents and their children. No role for parental control was found for any measure of diet or eating behaviour. It is concluded that a parent's own behaviour rather than parental control has a stronger longer lasting influence once a child has left home and that although this mostly involves a child copying their parent's behaviour (action) at times it also involves the opposite (reaction). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gadolinium oxalate derivatives with enhanced magnetocaloric effect via ionothermal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Chen, Yan-Cong; Zhang, Ze-Min; Lin, Zhuo-Jia; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2014-09-02

    Two new oxalate-bridged Gd(III) coordination polymers, namely, (choline)[Gd(C2O4)(H2O)3Cl]Cl·H2O (1) and [Gd(C2O4)(H2O)3Cl] (2), were first obtained ionothermally by using a deep eutectic solvent (DES). The magnetic studies and heat capacity measurements reveal that the two-dimensional Gd(III)-based coordination polymer of 2 has the higher magnetic density and exhibits a larger cryogenic magnetocaloric effect (MCE) (ΔS(m) = 48 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ΔH = 7 T at 2.2 K).

  15. Development of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress during Experimental Oxalate Nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, Yu G; Lepilov, A V; Bgatova, N P; Zharikov, A Yu; Motina, N V; Lapii, G A; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural study of the kidney was performed in rats with oxalate nephrolithiasis. Specific features of endoplasmic reticulum stress were evaluated during nephrolithiasis and treatment with α-tocopherol. We observed the signs of endoplasmic reticulum stress with activation of proapoptotic pathways and injury to the cell lining in nephron tubules and collecting ducts. Ultrastructural changes were found in the organelles, nuclei, and cell membranes of epitheliocytes. A relationship was revealed between endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative damage, which developed at the early state of lithogenesis.

  16. Interactions in Calcium Oxalate Hydrate/Surfactant Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiric; Filipovic-Vincekovic; Babic-Ivancić Vdović Füredi-Milhofer

    1999-04-15

    Phase transformation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) into the thermodynamically stable monohydrate (COM) in anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) and cationic (dodecylammonium chloride) surfactant solutions has been studied. Both surfactants inhibit, but do not stop transformation from COD to COM due to their preferential adsorption at different crystal faces. SDS acts as a stronger transformation inhibitor. The general shape of adsorption isotherms of both surfactants at the solid/liquid interface is of two-plateau-type, but differences in the adsorption behavior exist. They originate from different ionic and molecular structures of crystal surfaces and interactions between surfactant headgroups and solid surface. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Maternal Diet and Insulin-Like Signaling Control Intergenerational Plasticity of Progeny Size and Starvation Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Hibshman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal effects of environmental conditions produce intergenerational phenotypic plasticity. Adaptive value of these effects depends on appropriate anticipation of environmental conditions in the next generation, and mismatch between conditions may contribute to disease. However, regulation of intergenerational plasticity is poorly understood. Dietary restriction (DR delays aging but maternal effects have not been investigated. We demonstrate maternal effects of DR in the roundworm C. elegans. Worms cultured in DR produce fewer but larger progeny. Nutrient availability is assessed in late larvae and young adults, rather than affecting a set point in young larvae, and maternal age independently affects progeny size. Reduced signaling through the insulin-like receptor daf-2/InsR in the maternal soma causes constitutively large progeny, and its effector daf-16/FoxO is required for this effect. nhr-49/Hnf4, pha-4/FoxA, and skn-1/Nrf also regulate progeny-size plasticity. Genetic analysis suggests that insulin-like signaling controls progeny size in part through regulation of nhr-49/Hnf4, and that pha-4/FoxA and skn-1/Nrf function in parallel to insulin-like signaling and nhr-49/Hnf4. Furthermore, progeny of DR worms are buffered from adverse consequences of early-larval starvation, growing faster and producing more offspring than progeny of worms fed ad libitum. These results suggest a fitness advantage when mothers and their progeny experience nutrient stress, compared to an environmental mismatch where only progeny are stressed. This work reveals maternal provisioning as an organismal response to DR, demonstrates potentially adaptive intergenerational phenotypic plasticity, and identifies conserved pathways mediating these effects.

  18. Effects of exercise and diet interventions on obesity-related sleep disorders in men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao; Saarinen, Antti; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Martinmäki, Samu; Rahikainen, Aki; Cheng, Shumei; Eklund, Niklas; Pekkala, Satu; Wiklund, Petri; Munukka, Eveliina; Wen, Xinfei; Cong, Fengyu; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Yajun; Tarkka, Ina; Sun, Yining; Partinen, Markku; Alen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2013-07-26

    Sleep is essential for normal and healthy living. Lack of good quality sleep affects physical, mental and emotional functions. Currently, the treatments of obesity-related sleep disorders focus more on suppressing sleep-related symptoms pharmaceutically and are often accompanied by side effects. Thus, there is urgent need for alternative ways to combat chronic sleep disorders. This study will investigate underlying mechanisms of the effects of exercise and diet intervention on obesity-related sleep disorders, the role of gut microbiota in relation to poor quality of sleep and day-time sleepiness, as well as the levels of hormones responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. Participants consist of 330 (target sample) Finnish men aged 30 to 65 years. Among them, we attempt to randomize 180 (target sample) with sleep disorders into exercise and diet intervention. After screening and physician examination, 101 men with sleep disorders are included and are randomly assigned into three groups: exercise (n = 33), diet (n = 35), and control (n = 33). In addition, we attempt to recruit a target number of 150 healthy men without sleep disorders as the reference group. The exercise group undergoes a six-month individualized progressive aerobic exercise program based on initial fitness level. The diet group follows a six month specific individualized diet program. The control group and reference group are asked to maintain their normal activity and diet during intervention. Measurements are taken before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes include objective sleep measurements by polysomnography and a home-based non-contact sleep monitoring system, and subjective sleep evaluation by questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures include anthropometry, body composition, fitness, sleep disorder-related lifestyle risk factors, composition of gut microbiota and adipose tissue metabolism, as well as specific hormone and neurotranmitter levels and inflammatory biomarkers from

  19. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term effects of 4 popular diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Renée; Filion, Kristian B; Wakil, Susan M; Genest, Jacques; Joseph, Lawrence; Poirier, Paul; Rinfret, Stéphane; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy of the Atkins, South Beach, Weight Watchers (WW), and Zone diets, with a particular focus on sustained weight loss at ≥12 months. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English with follow-up ≥4 weeks that examined the effects of these 4 popular diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors. We identified 12 RCTs (n=2559) with follow-up ≥12 months: 10 versus usual care (5 Atkins, 4 WW, and 1 South Beach) and 2 head-to-head (1 of Atkins, WW, and Zone, and 1 of Atkins, Zone, and control). At 12 months, the 10 RCTs comparing popular diets to usual care revealed that only WW was consistently more efficacious at reducing weight (range of mean changes: -3.5 to -6.0 kg versus -0.8 to -5.4 kg; PZone (-1.6 to -3.2 kg), and control (-2.2 kg) all achieved modest long-term weight loss. Twenty-four-month data suggest that weight lost with Atkins or WW is partially regained over time. Head-to-head RCTs, providing the most robust evidence available, demonstrated that Atkins, WW, and Zone achieved modest and similar long-term weight loss. Despite millions of dollars spent on popular commercial diets, data are conflicting and insufficient to identify one popular diet as being more beneficial than the others. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Reflectance spectroscopy of oxalate minerals and relevance to Solar System carbon inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applin, Daniel M.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A.

    2016-11-01

    The diversity of oxalate formation mechanisms suggests that significant concentrations of oxalic acid and oxalate minerals could be widely distributed in the Solar System. We have carried out a systematic study of the reflectance spectra of oxalate minerals and oxalic acid, covering the 0.2-16 μm wavelength region. Our analyses show that oxalates exhibit unique spectral features that enable discrimination between oxalate phases and from other commonly occurring compounds, including carbonates, in all regions of the spectrum except for the visible. Using these spectral data, we consider the possible contribution of oxalate minerals to previously observed reflectance spectra of many objects throughout the Solar System, including satellites, comets, and asteroids. We find that polycarboxylic acid dimers and their salts may explain the reflectance spectra of many carbonaceous asteroids in the 3 μm spectral region. We suggest surface concentration of these compounds may be a type of space weathering from the photochemical and oxidative decomposition of the organic macromolecular material found in carbonaceous chondrites. The stability and ubiquity of these minerals on Earth, in extraterrestrial materials, and in association with biological processes make them useful for many applications in Earth and planetary sciences.

  2. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-03-05

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L.) and golden (Actinidia chinensis L.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  3. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hà Vũ Hồng Nguyễn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L. and golden (Actinidia chinensis L. were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW, while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  4. Insights into the mechanism of copper-tolerance in Fibroporia radiculosa: The biosynthesis of oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Jenkins; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green; Susan V. Diehl

    2015-01-01

    Copper is currently used as the key component in wood preservatives despite the known tolerance of many brown-rot Basidiomycetes. Copper-tolerant fungi, like Fibroporia radiculosa, produce and accumulate high levels of oxalate when exposed to copper. To gain insight into the mechanism of oxalate production, four F. radiculosa...

  5. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oxalate Synthesis of Fibroporia Radiculosa Isolates Adapting to Copper-Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Marie Jenkins

    2012-01-01

    Despite the drawbacks associated with tolerant organisms, copper is still used as the key component in current wood preservatives. Copper-tolerant fungi, like Fibroporia radiculosa, produce and accumulate high levels of oxalate in response to copper. The biosynthesis of oxalate has been connected to specific enzymes in the glyoxylate and...

  6. The effects of copper proximity on oxalate production in Fibroporia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie M. Jenkins; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green III

    2014-01-01

    Copper remains a key component used in wood preservatives available today. However, the observed tolerance of several critical wood rotting organisms continues to be problematic. Tolerance to copper has been linked to the production and accumulation of oxalate, which precipitates copper into insoluble copper-oxalate crystals, thus inactivating copper ions. The purpose...

  7. Renal histopathology and crystal deposits in patients with small bowel resection and calcium oxalate stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Bledsoe, Sharon B; Sommer, Andre J; Williams, James C; Krambeck, Amy E; Philips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2010-08-01

    We present here the anatomy and histopathology of kidneys from 11 patients with renal stones following small bowel resection, including 10 with Crohn's disease and 1 resection in infancy for unknown cause. They presented predominantly with calcium oxalate stones. Risks of formation included hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate excretion greater than 45 mg per day) in half of the cases, and acidic urine of reduced volume. As was found with ileostomy and obesity bypass, inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) contained crystal deposits associated with cell injury, interstitial inflammation, and papillary deformity. Cortical changes included modest glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Randall's plaque (interstitial papillary apatite) was abundant, with calcium oxalate stone overgrowth similar to that seen in ileostomy, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Abundant plaque was compatible with the low urine volume and pH. The IMCD deposits all contained apatite, with calcium oxalate present in three cases, similar to findings in patients with obesity bypass but not an ileostomy. The mechanisms for calcium oxalate stone formation in IMCDs include elevated urine and presumably tubule fluid calcium oxalate supersaturation, but a low calcium to oxalate ratio. However, the mechanisms for the presence of IMCD apatite remain unknown.

  8. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene...

  9. An oxalyl-CoA synthetase is important for oxalate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although oxalic acid is common in nature, our understanding of the mechanism(s) regulating its turnover remains incomplete. In this study we identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-activating enzyme 3 (ScAAE3) as an enzyme capable of catalyzing the conversion of oxalate to oxalyl-CoA. Based on our fi...

  10. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  11. Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joensson Eva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-carbohydrate diets in the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes seem intuitively attractive due to their potent antihyperglycemic effect. We previously reported that a 20 % carbohydrate diet was significantly superior to a 55–60 % carbohydrate diet with regard to bodyweight and glycemic control in 2 non-randomised groups of obese diabetes patients observed closely over 6 months. The effect beyond 6 months of reduced carbohydrate has not been previously reported. The objective of the present study, therefore, was to determine to what degree the changes among the 16 patients in the low-carbohydrate diet group at 6-months were preserved or changed 22 months after start, even without close follow-up. In addition, we report that, after the 6 month observation period, two thirds of the patients in the high-carbohydrate changed their diet. This group also showed improvement in bodyweight and glycemic control. Method Retrospective follow-up of previously studied subjects on a low carbohydrate diet. Results The mean bodyweight at the start of the initial study was 100.6 ± 14.7 kg. At six months it was 89.2 ± 14.3 kg. From 6 to 22 months, mean bodyweight had increased by 2.7 ± 4.2 kg to an average of 92.0 ± 14.0 kg. Seven of the 16 patients (44% retained the same bodyweight from 6 to 22 months or reduced it further; all but one had lower weight at 22 months than at the beginning. Initial mean HbA1c was 8.0 ± 1.5 %. After 6 and 12 months it was 6.6 ± 1.0 % and 7.0 ± 1.3 %, respectively. At 22 months, it was still 6.9 ± 1.1 %. Conclusion Advice on a 20 % carbohydrate diet with some caloric restriction to obese patients with type 2 diabetes has lasting effect on bodyweight and glycemic control.

  12. Hydrogen bonding in oxalic acid and its complexes: A database study of neutron structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Chitra; Amit Das; R R Choudhury; M Ramanadham; R Chidambaram

    2004-08-01

    The basic result of carboxylic group that the oxygen atom of the –OH never seems to be a hydrogen bond acceptor is violated in the cases, namely urea oxalic acid and bis urea oxalic acid complexes, where the hydroxyl oxygen atom is an acceptor of a weak N–H... O hydrogen bond. The parameters of this hydrogen bond, respectively in these structures are: hydrogen acceptor distance 2.110 Å and 2.127 Å and the bending angle at hydrogen, 165.6° and 165.8°. The bond strength around the hydroxyl oxygen is close to 1.91 valence units, indicating that it has hardly any strength left to form hydrogen bonds. These two structures being highly planar, force the formation of this hydrogen bond. As oxalic acid is the common moiety, the structures of the two polymorphs, -oxalic acid and -oxalic acid, also were looked into in terms of hydrogen bonding and packing.

  13. Facile fabrication of cobalt oxalate nanostructures with superior specific capacitance and super-long cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhua; Si, Conghui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wanfeng; Dong, Chaoqun; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal oxalate materials have shown huge competitive advantages for applications in supercapacitors. Herein, nanostructured cobalt oxalate supported on cobalt foils has been facilely fabricated by anodization, and could directly serve as additive/binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The as-prepared cobalt oxalate electrodes present superior specific capacitance of 1269 F g-1 at the current density of 6 A g-1 in the galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Moreover, the retained capacitance is as high as 87.2% as the current density increases from 6 A g-1 to 30 A g-1. More importantly, the specific capacitance of cobalt oxalate retains 91.9% even after super-long cycling of 100,000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with cobalt oxalate (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) demonstrates excellent capacitive performance with high energy density and power density.

  14. Calcium oxalate crystals in eucalypt ectomycorrhizae: morphochemical characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Satler Pylro

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems, benefitting plants principally by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients such as calcium from the soil. Previous work has demonstrated accumulation of crystallites in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, but detailed morphological and chemical characterization of these crystals has not been performed. In this work, cross sections of acetic acid-treated and cleared ectomycorrhizal fragments were visualized by polarized light microscopy to evaluate the location of crystals within cortical root cells. Ectomycorrhizal sections were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDS microprobe analysis. The predominant forms of crystals were crystal sand (granules and concretions. Calcium, carbon and oxygen were detected by EDS as constituent elements and similar elemental profiles were observed between both crystal morphologies. All analyzed crystalline structures were characterized as calcium oxalate crystals. This is the first report of the stoichiometry and morphology of crystals occurring in eucalypt ectomycorrhizas in tropical soils. The data corroborates the role of ectomycorrhizae in the uptake and accumulation of calcium in the form of calcium oxalate crystals in hybrid eucalypt plants.

  15. Hydroxyl radical substitution in halogenated carbonyls: oxalic acid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Carrie J; Dalal, Shakeel S; Francisco, Joseph S; Mebel, Alexander M; Gaffney, Jeffrey S

    2010-03-04

    An ab initio study of OH radical substitution reactions in halogenated carbonyls is conducted. Hydroxyl radical substitution into oxalyl dichloride [ClC(O)C(O)Cl] and oxalyl dibromide [BrC(O)C(O)Br], resulting in the formation of oxalic acid, is presented. Analogous substitution reactions in formyl chloride [ClCH(O)], acetyl chloride [ClC(O)CH(3)], formyl bromide [BrCH(O)], and acetyl bromide [BrC(O)CH(3)] are considered. Energetics of competing hydrogen abstraction reactions for all applicable species are computed for comparison. Geometry optimizations and frequency computations are performed using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and the 6-31G(d) basis set for all minimum species and transition states. Single point energy computations are performed using fourth-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP4) and coupled cluster theory [CCSD(T)]. Potential energy surfaces, including activation energies and enthalpies, are determined from the computations. These potential energy surfaces show that OH substitution into ClC(O)C(O)Cl and BrC(O)C(O)Br, resulting in the formation of oxalic acid and other minor products, is energetically favorable. Energetics of analogous reactions with ClCH(O), BrCH(O), ClC(O)CH(3), and BrC(O)CH(3) are also computed.

  16. Raman spectroscopy study of calcium oxalate extracted from cacti stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Loza-Cornejo, Sofia; Terrazas, Teresa; Terrazas, Tania; Miranda-Beltrán, María de la Luz; Aparicio-Fernández, Xóchitl; López-Macías, Brenda M; Morales-Martínez, Sandra E; Ortiz-Morales, Martín

    2014-01-01

    To find markers that distinguish the different Cactaceae species, by using near infrared Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we studied the occurrence, in the stem, of solid deposits in five Cactaceae species (Coryphantha clavata, Ferocactus latispinus, Opuntia ficus-indica, O. robusta, and O. strepthacantha) collected from their natural habitats from a region of México. The deposits in the tissues usually occurred as spheroidal aggregates, druses, or prismatic crystals. From the Raman spectra, the crystals were identified either as calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4·H2O) or calcium oxalate dihydrate (CaC2O4·2H2O). Opuntia species (subfamily Opuntioideae) showed the presence of CaC2O4·H2O, and the deposition of CaC2O4·2H2O was present in C. clavata and F. latispinus (subfamily Cactoideae, Cacteae tribe). As a punctual technique, Raman spectroscopy seems to be a useful tool to identify crystal composition. In addition to allowing the analysis of crystal morphology, this spectroscopic technique can be used to identify Cactaceae species and their chemotaxonomy.

  17. Cellular adaptive response of distal renal tubular cells to high-oxalate environment highlights surface alpha-enolase as the enhancer of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Fong-Ngern, Kedsarin; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2013-03-27

    Hyperoxaluria is one of etiologic factors of calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. However, response of renal tubular cells to high-oxalate environment remained largely unknown. We applied a gel-based proteomics approach to characterize changes in cellular proteome of MDCK cells induced by 10mM sodium oxalate. A total of 14 proteins were detected as differentially expressed proteins. The oxalate-induced up-regulation of alpha-enolase in whole cell lysate was confirmed by 2-D Western blot analysis. Interaction network analysis revealed that cellular adaptive response under high-oxalate condition involved stress response, energy production, metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Down-regulation of RhoA, which was predicted to be associated with the identified proteins, was confirmed by immunoblotting. In addition, the up-regulation of alpha-enolase on apical surface of renal tubular epithelial cells was also confirmed by immunoblotting of the isolated apical membranes and immunofluorescence study. Interestingly, blockage of alpha-enolase expressed on the cell surface by antibody neutralization significantly reduced the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals adhered on the cells. These results strongly suggest that surface alpha-enolase plays an important role as the enhancer of COM crystal binding. The increase of alpha-enolase expressed on the cell surface may aggravate kidney stone formation in patients with hyperoxaluria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Ohtomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group. Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poorer glycemic control, the HC/LF group had less severe renal histological abnormalities and a reduced intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Mediators of the renoprotection, specifically linked to obesity and body weight control, include a reduced renal inflammation and TGF-beta expression, together with an enhanced level of adiponectin. Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. Body weight control thus impacts on local intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress through inflammation and adiponectin levels.

  19. Parsing apical oxalate exchange in Caco-2BBe1 monolayers: siRNA knockdown of SLC26A6 reveals the role and properties of PAT-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freel, Robert W; Morozumi, Makoto; Hatch, Marguerite

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantitate the contribution of the anion exchanger PAT-1 (putative anion transporter-1), encoded by SLC26A6, to oxalate transport in a model intestinal epithelium and to discern some characteristics of this exchanger expressed in its native environment. Control (Con) Caco-2 BBe1 monolayers, 6-8 days postseeding, were compared with those transfected with a small interfering RNA targeted to SLC26A6 (A6KD). Radiotracer and Ussing chamber techniques were used to determine the transepithelial unidirectional fluxes of Ox(2-), Cl(-), and SO(4)(2-) whereas fluorometric/BCECF measurements of intracellular pH were used to assess HCO(3)(-) exchange. PAT-1 was functionally targeted to the apical membrane, and SLC26A6 knockdown reduced PAT-1 protein (>60%) and mRNA (>75%) expression in A6KD. No net flux of Ox(2-), Cl(-), or SO(4)(2-) was detected in Con or A6KD monolayers, yet the unidirectional fluxes in A6KD were reduced 50, 35, and 15%, respectively. Cl(-)-dependent HCO(3)(-) efflux from A6KD was reduced 50% compared with Con. The difference between Con and A6KD properties represents that mediated solely by PAT-1, and by this approach we found that PAT-1-mediated oxalate influx and efflux are inhibited equally by mucosal DIDS (EC(50) approximately 5 microM) and that mucosal Cl(-) inhibits oxalate uptake with an EC(50) PAT-1-mediated oxalate exchange suggests that vectorial oxalate transport observed in vivo is principally dependent on the magnitude and direction of counterion gradients.

  20. Enzymatic mechanism of oxalate production in the TCA and glyoxylate pathways using various isolates of Antrodia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Jenkins; S.V. Diehl; C.A. Clausen; F. Green

    2011-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi produce oxalate in large amounts; however, levels of accumulation and function vary by species. Copper-tolerant fungi, like Antrodia radiculosa, produce and accumulate high levels of oxalate in response to copper. Oxalate biosynthesis in copper-tolerant fungi has been linked to the glyoxylate and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles. Within these two cycles...

  1. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  2. Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenglei; Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Jiajing; Fu, Yuanqing; Li, Duo

    2015-10-27

    Vegetarian diets exclude all animal flesh and are being widely adopted by an increasing number of people; however, effects on blood lipid concentrations remain unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the overall effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library through March 2015. Studies were included if they described the effectiveness of vegetarian diets on blood lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride). Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated for net changes by using a random-effects model. We performed subgroup and univariate meta-regression analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. Eleven trials were included in the meta-analysis. Vegetarian diets significantly lowered blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the pooled estimated changes were -0.36 mmol/L (95% CI -0.55 to -0.17; PVegetarian diets did not significantly affect blood triglyceride concentrations, with a pooled estimated mean difference of 0.04 mmol/L (95% CI -0.05 to 0.13; P=0.40). This systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that vegetarian diets effectively lower blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Such diets could be a useful nonpharmaceutical means of managing dyslipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Assessment of the impact of fibrates and diet on survival and their cost-effectiveness: evidence from randomized, controlled trials in coronary heart disease and health economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, O; Vedel, I; Durand-Zaleski, I

    1999-11-01

    The fibrates are one of several classes of lipid-reducing agents commonly prescribed to reduce hypercholesterolemia and prevent coronary heart disease. In today's evidence-based, cost-conscious health care environment, interventions promoted by policymakers must provide clear clinical benefits and economic value. We assessed the evidence regarding the impact of fibrates and diet on survival and the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. A literature search was conducted for randomized, controlled trials of diet, fibrates, and heart disease that were published after 1971; both primary and secondary prevention clinical trials were reviewed, and recent literature reviews and meta-analyses were searched. The evidence that diet alone improves survival is poor, although specifically increasing intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid (including n-3 fatty acids) relative to saturated fatty acid intake may provide some clinical benefit in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The cost-effectiveness of dietary intervention is also questionable because compliance is extremely poor. There is no consistent evidence from primary or secondary prevention trials that fibrates improve survival; in fact, fibrates may increase the risk of death from noncoronary causes. No consistent data suggest that fibrates are a cost-effective therapy. Because diet and fibrates do not appear to improve survival or provide value, policymakers should promote the use of alternative drug interventions that have consistently been proved to reduce mortality and are cost-effective.

  4. A pilot study to determine the short-term effects of a low glycemic load diet on hormonal markers of acne: a nonrandomized, parallel, controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robyn; Mann, Neil; Mäkeläinen, Henna; Roper, Jessica; Braue, Anna; Varigos, George

    2008-06-01

    Observational evidence suggests that dietary glycemic load may be one environmental factor contributing to the variation in acne prevalence worldwide. To investigate the effect of a low glycemic load (LGL) diet on endocrine aspects of acne vulgaris, 12 male acne sufferers (17.0 +/- 0.4 years) completed a parallel, controlled feeding trial involving a 7-day admission to a housing facility. Subjects consumed either an LGL diet (n = 7; 25% energy from protein and 45% from carbohydrates) or a high glycemic load (HGL) diet (n = 5; 15% energy from protein, 55% energy from carbohydrate). Study outcomes included changes in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding proteins (IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3). Changes in HOMA-IR were significantly different between groups at day 7 (-0.57 for LGL vs. 0.14 for HGL, p = 0.03). SHBG levels decreased significantly from baseline in the HGL group (p = 0.03), while IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3 significantly increased (p = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively) in the LGL group. These results suggest that increases in dietary glycemic load may augment the biological activity of sex hormones and IGF-I, suggesting that these diets may aggravate potential factors involved in acne development.

  5. Treatment of Metabolic syndrome by combination of physical activity and diet needs an optimal protein intake: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutheil Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recommended dietary allowance (RDA for protein intake has been set at 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day for senior. To date, no consensus exists on the lower threshold intake (LTI = RDA/1.3 for the protein intake (PI needed in senior patients ongoing both combined caloric restriction and physical activity treatment for metabolic syndrome. Considering that age, caloric restriction and exercise are three increasing factors of protein need, this study was dedicated to determine the minimal PI in this situation, through the determination of albuminemia that is the blood marker of protein homeostasis. Methods Twenty eight subjects (19 M, 9 F, 61.8 ± 6.5 years, BMI 33.4 ± 4.1 kg/m2 with metabolic syndrome completed a three-week residential programme (Day 0 to Day 21 controlled for nutrition (energy balance of −500 kcal/day and physical activity (3.5 hours/day. Patients were randomly assigned in two groups: Normal-PI (NPI: 1.0 g/kg/day and High-PI (HPI: 1.2 g/kg/day. Then, patients returned home and were followed for six months. Albuminemia was measured at D0, D21, D90 and D180. Results At baseline, PI was spontaneously 1.0 g/kg/day for both groups. Albuminemia was 40.6 g/l for NPI and 40.8 g/l for HPI. A marginal protein under-nutrition appeared in NPI with a decreased albuminemia at D90 below 35 g/l (34.3 versus 41.5 g/l for HPI, p  Conclusion During the treatment based on restricted diet and exercise in senior people with metabolic syndrome, the lower threshold intake for protein must be set at 1.2 g/kg/day to maintain blood protein homeostasis.

  6. Seizure control by derivatives of medium chain fatty acids associated with the ketogenic diet show novel branching-point structure for enhanced potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pishan; Zuckermann, Alexandra M E; Williams, Sophie; Close, Adam J; Cano-Jaimez, Marife; McEvoy, James P; Spencer, John; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2015-01-01

    The medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet is a major treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy but is problematic, particularly in adults, because of poor tolerability. Branched derivatives of octanoic acid (OA), a medium chain fat provided in the diet have been suggested as potential new treatments for drug-resistant epilepsy, but the structural basis of this functionality has not been determined. Here we investigate structural variants of branched medium chain fatty acids as new seizure-control treatments. We initially employ a series of methyl-branched OA derivatives, and using the GABAA receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazol to induce seizure-like activity in rat hippocampal slices, we show a strong, branch-point-specific activity that improves upon the related epilepsy treatment valproic acid. Using low magnesium conditions to induce glutamate excitotoxicity in rat primary hippocampal neuronal cultures for the assessment of neuroprotection, we also show a structural dependence identical to that for seizure control, suggesting a related mechanism of action for these compounds in both seizure control and neuroprotection. In contrast, the effect of these compounds on histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, associated with teratogenicity, shows no correlation with therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, small structural modifications of the starting compounds provide active compounds without HDAC inhibitory effects. Finally, using multiple in vivo seizure models, we identify potent lead candidates for the treatment of epilepsy. This study therefore identifies a novel family of fatty acids, related to the MCT ketogenic diet, that show promise as new treatments for epilepsy control and possibly other MCT ketogenic diet-responding conditions, such as Alzheimer disease.

  7. Ursodeoxycholic acid and diets higher in fat prevent gallbladder stones during weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Caroline S; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Casper, Markus; Lammert, Frank

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of gallstones is increasing in association with the obesity epidemic, but rapid weight loss also increases the risk of stone formation. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy of strategies to prevent gallbladder stones in adults as they lose weight. Randomized controlled trials of nonsurgical strategies to prevent gallstones were identified by electronic and manual searches. Our final analysis included 13 trials, comprising 1836 participants undergoing weight loss through dieting (8 trials) or bariatric surgery (5 trials). The trials compared ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or high-fat weight loss diets with control interventions. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and evaluated heterogeneity and bias with subgroup, sensitivity, regression, and sequential analysis. UDCA reduced the risk of ultrasound-verified gallstones compared with control interventions (risk ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.60; number needed to treat, 9). This effect was significantly larger in trials of diets alone (risk ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.11-0.25) than in trials of patients who underwent bariatric surgery (risk ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.83) (test for subgroup differences, P =.03). UDCA reduced the risk of cholecystectomy for symptomatic stones (risk ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.53). Diets high in fat content also reduced gallstones, compared with those with low fat content (risk ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.61). The meta-analyses were confirmed in trials with a low risk of bias but not in sequential analysis. No additional beneficial or harmful outcomes were identified. On the basis of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, during weight loss, UDCA and/or higher dietary fat content appear to prevent formation of gallstones. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomic Analysis after Sequential Extraction of Matrix Proteins in Urinary Stones Composed of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate and Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kiyoko; Nishii, Shin-ichiro; Izumi, Yoko; Yasuda, Makoto; Yamanobe, Tomoyo; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Yamaoka, Noriko; Horie, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we performed proteomic analysis following sequential protein extraction on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) urinary stones to determine the specific matrix proteins according to the crystal components of the stones. After X-ray and IR analysis of 13 urinary stones, matrix proteins were sequentially extracted with KCl, formic acid, guanidine-HCl, and EDTA, before SDS-electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The electrophoretic patterns of the extracted proteins differed from that of COM and COD stones. LC-MS/MS identified 65 proteins, of which many were cellular plasma proteins, and were frequently detected regardless of the crystal components. However, 6 proteins (protein Z, protein S, prothrombin, osteopontin, fatty acid binding protein 5, and ubiquitin) were detected in the final EDTA fractions of COM stones. These proteins are involved in the coagulation process or osteometabolism, and thus the roles they play are of particular interest.

  9. Structural characterization of mixed uranium-plutonium co-precipitates and oxides synthesized by oxalic co-conversion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab-Chapelet, B.; De Bruycker, F.; Picart, S.; Leturcq, G.; Grandjean, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Actinides, CEA Valrho, bat 399, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, mixed uranium(IV)-plutonium(III) oxalate co-precipitates with Pu/(U+Pu) molar ratio equal to 29 and 45% were synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The thermal conversion step of these co-precipitates into oxide was carried out under argon flow up to 700 deg. C leading to mixed oxides. The structural investigation on these oxides indicates the formation of (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fluorite-type solid solution characterized by a very homogeneous distribution of plutonium and uranium, a controlled oxygen stoichiometry and well-defined morphology of particles. (authors)

  10. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  11. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cailleau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa, has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi. Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate

  12. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...... diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and wholegrain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state....

  13. Randomised clinical efficacy trial of potassium oxalate mouthrinse in relieving dentinal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; McGuire, James A; Gallob, John T; Amini, Pejmon

    2013-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the efficacy in relieving dentinal sensitivity of 4 weeks' treatment with an alcohol-free mouthrinse comprising 1.4% potassium oxalate (KO) (Listerine® Advanced Defence Sensitive; LADS), compared with negative and positive controls. Subjects were randomised to one of three treatments: LADS mouthrinse - twice-daily toothbrushing with Crest® Cavity Protection Regular toothpaste, rinsing with water and then 10 mL LADS mouthrinse, followed by expectoration; negative control (twice-daily brushing with Crest Cavity Protection Regular toothpaste); or positive control (twice-daily brushing with Sensodyne® Original desensitising toothpaste). Dentine sensitivity was assessed at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks by Yeaple probe (tactile pressure; patient-reported discomfort by visual analogue scale [VAS]), air blast (VAS) and global subjective sensitivity (VAS). Oral tolerance was monitored throughout the study. At 2 weeks, subjects treated with the positive control and LADS mouthrinse showed significant reductions (pSensodyne Original) significantly reduced sensitivity compared with the negative control (Crest toothpaste alone), thus validating the study. The LADS mouthrinse (1.4% KO mouthrinse) significantly reduced sensitivity compared with the negative control, suggesting that LADS mouthrinse was responsible for the clinical effect observed. The treatments were well tolerated. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised clinical study to demonstrate the efficacy of a KO-containing mouthrinse (LADS) in relieving dentinal sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ski overexpression in skeletal muscle modulates genetic programs that control susceptibility to diet-induced obesity and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marianne; Martel, Nick; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Eriksson, Natalie A; Cowin, Gary J; Thomas, Gethin P; Cao, Kim-Anh Lê; Muscat, George E O; Leong, Gary M

    2012-11-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing chicken Ski (c-Ski) have marked decrease in adipose mass with skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence indicates a role for c-Ski in lipogenesis and energy expenditure. In the present study, wild type (WT) and c-Ski mice were challenged on a high-fat (HF) diet to determine whether c-Ski mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity. During the HF feeding WT mice gained significantly more weight than chow-fed animals, while c-Ski mice were partially resistant to the effects of the HF diet on weight. Body composition analysis confirmed the decreased adipose mass in c-Ski mice compared to WT mice. c-Ski mice possess a similar metabolic rate and level of food consumption to WT littermates, despite lower activity levels and on chow diet show mild glucose intolerance relative to WT littermates. On HF diet, glucose tolerance surprisingly remained unchanged in c-Ski mice, while it became worse in WT mice. Skeletal muscle of c-Ski mice exhibit impaired insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. In concordance, gene expression profiling of skeletal muscle of chow and HF-fed mice indicated that Ski suppresses gene expression associated with insulin signaling and glucose uptake and alters gene pathways involved in myogenesis and adipogenesis. In conclusion, c-Ski mice are partially resistant to diet-induced obesity and display aberrant insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis which is associated with alterations in gene expression that inhibit lipogenesis and insulin signaling. These results suggest Ski plays a major role in skeletal muscle metabolism and adipogenesis and hence influences risk of obesity and diabetes.

  15. Make Better Choices (MBC: Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Malaina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to determine which combination of two behavior change goals - one dietary, one activity - yields greatest overall healthy lifestyle change. Methods/Design Adults (n = 200 with poor quality diet and sedentary lifestyle will be recruited and screened for study eligibility. Participants will be trained to record their diet and activities onto a personal data assistant, and use it to complete two weeks of baseline. Those who continue to show all four risk behaviors after baseline recording will be randomized to one of four behavior change prescriptions: 1 increase fruits and vegetables and increase physical activity, 2 decrease saturated fat and increase physical activity, 3 increase fruits and vegetable and decrease saturated fat, or 4 decrease saturated fat and decrease sedentary activity. They will use decision support feedback on the personal digital assistant and receive counseling from a coach to alter their diet and activity during a 3-week prescription period when payment is contingent upon meeting behavior change goals. They will continue recording on an intermittent schedule during a 4.5-month maintenance period when payment is not contingent upon goal attainment. The primary outcome is overall healthy lifestyle change, aggregated across all four risk behaviors. Discussion The Make Better Choices trial tests a disseminable lifestyle intervention supported by handheld technology. Findings will fill a gap in knowledge about optimal goal prescription to

  16. [Catalytic ozonation by ceramic honeycomb for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Sun, Zhi-Zhong; Ma, Jun

    2007-11-01

    Comparative experiments for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution were carried out in the three processes of ozonation alone, ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation and ceramic honeycomb adsorption. The results show that the degradation rates of oxalic acid in the ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation, ozonation alone and ceramic honeycomb adsorption systems are 37.6%, 2.2% and 0.4%, and the presence of ceramic honeycomb catalyst significantly improves the degradation rate of oxalic acid compared to the results from non-catalytic ozonation and adsorption. With the addition of tert-butanol, the degradation rates of oxalic acid in catalytic ozonation system decrease by 24.1%, 29.0% and 30.1%, respectively, at the concentration of 5, 10 and 15 mg x L(-1). This phenomenon indicates that ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution follows the mechanism of *OH oxidation, namely the heterogeneous surface of catalyst enhances the initiation of *OH. The results of TOC analysis demonstrate that the process of ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation can achieve the complete mineralization level without the formation of intermediary degradation products. The experimental results suggest that the reaction temperature has positive relationship with the degradation rate of oxalic acid. The degradation rates of oxalic acid in the ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation system are 16.4%, 37.6%, 61.3% and 68.2%, at the respective reaction temperature of 10, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C.

  17. Synergistic effects of the combination of oxalate and ascorbate on arsenic extraction from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Eun Jung; Baek, Kitae

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic is often associated with iron oxides in soils due to its high affinity with iron oxides and the abundance of iron oxides in the environment. Dissolution of iron oxides can subsequently release arsenic associated with them into the environment, which results in the increase of arsenic mobility in the soil environment. In this study, arsenic extraction from soils via the dissolution of iron oxides was investigated using oxalate, ascorbate, and their combination in order to effectively remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Oxalate mainly extracted iron from soils via a ligand-promoted reaction, while ascorbate extracted iron mainly via a reductive reaction. Arsenic extractions from soils by oxalate and ascorbate were shown to behave similarly to iron extractions, indicating the concurrent release of arsenic adsorbed on iron oxides upon the dissolution of iron oxides. The combination of oxalate and ascorbate greatly increased arsenic extraction, indicating the synergistic effects of the combination of oxalate and ascorbate on iron and arsenic extraction from soils. Oxalate and ascorbate are naturally-occurring organic reagents that have chelating and reducing capacity. Therefore, the use of oxalate and ascorbate is environmentally friendly and effective for the remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils.

  18. Urinary oxalate excretion by very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, T; Braden, G

    1989-11-01

    Renal calcifications have been described in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and diuretic drug-associated hypercalciuria is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this lesion. Hyperoxaluria is an important cause of renal stone formation in children and adults. Because parenteral nutrition solutions contain the oxalate precursors ascorbate and glycine, the relationship between total parenteral nutrition administration and oxalate excretion in VLBW infants was examined. Administration of approximately 0.5 g of total parenteral nutrition protein per kilogram per day to VLBW infants was associated with an increased urinary oxalate concentration and an increased urinary oxalate to creatinine ratio, when compared with VLBW infants receiving a glucose and electrolyte solution. A further increase in urinary oxalate concentration and oxalate to creatinine ratio was noted when total parenteral nutrition protein was increased to approximately 1.5 g of protein per kilogram per day. In VLBW infants who receive total parenteral nutrition, elevated urinary oxalate concentrations may develop and may be a factor in the pathogenesis of nephrocalcinosis in these infants.

  19. Remediation of arsenic contaminated soil by coupling oxalate washing with subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Menghua; Ye, Yuanyao; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    The application of a novel coupled process with oxalate washing and subsequent zero-valent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil was investigated in the present study. Oxalate is biodegradable and widely present in the environment. With addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) oxalate under circumneutral condition, 83.7% and 52.6% of arsenic could be removed from a spiked kaolin and an actual contaminated soil respectively. Much more oxalate adsorption on the actual soil was attributed to the higher soil organic matter and clay content. Interestingly, oxalate retained in the washing effluent could act as an organic ligand to promote the oxidation efficiency of ZVI/Air at near neutral pH. Compared with the absence of oxalate, much more As(III) was oxidized. Arsenic was effectively adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides as the consumption of oxalate and the increase of pH value. For the actual soil washing effluent, about 94.9% of total arsenic was removed after 120 min's treatment without pH adjustment. It has been demonstrated that As(V) was the dominant arsenic speciation adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides. This study provides a promising alternative for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign.

  20. The structural dynamics in the proton-conducting imidazolium oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachocki, Adam; Pogorzelec-Glaser, Katarzyna; Tritt-Goc, Jadwiga [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Pietraszko, Adam [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okolna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: radam@ifmpan.poznan.pl

    2008-12-17

    The {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation times and high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) under fast magic spinning were used to study the structural dynamics in the proton-conducting material imidazolium oxalate. The measurements provide evidence for the ordered and disordered domains within the studied material. The two components drastically differ in their {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation times and {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CP/MAS) spectra. The coalescence phenomenon of the resonances of the basal carbons of the imidazole ring undergoing a reorientation is observed only for mobile molecules in the disordered domains. Therefore, only these molecules can be responsible for proton conductivity allowing for the Grotthus mechanism.

  1. Biocompatible laponite ionogels based non-enzymatic oxalic acid sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Joshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme-free oxalic acid (OA electrochemical sensor was assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO plate on which a film of laponite ionogel was coated that resulted in an L/IL/ITO electrode. This ionogel electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and UV–Vis spectroscopy techniques. Electrochemical oxidation of OA on the electrode surface was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Further this electrode exhibited high electrochemical activity that yielded well-defined peaks of OA oxidation, and a notably suppressed over-potential compared to the laponite–ITO (L/ITO electrode. Under optimized conditions, a good linear response (anodic current was observed for the OA concentration in the 1–20 mM range with a detection limit of 3 μM. Furthermore, this electrochemical strip sensor presented good characteristics in terms of stability, and reproducibility offering promise of applicability of this green sensor platform.

  2. Optimization of air-sparged plutonium oxalate/hydroxide precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderHeyden, W.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Fife, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The high cost of waste management and experimental work makes numerical modeling an inexpensive and attractive tool for optimizing and understanding complex chemical processes. Multiphase {open_quotes}bubble{close_quotes} columns are used extensively at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for a variety of different applications. No moving parts and efficient mixing characteristics allow them to be used in glovebox operations. Initially, a bubble column for oxalate precipitations is being modeled to identify the effect of various design parameters such as, draft tube location, air sparge rate and vessel geometry. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric models have been completed and successfully compared to literature data. Also, a preliminary three-dimensional model has been completed. These results are discussed in this report along with future work.

  3. Charge dynamics in conducting polyaniline–metal oxalate composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugesan; E Subramanian

    2003-08-01

    Polyaniline (Pani) and its metal oxalate composites (∼ 10 wt.%) of trivalent metal ions of Cr, Fe, Mn, Co and Al were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization technique with potassium perdisulphate oxidant in aqueous sulphuric acid medium. These materials were characterized by UV–VIS and EPR spectral techniques. Their d.c. electrical conductivities at room temperature and also as a function of temperature (307–453 K) were measured by four-probe technique. Presence of radical cation/polaron transition was indicated by UV–VIS absorption peak and EPR signals. Further, a close correlation existed between the conductivities and EPR parameters such as line width and peak ratio, which demonstrated that both mobile and fixed spins are involved in these composites. The dependence of conductivity on temperature, when analysed graphically by VRH, GB and TC mechanisms, pointed out that VRH is the predominant charge transport mechanism in these materials.

  4. Thorium adsorption behaviour on mixed ammonium lanthanum oxalate, LAOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini Ganzerli, M.T.; Maggi, L.; Crespi Caramella, V

    1999-07-01

    The cation-exchange properties of mixed ammonium lanthanum oxalate, LAOX, were studied by batch equilibration as a function of the concentration of some cations, such as alkaline earths or ammonium and of some anions and acids. The distribution coefficients for thorium are high, while U(VI) is not adsorbed over a large acidity range. Thus, the separation of thorium from uranium may be successfully carried out. The experimental conditions of adsorption, elution and recovery of thorium were investigated as well, by using chromatographic columns filled with LAOX, in order to set best the separation conditions from uranyl ions. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, ICP emission spectrometry and the UV spectrometry were used to evaluate the thorium, uranium and lanthanum concentrations00.

  5. Calcium oxalate monohydrate precipitation investigation by thermometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhnel, O.; Costa-Bauzá, A.; Velich, V.

    1993-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) precipitation from diluted solutions of 100 mol m -3 ionic strength at 25°C was studied by an isoperibolic reaction twin calorimeter. The molar reaction enthalpy was determined as - 17.5 kJ mol -1. Results achieved with a pure system were highly reproducible. Citrate, pyrophosphate and phytate retard COM precipitation that is manifested mainly by an induction period appearance and a decrease of the initial precipitation rate. Effect of the studied impurities on individual precipitation experiments carried out under identical conditions was to some extent "random", i.e. the reaction extent reached at arbitrary time considerably differed for individual experiments. Impurity effectiveness in retarding spontaneous precipitation increases in succession citrate phytate.

  6. Growth and characterisation of gadolinium samarium oxalate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korah, I. [Dept. of Physics, St. George College, Aruvithura - 686122, Kerala (India); Joseph, C. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam - 686562 (India); Ittyachan, M.A. [Dept. of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India)

    2007-10-15

    Single crystals of Gadolinium Samarium Oxalate (GSO) are grown by gel method. The crystals are pale yellowish in colour. Morphology and size of the crystals are found to depend on pH of the medium, gel density, concentration of the reactants and acidity of the feed solution. The crystallinity of the grown sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies and the lattice parameters were determined. X-ray diffractogram shows well defined peaks. IR spectrum confirms the presence of water molecules and carboxylic group. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Gd and Sm in the sample. The thermal decomposition behaviour of the crystal was analysed using TGA and DTA studies. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Oxalic acid production by citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger overexpressing the oxaloacetate hydrolase gene oahA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Honda, Yuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used worldwide in the industrial production of citric acid. However, under specific cultivation conditions, citric acid-producing strains of A. niger accumulate oxalic acid as a by-product. Oxalic acid is used as a chelator, detergent, or tanning agent. Here, we sought to develop oxalic acid hyperproducers using A. niger as a host. To generate oxalic acid hyperproducers by metabolic engineering, transformants overexpressing the oahA gene, encoding oxaloacetate hydrolase (OAH; EC 3.7.1.1), were constructed in citric acid-producing A. niger WU-2223L as a host. The oxalic acid production capacity of this strain was examined by cultivation of EOAH-1 under conditions appropriate for oxalic acid production with 30 g/l glucose as a carbon source. Under all the cultivation conditions tested, the amount of oxalic acid produced by EOAH-1, a representative oahA-overexpressing transformant, exceeded that produced by A. niger WU-2223L. A. niger WU-2223L and EOAH-1 produced 15.6 and 28.9 g/l oxalic acid, respectively, during the 12-day cultivation period. The yield of oxalic acid for EOAH-1 was 64.2 % of the maximum theoretical yield. Our method for oxalic acid production gave the highest yield of any study reported to date. Therefore, we succeeded in generating oxalic acid hyperproducers by overexpressing a single gene, i.e., oahA, in citric acid-producing A. niger as a host.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  9. REINVESTIGATING THE PROCESS IMPACTS FROM OXALIC ACIDHIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-22

    The impacts and acceptability of using oxalic acid to clean the Savannah River Site, High Level Waste Tanks 1-8, were re-investigated using a two-phased approach. For the first phase, using a representative Tank 1-8 sludge, the chemical equilibrium based software, OLI ESP{copyright} and Savannah River Site laboratory test results were used to develop a chemically speciated material balance and a general oxalate mass balance. Using 8 wt% oxalic acid with a 100% molar excess, for every 1 kg of sludge solid that was dissolved, about 3.4 kg of resultant solids would form for eventual vitrification, while about 0.6 kg of soluble oxalate would precipitate in the evaporator system, and form a salt heel. Using available analyses, a list of potential safety and process impacts were developed, screened, and evaluated for acceptability. The results showed that the use of oxalic acid had two distinct types of impacts, those which were safety based and required potential upgrades or additional studies. Assuming such were performed and adequate, no further actions were required. The second type of impacts were also acceptable, but were long-term, and as such, would need to be managed. These impacts were directly caused by the solubility characteristics of oxalate in a concentrated sodium solution and, occurred after pH restoration. Since oxalate destruction methods are commonly available, their use should be considered. Using an oxalate destruction method could enable the benefits of oxalic to applied, while eliminating the long-term impacts that must be managed, and hence should be considered.

  10. Acute kidney injury after ingestion of rhubarb: secondary oxalate nephropathy in a patient with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albersmeyer Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxalosis is a metabolic disorder characterized by deposition of oxalate crystals in various organs including the kidney. Whereas primary forms result from genetic defects in oxalate metabolism, secondary forms of oxalosis can result from excessive intestinal oxalate absorption or increased endogenous production, e.g. after intoxication with ethylene glycol. Case presentation Here, we describe a case of acute crystal-induced renal failure associated with excessive ingestion of rhubarb in a type 1 diabetic with previously normal excretory renal function. Renal biopsy revealed mild mesangial sclerosis, but prominent tubular deposition of oxalate crystals in the kidney. Oxalate serum levels were increased. Conclusion Acute secondary oxalate nephropathy due to excessive dietary intake of oxalate may lead to acute renal failure in patients with preexisting renal disease like mild diabetic nephropathy. Attention should be payed to special food behaviors when reasons for acute renal failure are explored.

  11. Sodium‐glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor luseogliflozin improves glycaemic control, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, even on a low‐carbohydrate diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, R.; Omiya, H.; Sugio, K.; Ubukata, M.; Sakai, S.

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, crossover study was the first to determine the effects of luseogliflozin in combination with a low‐carbohydrate diet (LCD) on 24‐h glucose variability, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). A total of 18 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized into two groups, in which patients first received luseogliflozin 2.5 mg once daily then placebo for 8 days each, or vice versa. Patients took luseogliflozin or placebo with a normal‐carbohydrate diet (NCD) on day 7 and with the LCD on day 8. CGM was performed on both days. Luseogliflozin significantly reduced glucose exposure in terms of the area under the curve over the course of 24 h when administered with the NCD (difference vs placebo: −555.6 mg/dl·h [1 mg/dl = 0.0556 mmol/l]; p diet. Although glucose levels were lower with the LCD than with the NCD in the placebo treatment period, luseogliflozin with the LCD improved glycaemic control throughout the day to nearly the same extent as luseogliflozin with the NCD, without inducing hypoglycaemia. PMID:26639943

  12. Effect of a LoBAG30 diet on protein metabolism in men with type 2 diabetes. A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttall Frank Q

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that a weight-maintenance diet with a carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio of 30:30:40%, ingested for 5 weeks, improved blood glucose control in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. In this study we also determined that insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I were increased. In this report we provide further information. Specifically, 24-hour total and individual amino acids, glucagon and cortisol data are provided. In addition, we determined whether these multiple effectors resulted in a positive nitrogen balance and an increase in fat-free mass. Insulin and IGF-I should stimulate protein accumulation. An increase in amino acids, particularly branched chain amino acids, should facilitate this, whereas glucagon and cortisol could have adverse effects in this regard. Methods Eight men with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied. A randomized crossover design was used. Data were obtained before and after 5 weeks on a control diet (55% carbohydrate:15% protein:30% fat and on a 30% carbohydrate:30% protein:40% fat diet. Nitrogen balance and body composition were determined at the beginning and end of each dietary intervention. Results As expected, the mean 24-hour total amino acid area response was higher after ingesting the 30:30:40 diet. However, the increase was only statistically significant for the branched chain amino acids, and phenylalanine and tyrosine. The 24-hour cortisol profile was unchanged. Glucagon was increased. Nitrogen balance was positive. Body weight was stable. Body composition and computed tomography data indicate no change in the fat-free mass. Conclusion This high protein, low carbohydrate diet induced a metabolic milieu which strongly favors a positive protein balance, and a positive balance was present. However, an increase in lean (protein mass was not documented. Whether such a diet in people with type 2 diabetes is useful in preventing or delaying the loss of total lean

  13. Genetic control of obesity and gut microbiota composition in response to high-fat, high-sucrose diet in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parks, Brian W; Nam, Elizabeth; Org, Elin; Kostem, Emrah; Norheim, Frode; Hui, Simon T; Pan, Calvin; Civelek, Mete; Rau, Christoph D; Bennett, Brian J; Mehrabian, Margarete; Ursell, Luke K; He, Aiqing; Castellani, Lawrence W; Zinker, Bradley; Kirby, Mark; Drake, Thomas A; Drevon, Christian A; Knight, Rob; Gargalovic, Peter; Kirchgessner, Todd; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J

    2013-01-01

    ...) diet of more than 100 inbred strains of mice. Here we show that HF/HS feeding promotes robust, strain-specific changes in obesity that are not accounted for by food intake and provide evidence for a genetically determined set point for obesity...

  14. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  15. Growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate. III. Variation of solution composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvoet, Olav L. M.; Blomen, Leo J. M. J.; Will, Eric J.; van der Linden, Hanneke

    1983-11-01

    The influence of the variations of initial supersaturation, ionic strength and calcium-to-oxalate ratio on the growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate from suspension at 37°C have been investigated in an isotopic system. All experiments can be described with a single growth formula, containing three constants: kA (growth rate constant), La (thermodynamic solubility product) and [ tm] (a parameter describing the agglomeration of any seed suspension). This formula is able to predict any growth curve when the initial concentrations of seed, oxalate and indifferent electrolyte are known. Comparisons with datak from the literature are discussed.

  16. Blue luminescence in porous anodic alumina films: the role of the oxalic impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Gao Tao; Zhang Li

    2003-01-01

    Porous anodic alumina (PAA) films with ordered nanopore arrays have been prepared by electrochemically anodizing aluminium in oxalic acid solutions, and the role of the oxalic impurities in the optical properties of PAA films has been discussed. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the PAA films obtained have a blue PL band with a peak position at around 470 nm; the oxalic impurities, incorporated in the PAA films during the anodization processes and already existing in them, could be being transformed into PL centres and hence responsible for this PL emission.

  17. Modulation of Tartrates with Various Counterions on the Phases of Calcium Oxalate in Gelatinous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming OUYANG; Xiang Ping LI

    2005-01-01

    Effect of various counterions of tartrate on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in gel system was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various tartrates with hydrogen (H2tart), sodium (Na2tart), potassium (K2tart), ammonium ((NH4)2tart), and a mixture of sodium and potassium cations (NaKtart) were considered. For H2tart, Na2tart, and (NH4)2tart, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was induced. However, for K2tart and NaKtart,calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT) was obtained.

  18. Effectiveness of a low-fructose and/or low-sucrose diet in decreasing insulin resistance (DISFRUTE study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Carrillo Fernández, Lourdes; Gobierno Hernández, Jesús; Méndez Abad, Manuel; Borges Álamo, Carlos; García Dopico, José Antonio; Aguirre Jaime, Armando; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2017-08-07

    Research published to date on the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and fructose consumption is scarce, has used different methods, and has yielded sometimes contradictory results. This study aims to determine whether a low-fructose and/or low-sucrose diet supervised by a physician or nurse decreases IR compared to a standard diet. This field trial is located at primary care centers. The participants are adults aged 29 to 66 years, with a Body mass Index (BMI) between 29 and 40.99 kg/m(2) and without diabetes. To date, 245 participants have been assigned randomly to the low-fructose diet intervention group (LFDI) at health centers in the western health service zone of Tenerife island, and 245 to the standard-diet control group (SDC) at health centers in the eastern health service zone. Recruitment is opportunistic and is carried out by physicians and nurses at participating health centers. Initially (baseline), and after 24 weeks of intervention, dietary records, physical activity, waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and insulin concentrations (HOMA2-IR) and lipid profile are recorded; blood glucose and insulin and lipid profile are also recorded 2 h after a 75-g glucose overload. After 48 weeks (24 weeks after the intervention), fasting blood samples are again obtained and a physical examination is performed. All tests and measures are repeated and recorded except dietary records, physical activity and oral glucose overload. Low-fructose diets are designed by calculating free and total (free + fructose associated with sucrose) fructose contents in standard diets, and removing foods with a fructose content in the highest quartile for the amounts in the standard diet. Participants in both groups are prescribed a diet that contains 30 to 40% less than the participant's energy requirements. The primary endpoint is change in HOMA2-IR between baseline and week 24, and other outcomes are change in HDL-cholesterol, LDL

  19. Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfegó, Mariona; Canivell, Silvia; Hanzu, Felicia A; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Martínez-Medina, Margarita; Murillo, Serafín; Mur, Teresa; Ruano, Elena G; Linares, Francisca; Porras, Nuria; Valladares, Silvia; Fontalba, Maria; Roura, Elena; Novials, Anna; Hernández, Cristina; Aranda, Gloria; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Simó, Rafael; Gomis, Ramon

    2016-04-18

    Nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of treating diabetes mellitus. The inclusion of fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week is recommended by current international dietary guidelines for type 2 diabetes. In contrast to a large number of human studies examining the effects of oily fish on different cardiovascular risk factors, little research on this topic is available in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aims of this pilot study were to investigate the effects of a sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition, and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. 35 drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to follow either a type 2 diabetes standard diet (control group: CG), or a standard diet enriched with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week (sardine group: SG) for 6 months. Anthropometric, dietary information, fasting glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, EMFA and specific bacterial strains were determined before and after intervention. There were no significant differences in glycemic control between groups at the end of the study. Both groups decreased plasma insulin (SG: -35.3%, P = 0.01, CG: -22.6%, P = 0.02) and homeostasis model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (SG: -39.2%, P = 0.007, CG: -21.8%, P = 0.04) at 6-months from baseline. However only SG increased adiponectin in plasma compared to baseline level (+40.7%, P = 0.04). The omega-3 index increased 2.6% in the SG compared to 0.6% in the CG (P = 0.001). Both dietary interventions decreased phylum Firmicutes (SG and CG: P = 0.04) and increased E. coli concentrations (SG: P = 0.01, CG: P = 0.03) at the end of the study from baseline, whereas SG decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.04) and increased Bacteroides-Prevotella (P = 0.004) compared to baseline. Although enriching diet with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week during

  20. Mediterranean versus vegetarian diet for cardiovascular disease prevention (the CARDIVEG study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Dinu, Monica; Pagliai, Giuditta; Cesari, Francesca; Marcucci, Rossella; Casini, Alessandro

    2016-05-04

    Nutrition is able to alter the cardiovascular health of the general population. However, the optimal dietary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention is still far from being defined. Mediterranean and vegetarian diets are those reporting the greatest grade of evidence in the literature, but no experimental studies comparing these two dietary patterns are available. This is an open randomized crossover clinical trial including healthy subjects with a low-to-medium cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by being overweight and by the presence of at least an additional metabolic risk factor (abdominal obesity, high total cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, impaired glucose fasting levels) but free from medications. A total of 100 subjects will be included and randomly assigned to two groups: Mediterranean calorie-restricted diet (n = 50) and vegetarian calorie-restricted diet (n = 50). The intervention phases will last 3 months each, and at the end of intervention phase I the groups will be crossed over. The two diets will be isocaloric and of three different sizes (1400 - 1600 - 1800 kcal/day), according to specific energy requirements. Adherence to the dietary intervention will be established through questionnaires and 24-h dietary recall. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood samples and stool samples will be obtained from each participant at the beginning and at the end of each intervention phase. The primary outcome measure will be change in weight from baseline. The secondary outcome measures will be variations of anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance variables as well as traditional and innovative cardiovascular biomarkers. Despite all the data supporting the efficacy of Mediterranean and vegetarian diets on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, no studies have directly compared these two dietary profiles. The trial will test whether there are statistically significant differences between these

  1. Diet and ADHD, Reviewing the Evidence: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses of Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials Evaluating the Efficacy of Diet Interventions on the Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelsser, Lidy M.; Frankena, Klaas; Toorman, Jan; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a debilitating mental health problem hampering the child’s development. The underlying causes include both genetic and environmental factors and may differ between individuals. The efficacy of diet treatments in ADHD was recently evaluated in three reviews, reporting divergent and confusing conclusions based on heterogeneous studies and subjects. To address this inconsistency we conducted a systematic review of meta-analyses of double-blind placebo-controlled trials evaluating the effect of diet interventions (elimination and supplementation) on ADHD. Methods Our literature search resulted in 14 meta-analyses, six of which confined to double-blind placebo-controlled trials applying homogeneous diet interventions, i.e. artificial food color (AFC) elimination, a few-foods diet (FFD) and poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation. Effect sizes (ES) and Confidence intervals (CI) of study outcomes were depicted in a forest plot. I2 was calculated to assess heterogeneity if necessary and additional random effects subgroup meta-regression was conducted if substantial heterogeneity was present. Results The AFC ESs were 0.44 (95% CI: 0.16–0.72, I2 = 11%) and 0.21 (95% CI: -0.02–0.43, I2 = 68%) [parent ratings], 0.08 (95% CI: -0.07–0.24, I2 = 0%) [teacher ratings] and 0.11 (95% CI: -0.13–0.34, I2 = 12%) [observer ratings]. The FFD ESs were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.41–1.19, I2 = 61%) [parent ratings] and 0.51 (95% CI: -0.02–1.04, I2 = 72%) [other ratings], while the PUFA ESs were 0.17 (95% CI: -0.03–0.38, I2 = 38%) [parent ratings], -0.05 (95% CI: -0.27–0.18, I2 = 0%) [teacher ratings] and 0.16 (95% CI: 0.01–0.31, I2 = 0%) [parent and teacher ratings]. Three meta-analyses (two FFD and one AFC) resulted in high I2 without presenting subgroup results. The FFD meta-analyses provided sufficient data to perform subgroup analyses on intervention type, resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity to 0

  2. In vitro formation of Ca-oxalates and the mineral glushinskite by fungal interaction with carbonate substrates and seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kolo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vitro formation of Ca-oxalates and glushinskite through fungal interaction with carbonate substrates and seawater as a process of biologically induced metal recycling and neo-mineral formation. The study also emphasizes the role of the substrates as metal donors. In the first experiment, thin sections prepared from dolomitic rock samples of Terwagne Formation (Carboniferous, Viséan, northern France served as substrates. The thin sections placed in Petri dishes were exposed to fungi grown from naturally existing airborne spores. In the second experiment, fungal growth and mineral formation was monitored using only standard seawater (SSW as a substrate. Fungal growth media consisted of a high protein/carbohydrates and sugar diet with demineralized water for irrigation. Fungal growth process reached completion under uncontrolled laboratory conditions. The newly formed minerals and textural changes caused by fungal attack on the carbonate substrates were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX, x-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The fungal interaction and attack on the dolomitic and seawater substrates resulted in the formation of Ca-oxalates (weddellite CaC2O4·2(H2O, whewellite (CaC2O4·(H2O and glushinskite MgC2O4·2(H2O associated with the destruction of the original hard substrates and their replacement by the new minerals. Both of Ca and Mg were mobilized from the experimental substrates by fungi. This metal mobilization involved a recycling of substrate metals into newly formed minerals. The biochemical and diagenetic results of the interaction strongly marked the attacked substrates with a biological fingerprint. Such fingerprints are biomarkers of primitive life. The formation of glushinskite is of specific importance that is related, besides its importance as a biomineral bearing a recycled Mg, to the possibility of its transformation through diagenetic pathway into an

  3. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Laia; Baron, Cristian; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet. Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate. Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls). In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight). The detected levels of glucose in RBC were lower

  4. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Oliva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet.Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate.Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls. In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight. The detected levels of glucose in

  5. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  6. Diet and acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P; Joshi, Smita S; Shalita, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    Historically, the relationship between diet and acne has been highly controversial. Before the 1960s, certain foods were thought to exacerbate acne. However, subsequent studies dispelled these alleged associations as myth for almost half a century. Several studies during the last decade have prompted dermatologists to revisit the potential link between diet and acne. This article critically reviews the literature and discusses how dermatologists might address diet when counseling patients with acne. Dermatologists can no longer dismiss the association between diet and acne. Compelling evidence exists that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne, and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, zinc, vitamin A, and dietary fiber remain to be elucidated. This study was limited by the lack of randomized controlled trials in the literature. We hope that this review will encourage others to explore the effects of diet on acne. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome given DASH diet counseling when provided a low sodium vegetable juice: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome, a constellation of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is one of the fastest growing disease entities in the world. Weight loss is thought to be a key to improving all aspects of metabolic syndrome. Research studies have suggested benefits from diets rich in vegetables and fruits in helping individuals reach and achieve healthy weights. Objective To evaluate the effects of a ready to serve vegetable juice as part of a calorie-appropriate Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet in an ethnically diverse population of people with Metabolic Syndrome on weight loss and their abi