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Sample records for controlled growth conditions

  1. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO......2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  2. Controlling the site density of multiwall carbon nanotubes via growth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Kaatz, F. H.

    2004-06-01

    We present two complementary methods for controlling the site density of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly as a function of growth conditions from 1011to107CNTs/cm2. Several potential applications require significant spacing between individual CNTs. The first method shows that the site density varies with the heat of formation of the hydrocarbon gas used during CNT growth by thermal chemical vapor deposition. The second method demonstrates that the site density decreases with increasing residual stress of the metal catalyst/diffusion barrier layers. These methods are combined for wide-range control of CNT site density.

  3. Controlled growth of CNT in mesoporous AAO through optimized conditions for membrane preparation and CVD operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciambelli, P; Sarno, M; Leone, C; Sannino, D [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, University of Salerno, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Arurault, L; Fontorbes, S; Datas, L; Lenormand, P; Le Blond Du Plouy, S, E-mail: msarno@unisa.it, E-mail: arurault@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, CIRIMAT, UPS/INPT/CNRS, LCMIE, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-07-01

    Anodic aluminium oxide (RAAO) membranes with a mesoporous structure were prepared under strictly controlling experimental process conditions, and physically and chemically characterized by a wide range of experimental techniques. Commercial anodic aluminium oxide (CAAO) membranes were also investigated for comparison. We demonstrated that RAAO membranes have lower content of both water and phosphorus and showed better porosity shape than CAAO. The RAAO membranes were used for template growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) inside its pores by ethylene chemical vapour deposition (CVD) in the absence of a catalyst. A composite material, containing one nanotube for each channel, having the same length as the membrane thickness and an external diameter close to the diameter of the membrane holes, was obtained. Yield, selectivity and quality of CNTs in terms of diameter, length and arrangement (i.e. number of tubes for each channel) were optimized by investigating the effect of changing the experimental conditions for the CVD process. We showed that upon thermal treatment RAAO membranes were made up of crystallized allotropic alumina phases, which govern the subsequent CNT growth, because of their catalytic activity, likely due to their Lewis acidity. The strict control of experimental conditions for membrane preparation and CNT growth allowed us to enhance the carbon structural order, which is a critical requisite for CNT application as a substitute for copper in novel nano-interconnects.

  4. Fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens (Pisces: Syngnathidae under semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la fecundidad, supervivencia, y crecimiento del caballito de mar, Hippocampus ingens en condiciones semi-controladas. Tres machos reproductores silvestres de 14.8, 24.5 y 32.0 g produjeron 1 598, 1 703 y 1 658 jóvenes. La densidad utilizada fue de 12 jóvenes por acuario de 60 l. Se agruparon en 1, 12 y 20 días de nacidos por acuario. La supervivencia fue de 78.5, 38.1 y 41.0 % en 35 días. Se les alimentó con una mezcla de rotíferos B. plicatilis y nauplios de Artemia para después transferirlos a estanques de 100 000 l a una densidad de 50/1 000 l, donde se les alimentó con Artemia adulta durante 60 días más. Crecieron de un promedio de 0.7, 1.5, y 2.7 a 4.5, 5.4 6.7 cm, respectivamente, en 95 días. La temperatura del agua marina utilizada varió de 17 a 23 ºC.We studied fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens under semi-controlled conditions. Three wild brood stock mature males of 14.8, 24.5, and 32.0 g released 1 598, 1 703, and 1 658 juveniles. Juvenile stocking densities of 12 were settled in 60-l aquariums in groups of 1, 12, and 20 days old organisms. The rate of survival was 21.5, 61.9, and 59.0 %, respectively, in 35 days. Juveniles were fed a mix diet of rotifers B. plicatilis and Artemia nauplii, then they were transferred to a cement tank of 100 000 l at a density of 50/1 000 l and fed with live adult Artemia for 60 days more. They grew from an average of 0.7, 1.5, and 2.7 to 4.5, 5.4, and 6.7 cm, respectively, in 95 days. The seawater temperature varied from 17 to 23 ºC. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1099-1102. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.

  5. Comprehensive Study Of Duckweed Cultivation And Growth Conditions Under Controlled Eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Alica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discussed the issue of eutrophication. The most conspicuous effect of eutrophication is the creation of dense blooms of noxious, foul-smelling phytoplankton that reduce water clarity and harm water quality. Nutrient concentration, temperature and pH of the water largely influence the growth rate and composition of duckweed in general, but it can be said that the temperature and solar irradiation are the most important factors. In order to compare the rate of biomass increase of duckweed biomass in natural conditions and in a laboratory grown sample was analysed by spectrophotometric methods in UV/VIS region (Spectrophotometer GENESYSTM for the selected nutrients such as ammonium, ammonium nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate.

  6. Allelopathic Effects of Four Chickpea Cultivars on Vegetative Growth of Sunflower and Corn under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of four chickpea cultivar (Cicer arietinum L. on vegetative growth of sunflower (Helianthus annus and corn (Zea mays, two separate experiments was conducted at Research Greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2005. Experiments were done in a factorial arrangement of treatments with two factors based on completely randomized design with 4 replications. Factors included chickpea cultivars (Karag12-60-31, Filip 84-482, Gam, ILC 482, and no residue control and planting date of corn and sunflowers within root residues of chick pea (seeds planted simultaneously, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after harvesting of chickpea shoots. Seeds of corn and sunflower were planted within root residues of chickpea. Results showed that root residues of chickpea cultivars influenced height and shoot weight of sunflower significantly. The lowest sunflower height was obtained when they were planted within root residues of Flip and ILC cultivars, which decreased 13.7 and 11.1% relative to control, respectively. Planting date of sunflower within root residues of chick pea cultivars had a significant effect on sunflower leaf area, shoot weight, and its root/shoot ratio. So that, lowest leaf area, shoot weight, and also highest root/shoot ratio was obtained in third planting date. Results showed that lowest plant height, leaf area, root weight, shoot weight, and also highest root/shoot ratio of corn (6 weeks after planting was obtained after planting within chickpea cultivars, Gam and ILC. Also the effect of corn planting date was significant. The lowest root and shoot weight, and root/shoot ratio of corn was obtained in the earliest corn planting date. Therefore, corn plants showed more sensitive than sunflower after planting within chickpea cultivars, and the highest inhibitory effects resulted in the earliest corn planting date. Keywords: Pea cultivars, Integrated management, Crop rotation

  7. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J. K.; York, E. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room (CER) for control of aerial environment. The CER was equipped with an auto-calibrating system for atmospheric CO2 control. The control systems for the hydroponic chambers were able to maintain acidity within +/- 0.2 pH units and the temperature with +/- 0.5 degree C. Mixing time for the 200-liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min. The CO2 control system was able to maintain aerial concentrations within +/- 10 ppm CO2 during the light period. The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was characterized during a 3-week period of vegetative development by leaf number and area, plant dry weight, total N content of plants, and N depletion from the nutrient solution. The growth characteristics among populations for three hydroponic chambers within the CER were not significantly different, and the percent standard errors of means of the measurements within populations from each chamber were nearly all less than 10%. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions.

  8. Identification of melatonin in Trichoderma spp. and detection of melatonin content under controlled-stress growth conditions from T. asperellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhao, Fengzhou; Liu, Zhen; Zuo, Yuhu; Hou, Jumei; Wang, Yanjie

    2016-07-01

    T. koningii, T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine whether melatonin is present. Results showed that there were abundant amounts of endogenous melatonin in five Trichoderma species, but no melatonin was found in any of the culture filtrates. T. asperellum had the highest amount of melatonin (27.588 ± 0.326 μg g(-1) dry mass), followed by T. koningii, T. harzianum, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride. The endogenous melatonin content of T. asperellum in controlled-stress growth conditions was also detected. The data showed that chemical stressors (CdCl2 , CuSO4 , and H2 O2 ) provoked an increase in endogenous melatonin levels. CdCl2 had the highest stimulatory effect on melatonin production, as the product reached reaching up to three times the melatonin content of the control. NaCl stimulated a decrease of melatonin. Acidic conditions (pH 3 and pH 5) as well as slightly alkaline conditions (pH 9) resulted in an increase in the melatonin content, whereas pH11 resulted in a significant decrease in the melatonin content, only 12.276 ± 0.205 μg g(-1) dry mass. The current study is first to report melatonin content and the change of melatonin content under different stress situations in Trichoderma spp. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends strongly on the organism and conditions for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular genetics we have introduced uncoupled ATPase activity in two different bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, and determined the elasticities of the growth rate and glycolytic flux towards the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. During balanced growth in batch...... cultures of E. coli the ATP demand was found to have almost full control on the glycolytic flux (FCC=0.96) and the flux could be stimulated by 70%. In contrast to this, in L. lactis the control by ATP demand on the glycolytic flux was close to zero. However, when we used non-growing cells of L. lactis...... (which have a low glycolytic flux) the ATP demand had a high flux control and the flux could be stimulated more than two fold. We suggest that the extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends on how much excess capacity of glycolysis is present in the cells....

  10. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  11. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree

  12. Overexpression of the TaSHN1 transcription factor in bread wheat leads to leaf surface modifications, improved drought tolerance and no yield penalty under controlled growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Huihui; Shi, Jianxin; Kovalchuk, Natalia; Luang, Sukanya; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Zhang, Dabing; Shavrukov, Yuri; Stepanenko, Anton; Tricker, Penny; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy; Borisjuk, Nikolai

    2018-05-14

    Transcription factors regulate multiple networks, mediating the responses of organisms to stresses, including drought. Here we investigated the role of the wheat transcription factor TaSHN1 in crop growth and drought tolerance. TaSHN1, isolated from bread wheat, was characterised for molecular interactions and functionality. The overexpression of TaSHN1 in wheat was followed by the evaluation of T 2 and T 3 transgenic lines for drought tolerance, growth and yield components. Leaf surface changes were analysed by light microscopy, SEM, TEM and GC-MS/GC-FID. TaSHN1 behaves as a transcriptional activator in a yeast transactivation assay and binds stress-related DNA cis-elements, determinants of which were revealed using 3D molecular modelling. The overexpression of TaSHN1 in transgenic wheat did not result in a yield penalty under the controlled plant growth conditions of a glasshouse. Transgenic lines had significantly lower stomatal density and leaf water loss, and exhibited improved recovery after severe drought, compared to control plants. The comparative analysis of cuticular waxes revealed an increased accumulation of alkanes in leaves of transgenic lines. Our data demonstrate that TaSHN1 may operate as a positive modulator of drought stress tolerance. Positive attributes could be mediated through an enhanced accumulation of alkanes and reduced stomatal density. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Epigenetic control of hypoxia inducible factor-1α-dependent expression of placental growth factor in hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudisco, Laura; Della Ragione, Floriana; Tarallo, Valeria; Apicella, Ivana; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Matarazzo, Maria Rosaria; De Falco, Sandro

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia plays a crucial role in the angiogenic switch, modulating a large set of genes mainly through the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional complex. Endothelial cells play a central role in new vessels formation and express placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, mainly involved in pathological angiogenesis. Despite several observations suggest a hypoxia-mediated positive modulation of PlGF, the molecular mechanism governing this regulation has not been fully elucidated. We decided to investigate if epigenetic modifications are involved in hypoxia-induced PlGF expression. We report that PlGF expression was induced in cultured human and mouse endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia (1% O 2), although DNA methylation at the Plgf CpG-island remains unchanged. Remarkably, robust hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 was observed in the second intron of Plgf, where hypoxia responsive elements (HREs), never described before, are located. HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, binds to identified HREs. Noteworthy, only HIF-1α silencing fully inhibited PlGF upregulation. These results formally demonstrate a direct involvement of HIF-1α in the upregulation of PlGF expression in hypoxia through chromatin remodeling of HREs sites. Therefore, PlGF may be considered one of the putative targets of anti-HIF therapeutic applications.

  14. Conditions for mould growth on typical interior surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva B.; Andersen, Birgitte; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of the risk for mould growth is an important parameter for the analysis and design of the hygrothermal performance of building constructions. However, in practice the mould growth does not always follow the predicted behavior described by the mould growth models. This is often explained...... by uncertainty in the real conditions of exposure. In this study, laboratory experiments were designed to determine mould growth at controlled transient climate compared to growth at constant climate. The experiment included three building materials with four different surface treatments. The samples were...

  15. Optimal growth conditions for Isochrysis galbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D; Cohen, Z; Abeliovich, A

    1986-01-01

    Environmental and nutritional growth conditions of the unicellular microalga Isochrysis galbana were studied under laboratory conditions. The information obtained was used for cultivating the alga in outdoor miniponds. Outdoor cultures stayed monoalgal and free of predators as long as the temperature did not fall below 19 degrees C and the rate of dilution did not exceed 40% of the culture's volume. Isochrysis galbana grown in outdoor cultures provided lipid concentrations of 24-28% of ash free dry matter. 12 references.

  16. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  17. A Model of Controlled Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Alberto; Lewicka, Marta

    2018-03-01

    We consider a free boundary problem for a system of PDEs, modeling the growth of a biological tissue. A morphogen, controlling volume growth, is produced by specific cells and then diffused and absorbed throughout the domain. The geometric shape of the growing tissue is determined by the instantaneous minimization of an elastic deformation energy, subject to a constraint on the volumetric growth. For an initial domain with C}^{2,α boundary, our main result establishes the local existence and uniqueness of a classical solution, up to a rigid motion.

  18. Meniscus Imaging for Crystal-Growth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon crystal growth monitored by new video system reduces operator stress and improves conditions for observation and control of growing process. System optics produce greater magnification vertically than horizontally, so entire meniscus and melt is viewed with high resolution in both width and height dimensions.

  19. Changes In Growth Culture FDA Activity Under Changing Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    The FDA hydrolysis capacities and bacterial biomass concentrations (estimated by determination of ATP content) of growth cultures prepared from activated sludge and wastewater, were measured to find out whether the FDA activity would reflect bacterial biomass under different physiological states...... of the bacteria. The FDA activity/ATP ratio was calculated for different concentrations of autoclaved sludge. A faster decay rate of ATP relative to FDA hydrolysis activity was observed, thus causing changes in the ratio. Furthermore, comparison between values obtained from pure cultures and different soils...... revealed differences up to two orders of magnitude of the ratio. Based on these results it was concluded that the FDA activity should not be applied for measurements of viable biomass in environments in which different physiological conditions occur....

  20. The Influence of the Plant Growth Regulator Maleic Hydrazide on Egyptian Broomrape Early Developmental Stages and Its Control Efficacy in Tomato under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Venezian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Broomrapes (Phelipanche spp. and Orobanche spp. are holoparasitic plants that cause tremendous losses of agricultural crops worldwide. Broomrape control is extremely difficult and only amino acid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides present an acceptable control level. It is expected that broomrape resistance to these herbicides is not long in coming. Our objective was to develop a broomrape control system in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. based on the plant growth regulator maleic hydrazide (MH. Petri-dish and polyethylene-bag system experiments revealed that MH has a slight inhibitory effect on Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination but is a potent inhibitor of the first stages of parasitism, namely attachment and the tubercle stage. MH phytotoxicity toward tomato and its P. aegyptiaca-control efficacy were tested in greenhouse experiments. MH was applied at 25, 50, 75, 150, 300, and 600 g a.i. ha-1 to tomato foliage grown in P. aegyptiaca-infested soil at 200 growing degree days (GDD and again at 400 GDD. The treatments had no influence on tomato foliage or root dry weight. The total number of P. aegyptiaca attachments counted on the roots of the treated plants was significantly lower at 75 g a.i. ha-1 and also at higher MH rates. Phelipanche aegyptiaca biomass was close to zero at rates of 150, 300, and 600 g a.i. ha-1 MH. Field experiments were conducted to optimize the rate, timing and number of MH applications. Two application sequences gave superior results, both with five split applications applied at 100, 200, 400, 700, and 1000 GDD: (a constant rate of 400 g a.i. ha-1; (b first two applications at 270 g a.i. ha-1 and the next three applications at 540 g a.i. ha-1. Based on the results of this study, MH was registered for use in Israel in 2013 with the specified protocol and today, it is widely used by most Israeli tomato growers.

  1. Growth conditions of 0-group plaice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Freitas, V.; de Paoli, H.; Witte, J.IJ.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Growth studies based on population-based growth estimates are limited by the fact that they do not take into account differences in age/size structure within the population. To overcome these problems, otolith microstructure analysis is often used to estimate individual growth. Here, we analyse

  2. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE ON GROWTH AND SEED YIELD IN SOME Camelina sativa L. VARIETIES CULTIVATED UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela PODGOREANU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently emerged interest in using renewable vegetable sources as feedstock for biofuel production requires the identification of effective solutions aimed to follow the principles of sustainable development. Biofuels from the first generation were produced from sugarcane, starch and oils derived from agricultural products, but they may not be sustainable because are competing with the agricultural production. Currently, studies are focused on the obtaining of a second generation of biofuels that originate from plants other then food crops, from agricultural residues and from municipal wastes. Being economically attractive and having certain agro-technical advantages, the Camelina sativa seed oil is considered a sustainable source for obtaining second generation biofuels. The aim of the present research was to record the effect of genotype in 3 foreign varieties of Camelina sativa (CALENA, GP 204 and GP 202 and in 3 autochthonous ones (CAMELIA, one local population Fundulea and one hybrid line as regards both the growth characteristics and the yield components in a greenhouse experiment, in order to evaluate their potential performance and adaptability in field conditions. Periodic phenological observations were performed on the occurrence of flowering, on the pod maturation and genotypic differences of the biometric measurements such as plant height, number of branches, number of pods per plant, number of seeds in pods and thousand seed weight are discussed.

  3. Achieving Revenue Benchmarks Conditional on Growth Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Son

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether certain firm characteristics, specifically growth properties, are associated with the likelihood of achieving market expectations for revenues, as well as which mechanism (revenue manipulation or expectation management growth firms utilize in order to avoid missing these expectations. The results show that growth firms are more likely to meet or exceed analyst revenue forecasts than non-growth firms. We also find that growth firms are more inclined to manipulate their reported revenues upwards, and less inclined to guide market expectations for revenues downward, in order to meet or beat expected revenues relative to non-growth firms. These findings suggest that window-dressing activities by growth firms may not be sustainable in the long-run and can misguide users of financial statements in their decision-making.

  4. Growth of Corophium volutator under laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, B.J.; Jol, J.G.; Smit, M.G.D.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature-dependent growth is an important factor in the population model of Corophium volutator that was developed to translate responses in a 10-day acute bioassay to ecological consequences for the population. The growth rate, however, was estimated from old data, based on a Swedish population.

  5. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Photosynthesis, Gas Exchanges and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Insugar Beet(Beta vulgaris L. Cultivars in the Seedling Stage under Controlled Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Assadi Nassab

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to continuing of drought phenomenon, global warming and dust storms resulted in salining increasing of arable lands, because it’s necessary to know some physiological mechanisms in sugar beet under salt stress,this experiment was conducted to investigation of effect of salinity on growth characteristics, respiration, gas exchange and photosynthesis in three sugar beet cultivars (BR1, Jolgeh and Rasoul in the 2010 growing season, in greenhouse of Shahid Chamran University as the factorial design based on randomized complete block with three replications.35 days sugar beet seedlings were kept for eight weeks under three salinity levels including control (zero, 100, and 200 mM sodium chloride (NaCl. Salinity Stress reduced shoot and root dry matter and leaf area significantly. With increasing of salinity, the rate of photosynthesis (carbon dioxide assimilation, stomatal conductance, and leaf transpiration rate decreased, but respiratory rate, leaf temperature and SPAD value increased. The results showed that Quantum yield of PSII(ФPSII decreased by increasing of salinity level, meanwhile Non-Photo Chemical Quenching (NPQ increased.Accordingto theresults, theconcentration of 200mMsodium chloride, had a highnegative correlation betweenrootdry matter(r=-0.95**stress susceptibility index. Meansanyreductionindry matter accumulationincreasedinstress susceptibility index.Lowerlevelsofstress susceptibility indexshowingmoretolerance of cultivar tosalinity stress. Based on stress susceptibility index (SSI, in the concentration of 200 mM sodium chloride, cultivars Rasoul, BR1 and Jolgeh are tolerant, semi-tolerant respectively and sensitive were identified. In the end, it seems that root dry weight, can be use as a criterion for salinity resistance of sugar beet cultivars.

  6. Growth patterns for etiolated soybeans germinated under spaceflight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Piastuch, William C.

    In the GENEX (GENe EXpression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87), six surface sterilized soybean seeds ( Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to initiate the process of seed germination on-orbit and subsequently transferred them to four light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight plants ( N = 177), (2) the corresponding ground control population ( N = 183), plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions ( N = 93). No significant morphological differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. Some causes underlying this phenomenon are speculated on.

  7. Study on growth condition of Trichoderma mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian'ai; Xiao Min; Wang Weiming; Chen Weijing; Sun Yongtang

    2002-01-01

    Some Trichoderma mutants were cultured under different conditions 4 strains, T5, T0803, T1010, T1003 were selected with different mediums and every medium was mixed with fungicide of 40 ppm. The fungicides were procymidone + chlorothalonil, maneb and phosethyl-Al. The pH of medium were 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. The growing temperatures were 15, 20, 25 and 30 degree C, respectively. After the hypha growing for some days under natural high temperature, they were put in low temperature for producing spores. The growing times for these hypha were 3,4,5 and 6 days, respectively. All dates were analyzed on statistics with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) were different with different factor and levels (R = 40.4, 42.4, 48.0, 62.8, 107.0). The results showed that the strain was the most influent condition (R = 107.0) and the changed temperature time from high to low was the least influent condition (R = 40.4). Each factor variance was significant and A 3 b 4 C 2 D 1 E 3 was the optimum combined condition, under which T1010 grew more quickly and produced the most spores

  8. Eutectic growth under acoustic levitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W J; Cao, C D; Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2002-12-01

    Samples of Pb-Sn eutectic alloy with a high density of 8.5 x 10(3) kg/m(3) are levitated with a single-axis acoustic levitator, and containerlessly melted and then solidified in argon atmosphere. High undercoolings up to 38 K are obtained, which results in a microstructural transition of "lamellas-broken lamellas-dendrites." This transition is further investigated in the light of the coupled zone for eutectic growth and the effects of ultrasound. The breaking of regular eutectic lamellas and suppression of gravity-induced macrosegregation of (Pb) and (Sn) dendrites are explained by the complicated internal flow inside the levitated drop, which is jointly induced by the shape oscillation, bulk vibration and rotation of the levitated drop. The ultrasonic field is also found to drive forced surface vibration, which subsequently excites capillary ripples and catalyzes nucleation on the sample surface.

  9. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  10. Effects of growth conditions on thermal profiles during Czochralski silicon crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwang Su; Stefani, Jerry A.; Dettling, Theodore B.; Tien, John K.; Wallace, John P.

    1991-01-01

    An eddy current testing method was used to continuously monitor crystal growth process and investigate the effects of growth conditions on thermal profiles during Czochralski silicon crystal growth. The experimental concept was to monitor the intrinsic electrical conductivities of the growing crystal and deduce temperature values from them. In terms of the experiments, the effects of changes in growth parameters, which include the crystal and crucible rotation rates, crucible position, and pull rate, and hot-zone geometries were investigated. The results show that the crystal thermal profile could shift significantly as a function of crystal length if the closed-loop control fails to maintain a constant thermal condition. As a direct evidence to the effects of the melt flow on heat transfer processes, a thermal gradient minimum was observed when the crystal/crucible rotation combination was 20/-10 rpm cw. The thermal gradients in the crystal near the growth interface were reduced most by decreasing the pull rate or by reducing the radiant heat loss to the environment; a nearly constant axial thermal gradient was achieved when either the pull rate was decreased by half, the height of the exposed crucible wall was doubled, or a radiation shield was placed around the crystal. Under these conditions, the average axial thermal gradient along the surface of the crystal was about 4-5°C/mm. When compared to theoretical results found in literature, the axial profiles correlated well with the results of the models which included radiant interactions. However, the radial gradients estimated from three-frequency data were much higher than what were predicted by known theoretical models. This discrepancy seems to indicate that optical phenomenon within the crystal is significant and should be included in theoretical modeling.

  11. Photophysiological variability of microphytobenthic diatoms after growth in different types of culture conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, R.M.; Martin-Jézéquel, V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Microphytobenthic diatoms have great ecological importance in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystenis, yet many aspects of their physiology have not been investigated under controlled conditions. This work describes patterns in growth rates and photosynthesis in different types of culture for

  12. Conditional control in visual selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Wieske; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Attention and eye movements provide a window into the selective processing of visual information. Evidence suggests that selection is influenced by various factors and is not always under the strategic control of the observer. The aims of this tutorial review are to give a brief introduction to eye

  13. The onset condition of equatorial plasma bubbles - the role of seeding mechanism and growth condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, H.; Choi, J. M.; Kwak, Y. S.; Lee, W. K.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the role of seeding mechanism and growth condition of perturbations in the creation of equatorial plasma bubbles by analyzing the C/NOFS and ROCSAT-1 satellite observations. The initial development times of bubbles were identified by manual processing of the data, and the periodic characteristics in the occurrence of bubbles were investigated using periodograms obtained from segments of bubble chains. Our preliminary results show that bubbles initiate at the time that the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) ends. This time corresponds to the time that the F region reaches the highest altitude where the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability is large. The initial onset time of bubbles varies with season and longitude in accordance with the variation of the PRE ending time. Our investigation of the periodicity in the occurrence of bubbles (spacing between bubbles) shows that a dominant periodicity does not exist; the spacing between bubbles ranges from 100 km to over 1000 km. A pronounced periodicity occurs in some series of bubbles, but, in general, multiple periodicity co-exists. The initiation of bubbles at a specific local time but the absence of a preferential wave property in the occurrence of bubbles lead to the conclusion that the onset of bubbles is controlled by the growth condition of the R-T instability.

  14. Peroxisomal catalase deficiency modulates yeast lifespan depending on growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawalek, Adam; Lefevre, Sophie D.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    We studied the role of peroxisomal catalase in chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha in relation to various growth substrates. Catalase-deficient (cat) cells showed a similar chronological life span (CLS) relative to the wild-type control upon growth on carbon and nitrogen sources

  15. Convex variational problems linear, nearly linear and anisotropic growth conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bildhauer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The author emphasizes a non-uniform ellipticity condition as the main approach to regularity theory for solutions of convex variational problems with different types of non-standard growth conditions. This volume first focuses on elliptic variational problems with linear growth conditions. Here the notion of a "solution" is not obvious and the point of view has to be changed several times in order to get some deeper insight. Then the smoothness properties of solutions to convex anisotropic variational problems with superlinear growth are studied. In spite of the fundamental differences, a non-uniform ellipticity condition serves as the main tool towards a unified view of the regularity theory for both kinds of problems.

  16. Growth Control and Optics of Organic Nanoaggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2005-01-01

      Light-emitting organic nanofibers made of phenyl molecules like para-hexaphenyl (p-6P) and grown on muscovite mica form a model system well-suited for the study of optics in the sub-wavelength regime. We demonstrate that p-6P nanofibers can be grown with high control of the morphology of indivi......  Light-emitting organic nanofibers made of phenyl molecules like para-hexaphenyl (p-6P) and grown on muscovite mica form a model system well-suited for the study of optics in the sub-wavelength regime. We demonstrate that p-6P nanofibers can be grown with high control of the morphology...... of individual nanoaggregates and also of the mutual alignment of aggregates by the use of appropriate growth conditions and substrate surfaces. The nanofibers can be detached from the substrate, thus allowing one to study the optical response under a huge variety of fundamentally different conditions, from...... individual floating aggregates to dense bunches of interacting aggregates. We show examples of linear and nonlinear optical properties of the blue-light-emitting aggregates and mention possible applications in future submicrometer-sized optoelectronics....

  17. Planning instruments to control urban growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2010-01-01

    It is challenging to plan and control urban development in peri-urban areas. But if no planning is done, the result will often be unsustainable, including widespread, dispersed and uncoordinated urban growth. Spatial planning based on zoning remains the most important planning instrument and its...... success depend on regional coordination. Incentive based instruments may contrbute to growth management, but only few examples are available and their effects on urban growth patterns yet to be seen....

  18. Technical conditions for sustainable growth in economic theory. An analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granda C, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    Economic theory and its models point out returns to scale, substitution among productive factors and technological progress as conditions for sustainable growth. This work aims at a critical appraisal of these conditions, particularly the ones related to substitution between natural resources and manmade capital and technical change, by recognizing the inevitable physical scarcity of resources concomitant to the human actions in a world governed by hemodynamic restrictions. To do so, the role that the mentioned conditions play in the theories of economic growth with resources is analyzed, and its limitations and objections from a biophysical perspective are indicated as well. Finally, a brief consideration as to how inappropriate the theoretical representations of economic activities are to take account of growth in spite of resource exhaustion or degradation is carried out

  19. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, S.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  20. Optimization of growth medium and fermentation conditions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sequential optimization approach based on statistical experimental designs was employed to optimize growth medium and fermentation conditions, in order to improve the antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB. Tryptone soyptone broth (TSB) was chosen as the original medium for optimization. Glucose and ...

  1. Optimizing growth conditions for electroless deposition of Au films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Optimizing growth conditions for electroless deposition of Au films on. Si(111) substrates. BHUVANA and G U KULKARNI*. Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and DST Unit on Nanoscience, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for. Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur PO, Bangalore 560 064, India. MS received 24 March 2006.

  2. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  3. DKDP crystal growth controlled by cooling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Shao, Jianda

    2017-08-01

    The performance of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal directly affects beam quality, energy and conversion efficiency in the Inertial Confinement Fusion(ICF)facility, which is related with the initial saturation temperature of solution and the real-time supersaturation during the crystal growth. However, traditional method to measure the saturation temperature is neither efficient nor accurate enough. Besides, the supersaturation is often controlled by experience, which yields the higher error and leads to the instability during the crystal growth. In this paper, DKDP solution with 78% deuteration concentration is crystallized in different temperatures. We study the relation between solubility and temperature of DKDP and fit a theoretical curve with a parabola model. With the model, the measurement of saturation temperature is simplified and the control precision of the cooling rate is improved during the crystal growth, which is beneficial for optimizing the crystal growth process.

  4. Cellulose and the Control of Growth Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias I. Baskin

    2004-04-01

    The authors research aims to understand morphogenesis, focusing on growth anisotropy, a process that is crucial to make organs with specific and heritable shapes. For the award, the specific aims were to test hypotheses concerning how growth anisotropy is controlled by cell wall structure, particularly by the synthesis and alignment of cellulose microfibrils, the predominant mechanical element in the cell wall. This research has involved characterizing the basic physiology of anisotropic expansion, including measuring it at high resolution; and second, characterizing the relationship between growth anisotropy, and cellulose microfibrils. Important in this relationship and also to the control of anisotropic expansion are structures just inside the plasma membrane called cortical microtubules, and the research has also investigated their contribution to controlling anisotropy and microfibril alignment. In addition to primary experimental papers, I have also developed improved methods relating to these objectives as well as written relevant reviews. Major accomplishments in each area will now be described.

  5. Nitrogen controlled iron catalyst phase during carbon nanotube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Bernhard C., E-mail: bernhard.bayer@univie.ac.at [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Baehtz, Carsten [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Kidambi, Piran R.; Weatherup, Robert S.; Caneva, Sabina; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Hofmann, Stephan [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Mangler, Clemens; Kotakoski, Jani; Meyer, Jannik C. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Goddard, Caroline J. L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-06

    Close control over the active catalyst phase and hence carbon nanotube structure remains challenging in catalytic chemical vapor deposition since multiple competing active catalyst phases typically co-exist under realistic synthesis conditions. Here, using in-situ X-ray diffractometry, we show that the phase of supported iron catalyst particles can be reliably controlled via the addition of NH{sub 3} during nanotube synthesis. Unlike polydisperse catalyst phase mixtures during H{sub 2} diluted nanotube growth, nitrogen addition controllably leads to phase-pure γ-Fe during pre-treatment and to phase-pure Fe{sub 3}C during growth. We rationalize these findings in the context of ternary Fe-C-N phase diagram calculations and, thus, highlight the use of pre-treatment- and add-gases as a key parameter towards controlled carbon nanotube growth.

  6. Methods of forecasting crack growth rate under creep conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'kin, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    Using construction aluminium alloy application possibility of linear mechanics of the destruction for quantitative description of crack development process under creepage conditions is investigated. It is shown, that the grade dependence between the stress intensity coefficient and the crack growth rate takes place only at certain combination of the sample geometry and creepage parameters, and consequently, its applicability in every given case must necessarily be tested experimentally

  7. Selective area growth of GaN rod structures by MOVPE: Dependence on growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shunfeng; Fuendling, Soenke; Wang, Xue; Erenburg, Milena; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Wei, Jiandong; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Bergbauer, Werner [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Strassburg, Martin [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Selective area growth of GaN nanorods by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is highly demanding for novel applications in nano-optoelectronic and nanophotonics. Recently, we report the successful selective area growth of GaN nanorods in a continuous-flow mode. In this work, as examples, we show the morphology dependence of GaN rods with {mu}m or sub-{mu}m in diameters on growth conditions. Firstly, we found that the nitridation time is critical for the growth, with an optimum from 90 to 180 seconds. This leads to more homogeneous N-polar GaN rods growth. A higher temperature during GaN rod growth tends to increase the aspect ratio of the GaN rods. This is due to the enhanced surface diffusion of growth species. The V/III ratio is also an important parameter for the GaN rod growth. Its increase causes reduction of the aspect ratio of GaN rods, which could be explained by the relatively lower growth rate on (000-1) N-polar top surface than it on {l_brace}1-100{r_brace} m-planes by supplying more NH{sub 3} (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  9. Modeling and control of greenhouse crop growth

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Guzmán, José Luis; Ramírez-Arias, Armando

    2015-01-01

    A discussion of challenges related to the modeling and control of greenhouse crop growth, this book presents state-of-the-art answers to those challenges. The authors model the subsystems involved in successful greenhouse control using different techniques and show how the models obtained can be exploited for simulation or control design; they suggest ideas for the development of physical and/or black-box models for this purpose. Strategies for the control of climate- and irrigation-related variables are brought forward. The uses of PID control and feedforward compensators, both widely used in commercial tools, are summarized. The benefits of advanced control techniques—event-based, robust, and predictive control, for example—are used to improve on the performance of those basic methods. A hierarchical control architecture is developed governed by a high-level multiobjective optimization approach rather than traditional constrained optimization and artificial intelligence techniques.  Reference trajector...

  10. Controlled size and one-dimensional growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    875–881. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of azamacrocycle stabilized palladium nanoparticles: Controlled size and one-dimensional growth. JEYARAMAN ATHILAKSHMI and DILLIP KUMAR CHAND. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India e-mail: dillip@iitm.ac.

  11. Paradigm shift in plant growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2015-06-01

    For plants to grow they need resources and appropriate conditions that these resources are converted into biomass. While acknowledging the importance of co-drivers, the classical view is still that carbon, that is, photosynthetic CO2 uptake, ranks above any other drivers of plant growth. Hence, theory and modelling of growth traditionally is carbon centric. Here, I suggest that this view is not reflecting reality, but emerged from the availability of methods and process understanding at leaf level. In most cases, poorly understood processes of tissue formation and cell growth are governing carbon demand, and thus, CO2 uptake. Carbon can only be converted into biomass to the extent chemical elements other than carbon, temperature or cell turgor permit. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is ... Hue-mean and red-green color-difference image mean can be used as a criterion for the judgment of tomato maturity, and the tests indicated that the redgreen mean ...

  13. Growth of microbial mixed cultures under anaerobic, alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Cement and concrete are the most important engineered barrier materials in a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste and thus represent the most significant component of the total disposal inventory. Based on the chemical composition of the concrete used in the repository and the groundwater fluxes in the modelled host rock, it is to be expected that the pH in the near vicinity of the repository could exceed a value of 10.5 for more than a million years. The groundwater in the repository environment also has a limited carbon concentration. Since microorganisms will be present in a repository and can even find suitable living conditions within the waste itself, investigations were carried out in order to establish the extent to which microbial activity is possible under the extreme conditions of the repository near-field. For the investigations, alkalophilic cultures were enriched from samples from alkaline habitats and from Valanginian Marl. Anaerobic bacteria with fermentative, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic metabolism were selected. The growth and activity of the mixed cultures were studied under alkaline conditions and the dependence on pH and carbon concentration determined. All the mixed cultures investigated are alkalophilic. The optimum growth range for the cultures is between pH 9.0 and pH 10.0. The activity limit for the fermentative mixed culture is at pH 12, for the sulfate-reducers at pH 11 and for the methanogens at pH 10.5. Given the limited supply of carbon, the mixed cultures can only grow under slightly alkaline conditions. Only the fermentative cultures are capable of surviving with limited carbon supply at pH 13. (author) 24 figs., 18 tabs., 101 refs

  14. Simulation of fatigue crack growth under large scale yielding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Christoph; Seifert, Thomas; Riedel, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    A simple mechanism based model for fatigue crack growth assumes a linear correlation between the cyclic crack-tip opening displacement (ΔCTOD) and the crack growth increment (da/dN). The objective of this work is to compare analytical estimates of ΔCTOD with results of numerical calculations under large scale yielding conditions and to verify the physical basis of the model by comparing the predicted and the measured evolution of the crack length in a 10%-chromium-steel. The material is described by a rate independent cyclic plasticity model with power-law hardening and Masing behavior. During the tension-going part of the cycle, nodes at the crack-tip are released such that the crack growth increment corresponds approximately to the crack-tip opening. The finite element analysis performed in ABAQUS is continued for so many cycles until a stabilized value of ΔCTOD is reached. The analytical model contains an interpolation formula for the J-integral, which is generalized to account for cyclic loading and crack closure. Both simulated and estimated ΔCTOD are reasonably consistent. The predicted crack length evolution is found to be in good agreement with the behavior of microcracks observed in a 10%-chromium steel.

  15. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  16. Growth conditions determine the DNF2 requirement for symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Berrabah

    Full Text Available Rhizobia and legumes are able to interact in a symbiotic way leading to the development of root nodules. Within nodules, rhizobia fix nitrogen for the benefit of the plant. These interactions are efficient because spectacularly high densities of nitrogen fixing rhizobia are maintained in the plant cells. DNF2, a Medicago truncatula gene has been described as required for nitrogen fixation, bacteroid's persistence and to prevent defense-like reactions in the nodules. This manuscript shows that a Rhizobium mutant unable to differentiate is not sufficient to trigger defense-like reactions in this organ. Furthermore, we show that the requirement of DNF2 for effective symbiosis can be overcome by permissive growth conditions. The dnf2 knockout mutants grown in vitro on agarose or Phytagel as gelling agents are able to produce nodules fixing nitrogen with the same efficiency as the wild-type. However, when agarose medium is supplemented with the plant defense elicitor ulvan, the dnf2 mutant recovers the fix- phenotype. Together, our data show that plant growth conditions impact the gene requirement for symbiotic nitrogen fixation and suggest that they influence the symbiotic suppression of defense reactions in nodules.

  17. Integrated Intelligent Modeling, Design and Control of Crystal Growth Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, V

    2000-01-01

    .... This MURI program took an integrated approach towards modeling, design and control of crystal growth processes and in conjunction with growth and characterization experiments developed much better...

  18. Long-term control of root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  19. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  20. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  1. Enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants exhibit growth advantages in high nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X A; Peng, Y; Li, J J; Peng, P H

    2018-03-12

    Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.

  2. Deep Soil Conditions Make Mediterranean Cork Oak Stem Growth Vulnerable to Autumnal Rainfall Decline in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Zribi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tree rings provide fruitful information on climate features driving annual forest growth through statistical correlations between annual tree growth and climate features. Indices built upon tree growth limitation by carbon sequestration (source hypothesis or drought-driven cambial phenology (sink hypothesis can be used to better identify underlying processes. We used both analytical frameworks on Quercus suber, a sparsely studied species due to tree ring methodological issues, and growing on a favorable sub-humid Mediterranean climate and deep soil conditions in Tunisia (North Africa. Statistical analysis revealed the major role of autumnal rainfall before the growing season on annual tree growth over the 1918–2008 time series. Using a water budget model, we were able to explain the critical role of the deep soil water refill during the wet season in affecting both the drought onset controlling growth phenology and the summer drought intensity affecting carbon assimilation. Analysis of recent climate changes in the region additionally illustrated an increase in temperatures enhancing the evaporative demand and advancing growth start, and a decline in rainfalls in autumn, two key variables driving stem growth. We concluded on the benefits of using process-based indices in dendrochronological analysis and identified the main vulnerability of this Mediterranean forest to autumnal rainfall decline, a peculiar aspect of climate change under summer-dry climates.

  3. Effect of cultivation conditions on growth and antifungal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Growth and production of antifungal agent by Mycena leptocephala was investigated in different culture media composition at various initial pH and temperatures. Maximum growth and activity was observed at the initial pH of 5.5 and 25oC. No detectable growth and activity was observed at pH of 3.5 and 7.5. Growth of the ...

  4. Stress-Related Growth in Two Challenging Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 4. ISSN 1529-5168 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Mars-500 * cruise * personal growth * spirituality, cognitive growth * social growth Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  5. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadlovský, J; Jadlovská, A; Sarnovský, J; Jajčišin, Š; Čopík, M; Jadlovská, S; Papcun, P; Bielek, R; Čerkala, J; Kopčík, M; Chochula, P; Augustinus, A

    2014-01-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead – users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data – an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  6. Seasonal carbon storage and growth in Mediterranean tree seedlings under different water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Joffre, Richard

    2009-09-01

    In all Mediterranean-type ecosystems, evergreen and deciduous trees differing in wood anatomy, growth pattern and leaf habit coexist, suggesting distinct adaptative responses to environmental constraints. This study examined the effects of summer water stress on carbon (C) storage and growth in seedlings of three coexisting Mediterranean trees that differed in phenology and wood anatomy characteristics: Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp., Quercus faginea Lam. and Pinus halepensis L. Seedlings were subjected to two levels of watering during two consecutive summers and achieved a minimum of -0.5 and -2.5 MPa of predawn water potential in the control and water stress treatment, respectively. Both Quercus species concentrated their growth in the early growing season, demanding higher C in early spring but replenishing C-stores in autumn. These species allocated more biomass to roots, having larger belowground starch and lipid reserves. Quercus species differed in seasonal storage dynamics from P. halepensis. This species allocated most of its C to aboveground growth, which occurred gradually during the growing season, leading to fewer C-reserves. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations sharply declined in August in P. halepensis, probably because reserves support respiration demands as this species closed stomata earlier under water stress. Drought reduced growth of the three species, mainly in Q. faginea and P. halepensis, but not C-reserves, suggesting that growth under water stress conditions is not limited by C-availability.

  7. Placental growth factor expression is reversed by antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ai-Yi; Bai, Yu-Jing; Zhao, Min; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Huang, Lv-Zhen; Li, Xiao-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Clinical trials have revealed that the antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are effective in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). But the low level of VEGF was necessary as a survival signal in healthy conditions, and endogenous placental growth factor (PIGF) is redundant for development. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the PIGF expression under hypoxia as well as the influence of anti-VEGF therapy on PIGF. CoCl2-induced hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for an in vitro study, and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice models were used for an in vivo study. The expression patterns of PIGF under hypoxic conditions and the influence of anti-VEGF therapy on PIGF were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). The retinal avascular areas and neovascularization (NV) areas of anti-VEGF, anti-PIGF and combination treatments were calculated. Retina PIGF concentration was evaluated by ELISA after treatment. The vasoactive effects of exogenous PIGF on HUVECs were investigated by proliferation and migration studies. PIGF mRNA expression was reduced by hypoxia in OIR mice, in HUVECs under hypoxia and anti-VEGF treatment. However, PIGF expression was reversed by anti-VEGF therapy in the OIR model and in HUVECs under hypoxia. Exogenous PIGF significantly inhibited HUVECs proliferation and migration under normal conditions, but it stimulated cell proliferation and migration under hypoxia. Anti-PIGF treatment was effective for neovascular tufts in OIR mice (P<0.05). The finding that PIGF expression is iatrogenically up-regulated by anti-VEGF therapy provides a consideration to combine it with anti-PIGF therapy.

  8. Glucose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 under different aeration conditions: Requirement of acetate to sustain growth under microaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Jensen, N.B.S.; Villadsen, John

    2003-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 was grown in batch cultures on a defined medium with glucose as the energy source under different aeration conditions, namely, anaerobic conditions, aerobic conditions, and microaerobic conditions with a dissolved oxygen tension of 5% (when saturation...... resulted in acetate, CO2, and acetoin replacing formate and ethanol as end products. Under microaerobic conditions, growth came to a gradual halt, although more than 60% of the glucose was still left. A decline in growth was not observed during microaerobic cultivation when acetate was added to the medium...

  9. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Optimal Conditions for the Mycelial Growth of Coprinus comatus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hae; Liu, Jun-Jie; Ju, Young-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to acquire basic data regarding the mycelial growth characteristics for the artificial cultivation of Coprinus comatus. 12 URP primers were employed to evaluate the genetic relationships of C. comatus, and the results were divided into three groups. Among six kinds of mushroom media, MYP medium was selected as the most favorable culture medium for C. comatus. The optimal temperature and pH ranges for the mycelial growth of C. comatus were 23~26℃ and pH 6~8, respectively. The carbon and nitrogen sources for optimal mycelial growth were sucrose and tryptone, respectively. PMID:23983517

  11. Influence of growth conditions on microstructure and defects in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and dislocations in the intermediate Si layer are generated due to the development of non-uniform stresses during ... during the initial stages of growth on substrate and reporting ..... Research for financial support for carrying out the present.

  12. Growth Conditions Regulate the Requirements for Caulobacter Chromosome Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shebelut, Conrad W.; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Gitai, Zemer

    2009-01-01

    Growth environments are important metabolic and developmental regulators. Here we demonstrate a growth environment-dependent effect on Caulobacter chromosome segregation of a small-molecule inhibitor of the MreB bacterial actin cytoskeleton. Our results also implicate ParAB as important segregation...... determinants, suggesting that multiple distinct mechanisms can mediate Caulobacter chromosome segregation and that their relative contributions can be environmentally regulated....

  13. Arsenic uptake, transformation, and release by three freshwater algae under conditions with and without growth stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shaowen; Liu, Jinxin; Yang, Fen; Feng, Hanxiao; Wei, Chaoyang; Wu, Fengchang

    2018-05-04

    As speciation for the other two algae with Cu 2+ inhibition and all the three algae with isothiazolinone inhibition, corroborating the above hypothesis again. All the algae tested in this study demonstrated great abilities for As transformation and release, as seen by the much higher rates of 86.11-99.98% and 81.11-99.89% for transformation and release when compared to the control, respectively. When inhibitors were added, the transformation and release values of only A. flosaquae decreased remarkably down to 72.37-86.79% and 64.67-85.24%, respectively, while no changes were seen for these values in the other two algae, indicating that growth stress did not affect the As transformation and release of the other algae. The biological productivity of As by the three algae followed the order of M. aeruginosa, Chlorella sp., and A. flosaquae, which was generally consistent with the As transformation and release in conditions with and without inhibitors, suggesting that the As behavior in the algae that was related to growth stress largely differed among algae species.

  14. Effect of ocean acidification on growth and otolith condition of juvenile scup, Stenotomus chrysops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dean M; Redman, Dylan H; Widman, James C; Meseck, Shannon; King, Andrew; Pereira, Jose J

    2015-09-01

    Increasing amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from human industrial activities are causing changes in global ocean carbonate chemistry, resulting in a reduction in pH, a process termed "ocean acidification." It is important to determine which species are sensitive to elevated levels of CO2 because of potential impacts to ecosystems, marine resources, biodiversity, food webs, populations, and effects on economies. Previous studies with marine fish have documented that exposure to elevated levels of CO2 caused increased growth and larger otoliths in some species. This study was conducted to determine whether the elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) would have an effect on growth, otolith (ear bone) condition, survival, or the skeleton of juvenile scup, Stenotomus chrysops, a species that supports both important commercial and recreational fisheries. Elevated levels of pCO2 (1200-2600 μatm) had no statistically significant effect on growth, survival, or otolith condition after 8 weeks of rearing. Field data show that in Long Island Sound, where scup spawn, in situ levels of pCO2 are already at levels ranging from 689 to 1828 μatm due to primary productivity, microbial activity, and anthropogenic inputs. These results demonstrate that ocean acidification is not likely to cause adverse effects on the growth and survivability of every species of marine fish. X-ray analysis of the fish revealed a slightly higher incidence of hyperossification in the vertebrae of a few scup from the highest treatments compared to fish from the control treatments. Our results show that juvenile scup are tolerant to increases in seawater pCO2, possibly due to conditions this species encounters in their naturally variable environment and their well-developed pH control mechanisms.

  15. Diesel soot oxidation under controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haiwen

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 11/12/2003. In order to improve understanding of diesel soot oxidation, an experimental rig was designed and set up, in which the soot oxidation conditions, such as temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and CO2 partial pressure, could be varied independently of each other. The oxidizing gas flow in the oxidizer was under laminar condition. This test rig comprised a naturally-aspirated single ...

  16. Effect of Different Growth Conditions on Certain Biochemical Parameters of Different Cyanobacterial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammouda, O. E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Variation in the traditional growth medium conditions to enhance the production of lipids, carbohydrates, protein and the free amino acids content of three cyanobacterial species. Methodology and Results: Three species of cyanobacteria (Anabaena laxa, Anabaena fertilissima and Nostoc muscorum were collected from the culture collection of Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt, to investigate their biochemical composition under different growth conditions, using BG110 (nitrogen free as growth medium. These conditions were represented by control medium, static glucose medium with (1%, w/v, aerated medium (aerated by bubbling technique depending on CO2 normally existed in air with a concentration of 0.03%, molasses medium (0.7%, v/v and aerated medium enriched with glucose (1%, w/v. Lipid content, total carbohydrates, soluble proteins and free amino acids were determined at the previous conditions. Glucose at 0.7% (w/v was the most favorable for lipid production in A. laxa, where it exhibited the highest lipid content (427 μg/g fresh wt.. Increasing molasses concentration up to 0.7% (v/v produced an increase in lipid contents of the tested cyanobacterial strains. The highest lipid content of both N. muscorum (366.2 μg/g fresh wt. and A. laxa (357.4 μg/g fresh wt. were recorded at molasses concentrations of 0.1 and 0.7% (v/v, respectively. A. laxa expressed high significant values for both proteins (31.6 μg/mL and free amino acids (40.5 mg/g dry wt. after 6 days of incubation period under aerated enriched glucose condition (1%, w/v. Also, at the same growth conditions, A. fertilissima exhibited high significant values for carbohydrates at 4th day (876.8 mg/g dry wt.. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Aerated enriched glucose medium (1%, w/v was the best growth medium condition used in the present study.

  17. Nutritional modulation of IGF-1 in relation to growth and body condition in Sceloporus lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christine A; Jetzt, Amanda E; Cohick, Wendie S; John-Alder, Henry B

    2015-05-15

    Nutrition and energy balance are important regulators of growth and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. However, our understanding of these functions does not extend uniformly to all classes of vertebrates and is mainly limited to controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards can be useful models to improve our understanding of the nutritional regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis because many species are relatively easy to observe and manipulate both in the laboratory and in the field. In the present study, the effects of variation in food intake on growth, body condition, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA levels were measured in (1) juveniles of Sceloporus jarrovii maintained on a full or 1/3 ration and (2) hatchlings of Sceloporus undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. These parameters plus plasma IGF-1 were measured in a third experiment using adults of S. undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. In all experiments, plasma corticosterone was measured as an anticipated indicator of nutritional stress. In S. jarrovii, growth and body condition were reduced but lizards remained in positive energy balance on 1/3 ration, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and plasma corticosterone were not affected in comparison to full ration. In S. undulatus, growth, body condition, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA, and plasma IGF-1 were all reduced by zero ration and restored by refeeding. Plasma corticosterone was increased in response to zero ration and restored by full ration in hatchlings but not adults of S. undulatus. These data indicate that lizards conform to the broader vertebrate model in which severe food deprivation and negative energy balance is required to attenuate systemic IGF-1 expression. However, when animals remain in positive energy balance, reduced food intake does not appear to affect systemic IGF-1. Consistent with other studies on lizards, the corticosterone response to reduced food intake is an unreliable indicator

  18. Growth Responses of Fish During Chronic Exposure of Metal Mixture under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Naz and Muhammad Javed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth responses of five fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were determined, separately, under chronic exposure of binary mixture of metals (Zn+Ni at sub-lethal concentrations (1/3rd of LC50 for 12 weeks. Randomized complete block design (RCBD was followed to conduct this research work. The groups (10 fish each of Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix having almost similar weights were investigated for their growth responses and metals bioaccumulation patterns in their body organs during chronic exposure of Zn+Ni mixture. The bioaccumulation of metals in the fish body organs viz. gills, liver, kidney, fins, bones, muscle and skin were also determined before and after growth trails under the stress of metals mixture. The exposure of fish to sub-lethal concentrations of mixture caused significant impacts on the average wet weight increments of five fish species. Ctenopharyngodon idella and Labeo rohita attained significantly higher weights, followed by that of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla. However, the growth of metals mixture exposed fish species was significantly lesser than that of control fish (un-stressed. Significantly variable condition factor values reflected the degree of fish well-beings that correlated directly with fish growth and metal exposure concentration. Any significant change in feed intake, due to stress, is reflected in terms of fish growth showing the impacts of metal mixture on fish growth were either additive or antagonist / synergistic. Accumulation of all the metals in fish body followed the general order: liver>kidney>gills> skin >muscle> fins >bones.

  19. Conditions for microbial growth in the FILTRA steam absorption tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, H.; Roffey, R.

    1983-08-01

    By the appointment of the Southern Sweden Power Supply an experimental study has been carried out in order to evaluate the risk for microbial growth in the planned FILTRA steam absorbtion tower at the nuclear power plant in Barsebaeck. Four modelsystems were supplied with nitrogen atmosphere and a relative humidity of 100, 75, 50 and 25 percent. The fifth system received air and 75 percent relative humidity. Samples were collected and analysed for microbial growth after 1, 2, 4 and 8 months. The amounts of microorganisms and the ATP content was monitored. No measureable growth of any significance could be observed after 8 months in any system. An elementary analyses showed that the level of nitrogen and carbon in the stones was below the limit of detection (<0.3 percent C, <0.2 percent N). (author)

  20. Optimizing Growth Conditions for Digoxin Production in Digitalis lanata Ehrh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman A. van Wietmarschen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Digoxin is a therapeutic cardenolide widely used to treat various heart conditions such as atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation and heart failure in both Western as well as Chinese medicine. Digoxin is extracted from cultivated Digitalis lanata Ehrh. plants, known as Mao Hua Yang Di Huang in Chinese medicine. This manuscript presents two studies that were conducted to optimize the cultivation conditions for digoxin production in the TCM Mao Hua Yan Di Huang in a greenhouse under GAP conditions.

  1. THE CONDITIONS OF TRANSITION TO INNOVATIVE TYPE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    D. E. Sorokin

    2010-01-01

    Article is devoted theoretical-methodological problems of transition of the Russian economy to innovative type of economic growth. Realization of the problems set forth above are possible only in case of a support of the Russian economy on the fifth technological way and its abilities to pass to the sixth technological way.

  2. Growth of Sulphuric Acid Nanoparticles Under Wet and Dry Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škrabalová, Lenka; Brus, David; Antilla, T.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Lihavainen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2014), s. 6461-6475 ISSN 1680-7316 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Grant - others:AFCEP(FI) 1118615 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : binary nucleation * sulphuric acid - water * condensational growth Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 5.053, year: 2014

  3. Examining environmental condition on the growth areas of Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, recent hazelnut growth areas were determined by Remote Sensing techniques for Trabzon province of Turkey. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques, environmental data such as elevation, slope, aspect, geology, and soil data were produced and analyzed to examine environmental ...

  4. Control of expansive growth in water deficit: from phenotyping to field simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Parent , Boris; Cabrera Bosquet , Llorenç; Cané , Maria Angela; Chaumont , François; Alvarez Prado , Santiago; CALDEIRA JuNIOR , Cecilio Frois; Lacube , Sébastien; Fleury , Delphine; Welcker , Claude; Tuberosa , Roberto; Tardieu , Francois

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of expansive growth under water deficit has been selected as a key target trait of DROPS because of its early response in drying conditions, its large genetic variability, its partially common control with reproductive growth and its consequences on light interception and transpiration. Development of methods to measure shoot growth in Phenotyping platforms (PhenoArch and Phenodyn, M3P, Montpellier, France; The Plant Accelerator, Adelaide, Australia) allowed identification of a...

  5. 42 CFR 482.42 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Hospital Functions § 482.42 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospital must provide a... be an active program for the prevention, control, and investigation of infections and communicable... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 482...

  6. The growth response of plants to elevated CO2 under non-optimal environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Pérez-Soba, M.

    2001-01-01

    Under benign environmental conditions, plant growth is generally stimulated by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. When environmental conditions become sub- or supra-optimal for growth, changes in the biomass enhancement ratio (BER; total plant biomass at elevated CO2 divided by plant biomass

  7. Analysis of gene essentiality in Escherichia coli across strains and growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ida; Lennen, Rebecca; Cardoso, Joao

    are either essential or detrimental for growth in the test condition in question. In this study the TN-Seq method was used to investigate the differences in gene essentiality between four laboratory strains of E.coli subjected to four different growth conditions to investigate the reason for the differences...

  8. Short Communication Synergistic effect of rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the growth and nodulation of lentil seedlings under axenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing ACC-deaminase in combination with rhizobia can improve the growth and nodulation in plants by suppressing the endogenous level of ethylene. In the present study, ten strains, each of PGPR and rhizobia from the previously screened cultures were tested for their effect as co-inoculants on growth and nodulation of lentil in growth pouches under axenic conditions. Results showed that most of the combinations improved the lentil growth as compared to the un-inoculated control. Maximum increase in shoot length (1.87 fold, root length (1.97 fold and total biomass (1.98 fold over the un-inoculated control was observed in the treatment where the lentil seedlings were inoculated with the combination Z24P10. Co-inoculation also improved the nodulation in lentil and the maximum number of nodules plant-1 (24 nodules were observed in the combination Z22P10. However, there was no nodulation in few combinations. It is concluded that the co-inoculation with rhizobia and PGPR containing ACC-deaminase has improved the growth and nodulation in lentil under axenic conditions and the selected combinations may be evaluated in pot and field trials

  9. Genetic Adaptation to Growth Under Laboratory Conditions in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Knöppel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evolution under controlled laboratory conditions is becoming increasingly important to address various evolutionary questions, including, for example, the dynamics and mechanisms of genetic adaptation to different growth and stress conditions. In such experiments, mutations typically appear that increase the fitness under the conditions tested (medium adaptation, but that are not necessarily of interest for the specific research question. Here, we have identified mutations that appeared during serial passage of E. coli and S. enterica in four different and commonly used laboratory media and measured the relative competitive fitness and maximum growth rate of 111 genetically re-constituted strains, carrying different single and multiple mutations. Little overlap was found between the mutations that were selected in the two species and the different media, implying that adaptation occurs via different genetic pathways. Furthermore, we show that commonly occurring adaptive mutations can generate undesired genetic variation in a population and reduce the accuracy of competition experiments. However, by introducing media adaptation mutations with large effects into the parental strain that was used for the evolution experiment, the variation (standard deviation was decreased 10-fold, and it was possible to measure fitness differences between two competitors as small as |s| < 0.001.

  10. The list of strains and growth conditions - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The list of strains and growth... conditions Data detail Data name The list of strains and growth conditions DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945...-001 Description of data contents The list of strains and growth conditions for respective samples. Data fil...servation Intervals of imaging Intervals of imaging Growth data Graph of chronological changes in growth Ima...History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us The list of strains and growth conditions - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Microcomputer control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.K.; Steigerwald, R.L.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputer-based control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system is described. The microcomputer is responsible for array current feedback control, maximum power tracking control, array safe zone steering control, phase-locked reference wave synthesis, sequencing control, and some diagnostics. The control functions are implemented using Intel 8751 single-chip microcomputer-based hardware and software. The controller has been tested in the laboratory with the prototype power conditioner and shows excellent performance.

  12. Microcomputer control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.K.; Steigerwald, R.L.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    Microcomputer-based control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system is described. The microcomputer is responsible for array current feedback control, maximum power tracking control, array safe zone steering control, phase-locked reference wave synthesis, sequencing control, and some diagnostics. The control functions are implemented using Intel 8751 single-chip microcomputer-based hardware and software. The controller has been tested in the laboratory with the prototype power conditioner and shows excellent performance.

  13. Effect of growth conditions on microbial activity and iron-sulfide production by Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chen; Vannela, Raveender; Hayes, Kim F.; Rittmann, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extended incubation time to 16 days allowed significant FeS crystallization. • A weakly acidic pH greatly enhanced particle growth of mackinawite. • Microbial metabolism of different donors systematically altered the ambient pH. • Greater sulfide accumulation stimulated mackinawite transformation to greigite. - Abstract: Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can produce iron sulfide (FeS) solids with mineralogical characteristics that may be beneficial for a variety of biogeochemical applications, such as long-term immobilization of uranium. In this study, the growth and metabolism of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, one of the best-studied SRB species, were comprehensively monitored in batch studies, and the biogenic FeS solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Controlling the pH by varying the initial pH, the iron-to-sulfate ratio, or the electron donor – affected the growth of D. vulgaris and strongly influenced the formation and growth of FeS solids. In particular, lower pH (from initial conditions or a decrease caused by less sulfate reduction, FeS precipitation, or using pyruvate as the electron donor) produced larger-sized mackinawite (Fe 1+x S). Greater accumulation of free sulfide, from more sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris, also led to larger-sized mackinawite and particularly stimulated mackinawite transformation to greigite (Fe 3 S 4 ) when the free sulfide concentration was 29.3 mM. Furthermore, sufficient free Fe 2+ led to the additional formation of vivianite [Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ·8(H 2 O)]. Thus, microbially relevant conditions (initial pH, choice of electron donor, and excess or deficiency of sulfide) are tools to generate biogenic FeS solids of different characteristics

  14. Performing Comparative Peptidomics Analyses of Salmonella from Different Growth Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Joshua N.; Mottaz, Heather; Metz, Thomas O.; Ansong, Charles K.; Manes, Nathan P.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred

    2010-01-08

    Host–pathogen interactions are complex competitions during which both the host and the pathogen adapt rapidly to each other in order for one or the other to survive. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a pathogen with a broad host range that causes a typhoid fever-like disease in mice and severe food poisoning in humans. The murine typhoid fever is a systemic infection in which S.typhimurium evades part of the immune system by replicating inside macrophages and other cells. The transition from a foodborne contaminant to an intracellular pathogen must occur rapidly in multiple,ordered steps in order for S. typhimurium to thrive within its host environment. Using S. typhimurium isolated from rich culture conditions and from conditions that mimic the hostile intracellular environment of the host cell, a native low molecular weight protein fraction, or peptidome, was enriched from cell lysates by precipitation with organic solvents. The enriched peptidome was analyzed by both LC–MS/MS and LC–MS-based methods, although several other methods are possible. Pre-fractionation of peptides allowed identification of small proteins and protein degradation products that would normally be overlooked. Comparison of peptides present in lysates prepared from Salmonella grown under different conditions provided a unique insight into cellular degradation processes as well as identification of novel peptides encoded in the genome but not annotated. The overall approach is detailed here as applied to Salmonella and is adaptable to a broad range of biological systems.

  15. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fibril growth kinetics link buffer conditions and topology of 3D collagen I networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbitzer, Liv; Pompe, Tilo

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional fibrillar networks reconstituted from collagen I are widely used as biomimetic scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo cell studies. Various physicochemical parameters of buffer conditions for in vitro fibril formation are well known, including pH-value, ion concentrations and temperature. However, there is a lack of a detailed understanding of reconstituting well-defined 3D network topologies, which is required to mimic specific properties of the native extracellular matrix. We screened a wide range of relevant physicochemical buffer conditions and characterized the topology of the reconstituted 3D networks in terms of mean pore size and fibril diameter. A congruent analysis of fibril formation kinetics by turbidimetry revealed the adjustment of the lateral growth phase of fibrils by buffer conditions to be key in the determination of pore size and fibril diameter of the networks. Although the kinetics of nucleation and linear growth phase were affected by buffer conditions as well, network topology was independent of those two growth phases. Overall, the results of our study provide necessary insights into how to engineer 3D collagen matrices with an independent control over topology parameters, in order to mimic in vivo tissues in in vitro experiments and tissue engineering applications. The study reports a comprehensive analysis of physicochemical conditions of buffer solutions to reconstitute defined 3D collagen I matrices. By a combined analysis of network topology, i.e., pore size and fibril diameter, and the kinetics of fibril formation we can reveal the dependence of 3D network topology on buffer conditions, such as pH-value, phosphate concentration and sodium chloride content. With those results we are now able to provide engineering strategies to independently tune the topology parameters of widely used 3D collagen scaffolds based on the buffer conditions. By that, we enable the straightforward mimicking of extracellular matrices of in vivo

  17. Growth response of Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. rooted stem cuttings to Frankia in nursery and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, A; Chandrasekaran, K; Geetha, M; Kalaiselvi, R

    2013-11-01

    Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. is a tree crop that provides fuel wood, land reclamation, dune stabilization, and scaffolding for construction, shelter belts, and pulp and paper production. C. equisetifolia fixes atmospheric nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with Frankia, a soil bacterium of the actinobacteria group. The roots of C. equisetifolia produce root nodules where the bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen, which is an essential nutrient for all plant metabolic activities. However, rooted stem cuttings of elite clones of C. equisetifolia by vegetative propagation is being planted by the farmers of Pondicherry as costeffective method. As the vegetative propagation method uses inert material (vermiculite) for rooting there is no chance for Frankia association. Therefore after planting of these stocks the farmers are applying 150 kg of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP)/acre/year. To overcome this fertilizer usage, the Frankia-inoculated rooted stem cuttings were propagated under nursery conditions and transplanted in the nutrient-deficient soils of Karaikal, Pondicherry (India), in this study. Under nursery experiments the growth and biomass of C. equisetifolia rooted stem cuttings inoculated with Frankia showed 3 times higher growth and biomass than uninoculated control. These stocks were transplanted and monitored for their growth and survival for 1 year in the nutrient-deficient farm land. The results showed that the rooted stem cuttings of C. equisetifolia significantly improved growth in height (8.8 m), stem girth (9.6 cm) and tissue nitrogen content (3.3 mg g-1) than uninoculated controls. The soil nutrient status was also improved due to inoculation of Frankia.

  18. The role of control in entrepreneurial growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma; Krueger, Norris

    as a proxy for entrepreneurial intentions. However, little research has attempted to establish the underlying mechanisms that produce or inhibit the development of self-efficacy. Social cognitive theory links self-efficacy to the exercise of personal control. Extending these findings to entrepreneurship......In this article we seek to extend previous work on control by developing a theoretical framework for understanding the role of control in entrepreneurship. We explore power-control theory as a tool for understanding the risk-related behaviours among entrepreneurs. Self-efficacy has long been used...

  19. Analysis of grain growth process in melt spun Fe-B alloys under the initial saturated grain boundary segregation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Liu, F.; Yang, X.Q.; Fan, Y.; Shen, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → We compared pure kinetic, pure thermodynamic and extended thermo-kinetic models. → An initial saturated GB segregation condition of nanoscale Fe-B alloys was determined. → The controlled-mechanism was proposed using two characteristic times (t 1 and t 2 ). - Abstract: A grain growth process in the melt spun low-solid-solubility Fe-B alloys was analyzed under the initial saturated grain boundary (GB) segregation condition. Applying melt spinning technique, single-phase supersaturated nanograins were prepared. Grain growth behavior of the single-phase supersaturated nanograins was investigated by performing isothermal annealing at 700 deg. C. Combined with the effect of GB segregation on the initial GB excess amount, the thermo-kinetic model [Chen et al., Acta Mater. 57 (2009) 1466] was extended to describe the initial GB segregation condition of nanoscale Fe-B alloys. In comparison of pure kinetic model, pure thermodynamic model and the extended thermo-kinetic model, an initial saturated GB segregation condition was determined. The controlled-mechanism of grain growth under initial saturated GB segregation condition was proposed using two characteristic annealing times (t 1 and t 2 ), which included a mainly kinetic-controlled process (t ≤ t 1 ), a transition from kinetic-mechanism to thermodynamic-mechanism (t 1 2 ) and pure thermodynamic-controlled process (t ≥ t 2 ).

  20. Media and growth conditions for induction of secondary metabolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    -defined media are suited for biochemical studies, but in order to get chemical diversity expressed in filamentous fungi, sources rich in amino acids, vitamins, and trace metals have to be added, such as yeast extract and oatmeal. A battery of solid agar media is recommended for exploration of chemical diversity...... as agar plug samples are easily analyzed to get an optimal representation of the qualitative secondary metabolome. Standard incubation for a week at 25°C in darkness is recommended, but optimal conditions have to be modified depending on the ecology and physiology of different filamentous fungi....

  1. Crack growth threshold under hold time conditions in DA Inconel 718 – A transition in the crack growth mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fessler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeroengine manufacturers have to demonstrate that critical components such as turbine disks, made of DA Inconel 718, meet the certification requirements in term of fatigue crack growth. In order to be more representative of the in service loading conditions, crack growth under hold time conditions is studied. Modelling crack growth under these conditions is challenging due to the combined effect of fatigue, creep and environment. Under these conditions, established models are often conservative but the degree of conservatism can be reduced by introducing the crack growth threshold in models. Here, the emphasis is laid on the characterization of crack growth rates in the low ΔK regime under hold time conditions and in particular, on the involved crack growth mechanism. Crack growth tests were carried out at high temperature (550 °C to 650 °C under hold time conditions (up to 1200 s in the low ΔK regime using a K-decreasing procedure. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode involved in the low ΔK regime. EBSD analyses and BSE imaging were also carried out along the crack path for a more accurate identification of the fracture mode. A transition from intergranular to transgranular fracture was evidenced in the low ΔK regime and slip bands have also been observed at the tip of an arrested crack at low ΔK. Transgranular fracture and slip bands are usually observed under pure fatigue loading conditions. At low ΔK, hold time cycles are believed to act as equivalent pure fatigue cycles. This change in the crack growth mechanism under hold time conditions at low ΔK is discussed regarding results related to intergranular crack tip oxidation and its effect on the crack growth behaviour of Inconel 718 alloy. A concept based on an “effective oxygen partial pressure” at the crack tip is proposed to explain the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture in the low ΔK regime.

  2. Warts signaling controls organ and body growth through regulation of ecdysone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Erik; Nagy, Stanislav; Gerlach, Stephan Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Coordination of growth between individual organs and the whole body is essential during development to produce adults with appropriate size and proportions [1, 2]. How local organ-intrinsic signals and nutrient-dependent systemic factors are integrated to generate correctly proportioned organisms...... under different environmental conditions is poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hippo/Warts signaling functions intrinsically to regulate tissue growth and organ size [3, 4], whereas systemic growth is controlled via antagonistic interactions of the steroid hormone ecdysone and nutrient-dependent insulin....../insulin-like growth factor (IGF) (insulin) signaling [2, 5]. The interplay between insulin and ecdysone signaling regulates systemic growth and controls organismal size. Here, we show that Warts (Wts; LATS1/2) signaling regulates systemic growth in Drosophila by activating basal ecdysone production, which negatively...

  3. Form planning Control to growth management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2016-01-01

    its so-called “comprehensive-integrated” tradition and both the steering and strategic roles of national-level planning have been largely superseded by a more “flexible” planning style fit to promote specific sectoral agendas. While the legacy of land-use planning is still embedded at the local level...... caused that spatial planning be regarded more as a cost than an asset. Accordingly, it is evident that the Danish planning domain has progressively lost political clout and the focus is changed towards facilitation and management of economic growth....

  4. Influence of hydrogen on crack growth rate of alloy 690 CW in PWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Redondo, M.S.; Perosanz, F.J.; Lapena, J.; Gomez-Briceno, D.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen concentration is well established for Alloy 600 and other nickel base alloys as Alloy 182/ 82 weld metals and X-750. It is accepted that for these materials maximum crack growth rate peaks close to Ni/NiO phase boundary. The influence of the hydrogen on the CGR of Alloy 690 is not well established. Available results for Alloy 690 are scarce and not conclusive. Results obtained by CIEMAT, in conditions representative of the PWR operating plants, indicated an apparent crack growth rate increase by a 3 factor when the hydrogen concentration increased from 35 to 81 cm -3 of H 2 /kg H 2 O. In order to gain some insight into the influence of the hydrogen, a new test has been performed with 20 cm -3 H 2 /kg H 2 O at 360 Celsius degrees, concentration close to Ni/NiO phase boundary. The material used was extruded control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) tubes with homogeneous microstructure. Rolling and tensile straining was applied to the CRDM material to obtain 20% of cold work in order to simulate the strain condition expected in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). (authors)

  5. Controlled Directional Growth of TiO2 Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how the anodization direction and growth rate of vertically aligned, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can be controlled and manipulated by the local concentration of O-2 in the electrolyte. This leads to the growth of highly active TiO2 NT arrays directly on nonconducting s...

  6. Gas-Jet Meniscus Control in Ribbon Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Vonroos, O.

    1983-01-01

    Gas jet used to control shape of meniscus and thus to regulate ribbon thickness in vertical silicon-ribbon growth. Gas jet also cools ribbon, increasing maximum possible pull speed for silicon, contact angle of 11 degrees plus or minus 1 degree required for constant thickness ribbon growth. Cooling effect of gas jet increases maximum possible pull speed.

  7. Effects of plant–soil feedback on tree seedling growth under arid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.S.; Holmgren, M.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Plants are able to influence their growing environment by changing biotic and abiotic soil conditions. These soil conditions in turn can influence plant growth conditions, which is called plant–soil feedback. Plant–soil feedback is known to be operative in a wide variety of ecosystems ranging

  8. Effects of plant-soil feedback on tree seedling growth under arid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.S.; Holmgren, M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Plants are able to influence their growing environment by changing biotic and abiotic soil conditions. These soil conditions in turn can influence plant growth conditions, which is called plant–soil feedback. Plant–soil feedback is known to be operative in a wide variety of ecosystems ranging

  9. An Automatic Control System for Conditioning 30 GHz Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A

    2008-01-01

    A software application programme has been developed to allow fast and automatic high-gradient conditioning of accelerating structures at 30 GHz in CTF3. The specificity of the application is the ability to control the high-power electron beam which produces the 30 GHz RF power used to condition the accelerating structures. The programme permits operation round the clock with minimum manpower requirements. In this paper the fast control system, machine control system, logging system, graphical user control interface and logging data visualization are described. An outline of the conditioning control system itself and of the feedback controlling peak power and pulse length is given. The software allows different types of conditioning strategies to be programmed

  10. of different weed control methods on Weed infestation, growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    This weed control method also resulted in significantly better growth and ... proper management, it is possible to obtain 2,500 kg ha-1 (Onwueme and Sinha, 1991). ... however, time consuming, labour – intensive, strenuous and generally ...

  11. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth Performance of Quality Protein Maize in ... worldwide on over 159.5 million hectares in the year. 2010. ...... Fertilizer company of Nigeria, NAFCON, Port. Harcourt.

  12. Priority target conditions for algorithms for monitoring children's growth: Interdisciplinary consensus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Scherdel

    Full Text Available Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious conditions through the use of both clinical expertise and algorithms that define abnormal growth. Optimization of growth monitoring requires standardization of the definition of abnormal growth, and the selection of the priority target conditions is a prerequisite of such standardization.To obtain a consensus about the priority target conditions for algorithms monitoring children's growth.We applied a formal consensus method with a modified version of the RAND/UCLA method, based on three phases (preparatory, literature review, and rating, with the participation of expert advisory groups from the relevant professional medical societies (ranging from primary care providers to hospital subspecialists as well as parent associations. We asked experts in the pilot (n = 11, reading (n = 8 and rating (n = 60 groups to complete the list of diagnostic classification of the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and then to select the conditions meeting the four predefined criteria of an ideal type of priority target condition.Strong agreement was obtained for the 8 conditions selected by the experts among the 133 possible: celiac disease, Crohn disease, craniopharyngioma, juvenile nephronophthisis, Turner syndrome, growth hormone deficiency with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, infantile cystinosis, and hypothalamic-optochiasmatic astrocytoma (in decreasing order of agreement.This national consensus can be used to evaluate the algorithms currently suggested for growth monitoring. The method used for this national consensus could be re-used to obtain an international consensus.

  13. The kinetics of dolomite reaction rim growth under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. G.; Abart, R.; Dresen, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    During burial and exhumation, rocks are simultaneously exposed to metamorphic reactions and tectonic stresses. Therefore, the reaction rate of newly formed minerals may depend on chemical and mechanical driving forces. Here, we investigate the reaction kinetics of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) rim growth by solid-state reactions experiments on oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions. Cylindrical samples of 3-5 mm length and 7 mm diameter were drilled and polished perpendicular to the rhombohedral cleavage planes of natural clear crystals. The tests were performed using a Paterson-type deformation apparatus at P = 400 MPa confining pressure, temperatures, T, between 750 and 850°C, and reaction durations, t, of 2 - 146 h to calculate the kinetic parameters of dolomite rim growth under isostatic stress conditions. For non-isostatic reaction experiments we applied in addition differential stresses, σ, up to 40 MPa perpendicular to the contact interface at T = 750°C for 4 - 171 h duration, initiating minor inelastic deformation of calcite. The thickness of the resulting dolomite reaction rims increases linearly with the square root of time, indicating a diffusion-controlled reaction. The rims consist of two different textural domains. Granular dolomite grains (≈ 2 -5 μm grain size) form next to calcite and elongated palisade-shaped grains (1-6 μm diameter) grow perpendicular to the magnesite interface. Texture measurements with the electron backscatter diffraction technique indicate that the orientations of dolomite grains are mainly influenced by the orientation of the calcite educt crystal, in particular in the granular rim. To some extent, the texture of dolomite palisades is also influenced by the orientation of magnesite. The thickness of the two individual layers increases with temperature. At 400 MPa isostatic pressure, T = 750°C and t = 29 hours, a 5 μm thick granular dolomite layer

  14. Quality control system response to stochastic growth of amyloid fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigolotti, S.; Lizana, L.; Sneppen, K.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic model describing aggregation of misfolded proteins and degradation by the protein quality control system in a single cell. Aggregate growth is contrasted by the cell quality control system, that attacks them at different stages of the growth process, with an efficiency...... that decreases with their size. Model parameters are estimated from experimental data. Two qualitatively different behaviors emerge: a homeostatic state, where the quality control system is stable and aggregates of large sizes are not formed, and an oscillatory state, where the quality control system...

  15. Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X-F; Zhou, D; Guo, J; Manter, D K; Reardon, K F; Vivanco, J M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest soil on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth-promoting effects on Arabidopsis (Col-0). Four selected isolates including one Bacillus subtilis, two B. atrophaeus and one B. pumilus significantly promoted growth of Zea mays L. and Solanum lycopersicum under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, the PGPRs significantly promoted growth of S. lycopersicum in both low and nitrogen-amended soil conditions. These PGPR strains were further studied to obtain insights into possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Volatile chemicals from those isolates promoted Arabidopsis growth, and the expression of genes related to IAA production was induced in the Arabidopsis plants treated with PGPRs. Further, selected PGPR strains triggered induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis. PGPR strains isolated from the rainforest soil promoted the plant growth of Arabidopsis, corn and tomato. New PGPR that have wider adaptability to different crops, soils and environmental conditions are needed to decrease our reliance on agricultural amendments derived from fossil-based fuels. The PGPRs isolated from a nonagricultural site constitute new plant growth-promoting strains that could be developed for agricultural uses. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. An endogenous Taylor condition in an endogenous growth monetary policy model

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Mai Vo; Gillman, Max; Minford, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The paper derives a Taylor condition as part of the agent's equilibrium behavior in an endogenous growth monetary economy. It shows the assumptions necessary to make it almost identical to the original Taylor rule, and that it can interchangably take a money supply growth rate form. From the money supply form, simple policy experiments are conducted. A full central bank policy model is derived that includes the Taylor condition along with equations comparable to the standard aggregate-demand/...

  17. Fern Stomatal Responses to ABA and CO2 Depend on Species and Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrak, Hanna; Kollist, Hannes; Merilo, Ebe

    2017-06-01

    Changing atmospheric CO 2 levels, climate, and air humidity affect plant gas exchange that is controlled by stomata, small pores on plant leaves and stems formed by guard cells. Evolution has shaped the morphology and regulatory mechanisms governing stomatal movements to correspond to the needs of various land plant groups over the past 400 million years. Stomata close in response to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), elevated CO 2 concentration, and reduced air humidity. Whether the active regulatory mechanisms that control stomatal closure in response to these stimuli are present already in mosses, the oldest plant group with stomata, or were acquired more recently in angiosperms remains controversial. It has been suggested that the stomata of the basal vascular plants, such as ferns and lycophytes, close solely hydropassively. On the other hand, active stomatal closure in response to ABA and CO 2 was found in several moss, lycophyte, and fern species. Here, we show that the stomata of two temperate fern species respond to ABA and CO 2 and that an active mechanism of stomatal regulation in response to reduced air humidity is present in some ferns. Importantly, fern stomatal responses depend on growth conditions. The data indicate that the stomatal behavior of ferns is more complex than anticipated before, and active stomatal regulation is present in some ferns and has possibly been lost in others. Further analysis that takes into account fern species, life history, evolutionary age, and growth conditions is required to gain insight into the evolution of land plant stomatal responses. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Diatom production in the marine environment : implications for larval fish growth and condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St. John, Michael; Clemmesen, C.; Lund, T.

    2001-01-01

    To test the effects of diatom production on larval fish growth and condition. laboratory experiments were performed with larval North Sea cod reared on different algal food chains. These food chains were based on cultures of (a) the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira weissflogii: (b....../omega6 fatty acids in the algal source had no significant effect. The highest and lowest growth rates were observed in food chains based on H. triquetra and T. weissflogii. respectively (means for days 14-16 of 4.0 and - 4.7). The mixed diatom/dinoflagellate diet resulted in inter- mediate growth rates...... and condition. Regressions of growth rates against EPA and DHA content indicated no inhibitory effect of diatom production on growth in larval cod...

  19. Crack growth under combined creep and fatigue conditions in alloy 800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuber, M.; Roedig, M.; Schubert, F.; Nickel, H.

    1989-08-01

    To investigate the crack growth behaviour under combined creep-fatigue loading, CT 25 mm-specimens of X10NiCrAlTi 32 20 (Alloy 800) have been tested in experiments with cyclic loadings and hold times, with static loadings and short stress rekief interrupts, with ramp type loadings and with sequences of separate fatigue and creep crack growth periods. The test temperature of 700deg C was selected because only in this temperature range this alloy provides similar amounts of crack growth under creep and fatigue conditions due to equivalent stress levels. For the estimation of crack growth under combined loading conditions a linear accumulation of increase in crack length was proved using the crack growth laws of pure creep and fatigue crack growth. Hold time and ramp loadings lead to a higher crack growth rate compared with pure creep or pure fatigue crack growth tests. In hold time experiments the crack growth rate is higher than ramp tests of the same period time. The results of hold time tests can be fairly enough predicted by linear damage accumulation rules. (orig.) [de

  20. Growth of AlGaN under the conditions of significant gallium evaporation: phase separation and enhanced lateral growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mayboroda, I. O.; Knizhnik, A. A.; Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Ezubchenko, I. S.; Zanaveskin, Maxim L.; Presniakov, M. Yu.; Potapkin, B. V.; Ilyin, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Growth kinetics of AlGaN in NH3 MBE under significant Ga desorption was studied. It was found that the addition of gallium stimulates 2D growth and provides better morphology of films compared to pure AlN. The effect was experimentally observed at up to 98% desorption of the impinging gallium. We found that, under the conditions of significant thermal desorption, larger amounts of gallium were retained at lateral boundaries of 3D surface features than at flat terraces because of the higher bi...

  1. Adaptive neural network motion control for aircraft under uncertainty conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A. V.; Tiaglik, M. S.; Tiumentsev, Yu V.

    2018-02-01

    We need to provide motion control of modern and advanced aircraft under diverse uncertainty conditions. This problem can be solved by using adaptive control laws. We carry out an analysis of the capabilities of these laws for such adaptive systems as MRAC (Model Reference Adaptive Control) and MPC (Model Predictive Control). In the case of a nonlinear control object, the most efficient solution to the adaptive control problem is the use of neural network technologies. These technologies are suitable for the development of both a control object model and a control law for the object. The approximate nature of the ANN model was taken into account by introducing additional compensating feedback into the control system. The capabilities of adaptive control laws under uncertainty in the source data are considered. We also conduct simulations to assess the contribution of adaptivity to the behavior of the system.

  2. Experimental device for investigating the crack growth behaviour of RPV steel under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, D.; Ahlf, J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental device is developed to investigate the crack growth behaviour of RPV steel specimens under service conditions. It will be installed in the experimental power station VAK-Kahl (BWR, 16 MWe). The in pile part is composed of a stable frame with a hydraulically actuated load mechanism, the specimen chain and a measuring instrumentation. The specimen chain, fastened between load mechanism and a lower fixing point at the frame, is made up of five compact tensile specimens (CT40) and the associated connecting links. Specimen strain, crack opening and temperature are measured; for neutron dose monitoring activation wires are disposed. Out of pile, in the reactor hall, the hydraulic loading system is installed. The loading force is generated by a 100 kN-material testing machine; it moves a piston in the control cylinder, which is connected to the loading bellows of the in pile section. The measuring and control equipment and a desk computer serving for data preparation and reduction is placed in the reactor control room. (Auth.)

  3. GSK3 controls axon growth via CLASP-mediated regulation of growth cone microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun-Mi; Saijilafu; Lee, Byoung Dae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Xu, Wen-Lin; Zhou, Feng-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Suppression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) activity in neurons yields pleiotropic outcomes, causing both axon growth promotion and inhibition. Previous studies have suggested that specific GSK3 substrates, such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), support axon growth by regulating the stability of axonal microtubules (MTs), but the substrate(s) and mechanisms conveying axon growth inhibition remain elusive. Here we show that CLIP (cytoplasmic linker protein)-associated protein (CLASP), originally identified as a MT plus end-binding protein, displays both plus end-binding and lattice-binding activities in nerve growth cones, and reveal that the two MT-binding activities regulate axon growth in an opposing manner: The lattice-binding activity mediates axon growth inhibition induced by suppression of GSK3 activity via preventing MT protrusion into the growth cone periphery, whereas the plus end-binding property supports axon extension via stabilizing the growing ends of axonal MTs. We propose a model in which CLASP transduces GSK3 activity levels to differentially control axon growth by coordinating the stability and configuration of growth cone MTs. PMID:21937714

  4. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki; Kalita, Golap

    2014-01-01

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  5. Towards nanorod LEDs: Numerical predictions and controlled growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelper, Christopher [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Computational Electronics and Photonics, Universitaet Kassel, Wilhelmshoeher Allee 71, 34121 Kassel (Germany); Bergbauer, Werner [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Drechsel, Philipp; Sabathil, Matthias; Strassburg, Martin; Lugauer, Hans-Juergen [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Witzigmann, Bernd [Computational Electronics and Photonics, Universitaet Kassel, Wilhelmshoeher Allee 71, 34121 Kassel (Germany); Fuendling, Soenke; Li, Shunfeng; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We present a numerical optimization of nanorod geometries with respect to the optical properties of an electrically driven LED emitting in the green spectral range. It is shown that an overall Purcell enhancement as well as directional emission can be achieved at an emission wavelength of 550 nm with nanorods of 110 nm radius. Position-controlled growth on patterned substrates demonstrates that the required dimensions are accessible by varying growth parameters and growth time in a large volume MOVPE reactor. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  7. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller for air conditioning systems at different pressures. The first order Sugeno fuzzy inference system was implemented and utilized for modeling and controller design. In addition, the estimation of the heat transfer rate and water mass flow rate ...

  8. Lettuce and rhizosphere microbiome responses to growth promoting Pseudomonas species under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Matheus A P; Lupatini, Manoeli; Lopes-Santos, Lucilene; da Silva, Márcio J; Roesch, Luiz F W; Destéfano, Suzete A L; Freitas, Sueli S; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-12-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are well described and recommended for several crops worldwide. However, one of the most common problems in research into them is the difficulty in obtaining reproducible results. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated plant growth promotion and soil microbial community composition resulting from bacterial inoculation under field conditions. Here we evaluated the effect of 54 Pseudomonas strains on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth. The 12 most promising strains were phylogenetically and physiologically characterized for plant growth-promoting traits, including phosphate solubilization, hormone production and antagonism to pathogen compounds, and their effect on plant growth under farm field conditions. Additionally, the impact of beneficial strains on the rhizospheric bacterial community was evaluated for inoculated plants. The strains IAC-RBcr4 and IAC-RBru1, with different plant growth promoting traits, improved lettuce plant biomass yields up to 30%. These two strains also impacted rhizosphere bacterial groups including Isosphaera and Pirellula (phylum Planctomycetes) and Acidothermus, Pseudolabrys and Singusphaera (phylum Actinobacteria). This is the first study to demonstrate consistent results for the effects of Pseudomonas strains on lettuce growth promotion for seedlings and plants grown under tropical field conditions. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The effect of growth conditions on flavonols and anthocyanins accumulation in green and red lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Klaudia BRÜCKOVÁ; Oksana SYTAR; Marek ŢIVČÁK; Marian BRESTIC; Aleš LEBEDA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different growth conditions on anthocyanins and flavonols accumulation in leaves of green and red loose leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa). Lettuce plants were grown in three types of conditions, in greenhouse (I. variant), behind clear glass in field (II. variant) and in open field conditions (III. variant). Estimation of anthocyanins and flavonols content was done by non-destructive measurements with optical fluorescence sensor Mu...

  10. Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R H; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Jefferies, L K; Eggett, D L; Steele, F M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C. botulinum in canned butter. The lack of a thermal process step in commercially available canned butter raises questions of potential safety, because it is hermetically sealed and generally exhibits anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. botulinum growth. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or hurdles, within butter include: reduced water activity, acidity in cultured products, elevated salt content, and the micro-droplet nature of the aqueous phase in the butter emulsion. It was hypothesized that a normal, intact butter emulsion would have sufficient hurdles to prevent C. botulinum growth, whereas a broken butter emulsion would result in a coalesced aqueous phase that would allow for C. botulinum growth. Batch-churned butter was inoculated with C. sporogenes; butter samples with varying salt contents (0, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% wt/wt NaCl) were prepared and stored in coated steel cans for varying times (1 or 2 wk) and temperatures (22 or 41°C) to determine temperature and emulsion structure effects on C. sporogenes growth. Samples stored at 41°C showed a significant increase in C. sporogenes growth compared with those stored at 22°C. Furthermore, NaCl addition was found to have a significant effect on C. sporogenes growth, with 0.8% NaCl promoting more growth than 0%, but with decreases in growth observed at 1.6 and 2.4%. Uninoculated control plates were also found to have bacterial growth; this growth was attributed to other anaerobic bacteria present within the cream. It was concluded that removal of the hurdle created by the micro-droplet size of the emulsion aqueous phase could result in C. botulinum growth even at elevated salt

  11. A systematic approach for the assessment of bacterial growth-controlling factors linked to biological stability of drinking water in distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, E. I.; Hammes, F.; Kotzsch, S.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for the assessment of (i) bacterial growth-controlling factors in drinking water and (ii) the impact of distribution conditions on the extent of bacterial growth in full-scale distribution systems. The approach

  12. Conditional random slope: A new approach for estimating individual child growth velocity in epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael; Bassani, Diego G; Racine-Poon, Amy; Goldenberg, Anna; Ali, Syed Asad; Kang, Gagandeep; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Roth, Daniel E

    2017-09-10

    Conditioning child growth measures on baseline accounts for regression to the mean (RTM). Here, we present the "conditional random slope" (CRS) model, based on a linear-mixed effects model that incorporates a baseline-time interaction term that can accommodate multiple data points for a child while also directly accounting for RTM. In two birth cohorts, we applied five approaches to estimate child growth velocities from 0 to 12 months to assess the effect of increasing data density (number of measures per child) on the magnitude of RTM of unconditional estimates, and the correlation and concordance between the CRS and four alternative metrics. Further, we demonstrated the differential effect of the choice of velocity metric on the magnitude of the association between infant growth and stunting at 2 years. RTM was minimally attenuated by increasing data density for unconditional growth modeling approaches. CRS and classical conditional models gave nearly identical estimates with two measures per child. Compared to the CRS estimates, unconditional metrics had moderate correlation (r = 0.65-0.91), but poor agreement in the classification of infants with relatively slow growth (kappa = 0.38-0.78). Estimates of the velocity-stunting association were the same for CRS and classical conditional models but differed substantially between conditional versus unconditional metrics. The CRS can leverage the flexibility of linear mixed models while addressing RTM in longitudinal analyses. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Facet-Dependent Oxidative Goethite Growth As a Function of Aqueous Solution Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlau, Jennifer H; Stemig, Melissa S; Penn, R Lee; Arnold, William A

    2016-10-04

    Nitroaromatic compounds are groundwater pollutants that can be degraded through reactions with Fe(II) adsorbed on iron oxide nanoparticles, although little is known about the evolving reactivity of the minerals with continuous pollutant exposure. In this work, Fe(II)/goethite reactivity toward 4-chloronitrobenzene (4-ClNB) as a function of pH, organic matter presence, and reactant concentrations was explored using sequential-spike batch reactors. Reaction rate constants were smaller with lower pH, introduction of organic matter, and diluted reactant concentrations as compared to a reference condition. Reaction rate constants did not change with the number of 4-ClNB spikes for all reaction conditions. Under all conditions, oxidative goethite growth was demonstrated through X-ray diffraction, magnetic characterization, and transmission electron microscopy. Nonparametric statistics were applied to compare histograms of lengths and widths of goethite nanoparticles as a function of varied solution conditions. The conditions that slowed the reaction also resulted in statistically shorter and wider particles than for the faster reactions. Additionally, added organic matter interfered with particle growth on the favorable {021} faces to a greater extent, with statistically reduced rate of growth on the tip facets and increased rate of growth on the side facets. These data demonstrate that oxidative growth of goethite in aqueous systems is dependent on major groundwater variables, such as pH and the presence of organic matter, which could lead to the evolving reactivity of goethite particles in natural environments.

  14. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60 Reforms the Rhizosphere Bacterial Community and Improves Growth Conditions in Cucumber Plug Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable plug seedling has become the most important way to produce vegetable seedlings in China. This seedling method can significantly improve the quality and yield of vegetables compared to conventional methods. In the process of plug seedling, chemical fertilizers or pesticides are often used to improve the yield of the seedlings albeit with increasing concerns. Meanwhile, little is known about the impact of beneficial bacteria on the rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of vegetables during plug seedling. In this study, we applied a culture-independent next-generation sequencing-based approach and investigated the impact of a plant beneficial bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60, on the composition and dynamics of rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of cucumbers during plug seedling. Our results showed that application of L-S60 significantly altered the structure of the bacterial community associated with the cucumber seedling; presence of beneficial rhizosphere species such as Bacillus, Rhodanobacter, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Nonomuraea, and Agrobacterium was higher upon L-S60 treatment than in the control group. We also measured the impact of L-S60 application on the physiological properties of the cucumber seedlings as well as the availability of main mineral elements in the seedling at different time points during the plug seedling. Results from those measurements indicated that L-S60 application promoted growth conditions of cucumber seedlings and that more available mineral elements were detected in the cucumber seedlings from the L-S60 treated group than from the control group. The findings in this study provided evidence for the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizosphere bacteria on the bacterial community composition and growth conditions of the vegetables during plug seedling.

  15. On the conditions required for vacancy loop growth in irradiated metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1980-07-01

    A simple theoretical model is investigated which allows the conditions under which vacancy dislocation loop growth is possible to be examined. This forms an extension of previous work in that bulk defect recombination is not ignored and the effects of vacancy thermal emission are included. Whilst the present work does not provide a kinetic model for vacancy loop growth it has been possible to examine the criteria required for stable growth in some detail. The effects of network dislocation density, temperature, damage rate, the influence of other critical sinks, notably voids and grain boundaries, and interstitial dislocation loops have been considered. The analogy with the growth conditions for cavities as voids is highlighted. A detailed comparison with experiment is not attempted as this is being considered separately. (author)

  16. The in vitro fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli varies with the growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of stressful growth conditions on the fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli BJ4 caused by chromosomal mutations and plasmid acquisition. The fitness cost of chromosomal streptomycin resistance increased......H and at high-salt concentrations. Strains with an impaired rpoS demonstrated a reduced fitness only during growth in a high-salt concentration. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that bacterial fitness cost in association with antimicrobial resistance generally increases under stressful growth conditions....... However, the growth potential of bacteria with antimicrobial resistances did not increase in a straightforward manner in these in vitro experiments and is therefore probably even more difficult to predict in vivo....

  17. Basic theory of diameter control in Czochralski growth using the melt-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, T.H.

    1986-04-01

    The unconfined crystal growth in the Czochralski configuration is recognized as a process which is quite dependent upon successful control of the shape determining conditions. In the paper attention is focused on the meniscus region, and its relevance to the crystal diameter behaviour is discussed. The dynamic stability of the configuration is analyzed according to the Surek criterion. In contrast to earlier zeroth order arguments, the system is shown to be inherently stable at normal growth conditions if the thermal impedance of the meniscus is taken into account. General difficulties associated with small diameter growth are pointed out. Reference is made to various growth monitoring arrangements, and the melt-weighing method is described in detail. Assuming uniform growth with a flat interface, the exact relation between the force experienced by a weighing cell and the growth parameters during both stationary and non-stationary conditions is derived. Growth at a constant angle is analyzed, and a new procedure for deriving the crystal diameter is suggested

  18. Measuring Effectiveness of Persuasive Games Using an Informative Control Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Soekarjo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research about the effectiveness of persuasive games is still emerging. This article presents a literature review of studies that empirically evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive games. The review concluded that limited empirical evidence is currently available to prove their effectiveness in attitude change. It further revealed that almost no study employed an informative control condition, making it difficult to conclude that the game was more effective than a control condition. Next, in a pretest-posttest design an empirical study tested whether change in attitude was different for people playing the persuasive game "EnerCities" compared to a control condition where participants read a document with highly similar information. No significant differences in increase of attitude or knowledge between participants that played the game and participants in the informative control condition were found. Based on the results of the literature review and the empirical study presented, it hence cannot be concluded that playing a game leads to a greater change in attitude or knowledge acquisition than experiencing conventional media would. Future work should employ designs with proper control conditions and focus on which game features lead to significant effects.

  19. Evaluation procedure of creep-fatigue defect growth in high temperature condition and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Gyu; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Jae Han

    2003-12-01

    This study proposed the evaluation procedure of creep-fatigue defect growth on the high-temperature cylindrical structure applicable to the KALIMER, which is developed by KAERI. Parameters used in creep defect growth and the evaluation codes with these parameters were analyzed. In UK, the evaluation procedure of defect initiation and growth were proposed with R5/R6 code. In Japan, simple evauation method was proposed by JNC. In France, RCC-MR A16 code which was evaluation procedure of the creep-fatigue defect initiation and growth related to leak before break was developed, and equations related to load conditions were modified lately. As an application example, the creep-fatigue defect growth on circumferential semi-elliptical surface defect in high temperature cylindrical structure was evaluated by RCC-MR A16

  20. Bulk water phase and biofilm growth in drinking water at low nutrient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    , and cell-specific leucine incorporation rate. Bacteria in the bulk water phase incubated without the presence of biofilmexhibited a bacterial growth rate of 0.30 day1. The biofilmwas radioactively labelled by the addition of 14C-benzoic acid. Subsequently, a biofilmdetachm ent rate of 0.013 day1...... the formation of a mature quasi-stationary biofilm. At retention times of 12 h, total bacterial counts increased equivalent to a net bacterial growth rate of 0.048 day1. The bulk water phase bacteria exhibited a higher activity than the biofilmbacteria in terms of culturability, cell-specific ATP content......In this study, the bacterial growth dynamics of a drinking water distribution system at low nutrient conditions was studied in order to determine bacterial growth rates by a range of methods, and to compare growth rates in the bulk water phase and the biofilm. A model distribution system was used...

  1. Effect of growth conditions on the photovoltaic efficiency of poly(terthiophene) based photoelectrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekouras, George; Too, Chee O.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2005-01-01

    Conditions associated with the electrochemical growth of poly(terthiophene) (PTTh) were shown to have a considerable effect on photovoltaic (PV) performance indicators, namely, short-circuit-current (I sc ), open-circuit-voltage (V oc ), fill-factor (FF) and power-conversion-efficiency (PCE). The solvent and electrochemical technique used during growth were found to have an effect on PV performance. Increasing the upper potential limit associated with growth by cyclic voltammetry (CV) was found to decrease PV efficiency. The use of higher temperatures during growth was found to improve PV performance. Conditions associated with the electrochemical growth of PTTh were found to affect PV performance because of resultant changes to the polymer morphology. Such changes were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In general, PTTh morphologies that exhibited increased porosity gave better PV performance by increasing the contact area between the PTTh and the liquid electrolyte. Combining the optimum conditions for the electrochemical growth of PTTh yielded a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) showing I sc = 888 μA cm -2 , V oc 152 mV, FF = 37.3% and PCE = 0.101% under halogen light (solar simulated) intensity of 500 W m -2

  2. A novel strategy to identify the critical conditions for growth-induced instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javili, A; Steinmann, P; Kuhl, E

    2014-01-01

    Geometric instabilities in living structures can be critical for healthy biological function, and abnormal buckling, folding, or wrinkling patterns are often important indicators of disease. Mathematical models typically attribute these instabilities to differential growth, and characterize them using the concept of fictitious configurations. This kinematic approach toward growth-induced instabilities is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the total deformation gradient into a reversible elastic part and an irreversible growth part. While this generic concept is generally accepted and well established today, the critical conditions for the formation of growth-induced instabilities remain elusive and poorly understood. Here we propose a novel strategy for the stability analysis of growing structures motivated by the idea of replacing growth by prestress. Conceptually speaking, we kinematically map the stress-free grown configuration onto a prestressed initial configuration. This allows us to adopt a classical infinitesimal stability analysis to identify critical material parameter ranges beyond which growth-induced instabilities may occur. We illustrate the proposed concept by a series of numerical examples using the finite element method. Understanding the critical conditions for growth-induced instabilities may have immediate applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery, asthma, obstructive sleep apnoea, and brain development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cholera toxin expression by El Tor Vibrio cholerae in shallow culture growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaxin, Mayra; Martínez, Haydee; Ayala, Guadalupe; Holmgren, Jan; Sjöling, Asa; Sánchez, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical, El Tor and O139 are the primary biotypes that cause epidemic cholera, and they also express cholera toxin (CT). Although classical V. cholerae produces CT in various settings, the El Tor and O139 strains require specific growth conditions for CT induction, such as the so-called AKI conditions, which consist of growth in static conditions followed by growth under aerobic shaking conditions. However, our group has demonstrated that CT production may also take place in shallow static cultures. How these type of cultures induce CT production has been unclear, but we now report that in shallow culture growth conditions, there is virtual depletion of dissolved oxygen after 2.5 h of growth. Concurrently, during the first three to 4 h, endogenous CO2 accumulates in the media and the pH decreases. These findings may explain CT expression at the molecular level because CT production relies on a regulatory cascade, in which the key regulator AphB may be activated by anaerobiosis and by low pH. AphB activation stimulates TcpP synthesis, which induces ToxT production, and ToxT directly stimulates ctxAB expression, which encodes CT. Importantly, ToxT activity is enhanced by bicarbonate. Therefore, we suggest that in shallow cultures, AphB is activated by initial decreases in oxygen and pH, and subsequently, ToxT is activated by intracellular bicarbonate that has been generated from endogenous CO2. This working model would explain CT production in shallow cultures and, possibly, also in other growth conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F.; Steyaert, Johanna M.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T.; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F.; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. “atroviride B” LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions. PMID:28232840

  5. Overview of impurity control and wall conditioning in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Maingi, R.; Wampler, W.; Barry, R.E.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.; Gates, D.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.M.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.; Skinner, C. H.; Sabbagh, S.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Wilson, J. R.; Zweben, S.

    2000-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) started plasma operations i n February 1999. In the first extended period of experiments, NSTX achieved high current, inner wall limited, double null, and single null plasma discharges, initial Coaxial Helicity Injection, and High Harmonic Fast Wave results. As expected, discharge reproducibility and performance were strongly affected by wall conditions. In this paper, the authors describe the internal geometry, and initial plasma discharge, impurity control, wall conditioning, erosion, and deposition results

  6. Control Strategy for Microgrid Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wenzhao; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the inherent reason of current harmonic and power oscillation phenomena in case of operating the microgrid inverter under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. In order to flexibly control the current harmonic and power oscillation, a new stationary...... inverter. Finally, the performance evaluation tests are carried out under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. Results verify the effectiveness of the propose method....

  7. Monitoring growth condition of spring maize in Northeast China using a process-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peijuan; Zhou, Yuyu; Huo, Zhiguo; Han, Lijuan; Qiu, Jianxiu; Tan, Yanjng; Liu, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Early and accurate assessment of the growth condition of spring maize, a major crop in China, is important for the national food security. This study used a process-based Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield Estimation for Crops (RS-P-YEC) model, driven by satellite-derived leaf area index and ground-based meteorological observations, to simulate net primary productivity (NPP) of spring maize in Northeast China from the first ten-day (FTD) of May to the second ten-day (STD) of August during 2001-2014. The growth condition of spring maize in 2014 in Northeast China was monitored and evaluated spatially and temporally by comparison with 5- and 13-year averages, as well as 2009 and 2013. Results showed that NPP simulated by the RS-P-YEC model, with consideration of multi-scattered radiation inside the crop canopy, could reveal the growth condition of spring maize more reasonably than the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator. Moreover, NPP outperformed other commonly used vegetation indices (e.g., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)) for monitoring and evaluating the growth condition of spring maize. Compared with the 5- and 13-year averages, the growth condition of spring maize in 2014 was worse before the STD of June and after the FTD of August, and it was better from the third ten-day (TTD) of June to the TTD of July across Northeast China. Spatially, regions with slightly worse and worse growth conditions in the STD of August 2014 were concentrated mainly in central Northeast China, and they accounted for about half of the production area of spring maize in Northeast China. This study confirms that NPP is a good indicator for monitoring and evaluating growth condition because of its capacity to reflect the physiological characteristics of crops. Meanwhile, the RS-P-YEC model, driven by remote sensing and ground-based meteorological data, is effective for monitoring crop growth condition over large areas in a near real

  8. Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops.

  9. A versatile Czochralski crystal growth system with automatic diameter control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Metzl, R.; Wang, W. S.; Choi, J.

    1995-07-01

    A versatile Czochralski crystal pulling system with automatic diameter control for the growth of nonlinear optical oxide crystals is discussed. Pure and doped bulk single crystals of bismuth silicon oxide (Bi12SiO20) have been successfully grown using this system. The system consists of a regular Czochralski type pulling system with provision for continuous weighing of the growing crystal to provide feedback for power control.

  10. A safety control device for detecting undesirable conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-26

    The invention relates to safety control devices. It deals with a device adapted to transmit a warning signal and to the detection of an undesirable condition in an associated apparatus, said device comprising switching means comprising transistors mounted in a reaction path, feeding means for opening the switching means whenever an undesirable condition has been detected by sensors, whereby an oscillator is caused to stop oscillating, and an outlet device controlled by the oscillator stoppage. This can be applied to the supervision of nuclear reactor.

  11. Unearthing Bacillus endophytes from desert plants that enhance growth of Arabidopsis thaliana under abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Bokhari, Ameerah M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we embarked a bioprospecting project that focuses on the isolation and characterization of plant root endophytes, collected from the Thar Desert. A total of 381 endophytes were isolated and based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, genus Bacillus (58 strains) was identified as the major taxon and only endophytes from this genus were isolated from all plant types. Of the 58 Bacillus strains, only 16 strains were selected for screening of plant growth promotion traits such as P and Zn solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore production, and antimicrobial activity. Based on the presence of specific plant growth promotion traits 10 strains were shortlisted for further in vitro screening with A. thaliana; to confirm that these bacteria can confer resilience to plants under salt stress conditions. B. circulans (PK3-15 and PK3-109), B. cereus (PK6-15) B. subtilis (PK3-9) and B. licheniformis (PK5-26) displayed the ability to increased the fresh weight of A. thaliana under salt stress conditions by more than 50 % compared to the uninoculated control. An interesting observation was that B. circulans (PK3-109) (shown to produce IAA exopolysaccharide) and B. circulans (PK3-138) (shown to produce IAA) in vitro results were substantially different as B. circulans (PK3-138) decreased the total fresh weight of A. thaliana by 47 %, whilst B. circulans (PK3-109) was one of the best performing strains. Thus, the genomes of these two strains were sequences to unravel the molecular versatility of B. circulans strains, specifically with respect to their interaction with plants. Most of the genome of these strains is identical but the most interesting feature was the presence of 1/ the DegS–DegU two-component system that is known to mediate the salt stress response and DegU also represses toxin wapA similar to antitoxin wapI, and 2/ YxiG, a gene in the unique orthogroup of PK3-109 was found to be linked to WapI. Thus, PK3-138 substantially decreasing the total fresh

  12. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ...

  13. The Vatican & Population Growth Control: Why an American Confrontation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Stephen D.

    1983-01-01

    The Vatican, because of its position on population growth, threatens the security of all nations. Catholic countries with right-wing dictatorships cannot confront the Vatican on family planning and survive. U.S. Catholics must confront the Vatican on this issue. American lay Catholics must break the American church away from the Vatican control.…

  14. Salmon on the Edge: Growth and Condition of Juvenile Chum and Pink Salmon in the Northeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, M. V.

    2016-02-01

    As the Arctic and Subarctic regions warm, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are expected to expand their range northward during ice-free periods in the Bering and Chukchi seas. The oscillating control hypothesis, which describes energetic differences of primary consumers between ice-associated and pelagic production phases, provides a framework for understanding how juvenile salmon might respond to changing conditions at the northern edge of their marine range. Additionally, relationships between growth/condition and temperature, salinity and bottom depth will help identify marine habitats supporting growth at the Arctic-Subarctic interface. In this study, we used survey data from NOAA and Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey project to 1) compare growth and condition of juvenile pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon in the NE Bering Sea between warm and cool spring phases, and 2) describe relationships between summer environmental conditions and juvenile salmon growth and condition from 2006 - 2010. Chum and pink salmon were shorter, and chum salmon exhibited greater energy density, in years with cool springs; however, no other aspects of size and condition differed significantly between phases. Over all years, longer and more energy dense individuals of both species were caught at stations with greater bottom depths and in cooler sea-surface temperatures. We found little evidence that chlorophyll-a explained much of the variation in size or condition. We used insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration as an indicator of relative growth rate for fishes sampled in 2009-2012 and that found juvenile salmon exhibited higher IGF-1 concentrations in 2010-2012 than in 2009. IGF-1 concentrations tended to increase with SST in chum salmon and with bottom depth (a proxy for distance from shore) in pink salmon, but more years of data are needed to adequately describe the relationship of IGF with environmental conditions. This study, although descriptive in

  15. Growth dynamics variation of different larch provenances under the mountain conditions in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulej, M. [Univ. of Agriculture, Cracow (Poland). Section of Seed Production and Selection

    1995-12-31

    The results of 25-year investigations based on measurements and statistical analysis concerning the growth dynamics variation of larch provenances from the entire area of Poland are reported in this paper. This is the first larch provenance experiment in Poland under mountain conditions. The results obtained showed a significant variability among the provenances tested as regards the basic growth characters (height, d.b.h., growth index) at the age of 5, 8, 11, 15, 20 and 25 years. The larch from Klodzko and Proszkow turned out to be the best in respect of growth during the entire 25-years period. Decidedly bad were provenances from Marcule, Grojec, Rawa mazowiecka and Kroscienko. We cannot forecast the future growth of larch when trees are 5-years old since such prognosis may carry an error. However, on the basis of the results obtained it may be concluded that when trees are about 8 years old the stabilization of the position of individual provenances as regards growth takes place. The height growth curves for the individual provenances during the 25-years period (with exception of the provenance from Marcule) fall within the interval {+-} 0,5S from the compensated curve for the entire population studied. All larch provenances in the experiment had reached the height growth culmination. A greatest differentiation in respect of this character occurred in case of the provenances from Sudetes. 27 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  16. Growth dynamics variation of different larch provenances under the mountain conditions in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulej, M [Univ. of Agriculture, Cracow (Poland). Section of Seed Production and Selection

    1996-12-31

    The results of 25-year investigations based on measurements and statistical analysis concerning the growth dynamics variation of larch provenances from the entire area of Poland are reported in this paper. This is the first larch provenance experiment in Poland under mountain conditions. The results obtained showed a significant variability among the provenances tested as regards the basic growth characters (height, d.b.h., growth index) at the age of 5, 8, 11, 15, 20 and 25 years. The larch from Klodzko and Proszkow turned out to be the best in respect of growth during the entire 25-years period. Decidedly bad were provenances from Marcule, Grojec, Rawa mazowiecka and Kroscienko. We cannot forecast the future growth of larch when trees are 5-years old since such prognosis may carry an error. However, on the basis of the results obtained it may be concluded that when trees are about 8 years old the stabilization of the position of individual provenances as regards growth takes place. The height growth curves for the individual provenances during the 25-years period (with exception of the provenance from Marcule) fall within the interval {+-} 0,5S from the compensated curve for the entire population studied. All larch provenances in the experiment had reached the height growth culmination. A greatest differentiation in respect of this character occurred in case of the provenances from Sudetes. 27 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  17. Diffusive growth of a single droplet with three different boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Z.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-02-01

    We study a single, motionless three-dimensional droplet growing by adsorption of diffusing monomers on a 2D substrate. The diffusing monomers are adsorbed at the aggregate perimeter of the droplet with different boundary conditions. Models with both an adsorption boundary condition and a radiation boundary condition, as well as a phenomenological model, are considered and solved in a quasistatic approximation. The latter two models allow particle detachment. In the short time limit, the droplet radius grows as a power of the time with exponents of 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 for the models with adsorption, radiation and phenomenological boundary conditions, respectively. In the long time limit a universal growth rate as $[t/\\ln(t)]^{1/3}$ is observed for the radius of the droplet for all models independent of the boundary conditions. This asymptotic behaviour was obtained by Krapivsky \\cite{krapquasi} where a similarity variable approach was used to treat the growth of a droplet with an adsorption boundary condition based on a quasistatic approximation. Another boundary condition with a constant flux of monomers at the aggregate perimeter is also examined. The results exhibit a power law growth rate with an exponent of 1/3 for all times.

  18. A systematic review of the routine monitoring of growth in children of primary school age to identify growth-related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayter, D; Nixon, J; Hartley, S; Rithalia, A; Butler, G; Rudolf, M; Glasziou, P; Bland, M; Stirk, L; Westwood, M

    2007-06-01

    To clarify the role of growth monitoring in primary school children, including obesity, and to examine issues that might impact on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such programmes. Electronic databases were searched up to July 2005. Experts in the field were also consulted. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed on studies meeting the review's inclusion criteria. The performance of growth monitoring to detect disorders of stature and obesity was evaluated against National Screening Committee (NSC) criteria. In the 31 studies that were included in the review, there were no controlled trials of the impact of growth monitoring and no studies of the diagnostic accuracy of different methods for growth monitoring. Analysis of the studies that presented a 'diagnostic yield' of growth monitoring suggested that one-off screening might identify between 1:545 and 1:1793 new cases of potentially treatable conditions. Economic modelling suggested that growth monitoring is associated with health improvements [incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of 9500 pounds] and indicated that monitoring was cost-effective 100% of the time over the given probability distributions for a willingness to pay threshold of 30,000 pounds per QALY. Studies of obesity focused on the performance of body mass index against measures of body fat. A number of issues relating to human resources required for growth monitoring were identified, but data on attitudes to growth monitoring were extremely sparse. Preliminary findings from economic modelling suggested that primary prevention may be the most cost-effective approach to obesity management, but the model incorporated a great deal of uncertainty. This review has indicated the potential utility and cost-effectiveness of growth monitoring in terms of increased detection of stature-related disorders. It has also pointed strongly to the need for further research. Growth monitoring does not currently meet all NSC

  19. Effect of the growth retardant Cycocel® in controlling the growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... Hydroponic culture of Gladiolus tristis: Application of paclobutrazol for flowering and height control. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(3): 239-243. Ninnemann H, Zeevaart JAD, Kende H, Lang A (1964). The plant growth retardant CCC as an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis in. Fusarium moniliforme. Planta (Bert.) ...

  20. Effects of acidifying ocean conditions on growth and survival of two life stages of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, S.; Taylor, C.

    2016-02-01

    Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, begin their larval phase offshore and circulate for approximately 30 days before settling near shore. As crabs transition to the juvenile stage, they move into coastal or estuarine environments characterized by lower salinity. Presently the average pH of the ocean is 8.1, 30% down from the beginning of the industrial revolution and is forecasted to drop to 7.8 by 2100. Decreasing pH causes dissolution of calcium carbonate shells, but the overall effects on crustaceans, such as blue crabs, are unknown. This study investigated the effect of a lower pH environment on the growth, survival, carapace hardness and molt frequency of larval and juvenile blue crabs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Larval crabs showed delayed growth under low pH (7.8) conditions compared to crabs in a control (present day) pH (8.1) environment. Population crashes (complete mortality) were experienced in 55% of the low pH aquaria but not in any of the control aquaria, suggesting that acidification poses a mortality risk. Under low pH conditions the intermolt duration decreased in juveniles, but the body length and weight did not differ from crabs raised in the control pH. Larvae (in tanks that did not crash) and juveniles did not experience increased mortality from a lower pH, but there do appear to be sublethal effects on growth and molting that differ between life history stages.

  1. Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains show wide variation in growth at different NaCl, pH, and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Marjo; Surakka, Anu; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-10-01

    Outgrowth from Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in milk can lead to butyric acid fermentation in cheeses, causing spoilage and economical loss to the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of 10 C. tyrobutyricum strains at different NaCl, pH, and temperature conditions. Up to 7.5-fold differences among the maximum growth rates of different strains in the presence of 2.0% NaCl were observed. Five of 10 strains were able to grow in the presence of 3.0% NaCl, while a NaCl concentration of 3.5% was completely inhibitory to all strains. Seven of 10 strains were able to grow at pH 5.0, and up to 4- and 12.5-fold differences were observed among the maximum growth rates of different strains at pH 5.5 and 7.5, respectively. The maximum growth temperatures varied from 40.2 to 43.3°C. The temperature of 10°C inhibited the growth of all strains, while 8 of 10 strains grew at 12 and 15°C. Despite showing no growth, all strains were able to survive at 10°C. In conclusion, wide variation was observed among different C. tyrobutyricum strains in their ability to grow at different stressful conditions. Understanding the physiological diversity among the strains is important when designing food control measures and predictive models for the growth of spoilage organisms in cheese.

  2. Research on crystal growth by using pressure as a control parameter; Atsuryoku seigyo ni yoru kessho seicho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-31

    This research project aims to establish a technique for crystal growth using pressure as a principal control parameter, and combining it with a microgravity condition, to develop a novel process material fabrication. Since the solubility of materials depends on pressure, it is possible to control a supersaturated condition for crystal growth by changing pressure. The growth condition can be controlled precisely, which is not possible by conventional methods that vary temperature and other factors. On the other hand, because a concentration diffusing field is formed autonomically around crystals in association with their growth, density convection is generated under gravity as a result of difference in the concentrations, making the growth conditions severely complex and uncontrollable. Ideal crystal growth condition control may be possible if the pressure control is performed under micro-gravity by which generation of the density convection can be suppressed. Realization has been achieved on in-situ observation by using high-magnification microscope which uses a diamond anvil cell, development of a hydraulic type optic pressure cell, and a high- speed crystal growing technology by means of pressure control utilizing the cell. New findings were also obtained on effects of pressure on crystal forms, and the pressure induced solid phase transfer mechanism. 67 refs., 49 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Growth Protocols for Etiolated Soybeans Germinated within BRIC-60 Canisters Under Spaceflight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Sharek, J. A.; Johnson, K. M.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V. I.; Martynenko, O. I.; Piastuch, W. C.

    As part of the GENEX (Gene Expression) spaceflight experiment, protocols were developed to optimize the inflight germination and subsequent growth of 192 soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) seeds during STS-87. We describe a method which provided uniform growth and development of etiolated seedlings while eliminating root and shoot restrictions for short-term (4-7 day) experiments. Final seedling growth morphologies and the gaseous CO2 and ethylene levels present both on the last day in space and at the time of recovery within the spaceflight and ground control BRIC-60 canisters are presented

  4. Sporophytic control of pollen tube growth and guidance in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausser, Andreas; Kliwer, Irina; Srilunchang, Kanok-orn; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tube germination, growth, and guidance (progamic phase) culminating in sperm discharge is a multi-stage process including complex interactions between the male gametophyte as well as sporophytic tissues and the female gametophyte (embryo sac), respectively. Inter- and intra-specific crossing barriers in maize and Tripsacum have been studied and a precise description of progamic pollen tube development in maize is reported here. It was found that pollen germination and initial tube growth are rather unspecific, but an early, first crossing barrier was detected before arrival at the transmitting tract. Pollination of maize silks with Tripsacum pollen and incompatible pollination of Ga1s/Ga1s-maize silks with ga1-maize pollen revealed another two incompatibility barriers, namely transmitting tract mistargeting and insufficient growth support. Attraction and growth support by the transmitting tract seem to play key roles for progamic pollen tube growth. After leaving transmitting tracts, pollen tubes have to navigate across the ovule in the ovular cavity. Pollination of an embryo sac-less maize RNAi-line allowed the role of the female gametophyte for pollen tube guidance to be determined in maize. It was found that female gametophyte controlled guidance is restricted to a small region around the micropyle, approximately 50–100 μm in diameter. This area is comparable to the area of influence of previously described ZmEA1-based short-range female gametophyte signalling. In conclusion, the progamic phase is almost completely under sporophytic control in maize. PMID:19926683

  5. Influence of culture conditions on growth and protein metabolism in chlorella pyranosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Batuecas Suarez, B.

    1981-01-01

    Growth and protein metabolism of Chlorella pyranoside under different conditions of temperature, photo period and CO 2 concentration was studied. The optimum of biomass production was observed at 25 degree centigree, 40.000 ppm of CO 2 in air and a 20 h. light period, followed of 4 h. of darkness. Some variations in free aminoacids content was observed under different conditions but no change did occur in protein. (Author) 68 refs

  6. Influence of culture conditions on growth and protein metabolism in chlorella pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Mazon, M.P.; Batuecas, B.

    1981-01-01

    Growth and protein metabolism of chlorella pyrenoidosa under differents conditions of temperature, photoperiod and CO 2 concentration was studied. The optimum of biomas production was observed at 25 deg C, 40.000 ppm of CO 2 in air and a 20 h. light period, followed of 4 h. of darkness. Some variations in free aminoacids content was observed under differents conditions but no change did occur in protein. (author)

  7. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods: The role of KCl in controlling rod morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, Jonathan M.; Ryan, Mary P.; McLachlan, Martyn A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of potassium chloride (KCl) in controlling ZnO nanorod morphology of large area thin films prepared by hydrothermal growth has been extensively investigated. The influence of KCl and growth time on the orientation, morphology and microstructure of the nanorod arrays has been studied with systematic changes in the length, width, density and termination of the nanorods observed. Such changes are attributed to stabilization of the high-energy (002) nanorod surface by the KCl. At low KCl concentrations (< 100 mM) c-axis growth i.e. perpendicular to the polar surface, dominates, leading to nanorods with increased length over the control sample (0 mM KCl). At higher concentrations (> 100 mM) stabilization of the high-energy surface by KCl occurs and planar (002) facets are observed accompanied by increased lateral (100) growth, at the highest KCl concentrations near coalesced (002) terminated rods are observed. Additionally we correlate the KCl concentration with the uniformity of the nanorod arrays; a decrease in polydispersity with increased KCl concentration is observed. The vertical alignment of nanorod arrays was studied using X-ray diffraction, it was found that this parameter increases as growth time and KCl concentration are increased. We propose that the increase in vertical alignment is a result of nanorod–nanorod interactions during the early stages of growth. - Highlights: • Modified hydrothermal growth was used for controlled ZnO nanorod synthesis. • Growth conditions varied to study influence on nanorod morphology and orientation. • A highly controlled and reproducible method is established. • A mechanism for growth and the role of ionic additives is proposed

  8. Crack Growth Behaviour of P92 Steel Under Creep-fatigue Interaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING Hong-yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Creep-fatigue interaction tests of P92 steel at 630℃ under stress-controlled were carried out, and the crack propagation behaviour of P92 steel was studied. The fracture mechanism of crack growth under creep-fatigue interaction and the transition points in a-N curves were analyzed based on the fracture morphology. The results show that the fracture of P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is creep ductile fracture and the (Ctavg parameter is employed to demonstrate the crack growth behaviour; in addition, the fracture morphology shows that the crack growth for P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is mainly caused by the nucleation and growth of the creep voids and micro-cracks. Furthermore, the transition point of a-lg(Ni/Nf curve corresponds to the turning point of initial crack growth changed into steady crack growth while the transition point of (da/dN-N curve exhibits the turning point of steady creep crack growth changed into the accelerated crack growth.

  9. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... conditioning system is highly appreciated and essential in most of our daily life. ... (Hossien and Karla, 2012) presented an overview work which provides an .... energy balance for SSSF and the mass flow balance for the water in the air are ..... of Automatic Control and Electrical Engineering at Siegen University, Germany.

  10. Stand conditions immediately following a restoration harvest in an old-growth pine-hardwood remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Bragg

    2010-01-01

    Portions of the Levi Wilcoxon Demonstration Forest (LWDF), a privately owned parcel of old-growth pine and hardwoods in Ashley County, Arkansas, were recently treated to restore conditions similar to some historic accounts of the virgin forest. Following a hardwood-only cut, a post-harvest inventory showed that the number of tree species in the sample area declined...

  11. Spatial variation in growth, condition and maturation reaction norms of the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainikka, A.; Mollet, F.M.; Casini, M.; Gardmark, A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of spatial patterns in life-history traits can help fisheries management focus on biologically and functionally relevant stock units. In the present study, we examined life-history variation in growth, condition and maturation of the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras among

  12. Using time-dependent models to investigate body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, P.S.; Wylie, G.D.; Halstead, B.J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying links between phenotypic attributes and fitness is a primary goal of reproductive ecology. Differences in within-year patterns of body condition between sexes of gartersnakes in relation to reproduction and growth are not fully understood. We conducted an 11-year field study of body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake Thamnophis gigas across 13 study areas in the Central Valley of California, USA. We developed a priori mixed effects models of body condition index (BCI), which included covariates of time, sex and snout-vent length and reported the best-approximating models using an information theoretic approach. Also, we developed models of growth rate index (GRI) using covariates of sex and periods based on reproductive behavior. The largest difference in BCI between sexes, as predicted by a non-linear (cubic) time model, occurred during the mating period when female body condition (0.014??0.001 se) was substantially greater than males (-0.027??0.002 se). Males likely allocated energy to search for mates, while females likely stored energy for embryonic development. We also provided evidence that males use more body energy reserves than females during hibernation, perhaps because of different body temperatures between sexes. We found GRI of male snakes was substantially lower during the mating period than during a non-mating period, which indicated that a trade-off existed between searching for mates and growth. These findings contribute to our understanding of snake ecology in a Mediterranean climate. ?? 2009 The Zoological Society of London.

  13. Individual Differences in the Expression of Conditioned Fear Are Associated with Endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    These experiments examined the relationship between the neurotrophic factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and individual differences in the expression of conditioned fear. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that rats naturally expressing low levels of contextual or cued fear have higher levels of hippocampal FGF2 relative to rats that express…

  14. Controls of growth phenology vary in seedlings of three, co-occurring ecologically distinct northern conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D Scott

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and seed-source elevation on height-growth phenology of three co-occurring and ecologically distinct northern conifers (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia (lodgepole pine), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm. (interior spruce) and Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (subalpine fir)). Seed from populations of the three indigenous and co-occurring species was collected across an elevational transect on the southwestern slope of McBride Peak, near Prince George, BC. Collection sites were at elevations of 750 to 1850 m, the latter being close to the tree line. In 2003, seeds were germinated and seedlings raised under favorable growing conditions in a temperature-controlled glasshouse. In 2004, seedlings of each population were grown in natural daylengths at a location within 50 km of the seed collection site both in a temperature-controlled glasshouse and at a nearby field site, and height growth was recorded twice a week throughout the growing season. Species differed in both the date and the accumulated heat sum above 5 degrees C for the initiation and cessation of shoot extension. Growth durations (which integrate growth initiation and growth cessation) were more similar among species in the field than in the glasshouse. This suggests that different mechanisms of phenological control among co-occurring species can result in adaptive "equivalence" under a particular set of climatic conditions.

  15. All three quinone species play distinct roles in ensuring optimal growth under aerobic and fermentative conditions in E. coli K12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzschke, Annika

    2018-01-01

    The electron transport chain of E. coli contains three different quinone species, ubiquinone (UQ), menaquinone (MK) and demethylmenaquinone (DMK). The content and ratio of the different quinone species vary depending on the external conditions. To study the function of the different quinone species in more detail, strains with deletions preventing UQ synthesis, as well as MK and/or DMK synthesis were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The strains were characterized with respect to growth and product synthesis. As quinones are also involved in the control of ArcB/A activity, we analyzed the phosphorylation state of the response regulator as well as the expression of selected genes.The data show reduced aerobic growth coupled to lactate production in the mutants defective in ubiquinone synthesis. This confirms the current assumption that ubiquinone is the main quinone under aerobic growth conditions. In the UQ mutant strains the amount of MK and DMK is significantly elevated. The strain synthesizing only DMK is less affected in growth than the strain synthesizing MK as well as DMK. An inhibitory effect of MK on aerobic growth due to increased oxidative stress is postulated.Under fermentative growth conditions the mutant synthesizing only UQ is severely impaired in growth. Obviously, UQ is not able to replace MK and DMK during anaerobic growth. Mutations affecting quinone synthesis have an impact on ArcA phosphorylation only under anaerobic conditions. ArcA phosphorylation is reduced in strains synthesizing only MK or MK plus DMK. PMID:29614086

  16. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  17. Controlling growth density and patterning of single crystalline silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tung-Hao; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Fu-Ken; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the usage of well-patterned Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a catalyst for one-dimensional growth of single crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) through the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The study reports the fabrication of monolayer Au NPs through the self-assembly of Au NPs on a 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified silicon substrate. Results indicate that the spin coating time of Au NPs plays a crucial role in determining the density of Au NPs on the surface of the silicon substrate and the later catalysis growth of Si NWs. The experiments in this study employed optical lithography to pattern Au NPs, treating them as a catalyst for Si NW growth. The patterned Si NW structures easily produced and controlled Si NW density. This approach may be useful for further studies on single crystalline Si NW-based nanodevices and their properties.

  18. Electromagnetic induction heating for single crystal graphene growth: morphology control by rapid heating and quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan; Chen, Wei; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Ooi, Poh Choon; Guo, Tailiang

    2015-03-01

    The direct observation of single crystal graphene growth and its shape evolution is of fundamental importance to the understanding of graphene growth physicochemical mechanisms and the achievement of wafer-scale single crystalline graphene. Here we demonstrate the controlled formation of single crystal graphene with varying shapes, and directly observe the shape evolution of single crystal graphene by developing a localized-heating and rapid-quenching chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system based on electromagnetic induction heating. Importantly, rational control of circular, hexagonal, and dendritic single crystalline graphene domains can be readily obtained for the first time by changing the growth condition. Systematic studies suggest that the graphene nucleation only occurs during the initial stage, while the domain density is independent of the growth temperatures due to the surface-limiting effect. In addition, the direct observation of graphene domain shape evolution is employed for the identification of competing growth mechanisms including diffusion-limited, attachment-limited, and detachment-limited processes. Our study not only provides a novel method for morphology-controlled graphene synthesis, but also offers fundamental insights into the kinetics of single crystal graphene growth.

  19. Kinetic modeling of growth and lipid body induction in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Neha; Kumar, G Dinesh; Gupta, Ravi Prakash; Mathur, Anshu Shankar; Manikandan, B; Basu, Biswajit; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a mathematical model to describe the biomass and (total) lipid productivity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 under heterotrophic conditions. Biomass growth rate was predicted by Droop's cell quota model, while changes observed in cell quota (utilization) under carbon excess conditions were used for the modeling and predicting the lipid accumulation rate. The model was simulated under non-limiting (excess) carbon and limiting nitrate concentration and validated with experimental data for the culture grown in batch (flask) mode under different nitrate concentrations. The present model incorporated two modes (growth and stressed) for the prediction of endogenous lipid synthesis/induction and aimed to predict the effect and response of the microalgae under nutrient starvation (stressed) conditions. MATLAB and Genetic Algorithm were employed for the prediction and validation of the model parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolite profiling uncovers plasmid-induced cobalt limitation under methylotrophic growth conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kiefer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction and maintenance of plasmids in cells is often associated with a reduction of growth rate. The reason for this growth reduction is unclear in many cases.We observed a surprisingly large reduction in growth rate of about 50% of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during methylotrophic growth in the presence of a plasmid, pCM80 expressing the tetA gene, relative to the wild-type. A less pronounced growth delay during growth under non-methylotrophic growth conditions was observed; this suggested an inhibition of one-carbon metabolism rather than a general growth inhibition or metabolic burden. Metabolome analyses revealed an increase in pool sizes of ethylmalonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA of more than 6- and 35-fold, respectively, relative to wild type, suggesting a strongly reduced conversion of these central intermediates, which are essential for glyoxylate regeneration in this model methylotroph. Similar results were found for M. extorquens AM1 pCM160 which confers kanamycin resistance. These intermediates of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway have in common their conversion by coenzyme B(12-dependent mutases, which have cobalt as a central ligand. The one-carbon metabolism-related growth delay was restored by providing higher cobalt concentrations, by heterologous expression of isocitrate lyase as an alternative path for glyoxylate regeneration, or by identification and overproduction of proteins involved in cobalt import.This study demonstrates that the introduction of the plasmids leads to an apparent inhibition of the cobalt-dependent enzymes of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Possible explanations are presented and point to a limited cobalt concentration in the cell as a consequence of the antibiotic stress.

  1. A Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog is implicated in control of growth rhythm in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-05-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants.

  2. The influence of MOVPE growth conditions on the shell of core-shell GaN microrod structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpke, Tilman; Avramescu, Adrian; Koller, Andreas; Fernando-Saavedra, Amalia; Hartmann, Jana; Ledig, Johannes; Waag, Andreas; Strassburg, Martin; Lugauer, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    A core-shell geometry is employed for most next-generation, three-dimensional opto-electric devices based on III-V semiconductors and grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Controlling the shape of the shell layers is fundamental for device optimization, however no detailed analysis of the influence of growth conditions has been published to date. We study homogeneous arrays of gallium nitride core-shell microrods with height and diameter in the micrometer range and grown in a two-step selective area MOVPE process. Changes in shell shape and homogeneity effected by deliberately altered shell growth conditions were accurately assessed by digital analysis of high-resolution scanning electron microscope images. Most notably, two temperature regimes could be established, which show a significantly different behavior with regard to material distribution. Above 900 °C of wafer carrier temperature, the shell thickness along the growth axis of the rods was very homogeneous, however variations between vicinal rods increase. In contrast, below 830 °C the shell thickness is higher close to the microrod tip than at the base of the rods, while the lateral homogeneity between neighboring microrods is very uniform. This temperature effect could be either amplified or attenuated by changing the remaining growth parameters such as reactor pressure, structure distance, gallium precursor, carrier gas composition and dopant materials. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed with respect to GaN decomposition as well as the surface and gas phase diffusion of growth species, leading to an improved control of the functional layers in next-generation 3D V-III devices.

  3. Development of Fuzzy Logic Control for Vehicle Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nasution

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle air conditioning system is experimentally investigated. Measurements were taken during the experimental period at a time interval of one minute for a set point temperature of 22, 23 and 24oC with internal heat loads of 0, 1 and 2 kW. The cabin temperature and the speed of the compressor were varied and the performance of the system, energy consumption and energy saving ware analyzed. The main objective of the experimental work is to evaluate the energy saving obtained when the fuzzy logic control (FLC algorithm, through an inverter, continuously regulates the compressor speed. It demonstrates better control of the compressor operation in terms of energy consumption as compared to the control by using a thermostat imposing On/Off cycles on the compressor at the nominal frequency of 50 Hz. The experimental set-up consists of original components from the air conditioning system of a compact passenger vehicle. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique can save energy and improve indoor comfort significantly for vehicle air conditioning systems compared to the conventional (On/Off control technique.

  4. Mitochondrial respiratory control is lost during growth factor deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Eyal; Armour, Sean M; Thompson, Craig B

    2002-10-01

    The ability of cells to maintain a bioenergetically favorable ATP/ADP ratio confers a tight balance between cellular events that consume ATP and the rate of ATP production. However, after growth factor withdrawal, the cellular ATP/ADP ratio declines. To investigate these changes, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells isolated before the onset of apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells have lost their ability to undergo matrix condensation in response to ADP, which is accompanied by a failure to perform ADP-coupled respiration. At the time of analysis, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells were not depleted of cytochrome c and cytochrome c-dependent respiration was unaffected, demonstrating that the inhibition of the respiratory rate is not due to loss of cytochrome c. Agents that disrupt the mitochondrial outer membrane, such as digitonin, or maintain outer membrane exchange of adenine nucleotide, such as Bcl-x(L), restored ADP-dependent control of mitochondrial respiration. Together, these data suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability contributes to respiratory control.

  5. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  6. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Experimental Animal Laboratory, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  7. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor α in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Tsukui, Tohru; Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor α (caERα) in chondrocytes were developed. ► Expression of caERα in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. ► caERα affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. ► This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ERαin vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caERα ColII , expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) α in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caERα ColII mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caERα ColII mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caERα ColII mice. These results suggest that ERα is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  8. Power systems control complex optimization in the new market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumm, L.; Kurrel, U.; Tauts, A.; Terno, O.; Zeidmanis, I.; Krisans, Z.

    2000-01-01

    A generalization and development of the theory and methods for complex optimisation of the performance and development control of an interconnected system (IPS) under new market conditions (mainly multicriterial and game approaches) is given considering the specifics of IPS at the international level in post-socialist countries and in particular in the Baltic states. Thereby the kernel of the mathematical apparatus of this theory the Generalized Reduced Gradient Method (GRGM) is further generalised and developed with the application of multicriterial and game methods to meet various market conditions. (author)

  9. Evaluating the growth parameters of soybean in response to plant growth promoting fungi under Mazandaran climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad yazdani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In low-input cropping systems, the natural roles of microorganisms in maintaining soil fertility may be more important than conventional system. In order to investigate the effects of plant growth promoting fungi on improvement of growth and development in soybean (cv: JK an experiment was conducted at the research farm of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during the 2011-2012 growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a factorial experiment based a completely randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was six levels of fungi: inoculation T. harzianum and AMF genus Glumus: G. mosseae, G. intraradices, and co-inoculation of T. harzianum + G. mosseae, T. harzianum + G. intraradices and non-inoculation (control. The second factor was three levels of phosphorus (0, 70 and 140 kg.ha-1 from superphosphate trip. Results showed that inoculation of T. harzianum and G. mosseae significantly had maximum chlorophyll content up to 17% and 16% at reduced phosphorus dosage (70 kg.ha-1 and conventional phosphorus dosage as compared to the control respectively. The greatest effect was recorded at reduced phosphorus dosage (70 kg.ha-1 and conventional phosphorus dosage significant increase in terms of chlorophyll content. In addition, the dry weights and chlorophyll content of soybean plants in reduced phosphorous dosage (70 kg.ha-1 and co-inoculated with T. harzianum + G. mosseae as well as conventional phosphorous dosage were significantly higher than the non-inoculated plants. In this experiment, at reduce phosphate fertilizer (P0%: 0 treatment, not affected of plant growth promoting fungi compared to control. But, reduced phosphorous dosage (70 kg.ha-1 was more affected.

  10. Comparação do crescimento entre Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae coletados em campo e mantidos em condições contoladas Growth comparison between Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae collected on the field and maintained under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    laboratory and in the field, and the growth curves estimated were compared. Crabs studied in the laboratory were obtained from field sampling and kept under controlled conditions (temperature = 25±2°C, and salinity = 20±5, on a water recirculating system. These animals were molt staged and measured (carapace width, taken from the last antherolateral spines in millimeters before and after molting. Crabs used for field growth analysis were collected between 2002 and 2004 in predetermined sampling sites by using otter-trawl and renfro nets. Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the growth parameters of the crabs. Maximum carapace lengths were used as the estimative of the asymptotic length (157.78 mm for females and 162.71 mm for males. Growth parameters obtained from laboratory experiments were k=0.001/day; t o=-1.53; longevity= 3117 days for males and k=0.002/day; t o=-29.55; longevity= 2795 days for females. Growth parameters and longevity estimates for the field collected animals were k=0.004/day; t o=-4.23; 1267 days for males and k=0.004/day; t o=-3.71; 1260 days for females. Significant difference was observed among laboratory and field crabs, suggesting a different growth rate accordingly to the surrounding environment.

  11. Influence of Different Growth Conditions on the Kefir Grains Production, used in the Kefiran Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rodica Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to optimize the kefir grains biomass production, using milk as culture media. The kefir grains were cultured at different changed conditions (temperature, time, shaker rotating speed, culture media supplemented to evaluate their effects. Results showed that optimal culture conditions were using the organic skim milk, incubated at 25°C for 24 hours with a rotation rate of 125 rpm. According to results, the growth rate was 38.9 g/L for 24 h, at 25°C using the organic milk - OSM, 36.87 g/L during 24 hours, optimal time for propagation process gave 37.93 g/L kefir grains biomass when the effect of temperature level was tested. The homogenization of medium with shaker rotating induced a greater growth rate, it was obtained 38.9 g/L for 24 h, at 25°C using rotation rate at 125 rpm. The growing medium (conventional milk supplemented with different minerals and vitamins may lead to improve the growth conditions of kefir grains biomass. The optimization of the growth environment is very important for achieving the maximum production of kefir grains biomass, substrate necessary to obtain the polysaccharide kefiran

  12. Unfolded protein response is required for Aspergillus oryzae growth under conditions inducing secretory hydrolytic enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In yeast UPR, Ire1 cleaves the unconventional intron of HAC1 mRNA, and the functional Hac1 protein translated from the spliced HAC1 mRNA induces the expression of ER chaperone genes and ER-associated degradation genes for the refolding or degradation of unfolded proteins. In this study, we constructed an ireA (IRE1 ortholog) conditionally expressing strain of Aspergillus oryzae, a filamentous fungus producing a large amount of amylolytic enzymes, and examined the contribution of UPR to ER stress adaptation under physiological conditions. Repression of ireA completely blocked A. oryzae growth under conditions inducing the production of hydrolytic enzymes, such as amylases and proteases. This growth defect was restored by the introduction of unconventional intronless hacA (hacA-i). Furthermore, UPR was observed to be induced by amylolytic gene expression, and the disruption of the transcriptional activator for amylolytic genes resulted in partial growth restoration of the ireA-repressing strain. In addition, a homokaryotic ireA disruption mutant was successfully generated using the strain harboring hacA-i as a parental host. These results indicated that UPR is required for A. oryzae growth to alleviate ER stress induced by excessive production of hydrolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth Control of Cyanobacteria by Three Submerged Macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiou; Zhong, Guangrong; Yan, Hai; Liu, Hu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To illustrate the control of harmful cyanobacterial growth and the removal of nutritients from fresh water, three submerged macrophytes were grown in the raw water of Guishui Lake. Lindernia rotundifolia, Hygrophila stricta, and Cryptocoryne crispatula were grown together in situ to assess their effectiveness in nutrient removal in microcosms. Results revealed the inhibitory effects of these species on cyanobacterial growth. In addition, water quality in the planted microcosms showed improvement when compared to the water quality of the unplanted microcosm. At all treatments studied, the chemical oxygen demand in the planted microcosms was lower than that in the unplanted microcosms, and the removal rate of all the nitrogen and phosphate in the planted microcosms was better than that of the microcosm without plants. Our study offers a useful algal control method for the lakes or reservoirs that suffer from harmful cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:22693412

  14. The Role of Control in Entrepreneurial Growth: An alternative explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Jones, Sally; Ottsen, Christina Lundsgaard

    their implications for concrete behaviour. Methodology: We apply a critical realist ontology to develop a research framework for understanding the role of risk, control and self-efficacy in determining entrepreneurial growth. We will collect data through an online questionnaire, including both men and women from...... and boys are socialized in the family. Contribution: We develop a research framework for testing propositions concerning the role of power-control in the family and the spillover effects that PCT has on entrepreneurial growth. We extend PCT into the entrepreneurship domain and offer new insights...... as they are viewed as more vulnerable than boys. Given that PCT deals with how risk-taking/adverse behaviour originates, it may have an application value in entrepreneurship. The gender gap in risk-taking has been addressed from various perspectives in the past 30 years, however, little effort has been made...

  15. TOR and paradigm change: cell growth is controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael N

    2016-09-15

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the discovery of target of rapamycin (TOR), a highly conserved kinase and central controller of cell growth. In this Retrospective, I briefly describe the discovery of TOR and the subsequent elucidation of its cellular role. I place particular emphasis on an article by Barbet et al. from 1996, the first suggesting that TOR controls cell growth in response to nutrients. © 2016 Hall. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Bulk water phase and biofilm growth in drinking water at low nutrient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik; Jørgensen, Claus

    2002-11-01

    In this study, the bacterial growth dynamics of a drinking water distribution system at low nutrient conditions was studied in order to determine bacterial growth rates by a range of methods, and to compare growth rates in the bulk water phase and the biofilm. A model distribution system was used to quantify the effect of retention times at hydraulic conditions similar to those in drinking water distribution networks. Water and pipe wall samples were taken and examined during the experiment. The pipes had been exposed to drinking water at approximately 13 degrees C, for at least 385 days to allow the formation of a mature quasi-stationary biofilm. At retention times of 12 h, total bacterial counts increased equivalent to a net bacterial growth rate of 0.048 day(-1). The bulk water phase bacteria exhibited a higher activity than the biofilm bacteria in terms of culturability, cell-specific ATP content, and cell-specific leucine incorporation rate. Bacteria in the bulk water phase incubated without the presence of biofilm exhibited a bacterial growth rate of 0.30 day(-1). The biofilm was radioactively labelled by the addition of 14C-benzoic acid. Subsequently, a biofilm detachment rate of 0.013 day(-1) was determined by measuring the release of 14C-labelled bacteria of the biofilm. For the quasi-stationary phase biofilm, the detachment rate was equivalent to the net growth rate. The growth rates determined in this study by different independent experimental approaches were comparable and within the range of values reported in the literature.

  17. Computation of reactor control rod drop time under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Yikang; Yao Weida; Yang Renan; Jiang Nanyan

    1998-01-01

    The computational method of reactor control rod drop time under accident conditions lies mainly in establishing forced vibration equations for the components under action of outside forces on control rod driven line and motion equation for the control rod moving in vertical direction. The above two kinds of equations are connected by considering the impact effects between control rod and its outside components. Finite difference method is adopted to make discretization of the vibration equations and Wilson-θ method is applied to deal with the time history problem. The non-linearity caused by impact is iteratively treated with modified Newton method. Some experimental results are used to validate the validity and reliability of the computational method. Theoretical and experimental testing problems show that the computer program based on the computational method is applicable and reliable. The program can act as an effective tool of design by analysis and safety analysis for the relevant components

  18. Defects in silicon effect on device performance and relationship to crystal growth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, L.

    1985-01-01

    A relationship between material defects in silicon and the performance of electronic devices will be described. A role which oxygen and carbon in silicon play during the defects generation process will be discussed. The electronic properties of silicon are a strong function of the oxygen state in the silicon. This state controls mechanical properties of silicon efficiency for internal gettering and formation of defects in the device's active area. In addition, to temperature, time, ambience, and the cooling/heating rates of high temperature treatments, the oxygen state is a function of the crystal growth process. The incorporation of carbon and oxygen into silicon crystal is controlled by geometry and rotation rates applied to crystal and crucible during crystal growths. Also, formation of nucleation centers for oxygen precipitation is influenced by the growth process, although there is still a controversy which parameters play a major role. All these factors will be reviewed with special emphasis on areas which are still ambiguous and controversial.

  19. An Innovative Adaptive Control System to Regulate Microclimatic Conditions in a Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Nicolosi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past home automation has been expanding its objectives towards new solutions both inside the smart home and in its outdoor spaces, where several new technologies are available. This work has developed an approach to integrate intelligent microclimatic greenhouse control into integrated home automation. Microclimatic control of greenhouses is a critical issue in agricultural practices, due to often common sudden daily variation of climatic conditions, and to its potentially detrimental effect on plant growth. A greenhouse is a complex thermodynamic system where indoor temperature and relative humidity have to be closely monitored to facilitate plant growth and production. This work shows an adaptive control system tailored to regulate microclimatic conditions in a greenhouse, by using an innovative combination of soft computing applications. In particular, a neural network solution has been proposed in order to forecast the climatic behavior of greenhouse, while a parallel fuzzy scheme approach is carried out in order to adjust the air speed of fan-coil and its temperature. The proposed combined approach provides a better control of greenhouse climatic conditions due to the system’s capability to base instantaneous solutions both on real measured variables and on forecasted climatic change. Several simulation campaigns were carried out to perform accurate neural network and fuzzy schemes, aimed at obtaining respectively a minimum forecasted error value and a more appropriate fuzzification and de-fuzzification process. A Matlab/Simulink solution implemented with a combined approach and its relevant obtained performance is also shown in present study, demonstrating that through controlled parameters it will be possible to maintain a better level of indoor climatic conditions. In the present work we prove how with a forecast of outside temperature at the next time-instant and rule-based controller monitoring of cooling or heating air

  20. In vitro maintenance, under slow-growth conditions, of oil palm germplasm obtained by embryo rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julcéia Camillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro maintenance of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera accessions under slow-growth conditions. Plants produced by embryo rescue were subject to 1/2MS culture medium supplemented with the carbohydrates sucrose, mannitol, and sorbitol at 1, 2, and 3% under 20 and 25±2ºC. After 12 months, the temperature of 20°C reduced plant growth. Sucrose is the most appropriate carbohydrate for maintaining the quality of the plants, whereas mannitol and sorbitol result in a reduced plant survival.

  1. Growth, Toxin Production and Allelopathic Effects of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries under Iron-Enriched Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda Sobrinho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of Fe-enrichment on the growth and domoic acid (DA production of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, static cultures that received the addition of different iron (Fe concentrations were maintained for 30 days. Intra- and extracellular DA concentrations were evaluated over time, and growth and chain-formation were compared to those of non-toxic diatoms, Bacillaria sp. Growth rates of P. multiseries (μ = 0.45–0.73 d−1 were similar among cultures containing different Fe concentrations. Likewise, the similar incidence and length of P. multiseries stepped cell chains (usually 2–4; up to 8-cell long among the treatments reinforces that the cultures were not growth-inhibited under any condition tested, suggesting an efficient Fe acquisition mechanism. Moreover, DA concentrations were significantly higher under the highest Fe concentration, indicating that Fe is required for toxin synthesis. Bacillaria sp. reached comparable growth rates under the same Fe concentrations, except when the dissolved cell contents from a P. multiseries culture was added. The 50–70% reduction in cell density and 70–90% decrease in total chlorophyll-a content of Bacillaria sp. at early stationary growth phase indicates, for the first time, an allelopathic effect of undetermined compounds released by Pseudo-nitzschia to another diatom species.

  2. Reactive gas control of non-stable plasma conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido-Gonzalez, V.; Daniel, B.; Counsell, J.; Monaghan, D.

    2006-01-01

    Most industrial plasma processes are dependant upon the control of plasma properties for repeatable and reliable production. The speed of production and range of properties achieved depend on the degree of control. Process control involves all the aspects of the vacuum equipment, substrate preparation, plasma source condition, power supplies, process drift, valves (inputs/outputs), signal and data processing and the user's understanding and ability. In many cases, some of the processes which involve the manufacturing of interesting coating structures, require a precise control of the process in a reactive environment [S.J. Nadel, P. Greene, 'High rate sputtering technology for throughput and quality', International Glass Review, Issue 3, 2001, p. 45. ]. Commonly in these circumstances the plasma is not stable if all the inputs and outputs of the system were to remain constant. The ideal situation is to move a process from set-point A to B in zero time and maintain the monitored signal with a fluctuation equal to zero. In a 'real' process that's not possible but improvements in the time response and energy delivery could be achieved with an appropriate algorithm structure. In this paper an advanced multichannel reactive plasma gas control system is presented. The new controller offers both high-speed gas control combined with a very flexible control structure. The controller uses plasma emission monitoring, target voltage or any process sensor monitoring as the input into a high-speed control algorithm for gas input. The control algorithm and parameters can be tuned to different process requirements in order to optimize response times

  3. Optimal control of algae growth by controlling CO 2 and nutrition flow using Pontryagin Maximum Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardlijah; Jamil, Ahmad; Hanafi, Lukman; Sanjaya, Suharmadi

    2017-09-01

    There are so many benefit of algae. One of them is using for renewable energy and sustainable in the future. The greater growth of algae will increasing biodiesel production and the increase of algae growth is influenced by glucose, nutrients and photosynthesis process. In this paper, the optimal control problem of the growth of algae is discussed. The objective function is to maximize the concentration of dry algae while the control is the flow of carbon dioxide and the nutrition. The solution is obtained by applying the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. and the result show that the concentration of algae increased more than 15 %.

  4. Synergistic use of biochar, compost and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for enhancing cucumber growth under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sajid M; Imran, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Y; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A; Crowley, David E

    2017-12-01

    Limited information is available about the effectiveness of biochar with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and compost. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar in combination with compost and PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) for alleviating water deficit stress. Both inoculated and un-inoculated cucumber seeds were sown in soil treated with biochar, compost and biochar + compost. Three water levels - field capacity (D0), 75% field capacity (D1) and 50% field capacity (D2) - were maintained. The results showed that water deficit stress significantly suppressed the growth of cucumber; however, synergistic use of biochar, compost and PGPR mitigated the negative impact of stress. At D2, the synergistic use of biochar, compost and PGPR caused significant increases in shoot length, shoot biomass, root length and root biomass, which were respectively 88, 77, 89 and 74% more than in the un-inoculated control. Significant improvements in chlorophyll and relative water contents as well as reduction in leaf electrolyte leakage demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach. Moreover, the highest population of P. fluorescens was observed where biochar and compost were applied together. These results suggest that application of biochar with PGPR and/or compost could be an effective strategy for enhancing plant growth under stress. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Control in chronic condition self-care management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawn, Sharon; Delany, Toni; Sweet, Linda

    2014-01-01

    of their communication style and the power of their role must improve for client chronic condition self-care management to be achieved. Training on the impacts of control in worker communication and systems where they work must be provided if unbeneficial forms of client dependency are to be overcome and true self......Aim: To examine health worker-client interactions during care planning to understand processes that foster client empowerment and disempowerment. Background: It is unclear how health worker-client exchanges and information sharing through chronic condition care planning currently operate in primary...... health care. Moreover, it is unclear how control in these exchanges either enhances collaborative decision-making, partnership and client empowerment, or works to create client disempowerment and dependency on workers and health services. Design: Critical discourse analysis of qualitative data from...

  6. Controlled damping of a physical pendulum: experiments near critical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Manuel I; Bol, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for the study of damped oscillatory motion along with three associated experiments. Special emphasis is given on both didactic aspects and the interactivity of the experimental set-up, in order to assist students in understanding fundamental aspects of damped oscillatory motion and allow them to directly compare their experimental results with the well-known theory they can find in textbooks. With this in mind, a physical pendulum was selected with an eddy-current damping system that allows the damping conditions to be controlled with great precision. The three experiments examine accurate control of damping, frequency shift near critical damping and the transition from underdamped to overdamped conditions

  7. Bioinspired Materials for Controlling Ice Nucleation, Growth, and Recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyuan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Jianjun

    2018-05-15

    Ice formation, mainly consisting of ice nucleation, ice growth, and ice recrystallization, is ubiquitous and crucial in wide-ranging fields from cryobiology to atmospheric physics. Despite active research for more than a century, the mechanism of ice formation is still far from satisfactory. Meanwhile, nature has unique ways of controlling ice formation and can provide resourceful avenues to unravel the mechanism of ice formation. For instance, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect living organisms from freezing damage via controlling ice formation, for example, tuning ice nucleation, shaping ice crystals, and inhibiting ice growth and recrystallization. In addition, AFP mimics can have applications in cryopreservation of cells, tissues, and organs, food storage, and anti-icing materials. Therefore, continuous efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of AFPs and design AFP inspired materials. In this Account, we first review our recent research progress in understanding the mechanism of AFPs in controlling ice formation. A Janus effect of AFPs on ice nucleation was discovered, which was achieved via selectively tethering the ice-binding face (IBF) or the non-ice-binding face (NIBF) of AFPs to solid surfaces and investigating specifically the effect of the other face on ice nucleation. Through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis, we observed ordered hexagonal ice-like water structure atop the IBF and disordered water structure atop the NIBF. Therefore, we conclude that the interfacial water plays a critical role in controlling ice formation. Next, we discuss the design and fabrication of AFP mimics with capabilities in tuning ice nucleation and controlling ice shape and growth, as well as inhibiting ice recrystallization. For example, we tuned ice nucleation via modifying solid surfaces with supercharged unfolded polypeptides (SUPs) and polyelectrolyte brushes (PBs) with different counterions. We found graphene oxide (GO) and oxidized quasi

  8. 3-D simulations to investigate initial condition effects on the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Malcolm J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The effect of initial conditions on the growth rate of turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing has been studied using carefully formulated numerical simulations. An integrated large-eddy simulation (ILES) that uses a finite-volume technique was employed to solve the three-dimensional incompressible Euler equations with numerical dissipation. The initial conditions were chosen to test the dependence of the RT growth parameters ({alpha}{sub b}, {alpha}{sub s}) on variations in (a) the spectral bandwidth, (b) the spectral shape, and (c) discrete banded spectra. Our findings support the notion that the overall growth of the RT mixing is strongly dependent on initial conditions. Variation in spectral shapes and bandwidths are found to have a complex effect of the late time development of the RT mixing layer, and raise the question of whether we can design RT transition and turbulence based on our choice of initial conditions. In addition, our results provide a useful database for the initialization and development of closures describing RT transition and turbulence.

  9. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, K.; Ilyas, N.; Batool, N.; Arshad, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring signaling molecule and growth regulator that enhances plant growth particularly in stress conditions. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of different levels of SA on maize growth under drought and salt stress conditions. An experiment was conducted to test the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in two cultivar of maize D-1184 and TG-8250. Varying levels of salicylic acid, i.e. 5mM, 10mM and 15mM were applied through foliar method. Exogenous applications of salicylic acid were done after 20 days of germination of the maize plants. Salicylic acid significantly affects root and shoot dry matter under drought and salt stress. Foliar application of SA significantly increased proline concentration (11 percentage and 12 percentage), amino acid accumulation (25 percentage and 18 percentage), relative water (17 percentage and 14 percentage) and Chlorophyll content. Overall, it can be concluded that SA at lower concentration is effective to minimize the effect of stress conditions. Maize cultivar TG-8250 showed better tolerance under drought and salt stress condition as compared to D-1184 cultivar. (author)

  10. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress, 180 (moderate stress and 90 (severe stress m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potential near harvest: -1.2, -1.5 and -1.7 MPa, respectively from the mid-pit hardening stage (12th of June until harvest (23rd of Sep. applied. Predawn, stem and leaf water potentials, leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, the number of new shoots on fruit bearing shoots and vegetative shoots lengths during growing season as well as leaf area at harvest were measured. The results showed that water deficit stress had negative effects on peach tree water status, thereby resulting in decreased leaf gas exchange and tree vegetative growth. As significant decreased assimilate production of tree was resulted from both decreased leaf assimilation rate (until about 23 % and 50 %, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions and decreased leaf area of tree (until about 57% and 79%, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions at harvest. The significant positive correlation between leaf water potential and vegetative growth of peach revealed that shoot growth would decrease by 30% and 50% of maximum at leaf water potential of –1.56 and –2.30 MPa, respectively.

  11. MODELS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ERRORS PREVENTION IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.

  12. Growth and microcystin production of a Brazilian Microcystis aeruginosa strain (LTPNA 02 under different nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bortoli

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic and photosynthetic organisms, which can produce a wide range of bioactive compounds with different properties; including a variety of toxic compounds, also known as cyanotoxins. In this work, we describe the isolation of seven cyanobacterial strains from two reservoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. Seven different chemical variants of microcystins (MC-RR, MC-LR, MC-YR, MC-LF, MC-LW, and two demethylated variants, dm-MC-RR and dm-MC-LR were detected in three of the ten isolated strains. One particular Microcystis aeruginosa strain (LTPNA 02 was chosen to evaluate its growth by cell count, and its toxin production under seven different nutritional regimes. We observed different growth behaviors in the logarithmic growth period for only three experiments (p < 0.05. The total growth analysis identified four experiments as different from the control (p < 0.01. Three microcystin variants (MC-RR, MC-LR and MC-YR were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. At the experimental end, the toxin content was unchanged when comparing cell growth in ASM-1 (N:P = 1, MLA and BG-11 (N:P = 10 medium. In all other experiments, the lowest microcystin production was observed from cells grown in Bold 3N medium during the exponential growth phase. The highest microcystin content was observed in cultures using BG-11(N:P = 100 medium.

  13. In vitro conservation of Piper aduncum and Piper hispidinervum under slow-growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Loureiro da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate in vitro storage of Piper aduncum and P. hispidinervum under slow-growth conditions. Shoots were stored at low temperatures (10, 20 and 25°C, and the culture medium was supplemented with osmotic agents (sucrose and mannitol - at 1, 2 and 3% and abiscisic acid - ABA (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1. After six-months of storage, shoots were evaluated for survival and regrowth. Low temperature at 20ºC was effective for the in vitro conservation of P. aduncum and P. hispidinervum shoots. In vitro cultures maintained at 20ºC on MS medium showed 100% survival with slow-growth shoots. The presence of mannitol or ABA, in the culture medium, negatively affected shoot growth, which is evidenced by the low rate of recovered shoots.

  14. A necessary condition for dispersal driven growth of populations with discrete patch dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiver, Chris; Packman, David; Townley, Stuart

    2017-07-07

    We revisit the question of when can dispersal-induced coupling between discrete sink populations cause overall population growth? Such a phenomenon is called dispersal driven growth and provides a simple explanation of how dispersal can allow populations to persist across discrete, spatially heterogeneous, environments even when individual patches are adverse or unfavourable. For two classes of mathematical models, one linear and one non-linear, we provide necessary conditions for dispersal driven growth in terms of the non-existence of a common linear Lyapunov function, which we describe. Our approach draws heavily upon the underlying positive dynamical systems structure. Our results apply to both discrete- and continuous-time models. The theory is illustrated with examples and both biological and mathematical conclusions are drawn. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Express Type 1 Fimbriae Only in Surface Adherent Populations Under Physiological Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Kristian; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Khandige, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    were correlated with the ability to adhere to and invade cultured human bladder cells. RESULTS:  Although inactive during planktonic growth in urine, T1F expression occurs when UPEC settles on and infects bladder epithelial cells or colonizes catheters. As a result, UPEC in these sessile populations...... with increased expression during surface growth adaptation and infection of uroepithelial cells. This leads to separation of UPEC into low-expression planktonic populations and high-expression sessile populations....... enhances bladder cell adhesion and invasion potential. Only T1F-negative UPEC are subsequently released to the urine, thus limiting T1F expression to surface-associated UPEC alone. CONCLUSION:  Our results demonstrate that T1F expression is strictly regulated under physiological growth conditions...

  16. Growth and Survival of Some Probiotic Strains in Simulated Ice Cream Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, A.; Ehsani, M. R.; Azizi, A.; Razavi, S. H.; Yarmand, M. S.

    A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment was applied in triplicates to evaluate the survival of four probiotic strains in simulated ice cream conditions. The growth and survival rate of these probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum) in varying amount of sucrose (10, 15, 20 and 25%), oxygen scavenging components (0.05% L-cysteine and 0.05% L-ascorbate) and temperatures (4 and -20°C) during different periods of time (1, 2 and 3 months) were evaluated in MRS-broth medium. Optical density at 580 nm was used to measure growth. Lactobacilli strains proved to be highly resistant in comparison with Biffidobacteria strains. The viable cell number of Lactobacillus casei in different sucrose concentrations, different oxidoreduction potentials and refrigeration temperature was 1x1010, 2x108 and 5x107 cfu mL-1, respectively. Growth and survival rate of Lactobacillus casei showed to be the highest.

  17. THE EMPLOYMENT – PRODUCTIVITY – SALARY RELATION, A CONDITION FOR ACHIEVING LONG - TERM ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CHIRILA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment-productivity-salary correlation is essential towards setting up conditions for economic growth andlasting social stability. An influence exists from technological changes, current stage of economic development,peculiarities of labour offer, employers – trade-unions interaction, etc. The analysis covers long-term and short-termcycles. In keeping with specificity of development stages, national economy witnesses an interval of productivitygrowth facilitating maximized employment and a rise in salary too. A lower growth rate indicates difficulties inassimilating new technologies; a higher growth rate generates instability in employing labour. Thus, the exercise ofstrong pressure is shown to exist on economic and technological structures. Likewise, this is what happens whenproductivity goes ahead of the separate analyses of the correlations between employment and productivity, on theone hand, and productivity and salary, on the other.

  18. Effect of “Biosept 33 SL” on the growth of Phomopsis sojae Lehman in in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Patkowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present studies determined the effect of preparation “Biosept 33 SL” in inhibiting the linear growth of five isolates of Phomopsis sojae in in vitro conditions. The experiment was conducted on PDA medium using the method of “the medium poisoning”. The examined preparation was used at the concentrations of 165, 330 and 660 μg grapefruit extract ∙cm -3 . The pathogen’s mycelium growing under the grapefruit extract was pale white, and the mycelium hyphae formed a fairly loose structure as distinct from the more compact mycelium of control colonies. Strong degeneration of mycelium hyphae was visible in microscopic preparations.

  19. Feeding behaviour and growth of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) under daily cyclic hypoxia conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Velarde, Arturo; Jean, Fred; Thouzeau, Gérard; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    As a secondary consequence of the high productivity of the upwelling system, organisms inhabiting Peruvian coastal bays are frequently exposed to hypoxic conditions. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects of daily-cyclic-severe hypoxia on energetics of a species presenting little escape ability when facing hypoxia. For this purpose, juvenile Peruvian scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) were exposed to four experimental conditions: fed and starved, combined or not to nightly severe hypoxia (5% oxygen saturation) for ≈ 12 h over a 21-day experiment. In both fed conditions, clearance rate was measured by the mean of an open-flow system. Our results indicate that the Peruvian scallop is able to maintain an active filtration even at low oxygen saturation, at least during expositions up to 12 h. During the first phase of exposure to hypoxia, clearance rate decreased abruptly when oxygen saturation dropped below 10%, but rapidly recovered to values close to those found under normoxia. As a consequence of this ability to feed during hypoxia, no difference in soft tissue dry weight (digestive gland not included) was observed at the end of the experimental period between oxic conditions among fed scallops. However, shell growth was negatively affected by hypoxic condition. Starved individuals exhibited similar weight loss between hypoxic and normoxic conditions indicating no or little effect of oxic condition on maintenance costs. Considering the observed responses for feeding, growth and maintenance, we can hypothesize that this species presents metabolic/bioenergetic efficient adaptations to deal with hypoxic conditions that are recurrent in Peruvian coastal bays. We hypothesize that the small observed effects might be modelled in the context of the Dynamic Energy Budget theory as a restriction of reserve mobilization under hypoxic conditions.

  20. How to determine control of growth rate in a chemostat. Using metabolic control analysis to resolve the paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoep, Jacky L.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Groeneveld, Philip

    1994-01-01

    how, paradoxically, one can determine control of growth rate, of growth yield and of other fluxes in a chemostat. We develop metabolic control analysis for the chemostat. this analysis does not depend on the particular way in which specific growth rate varies with the concentration of the growth...

  1. Intrahousehold resource allocation and child growth in Mozambique: an ethnographic case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, J; Gloyd, S; Ramirez Li, L

    2001-07-01

    This study examines the effect of intrahousehold cash income control and decision-making patterns on child growth in the rural town of Sussundenga in Manica Province, Mozambique. A case-control study design was used to examine the influence of men's and women's disaggregated cash incomes on child growth. The research tested whether greater maternal share of household cash income was associated with (1) increased maternal decision-making and bargaining power in the household, and (2) better child growth. Fifty case households, with children 1-4 years old exhibiting poor growth, were matched with 50 control households of similar socioeconomic status in which all children under five demonstrated healthy growth. Data were gathered on gender-specific income generation and expenditure, specific intrahousehold allocation processes, diet, and sociodemographic variables using a formal survey. Key informant interviews, focus groups, and observation over one year provided ethnographic context for the case-control findings. Case-control differences were analyzed using McNemar's test, paired t-test, and conditional logistic regression. In spite of matching households for socioeconomic status, control household incomes were still slightly greater than cases. Male spouse income was also higher among controls while maternal income, and maternal proportion of household income, were not significantly different. Household meat, fish and poultry consumption, and maternal education were significantly greater among control households than cases. Greater maternal share of household income was not associated with greater maternal decision-making around cash. However, mothers must spend what little cash they earn on daily food supplies and usually request additional cash from spouses to cover these costs. There is evidence that if mothers earn enough to cover these socially prescribed costs, they can spend cash for other needs. Above this threshold, women's earnings may confer more

  2. Influence of bovine lactoferrin on the growth of selected probiotic bacteria under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Wen; Ku, Yu-We; Chu, Fang-Yi

    2014-10-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a natural glycoprotein, and it shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, reports on the influences of bLf on probiotic bacteria have been mixed. We examined the effects of apo-bLf (between 0.25 and 128 mg/mL) on both aerobic and anaerobic cultures of probiotics. We found that bLf had similar effects on the growth of probiotics under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and that it actively and significantly (at concentrations of >0.25 mg/mL) retarded the growth rate of Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 29521), B. longum (ATCC 15707), B. lactis (BCRC 17394), B. infantis (ATCC 15697), Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272), L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53103), and L. coryniformis (ATCC 25602) in a dose-dependent manner. Otherwise, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 128 or >128 mg/mL against B. bifidum, B. longum, B. lactis, L. reuteri, and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53103). With regard to MICs, bLf showed at least four-fold lower inhibitory effect on probiotics than on pathogens. Intriguingly, bLf (>0.25 mg/mL) significantly enhanced the growth of Rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) and L. acidophilus (BCRC 14065) by approximately 40-200 %, during their late periods of growth. Supernatants produced from aerobic but not anaerobic cultures of L. acidophilus reduced the growth of Escherichia coli by about 20 %. Thus, bLf displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of most probiotic strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. An antibacterial supernatant prepared from the aerobic cultures may have significant practical use.

  3. Optimization of induction, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing; Han, Lijuan; Li, Shaomei; Yan, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and the medicinal position is its root. This perennial herb grows vigorously only in specific areas and the environment. Tissue culture induction of callus and plant regeneration is an important and effective way to obtain large scale cultures of A. sinensis. The objective was to optimize the inductive, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of A. sinensis. Tissue culture conditions for A. sinensis were optimized using leaves and petioles (types I and II) as explants source. Murashige and Skoog (MS) and H media supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 7.5 g/L agar, and varying concentrations of plant growth regulators were used for callus induction. In addition, four different basal media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), 0.2 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 30 g/L sucrose were optimized for callus subculture. Finally, growth kinetics of A. sinensis cultured on different subculture media was investigated based on callus properties, including fresh weight, dry weight, medium pH, callus relative fresh weight growth, callus relative growth rate (CRGR), and sucrose content. MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L BA, 0.7 mg/L 2,4-D, 30 g/L sucrose and 7.5 g/L agar resulted in optimal callus induction in A. sinensis while petiole I was found as the best plant organ for callus induction. The B5 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.2 mg/L BA and 30 g/L sucrose displayed the best results in A. sinensis callus subculture assays. The optimized conditions could be one of the most potent methods for large-scale tissue culture of A. sinensis.

  4. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  5. Modification of growth conditions by mm-waves of wood-decaying mushrooms cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avagyan, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Basidial macromycetes are not only value food, but can be used as source of such biological active compounds as the genistein, β -glucans, glioxal-oxidase et al. In this work we used different frequencies of extremely high frequency of electromagnetic irradiation (EHF EMI) with the aim of obtaining mushroom cultures with increased fermentative activity by the modulation of its growth conditions during growth on the peptone media. We investigated the influence of the non-thermal extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves in the interval of 45-53 GHz on β-glucosidase activities of two species of wood-decaying mushroom. In this study we examined the most popular edible wood-decaying mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, which is wide-spread in the forests and commercial mushroom Lentinula edodes, under influence of such an abiotic factor as the extremely high frequency waves in the interval of 45 GHz - 53 GHz during 20 and 40 min on the 7th day of mycelial culture's growth. After the treatment of cultures we continued their growth and on the 3th day we examined the influence of these waves on fermentative activity of mycelial extracts. The some conditions of such treatment led to significant rising of β-glucosidase activities in the extracts of mycelial cultures

  6. Initial growth of Costus longebracteolatus and Costus spiralis ‘French Kiss’ under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bachin Mazzini-Guedes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian native Costus longebracteolatus and Costus spiralis ‘French Kiss’, in the family Costaceae, have been used as both cut flowers and cut foliage. It is known that Costus species grow better under partial shade, but studies on the influence of shading or light on plant growth, development, and flower production are still incipient. As this kind of information is essential on planning of planting, production, and agribusiness activities, the objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of different colored shade nets and light conditions on the initial growth of both C. longebracteolatus and C. spiralis ‘French Kiss’. Plants, obtained from cuttings of pseudostems, were cultivated under six light conditions, which comprised six treatments, along 270 days: red net with 50% shading, blue net with 50% shading, black net with 70% shading, black net with 50% shading, black net with 30% shading, and full sun. The initial growth of C. longebracteolatus (up to 270 days is more successful under the blue net with 50% shading, which promoted highest values of pseudostem length and dry matter of aerial part. For C. spiralis ‘French Kiss’ plants, both the red and blue nets with 50% shading implied best results and differed for the other treatments with greater pseudostem length. Plant exposure to full sun inhibited growth and development, and favored early leaf necrosis.

  7. Prevention of melanin formation during aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using an Aspergillus nidulans cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    An Aspergillus nidulans cell factory was genetically engineered to produce an aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO). The cell factory initiated production of melanin when growth-limited conditions were established using stationary plates and shaken flasks. This phenomenon was more pronounced when the strain was cultured in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). This study investigated different approaches to reduce melanin formation in fungal mycelia and liquid medium in order to increase the enzyme production yield. Removal of copper from the medium recipe reduced melanin formation in agar cultures and increased enzyme activities by 48% in agitated liquid cultures. Copper has been reported as a key element for tyrosinase, an enzyme responsible for melanin production. Ascorbic acid (0.44g/L) stopped melanin accumulation, did not affect growth parameters and resulted in AAO activity that was more than two-fold greater than a control treatment with no ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gain control network conditions in early sensory coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Serrano

    Full Text Available Gain control is essential for the proper function of any sensory system. However, the precise mechanisms for achieving effective gain control in the brain are unknown. Based on our understanding of the existence and strength of connections in the insect olfactory system, we analyze the conditions that lead to controlled gain in a randomly connected network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We consider two scenarios for the variation of input into the system. In the first case, the intensity of the sensory input controls the input currents to a fixed proportion of neurons of the excitatory and inhibitory populations. In the second case, increasing intensity of the sensory stimulus will both, recruit an increasing number of neurons that receive input and change the input current that they receive. Using a mean field approximation for the network activity we derive relationships between the parameters of the network that ensure that the overall level of activity of the excitatory population remains unchanged for increasing intensity of the external stimulation. We find that, first, the main parameters that regulate network gain are the probabilities of connections from the inhibitory population to the excitatory population and of the connections within the inhibitory population. Second, we show that strict gain control is not achievable in a random network in the second case, when the input recruits an increasing number of neurons. Finally, we confirm that the gain control conditions derived from the mean field approximation are valid in simulations of firing rate models and Hodgkin-Huxley conductance based models.

  9. Effect of less intensive rearing conditions on litter characteristics, growth performance, carcase injuries and meat quality of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meluzzi, A; Fabbri, C; Folegatti, E; Sirri, F

    2008-09-01

    1. The objective was to compare the effect of two litter types (wheat straw and wood shavings) and two different rearing conditions (Treated and Control) on welfare indicators, broiler performance, carcase injuries, particularly hock and foot pad dermatitis (FPD), litter characteristics and meat quality. 2. Treated conditions were characterised by a low stocking density (11 birds/m(2)), short photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) and a large amount of litter (3 to 4.5 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). Control conditions were a high stocking density (14 birds/m(2)), long photoperiod (23 h light:1 h dark) and small amount of litter (2.3 to 3 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). In addition, the effects of two widely used litter materials, wheat straw and wood shavings, were investigated. 3. The combined effects of lower stocking density, greater amount of litter material and a photoperiod similar to the natural one, reduced the occurrence of FPD in Treated groups keeping the FPD score under the European threshold. 4. Improved rearing conditions led to faster growth rate associated with inferior feed efficiency, whereas litter type exerted negligible effects on broiler performance. 5. Litter moisture content, nitrogen and ammonia released by the litter were lower in Treated groups than Control groups. The use of wood shavings resulted in lower moisture and nitrogen concentrations in the litter.

  10. Increased biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis during energetically limited growth and respiratory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Blank, Lars Mathias; Solem, Christian

    2008-01-01

    (glucose/mannose-specific phosphotransferase system). Amino acid catabolism could be excluded as the source of the additional ATP. Since mutants without a functional H+-ATPase produced less ATP under sugar starvation and respiratory conditions, the additional ATP yield appears to come partly from energy......Lactococcus lactis is known to be capable of respiration under aerobic conditions in the presence of haemin. In the present study the effect of respiration on ATP production during growth on different sugars was examined. With glucose as the sole carbon source, respiratory conditions in L. lactis...... MG1363 resulted in only a minor increase, 21%, in biomass yield. Since ATP production through substrate-level phosphorylation was essentially identical with and without respiration, the increased biomass yield was a result of energy-saving under respiratory conditions estimated to be 0.4 mol of ATP...

  11. Effect of Bacillus Species Rhizobacteria on Kabuli Chickpea Plants Growth under Pots and Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ait Kaki, Asma; Benhassine, Sara; Milet, Asma; Kara Ali, Monira; Moula, Nassim; Kacem Chaouche, Nordine

    2018-01-01

    In the present research, some Bacillus strains were produced at the industrial scale in order to be tested on chickpea growth, under pots and field conditions. Bacteria reached high sporulation yields ranging from 0.8×109-2.5×109 and 8×109-10×109 spores mL-1 in flasks and 500 L bioreactor culture conditions, respectively. Under pots experiment, B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) and B. amyloliquefaciens (CWBI) increased significantly the root mass (0.31 and 0.37 vs. 0.066 g, respectively) and reduc...

  12. Rate-Independent Processes with Linear Growth Energies and Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2012), s. 591-604 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : concentrations * oscillations * time - dependent boundary conditions * rate-independent evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/MTR/kruzik-rate-independent processes with linear growth energies and time - dependent boundary conditions.pdf

  13. Modelling growth of Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougouli, Maria; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2010-06-15

    The growth of Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, isolated from yogurt production environment, was investigated on malt extract agar with pH=4.2 and a(w)=0.997, simulating yogurt, at isothermal conditions ranging from -1.3 to 35 degrees C and from 5 to 42.3 degrees C, respectively. The growth rate (mu) and (apparent) lag time (lambda) of the mycelium growth were modelled as a function of temperature using a Cardinal Model with Inflection (CMI). The results showed that the CMI can describe successfully the effect of temperature on fungal growth within the entire biokinetic range for both isolates. The estimated values of the CMI for mu were T(min)=-5.74 degrees C, T(max)=30.97 degrees C, T(opt)=22.08 degrees C and mu(opt)=0.221 mm/h for P. expansum and T(min)=10.13 degrees C, T(max)=43.13 degrees C, T(opt)=31.44 degrees C, and mu(opt)=0.840 mm/h for A. niger. The cardinal values for lambda were very close to the respective values for mu indicating similar temperature dependence of the growth rate and the lag time of the mycelium growth. The developed models were further validated under fluctuating temperature conditions using various dynamic temperature scenarios. The time-temperature conditions studied included single temperature shifts before or after the end of the lag time and continuous periodic temperature fluctuations. The prediction of growth at changing temperature was based on the assumption that after a temperature shift the growth rate is adopted instantaneously to the new temperature, while the lag time was predicted using a cumulative lag approach. The results showed that when the temperature shifts occurred before the end of the lag, they did not cause any significant additional lag and the observed total lag was very close to the cumulative lag predicted by the model. In experiments with temperature shifts after the end of the lag time, accurate predictions were obtained when the temperature profile included temperatures which were inside the

  14. Growth Control by Ethylene: Adjusting Phenotypes to the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.; Sasidharan, R.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Plants phenotypically adjust to environmental challenges, and the gaseous plant hormone ethylene modulates many of these growth adjustments. Ethylene can be involved in environmentally induced growth inhibition as well as growth stimulation. Still, ethylene has long been considered a growth

  15. Magnetic Control in Crystal Growth from a Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue

    Control of bulk melt crystal growth techniques is desirable for producing semiconductors with the highest purity and ternary alloys with tunable electrical properties. Because these molten materials are electrically conducting, external magnetic fields are often employed to regulate the flow in the melt. However, complicated by the coupled flow, thermal, electromagnetic and chemical physics, such magnetic control is typically empirical or even an educated guess. Two magnetic flow control mechanisms: flow damping by steady magnetic fields, and flow stirring by alternating magnetic fields, are investigated numerically. Magnetic damping during optically-heated float-zone crystal growth is modeled using a spectral collocation method. The Marangoni convection at the free melt-gas interface is suppressed when exposed to a steady axial magnetic field, measured by the Hartmann number Ha. As a result, detrimental flow instabilities are suppressed, and an almost quiescent region forms in the interior, ideal for single crystal growth. Using normal mode linear stability analyses, dominant flow instabilities are determined in a range applicable to experiments (up to Ha = 300 for Pr = 0.02, and up to Ha = 500 for Pr = 0.001). The hydrodynamic nature of the instability for small Prandtl number Pr liquid bridges is confirmed by energy analyses. Magnetic stirring is modeled for melt crystal growth in an ampule exposed to a transverse rotating magnetic field. Decoupled from the flow field at small magnetic Reynolds number, the electromagnetic field is first solved via finite element analysis. The flow field is then solved using the spectral element method. At low to moderate AC frequencies (up to a few kHz), the electromagnetic body force is dominant in the azimuthal direction, which stirs a steady axisymmetric flow primarily in the azimuthal direction. A weaker secondary flow develops in the meridional plane. However, at high AC frequencies (on the order of 10 kHz and higher), only

  16. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  17. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vandimilli A; Pacheco, Fernanda V; Avelar, Rafaella P; Alvarenga, Ivan C A; Pinto, José Eduardo B P; Alvarenga, Amauri A DE

    2017-01-01

    Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN) and blue (BN) both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade). The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDIMILLI A. LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN and blue (BN both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade. The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Arabidopsis Phosphatidic Acid Phosphohydrolases Are Essential for Growth under Nitrogen-Depleted Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Yoshitake

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis homologs of mammalian lipin, PAH1 and PAH2, are cytosolic phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolases that are involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and are essential for growth under phosphate starvation. Here, pah1 pah2 double-knockout mutants were found to be hypersensitive to nitrogen (N starvation, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing PAH1 or PAH2 in the pah1 pah2 mutant background showed a similar growth phenotype as compared with wild type (WT under N starvation. The chlorophyll content of pah1 pah2 was significantly lower than that of WT, whereas the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity of the transgenic plants were significantly higher than those of WT under N-depleted conditions. Membrane glycerolipid composition of the pah1 pah2 mutants showed a significant decrease in the mole percent of chloroplast lipids to other phospholipids, whereas membrane lipid composition did not differ between transgenic plants and WT plants. Pulse-chase labeling experiments using plants grown under N-depleted conditions showed that, in pah1 pah2 plants, the labeling percent of chloroplast lipids such as phosphatidylglycerol and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol in the total glycerolipids was significantly lower than in WT. Moreover, N starvation-induced degradation of chloroplast structure was enhanced in pah1 pah2 mutants, and the membrane structure was recovered by complementation with PAH1. Thus, PAH is involved in maintaining chloroplast membrane structure and is required for growth under N-depleted conditions.

  20. A portable anaerobic microbioreactor reveals optimum growth conditions for the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Benjamin; Garcia, Marcelo L; Shen, Amy Q; Angenent, Largus T

    2007-03-01

    Conventional studies of the optimum growth conditions for methanogens (methane-producing, obligate anaerobic archaea) are typically conducted with serum bottles or bioreactors. The use of microfluidics to culture methanogens allows direct microscopic observations of the time-integrated response of growth. Here, we developed a microbioreactor (microBR) with approximately 1-microl microchannels to study some optimum growth conditions for the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii. The microBR is contained in an anaerobic chamber specifically designed to place it directly onto an inverted light microscope stage while maintaining a N2-CO2 environment. The methanogen was cultured for months inside microchannels of different widths. Channel width was manipulated to create various fluid velocities, allowing the direct study of the behavior and responses of M. concilii to various shear stresses and revealing an optimum shear level of approximately 20 to 35 microPa. Gradients in a single microchannel were then used to find an optimum pH level of 7.6 and an optimum total NH4-N concentration of less than 1,100 mg/liter (<47 mg/liter as free NH3-N) for M. concilii under conditions of the previously determined ideal shear stress and pH and at a temperature of 35 degrees C.

  1. Initial growth of Bauhinia variegata trees under different colored shade nets and light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bachin Mazzini-Guedes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata and B. variegata var. candida, commonly known as orchid trees, are small sized trees widely used for urban forestry and landscaping. Adult plants grow under full sun; in Brazil, however, seedlings are generally cultivated in commercial nurseries under natural half-shading. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different colored shade nets and light conditions on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida. The influence of six light conditions (red net with 50% shading; blue net with 50% shading; black net with 70% shading; black net with 50% shading; black net with 30% shading; and full sun on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida were evaluated along 160 days, and growth relationships were calculated. Seedlings showed more efficiency on the use of photoassimilated compounds when grown under full sun. Such condition is the most appropriate for seedling production of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida, contradicting what has been performed in practice.

  2. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  3. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  4. Control of growth mode of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Quang; Kim, Do-Hyung

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted an experimental study to investigate the synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by a dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The synthesis of base and tip-type of CNTs was selectively controlled by changing the catalyst size, catalyst film thickness correlated with altering the NH 3 pretreatment plasma current. These types of CNT showed distinctive properties in nanotube structure, growth rate and vertical alignment, which were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and in situ optical interference measurement. The vertically aligned behaviour of CNT was systematically studied by using a fine-patterned catalyst layer with diverse critical dimensions. Freestanding single CNT was successfully realized by optimum tip-type CNT growth, conventional photolithography and wet-etch process.

  5. Growth condition dependency is the major cause of non-responsiveness upon genetic perturbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Amini

    Full Text Available Investigating the role and interplay between individual proteins in biological processes is often performed by assessing the functional consequences of gene inactivation or removal. Depending on the sensitivity of the assay used for determining phenotype, between 66% (growth and 53% (gene expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains show no defect when analyzed under a single condition. Although it is well known that this non-responsive behavior is caused by different types of redundancy mechanisms or by growth condition/cell type dependency, it is not known what the relative contribution of these different causes is. Understanding the underlying causes of and their relative contribution to non-responsive behavior upon genetic perturbation is extremely important for designing efficient strategies aimed at elucidating gene function and unraveling complex cellular systems. Here, we provide a systematic classification of the underlying causes of and their relative contribution to non-responsive behavior upon gene deletion. The overall contribution of redundancy to non-responsive behavior is estimated at 29%, of which approximately 17% is due to homology-based redundancy and 12% is due to pathway-based redundancy. The major determinant of non-responsiveness is condition dependency (71%. For approximately 14% of protein complexes, just-in-time assembly can be put forward as a potential mechanistic explanation for how proteins can be regulated in a condition dependent manner. Taken together, the results underscore the large contribution of growth condition requirement to non-responsive behavior, which needs to be taken into account for strategies aimed at determining gene function. The classification provided here, can also be further harnessed in systematic analyses of complex cellular systems.

  6. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-11-12

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  7. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  8. Mathematical modeling of growth of Salmonella in raw ground beef under isothermal conditions from 10 to 45 Degree C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop primary and secondary models to describe the growth of Salmonella in raw ground beef. Primary and secondary models can be integrated into a dynamic model that can predict the microbial growth under varying environmental conditions. Growth data of Salmonel...

  9. Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takuya; Gibson, Matthew C

    2015-11-19

    As a central model for morphogen action during animal development, the bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4)-like ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is proposed to form a long-range signalling gradient that directs both growth and pattern formation during Drosophila wing disc development. While the patterning role of Dpp secreted from a stripe of cells along the anterior-posterior compartmental boundary is well established, the mechanism by which a Dpp gradient directs uniform cell proliferation remains controversial and poorly understood. Here, to determine the precise spatiotemporal requirements for Dpp during wing disc development, we use CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate a flippase recognition target (FRT)-dependent conditional null allele. By genetically removing Dpp from its endogenous stripe domain, we confirm the requirement of Dpp for the activation of a downstream phospho-Mothers against dpp (p-Mad) gradient and the regulation of the patterning targets spalt (sal), optomotor blind (omb; also known as bifid) and brinker (brk). Surprisingly, however, third-instar wing blade primordia devoid of compartmental dpp expression maintain relatively normal rates of cell proliferation and exhibit only mild defects in growth. These results indicate that during the latter half of larval development, the Dpp morphogen gradient emanating from the anterior-posterior compartment boundary is not directly required for wing disc growth.

  10. Rotor experiments in controlled conditions continued: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    To validate and reduce the large uncertainty associated with rotor aerodynamic and acoustic models, there is a need for detailed force, noise and surrounding flow velocity measurements on wind turbines under controlled conditions. However, high quality wind tunnel campaigns on horizontal axis wind turbine models are scarce due to the large wind tunnel size needed and consequently high associated costs. To serve this purpose an experiment using the Mexico turbine was set-up in the large low speed facility of the DNW wind tunnel. An overview of the experiments is given including a selection of results. A comparison of calculations to measurements for design conditions shows a satisfactory agreement. In summary, after years of preparation, ECN and partners have performed very successful aerodynamic experiments in the largest wind tunnel in Europe. The comprehensive high quality database that has been obtained will be used in the international Mexnext consortium to further develop wind energy aerodynamic and acoustic modeling.

  11. Overview of impurity control and wall conditioning in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUGEL,H.W.; MAINGI,R.; BELL,M.; BLANCHARD,W.; GATES,D.; JOHNSON,D.; KAITA,R.; KAYE,S.; MARQUEDA,R.; MENARD,J.; MUELLER,D.; ONO,M.; PENG,Y-K.M.; RAMAN,R.; RAMSEY,A.; ROQUEMORE,A.; SKINNER,C.; SABBAGH,S.; STUTMAN,D.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; WILSON,J.R.; ZWEBEN,S.

    2000-05-25

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) started plasma operations in February 1999, and promptly achieved high current, inner wall limited, double null, and single null plasma discharges, initial Coaxial Helicity Injection, and High Harmonic Fast Wave results. NSTX is designed to study the physics of Spherical Tori (ST) in a device that can produce non-inductively sustained high-{beta} discharges in the 1 MA regime and to explore approaches toward a small, economical high power density ST reactor core. As expected, discharge reproducibility and performance were strongly affected by wall conditions. In this paper, the authors describe the internal geometry, and initial plasma discharge, impurity control, wall conditioning, erosion, and deposition results.

  12. Does family control of small business lead to under exploitation of their financial growth potential? Evidence of the existence of conservative growth behavior in family controlled French SMEs.

    OpenAIRE

    Anaïs Hamelin

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a very large sample of French SMEs to study growth of small businesses. Firms are distinguished according to the intensity of family control. The estimated relationship accounts for firm characteristics of size, age, sector, and ease to access credit. The results show that firms with greater family control are prone to exhibit lower rates of sales growth than feasible, given firm internal financing resources (ie they adopt a conservative growth behavior). Because firm growth i...

  13. Winter feeding, growth and condition of brown trout Salmo trutta in a groundwater-dominated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, William E.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Dieterman, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter can be a stressful period for stream-dwelling salmonid populations, often resulting in reduced growth and survival. Stream water temperatures have been identified as a primary mechanism driving reductions in fitness during winter. However, groundwater inputs can moderate water temperature and may reduce winter severity. Additionally, seasonal reductions in prey availability may contribute to decreased growth and survival, although few studies have examined food webs supporting salmonids under winter conditions. This study employed diet, stable isotope, and mark-recapture techniques to examine winter (November through March) feeding, growth, and condition of brown troutSalmo trutta in a groundwater-dominated stream (Badger Creek, Minnesota, USA). Growth was greater for fish ≤ 150 mm (mean = 4.1 mg g−1 day−1) than for those 151–276 mm (mean = 1.0 mg g−1 day−1) during the winter season. Overall condition from early winter to late winter did not vary for fish ≤150 mm (mean relative weight (Wr) = 89.5) and increased for those 151–276 mm (mean Wr = 85.8 early and 89.4 late). Although composition varied both temporally and by individual, brown trout diets were dominated by aquatic invertebrates, primarily Amphipods, Dipterans, and Trichopterans. Stable isotope analysis supported the observations of the dominant prey taxa in stomach contents and indicated the winter food web was supported by a combination of allochthonous inputs and aquatic macrophytes. Brown trout in Badger Creek likely benefited from the thermal regime and increased prey abundance present in this groundwater-dominated stream during winter.

  14. Growth trajectories of the human embryonic head and periconceptional maternal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, I V; Baken, L; Groenenberg, I A L; Husen, S C; Dudink, J; Willemsen, S P; Gijtenbeek, M; Koning, A H J; Reiss, I K M; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2016-05-01

    Can growth trajectories of the human embryonic head be created using 3D ultrasound (3D-US) and virtual reality (VR) technology, and be associated with second trimester fetal head size and periconceptional maternal conditions? Serial first trimester head circumference (HC) and head volume (HV) measurements were used to create reliable growth trajectories of the embryonic head, which were significantly associated with fetal head size and periconceptional maternal smoking, age and ITALIC! in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Fetal growth is influenced by periconceptional maternal conditions. We selected 149 singleton pregnancies with a live born non-malformed fetus from the Rotterdam periconception cohort. Bi-parietal diameter and occipital frontal diameter to calculate HC, HV and crown-rump length (CRL) were measured weekly between 9 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks gestational age (GA) using 3D-US and VR. Fetal HC was obtained from second trimester structural anomaly scans. Growth trajectories of the embryonic head were created with general additive models and linear mixed models were used to estimate associations with maternal periconceptional conditions as a function of GA and CRL, respectively. A total of 303 3D-US images of 149 pregnancies were eligible for embryonic head measurements (intra-class correlation coefficients >0.99). Associations were found between embryonic HC and fetal HC ( ITALIC! ρ = 0.617, ITALIC! P head measured by HC and HV (All ITALIC! P head may be of benefit in future early antenatal care. This study was funded by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre and Sophia Foundation for Medical Research, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (SSWO grant number 644). No competing interests are declared. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  15. The effect of growth conditions on the seed size/number trade-off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Paul-Victor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available If the amount of resources allocated to reproduction (K is fixed, then an increase in seed mass (S can only be achieved by a decrease in seed number (n = K/S. Thus, log(n = log(K-log(S producing a slope of -1 when seed mass and number are plotted on log-log axes. However, in comparative studies, empirical support for a slope of -1 is limited and contentious, leading some to question the utility of this concept.First, we show that the expected slope depends on whether genotypes and species producing seeds of different mass are expected to reach the same adult size and that this in turn depends partly on the nature of growth. Second, we present experimental results using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs of Arabidopsis thaliana. When these RILs are grown in large pots with plentiful nutrients, they exhibit a trade-off between seed size and number with a slope of -1.68 (+/-0.18 on log-log axes. This occurs because of genetic correlations between seed mass and adult size so that, under the right growth conditions, lines producing lighter seeds have the genetic potential to produce larger rosettes and hence a greater total mass of seeds. We re-grew lines in small pots (10 and 40 mm diameter in a nutrient-poor substrate so that final adult size was heavily restricted by pot size.Under our growth conditions, small-seeded lines were unable to produce a greater total mass of seeds. Hence a trade-off emerged between seed mass and seed number with a slope of -1.166+/-0.319 on log-log axes in 40-mm diameter pots (close to the expected value of -1, although the slope was 0.132+/-0.263 in 10-mm diameter pots, demonstrating that the nature of the trade-off is sensitive to the growth conditions.

  16. Wall conditioning and particle control in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Larsson, D.; Brunsell, P.; Möller, A.; Tramontin, L.

    1997-02-01

    The Extrap T2 reversed field pinch experiment is operated with the former OHTE vacuum vessel, of dimensions R = 1.24 m and a = 0.18 m and with a complete graphite liner. It is shown that a rudimentary density control can be achieved by means of frequent helium glow discharge conditioning of the wall. The standard He-GDC is well characterized and reproducible. The trapping and release of hydrogen and impurities at the wall surfaces have been studied by mass spectrometry and surface analysis. The shot to shot particle exchange between wall and plasma can be approximately accounted for.

  17. Parental care mitigates carry-over effects of poor early conditions on offspring growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Poor developmental conditions can have long-lasting negative effects on offspring phenotypes, but impacts often differ among species. Contrasting responses may reflect disparities in experimental protocols among single-species studies or inherent differences among species in their sensitivity to early conditions and/or ability to mitigate negative impacts. We used a common experimental protocol to assess and compare the role of parental care in mitigating effects of poor early conditions on offspring among 4 sympatric bird species in the wild. We experimentally induced low incubation temperatures and examined effects on embryonic developmental rates, hatching success, nestling growth rates, and parental responses. We examined the generality of these effects across 4 species that differ in their phylogenetic history, breeding ecology, and life histories. We found that cooling led to delayed hatching in all species, but carry-over effects on offspring differed among species. Parents of some but not all species increased their offspring provisioning rates in response to experimental cooling with critical benefits for offspring growth rates. Our study shows for the first time that species exhibit clear differences in the degree to which they are affected by poor early conditions. Observed differences among species demonstrate that parental care is a critical mechanism for mitigating potential negative effects on offspring and suggest that parental responses may be constrained to varying degrees by ecology and life histories.

  18. Fractal growth in impurity-controlled solidification in lipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogedby, Hans C.; Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1987-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional microscopic model is proposed to describe solidifcation processes in systems with impurities which are miscible only in the fluid phase. Computer simulation of the model shows that the resulting solids are fractal over a wide range of impurity concentrations and impurity...... diffusional constants. A fractal-forming mechanism is suggested for impurity-controlled solidification which is consistent with recent experimental observations of fractal growth of solid phospholipid domains in monolayers. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  19. Growth and Chemical Composition of Pistachio Seedlings under Different Levels of Manganese in Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Poorbafrani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio is one of the most important crops in many regions of Iran with respect of production and export. There are more than 470000 ha of nonbearing and bearing pistachio trees mainly in Kerman province. Despite the economic importance of this crop, very little information is available on its nutritional requirements. Pistachio trees like other crops need to macro and micro nutrients. one of these elements is manganese (Mn. Manganese is an essential mineral nutrient, playing a key role in several physiological processes, particularly photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen assimilation. This element is normally supplied to the plants by soil. Therefore, soil conditions affect its availability to plants. Soils with high pH, calcareous soils, especially those with poor drainage and high organic matter, are among the soils which produce Mn-deficient plants. Calcium carbonate is the major inactivation factor of Mn in calcareous soils. The soils of Iran are predominantly calcareous in which micronutrients deficiency, including Mn, is observed due to the high pH and nutrient fixation. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of manganese application on growth and chemical composition of pistachio seedlings in some calcareous soils with different chemical and physical properties. Materials and Methods: For this purpose a greenhouse experiment was carried out as factorial (two factors including soil type and Mn levels experiment in completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were consisted of three levels of Mn (0, 10 and 20 mg Mn Kg-1 soil as Manganese sulfate and 12 different soils from Rafsanjan region in Southern Iran. Soil samples were air dried and crushed to pass through a 2-mm sieve, and some physical and chemical properties of soils such as texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic matter content, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity and iron, manganese, copper and

  20. Inhibition of calcium carbonate crystal growth by organic additives using the constant composition method in conditions of recirculating cooling circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhim, Norinda; Kharbachi, Chams; Neveux, Thibaut; Bouteleux, Céline; Teychené, Sébastien; Biscans, Béatrice

    2017-08-01

    The cooling circuits used in power plants are subject to mineral crystallization which can cause scaling on the surfaces of equipment and construction materials reducing their heat exchange efficiency. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the predominant mineral scale commonly observed in cooling systems. Supersaturation is the key parameter controlling the nucleation and growth of calcite in these systems. The present work focuses on the precipitation of calcite using the constant composition method at constant supersaturation, through controlled addition of reactants to a semi-batch crystallizer, in order to maintain constant solution pH. The determination of the thermodynamic driving force (supersaturation) was based on the relevant chemical equilibria, total alkalinity and calculation of the activity coefficients. Calcite crystallization rates were derived from the experiments performed at supersaturation levels similar to those found in industrial station cooling circuits. Several types of seeds particles were added into the aqueous solution to mimic natural river water conditions in terms of suspended particulate matters content, typically: calcite, silica or illite particles. The effect of citric and copolycarboxylic additive inhibitors added to the aqueous solution was studied. The calcium carbonate growth rate was reduced by 38.6% in the presence of the citric additive and a reduction of 92.7% was observed when the copolycarboxylic additive was used under identical experimental conditions. These results are explained by the location of the adsorbed inhibitor at the crystal surface and by the degree of chemical bonding to the surface.

  1. Controlling thin film structure for the dewetting of catalyst nanoparticle arrays for subsequent carbon nanofiber growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, S J; Fowlkes, J D; Melechko, A V; Klein, K L; III, H M Meyer; Simpson, M L; Rack, P D

    2007-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (CNF) growth is a catalytic chemical vapor deposition process in which structure and functionality is controlled by the plasma conditions and the properties of the catalyst nanoparticles that template the fiber growth. We have found that the resultant catalyst nanoparticle network that forms by the dewetting of a continuous catalyst thin film is dependent on the initial properties of the thin film. Here we report the ability to tailor the crystallographic texture and composition of the nickel catalyst film and subsequently the nanoparticle template by varying the rf magnetron sputter deposition conditions. After sputtering the Ni catalyst thin films, the films are heated and exposed to an ammonia dc plasma, to chemically reduce the native oxide on the films and induce dewetting of the film to form nanoparticles. Subsequent nanoparticle treatment in an acetylene plasma at high substrate temperature results in CNF growth. Evidence is presented that the texture and composition of the nickel thin film has a significant impact on the structure and composition of the formed nanoparticle, as well as the resultant CNF morphology. Nickel films with a preferred (111) or (100) texture were produced and conditions favoring interfacial silicidation reactions were identified and investigated. Both compositional and structural analysis of the films and nanoparticles indicate that the properties of the as-deposited Ni catalyst film influences the subsequent nanoparticle formation and ultimately the catalytic growth of the carbon nanofibers

  2. Effect of iron dextran injection on growth performance of crossbred and desi piglets under farm and village conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuvir Ranjan

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of iron dextran injection on growth performance of crossbred and desi piglets under farm and village conditions. Materials and Methods: The experiments were conducted in Pig Breeding Farm, Ranchi Veterinary College, Ranchi and different villages on crossbred and desi preweaned piglets. The piglets were divided into three treatment groups as T 1 (control, T2 (injected iron dextran @ 1 ml (50mg I/M twice at 3rd and 14th days of age and T3 (injected iron dextran @ 2 ml 2 3 (100mg I/M once at 3rd day of age. Results: The average body weight of crossbred piglets in farm condition of T1 , T2 and T3 groups at weaning (8 week were 7.162±0.365, 9.985±0.281 and 9.572±0.295 kg, respectively. The piglets of T2 group showed better performance over T3 and T1 groups in farm and village conditions on crossbred and desi piglets. Conclusion: On the basis of present findings it may be concluded that irondextran (50mg/ ml injection should be given to all piglets @ 1 ml I/M during preweaning period at 3rd and 14th day of age for better growth of piglets. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 599-602

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Single Bubble Growth under High-Pressure Pool Boiling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Murallidharan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Component-scale modeling of boiling is predominantly based on the Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach. Within this framework, wall boiling is accounted for via the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI model and, within this model, the bubble is characterized using three main parameters: departure diameter (D, nucleation site density (N, and departure frequency (f. Typically, the magnitudes of these three parameters are obtained from empirical correlations. However, in recent years, efforts have been directed toward mechanistic modeling of the boiling process. Of the three parameters mentioned above, the departure diameter (D is least affected by the intrinsic uncertainties of the nucleate boiling process. This feature, along with its prominence within the RPI boiling model, has made it the primary candidate for mechanistic modeling ventures. Mechanistic modeling of D is mostly carried out through solving of force balance equations on the bubble. Forces incorporated in these equations are formulated as functions of the radius of the bubble and have been developed for, and applied to, low-pressure conditions only. Conversely, for high-pressure conditions, no mechanistic information is available regarding the growth rates of bubbles and the forces acting on them. In this study, we use direct numerical simulation coupled with an interface tracking method to simulate bubble growth under high (up to 45 bar pressure, to obtain the kind of mechanistic information required for an RPI-type approach. In this study, we compare the resulting bubble growth rate curves with predictions made with existing experimental data.

  4. Effects of Different Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Inoculates on the Growth of Pinus tabulaeformis Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tree species Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. (P. tabulaeformis is commonly planted in China due to its economic and ecological value. In order to identify one or more ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal species for future P. tabulaeformis afforestation, we investigated the effects of five ECM fungal species: Laccaria laccata, Boletus edulis, Gomphidius viscidus, Suillus grevillei, and Suillus luteus on the growth of P. tabulaeformis seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The growth parameters of P. tabulaeformis seedlings were evaluated 90 days following fungal colonisation. The majority of seedlings were significantly affected by ECM inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculated seedlings were taller, had more lateral roots, and a greater biomass compared with the non-mycorrhizal (CK seedlings. With the exception of G. viscidus, inoculated seedlings exhibited higher phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen content compared with the CK seedlings. In addition, ECM colonisation increased the enzymatic activity of catalase, acidic phosphatase, protease, and the urease content in the rhizosphere soil. Our study showed that Laccaria laccata, Suillus grevillei, and Suillus luteus may be useful for improving the growth and cultivation of P. tabulaeformis seedlings. Furthermore, we observed that S. luteus inoculation increased the gas exchange parameters of P. tabulaeformis seedlings under field conditions.

  5. Fatigue-crack growth behavior of Type 347 stainless steels under simulated PWR water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokmin; Min, Ki-Deuk; Yoon, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) curve of stainless steel exists in ASME code section XI, but it is still not considering the environmental effects. The longer time nuclear power plant is operated, the more the environmental degradation issues of materials pop up. There are some researches on fatigue crack growth rate of S304 and S316, but researches of FCGR of S347 used in Korea nuclear power plant are insufficient. In this study, the FCGR of S347 stainless steel was evaluated in the PWR high temperature water conditions. The FCGRs of S347 stainless steel under pressurized-water conditions were measured by using compact-tension (CT) specimens at different levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) and frequency. 1. FCGRs of SS347 were slower than that in ASME XI and environmental effect did not occur when frequency was higher than 1Hz. 2. Fatigue crack growth is accelerated by corrosion fatigue and it is more severe when frequency is slower than 0.1Hz. 3. Increase of crack tip opening time increased corrosion fatigue and it deteriorated environmental fatigue properties.

  6. Growth of preexisting abnormal grains in molybdenum under static and dynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noell, Philip J. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0889 (United States); Worthington, Daniel L. [Verily Life Sciences, 269 E. Grand Ave., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA (United States); Taleff, Eric M., E-mail: taleff@utexas.edu [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 204 East Dean Keeton St., Stop C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2017-04-24

    This investigation compares the growth rates of preexisting abnormal grains under both static and dynamic conditions. Abnormal grains several millimeters in length were produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum (Mo) materials by tensile straining at temperatures from 1923 to 2073 K (1650–1800 °C). This process is termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG) because it produces abnormal grains during concurrent plastic straining. DAGG creates abnormal grains at much lower temperatures than does static abnormal grain growth (SAGG). Abnormal grains created through DAGG were characterized with their surrounding microstructures and were then subjected to annealing treatments. Only one-third of the preexisting abnormal grains subsequently grew by SAGG. Among these, SAGG occurred only in those specimens that required the largest strains to initiate DAGG when creating the abnormal grain(s). The rates of boundary migration observed for SAGG were approximately two orders of magnitude slower than those for DAGG. When DAGG in one specimen was interrupted by extended static annealing, it did not recur when straining resumed. The dislocation substructure developed during hot deformation, which includes subgrains typical of five-power creep, is critically important to both DAGG and SAGG of preexisting abnormal grains under the conditions examined.

  7. Colonization with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Promotes the Growth of Morus alba L. Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus alba L. is an important tree species planted widely in China because of its economic value. In this report, we investigated the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF species, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, alone and together, on the growth of M. alba L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The growth parameters and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were evaluated 90 days after colonization with the fungi. The growth and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were significantly affected by the AMF species. The mycorrhizal seedlings were taller, had longer roots, more leaves and a greater biomass than the non-mycorrhizae-treated seedlings. In addition, the AMF species-inoculated seedlings had increased root activity and a higher chlorophyll content compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Furthermore, AMF species colonization increased the phosphorus and nitrogen contents of the seedlings. In addition, simultaneous root colonization by the two AMF species did not improve the growth of M. alba L. seedlings compared with inoculation with either species alone. Based on these results, these AMF species may be applicable to mulberry seedling cultivation.

  8. Resource Supply Overrides Temperature as a Controlling Factor of Marine Phytoplankton Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated. PMID:24921945

  9. Verification of the karst flow model under laboratory controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Andric, Ivo; Malenica, Luka; Srzic, Veljko

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very important groundwater resources around the world as well as in coastal part of Croatia. They consist of extremely complex structure defining by slow and laminar porous medium and small fissures and usually fast turbulent conduits/karst channels. Except simple lumped hydrological models that ignore high karst heterogeneity, full hydraulic (distributive) models have been developed exclusively by conventional finite element and finite volume elements considering complete karst heterogeneity structure that improves our understanding of complex processes in karst. Groundwater flow modeling in complex karst aquifers are faced by many difficulties such as a lack of heterogeneity knowledge (especially conduits), resolution of different spatial/temporal scales, connectivity between matrix and conduits, setting of appropriate boundary conditions and many others. Particular problem of karst flow modeling is verification of distributive models under real aquifer conditions due to lack of above-mentioned information. Therefore, we will show here possibility to verify karst flow models under the laboratory controlled conditions. Special 3-D karst flow model (5.6*2.6*2 m) consists of concrete construction, rainfall platform, 74 piezometers, 2 reservoirs and other supply equipment. Model is filled by fine sand (3-D porous matrix) and drainage plastic pipes (1-D conduits). This model enables knowledge of full heterogeneity structure including position of different sand layers as well as conduits location and geometry. Moreover, we know geometry of conduits perforation that enable analysis of interaction between matrix and conduits. In addition, pressure and precipitation distribution and discharge flow rates from both phases can be measured very accurately. These possibilities are not present in real sites what this model makes much more useful for karst flow modeling. Many experiments were performed under different controlled conditions such as different

  10. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI INCREASED EARLY GROWTH OF GAHARU WOOD OF Aquilaria malaccencsis and A. crasna UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaharu wood stand has an important source of profits to the forest community in South and Southeast Asia tropical forest countries, but Aquilaria species have reduced in number and turn out to be endangered due to overexploitation.   Today,   the planting stocks of   Aquilaria species are not sufficient to sustain the yield of gaharu wood and promote forest conservation.  The objective of this study was to determine   the effect of   five arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Entrophospora sp., Gigaspora decipiens, Glomus clarum, Glomus sp. ZEA, and Glomus sp. ACA, on the early growth of  Aquilaria malaccensis and A. crasna under greenhouse conditions. The seedlings of  Aquilaria spp. were inoculated with Entrophospora sp., Gi. decipiens, Glomus clarum, Glomus sp. ZEA, Glomus sp. ACA and uninoculated (control under greenhouse conditions. Then, percentage AM colonization, plant growth, survival rate and nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P content and mycorrhizal dependence (MD were measured. The percentage AM colonization of A. malaccensis and A. crasna ranged from 83 to 97% and from 63 to 78%, respectively. Colonization by five AM fungi increased plant height, diameter, and shoot and root dry weights. N and P content of  the seedlings were also increased by AM colonization. Survival rates were higher in the AM-colonized seedlings at 180 days after transplantation than those in the control seedlings. The MD of Aquilaria species was higher than 55 %. The results suggested that AM fungi can be inoculated`to Aquilaria species under nursery conditions to obtain vigorous seedlings, and the field experiment is underway to clarify the role of AM fungi under field conditions.

  11. Plant neighbour identity matters to belowground interactions under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Cristina; Pugnaire, Francisco Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Root competition is an almost ubiquitous feature of plant communities with profound effects on their structure and composition. Far beyond the traditional view that plants interact mainly through resource depletion (exploitation competition), roots are known to be able to interact with their environment using a large variety of mechanisms that may inhibit or enhance access of other roots to the resource or affect plant growth (contest interactions). However, an extensive analysis on how these contest root interactions may affect species interaction abilities is almost lacking. In a common garden experiment with ten perennial plant species we forced pairs of plants of the same or different species to overlap their roots and analyzed how belowground contest interactions affected plant performance, biomass allocation patterns, and competitive abilities under abundant resource supply. Our results showed that net interaction outcome ranged from negative to positive, affecting total plant mass and allocation patterns. A species could be a strong competitor against one species, weaker against another one, and even facilitator to a third species. This leads to sets of species where competitive hierarchies may be clear but also to groups where such rankings are not, suggesting that intransitive root interactions may be crucial for species coexistence. The outcome of belowground contest interactions is strongly dependent on neighbours' identity. In natural plant communities this conditional outcome may hypothetically help species to interact in non-hierarchical and intransitive networks, which in turn might promote coexistence.

  12. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa and soybean under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydon, S.A.; Mohamad, A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 20% increase of UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) and two cultivars of soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Mer) under field conditions have been investigated. The increase of UVB dose ranged between 1.746 and 7.112 J/cm 2 during experiment. The results showed that soybean yield decrease by 16% and 31% in A. 3803 and A. 2522 cultivars respectively, under UVB exposure. The dry weight and leaf area were sensitive in the A. 3803 cultivar, while they were tolerant in the A. 2522 cultivar. Alfalfa response to UVB varied during the different stages of growth, whereas the yield was 12% less in the exposed plants. (author)

  13. Growth kinetics of tin oxide nanocrystals in colloidal suspensions under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eduardo J.H.; Ribeiro, Caue; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R.

    2006-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions of tin oxide nanocrystals were synthesized at room temperature by the hydrolysis reaction of tin chloride (II), in an ethanolic solution. The coarsening kinetics of such nanocrystals was studied by submitting the as-prepared suspensions to hydrothermal treatments at temperatures of 100, 150 and 200 deg. C for periods between 60 and 12,000 min. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the samples (i.e. distribution of nanocrystal size, average particle radius and morphology). The results show that the usual Ostwald ripening coarsening mechanism does not fit well the experimental data, which is an indicative that this process is not significant for SnO 2 nanocrystals, in the studied experimental conditions. The morphology evolution of the nanocrystals upon hydrothermal treatment indicates that growth by oriented attachment (OA) should be significant. A kinetic model that describes OA growth is successfully applied to fit the data

  14. Growth and bromatologic value of Typha sp. under semi-arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Messias Leal do Nascimento

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Typha sp. plants are rustic and have accelerated development. However, their real growth and potential to animal nutrition are not so well-known. This study aimed to evaluate the shoot biomass production, growth dynamics and chemicalbromatological composition of Typha sp. plants at different cutting heights, under semiarid conditions. A total of four cutting heights (60 cm, 100 cm, 140 cm and 180 cm were evaluated in a complete randomized design, with five replicates. Plants presented similar production of leaf biomass and heart of palm up to 140 cm height, with higher leaf accumulation above this value. Its heart of palm grows up to 112.5 cm and, above this height, only leaf elongation occurs. It is not recommended to cut this plant bellow 140 cm height, otherwise that can affect the pseudo-stem formation (heart of palm, which supports the leaf biomass accumulation.

  15. Evolution PDEs with nonstandard growth conditions existence, uniqueness, localization, blow-up

    CERN Document Server

    Antontsev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    This monograph offers the reader a treatment of the theory of evolution PDEs with nonstandard growth conditions. This class includes parabolic and hyperbolic equations with variable or anisotropic nonlinear structure. We develop methods for the study of such equations and present a detailed account of recent results. An overview of other approaches to the study of PDEs of this kind is provided. The presentation is focused on the issues of existence and uniqueness of solutions in appropriate function spaces, and on the study of the specific qualitative properties of solutions, such as localization in space and time, extinction in a finite time and blow-up, or nonexistence of global in time solutions. Special attention is paid to the study of the properties intrinsic to solutions of equations with nonstandard growth.

  16. Thermophysical Properties Measurement of High-Temperature Liquids Under Microgravity Conditions in Controlled Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Mizuno, Akotoshi; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Kawauchi, Hiroya; Murai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity conditions have advantages of measurement of surface tension and viscosity of metallic liquids by the oscillating drop method with an electromagnetic levitation (EML) device. Thus, we are preparing the experiments of thermophysical properties measurements using the Materials-Science Laboratories ElectroMagnetic-Levitator (MSL-EML) facilities in the international Space station (ISS). Recently, it has been identified that dependence of surface tension on oxygen partial pressure (Po2) must be considered for industrial application of surface tension values. Effect of Po2 on surface tension would apparently change viscosity from the damping oscillation model. Therefore, surface tension and viscosity must be measured simultaneously in the same atmospheric conditions. Moreover, effect of the electromagnetic force (EMF) on the surface oscillations must be clarified to obtain the ideal surface oscillation because the EMF works as the external force on the oscillating liquid droplets, so extensive EMF makes apparently the viscosity values large. In our group, using the parabolic flight levitation experimental facilities (PFLEX) the effect of Po2 and external EMF on surface oscillation of levitated liquid droplets was systematically investigated for the precise measurements of surface tension and viscosity of high temperature liquids for future ISS experiments. We performed the observation of surface oscillations of levitated liquid alloys using PFLEX on board flight experiments by Gulfstream II (G-II) airplane operated by DAS. These observations were performed under the controlled Po2 and also under the suitable EMF conditions. In these experiments, we obtained the density, the viscosity and the surface tension values of liquid Cu. From these results, we discuss about as same as reported data, and also obtained the difference of surface oscillations with the change of the EMF conditions.

  17. From conservative to reactive transport under diffusion-controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Tristan; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2016-05-01

    We assess the possibility to use conservative transport information, such as that contained in transit time distributions, breakthrough curves and tracer tests, to predict nonlinear fluid-rock interactions in fracture/matrix or mobile/immobile conditions. Reference simulated data are given by conservative and reactive transport simulations in several diffusive porosity structures differing by their topological organization. Reactions includes nonlinear kinetically controlled dissolution and desorption. Effective Multi-Rate Mass Transfer models (MRMT) are calibrated solely on conservative transport information without pore topology information and provide concentration distributions on which effective reaction rates are estimated. Reference simulated reaction rates and effective reaction rates evaluated by MRMT are compared, as well as characteristic desorption and dissolution times. Although not exactly equal, these indicators remain very close whatever the porous structure, differing at most by 0.6% and 10% for desorption and dissolution. At early times, this close agreement arises from the fine characterization of the diffusive porosity close to the mobile zone that controls fast mobile-diffusive exchanges. At intermediate to late times, concentration gradients are strongly reduced by diffusion, and reactivity can be captured by a very limited number of rates. We conclude that effective models calibrated solely on conservative transport information like MRMT can accurately estimate monocomponent kinetically controlled nonlinear fluid-rock interactions. Their relevance might extend to more advanced biogeochemical reactions because of the good characterization of conservative concentration distributions, even by parsimonious models (e.g., MRMT with 3-5 rates). We propose a methodology to estimate reactive transport from conservative transport in mobile-immobile conditions.

  18. Evaluation of growth and flowering potential of rosa hybrida cultivars under Faisalabad climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Khan, M.A.; Riaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Exotic cultivars of hybrid roses respond uncertainly to new habitat. It is necessary to explore the potential of the introduced cultivars to judge the suitability in a new habitat. In the present study, nine Rosa hybrida cultivars including Autumn Sunset, Ice Berg, Paradise, Angel Face, Louise Odier, Casino, Grand Margina, Handel and Gruss-an-Teplitz were evaluated for growth and yield attributed under the climatic conditions of Faisalabad. Results indicated that there was decreasing trend in the growth and flowering of the bushes as the temperature increased above 32 degree C and humidity decreased to 29 %. Number of flowers per bush and diameter of flower decreased as the temperature increased and humidity decreased in contrast to increment in height of the plant and num ber of primary branches per plant in succeeding months. Interaction between yield traits and months was also significant. Overall, significant variations were observed in each cultivar for length and number of petals per flower, number of prickles, fragrance, flower persistence life and color, bush shape and overall performance with respect to climatic conditions of Faisalabad. It is concluded that the cultivars 'Autumn Sunset' and Gruss-an-Teplitz performed better in climatic conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  19. Human conditions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide hormone produced mainly by the liver in response to the endocrine GH stimulus, but it is also secreted by multiple tissues for autocrine/paracrine purposes. IGF-I is partly responsible for systemic GH activities although it possesses a wide number of own properties (anabolic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions). IGF-I is a closely regulated hormone. Consequently, its logical therapeutical applications seems to be limited to restore physiological circulating levels in order to recover the clinical consequences of IGF-I deficiency, conditions where, despite continuous discrepancies, IGF-I treatment has never been related to oncogenesis. Currently the best characterized conditions of IGF-I deficiency are Laron Syndrome, in children; liver cirrhosis, in adults; aging including age-related-cardiovascular and neurological diseases; and more recently, intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this review is to summarize the increasing list of roles of IGF-I, both in physiological and pathological conditions, underlying that its potential therapeutical options seem to be limited to those proven states of local or systemic IGF-I deficiency as a replacement treatment, rather than increasing its level upper the normal range. PMID:23148873

  20. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R; Hollerer, M; Striedinger, B; Fian, A; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p ++ -silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3-4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact-channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility.

  1. Human conditions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puche Juan E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I is a polypeptide hormone produced mainly by the liver in response to the endocrine GH stimulus, but it is also secreted by multiple tissues for autocrine/paracrine purposes. IGF-I is partly responsible for systemic GH activities although it possesses a wide number of own properties (anabolic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions. IGF-I is a closely regulated hormone. Consequently, its logical therapeutical applications seems to be limited to restore physiological circulating levels in order to recover the clinical consequences of IGF-I deficiency, conditions where, despite continuous discrepancies, IGF-I treatment has never been related to oncogenesis. Currently the best characterized conditions of IGF-I deficiency are Laron Syndrome, in children; liver cirrhosis, in adults; aging including age-related-cardiovascular and neurological diseases; and more recently, intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this review is to summarize the increasing list of roles of IGF-I, both in physiological and pathological conditions, underlying that its potential therapeutical options seem to be limited to those proven states of local or systemic IGF-I deficiency as a replacement treatment, rather than increasing its level upper the normal range.

  2. Direct growth of self-crystallized graphene and graphite nanoballs with Ni vapor-assisted growth: From controllable growth to material characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Wen-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ze; Yeh, Chao-Hui; He, Jr-Hau; Chiu, Po-Wen; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-01-01

    A directly self-crystallized graphene layer with transfer-free process on arbitrary insulator by Ni vapor-assisted growth at growth temperatures between 950 to 1100°C via conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system was developed and demonstrated. Domain sizes of graphene were confirmed by Raman spectra from ~12 nm at growth temperature of 1000°C to ~32 nm at growth temperature of 1100°C, respectively. Furthermore, the thickness of the graphene is controllable, depending on deposition time and growth temperature. By increasing growth pressure, the growth of graphite nano-balls was preferred rather than graphene growth. The detailed formation mechanisms of graphene and graphite nanoballs were proposed and investigated in detail. Optical and electrical properties of graphene layer were measured. The direct growth of the carbon-based materials with free of the transfer process provides a promising application at nanoelectronics. PMID:24810224

  3. Direct growth of self-crystallized graphene and graphite nanoballs with Ni vapor-assisted growth: from controllable growth to material characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Wen-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ze; Yeh, Chao-Hui; He, Jr-Hau; Chiu, Po-Wen; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-05-09

    A directly self-crystallized graphene layer with transfer-free process on arbitrary insulator by Ni vapor-assisted growth at growth temperatures between 950 to 1100 °C via conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system was developed and demonstrated. Domain sizes of graphene were confirmed by Raman spectra from ~12 nm at growth temperature of 1000 °C to ~32 nm at growth temperature of 1100 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the thickness of the graphene is controllable, depending on deposition time and growth temperature. By increasing growth pressure, the growth of graphite nano-balls was preferred rather than graphene growth. The detailed formation mechanisms of graphene and graphite nanoballs were proposed and investigated in detail. Optical and electrical properties of graphene layer were measured. The direct growth of the carbon-based materials with free of the transfer process provides a promising application at nanoelectronics.

  4. Growth conditions of 0-group plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the western Wadden Sea as revealed by otolith microstructure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; Freitas, Vânia; de Paoli, Hélène; Witte, Johannes IJ.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2016-05-01

    Growth studies based on population-based growth estimates are limited by the fact that they do not take into account differences in age/size structure within the population. To overcome these problems, otolith microstructure analysis is often used to estimate individual growth. Here, we analyse growth of 0-group plaice in the western Wadden Sea in two years: a year preceded by a mild winter (1995) and a year preceded by a severe winter (1996). Growth was analysed by combining information on individual growth based on otolith analysis with predictions of maximum growth (= under optimal food conditions) based on a Dynamic Energy Budget model. Otolith analysis revealed that settlement occurred earlier in 1995 than in 1996. In both years, one main cohort was found, followed by a group of late settlers. No differences in mean length-at-age were found between these groups. DEB modelling suggested that growth was not maximal during the whole growing season: realized growth (the fraction of maximum growth realized by 0-group plaice) declined in the summer, although this decline was relatively small. In addition, late settling individuals exhibited lower realized growth than individuals from the main cohort. This study confirms that growth conditions for 0-group plaice are not optimal and that a growth reduction occurs in summer, as suggested in previous studies.

  5. Energy Analysis for Air Conditioning System Using Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Nasution

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption and to ensure thermal comfort are two important considerations for the designing an air conditioning system. An alternative approach to reduce energy consumption proposed in this study is to use a variable speed compressor. The control strategy will be proposed using the fuzzy logic controller (FLC. FLC was developed to imitate the performance of human expert operators by encoding their knowledge in the form of linguistic rules. The system is installed on a thermal environmental room with a data acquisition system to monitor the temperature of the room, coefficient of performance (COP, energy consumption and energy saving. The measurements taken during the two hour experimental periods at 5-minutes interval times for temperature setpoints of 20oC, 22oC and 24oC with internal heat loads 0, 500, 700 and 1000 W. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique can save energy in comparison with On/Off and proportional-integral-derivative (PID control.

  6. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container types for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion

  7. Selecting Native Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Promote Cassava Growth and Increase Yield under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séry, D. Jean-Marc; Kouadjo, Z. G. Claude; Voko, B. R. Rodrigue; Zézé, Adolphe

    2016-01-01

    The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation in sustainable agriculture is now widespread worldwide. Although the use of inoculants consisting of native AMF is highly recommended as an alternative to commercial ones, there is no strategy to allow the selection of efficient fungal species from natural communities. The objective of this study was (i) to select efficient native AMF species (ii) evaluate their impact on nematode and water stresses, and (iii) evaluate their impact on cassava yield, an important food security crop in tropical and subtropical regions. Firstly, native AMF communities associated with cassava rhizospheres in fields were collected from different areas and 7 AMF species were selected, based upon their ubiquity and abundance. Using these criteria, two morphotypes (LBVM01 and LBVM02) out of the seven AMF species selected were persistently dominant when cassava was used as a trap plant. LBVM01 and LBVM02 were identified as Acaulospora colombiana (most abundant) and Ambispora appendicula, respectively, after phylogenetic analyses of LSU-ITS-SSU PCR amplified products. Secondly, the potential of these two native AMF species to promote growth and enhance tolerance to root-knot nematode and water stresses of cassava (Yavo variety) was evaluated using single and dual inoculation in greenhouse conditions. Of the two AMF species, it was shown that A. colombiana significantly improved the growth of the cassava and enhanced tolerance to water stress. However, both A. colombiana and A. appendicula conferred bioprotective effects to cassava plants against the nematode Meloidogyne spp., ranging from resistance (suppression or reduction of the nematode reproduction) or tolerance (low or no suppression in cassava growth). Thirdly, the potential of these selected native AMF to improve cassava growth and yield was evaluated under field conditions, compared to a commercial inoculant. In these conditions, the A. colombiana single inoculation and the

  8. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  9. Comparison of Two Mechanistic Microbial Growth Models to Estimate Shelf Life of Perishable Food Package under Dynamic Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mechanistic microbial growth models (Huang’s model and model of Baranyi and Roberts given in differential and integrated equation forms were compared in predicting the microbial growth and shelf life under dynamic temperature storage and distribution conditions. Literatures consistently reporting the microbial growth data under constant and changing temperature conditions were selected to obtain the primary model parameters, set up the secondary models, and apply them to predict the microbial growth and shelf life under fluctuating temperatures. When evaluated by general estimation behavior, bias factor, accuracy factor, and root-mean-square error, Huang’s model was comparable to Baranyi and Roberts’ model in the capability to estimate microbial growth under dynamic temperature conditions. Its simple form of single differential equation incorporating directly the growth rate and lag time may work as an advantage to be used in online shelf life estimation by using the electronic device.

  10. Effect of cultural conditions on the seed-to-seed growth of Arabidopsis and Cardamine - A study of growth rates and reproductive development as affected by test tube seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of test tube seals on the growth, flowering, and seed pod formation of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., mouse ear cress, and Cardamine oligosperma Nutt, bitter cress, are studied in order to assess the conditions used in weightlessness experiments. Among other results, it is found that the growth (height) and flowering (date of bud appearance) were suppressed in mouse ear cress in tubes sealed with Saran. Seed pod formation which occurred by day 45 in open-to-air controls, was still lacking in the sealed plants even up to day 124. The growth and flowering of bitter cress were also suppressed by the Saran seal, although up to day 55 the Saran-sealed plants were taller. It is suggested that atmospheric composition was the cause of the suppression of growth, flowering, and seed pod development in these plants, since the mouse ear cress renewed their growth and then set seed pods after the Saran seal was ruptured.

  11. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Sergey; Kuzmina, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 down to 2 degree Celsius. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed. Eniseysk and Vikhorevka (from Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk oblast)provenances of pine have the biggest radial increments, the least sensitivity to Cenangium dieback and smallest increments decline. These climatypes are in the group of perspective provenances and in present time they are recommended for wide trial in the region for future use in plantation forest growing. Kandalaksha (Murmansk oblast

  12. The effect of growth conditions on flavonols and anthocyanins accumulation in green and red lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia BRÜCKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different growth conditions on anthocyanins and flavonols accumulation in leaves of green and red loose leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa. Lettuce plants were grown in three types of conditions, in greenhouse (I. variant, behind clear glass in field (II. variant and in open field conditions (III. variant. Estimation of anthocyanins and flavonols content was done by non-destructive measurements with optical fluorescence sensor Multiplex® 3 (Force-A, France. It was estimated that green lettuce varieties had a greater flavonols content compared to red lettuce varieties in all experimental variants. The highest level of flavonols was detected in leaves of green variety Zoltán (1.218 RU and in red lettuce had the highest amount of flavonols in variety Carmesi (1.095 RU. At the same time red lettuce varieties were characterized by higher anthocyanins content. Parameter anthocyanin index is correlated with visible red coloration of leaves. The highest content of anthocyanins was detected in variety Oakly (0.867 RU. Under the open field conditions was found statistically significant higher (P < 0.05 flavonols and anthocyanins level in both green and red lettuce leaves compared to greenhouse conditions. It may be connected with intensification of flavonoids biosynthesis and accumulation which normally stimulated by sun irradiation, especially UV-B radiation.

  13. Membrane protein profiling of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae under various growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ge, Mengyu; Wang, Yanli; Mannan, Shazia; Asif, Muhammad; Sun, Guochang

    2015-06-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) of plant pathogenic bacteria have been reported to be able to regulate many essential cellular processes associated with plant disease. The aim of the current study was to examine and compare the expression of MPs of the rice bacterial pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 under Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, M9 medium, in vivo rice plant conditions and leaf extract (LE) medium mimicking in vivo plant condition. Proteomic analysis identified 95, 72, 75, and 87 MPs under LB, in vivo, M9 and LE conditions, respectively. Among them, six proteins were shared under all tested growth conditions designated as abundant class of proteins. Twenty-six and 21 proteins were expressed uniquely under in vivo versus LB medium and LE versus M9 medium, respectively, with 17 proteins common among these uniquely induced proteins. Moreover, most of the shared proteins are mainly related to energy metabolism, transport of small molecules, protein synthesis and secretion as well as virulence such as NADH, OmpA, secretion proteins. Therefore, the result of this study not only suggests that it may be an alternate method to analyze the in vivo expression of proteins by using LE medium to mimic plant conditions, but also reveals that the two sets of differentially expressed MPs, in particular the common MPs between them, might be important in energy metabolism, stress response and virulence of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1.

  14. A robust model predictive control strategy for improving the control performance of air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gongsheng; Wang Shengwei; Xu Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a robust model predictive control strategy for improving the supply air temperature control of air-handling units by dealing with the associated uncertainties and constraints directly. This strategy uses a first-order plus time-delay model with uncertain time-delay and system gain to describe air-conditioning process of an air-handling unit usually operating at various weather conditions. The uncertainties of the time-delay and system gain, which imply the nonlinearities and the variable dynamic characteristics, are formulated using an uncertainty polytope. Based on this uncertainty formulation, an offline LMI-based robust model predictive control algorithm is employed to design a robust controller for air-handling units which can guarantee a good robustness subject to uncertainties and constraints. The proposed robust strategy is evaluated in a dynamic simulation environment of a variable air volume air-conditioning system in various operation conditions by comparing with a conventional PI control strategy. The robustness analysis of both strategies under different weather conditions is also presented.

  15. Cooling water conditioning and quality control for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    Designers and operators of Tokamaks and all associated water cooled, peripheral equipment, are faced with the task of providing and maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. Most of these systems must provide large volumes of high quality cooling water at reasonable cost and comply with local and state government orders and EPA mandated national pretreatment standards and regulations. This paper discusses the DIII-D water quality requirements, the means used to obtain the necessary quality and the instrumentation used for control and monitoring. Costs to mechanically and chemically condition and maintain water quality are discussed as well as the various aspects of complying with government standards and regulations

  16. Nondestructive techniques for the control of conditioned radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delprato, U.

    1987-01-01

    The final product of the radwaste conditioning process must satisfy certain requirments and physico-chemical properties in order to assure its safe long-term behaviour. Of course, the foreseen quality assurance and quality control should be conducted by means of non-destructive techniques. This work presents an over-view of various applicable non-destructive methods of analysis, showing their fields of investigation in testing waste packages, together with some arising practical problems. The most promising methods, such as eddy current testing, ultrasonic testing, γ-scanning, γ-spectroscopy, neutron counting and computerized tomography, are treated more deeply and some applications are presented. Particular attention is devoted to the development of a device based on computerized tomography; its essential components are reported and some design problems are also discussed

  17. Digital Control of the Czochralski Growth of Gallium Arsenide-Controller Software Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-15

    once a parameter was changed. (2) Despite of the fact that there are analog controllers on the market which feature a high degree of automation...single-zone heater is in use.) - 4 - Kfc ^&S^^ p IS’ K: i 1. Digital Control of Czochralski GaAs Crystal Growth (2) Four tachometers which are...34 if either the overlay name or the program version loaded with the overlay do not match the expected data. (It is important not to mix modules

  18. Material Control and Accountability Experience at the Fuel Conditioning Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D.; Fredrickson, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) treats spent nuclear fuel using an electrometallurgical process that separates the uranium from the fission products, sodium thermal bond, and cladding materials. Material accountancy is necessary at FCF for two reasons: 1) it provides a mechanism for detecting a potential loss of nuclear material for safeguards and security, and 2) it provides a periodic check of inventories to ensure that processes and materials are within control limits. Material Control and Accountability is also a Department of Energy (DOE) requirement (DOE Order 474.1). The FCF employs a computer based Mass Tracking (MTG) System to collect, store, retrieve, and process data on all operations that directly affect the flow of materials through the FCF. The MTG System is important for the operations of the FCF because it supports activities such as material control and accountability, criticality safety, and process modeling. To conduct material control and accountability checks and to monitor process performance, mass balances are routinely performed around the process equipment. The equipment used in FCF for pyro-processing consists of two mechanical choppers and two electro-refiners (the Mark-IV with the accompanying element chopper and Mark-V with the accompanying blanket chopper for processing driver fuel and blanket, respectively), and a cathode processor (used for processing both driver fuel and blanket) and casting furnace (mostly used for processing driver fuel). Performing mass balances requires the measurement of the masses and compositions of several process streams and equipment inventories. The masses of process streams are obtained via in-cell balances (i.e., load cells) that weigh containers entering and leaving the process equipment. Samples taken at key locations are analyzed to determine the composition of process streams and equipment inventories. In cases where equipment or containers cannot be

  19. Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapeeporn Ruangchuay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.50±2.98 mm long were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 mol photonm-2s-1 and 25°C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

  20. Ions, metabolites, and cells: Water as a reporter of surface conditions during bacterial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarisz, Tasha A.; Lane, Sarah; Gozdzialski, Lea; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-06-01

    Surface-specific nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy, combined with bulk solution measurements and imaging, is used to study the surface conditions during the growth of E. coli. As a result of the silica high surface charge density, the water structure at the silica-aqueous interface is known to be especially sensitive to pH and ionic strength, and surface concentration profiles develop that can be appreciably different from the bulk solution conditions. We illustrate that, in the presence of growing cells, a unique surface micro-environment is established as a result of metabolites accumulating on the silica surface. Even in the subsequent absence of the cells, this surface layer works to reduce the interfacial ionic strength as revealed by the enhanced signal from surface water molecules. In the presence of growing cells, an additional boost in surface water signal is attributed to a local pH that is higher than that of the bulk solution.

  1. Soil texture and climatc conditions for biocrust growth limitation: a meta analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas; Subbotina, Mariia

    2015-04-01

    Along with afforestation, attempts have been made to combat desertification by managing soil crusts, and is has been reported that recovery rates of biocrusts are dependent on many factors, including the type, severity, and extent of disturbance; structure of the vascular plant community; conditions of adjoining substrates; availability of inoculation material; and climate during and after disturbance (Belnap & Eldridge 2001). Because biological soil crusts are known to be more stable on and to prefer fine substrates (Belnap 2001), the question arises as to how successful crust management practices can be applied to coarser soil. In previous studies we observed similar crust biomasses on finer soils under arid and on coarser soils under temperate conditions. We hypothesized that the higher water holding capacity of finer substrates would favor crust development, and that the amount of silt and clay in the substrate that is required for enhanced crust development would vary with changes in climatic conditions. In a global meta study, climatic and soil texture threshold values promoting BSC growth were derived. While examining literature sources, it became evident that the amount of studies to be incorporated into this meta analysis was reversely related to the amount of common environmental parameters they share. We selected annual mean precipitaion, mean temperature and the amount of silt and clay as driving variables for crust growth. Response variable was the "relative crust biomass", which was computed per literature source as the ratio between each individual crust biomass value of the given study to the study maximum value reported. We distinguished lichen, green algal, cyanobacterial and moss crusts. To quantify threshold conditions at which crust biomass responded to differences in texture and climate, we (I) determined correlations between bioclimatic variables, (II) calculated linear models to determine the effect of typical climatic variables with soil

  2. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniappan, Kumaranand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan [National Science and Technology Center, Thailand; Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Casson, Joanna L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth

  3. The effects of intermittent exposure to low pH and oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low pH and/or low oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low pH (7.5, total scale) and low O2 (40% saturation, 5 mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h repeated twice over a 15 day period, juveniles experienced higher mortality in the low oxygen treatments compared to control conditions, regardless of pH levels (pH 7.5 vs. 8.0). Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low pH or low oxygen treatments and the growth was lowest when low pH exposure was combined with low O2. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when they were exposed to low pH and low O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas both pH and oxygen is a crucial factor for their growth. However, given the higher individual variation in growth rate, they may have an ability to adapt to extended exposure to upwelling conditions.

  4. Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of endophyte infected and non-infected rice under lead stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Bu, Ning; Li, Yueying; Ma, Lianju; Xin, Shigang; Zhang, Lihong

    2012-04-30

    An endophytic fungus was tested in rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to four levels of lead (Pb) stress (0, 50, 100 and 200 μM) to assess effects on plant growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity. Under Pb stress conditions, endophyte-infected seedlings had greater shoot length but lower root length compared to non-infected controls, and endophyte-infected seedlings had greater dry weight in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. Under Pb stress conditions, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were significantly higher in the endophyte-infected seedlings. Net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were significantly higher in endophyte-infected seedlings in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo were higher in the infected seedlings compared to the non-infected seedlings under Pb stress. Malondialdehyde accumulation was induced by Pb stress, and it was present in higher concentration in non-infected seedlings under higher concentrations of Pb (100 and 200 μM). Antioxidant activity was either higher or unchanged in the infected seedlings due to responses to the different Pb concentrations. These results suggest that the endophytic fungus improved rice growth under moderate Pb levels by enhancing photosynthesis and antioxidant activity relative to non-infected rice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasticity of Streptomyces coelicolor membrane composition under different growth conditions and during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eSandoval-Calderón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces coelicolor is a model actinomycete that is well known for the diversity of its secondary metabolism and its complex life cycle. As a soil inhabitant, it is exposed to heterogeneous and frequently changing environmental circumstances. In the present work, we studied the effect of diverse growth conditions and phosphate depletion on its lipid profile and the relationship between membrane lipid composition and development in S. coelicolor. The lipid profile from cultures grown on solid media, which is closer to the natural habitat of this microorganism, does not resemble the previously reported lipid composition from liquid grown cultures of S. coelicolor. Wide variations were also observed across different media, growth phases, and developmental stages indicating active membrane remodeling. Ornithine lipids (OL are phosphorus-free polar lipids that were accumulated mainly during sporulation stages, but were also major components of the membrane under phosphorus limitation. In contrast, phosphatidylethanolamine, which had been reported as one of the major polar lipids in the genus Streptomyces, is almost absent under these conditions. We identified one of the genes responsible for the synthesis of OL (SCO0921 and found that its inactivation causes the absence of OL, precocious morphological development and actinorhodin production. Our observations indicate a remarkable plasticity of the membrane composition in this bacterial species, reveal a higher metabolic complexity than expected, and suggest a relationship between cytoplasmic membrane components and the differentiation programs in S. coelicolor.

  6. Influence of storage conditions on the release of growth factors in platelet-rich blood derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düregger Katharina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes can be concentrated in blood derivatives and used as autologous transplants e.g. for wound treatment due to the release of growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. Conditions for processing and storage of these platelet-rich blood derivatives influence the release of PDGF from the platelet-bound α-granules into the plasma. In this study Platelet rich plasma (PRP and Platelet concentrate (PC were produced with a fully automated centrifugation system. Storage of PRP and PC for 1 h up to 4 months at temperatures between −20°C and +37°C was applied with the aim of evaluating the influence on the amount of released PDGF. Storage at −20°C resulted in the highest release of PDGF in PRP and a time dependency was determined: prolonged storage up to 1 month in PRP and 10 days in PC increased the release of PDGF. Regardless of the storage conditions, the release of PDGF per platelet was higher in PC than in PRP.

  7. Survival, food consumption and growth of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) kept in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Elena

    2010-09-01

    Successful commercial aquaculture of crustacean species is dependent on satisfying their nutritional requirements and on producing rapidly growing and healthy animals. The results of the present study provide valuable information for feeding habits and growth of Nephrops norvegicus L., 1758) under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study was to examine food consumption, growth and physiology of the Norway lobster N. norvegicus under laboratory conditions. N. norvegicus (15 g wet weight) were distributed into 1001 tanks consisting of five numbered compartments each. They were fed the experimental diets (frozen mussels and pellets) for a period of 6 months. A group of starved Nephrops was stocked and fasted for 8 months. Although Nephrops grew well when fed the frozen mussels diet, feeding on a dry pellet feed was unsatisfactory. The starvation group, despite the fact that showed the highest mortality (50%), exhibited a remarkable tolerance to the lack of food supply. The study offers further insight by correlating the amino acid profiles of Nephrops tail muscle with the two diets. The deviations from the mussel's diet for asparagine, alanine and glutamic acid suggest a deficiency of these amino acids in this diet. The results of the present study showed that the concentrations of free amino acids are lower in relative amount than those of protein-bound amino acids, except for arginine, proline and glycine. The present study contributes to the improvement of our knowledge on nutritional requirements of the above species. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  8. An ultraviolet B condition that affects growth and defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Yu, Na; Li, Weidong; Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Smagghe, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet B light (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is the shortest wavelength of the solar spectrum reaching the surface of the Earth. It has profound effects on plants, ranging from growth regulation to severe metabolic changes. Low level UV-B mainly causes photomorphogenic effects while higher levels can induce stress, yet these effects tend to overlap. Here we identified a condition that allows growth reduction without obvious detrimental stress in wild type Arabidopsis rosette plants. This condition was used to study the effects of a daily UV-B dose on plant characteristics of UV-B adapted plants in detail. Exploration of the transcriptome of developing leaves indicated downregulation of genes involved in stomata formation by UV-B, while at the same time genes involved in photoprotective pigment biosynthesis were upregulated. These findings correspond with a decreased stomatal density and increased UV-B absorbing pigments. Gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of defense related genes and meta-analysis showed substantial overlap of the UV-B regulated transcriptome with transcriptomes of salicylate and jasmonate treated as well as herbivore exposed plants. Feeding experiments showed that caterpillars of Spodoptera littoralis are directly affected by UV-B, while performance of the aphid Myzus persicae is diminished by a plant mediated process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The speed control of DC motor under the load condition using PI and PID controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapsiz, Muhammed Reşit; Kahveci, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare PI (Proportional-Integral) and PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers for speed control of Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) motor under both load and without load. For this purpose, firstly, the mathematical model was obtained from the dynamic equations of the PMDC motor and the obtained mathematical model was transferred to the simulation environment and modeled using Matlab/SIMULINK. Following the modeling process, PI and PID controller structures were formed, respectively. Secondly, after these structures were formed, the PMDC motor was run without any controller. Then, the control of the PMDC motor with no load was provided by using PI and PID controllers. Finally, the PMDC motor were loaded under the constant load (TL = 3 N.m.) for each condition and selected time period (t = 3 s). The obtained result for each control operations was comparatively given by observing effects of loading process on systems. When the obtained results were evaluated for each condition, it was observed that PID controller have the best performance with respect to PI controller.

  10. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-03-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8-133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared.

  11. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  12. Homogeneity and heterogeneity in amylase production by Bacillus subtilis under different growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploss, Tina N; Reilman, Ewoud; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Denham, Emma L; Piersma, Sjouke; Lingner, Anja; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Lorenz, Patrick; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-03-29

    Bacillus subtilis is an important cell factory for the biotechnological industry due to its ability to secrete commercially relevant proteins in large amounts directly into the growth medium. However, hyper-secretion of proteins, such as α-amylases, leads to induction of the secretion stress-responsive CssR-CssS regulatory system, resulting in up-regulation of the HtrA and HtrB proteases. These proteases degrade misfolded proteins secreted via the Sec pathway, resulting in a loss of product. The aim of this study was to investigate the secretion stress response in B. subtilis 168 cells overproducing the industrially relevant α-amylase AmyM from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, which was expressed from the strong promoter P(amyQ)-M. Here we show that activity of the htrB promoter as induced by overproduction of AmyM was "noisy", which is indicative for heterogeneous activation of the secretion stress pathway. Plasmids were constructed to allow real-time analysis of P(amyQ)-M promoter activity and AmyM production by, respectively, transcriptional and out-of-frame translationally coupled fusions with gfpmut3. Our results show the emergence of distinct sub-populations of high- and low-level AmyM-producing cells, reflecting heterogeneity in the activity of P(amyQ)-M. This most likely explains the heterogeneous secretion stress response. Importantly, more homogenous cell populations with regard to P(amyQ)-M activity were observed for the B. subtilis mutant strain 168degUhy32, and the wild-type strain 168 under optimized growth conditions. Expression heterogeneity of secretory proteins in B. subtilis can be suppressed by degU mutation and optimized growth conditions. Further, the out-of-frame translational fusion of a gene for a secreted target protein and gfp represents a versatile tool for real-time monitoring of protein production and opens novel avenues for Bacillus production strain improvement.

  13. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  14. Impacts of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria-based Biostimulants on Wheat Growth under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Minh; Ongena, Marc; Colinet, Gilles; Vandenbol, Micheline; Spaepen, Stijn; Bodson, Bernard; Jijakli, Haissam; du Jardin, Patrick; Delaplace, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are one of the main biostimulant classes due to their capacity of stimulating root growth and enhancing soil mineral availability, hence increasing nutrient use efficiency in crops. The aim of this study is to screen commercially PGPR-containing products to enhance wheat growth and yield in combination with an optimized nitrogen (N) fertilizer application scheme. This could lead to a significant reduction of N fertilizer application without affectin...

  15. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed E; Kim, Dongjin; Ali, Shawkat; Fedoroff, Nina V; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-10-01

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na + /K + ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K + channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na + and K + homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na + /K + ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na + and K + ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na + /K + under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na + /K + homeostasis under salt stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis

    2017-07-13

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na+/K+ ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K+ channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na+ and K+ homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na+/K+ ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na+ and K+ ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na+/K+ under salt stress conditions.

  17. Nanoparticle growth and surface chemistry changes in cell-conditioned culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michaela; Hodges, Nikolas J; Whitwell, Harry; Tyrrell, Jess; Cangul, Hakan

    2015-02-05

    When biomolecules attach to engineered nanoparticle (ENP) surfaces, they confer the particles with a new biological identity. Physical format may also radically alter, changing ENP stability and agglomeration state within seconds. In order to measure which biomolecules are associated with early ENP growth, we studied ENPs in conditioned medium from A549 cell culture, using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and linear trap quadrupole electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. Two types of 100 nm polystyrene particles (one uncoated and one with an amine functionalized surface) were used to measure the influence of surface type. In identically prepared conditioned medium, agglomeration was visible in all samples after 1 h, but was variable, indicating inter-sample variability in secretion rates and extracellular medium conditions. In samples conditioned for 1 h or more, ENP agglomeration rates varied significantly. Agglomerate size measured by DLS was well correlated with surface sequestered peptide number for uncoated but not for amine coated polystyrene ENPs. Amine-coated ENPs grew much faster and into larger agglomerates associated with fewer sequestered peptides, but including significant sequestered lactose dehydrogenase. We conclude that interference with extracellular peptide balance and oxidoreductase activity via sequestration is worthy of further study, as increased oxidative stress via this new mechanism may be important for cell toxicity. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. A Gusseted Thermogradient Table to Control Soil Temperatures for Evaluating Plant Growth and Monitoring Soil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbaum, Gregory E; Khan, Osamah S; Samarah, Nezar H

    2016-10-22

    Thermogradient tables were first developed in the 1950s primarily to test seed germination over a range of temperatures simultaneously without using a series of incubators. A temperature gradient is passively established across the surface of the table between the heated and cooled ends and is lost quickly at distances above the surface. Since temperature is only controlled on the table surface, experiments are restricted to shallow containers, such as Petri dishes, placed on the table. Welding continuous aluminum vertical strips or gussets perpendicular to the surface of a table enables temperature control in depth via convective heat flow. Soil in the channels between gussets was maintained across a gradient of temperatures allowing a greater diversity of experimentation. The gusseted design was evaluated by germinating oat, lettuce, tomato, and melon seeds. Soil temperatures were monitored using individual, battery-powered dataloggers positioned across the table. LED lights installed in the lids or along the sides of the gradient table create a controlled temperature chamber where seedlings can be grown over a range of temperatures. The gusseted design enabled accurate determination of optimum temperatures for fastest germination rate and the highest percentage germination for each species. Germination information from gradient table experiments can help predict seed germination and seedling growth under the adverse soil conditions often encountered during field crop production. Temperature effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and soil ecology can be tested under controlled conditions in a laboratory using a gusseted thermogradient table.

  19. Effects of simulated Mars conditions on the survival and growth of Escherichia coli and Serratia liquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Bonnie J; Jenkins, David G; Schuerger, Andrew C

    2010-04-01

    Escherichia coli and Serratia liquefaciens, two bacterial spacecraft contaminants known to replicate under low atmospheric pressures of 2.5 kPa, were tested for growth and survival under simulated Mars conditions. Environmental stresses of high salinity, low temperature, and low pressure were screened alone and in combination for effects on bacterial survival and replication, and then cells were tested in Mars analog soils under simulated Mars conditions. Survival and replication of E. coli and S. liquefaciens cells in liquid medium were evaluated for 7 days under low temperatures (5, 10, 20, or 30 degrees C) with increasing concentrations (0, 5, 10, or 20%) of three salts (MgCl(2), MgSO(4), NaCl) reported to be present on the surface of Mars. Moderate to high growth rates were observed for E. coli and S. liquefaciens at 30 or 20 degrees C and in solutions with 0 or 5% salts. In contrast, cell densities of both species generally did not increase above initial inoculum levels under the highest salt concentrations (10 and 20%) and the four temperatures tested, with the exception that moderately higher cell densities were observed for both species at 10% MgSO(4) maintained at 20 or 30 degrees C. Growth rates of E. coli and S. liquefaciens in low salt concentrations were robust under all pressures (2.5, 10, or 101.3 kPa), exhibiting a general increase of up to 2.5 orders of magnitude above the initial inoculum levels of the assays. Vegetative E. coli cells were maintained in a Mars analog soil for 7 days under simulated Mars conditions that included temperatures between 20 and -50 degrees C for a day/night diurnal period, UVC irradiation (200 to 280 nm) at 3.6 W m(-2) for daytime operations (8 h), pressures held at a constant 0.71 kPa, and a gas composition that included the top five gases found in the martian atmosphere. Cell densities of E. coli failed to increase under simulated Mars conditions, and survival was reduced 1 to 2 orders of magnitude by the interactive

  20. Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are cyanogenic under biofilm and colonial growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino Saiko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc is a collection of nine genotypically distinct but phenotypically similar species. They show wide ecological diversity and include species that are used for promoting plant growth and bio-control as well species that are opportunistic pathogens of vulnerable patients. Over recent years the Bcc have emerged as problematic pathogens of the CF lung. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is another important CF pathogen. It is able to synthesise hydrogen cyanide (HCN, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We have recently shown that HCN production by P. aeruginosa may have a role in CF pathogenesis. This paper describes an investigation of the ability of bacteria of the Bcc to make HCN. Results The genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia has 3 putative HCN synthase encoding (hcnABC gene clusters. B. cenocepacia and all 9 species of the Bcc complex tested were able to make cyanide at comparable levels to P. aeruginosa, but only when grown surface attached as colonies or during biofilm growth on glass beads. In contrast to P. aeruginosa and other cyanogenic bacteria, cyanide was not detected during planktonic growth of Bcc strains. Conclusion All species in the Bcc are cyanogenic when grown as surface attached colonies or as biofilms.

  1. Early developed section of the jaw as an index of prenatal growth conditions in adult roe deer Capreolus capreolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen

    2006-01-01

    -maturing bones are poor predictors of resource limitations during early development, as later benign conditions may lead to compensatory growth. We analysed the temporal growth dynamics of different sections of the lower jaw of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and found that the medioanterior section of the lower......Increasing evidence suggests that conditions in early life have important consequences for ultimate body size and fitness. Skeletal parts are often used as retrospective indices of body size and growth constraints because of their resistance to seasonal variation in resource availability. Yet, slow...... post partum and, as such, potentially leaves a fingerprint of prenatal growth conditions that is evident even in adult individuals. This supports earlier findings in ungulates of a shift in skeletal growth spurts after weaning, and suggests that the choice of skeletal index for population and cohort...

  2. The impact of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on cardiac fibroblasts grown under altered gravity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Leder, Annekatrin; Pietsch, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Myocardium is very sensitive to gravitational changes. During a spaceflight cardiovascular atrophy paired with rhythm problems and orthostatic intolerance can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor...

  3. A numerical study of thermal conditions in the THM growth of HgTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tomás, M. C.; Muñoz-Sanjosé, V.; Reig, C.

    2002-09-01

    A numerical simulation of the travelling heater method (THM) process in the growth of HgTe is carried out. The whole system (furnace, ampoule and charge) is taken into account in the frame of a quasi-steady-state model. The mass conservation condition for the solute in the liquid zone permits the determination of the rate of advance of the crystallisation isotherm as a function of the heater position. We claim to study the evolution of different magnitudes along the growth process, searching for the physical reasons which could be at the origin of defects in the form of thin layers observed in some growing experiences. To solve the governing equations of fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transport we have made use of a commercial code which can run in a PC. The simulation is made by using a three-level strategy, which allows the reduction of the computational effort. In the first level, heat transport is assumed to be by conduction, convection and radiation between the furnace and the ampoule, and by conduction through the ampoule wall, coating, solid and liquid zones. The temperature calculated at this level in the air/ampoule boundary is used as boundary condition for the second and third level. In these two levels the ampoule and its content are studied in detail. Convection in the liquid zone is considered at the second level and thermosolutal convection is finally included at the third level. The analysis of the incoming/outcoming heat flux per second through the ampoule for the whole system shows that the lower part of the ampoule exhibits some ineffectiveness for the heat evacuation at certain positions of the growth run, depending on thermal properties of the whole system and the particular material to be grown. As a consequence, the growth rate suffers a significant variation just for these positions of the heater. From these considerations a plausible interpretation has been proposed to understand the apparition of solvent inclusions in the form of thin

  4. The human growth and the healthy environment as a condition of balanced development for the course of human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koukoumpliakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising standard of living has evoked an important burden in the natural environment leading to an immense deterioration of nature. The pollution of the atmosphere and seas, the industrial waste, the climatic changes, the chaotic built-up extension threaten the health of all of us. The responsibility for the pollution of the environment is allocated in everybody. The State is accountable not only for the political planning and the policy that practises, but also for the frame it shapes for the citizens to follow. The improvement of the quality of environment must be combined with the economic progress and growth. The intensity of environmental problems worries the International Community, while the saving and growth of new green forms of energy appear as imperative need. We find already ourselves in a progressive but continuous growth, which has the conditions to develop in the future with spectacular rhythm.The methodology of present work is recommended for: a bibliographic research, mainly Greek, b comparison of the facts that are exported from research, connecting them with the given facts. This comparison leads to the necessary coexistence of a healthy environment and a viable growth.In the results of the research the essential conditions of coexistence are presented between these two. Thus we realise that: a the configuration of an evener environmental conscience is required via the education which would guarantee the balanced and sustainable growth, b the change of perception of people as lords of nature is considered necessary and its replacement by the awareness that the nature does not constitute an inexhaustible resource.With that in mind we conclude that: a the research is required to lead to alternative sources of energy such as the creation of Aeolian parks. It is estimated that more investments in other types of renewable sources of energy such as geothermal and hydroelectric can constitute also advisable solutions. The use of

  5. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Roth, A.; Devrient, B.; Ehrnsten, U.

    2004-01-01

    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR

  6. Biomimetic propulsion under random heaving conditions, using active pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gerasimos; Politis, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Marine mammals travel long distances by utilizing and transforming wave energy to thrust through proper control of their caudal fin. On the other hand, manmade ships traveling in a wavy sea store large amounts of wave energy in the form of kinetic energy for heaving, pitching, rolling and other ship motions. A natural way to extract this energy and transform it to useful propulsive thrust is by using a biomimetic wing. The aim of this paper is to show how an actively pitched biomimetic wing could achieve this goal when it performs a random heaving motion. More specifically, we consider a biomimetic wing traveling with a given translational velocity in an infinitely extended fluid and performing a random heaving motion with a given energy spectrum which corresponds to a given sea state. A formula is invented by which the instantaneous pitch angle of the wing is determined using the heaving data of the current and past time steps. Simulations are then performed for a biomimetic wing at different heave energy spectra, using an indirect Source-Doublet 3-D-BEM, together with a time stepping algorithm capable to track the random motion of the wing. A nonlinear pressure type Kutta condition is applied at the trailing edge of the wing. With a mollifier-based filtering technique, the 3-D unsteady rollup pattern created by the random motion of the wing is calculated without any simplifying assumptions regarding its geometry. Calculated unsteady forces, moments and useful power, show that the proposed active pitch control always results in thrust producing motions, with significant propulsive power production and considerable beneficial stabilizing action to ship motions. Calculation of the power required to set the pitch angle prove it to be a very small percentage of the useful power and thus making the practical application of the device very tractable.

  7. Towards the control of car underhood thermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, Mahmoud; Harambat, Fabien; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports an experimental study of the aerothermal phenomena in the vehicle underhood compartment as investigated by measuring temperature, convective heat flux, and radiative heat flux. Measurements are carried out on a passenger vehicle in wind tunnel S4 of Saint-Cyr-France. The underhood space is instrumented by 120 surface and air thermocouples and 20 fluxmeters. Measurements are performed for three thermal functioning conditions while the engine is in operation and the front wheels are positioned on the test facility with power-absorption-controlled rollers. In the thermal analysis, particular attention is given to measuring absorbed convective heat fluxes at component surfaces. It is shown that, in some components, the outside air entering the engine compartment (for cooling certain components) can in fact heat other components. This problem arises from the underhood architecture, specifically the positioning of some components downstream of warmer components in the same airflow. Optimized thermal management suggests placing these components further upstream or isolating them from the hot stream by deflectors. Given style constraints, however, the use of air deflectors is more suitable than underhood architectural changes. Much of the present paper is devoted to heat flux analysis of the specific thermal behaviours in the underhood compartment (especially the absorption of convective heat fluxes) and to a description of a new control approach exploiting air deflectors to optimize underhood aerothermal management. - Research highlights: → We present a physical analysis of particular underhood aerothermal behaviors. → In this analysis, convective heat flux absorption should be noted. → A new optimization procedure based on this physical analysis is proposed. → It entails airflow redistribution in the underhood through deflectors. → The new procedures are simple and easy to implement in the car underhood.

  8. Hydrologic conditions controlling runoff generation immediately after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the control of postwildfire runoff by physical and hydraulic properties of soil, hydrologic states, and an ash layer immediately following wildfire. The field site is within the area burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in Colorado, USA. Physical and hydraulic property characterization included ash thickness, particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, and soil water retention curves. Soil water content and matric potential were measured indirectly at several depths below the soil surface to document hydrologic states underneath the ash layer in the unsaturated zone, whereas precipitation and surface runoff were measured directly. Measurements of soil water content showed that almost no water infiltrated below the ash layer into the near-surface soil in the burned site at the storm time scale (i.e., minutes to hours). Runoff generation processes were controlled by and highly sensitive to ash thickness and ash hydraulic properties. The ash layer stored from 97% to 99% of rainfall, which was critical for reducing runoff amounts. The hydrologic response to two rain storms with different rainfall amounts, rainfall intensity, and durations, only ten days apart, indicated that runoff generation was predominantly by the saturation-excess mechanism perched at the ash-soil interface during the first storm and predominantly by the infiltration-excess mechanism at the ash surface during the second storm. Contributing area was not static for the two storms and was 4% (saturation excess) to 68% (infiltration excess) of the catchment area. Our results showed the importance of including hydrologic conditions and hydraulic properties of the ash layer in postwildfire runoff generation models.

  9. Usage and control of solid-state lighting for plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.

    2008-07-01

    The work begins with an introductory part in which the basic aspects related to the photosynthetic radiation, the photobiology of plants and the technology of light-emitting diodes (Leads) are overviewed. It is followed by a review of related research works that have been conducted during the last two decades, and by the main design issues of Led lumin aires for plant growth. The following part of the work reports the experimental growth tests performed. The effects of the radiation emitted by spectrally tailored Led lumin aires on plant growth have been investigated. A total of four growth tests using lettuce and radish cultivars were performed. Two basic approaches were used to investigate the effects and the future possibilities of the usage of solid-state lighting (SSL) in plant growth. The first approach evaluates the growth development of lettuce plants in real greenhouse conditions using LEDs as supplementary light sources to natural daylight. In the second approach the evaluation was carried out with a total absence of natural daylight by growing lettuce and radish plants in phytotron-chamber conditions. The effects of SSL treatments on the growth development and quality of crops were compared with reference lighting systems composed of conventional and well-established light-source technologies, such as fluorescent and high-pressure sodium lamps. During the process of the investigation, the need to coherently quantify and evaluate the spectral quality of the radiation in terms of its photosynthetic appetence arose. Different metrics are still been used indiscriminately to quantify radiation used by plants to perform photosynthesis. Therefore, the existing metrics are discussed and a new proposal for coherent systematization is presented. The proposed system is referred to phyllophotometric and it is developed using the average photosynthetic spectral quantum yield response curve of plants. The results of the growth tests showed that the usage of SSL in

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and the risk of fibrocystic breast conditions among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer A; Lewis, S Kay; Ray, Roberta M; Gao, Dao Li; Stalsberg, Helge; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B

    2006-05-01

    We investigated whether circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels are associated with the risk of fibrocystic breast conditions (FBC), in a case-control study nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination conducted in Shanghai, China. Participants were enrolled during 1989-1991 and were followed over 10 years for the development of breast diseases. Controls (n = 897) were frequency-matched by age to cases (n = 451), who were diagnosed with FBC between 1995 and 2000. Circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and their molar ratio were positively associated with risk of FBC. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the upper fourth of the distribution compared to the lowest fourth for IGF-I, IGFBP3 and their molar ratio were 3.02 (2.02-4.52), 1.92 (1.37-2.71) and 2.26 (1.52-3.36), respectively. The strength of the association between IGF-I levels and FBC was attenuated after adjustment for IGFBP-3 and that for IGFBP-3 was largely eliminated after adjustment for IGF-I. Increasing levels of IGF-I were particularly associated with increasing risk of FBC with proliferative elements (ORs and 95% CIs for the 2nd, 3rd and upper fourth of the distribution of IGF-I: 3.13 (1.50-6.53), 4.57 (2.22-9.39) and 6.30 (3.08-12.89), compared with the lowest fourth. Our results suggest that elevated levels of IGF-I may contribute to the development of FBC. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Vector population growth and condition-dependent movement drive the spread of plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Allison K; Peace, Angela; Power, Alison G; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2017-08-01

    Plant viruses, often spread by arthropod vectors, impact natural and agricultural ecosystems worldwide. Intuitively, the movement behavior and life history of vectors influence pathogen spread, but the relative contribution of each factor has not been examined. Recent research has highlighted the influence of host infection status on vector behavior and life history. Here, we developed a model to explore how vector traits influence the spread of vector-borne plant viruses. We allowed vector life history (growth rate, carrying capacity) and movement behavior (departure and settlement rates) parameters to be conditional on whether the plant host is infected or healthy and whether the vector is viruliferous (carrying the virus) or not. We ran simulations under a wide range of parameter combinations and quantified the fraction of hosts infected over time. We also ran case studies of the model for Barley yellow dwarf virus, a persistently transmitted virus, and for Potato virus Y, a non-persistently transmitted virus. We quantified the relative importance of each parameter on pathogen spread using Latin hypercube sampling with the statistical partial rank correlation coefficient technique. We found two general types of mechanisms in our model that increased the rate of pathogen spread. First, increasing factors such as vector intrinsic growth rate, carrying capacity, and departure rate from hosts (independent of whether these factors were condition-dependent) led to more vectors moving between hosts, which increased pathogen spread. Second, changing condition-dependent factors such as a vector's preference for settling on a host with a different infection status than itself, and vector tendency to leave a host of the same infection status, led to increased contact between hosts and vectors with different infection statuses, which also increased pathogen spread. Overall, our findings suggest that vector population growth rates had the greatest influence on rates of virus

  12. [Is it necessary to control the population growth of national minorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X Y

    1981-02-01

    In the process of Socialist construction and modernization, the development of the population of national minorities deserves our attention because it is directly related to the economic and cultural development in the areas inhabited by such national minorities, and it has a great impact on the welfare and future of those people. Moreover, the population growth of the minorities is a key factor in the national population control strategy. A rapid population growth among the minorities has caused serious problems in distribution of farm land and food supply, low personal income, a rise in the unemployment rate, and a rise in the illiteracy rate. This has prevented a rise in the living standard among the minority population. In order to prevent and solve population problems among the minorities, we must take appropriate measures according to local conditions to control population increases. Through popularization of education, population growth may be put under control. For those people who volunteer to practice family planning, the government should provide all kinds of assistance. At the same time, an effort is needed to introduce the necessity of improving birth quality, to popularize new methods of child birth, and to develop health and medical care for the general public, so that the quality of the minority population may be gradually improved.

  13. Salmonella Modulates Metabolism During Growth under Conditions that Induce Expression of Virulence Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Mo; Schmidt, Brian; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Ansong, Charles; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-04-05

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative pathogen that uses complex mechanisms to invade and proliferate within mammalian host cells. To investigate possible contributions of metabolic processes in S. Typhimurium grown under conditions known to induce expression of virulence genes, we used a metabolomics-driven systems biology approach coupled with genome scale modeling. First, we identified distinct metabolite profiles associated with bacteria grown in either rich or virulence-inducing media and report the most comprehensive coverage of the S. Typhimurium metabolome to date. Second, we applied an omics-informed genome scale modeling analysis of the functional consequences of adaptive alterations in S. Typhimurium metabolism during growth under our conditions. Excitingly, we observed possible sequestration of metabolites recently suggested to have immune modulating roles. Modeling efforts highlighted a decreased cellular capability to both produce and utilize intracellular amino acids during stationary phase culture in virulence conditions, despite significant abundance increases for these molecules as observed by our metabolomics measurements. Model-guided analysis suggested that alterations in metabolism prioritized other activities necessary for pathogenesis instead, such as lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

  14. An investigation into the actual condition of radiation safety control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsurayama, Kosuke

    1976-01-01

    The result of investigation on the real condition of radiation safety control is reported with some considerations. The investigation was made in April, 1975, by means of questionnaires to 418 companies, and the responses were obtained from 126 companies, i.e. 11 research laboratories, 98 manufacturing factories, and 17 inspection facilities. The average integrated dose in the inspection facilities was 0.91 rem/year, the most among three. The exposure dose in most of the research laboratories and manufacturing factories investigated was within the limit of 0.5 rem/year, and that in the inspection facilities was distributed over from the background level to 5 rem/year. The ratios of the workers engaged in radiation operation and the workers possessing the licences related to non-destructive examination to all employees were investigated, but they were not at satisfactory level. Regarding the abandonment of radioactive isotopes, 63.5% of the companies answered deliver the radioactive isotopes to be abandoned to Japan Isotope Association, and 25.7% let equipment makers to take them back. As for the education and training of operators for the safe treatment of radioactive substances and the prevention of accidents, most of the companies answered gave the education once or twice a year, and to those who just entered the companies, but more substantial education in desirable. (Nishino, S.)

  15. Radioactive contamination of Bunodosoma caissarum under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Santos, P.L. dos

    The kinetics of uptake and release of radionuclides 137 Cs, 131 I, 133 Ba, 51 Cr (III and VI), 60 Co and 65 Zn in the 'cnidaria' Bunodosoma caissarum have been studied. This is an exclusively Brazilian species and easily collected on the Rio de Janeiro coastal waters. The kinetic experiments have been made in aquariums of 1000 cm 3 , in laboratory under controlled conditions and accompanied by single channel radiometry. The velocities of concentration were evident to radionuclides 131 I and 133 Ba. The larger concentration factors were registred to 51 Cr (III), 65 Zn and 51 Cr (VI), with middle values of 20,0 , 14,5 and 8,6 respectively. The same radionuclides stood out in the loss experiments, presenting the following biological half-lives : 292,2 h ( 51 Cr-III), 784,0 h ( 51 Cr-VI) and 823,0 h ( 65 Zn). This expressive value for the 65 Zn suggests a probable biological integration of this radionuclide by the species studied. The results allow us to indicate the 'anthozoa' Bunodosoma caissarum as a bioindicator of the radioactive contamination of the marine environment. (Author) [pt

  16. Cooling water conditioning and quality control for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Designers and operators of Tokamaks and all associated water cooled, peripheral equipment, are faced with the task of providing and maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. The primary reason for supplying low conductivity water to the DIII-D vacuum vessel coils, power supplies and auxiliary heating components is to assure, along with the use of a non-conducting break in the supply piping, sufficient electrical resistance and thus an acceptable current-leakage path to ground at operating voltage potentials. As important, good quality cooling water significantly reduces the likelihood of scaling and fouling of flow passages and heat transfer surfaces. Dissolved oxygen gas removal is also required in one major DIII-D cooling water system to minimize corrosion in the ion sources of the neutral beam injectors. Currently, the combined pumping capacity of the high quality cooling water systems at DIII-D is ∼5,000 gpm. Another area that receives close attention at DIII-D is the chemical treatment of the water used in the cooling towers. This paper discusses the DIII-D water quality requirements, the means used to obtain the necessary quality and the instrumentation used for control and monitoring. Costs to mechanically and chemically condition and maintain water quality are discussed as well as the various aspects of complying with government standards and regulations

  17. Optimizing grade-control drillhole spacing with conditional simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martínez-Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a method to determine the optimum spacing of grade-control drillholes drilled with reverse-circulation. The optimum drillhole spacing was defined as that one whose cost equals the cost of misclassifying ore and waste in selection mining units (SMU. The cost of misclassification of a given drillhole spacing is equal to the cost of processing waste misclassified as ore (Type I error plus the value of the ore misclassified as waste (Type II error. Type I and Type II errors were deduced by comparing true and estimated grades at SMUs, in relation to a cuttoff grade value and assuming free ore selection. True grades at SMUs and grades at drillhole samples were generated with conditional simulations. A set of estimated grades at SMU, one per each drillhole spacing, were generated with ordinary kriging. This method was used to determine the optimum drillhole spacing in a gold deposit. The results showed that the cost of misclassification is sensitive to extreme block values and tend to be overrepresented. Capping SMU’s lost values and implementing diggability constraints was recommended to improve calculations of total misclassification costs.

  18. Controlled synthesis of quantum confined CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huimei; Tang, Bing; Ma, Ying

    2018-02-01

    Room temperature recrystallization is a simple and convenient method for synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite nanomaterials with excellent luminescent properties. However, the fast crystallization usually brings the colloidal stability and uncontrollable synthesis issues in the formation of all-inorganic perovskite. In the present study, we present a new strategy to prepare the quantum confined CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with controlled morphology under ambient condition. With the assist of fatty acid-capped precursor, the crystallization and the following growth rate can be retarded. Thanks to the retarded reaction, the morphology can be varied from nanowires to nanoplates and the thickness can be controlled from 5-7 monolayers by simply adjusting the amount of octylammonium cations and oleic acid. The nanoplates exhibit a higher photoluminescence quantum yield than the nanowires possibly due to fewer defects in the nanoplates.

  19. Controlled Synthesis of Quantum Confined CsPbBr3 perovskite Nanocrystals under Ambient Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huimei; Tang, Bing; Ma, Ying

    2017-11-21

    Room temperature recrystallization is a simple and convenient method for synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite nanomaterials with excellent luminescent properties. However, the fast crystallization usually brings the colloidal stability and uncontrollable synthesis issues in the formation of all-inorganic perovskite. In the present study, we present a new strategy to prepare the quantum confined CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with controlled morphology under ambient condition. With the assist of fatty acid-capped precursor, the crystallization and the following growth rate can be retarded. Thanks to the retarded reaction, the morphology can be varied from nanowires to nanoplates and the thickness can be controlled from 5 to 7 monolayers by simply adjusting the amount of octylammonium cations and oleic acid. The nanoplates exhibit a higher photoluminescence quantum yield than the nanowires possibly due to fewer defects in the nanoplates. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Identification and growth conditions of purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria isolated from palm oil mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziah Ariffin

    2004-01-01

    An indigenous strain of the purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterium, isolated from palm oil mill effluent was presumably identified as species of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Cultivation in synthetic medium under different conditions indicated that it gave maximum carotenoid and bacteriophyll synthesis under anaerobic conditions in the light with values of 12.6 and 108.1 mg/g dry cell weight respectively. These values were significantly higher than the pigment content obtained from aerobic cultivation. The specific growth rates in anaerobic was twice those in aerobic conditions in the light. Growth was not occurred in anaerobic or aerobic conditions in the dark. (Author)

  1. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2017-07-06

    Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches has also given rise to fascinating new physics, which could lead to exciting new applications. In this Review, we introduce the latest development of TMDC synthesis by CVD approaches and provide further insight for the controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs. Understanding of the vapor-phase growth mechanism of 2D TMDCs could benefit the formation of complicated heterostructures and novel artificial 2D lattices.

  2. Lymphoma and the control of B cell growth and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Lixin; Goodnow, Christopher C

    2006-05-01

    It is now widely accepted that lymphomagenesis is a multistep transformation process. A number of genetic changes and environmental and infectious factors contributing to the development and malignant progression of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are well documented. Reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin loci are a hallmark of most mature B cell lymphomas and lead to dysregulated expression of proto-oncogenes (c-myc) important for cell proliferation or genes involved in cell cycle progression (cyclin D1), differentiation block (bcl-6, PAX5) and cell survival (bcl-2, NF-kappaB). In addition, genetic alterations that inactivate tumor suppressor genes (p53, p16) have been frequently detected in some lymphoma tissues. Many of these genes are normally regulated by signals from the B cell antigen receptor. The high prevalence of bacterial and viral infection in lymphoma patients supports the hypothesis that infectious agents may play a contributory role in the development and evolution of B cell lymphoproliferative disorders by either directly inducing polyclonal B cell hyperactivation (EBV, HCV), or providing a chronic antigenic stimulus (EBV, HCV, HBV, H. pylori), or mimicking B cell antigen receptor signaling (EBV, HCV, HHV8), although whether these are causative factors or they are secondary to genetic changes in lymphomagenesis remains to be defined. Stimulatory signals from reactive T cells, local cytokines and growth factors can also contribute, to some extent, to the progression of transformation. Modulation of B cell antigen receptor signaling therefore emerges as a potentially powerful strategy for controlling the growth of certain B cell lymphomas.

  3. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  4. The effects of intermittent exposure to low-pH and low-oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low-pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low-pH and/or low-oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low-pH (7.5, total scale) and low-O2 (40% saturation, mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h, twice over a 15-day period, juveniles experienced 5-20% higher mortality in the low-oxygen treatments compared to control conditions. Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low-oxygen and low-pH treatments. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when juveniles were exposed simultaneously to low-pH and low-O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low-oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas pH is a crucial factor for their growth. However, the high individual variation in growth rate under low levels of both pH and oxygen suggests that cryptic phenotypic plasticity may promote resistance to prolonged upwelling conditions by a portion of the population.

  5. Effects of dietary exposure to brominated flame retardant BDE-47 on thyroid condition, gonadal development and growth of zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Orazio, Carl E.; Peterman, Paul H.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of brominated flame retardants in teleosts and some of the information currently available is inconsistent. This study examined effects of dietary exposure to 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on thyroid condition, body mass and size, and gonadal development of zebrafish. Pubertal, 49-day-old (posthatch) fish were fed diets without BDE-47 (control) or with 1, 5 or 25 μg/g BDE-47/diet. Treatments were conducted in triplicate 30-L tanks each containing 50 zebrafish, and 15 fish per treatment (5 per tank) were sampled at days 40, 80 and 120 of exposure. Measurements were taken of body mass, standard length, head depth and head length. Sex (at 40–120 days of exposure), germ cell stage (at 40 days) and thyroid condition (at 120 days; follicular cell height, colloid depletion, angiogenesis) were histologically determined. Whole-body BDE-47 levels at study completion were within the high end of levels reported in environmentally exposed (wild) fishes. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences among treatments at each sampling time. No effects were observed on thyroid condition or germ cell stage in either sex. Reduced head length was observed in females exposed to BDE-47 at 80 days but not at 40 or 120 days. In males, no apparent effects of BDE-47 were observed at 40 and 80 days, but fish exposed to 25 μg/g had lower body mass at 120 days compared to control fish. These observations suggest that BDE-47 at environmentally relevant whole-body concentrations does not affect thyroid condition or pubertal development of zebrafish but does affect growth during the juvenile-to-adult transition, especially in males.

  6. Photosynthate consumption and carbon turnover in the rhizosphere depending on plant species and growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerbeck, D.R.; Helal, H.M.; Nonnen, S.; Allard, J.-l.

    1982-01-01

    The root tissue which can be isolated from soils represents only part of the total plant carbon incorporation. Between 20 and 40% of the photosynthetic production of plants is expended for root growth and root metabolism. This indicates a striking turnover of energy in the rhizosphere, because relatively litle root-derived organic matter remains there until harvest time. Plant species and variety, soil conditions and temperature were shown to be the most decisive factors governing the assimilate consumption of plant root systems. A special technique is described which enables to study how this extensive turnover affects the surrounding soil depending on its proximity to the roots. Plant-derived carbon can be detected up to 20mm away from the roots. A priming effect has been found on the decomposition of soil organic matter. This explains why, in spite of the rhizo-deposition mentioned, no net-accumulation of carbon in the rhizosphere has been found. (Author) [pt

  7. Device for investigating subcritical crack growth of RPV steel specimens under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, D.; Ahlf, J.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is being prepared to investigate the subcritical crack growth of RPV steel specimens under cyclic load and under the environmental conditions of a BWR with regard to primary water and irradiation. The experiment will be carried out in the VAK reactor Kahl which is a boiling water reactor operating at 71 bar, 286 0 C and generating 16 MW/sub e/. The experimental setup is composed of an open frame to which a string consisting of five compact tension speciments (40 mm thickness) and connecting links is fixed. The specimen chain is set under cyclic load by a pneumatically actuated bellows unit which is attached to the frame top. Specimen strain and crack opening are measured by linear differential transformers; for temperature distribution measurements in the specimens thermocouples are applied

  8. Solvability conditions for dendritic growth in the boundary-layer model with capillary anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, J. S.; Hong, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned primarily with the development of an analytic approach to the theory of steady-state velocity selection in the boundary-layer model of dendritic solidification. The two-dimensional version of this model with a fourfold crystalline anisotropy alpha in the surface tension is considered. By extending a WKB method introduced in an earlier paper, the alpha dependence of the selected growth rate is determined in the limit of small alpha; and this rate is studied for large alphas in the limit in which the dimensionless undercooling approaches unity. Portions of the paper are devoted to a reinterpretation of the mathematical structure of the solvability condition in problems of this kind.

  9. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalpando, I. [Centro de Investigacion de los Recursos Naturales, Antigua Normal Rural, Salaices, Lopez, Chihuahua (Mexico); John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B., E-mail: isaelav@hotmail.com [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14-4AS (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  10. Growth and yield of different brassica genotypes under saline sodic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Mahmood, I.A.; Salim, M.

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted at farmer's salt-affected field (ECe=12.3 dS m/sup -1/; pH=9.7; SAR=46.2) in Hafizabad to test growth and yield response of six Brassica cultivars (BARD-I, Dunkled, Rainbow, BRS-II, Sultan Raya and cv. 95102-5) under saline sodic conditions. Data on growth and yield parameters were collected randomly (average of five plants per replication) at the time of crop maturity. Ionic concentration in plant tissues and oil content in seeds were also determined. Comparatively more number of branches and pods per plant were produced by cultivar Dunkled closely followed by BARD-I while maximum seed yield (241.7 and 235.1 kg ha ) was obtained from Dunkled and Sultan Raya, respectively which was statistically at par. However, BRS-II and Rainbow showed significantly more percent oil contents in their seeds but genotype Dunkled showed minimum Na+ and K+ concentration in their tissues. (author)

  11. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalpando, I.; John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B.

    2017-01-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  12. Seedling growth in greenhouse conditions of the forest species Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Vargas Simon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialium guianense is used for its wood and fruit production, and is a tropical tree species native to evergreen forests. Given the threat these forests face, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the initial growth of the plant under greenhouse conditions, for aiming in the development of propagation programs. Seedlings of the species were transplanted to nursery bags under a completely randomized design and grown for 10 months with an initial population of 200 plants. At the end of the experiment, the shoot and root reached lengths of 32.8 and 28.9 cm, respectively. The average number of composite leaves was 12.3 each with seven leaflets. The average biomass was 2.5 g for the shoot, 1.6 g for roots, and 3.7 g for leaves, with a shoot/root around four. The average relative growth rate (RGR was 15 mg g-1 day-. These characteristics indicate that D. guianense is a late successional species.

  13. Deciphering flux adjustments of engineered E. coli cells during fermentation with changing growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lian [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Xiu, Yu [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); Jones, J. Andrew [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hamilton College, Clinton, NY (United States); Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Tang, Yinjie J. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Koffas, Mattheos A. G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2016-12-23

    Microbial fermentation conditions are dynamic, due to transcriptional induction, nutrient consumption, or changes to incubation conditions. In this paper, 13C-metabolic flux analysis was used to characterize two violacein-producing E. coli strains with vastly different productivities, and to profile their metabolic adjustments resulting from external perturbations during fermentation. The two strains were first grown at 37 °C in stage 1, and then the temperature was transitioned to 20 °C in stage 2 for the optimal expression of the violacein synthesis pathway. After induction, violacein production was minimal in stage 3, but accelerated in stage 4 (early production phase) and 5 (late production phase) in the high producing strain, reaching a final concentration of 1.5 mmol/L. On the contrary, ~0.02 mmol/L of violacein was obtained from the low producing strain. To have a snapshot of the temporal metabolic changes in each stage, we performed 13C-MFA via isotopomer analysis of fast-turnover free metabolites. The results indicate strikingly stable flux ratios in the central metabolism throughout the early growth stages. In the late stages, however, the high producer rewired its flux distribution significantly, which featured an upregulated pentose phosphate pathway and TCA cycle, reflux from acetate utilization, negligible anabolic fluxes, and elevated maintenance loss, to compensate for nutrient depletion and drainage of some building blocks due to violacein overproduction. The low producer with stronger promoters shifted its relative fluxes in stage 5 by enhancing the flux through the TCA cycle and acetate overflow, while exhibiting a reduced biomass growth and a minimal flux towards violacein synthesis. Finally, interestingly, the addition of the violacein precursor (tryptophan) in the medium inhibited high producer but enhanced low producer's productivity, leading to hypotheses of unknown pathway regulations (such as metabolite

  14. Effects of sawdust thickness on the growth performance, environmental condition, and welfare quality of yellow broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dan; He, Jiao; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qiang; Chang, Lingling; Shi, Shou Rong; Bing, Tong Hai

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of litter thickness on growth performance, immune status, environmental condition, and welfare quality in yellow broilers. In total, 1,800 one-day-old Suqin yellow broilers were raised for 21 d. On d 22, 1,600 birds of similar BW (404±12 g) were randomly selected and placed into 20 indoor pens (8 birds/m2, 10 m2/pen). These birds were assigned to a litter treatment of 4, 8, 12, and 16 cm. Each treatment was repeated in five pens. The results showed that a thicker litter was related to increased BW, daily weight gain, and daily feed intake (Plitter thickness (P=0.320, P=0.353, respectively). Absolute and relative liver weights showed a significant linear response to increasing litter thickness (P=0.01, P=0.001, respectively). The litter moisture content, air ammonia, and CO2 content decreased, whereas the air dust content increased with increasing litter thickness (PLitter thickness had no effect on gait, plumage damage, hock burn or breast skin crusting (P = 0.076, P=0.964, P=0.131, P=0.401, respectively). Plumage cleanliness, foot pad dermatitis, hock swelling and breast blister varied significantly with litter thickness (P=0.027, P=0.011, P=0.014, P=0.042, respectively). The results of this study suggest that an increasing litter thickness has a beneficial effect on the growth performance, environmental condition and welfare of birds. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Modified stress intensity factor as a crack growth parameter applicable under large scale yielding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Todoroki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature water stress corrosion cracking has high tensile stress sensitivity, and its growth rate has been evaluated using the stress intensity factor, which is a linear fracture mechanics parameter. Stress corrosion cracking mainly occurs and propagates around welded metals or heat-affected zones. These regions have complex residual stress distributions and yield strength distributions because of input heat effects. The authors previously reported that the stress intensity factor becomes inapplicable when steep residual stress distributions or yield strength distributions occur along the crack propagation path, because small-scale yielding conditions deviate around those distributions. Here, when the stress intensity factor is modified by considering these distributions, the modified stress intensity factor may be used for crack growth evaluation for large-scale yielding. The authors previously proposed a modified stress intensity factor incorporating the stress distribution or yield strength distribution in front of the crack using the rate of change of stress intensity factor and yield strength. However, the applicable range of modified stress intensity factor for large-scale yielding was not clarified. In this study, the range was analytically investigated by comparison with the J-integral solution. A three-point bending specimen with parallel surface crack was adopted as the analytical model and the stress intensity factor, modified stress intensity factor and equivalent stress intensity factor derived from the J-integral were calculated and compared under large-scale yielding conditions. The modified stress intensity was closer to the equivalent stress intensity factor when compared with the stress intensity factor. If deviation from the J-integral solution is acceptable up to 2%, the modified stress intensity factor is applicable up to 30% of the J-integral limit, while the stress intensity factor is applicable up to 10%. These results showed that

  16. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  17. Impact of soil salinity on the plant-growth – promoting and biological control abilities of root associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdieva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plant growth – promoting bacteria is variable under different biotic and abiotic conditions. Abiotic factors may negatively affect the beneficial properties and efficiency of the introduced PGPR inoculants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth – promoting rhizobacteria on plant growth and on the control of foot and root rot of tomatoes caused by Fusarium solani under different soil salinity conditions. Among the five tested strains, only Pseudomonas chlororaphis TSAU13, and Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU20 were able to stimulate plant growth and act as biological controls of foot and root rot disease of tomato. The soil salinity did not negatively affect the beneficial impacts of these strains, as they were able to colonize and survive on the roots of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions. The improved plant height and fruit yield of tomato was also observed for plants inoculated with P. extremorientalis TSAU20. Our results indicated that, saline condition is not crucial factor in obtaining good performance with respect to the plant growth stimulating and biocontrol abilities of PGPR strains. The bacterial inoculant also enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities thereby preventing ROS induced oxidative damage in plants, and the proline concentrations in plant tissue that play an important role in plant stress tolerance.

  18. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P; Chmielewski, Frank-M

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar 'Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  19. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  20. Control of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Growth by Connexin 43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamani eJoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Connexin 43 (Cx43, the principal gap junction protein in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, regulates movement of ions and other signaling molecules through gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC and plays important roles in maintaining normal vessel function; however, many of the signaling mechanisms controlling Cx43 in VSMCs are not clearly described. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms of Cx43 regulation with respect to VSMC proliferation. Treatment of rat primary VSMCs with the cAMP analog 8Br-cAMP, the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 (BAY, or the Cx inducer diallyl disulfide (DADS significantly reduced proliferation after 72 h compared to vehicle controls. Bromodeoxyuridine uptake revealed reduction (p<.001 in DNA synthesis after 6 h and flow cytometry showed reduced (40% S phase cell numbers after 16 h in DADS-treated cells compared to controls. Cx43 expression significantly increased after 270 min treatment with 8Br-cAMP, 8Br-cGMP, BAY or DADS. Inhibition of PKA, PKG or PKC reversed 8Br-cAMP-stimulated increases in Cx43 expression, whereas only PKG or PKC inhibition reversed 8Br-cGMP- and BAY-stimulated increases in total Cx43. Interestingly, stimulation of Cx43 expression by DADS was not dependent on PKA, PKG or PKC. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, only 8Br-cAMP or DADS increased GJIC with 8Br-cAMP mediated by PKC and DADS mediated by PKG. Further, DADS significantly increased phosphorylation at the MAPK-sensitive serine (Ser255 and Ser279, the cell cycle regulatory kinase-sensitive Ser262 and the PKC-sensitive Ser368 after 30 min while 8Br-cAMP significantly increased phosphorylation only at Ser279 compared to controls. This study demonstrates that 8Br-cAMP- and DADS-enhanced GJIC rather than Cx43 expression and/or phosphorylation plays an important role in regulation of VSMC proliferation and provides new insights into the growth-regulatory capacities of Cx43 in VSMCs.

  1. MODEL-ASSISTED ESTIMATION OF THE GENETIC VARIABILITY IN PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS RELATED TO TOMATO FRUIT GROWTH UNDER CONTRASTED WATER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Constantinescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a major abiotic stres threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding Drought stress is a major abiotic stress threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding mechanisms governing water and carbon accumulations and identifying genes, QTLs and phenotypes, that will enable trade-offs between fruit growth and quality under Water Deficit (WD condition is a crucial challenge for breeders and growers. In the present work, 117 recombinant inbred lines of a population of Solanum lycopersicum were phenotyped under control and WD conditions. Plant water status, fruit growth and composition were measured and data were used to calibrate a process-based model describing water and carbon fluxes in a growing fruit as a function of plant and environment. Eight genotype-dependent model parameters were estimated using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm in order to minimize the prediction errors of fruit dry and fresh mass throughout fruit development. WD increased the fruit dry matter content (up to 85 % and decreased its fresh weight (up to 60 %, big fruit size genotypes being the most sensitive. The mean normalized root mean squared errors of the predictions ranged between 16-18 % in the population. Variability in model genotypic parameters allowed us to explore diverse genetic strategies in response to WD. An interesting group of genotypes could be discriminated in which i the low loss of fresh mass under WD was associated with high active uptake of sugars and low value of the maximum cell wall extensibility, and ii the high dry matter content in control treatment (C was associated with a slow decrease of mass flow. Using 501 SNP markers genotyped across the genome, a QTL analysis of model parameters allowed to detect three main QTLs related to xylem and phloem conductivities, on chromosomes 2, 4 and 8. The model was then applied to design ideotypes with high dry matter

  2. Overexpression of PSP1 enhances growth of transgenic Arabidopsis plants under ambient air conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaofang; Peng, Keli; Wu, Haixia; Song, Shanshan; Zhu, Yerong; Bai, Yanling; Wang, Yong

    2017-07-01

    The importance of the phosphorylated pathway (PPSB) of L-serine (Ser) biosynthesis in plant growth and development has been demonstrated, but its specific role in leaves and interaction with photorespiration, the main leaf Ser biosynthetic pathway at daytime, are still unclear. To investigate whether changes in biosynthesis of Ser by the PPSB in leaves could have an impact on photorespiration and plant growth, we overexpressed PSP1, the last enzyme of this pathway, under control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpressor plants grown in normal air displayed larger rosette diameter and leaf area as well as higher fresh and dry weight than the wild type. By contrast, no statistically significant differences to the wild type were observed when the overexpressor seedlings were transferred to elevated CO 2 , indicating a relationship between PSP1 overexpression and photorespiration. Additionally, the transgenic plants displayed higher photorespiration, an increase in CO 2 net-uptake and stronger expression in the light of genes encoding enzymes involved in photorespiration. We further demonstrated that expression of many genes involved in nitrogen assimilation was also promoted in leaves of transgenic plants and that leaf nitrate reductase activity increased in the light, too, although not in the dark. Our results suggest a close correlation between the function of PPSB and photorespiration, and also nitrogen metabolism in leaves.

  3. Effects of environmental conditions on onset of xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Oberhuber, Walter

    2011-05-01

    We determined the influence of environmental factors (air and soil temperature, precipitation, photoperiod) on onset of xylem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) by repeatedly sampling micro-cores throughout 2007-10 at two sites (xeric and dry-mesic) at the start of the growing season. Temperature sums were calculated in degree-days (DD) ≥5 °C from 1 January and 20 March, i.e., spring equinox, to account for photoperiodic control of release from winter dormancy. Threshold temperatures at which xylogenesis had a 0.5 probability of being active were calculated by logistic regression. Onset of xylem growth, which was not significantly different between the xeric and dry-mesic sites, ranged from mid-April in 2007 to early May in 2008. Among most study years, statistically significant differences (Pdrought stress forces P. sylvestris to draw upon water reserves in the stem for enlargement of first tracheids after cambial resumption in spring. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain IGF-1 receptors control mammalian growth and lifespan through a neuroendocrine mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Kappeler

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations that decrease insulin-like growth factor (IGF and growth hormone signaling limit body size and prolong lifespan in mice. In vertebrates, these somatotropic hormones are controlled by the neuroendocrine brain. Hormone-like regulations discovered in nematodes and flies suggest that IGF signals in the nervous system can determine lifespan, but it is unknown whether this applies to higher organisms. Using conditional mutagenesis in the mouse, we show that brain IGF receptors (IGF-1R efficiently regulate somatotropic development. Partial inactivation of IGF-1R in the embryonic brain selectively inhibited GH and IGF-I pathways after birth. This caused growth retardation, smaller adult size, and metabolic alterations, and led to delayed mortality and longer mean lifespan. Thus, early changes in neuroendocrine development can durably modify the life trajectory in mammals. The underlying mechanism appears to be an adaptive plasticity of somatotropic functions allowing individuals to decelerate growth and preserve resources, and thereby improve fitness in challenging environments. Our results also suggest that tonic somatotropic signaling entails the risk of shortened lifespan.

  5. Characterization of plant-growth promoting diazotrophic bacteria isolated from field grown Chinese cabbage under different fertilization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woo-Jong; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Palaniappan, Pitchai; Siddikee, M A; Sa, Tongmin

    2009-04-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage were assessed for other plant growth promoting characteristics viz., production of IAA, ethylene, ACC deaminase, phosphate solubilization, and gnotobiotic root elongation. Their effect on inoculation to Chinese cabbage was also observed under growth chamber conditions. A total of 19 strains that showed higher nitrogenase activity identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were found to be the members of the genera Pseudomonas and Agrobacterium belonging to alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria groups. These strains were also efficient in producing IAA and ACC deaminase though they produced low levels of ethylene and no phosphate solubilization. In addition, inoculation of selected diazotrophic bacterial strains significantly increased seedling length, dry weight, and total nitrogen when compared to uninoculated control. The colonization of crop plants by diazotrophic bacteria can be affected by many biotic and abiotic factors, and further studies are oriented towards investigating the factors that could influence the establishment of a selected bacterial community.

  6. Regeneration efficiency based on genotype, culture condition and growth regulators of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdul Muktadir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were carried out to establish an efficient regenerating protocol for cultivated eggplant varieties. Among the five varieties cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium with free plant growth regulator (PGR, Nayantara performed better considering the number of shoots/explant (2.48. Considering explant types and culture conditions, better performance was observed (3.68 shoots/explant when seed germination in the dark was proceeded by bottom hypocotyl segments cultured under dark conditions. A higher rate of shoot regeneration was observed in Nayantara when cultured in Zeatin Riboside (ZR and Thidizuron (TDZ supplemented MS medium. The highest number of shoots per explant was produced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L ZR and 0.1 mg/L indole acetic acid (6.65 shoots/explant. Proliferation and elongation of the regenerated shoots were obtained in the MS medium with free PGR. The best rooting performance was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L indole butyric acid. Plantlets with well developed roots and shoots were successfully transferred to soil.

  7. Optimal control of the process of cultivation in the conditions of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sukhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a way of solving of the optimal control problem of antibiotic feeding under condition of infection, consisting in the selection of the optimal control in the field of admissible control, with the aim of achieving a compromise between the losses in production due to the presence of foreign microflora, and the cost of its suppression due to the application of antibiotic. The presence of other microorganisms in the finished product, in particular of the “wild“ ones, considerably impairs the quality indicators of the final product (in particular, it reduces the storage time. In peculiar conditions of production it is possible to improve the quality of target product due to elimination of infection, including, when used antibiotics in the process of cultivation, but due to the lack of efficient algorithms and control systems of their supply the question is still open. We use the system of Lotka-Volterra adapted for microbiological process as a mathematical model adequately describing the situation of competitive interaction of two populations of microorganisms (useful and “wild“ ones due to the consumption of one resource. The aim is to find a control law U(t belonging to the field of admissible control. The control that affords minimum to the optimization criterion in accordance with the principle of maximum is defined by the condition of the maximum of Hamilton function and the resulting canonical system of equations. The modified conjugated system of equations in matrix form is obtained. The solution of system of differential-different equations in the analytical form is found using the method of coordinate transformation. As a result an optimal control law is found (with regard to the selected criterion. This is the control law of application of the antibiotic, allowing to control the concentration of foreign microflora in the process of cultivation of microorganisms and accounting for the specific

  8. Increased water-use efficiency does not lead to enhanced tree growth under xeric and mesic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lévesque, M.; Siegwolf, R.; Saurer, M.; Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

    2014-01-01

    Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ca ) can under certain conditions increase tree growth by enhancing photosynthesis, resulting in an increase of intrinsic water-use efficiency (i WUE) in trees. However, the magnitude of these effects and their interactions with changing climatic conditions are

  9. Switching robust control synthesis for teleoperation via dwell time conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Martínez, C.A.; van de Molengraft, M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.; Auvray, M.; Duriez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Control design for bilateral teleoperation is still an open problem, given that it is desirable to meet a proper balance in the inherent trade-off between transparency and stability. We propose the use of switching robust control, in which smooth switching among controllers is achieved by the

  10. Laser printing of nanoparticle toner enables digital control of micropatterned carbon nanotube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsen, Erik S; Stevens, Adam G; Hart, A John

    2013-05-01

    Commercialization of materials utilizing patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, such as hierarchical composite structures, dry adhesives, and contact probe arrays, will require catalyst patterning techniques that do not rely on cleanroom photolithography. We demonstrate the large scale patterning of CNT growth catalyst via adaptation of a laser-based electrostatic printing process that uses magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) toner. The MICR toner contains iron oxide nanoparticles that serve as the catalyst for CNT growth, which are printed onto a flexible polymer (polyimide) and then transferred to a rigid substrate (silicon or alumina) under heat and mechanical pressure. Then, the substrate is processed for CNT growth under an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) recipe. This process enables digital control of patterned CNT growth via the laser intensity, which controls the CNT density; and via the grayscale level, which controls the pixelation of the image into arrays of micropillars. Moreover, virtually any pattern can be designed using standard software (e.g., MS Word, AutoCAD, etc.) and printed on demand. Using a standard office printer, we realize isolated CNT microstructures as small as 140 μm and isolated catalyst ″pixels″ as small as 70 μm (one grayscale dot) and determine that individual toner microparticles result in features of approximately 5-10 μm . We demonstrate that grayscale CNT patterns can function as dry adhesives and that large-area catalyst patterns can be printed directly onto metal foils or transferred to ceramic plates. Laser printing therefore shows promise to enable high-speed micropatterning of nanoparticle-containing thin films under ambient conditions, possibly for a wide variety of nanostructures by engineering of toners containing nanoparticles of desired composition, size, and shape.

  11. Conditional inactivation of TNFα-converting enzyme in chondrocytes results in an elongated growth plate and shorter long bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Saito

    Full Text Available TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE is a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with essential roles in the functional regulation of TNFα and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligands. Previous studies have demonstrated critical roles for TACE in vivo, including epidermal development, immune response, and pathological neoangiogenesis, among others. However, the potential contribution of TACE to skeletal development is still unclear. In the present study, we generated a Tace mutant mouse in which Tace is conditionally disrupted in chondrocytes under the control of the Col2a1 promoter. These mutant mice were fertile and viable but all exhibited long bones that were approximately 10% shorter compared to those of wild-type animals. Histological analyses revealed that Tace mutant mice exhibited a longer hypertrophic zone in the growth plate, and there were fewer osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction in the Tace mutant mice than in their wild-type littermates. Of note, we found an increase in osteoprotegerin transcripts and a reduction in Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in the TACE-deficient cartilage, indicating that dysregulation of these genes is causally related to the skeletal defects in the Tace mutant mice. Furthermore, we also found that phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly reduced in the cartilage tissue lacking TACE, and that suppression of EGFR signaling increases osteoprotegerin transcripts and reduces Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in primary chondrocytes. In accordance, chondrocyte-specific abrogation of Egfr in vivo resulted in skeletal defects nearly identical to those observed in the Tace mutant mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TACE-EGFR signaling in chondrocytes is involved in the turnover of the growth plate during postnatal development via the transcriptional regulation of osteoprotegerin, Rankl, and Mmp-13.

  12. Are oysters being bored to death? Influence of Cliona celata on Crassostrea virginica condition, growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John M; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Diedrich, Grant A; Finelli, Christopher M

    2015-11-17

    The boring sponge Cliona celata is a nuisance species that can have deleterious effects on eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica growth, condition, and survival. Surprisingly, however, these effects have not been well documented and when examined, results have been equi-vocal. In this study, we provide a direct comparison of growth, condition, and survival of sponge-colonized and uncolonized oysters in southeast North Carolina in 2 separate experiments. In the first experiment, sponge-colonized oysters exhibited significantly slower growth rates, reduced condition, and lower survival relative to uncolonized oysters, although results may have been confounded by oyster source. In the second experiment, using smaller oysters from the same source population, growth rate was again significantly reduced in colonized oysters relative to uncolonized oysters, however neither condition nor survival differed. In field surveys of the same population, colonized individuals across a range of sizes demonstrated significantly reduced condition. Further, condition index was negatively correlated with sponge biomass, which was positively correlated with oyster size, suggesting that the impact of the sponge changes with ontogeny. By investigating clearance rates, tissue isotopic and nutrient content, as well as caloric value, this study provides further evidence that sponge presence causes the oysters to divert energy into costly shell maintenance and repair at the expense of shell and somatic growth. Thus, although variable, our results demonstrate negative impacts of sponge infestation on oyster demographics, particularly as oysters grow larger.

  13. In-situ transmission electron microscopy growth of nanoparticles under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, F. P.; Azevedo, G. de M.; Baptista, D. L.; Zawislak, F. C.; Oliviero, E.; Fichtner, P. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and time resolved behavior of individual Pb nanoparticles embedded in silica have been studied by in-situ transmission electron microscopy observations at high temperatures (400–1100 °C) and under 200 keV electron irradiation. It is shown that under such extreme conditions, nanoparticles can migrate at long distances presenting a Brownian-like behavior and eventually coalesce. The particle migration phenomenon is discussed considering the influence of the thermal energy and the electron irradiation effects on the atomic diffusion process which is shown to control particle migration. These results and comparison with ex-situ experiments tackle the stability and the microstructure evolution of nanoparticles systems under extreme conditions. It elucidates on the effects of energetic particle irradiation-annealing treatments either as a tool or as a detrimental issue that could hamper their long-term applications in radiation-harsh environments such as in space or nuclear sectors

  14. Climate control on tree growth at the upper and lower treelines: a case study in the qilian mountains, tibetan plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Yang

    Full Text Available It is generally hypothesized that tree growth at the upper treeline is normally controlled by temperature while that at the lower treeline is precipitation limited. However, uniform patterns of inter-annual ring-width variations along altitudinal gradients are also observed in some situations. How changing elevation influences tree growth in the cold and arid Qilian Mountains, on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, is of considerable interest because of the sensitivity of the region's local climate to different atmospheric circulation patterns. Here, a network of four Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom. ring-width chronologies was developed from trees distributed on a typical mountain slope at elevations ranging from 3000 to 3520 m above sea level (a.s.l.. The statistical characteristics of the four tree-ring chronologies show no significant correlation with increasing elevation. All the sampled tree growth was controlled by a common climatic signal (local precipitation across the investigated altitudinal gradient (520 m. During the common reliable period, covering the past 450 years, the four chronologies have exhibited coherent growth patterns in both the high- and low-frequency domains. These results contradict the notion of contrasting climate growth controls at higher and lower elevations, and specifically the assumption that inter-annual tree-growth variability is controlled by temperature at the upper treeline. It should be stressed that these results relate to the relatively arid conditions at the sampling sites in the Qilian Mountains.

  15. Growth Responses of Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria Seedlings on Different Soil Origin under Nursery Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirtha Ayu Paramitha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the growth responses of Acacia mangium (mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria (sengon seedlings growing on different soil origin under nursery condition. This study was started in September 2012 and terminated in March 2013.  The seedlings were grown from seeds sown in a plastic box filled with sterilized sands. One week after sowing, the seedlings were transplanted into polybags contained sterilized soils originated from secondary forest, Imperata cylindrica grassland and ex-coal mining. The number of all seedlings were 180 seedlings consisted of 3 different soils, 2 species of seedlings with 10 seedlings replicated 3 times. Assessment was conducted one week after transplanting, then subsequently monitored every 2 weeks, except dry weighing and counting nodules were performed at the end of the study. A completely randomized design was used in this study. The data was analyzed using Costat software. The study resulted that the different of soil origin influenced on all growth variables of mangium and sengon of 4.5 months old. The survival rate of seedlings, height and diameter increments, dry weight and root nodules were better in both species of seedlings growing on soil originated from secondary forest and Imperata grassland compared with the soil from ex-coal mining. But the survival rates of sengon seedlings were higher than that of mangium on these three soils. The highest dry weight of sengon seedlings was achieved on soil originated from secondary forest. In the present study, soil originated from secondary forest increased more in weight of shoot than root, so that the shoot-root ratio was unbalanced more than one. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that soil from secondary forest and Imperata grassland can be used as growing media for mangium and sengon seedlings in the nursery.

  16. Sugar signals and the control of plant growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Jeroen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357520076; Hanson, Johannes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822299; Smeekens, Sjef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072489995

    2014-01-01

    Sugars have a central regulatory function in steering plant growth. This review focuses on information presented in the past 2 years on key players in sugar-mediated plant growth regulation, with emphasis on trehalose 6-phosphate, target of rapamycin kinase, and Snf1-related kinase 1 regulatory

  17. Muscarinic receptors in amygdala control trace fear conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber N Baysinger

    Full Text Available Intelligent behavior requires transient memory, which entails the ability to retain information over short time periods. A newly-emerging hypothesis posits that endogenous persistent firing (EPF is the neurophysiological foundation for aspects or types of transient memory. EPF is enabled by the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and is triggered by suprathreshold stimulation. EPF occurs in several brain regions, including the lateral amygdala (LA. The present study examined the role of amygdalar mAChRs in trace fear conditioning, a paradigm that requires transient memory. If mAChR-dependent EPF selectively supports transient memory, then blocking amygdalar mAChRs should impair trace conditioning, while sparing delay and context conditioning, which presumably do not rely upon transient memory. To test the EPF hypothesis, LA was bilaterally infused, prior to trace or delay conditioning, with either a mAChR antagonist (scopolamine or saline. Computerized video analysis quantified the amount of freezing elicited by the cue and by the training context. Scopolamine infusion profoundly reduced freezing in the trace conditioning group but had no significant effect on delay or context conditioning. This pattern of results was uniquely anticipated by the EPF hypothesis. The present findings are discussed in terms of a systems-level theory of how EPF in LA and several other brain regions might help support trace fear conditioning.

  18. Muscarinic receptors in amygdala control trace fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysinger, Amber N; Kent, Brianne A; Brown, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent behavior requires transient memory, which entails the ability to retain information over short time periods. A newly-emerging hypothesis posits that endogenous persistent firing (EPF) is the neurophysiological foundation for aspects or types of transient memory. EPF is enabled by the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and is triggered by suprathreshold stimulation. EPF occurs in several brain regions, including the lateral amygdala (LA). The present study examined the role of amygdalar mAChRs in trace fear conditioning, a paradigm that requires transient memory. If mAChR-dependent EPF selectively supports transient memory, then blocking amygdalar mAChRs should impair trace conditioning, while sparing delay and context conditioning, which presumably do not rely upon transient memory. To test the EPF hypothesis, LA was bilaterally infused, prior to trace or delay conditioning, with either a mAChR antagonist (scopolamine) or saline. Computerized video analysis quantified the amount of freezing elicited by the cue and by the training context. Scopolamine infusion profoundly reduced freezing in the trace conditioning group but had no significant effect on delay or context conditioning. This pattern of results was uniquely anticipated by the EPF hypothesis. The present findings are discussed in terms of a systems-level theory of how EPF in LA and several other brain regions might help support trace fear conditioning.

  19. Condition-based Human Reliability Assessment for digitalized control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J.

    2005-04-01

    In safety-critical systems, the generation failure of an actuation signal is caused by the concurrent failures of the automated systems and an operator action. These two sources of safety signals are complicatedly correlated. The failures of sensors or automated systems will cause a lack of necessary information for a human operator and result in error-forcing contexts such as the loss of corresponding alarms and indications. In the conventional analysis, the Human Error Probabilities (HEP) are estimated based on the assumption of 'normal condition of indications and alarms'. In order to construct a more realistic signal-generation failure model, we have to consider more complicated conditions in a more realistic manner. In this study, we performed two kinds of investigation for addressing this issue. We performed the analytic calculations for estimating the effect of sensors failures on the system unavailability and plant risk. For the single-parameter safety signals, the analysis result reveals that the quantification of the HEP should be performed by focusing on the 'no alarm from the automatic system and corresponding indications unavailable' situation. This study also proposes a Condition-Based Human Reliability Assessment (CBHRA) method in order to address these complicated conditions in a practical way. We apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of the safety features such as a reactor trip and auxiliary feedwater actuation in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants. In the case of conventional single HEP method, it is very hard to consider the multiple HE conditions. The merit of CBHRA is clearly shown in the application to the AFAS generation where no dominating HE condition exits. In this case, even if the HE conditions are carefully investigated, the single HEP method cannot accommodate the multiple conditions in a fault tree. On the other hand, the application result of the reactor trip in SLOCA shows that if there is a dominating condition, the use

  20. The influence of stress conditions on the growth of selected lactic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of certain stress conditions on selected lactic acid bacteria. Where recontamination occurred, lactic acid bacteria was already the dominant bacterial group, with counts of higher than 10 6 /g in vacuum-packaged 'shelf stable' meat products after 1 week storage at 25 and 37 degrees Celsius respectively. Some of the isolates were capable of growing at a pH of 3,9. The minimum pH for growth of a specific culture was dependant on the type of acid that was used to lower the pH. Lactic and acetic acid had the highest inhibitory action. Hydrochloric and citric acid showed similar inhibitory effects, while the effects when using ascorbic acid or gluconic acid for lowering the pH were also fairly similar. Increase in the activity of certain lactic acid bacteria was noticed where the ratio of undissociated to dissociated citric acid in the medium was increased. After exceeding a concentration of 0,048 moles/l undissosiated citric acid in the medium, the activity of the majority of cultures was progressively inhibited. This phenomenon was also found with acetic acid for certain cultures. Selected lactic acid bacteria were resistant to an water activity (a (sub w)) of 0,94 in MRS broth, where NaCl or glycerol was used as a humectant. The minimum a (sub w) for growth was dependent on the type of humectant used. Concentrations of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were necessary to inhibit the majority of strains. The % inhibition by sodium benzoate and methyl paraben did not significantly change with a lowering in the pH of the growth medium. Except in the case of lactic acid, the different acids used to lower the pH of the medium did not have a significant effect on the % inhibition by the chemical preservatives. For the cocci, gamma D 10 values of between 0,82 and 1,29 kGy were recorded, whereas the lactobacilli were less resistant to gamma rays, with D 10 values of between 0,21 and 0,54 kGy

  1. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  2. Fatigue behaviour and crack growth of ferritic steel under environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X.; Weissenberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of fatigue and cyclic crack growth behaviour of safety relevant components is of importance for the ageing management with regard to safety and reliability. For cyclic stress evaluation different codes and standards provide fatigue analysis procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. For the fatigue design curves used as a limiting criteria the influence of different factors like e.g. environment, surface finish and temperature must be taken into consideration in an appropriate way. Fatigue tests were performed in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) und high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime with low alloy steels as well as with Nb- and Ti-stabilized German austenitic stainless steels in air and high temperature (HT) boiling water reactor environment to extend the state of knowledge of environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) as it can occur in boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. Using the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel 22NiMoCr3-7 experimental data were developed to verify the influence of BWR coolant environment (high purity water as well as sulphate containing water with 90 ppb SO 4 at a test temperature of 240 C and an oxygen content of 400 ppb) on the fatigue life and to extend the basis for a reliable estimation of the remaining service life of reactor components. Corresponding experiments in air were performed to establish reference data to determine the environmental correction factor F en accounting for the environment. The experimental results are compared with international available mean data curves, the new design curves and on the basis of the environmental factor F en . Furthermore the behaviour of steel 22NiMoCr3-7 in oxygenated high temperature water under transient loading conditions was investigated with respect to crack initiation and cyclic crack growth. In this process the stress state of the specimen and the chemical composition of the high

  3. ADAPTATION TO UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS OF GROWTH: PATHOGENICITY OF ACHOLEPLASMA LAIDLAWII PG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Trushin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:As a result of cultivation of A. laidlawii PG8 cells on the deficient medium during 480 days, the mycoplasma culture adapted in vitro to unfavorable growth conditions was obtained. The culture consisted of cells with sizes less than 0.2 µm and features of A. laidlawii PG8 ultramicroforms, nanocells. A. laidlawii PG8 culture adapted in vitro to unfavorable growth conditions shows more evident phytopathogenicity than the unadapted one. Infecting plants V. minor L. by A. laidlawii PG8 culture adapted in vitro to UGC resulted in the appearance of chloroses in 75%, necrosis – 50%, leaves marcescence – 50% and abnormalities of bine development in 30% of plants through 12 days, while infecting plants by A. laidlawii PG8 culture unadapted to UGC led to respective signs in 40%, 25%, 25% and 0% of samples, respectively, through 30 days. The ability of A. laidlawii PG8 to form UMF resistant to stress factors in UGC with high phytopathogenic potential seems to demand a new approach to investigate the precise mechanisms of interacting the mycoplasma with host organisms.RESUMENComo resultado del cultivo de células de A. laidlawii PG8 en medio deficiente durante 480 días, fue obtenido un cultivo de mycoplasma adaptado in vitro a las condiciones desfavorables del crecimiento. El cultivo consistió en células con tamaño menor de 0.2 µm y características PG8 ultramicroformas de A. laidlawii nanocélulas. El cultivo de A. laidlawii PG8 adaptado in vitro a condiciones desfavorables del crecimiento muestra más evidente fitopatogenicidad que el inadaptado. Plantas infectadas V. minor L. por el cultivo del A. laidlawii PG8 adaptado in vitro a UGC dio como resultado la aparición de clorosis en el 75%, necrosis en el 50%, marcescencia de las hojas en el 50% y anormalidades del desarrollo del bine en el 30% de plantas a los 12 días, mientras que las plantas infectadas por el cultivo del A. laidlawii PG8 inadaptado a UGC, condujo a dichos signos en

  4. Direct Digital Control of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    controller func- tions such as time-of-day, economizer cycles, reset, load shedding, chiller optimization , VAV fan synchronization, and optimum start/stop...control system such as that illustrated in Fig- urc 4. Data on setpoints , reset schedules, and event timing, such as that presented in Figure 6, are...program code (Figure 7). In addition to the control logic, setpoint and other data are readily available. Program logi:, setpoint and schedule data, and

  5. 42 CFR 494.30 - Condition: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of potentially infectious waste; and (ii) Cleaning and disinfection of contaminated surfaces, medical... adjacent hospital or other public areas. (a) Standard: Procedures for infection control. The facility must...

  6. Hydrolysis and photolysis of diacylhydrazines-type insect growth regulator JS-118 in aqueous solutions under abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J-Y; Liu, C; Zhang, Y-C; Zheng, Z-X

    2009-05-01

    JS-118 is a diacylhydrazines-type insect growth regulator which is now used extensively in China. The hydrolysis and photolysis of the pesticide JS-118 in aqueous solutions have been assessed under natural and controlled conditions in this project. Hydrolysis experimental results show that JS-118 is quite stable in aqueous solutions in dark, with no significant variations be observed in degradation under various conditions. Abiotic hydrolysis is relatively unimportant compared to photolysis. The rate of photodecomposition of JS-118 in aqueous solutions follows first-order kinetics both in UV radiation and natural sunlight. The degradation rates are faster under UV light than sunlight, with the half-lives (t (1/2) = ln2/k) of 6.00-10.85 min and 6.63-10.16 day, respectively. Under UV light, two major photoproducts are detected, and tentatively identified according to HPLC-MS spectral information as N-t-butyl-N-(3,5-dimethylbenzoyl) and 3,7-dimethyl-benzoatedihydrofuran. The corresponding photolysis pathways of JS-118 are also proposed. The results obtained indicate that direct photoreaction is an important dissipation pathway of JS-118 in natural water systems.

  7. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Cabeza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules, was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants.

  8. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

  9. The bifunctional autophagic flux by 2-deoxyglucose to control survival or growth of prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jeong Yong; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Ki Cheong; Yun, Mijin

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports using metabolism regulating drugs showed that nutrient deprivation was an efficient tool to suppress cancer progression. In addition, autophagy control is emerging to prevent cancer cell survival. Autophagy breaks down the unnecessary cytoplasmic components into anabolic units and energy sources, which are the most important sources for making the ATP that maintains homeostasis in cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) has been used as an anticancer reagent due to its inhibition of glycolysis. Prostate cancer cells (PC3) were treated with 2DG for 6 h or 48 h to analyze the changing of cell cycle and autophagic flux. Rapamycin and LC3B overexpressing vectors were administered to PC3 cells for autophagy induction and chloroquine and shBeclin1 plasmid were used to inhibit autophagy in PC3 cells to analyze PC3 cells growth and survival. The samples for western blotting were prepared in each culture condition to confirm the expression level of autophagy related and regulating proteins. We demonstrated that 2DG inhibits PC3 cells growth and had discriminating effects on autophagy regulation based on the different time period of 2DG treatment to control cell survival. Short-term treatment of 2DG induced autophagic flux, which increased microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) conversion rates and reduced p62 levels. However, 2DG induced autophagic flux is remarkably reduced over an extended time period of 2DG treatment for 48 h despite autophagy inducing internal signaling being maintained. The relationship between cell growth and autophagy was proved. Increased autophagic flux by rapamycin or LC3B overexpression powerfully reduced cell growth, while autophagy inhibition with shBeclin1 plasmid or chloroquine had no significant effect on regulating cell growth. Given these results, maintaining increased autophagic flux was more effective at inhibiting cancer cell progression than inhibition of

  10. Maximizing growth of vegetable seedlings in controlled environments at elevated temperature, light and CO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizek, D.T.; Bailey, W.A.; Klueter, H.; Liu, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    Seedlings of cucumber Burpee Hybrid, tomato Michigan-Ohio and lettuce Grand Rapids were germinated in the greenhouse for 5, 8, and 11 days respectively, and then grown for 15 days at elevated temperature (30/24/sup 0/C), light (43.1 klx), and CO/sub 2/ (2000 ppm) a 16-hr photoperiod, 65% relative humidity, and fertilized 4 times daily. At the end of this time, they weighed 2 to 4.6 times those grown at standard environmental conditions in the growth chamber (24/18/sup 0/C, 21.5 klx, and 400 ppm CO/sub 2/) and 10 to 25 times those of greenhouse controls kept on natural days (24/18/sup 0/C, 350 ppm CO/sub 2/, and ca 12-hr photoperiod). Leaf expansion of seedlings grown under elevated growth chamber conditions was double that of seedlings in standard growth chamber conditions, and 6 to 7 times greater than under natural days in the greenhouse. Temperature was the most limiting factor for seedling growth. At the levels of light and CO/sub 2/ used in the experiment, CO/sub 2/ was more limiting than light intensity. In general, optimum seedling growth was obtained when temperature, light, and CO/sub 2/ were increased simultaneously. The most striking effects of CO/sub 2/ enrichment were precocious flower bud formation in tomato and cucumber and extensive growth of the lateral buds in all three species.

  11. The Arabidopsis SWI/SNF protein BAF60 mediates seedling growth control by modulating DNA accessibility

    KAUST Repository

    Jégu, Teddy

    2017-06-15

    Plant adaptive responses to changing environments involve complex molecular interplays between intrinsic and external signals. Whilst much is known on the signaling components mediating diurnal, light, and temperature controls on plant development, their influence on chromatin-based transcriptional controls remains poorly explored.In this study we show that a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler subunit, BAF60, represses seedling growth by modulating DNA accessibility of hypocotyl cell size regulatory genes. BAF60 binds nucleosome-free regions of multiple G box-containing genes, opposing in cis the promoting effect of the photomorphogenic and thermomorphogenic regulator Phytochrome Interacting Factor 4 (PIF4) on hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, BAF60 expression level is regulated in response to light and daily rhythms.These results unveil a short path between a chromatin remodeler and a signaling component to fine-tune plant morphogenesis in response to environmental conditions.

  12. The Arabidopsis SWI/SNF protein BAF60 mediates seedling growth control by modulating DNA accessibility

    KAUST Repository

    Jé gu, Teddy; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Ramirez Prado, Juan Sebastian; Rizzi-Paillet, Charley; Perez, Magalie; Lhomme, Anaï s; Latrasse, David; Coleno, Emeline; Vicaire, Serge; Legras, Sté phanie; Jost, Bernard; Rougé e, Martin; Barneche, Fredy; Bergounioux, Catherine; Crespi, Martin; Mahfouz, Magdy M.; Hirt, Heribert; Raynaud, Cé cile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Plant adaptive responses to changing environments involve complex molecular interplays between intrinsic and external signals. Whilst much is known on the signaling components mediating diurnal, light, and temperature controls on plant development, their influence on chromatin-based transcriptional controls remains poorly explored.In this study we show that a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler subunit, BAF60, represses seedling growth by modulating DNA accessibility of hypocotyl cell size regulatory genes. BAF60 binds nucleosome-free regions of multiple G box-containing genes, opposing in cis the promoting effect of the photomorphogenic and thermomorphogenic regulator Phytochrome Interacting Factor 4 (PIF4) on hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, BAF60 expression level is regulated in response to light and daily rhythms.These results unveil a short path between a chromatin remodeler and a signaling component to fine-tune plant morphogenesis in response to environmental conditions.

  13. Robust Control of an Ill-Conditioned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, S.G.; Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Grimble, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point.......A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point....

  14. Control of DFIG-WT under unbalanced grid voltage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Alvaro; Lina, Kleber; Corcoles, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    The voltage oriented control in the synchronous reference frame (VOC-SRF) have been extensively used for controlling wind turbines based on doubly fed induction generators (DFIG-WTs) through the rotor side converter of a back to back power processor. Although its performance is fast and accurate ...

  15. Defining conditions of garnet growth across the central and southern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, T. M.; Catlos, E. J.; Kelly, E. D.; Cemen, I.; Ozerdem, C.; Atakturk, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Here we apply thermodynamic modeling using Theriak-Domino to garnet-bearing rocks from the central and southern portions of the Menderes Massif to gain insight into the dynamics of western Turkey as the region experienced a transition from collisional to extensional tectonics. To this end, we report new pressure-temperature (P-T) paths from garnet-bearing rocks collected along the Alasehir detachment fault, a prominent exhumation structure in the central portion of the Menderes Massif in western Turkey, constituting the southern margin of the Alasehir Graben. These paths are compared to those from the Selimiye shear zone in the Southern (Cine) Massif. Two Alasehir garnets collected from the same outcrop record two P-T paths: 1) a prograde path beginning at 565oC and 6.4 kbar increasing to 592 oC and 7.5 kbar; and 2) near isobaric growth initiating at 531oC and 7.1 kbar and terminating at 571oC and 7.3 kbar. High-resolution P-T paths could not be modeled for the majority of Alasehir samples due to diffusional modification of garnet. However, conditions were estimated by garnet isopleth thermobarometry at the point of highest spessartine content for each crystal. Calculated P-T values for this subset of samples range between 566-651oC and 6.2-6.8 kbar. Despite this broad range, these P-T conditions are consistent with what is observed in the modeled paths. Th-Pb ages of matrix monazite range from 35.8±3.0 to 20.6±2.4 Ma, suggesting metamorphism in the central Menderes Massif occurred over a 15 m.y. period. Selimiye shear zone rocks show distinct N-shaped P-T paths, suggesting garnets in the central and southern portion of the Menderes Massif record distinctly different tectonic histories.

  16. Effect of hardening on the crack growth rate of austenitic stainless steels in primary PWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, M.L.; Garcia, M.S.; Diego, G. de; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Francia, L.

    2002-01-01

    Intergranular cracking of non-sensitized materials, found in light water reactor (LWR) components exposed to neutron radiation, has been attributed to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC). Cracking of baffle former bolts, fabricated of AISI-316L and AISI-347, have been reported in some Europeans and US PWR plants. Examinations of removed bolts indicate the intergranular cracking characteristics can be associated with IASCC phenomena. Neutron radiation produce critical modifications of the microstructure and microchemical of stainless steels such hardening due to irradiation and Radiation Induce Segregation (RIS) at grain boundaries, among others. Chromium depletion at grain boundary due to RIS seems to justify the intergranular cracking of irradiated materials, both in plant and in lab tests, at high electrochemical corrosion potential (BWR-NWC environments), but it is not enough to explain cracking at low corrosion potential (BWR-HWC and PWR environments). In these latter conditions, hardening is considered a possible additional mechanism to explain the behavior of irradiated material. Radiation Hardening can be simulated in non irradiated material by mechanical deformation. Although some differences exists in the types of defects produced by radiation and mechanical deformation, it is accepted that the study of the stress corrosion behavior of unirradiated austenitic steels with different hardening levels would contribute to the understanding of IASCC mechanism. In order to evaluate the influence of hardening on the stress corrosion susceptibility of austenitic steels, crack growth rate tests with 316L and 347 stainless steels with nominal yield strengths from 500 to 900 MPa, produced by cold work are being carried out at 340 deg C in PWR conditions. Preliminary results indicate that crack propagation was obtained in the 316Lss and 347ss cold worked, even with a yield strength of 550 MPa. (authors)

  17. Actual conditions of radiation control in radioisotope utilization field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihara, Koji

    1980-01-01

    It may be said that the actual conditions on radiation safety are being improved in utilizing radioisotopes or radiation in Japan. It depends greatly on the results of the voluntary effort of users and the regulations by the ''radiation injury prevention law'' and its relevant ordinances. However, the actual conditions of the strict observation of the law are much insufficient. According to the results of official inspection in 1978, 60% of whole enterprises concerned and 73% of educational and medical organizations were judged as incomplete. Such tendency should not be left as it is, but it should also be noticed that there are realities that critical accidents or injuries have not occurred even in such conditions as many violations mentioned above. Since the existing law has not been subjected to essential revision in the past two decades, it might be said that the law does not properly fit to the present conditions because the progress of related techniques was made during this period. Meanwhile, difficulties exist in measuring the low level concentration in the use of low energy radioisotopes or tracer experiments such as in the process analysis in factories or in the analysis of the movement of trace constituent in soil. Further, there is a problem on the necessity of securing the chief technicians handling radiation, and there is the contradiction that the chief technicians are useless in normal condition but are powerless in case of accidents. This situation should be improved as soon as possible. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Controlling growth rate anisotropy for formation of continuous ZnO thin films from seeded substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R H; Slamovich, E B; Handwerker, C A

    2013-01-01

    Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are promising candidates for low-temperature-processable active layers in transparent thin film electronics. In this study, control of growth rate anisotropy using ZnO nanoparticle seeds, capping ions, and pH adjustment leads to a low-temperature (90 ° C) hydrothermal process for transparent and high-density ZnO thin films. The common 1D ZnO nanorod array was grown into a 2D continuous polycrystalline film using a short-time pure solution method. Growth rate anisotropy of ZnO crystals and the film morphology were tuned by varying the chloride (Cl − ) ion concentration and the initial pH of solutions of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), and the competitive adsorption effects of Cl − ions and HMTA ligands on the anisotropic growth behavior of ZnO crystals were proposed. The lateral growth of nanorods constituting the film was promoted by lowering the solution pH to accelerate the hydrolysis of HMTA, thereby allowing the adsorption effects from Cl − to dominate. By optimizing the growth conditions, a dense ∼100 nm thickness film was fabricated in 15 min from a solution of [Cl − ]/[Zn 2+ ] = 1.5 and pH= 4.8 ± 0.1. This film shows >80% optical transmittance and a field-effect mobility of 2.730 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at zero back-gate bias. (paper)

  19. Identification and Optimal Growth Conditions of Actinomycetes Isolated From Mangrove Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameerah Abdul Hamid; Suhaidi Ariffin; Sharifah Aminah Syed Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes are classified as saprophytes that play a significant role in the breakdown of organic matters into more readily assimilable nutrients. They are also known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, which are useful for human, veterinary medicine and agriculture applications. The optimum growth conditions of actinomycetes isolated from mangrove environment at different temperature, pH and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration were studied. The identification of the isolates by both biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis was also done. All isolates were grown in ISP1 medium at different temperature (25, 30, 37 and 40 degree Celsius); pH (3.5, 5, 7 and 9); and salt concentration (0, 3, 5 and 7 % w/v). The optimum temperature for KMS1 and KMH2 isolates was at 25 degree Celsius. However, the optimum temperature for PCS1 and PMH1A was at 30 and 37 degree Celsius respectively. The optimum pH was pH 7 and the most preferred NaCl concentration of all isolates was at 3 % (w/v). All isolates showed negative result for carbohydrate fermentation except for KMS1 which showed utilisation of D-Fructose sugar with acid production. Only KMS1 and PCS1 exhibited amylolytic and proteolytic activity. The isolates were successfully identified as Streptomyces variables (KMS1), Streptomyces rubrolavendulae (KMH2), Streptomyces spp. CPE333 (PCS1) and Actinomycetales bacterium (PMH1A). (author)

  20. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  1. Continuous aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using a trickle bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Wilkins, Mark R

    2018-05-01

    An A. nidulans strain with a pyridoxine marker was used for continuous production of aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). Modified medium with reduced zinc, no copper, and 5 g/L ascorbic acid that reduced melanin production and increased AAO productivity under growth limited conditions was used. Two air flow rates, 0.11 L/min (0.1 vvm) and 1.1 L/min (1.0 vvm) were tested. More melanin formation and reduced protein productivity were observed with air flow rate of 1.1 L/min. Three random packings were used as support for the fungus inside the TBR column, two of which were hydrophobic and one which was hydrophilic, and three different dilution rates were tested. The use of GEA BCN 030 hydrophobic packing resulted in greater AAO yield and productivity than the other packings. Increasing dilution rates favored melanin formation and citric, lactic and succinic acid accumulation, which decreased AAO yield and productivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diet and weaning age affect the growth and condition of Dover sole (Solea solea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diet type (frozen Artemia biomass and two inert diets: micro-bound [MB] and micro-extruded [ME] and two weaning ages (early weaning and late weaning, 50 and 64 days after hatching, respectively were studied in Solea solea larvae. The experiment lasted 56 and 42 days for early and late weaning, respectively. The mortality results showed the highest values for late weaning (39% in the Artemia treatment. No significant differences in mortality were observed between the inert diets. The final dry weight values were higher for late weaning than for early weaning. At both weaning ages, fish receiving the same treatments had similar tendencies for dry weight and standard length. Fish fed with MB presented significantly higher dry weight and standard length, followed by ME, while the lowest values at both weaning ages were recorded for the Artemia treatment. Similar amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acid fractions among the inert diets were reflected by the absence of significant differences in the susceptibility to oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances testing; however, significant differences were found in carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents of whole-body homogenates for both early and late weaning. At the end of the experiment no significant differences in biochemical contents were observed between the two inert diets. The results of this study suggest that weaning starting on day 50 (early weaning, using a good quality inert diet, leads to higher survival, growth and fish condition.

  3. Nitrogen effects on growth and development of sunflower hybrids under agro-climatic conditions of malonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, W.; Ahmad, A.; Wajid, A.; Muhammad, D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) on growth, development, yield and yield components of different sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids was evaluated under agro-climatic conditions of Multan during spring 2008 and 2009. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications, keeping cultivars in the main plots and N levels in the subplots. The net plot size was 4.2 m x 5 m. The results showed that, with increasing N rates, there was increment in the biomass, yield and yield components while the oil contents were adversely affected. However, there was high seed yield in 2008 as compared to 2009. Among sunflower hybrids, Hysun-38 gave more yield as compared to other sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33, Pioneer 64A93), while in case of N levels, 180 kg ha/sup -1/ provided higher yield than other N rates (0, 60, 120, 240 kg ha/sup -1/) in both years of study especially during 2008. (author)

  4. Epitaxial growth of zinc on ferritic steel under high current density electroplating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greul, Thomas; Comenda, Christian; Preis, Karl; Gerdenitsch, Johann; Sagl, Raffaela; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •EBSD of electroplated Zn on Fe or steel was performed. •Zn grows epitaxially on electropolished ferritic steel following Burger's orientation relation. •Surface deformation of steel leads to multiple electroplated zinc grains with random orientation. •Zn grows epitaxially even on industrial surfaces with little surface deformation. •Multiple zinc grains on one steel grain can show identical orientation relations. -- Abstract: The dependence of the crystal orientation of electrodeposited zinc of the grain orientation on ferritic steel substrate at high current density deposition (400 mA cm −2 ) during a pulse-plating process was investigated by means of EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) measurements. EBSD-mappings of surface and cross-sections were performed on samples with different surface preparations. Furthermore an industrial sample was investigated to compare lab-coated samples with the industrial process. The epitaxial growth of zinc is mainly dependent on the condition of the steel grains. Deformation of steel grains leads to random orientation while zinc grows epitaxially on non-deformed steel grains even on industrial surfaces

  5. The Effectiveness of Antifungal Controlling Aspergillus Niger Growth on Plasterboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parjo Umi Kalthsom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good indoor environmental quality is desired for a healthy indoor environment. The microbial growth under indoor environments contribute to the poor indoor environmental quality that can cause various of health problems. In this study, the applications of three types of antifungals to prevent microbial migration, subsequent growth and bio-deterioration of the substrates. The aim of this research was to evaluate the coating-bio resistance in remediation of indoor fungal using three types of antifungals with different types of wall finishing materials. The treatment was exposed to optimum temperature and relative humidity at 30°C and 90% respectively. The potassium sorbate, zinc salicylate and calcium benzoate are tested against Aspergillus niger which is collected from indoor rooms. This study has revealed the growth of A. niger are more affected by the potassium sorbate on thick wallpaper, which is the percentage growth are 47%.

  6. Flow Management to Control Excessive Growth of Macrophytes - An Assessment Based on Habitat Suitability Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Konstantin; Rivaes, Rui P; Ferreira, Teresa; Egger, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers in intensive agricultural watersheds usually display outgrowths of macrophytes - notably alien species - due to a combination of high concentrations of nutrients in the water runoff and low flows resulting from water abstraction for irrigation. Standard mechanical and chemical control is used to mitigate the problems associated with excessive growth of plant biomass: mainly less drainage capacity and higher flood risk. However, such control measures are cost and labor-intensive and do not present long-term efficiency. Although the high sensitivity of aquatic vegetation to instream hydraulic conditions is well known, management approaches based on flow management remain relatively unexplored. The aim of our study was therefore to apply physical habitat simulation techniques promoted by the Instream Flow Incremental Method (IFIM) to aquatic macrophytes - the first time it has been applied in this context - in order to model shifts in habitat suitability under different flow scenarios in the Sorraia river in central Portugal. We used this approach to test whether the risk of invasion and channel encroachment by nuisance species can be controlled by setting minimum annual flows. We used 960 randomly distributed survey points to analyze the habitat suitability for the most important aquatic species (including the invasive Brazilian milfoil Myriophyllum aquaticum , Sparganium erectum , and Potamogeton crispus ) in regard to the physical parameters 'flow velocity,' 'water depth,' and 'substrate size'. We chose the lowest discharge period of the year in order to assess the hydraulic conditions while disturbances were at a low-point, thus allowing aquatic vegetation establishment and subsistence. We then used the two-dimensional hydraulic River2D software to model the potential habitat availability for different flow conditions based on the site-specific habitat suitability index for each physical parameter and species. Our results show that the growth

  7. Flow Management to Control Excessive Growth of Macrophytes – An Assessment Based on Habitat Suitability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Konstantin; Rivaes, Rui P.; Ferreira, Teresa; Egger, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers in intensive agricultural watersheds usually display outgrowths of macrophytes – notably alien species – due to a combination of high concentrations of nutrients in the water runoff and low flows resulting from water abstraction for irrigation. Standard mechanical and chemical control is used to mitigate the problems associated with excessive growth of plant biomass: mainly less drainage capacity and higher flood risk. However, such control measures are cost and labor-intensive and do not present long-term efficiency. Although the high sensitivity of aquatic vegetation to instream hydraulic conditions is well known, management approaches based on flow management remain relatively unexplored. The aim of our study was therefore to apply physical habitat simulation techniques promoted by the Instream Flow Incremental Method (IFIM) to aquatic macrophytes – the first time it has been applied in this context – in order to model shifts in habitat suitability under different flow scenarios in the Sorraia river in central Portugal. We used this approach to test whether the risk of invasion and channel encroachment by nuisance species can be controlled by setting minimum annual flows. We used 960 randomly distributed survey points to analyze the habitat suitability for the most important aquatic species (including the invasive Brazilian milfoil Myriophyllum aquaticum, Sparganium erectum, and Potamogeton crispus) in regard to the physical parameters ‘flow velocity,’ ‘water depth,’ and ‘substrate size’. We chose the lowest discharge period of the year in order to assess the hydraulic conditions while disturbances were at a low-point, thus allowing aquatic vegetation establishment and subsistence. We then used the two-dimensional hydraulic River2D software to model the potential habitat availability for different flow conditions based on the site-specific habitat suitability index for each physical parameter and species. Our results show

  8. The effect of isolation on reproduction and growth of Pseudosuccinea columella (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae: a snail-conditioned water experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A snail-conditioned water experiment was conducted in Pseudosuccinea columella to test the possible role of a chemical interaction between snails on the diminished growth and fecundity rates found for snails raised in pairs compared to those raised in complete isolation. The results permit to discard the hypothesis of an inhibition of growth and reproduction between snails due to factors released into the water.

  9. Growth, development and productivity of Jerusalem artichoke depending on plant stand in the conditions of the Republic of Karakalpakstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangabaeva A.S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the results of studying the influence of various schemes of planting seed tubers of Jerusalem artichoke on the rate of plant growth and development in the soil and climatic conditions of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. Differences in the rate of growth and development of plants are revealed, depending on the varietal features of Jerusalem artichoke and the density of their standing. The most optimal scheme for planting tubers of Jerusalem artichoke is 70x40 cm.

  10. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando [Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo, E-mail: rjass_cardiol@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The protist Euglena gracilis had the ability to grow and remove large amounts of Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions. • High biomass was attained by combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial carbon sources. • Routes of degradation of glucose, glutamate and malate under anaerobic conditions in E. gracilis are described. • Biosorption was the main mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} removal in anaerobiosis, whereas the Cd{sup 2+} intracellularly accumulated was inactivated by thiol-molecules and polyphosphate. - Abstract: The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd{sup 2+}) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1}) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O{sub 2}, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25–33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd{sup 2+} which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd{sup 2+} induced a higher MDA production. Cd{sup 2+} stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd{sup 2+} from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O{sub 2} concentration is particularly low.

  11. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The protist Euglena gracilis had the ability to grow and remove large amounts of Cd 2+ under anaerobic conditions. • High biomass was attained by combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial carbon sources. • Routes of degradation of glucose, glutamate and malate under anaerobic conditions in E. gracilis are described. • Biosorption was the main mechanism of Cd 2+ removal in anaerobiosis, whereas the Cd 2+ intracellularly accumulated was inactivated by thiol-molecules and polyphosphate. - Abstract: The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd 2+ ) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5 × 10 6 cells mL −1 ) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O 2 , which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25–33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd 2+ which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd 2+ induced a higher MDA production. Cd 2+ stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd 2+ from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd 2+ under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O 2 concentration is particularly low

  12. Alexandrium minutum growth controlled by phosphorus An applied model

    OpenAIRE

    Chapelle, Annie; Labry, Claire; Sourisseau, Marc; Lebreton, Carole; Youenou, Agnes; Crassous, Marie-pierre

    2010-01-01

    Toxic algae are a worldwide problem threatening aquaculture public health and tourism Alexandrium a toxic dinoflagellate proliferates in Northwest France estuaries (i e the Penze estuary) causing Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning events Vegetative growth and in particular the role of nutrient uptake and growth rate are crucial parameters to understand toxic blooms With the goal of modelling in situ Alexandrium blooms related to environmental parameters we first try to calibrate a zero-dimensional...

  13. Effect of deposition conditions on the growth rate and electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roro, K.T.; Botha, J.R.; Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    ZnO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by MOCVD. The effect of deposition conditions such as VI/II molar ratio, DEZn flow rate and total reactor pressure on the growth rate and electrical properties of the films was studied. It is found that the growth rate decreases with an increase in the VI/II molar ratio. This behaviour is ascribed to the competitive adsorption of reactant species on the growth surface. The growth rate increases with an increase in DEZn flow rate, as expected. It is shown that the carrier concentration is independent of the DEZn flow rate. An increase in the total reactor pressure yields a decrease in growth rate. This phenomenon is attributed to the depletion of the gas phase due to parasitic prereactions between zinc and oxygen species at high pressure. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Determination of the rate of crystal growth from the gas phase under conditions of turbulent free convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alad'Ev, S. I.

    1987-04-01

    Crystal growth in vertical and horizontal cylindrical vials, with the substrate and the source serving as the vial ends, is investigated analytically, assuming that the medium consists of a binary mixture of an active and an inert gas. The active gas is made up of the gaseous products of reactions taking place at the substrate and at the source. It is shown that turbulent free convection leads to an increase in crystal growth rate. All other conditions being equal, crystal growth in vertical vials is greater than that in horizontal ones; in both cases crystal growth rate increases with the vial radius, temperature gradient in the gas phase, and gas phase density. The results are compared with experimental data on the growth of Ge crystals in the Ge-GeI4 system.

  15. Wood phenology, not carbon input, controls the interannual variability of wood growth in a temperate oak forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpierre, Nicolas; Berveiller, Daniel; Granda, Elena; Dufrêne, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Although the analysis of flux data has increased our understanding of the interannual variability of carbon inputs into forest ecosystems, we still know little about the determinants of wood growth. Here, we aimed to identify which drivers control the interannual variability of wood growth in a mesic temperate deciduous forest. We analysed a 9-yr time series of carbon fluxes and aboveground wood growth (AWG), reconstructed at a weekly time-scale through the combination of dendrometer and wood density data. Carbon inputs and AWG anomalies appeared to be uncorrelated from the seasonal to interannual scales. More than 90% of the interannual variability of AWG was explained by a combination of the growth intensity during a first 'critical period' of the wood growing season, occurring close to the seasonal maximum, and the timing of the first summer growth halt. Both atmospheric and soil water stress exerted a strong control on the interannual variability of AWG at the study site, despite its mesic conditions, whilst not affecting carbon inputs. Carbon sink activity, not carbon inputs, determined the interannual variations in wood growth at the study site. Our results provide a functional understanding of the dependence of radial growth on precipitation observed in dendrological studies. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Distributed computation of supremal conditionally-controllable sublanguages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2016), s. 424-436 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02532S; GA MŠk LH13012 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete-event systems * supervisory control * coordination control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.208, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00207179.2015.1079736

  17. Improvement of greenhouse design and climate control in mediterranean conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzel, Yuksel; Zwart, de Feije; Sapounas, A.; Hemming, Silke; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is one of the most important areas of the world in terms of protected cultivation. Turkey, with its increasing greenhouse area, is one of the representative countries of the region. Thanks to the mild winter climatic conditions, cultivation of vegetables under simple

  18. Atomic Layer Control of Thin Film Growth Using Binary Reaction Sequence Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Our research is focusing on the atomic layer control of thin film growth. Our goal is to deposit films with precise control of thickness and conformality on both flat and high aspect ratio structures...

  19. Growth, condition, and mortality of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in the Sisimiut Population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar Holthe

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and condition of the Sisimiut caribou was anlysed by means of mandible length, carcass weight, and back fat indices. Mandible lenght showed unchanged growth conditions since the late 1960s, and growth stops at 4 years of age. The Sisimiut caribou seems to be smaller than North American caribous, Greenlandic semi-domesticated reindeer and of same size or smaller than Scandinavian reindeer. Carcass weight showed similar results, however cow growth rate seems not to prolong sexual maturation. Back fat deposits were less than what is known from other reindeer and caribou populations. Sex and age distribution of mandibles from various materials and survival curves based on the same material shows — an uneven distribution between bulls and cows and a relatively large proportion of old cows in the bag from the last years, which seems to be caused by a light hunting pressure when the population peaked in the 1960s. Heavy natural mortality for animals born before or after a winter with unfavorable snow conditions was also showed.Vækst, kondition og dødelighed hos vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus i Sisimiut-bestanden, Vestgrønland.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Vækst- og konditionsforhold for Sisimiut-vildrenbestanden i Vestgrønland er beskrevet ved hjæip af underkæbelængde, slagtevægt og rygfedt. Undersøgelsen af kæbelængde viste, at vækstforholdene havde været uforandret siden sidste halvdel af 1960-erne, at væksten standser ved 4-års alderen, samt at Sisimiut-vildrenen er mindre end de nordamerikanske caribou, Itinnera-tamrenen og på størrelse med eller mindre end skandinaviske rensdyr. Dette viste sig også ved sammenligninger af slagtevægt. Vægten af simlerne er dog ikke så ringe, at der kan iagttages nogen forsinkelse i kønsmodningen. Fedtreserverne ved indgangen til vinteren synes at være dårligere end i andre undersøgte rensdyrbestande. Køns- og aldersfordelingen blandt forskellige typer af indsamlet k

  20. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  1. A Norway Spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog Is Implicated in Control of Growth Rhythm in Conifers1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Clapham, David; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Growth in perennial plants possesses an annual cycle of active growth and dormancy that is controlled by environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature. In conifers and other nonangiosperm species, the molecular mechanisms behind these responses are currently unknown. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings, growth cessation and bud set are induced by short days and plants from southern latitudes require at least 7 to 10 h of darkness, whereas plants from northern latitudes need only 2 to 3 h of darkness. Bud burst, on the other hand, is almost exclusively controlled by temperature. To test the possible role of Norway spruce FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes in growth rhythm, we have studied expression patterns of four Norway spruce FT family genes in two populations with a divergent bud set response under various photoperiodic conditions. Our data show a significant and tight correlation between growth rhythm (both bud set and bud burst), and expression pattern of one of the four Norway spruce phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family members (PaFT4) over a variety of experimental conditions. This study strongly suggests that one Norway spruce homolog to the FT gene, which controls flowering in angiosperms, is also a key integrator of photoperiodic and thermal signals in the control of growth rhythms in gymnosperms. The data also indicate that the divergent adaptive bud set responses of northern and southern Norway spruce populations, both to photoperiod and light quality, are mediated through PaFT4. These results provide a major advance in our understanding of the molecular control of a major adaptive trait in conifers and a tool for further molecular studies of adaptive variation in plants. PMID:17369429

  2. Understanding, Monitoring, and Controlling Biofilm Growth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanly; Gunawan, Cindy; Barraud, Nicolas; Rice, Scott A; Harry, Elizabeth J; Amal, Rose

    2016-09-06

    In drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), biofilms are the predominant mode of microbial growth, with the presence of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) protecting the biomass from environmental and shear stresses. Biofilm formation poses a significant problem to the drinking water industry as a potential source of bacterial contamination, including pathogens, and, in many cases, also affecting the taste and odor of drinking water and promoting the corrosion of pipes. This article critically reviews important research findings on biofilm growth in DWDS, examining the factors affecting their formation and characteristics as well as the various technologies to characterize and monitor and, ultimately, to control their growth. Research indicates that temperature fluctuations potentially affect not only the initial bacteria-to-surface attachment but also the growth rates of biofilms. For the latter, the effect is unique for each type of biofilm-forming bacteria; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, for example, grow more-developed biofilms at a typical summer temperature of 22 °C compared to 12 °C in fall, and the opposite occurs for the pathogenic Vibrio cholerae. Recent investigations have found the formation of thinner yet denser biofilms under high and turbulent flow regimes of drinking water, in comparison to the more porous and loosely attached biofilms at low flow rates. Furthermore, in addition to the rather well-known tendency of significant biofilm growth on corrosion-prone metal pipes, research efforts also found leaching of growth-promoting organic compounds from the increasingly popular use of polymer-based pipes. Knowledge of the unique microbial members of drinking water biofilms and, importantly, the influence of water characteristics and operational conditions on their growth can be applied to optimize various operational parameters to minimize biofilm accumulation. More-detailed characterizations of the biofilm population size and structure are now

  3. Seasonal Differences in Climatic Controls of Vegetation Growth in the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal differences in climatic controls of vegetation growth in the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region of China Bin He1 , Haiyan Wan11 State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China Corresponding author: Bin He, email addresses: hebin@bnu.edu.cnPhone:+861058806506, Address: Beijing Normal University, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Email addresses of co-authors: wanghaiyan@mail.bnu.edu.cnABSTRACTLaunched in 2000, the Beiing-Tainjin Sand Source Controlling Project (BTSSCP) is an ecological restoration project intended to prevent desertification in China. Evidence from multiple sources has confirmed increases in vegetation growth in the BTSSCP region since the initiation of the project. Precipitation and related soil moisture conditions typically are considered to be the main drivers of vegetation growth in this arid region. However, by investigating the relationships between vegetation growth and corresponding climatic factors, we identified seasonal variation in the climatic constraints of vegetation growth. In spring, vegetation growth is stimulated mainly by elevated temperature, whereas precipitation is the lead driver of summer greening. In autumn, positive effects of both temperature and precipitation on vegetation growth were observed. Furthermore, strong biosphere-atmosphere interactions were observed in this region. Spring warming promotes vegetation growth, but also reduces soil moisture. Summer greening has a strong cooling effect on land surface temperature. These results indicate that 1) precipitation-based projections of vegetation growth may be misleading; and 2) the ecological and environment consequences of ecological projects should be comprehensively evaluated. KEYWORDS: vegetation growth, climatic drivers, seasonal variation, BTSSCP

  4. Scaling-up vaccine production: implementation aspects of a biomass growth observer and controller

    OpenAIRE

    Soons, Z.I.T.A.; IJssel, van den, J.; Pol, van der, L.A.; Straten, van, G.; Boxtel, van, A.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study considers two aspects of the implementation of a biomass growth observer and specific growth rate controller in scale-up from small- to pilot-scale bioreactors towards a feasible bulk production process for whole-cell vaccine against whooping cough. The first is the calculation of the oxygen uptake rate, the starting point for online monitoring and control of biomass growth, taking into account the dynamics in the gas-phase. Mixing effects and delays are caused by amongst ...

  5. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  6. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  7. Modeling of composite synthesis in conditions of controlled thermal explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukta, Yaroslav; Knyazeva, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The paper proposes the model for the titanium-based composite synthesis from powders of titanium and carbon of non-stoichiometric composition. The model takes into account the mixture heating from chamber walls, the dependence of liquidus and solidus temperatures on the composition of reacting mixture and the formation of possible irreversible phases. The reaction retardation by the reaction product is taken into consideration in kinetic laws. As an example, the results of temperature and conversion level calculation are presented for the system Ti-C with the summary reaction for different temperatures of chamber walls heating. It was revealed that the reaction retardation being the reaction product can be the cause of incomplete conversion in the thermal explosion conditions. Non-stoichiometric composition leads to the conditions of degenerated mode when some additional heating is necessary to complete the reaction.

  8. A microcosm for the breeding of plants under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquino, Luigi; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Minarini, Carla; Pandolfi Giuseppe; Lanza, Bruno; Atrigna, Mauro; De Filippo, Giovanni; Giannotta, Giovanni; Pedicini Antonio; Aprano Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance studies of the effects of multiple stress on plant physiology laboratory scale, in collaboration with FOS Srl and Sesmat Srl and the project application for organic PON02 0 0556 3 420580 «SMARTAGS-SMARt TAGS 'was conceived, designed and built a 'microcosm for the breeding of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditioning '. [it

  9. Modeling the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (a(w)) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h(0), which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or a(w) were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase.

  10. Modeling the Lag Period and Exponential Growth of Listeria monocytogenes under Conditions of Fluctuating Temperature and Water Activity Values▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S.; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (aw) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h0, which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or aw were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase. PMID:20208022

  11. Early growth response of six wheat varieties under artificial osmotic stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakwani, A.A.; Dennett, M.D.; Munir, M

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions where seeds of six wheat varieties (Damani, Hashim-8, Gomal-8, DN-73, Zam-04 and Dera-98) were raised in Petri dishes and were either treated with distilled water (control) or 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 solution. Seeds were treated with 15% PEG solution to establish an artificial osmotic stress condition (water stress) and observe its effect on germination percentage, coleoptile length, shoot and root length, fresh weight of shoot and root. A significant difference (P<0.05) was recorded between varietal and treatment means regarding all traits. Variety Hashim-8 gave maximum germination percentage (93.33%) whereas maximum coleoptile (1.78 cm) and shoot length (5.77 cm) was observed in variety DN-73 which was statistically at par with variety Hashim-8. Similarly, root length (3.63 g), fresh shoot (0.15 g) and root weight (0.12 g) was maximum in variety Dera-98 which was statistically at par with variety Hashim-8. A second experiment was carried out under glass house environment where plants were treated with non-stress (100% field capacity) and water stress (35% field capacity) treatments. Although total grain yield was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in all six wheat varieties when grown in water stress condition however Hashim-8 showed the lowest reduction (13%) while Zam-04 showed the highest (32%). The outcome of both experiments indicated that these varieties have great potential to incorporate with the existing commercial wheat varieties in order to obtain high yield in water stress regions. (author)

  12. Growth strategies to control tapering in Ge nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Periwal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of PH3 on the morphology of Au catalyzed Ge nanowires (NWs. Ge NWs were grown on Si (111 substrate at 400 °C in the presence of PH3, using vapor-liquid-solid method by chemical vapor deposition. We show that high PH3/GeH4 ratio causes passivation at NW surface. At high PH3 concentration phosphorous atoms attach itself on NW surface and form a self-protection coating that prevents conformal growth and leads to taper free nanostructures. However, in case of low PH3 flux the combination of axial and radial growth mechanism occurs resulting in conical structure. We have also investigated axial PH3-intrinsic junctions in Ge NWs. The unusual NW shape is attributed to a combination of catalyzed, uncatalyzed and diffusion induced growth.

  13. Studi Eksperimental Pengontrolan Air Conditioning System Dengan Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman -

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy available in Indonesia at this time is not yet sufficient for all existing activities, this can be proved byfrequent occurrence of blackouts in several areas in Indonesia. It is necessary for a saving in electrical energy consumptionin all sectors, it is one of the refrigeration system. Research was conducted by testing AC (3 HP / 3 phase using 2 differentcontrol systems, namely conventional control and FLC. Testing is done by placing the indoor units in cold storage room.Each test performed with varying load in the test room, ie no light burden, lamp 1000 Watt, and lamp 2000 Watt. Testingusing a conventional control system set point temperature 26 ° C and 3 variations of the differential is 1 , 2 and 3 , the FLCusing the temperature setting point 26 ° C. From this research we can conclude that the application of FLC system produceselectric energy consumption of the lowest compared to conventional control in this case is the differential 1. FLC applicationof electrical energy consumption at load 1000 Watt lower 11% and the load 2000 Watt 4% lower compared withconventional control in diffrensial 1.

  14. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy ... system is highly appreciated and essential in most of our daily life. ... It can construct an input-output mapping based on human knowledge and specific input-output data ... fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, ...

  15. Real-time corrosion monitoring of steel influenced by microbial activity (SRB) under controlled seawater injection conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Russell D. [InterCorr International, Inc., 14503 Bammel N. Houston Road, Suite 300, Houston, TX 77019 (United States); Campbell, Scott [Commercial Microbiology Inc., 10400 Westoffice Drive Suite 107, Houston, TX 77042 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    An experimental study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was conducted involving online, real-time monitoring of a bio-film loop under controlled conditions simulating oil field water handling and injection. Bio-film growth, MIC and biocide efficacy were monitored using an automated, multi-technique monitoring system including linear polarization resistance, electrochemical noise and harmonic distortion analysis. This data was correlated with conventional off-line methods to differentiate conditions of varying MIC activity in real-time to facilitate quick assessment and operator intervention. (authors)

  16. Installation of PMV Operation Program in DDC Controller and Air Conditioning Control Using PMV Directly as Set Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Ken-Ichi

    In general, air conditioning control in a building is operated mainly by indoor air temperature control. Although the operators of the machine in the building accepted a claim for indoor air temperature presented by the building inhabitants, the indoor conditions have been often too cool or warm. Therefore, in an attempt to create better thermal environments, the author paid attention to the PMV that is a thermal comfort index. And then, the possibility of air conditioning control using the PMV directly as the set point was verified by employing actual equipment in an air conditioning testing room and an office building. Prior to the execution of this control, the operation program of the PMV was installed in a DDC controller for the air conditioning control. And information from indoor sensors and so on was inputted to the controller, and the computed PMV was used as the feedback variable.

  17. EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE BLACK PLASTIC MULCH ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS UNDER RAIN-FED CONDITIONS UNDER SEMI-ARID REGION CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Atif Y. Mahadeen

    2014-01-01

    Water use efficiency in agriculture can be enhanced by several strategies mainly by reducing evaporation from the soil surface. The mulching techniques were being used widely in irrigated crop production worldwide. The mulching techniques can be also implemented in summer vegetables production under rain-fed conditions. The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of polyethylene black plastic mulch on growth and yield of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus and summer squash, ...

  18. Existence conditions of optimal trajectories in dynamic control processes; Conditions d'existence de trajectoires optimales des processus dynamiques commandes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnemay-Juricek, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The existence of solutions in the optimal control problems with free endpoints is studied in this report and existence conditions are established without the usual assumption that the control region is convex. Furthermore the results, in order to be of some utility in physical applications, are expressed only by means of conditions on the parameters defining the system. (author) [French] Ce rapport etudie l'existence de solutions optimales dans les problemes de commande ou le point terminal est libre et ou la duree de l'evolution du systeme a optimiser est connue. Des conditions d'existence y sont formulees sans recourir a l'hypothese usuelle de convexite du domaine des valeurs des commandes. De plus on a cherche a rendre utilisables les resultats en ne faisant porter les conditions que sur les parametres directement accessibles du systeme. (auteur)

  19. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  20. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  1. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  2. Fatigue crack growth characteristics of nitrogen-alloyed type 347 stainless under operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Ki Deuk; Hong, Seok Min; Kim, Dae Whan; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Materials Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jin [Hanyang University, Division of materials science and engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of Type 347 (S347) and Type 347N (S347N) stainless steel was evaluated under the operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These two materials showed different fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) according to the changes in dissolved oxygen content and frequency. Under the simulated PWR conditions for normal operation, the FCGR of S347N was lower than that of S347 and insensitive to the changes in PWR water conditions. The higher yield strength and better corrosion resistance of the nitrogen-alloyed Type 347 stainless steel might be a main cause of slower FCGR and more stable properties against changes in environmental conditions.

  3. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  4. Compensation effect of bacterium containing biofertilizer on the growth of Cucumis sativus L. under Al-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Lévai, L; Kovács, B; Varga, Mária Borbélyné; Veres, Szilvia

    2013-03-01

    Biofertilizers are used to improve soil fertility and plant production in sustainable agriculture. However, their applicability depends on several environmental parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of free-living bacteria containing fertilizer on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Delicates) under aluminium (Al) stress. Different responses to Al stress of cucumber growth parameters were examined in terms of root elongation and physiological traits, such as Spad index (relative chlorophyll value), biomass accumulation of root and shoot, Al uptake and selected element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) of leaves and root. The applied bacteria containing biofertilizer contains Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium. The dry weights of cucumber shoots and roots decreased in line with the increasing Al concentration. Due to different Al treatments (10-3 M, 10-4 M) higher Al concentration was observed in the leaves, while the amounts of other elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) decreased. This high Al content of the leaves decreased below the control value when biofertilizer was applied. In the case of the roots the additional biofertilizer treatments compensated the effect of Al. The relative chlorophyll content was reduced during Al-stress in older plants and the biofertilizer moderated this effect. The root/shoot ratio was decreased in all the Al-treatments in comparison to the control. The living bacteria containing fertilizer also had a modifying effect. The root/shoot ratio increased at the 10-4 M Al2(SO4)2 + biofertilizer and 10-4 M Al(NO3)3 + biofertilizer treatments compared to the control and Al-treatments. According to our results the biofertilizer is an alternative nutrient supply for replacing chemical fertilizers because it enhances dry matter production. Biofertilizer usage is also offered under Al polluted environmental conditions. Although, the nutrient solution is a clean system where we can examine the main processes without

  5. Differential Protein Expression in Streptococcus uberis under Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Conditions ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, R. C.; Leigh, J. A.; Ward, P. N.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Bowler, L. D.

    2011-01-01

    The bovine pathogen Streptococcus uberis was assessed for biofilm growth. The transition from planktonic to biofilm growth in strain 0140J correlated with an upregulation of several gene products that have been shown to be important for pathogenesis, including a glutamine ABC transporter (SUB1152) and a lactoferrin binding protein (gene lbp; protein SUB0145). PMID:21075893

  6. Lettuce and rhizosphere microbiome responses to growth promoting Pseudomonas species under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cipriano, M.A.P.; Lupatini, M.; Santos, L.; Silva, M. da; Roesch, L.F.W.; Destefano, S.; Freitas, S.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are well described and recommended for several crops worldwide. However, one of the most common problems in PGPR research is the difficulty in obtaining reproducible results. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated plant growth promotion and soil microbial

  7. Correlation of Growth and Surface Properties of Poly(\\(p\\-xylylenes to  Reaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Reichel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parylene, a non-critical, non-toxic layer material, which is not only a candidate for low-\\(K\\ dielectrics, but also well suited for long-term applications in the human body, has been deposited by (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of the monomeric species. To that end, a specially-designed reactor exhibiting a cracker tube at its entrance, which serves as the upstream control, and a cooling trap in front of the downstream control has been applied. The process of polymerization has been traced and is explained by evaporating the dimeric species followed by dissociation in the cracker at elevated temperatures and, eventually, to the coating of the polymeric film in terms of thermodynamics. Alternatively, the process of dissociation has been accomplished applying a microwave plasma. In both cases, the monomerization is controlled by mass spectrometry. The window for surface polymerization could be clearly defined in terms of a factor of dilution by an inert gas for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD case and in the case of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD, additionally by the power density. The characterization of the layer parameters has been carried out by several analytical tools: scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to determine the surface roughness and density and depth of voids in the film, which influence the layer capacitance and deteriorate the breakdown voltage, a bulk property. The main issue is the conduct against liquids between the two borders' hydrophilic and hydrophobic conduct, but also the super-hydrophobic character, which is the condition for the Lotus effect. The surface tension has been evaluated by contact angle measurements. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy has proven the conservation of all of the functional groups during polymerization.

  8. Direction-specific interactions control crystal growth by oriented attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; Lee, Jonathan R.I.

    2012-01-01

    The oriented attachment of molecular clusters and nanoparticles in solution is now recognized as an important mechanism of crystal growth in many materials, yet the alignment process and attachment mechanism have not been established. We performed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy ...

  9. Growth and control of invasive weeds under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have been increasing since the onset of the industrial revolution. Regardless of the debate on the effects of this rise on climate, most plants exhibit a positive growth response to elevated CO2 due to increased photosynthesis, resource use efficiency, and/or alloca...

  10. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire...

  11. Growth kinetics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays in clean oxygen-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Jung Bin; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Chernov, Alexander A; Noy, Aleksandr

    2011-12-27

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an important technological system, as well as a fascinating system for studying basic principles of nanomaterials synthesis; yet despite continuing efforts for the past decade many important questions about this process remain largely unexplained. We present a series of parametric ethylene chemical vapor deposition growth studies in a "hot-wall" reactor using ultrapure process gases that reveal the fundamental kinetics of the CNT growth. Our data show that the growth rate is proportional to the concentration of the carbon feedstock and monotonically decreases with the concentration of hydrogen gas and that the most important parameter determining the rate of the CNT growth is the production rate of active carbon precursor in the gas phase reaction. The growth termination times obtained with the purified gas mixtures were strikingly insensitive to variations in both hydrogen and ethylene pressures ruling out the carbon encapsulation of the catalyst as the main process termination cause.

  12. Very high gravity ethanol fermentation by flocculating yeast under redox potential-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chen-Guang

    2012-08-01

    ethanol fermentation performance. On the other hand, controlling ORP at −100 mV stimulated yeast growth and enhanced ethanol production under the HG conditions. Moreover, the ORP profile detected during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast was less fluctuated, indicating that yeast flocculation could attenuate the ORP fluctuation observed during ethanol fermentation with non-flocculating yeast.

  13. Nutritional status in the neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion: the model of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Massimo; Pincelli, Angela Ida; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a key role not only in the promotion of linear growth but also in the regulation of intermediary metabolism, body composition, and energy expenditure. On the whole, the hormone appears to direct fuel metabolism towards the preferential oxidation of lipids instead of glucose and proteins, and to convey the energy derived from metabolic processes towards the synthesis of proteins. On the other hand, body energy stores and circulating energetic substrates take an important part in the regulation of somatotropin release. Finally, central and peripheral peptides participating in the control of food intake and energy expenditure (neuropeptide Y, leptin, and ghrelin) are also involved in the regulation of GH secretion. Altogether, nutritional status has to be regarded as a major determinant in the regulation of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in animals and humans. In these latter, overweight is associated with marked impairment of spontaneous and stimulated GH release, while acute dietary restriction and chronic undernutrition induce an amplification of spontaneous secretion together with a clear-cut decrease in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plasma levels. Thus, over- and undernutrition represent two conditions connoted by GH hypersensitivity and GH resistance, respectively. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by peculiar changes of the GH-IGF-I axis. In these patients, low circulating IGF-I levels are associated with enhanced GH production rate, highly disordered mode of somatotropin release, and variability of GH responsiveness to different pharmacological challenges. These abnormalities are likely due not only to the lack of negative IGF-I feedback, but also to a primary hypothalamic alteration with increased frequency of growth hormone releasing hormone discharges and decreased somatostatinergic tone. Given the reversal of the above alterations following weight recovery, these abnormalities can be seen as

  14. On the influence of abiotic stress conditions on growth of barley and bean and their predisposition for pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerke, E.C.; Schoenbeck, F.

    1986-01-01

    Shorttime changes of environmental conditions stressed barley and bean and affected plant growth and their predisposition for various pathogens. Moderate stress intensities as low or high temperatures, water or light deficits, increased the susceptibility to Erysiphe graminis var. hordei or Uromyces phaseoli and reduced disease level of spot blotch caused by Cochliobolus sativus, respectively. There was only little effect on plant growth in that case. Intensive stress as a result of combinations of unfavorable environmental conditions or longtime continuance of moderate stress reduced the plant growth and turned the predisposing effect to the opposite: after the treatment, plants were more resistent to diseases caused by biotrophic fungi, whereas there was increased susceptibility to the perthotrophic fungus. High intensities of fertilization acted as an additional stress and intensified the plant reaction to environmental alterations. The variation of the predisposition is discussed in relation to stress intensity.

  15. Preincubation of Penicillium commune conidia under modified atmosphere conditions: Influence on growth potential as determined by an impedimetric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    The combined effect of preincubation time, relative humidity (r.h.), headspace carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) on subsequent growth potential of conidia from Penicillium commune was studied using Response Surface Modelling (RSM). Native conidia were preincubated under modified atmosphere...... conditions in sealed vials for 14, 35 and 56 d. Lag time and growth rates were determined using impedance microbiology on a Bactometer. Conidia survived and some swelling was observed during all experimental preincubation conditions. Regression analysis of the subsequent growth responses showed that relative...... humidity in the vials was the most significant factor affecting lag time of the conidia after preincubation for 14 and 35 d. Storage for 35 d extended lag times by 15 h when the level of r.h. was increased from 41% to 80%. After prolonged storage (56 d) r.h and CO2 levels elicited a significant effect...

  16. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  17. Hydrogen formation and control under postulated LMFBR accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.R.; Wierman, R.W.

    1976-09-01

    The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the potential for autoignition and combustion of hydrogen-sodium mixtures which may be produced in LMFBR accidents. The purpose and ultimate usefulness of this work is to provide data that will establish the validity and acceptability of mechanisms inherent to the LMFBR that could either prevent or delay the accumulation of hydrogen gas to less than 4 percent (V) in the Reactor Containment Building (RCB) under accident conditions. The results to date indicate that sodium and sodium-hydrogen mixtures such as may be expected during LMFBR postulated accidents will ignite upon entering an air atmosphere and that the hydrogen present will be essentially all consumed until such time that the oxygen concentration is depleted

  18. Quality control of concretes for conditioning of spent radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, M.

    2015-01-01

    The spent sealed radioactive sources are considered as a specific type of radioactive wastes and should be properly stored to ensure their integrity and prevent or limit the release of radionuclides in the geosphere. For this, these sources can be put up in concrete matrices. This research presents the evaluation and characterization of five concretes prepared with 4 brands of commercial cements: CPC Extra RS, CPC 30R Impercem of Cemex, Cruz Azul CPC 30R and CPC 30R of Apasco; three sizes of coarse aggregate (<30 mm, 29-11 mm and <10 mm) and fine aggregate (0.0797 mm) used as matrices for conditioning of spent sealed radioactive sources, in order to verify if these specific concretes accredit the standard NOM-019-Nucl-1995. After hardening for 28 days the concrete specimens were subjected to the tests: compressive strength; thermal cycles, irradiation, leaching and permeability, later to be characterized by: 1) X-ray diffraction in order to meet their crystalline phases; 2) scanning electron microscopy, to determine changes in morphology; 3) infrared spectroscopy, to determine the structural changes of concrete from its functional groups; 4) Raman spectroscopy to determine their structural changes and 5) Moessbauer spectroscopy, which determines changes in the oxidation state of iron in the concrete. According to the results and the changes presented by each concrete after applying the tests set by NOM-019-Nucl-1995, is concluded that the concrete made with cement Cemex brand (CPC 30-RS Extra), gravel of particle size 11-29 mm and sieved sand (0.0797 mm) can be used as matrices of spent sealed sources conditioning. Is remarkable a morphological and structural change of the concrete due to gamma irradiation and heat treatment. (Author)

  19. In-Pile Tests for IASCC Growth Behavior of Irradiated 316L Stainless Steel under Simulated BWR Condition in JMTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Shigeki; Ise, Hideo; Kawaguchi, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Junichi; Nishiyama, Yutaka

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has an in-pile irradiation test plan to evaluate in-situ effects of neutron/γ-ray irradiation on stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth of irradiated stainless steels using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). SCC growth rate and its dependence on electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) are different between in-pile test and post irradiation examination (PIE). These differences are not fully understood because of a lack of in-pile data. This paper presents a systematic review on SCC growth data of irradiated stainless steels, an in-pile test plan for crack growth of irradiated SUS316L stainless steel under simulated BWR conditions in the JMTR, and the development of the in-pile test techniques.

  20. Canopy structure and tree condition of young, mature, and old-growth Douglas-fir/hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.B. Bingham; J.O. Sawyer

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two Douglas-fir/hardwood stands ranging from 40 to 560 years old were used to characterize the density; diameter, and height class distributions of canopy hardwoods and conifers in young (40 -100 yr), mature (101 - 200 yr) and old-growth (>200 yr) forests. The crown, bole, disease, disturbance, and cavity conditions of canopy conifers and hardwoods were...

  1. Growth of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus under experimental and farm conditions of the Czech Republic, with remarks on other sturgeons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil; Mareš, J.; Peňáz, Milan; Baránek, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2011), s. 281-290 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : sterlet juveniles and adults * specific growth rate * length-weight relationship * condition factor Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.mendelu.cz/dok_server/slozka.pl?id=51329;download=85841

  2. Impact of Growth Conditions and Suspension Time on Toxin Release from M. aeruginosa Upon Exposure to Potassium Permanganate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to assess the effects of KMnO4 on pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) in a jar test. Of particular interest was the impact this oxidant has on the release of intracellular toxin from cells as a function of growth conditions in cu...

  3. Biomass and leaf-level gas exchange characteristics of three African savanna C4 grass species under optimum growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Arneth, A.; Grispen, V.; Bonyongo, C.M.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Lloyd, J.

    2009-01-01

    C4 savanna grass species, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis lehmanniana and Panicum repens, were grown under optimum growth conditions with the aim of characterizing their above- and below-ground biomass allocation and the response of their gas exchange to changes in light intensity, CO2 concentration

  4. Propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration influence the establishment and growth of an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua eYou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, spreading mainly by vegetative propagules. Propagule pressure (the number of propagules may affect the establishment, growth and thus invasion success of these clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. To understand how propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration affect the establishment and growth of the invasive clonal plants, an 8-week greenhouse with an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides was conducted. High (five fragments or low (one fragment propagule pressure was established either in bare soil (open habitat or dense native vegetation of Jussiaea repens (vegetative habitat, with the stolon connections either severed from or connected to the relatively older ramets. High propagule pressure greatly increased the establishment and growth of A. philoxeroides, especially when it grew in vegetative habitats. Surprisingly, high propagule pressure significantly reduced the growth of individual plants of A. philoxeroides in open habitats, whereas it did not affect the individual growth in vegetative habitats. A shift in the intraspecific interaction on A. philoxeroides from competition in open habitats to facilitation in vegetative habitats may be the main reason. Moreover, clonal integration significantly improved the growth of A. philoxeroides only in open habitats, especially with low propagule pressure, whereas it had no effects on the growth and competitive ability of A. philoxeroides in vegetative habitats, suggesting that clonal integration may be of most important for A. philoxeroides to explore new open space and spread. These findings suggest that propagule pressure may be crucial for the invasion success of A. philoxeroides, and such an effect also depends on habitat conditions.

  5. Growth responses and accumulation of soluble sugars in Inga marginata Wild. (Fabaceae) subjected to flooding under contrasting light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, B; Capellesso, E S; Lottici, M E; Sentkovski, J; Mielniczki-Pereira, A A; Rosa, L M G; Sausen, T L

    2017-01-01

    Flood events in riparian forests of southern Brazil, can be characterized as unpredictable and of low magnitude with an average duration of less than 15 days. Inga marginata is an evergreen tree which grows in Southeast South America on a wide range of environments, including riparian forests. In this paper, the interactive effects of the light environment and soil flooding on morphological parameters of I. marginata were examined. Seedlings were acclimated in two contrasting light conditions: sun or shade for 30 days. Sun and shade plants were subjected to soil flooding for two periods; five or 15 days. After 5 days, the interaction between flooding and light did not affect growth, chlorophyll content and dry mass or the root-shoot ratio. After 15 days, flooded plants from the sunny treatment had a lower shoot dry mass compared to control sun plants and flooded plants from the shaded treatment. Moreover, the higher dry mass observed for shade plants compared to sun plants, following flooding, can also be directly associated with a higher content of soluble sugars. Shade plants of I. marginata showed a greater acclimation to soil waterlogging. This acclimation appears to be associated with a larger accumulation of soluble sugars compared to non-flooded plants. The responses observed on the shade plants appear to be decisive to indicate the use of I. marginata in degraded areas.

  6. Growth and development of tomato plants Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. under different saline conditions by fertirrigation with pretreated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-01-01

    Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been used at different salinity levels: 1.75, 2.22, 3.22, 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) and compared with fresh water (1.44 dS m(-1)). Two cultivars (cv.) of the tomato plant Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (Roma and Rio Grande) were exposed to saline conditions for 72 days. Salinity level (treatment) had no significant effects on the fresh weight and dry matter of the leaves, stems and roots. Similar results were found when specific leaf area, leaflet area, ramifications number of 1st order/plant, stem diameter and length, nodes number/stem and primary root length were considered. Conversely, the salinity level significantly influenced the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and the distance between nodes in the plant stem. In the first case, an increase of 21% was obtained in the salinity levels of 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) for cv. Rio Grande, compared with the control run. The results showed that the pretreated CWW can be a source of nutrients for tomato plants, with reduced effects on growth and development.

  7. Soybean growth responses to enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B radiation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.; Sullivan, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. Essex) was grown in an unshaded greenhouse under three levels of biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-BBE) radiation (effective daily dose: 0, 11.5 and 13.6 kJ m -2 ) for 91 days. Plants were harvested at regular intervals beginning 10 days after germination until reproductive maturity. Mathematical growth analysis revealed that the effects of UV-B radiation varied with plant growth stage. The transition period between vegetative and reproductive growth was the most sensitive to UV-B radiation. Intermediate levels of UV-B had deleterious effects on plant height, leaf area, and total plant dry weight at late vegetative and reproductive stages of development. Specific leaf weight increased during vegetative growth but was unaffected by UV-B during reproductive growth stages. Relative growth, net assimilation, and stem elongation rates were decreased by UV-B radiation during vegetative and early reproductive growth stages. Variation in plant responses may be due in part to changes in microclimate within the plant canopy or to differences in repair or protection mechanisms at differing developmental stages. (author)

  8. The role of hormones and growth factors in the cellular proliferation control in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    A review is done about fibroblast proliferation, its control by classic hormones and hormonal growth factors, showing their main implications and the stage of this research at present. The control exerted on fibronlast proliferation by hormonal growth factors and classic hormones is demonstrated. The existence of basic mechanisms valid for all types of cells is suggested. Experiences are carried out with the aim of finding growth mutants useful in the elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms involved in growth regulation. Radiactive precursors and autoradiographic techniques are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  9. Temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of Agaricus brasiliensis on axenic cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; Universidade Paranaense; Aizono, Patrícia Midori; Universidade Paranaense; Carvalho, Lis Ribeiro Magalhães de; Universidade Paranaense; Paccola-Meirelles, Luzia Doretto; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Linde, Giani Andrea; Universidade Paranaense

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have been done to determine Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei; A. subrufescens) basic mycelial growth characteristics on axenic cultivation. This study aimed to determine the optimal temperature and initial pH for mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on malt extract agar medium to develop axenic cultivation techniques. Studied initial pH values for mycelial growth were adjusted to 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, with HCl, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, with NaOH, and again 7.0 and 8.0, with CaCO3....

  10. Effects of environmental conditions on growth and survival of Salmonella in pasteurized whole egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Bisgaard, Magne; Hervé, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of three parameters (time, temperature and NaCl concentration) on survival and four parameters (temperature, NaCl and lysozyme concentrations and pH) on growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in pasteurized whole egg (PWE). Doehlert......Cl at a fixed heating time of 120s, while maximum growth rate was estimated at 25°C and 0% of NaCl. pH and lysozyme concentration were shown not to influence growth performance significantly in the range of values studied. Results inform industry of the optimal pasteurization and storage parameters for liquid...

  11. Improvement of reproducibility and quality control of human growth hormone radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, P.; Ribela, M.T.C.P.; Camilo, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The labelling reaction of human growth hormone (hGH) with 125 I and its chromatographic purification have been studied with emphasis on the reproducibility of the yields, quantitaTive recoveries and resulting activities. Through the accurate standardization of a monitoring technique, it is confirmed that there are no significant losses in radioactivity or protein during the labelling or purification process. By strict control of the reaction conditions a fairily good reproducibility is also obtained in the labelling of various hGH extracts with diferent 125 I shipments used after short or long storage. Finally, the specific activity (or absolute mass) of the radioiodinated protein is determined by this Analysis of the Reaction Mixture and compared to the widely used radioimmunological assay (Self-displacement). (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Controls Neural Stem Cell Activation in Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinah Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs continuously produce new neurons within the adult mammalian hippocampus. NSCs are typically quiescent but activated to self-renew or differentiate into neural progenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms of NSC activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adult hippocampal NSCs express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 3 and its ligand VEGF-C, which activates quiescent NSCs to enter the cell cycle and generate progenitor cells. Hippocampal NSC activation and neurogenesis are impaired by conditional deletion of Vegfr3 in NSCs. Functionally, this is associated with compromised NSC activation in response to VEGF-C and physical activity. In NSCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, VEGF-C/VEGFR3 mediates intracellular activation of AKT and ERK pathways that control cell fate and proliferation. These findings identify VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling as a specific regulator of NSC activation and neurogenesis in mammals.

  13. Monitoring parameters of technical condition and safety of aircraft using control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.І. Чепіженко

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available  The opportunity of control cards use for monitoring of a technical condition parameters and reliability of aviation techniques is considered at its operation on a technical condition.

  14. A mild pulsed electric field condition that improves acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus LB-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najim, N; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing involves the application of pulses of voltage for less than 1 s to fluid products placed between 2 electrodes. The effect of mild PEF on beneficial characteristics of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of mild PEF conditions on acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12. A pilot plant PEF system (OSU-4M; The Ohio State University, Columbus) was used. The PEF treatments were positive square unipolar pulse width of 3 µs, pulse period of 0.5s, electric field strength of 1 kV/cm, delay time of 20 µs, flow rate of 60 mL/min, and 40.5°C PEF treatment temperature. Both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 subjected to mild PEF conditions were acid tolerant until the end of the 120 min of incubation, unlike the Lb. bulgaricus control, which was not acid tolerant after 30 min. The mild PEF-treated Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 reached the logarithmic phase of growth an hour earlier than the control. Mild PEF conditions studied significantly improved acid tolerance, exponential growth, and protease activity of both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 compared with the control. The mild PEF conditions studied can be recommended for pretreating cultures to enhance these desirable attributes. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kreuter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.

  16. Intelligent Approach to Inventory Control in Logistics under Uncertainty Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Więcek, P.

    2016-07-01

    The article presents a proposal for a combined application of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms to control the procurement process in the enterprise. The approach presented in this paper draws particular attention to the impact of external random factors in the form of demand and lead time uncertainty. The model uses time-variable membership function parameters in a dynamic fashion to describe the modelled output fuzzy (sets) values. An additional element is the use of genetic algorithms for optimisation of fuzzy rule base in the proposed method. The approach presented in this paper was veryfied according to four criteria based on a computer simulation performed on the basis of the actual data from an enterprise. (Author)

  17. A novel capacity controller for a three-evaporator air conditioning (TEAC) system for improved indoor humidity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Huaxia; Deng, Shiming; Chan, Ming-yin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel capacity controller for TEAC systems for improved indoor humidity control is developed. • The novel controller was developed by integrating two previous control algorithms. • Experimental controllability tests were carried out. • Improved control over indoor humidity levels and higher energy efficiency can be achieved. - Abstract: Using a multi-evaporator air conditioning (MEAC) system to correctly control indoor air temperatures only in a multi-room application is already a challenging and difficult task, let alone the control of both indoor air temperature and humidity. This is because in an MEAC system, a number of indoor units are connected to a common condensing unit. Hence, the interferences among operation parameters of different indoor units would make the desired control of an MEAC system hard to realize. Limited capacity control algorithms for MEAC systems have been developed, with most of them focusing only on the control of indoor air temperature, and no previous studies involving control of indoor air humidity using MEAC systems can be identified. In this paper, the development of a novel capacity controller for a three-evaporator air conditioning (TEAC) system for improved indoor air humidity control is reported. The novel controller was developed by integrating two previous control algorithms for a dual-evaporator air conditioning system for temperature control and for a single-evaporator air conditioning system for improved indoor humidity control. Experimental controllability tests were carried out and the controllability test results showed that, with the novel controller, improved control over indoor humidity levels and better energy efficiency for a TEAC system could be obtained as compared to the traditional On–Off controllers extensively used by MEAC systems.

  18. Numerical simulation of controlled directional solidification under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, S.; Roos, D.; Wein, J.

    The computer-assisted simulation of solidification processes influenced by gravity has gained increased importance during the previous years regarding ground-based as well as microgravity research. Depending on the specific needs of the investigator, the simulation model ideally covers a broad spectrum of applications. These primarily include the optimization of furnace design in interaction with selected process parameters to meet the desired crystallization conditions. Different approaches concerning the complexity of the simulation models as well as their dedicated applications will be discussed in this paper. Special emphasis will be put on the potential of software tools to increase the scientific quality and cost-efficiency of microgravity experimentation. The results gained so far in the context of TEXUS, FSLP, D-1 and D-2 (preparatory program) experiments, highlighting their simulation-supported preparation and evaluation will be discussed. An outlook will then be given on the possibilities to enhance the efficiency of pre-industrial research in the Columbus era through the incorporation of suitable simulation methods and tools.

  19. A Computational Study of Amensalistic Control of Listeria monocytogenes by Lactococcus lactis under Nutrient Rich Conditions in a Chemostat Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khassehkhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a previously introduced mathematical model of amensalistic control of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by the generally regarded as safe lactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis in a chemostat setting under nutrient rich growth conditions. The control agent produces lactic acids and thus affects pH in the environment such that it becomes detrimental to the pathogen while it is much more tolerant to these self-inflicted environmental changes itself. The mathematical model consists of five nonlinear ordinary differential equations for both bacterial species, the concentration of lactic acids, the pH and malate. The model is algebraically too involved to allow a comprehensive, rigorous qualitative analysis. Therefore, we conduct a computational study. Our results imply that depending on the growth characteristics of the medium in which the bacteria are cultured, the pathogen can survive in an intermediate flow regime but will be eradicated for slower flow rates and washed out for higher flow rates.

  20. Corrosion fatigue initiation and short crack growth behaviour of austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Leber, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion fatigue in austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions. ► Identification of major parameters of influence on initiation and short crack growth. ► Critical system conditions for environmental reduction of fatigue initiation life. ► Comparison with the environmental factor (F env ) approach. - Abstract: The corrosion fatigue initiation and short crack growth behaviour of different wrought low-carbon and stabilised austenitic stainless steels was characterised under simulated boiling water reactor and pressurised water reactor primary water conditions by cyclic fatigue tests with sharply notched fracture mechanics specimens. The special emphasis was placed to the behaviour at low corrosion potentials and, in particular, to hydrogen water chemistry conditions. The major parameter effects and critical conjoint threshold conditions, which result in relevant environmental reduction and acceleration of fatigue initiation life and subsequent short crack growth, respectively, are discussed and summarised. The observed corrosion fatigue behaviour is compared with the fatigue evaluation procedures in codes and regulatory guidelines.

  1. Housing conditions affecting interior moisture levels: links to mould growth and children's respiratory health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, John A. [Crosier Kilgour and Partners Ltd. (Canada)], email: john.w@ckpeng.com; Polyzois, Dimos [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Manitoba (Canada)], email: polyzoi@cc.umanitoba.ca; Polyzoi, Eleoussa [Faculty of Education, University of Winnipeg (Canada)], email: l.polyzoi@uwinnipeg.ca

    2011-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a person's respiratory health is affected by high indoor moisture content in their house. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the link between housing conditions and respiratory health, so that strategies can be implemented to improve the quality of life of children. This study was carried out through the completion of a survey by 3,423 parents in Winnipeg, Canada, the collection of 715 air samples from the residences of 715 parents, and an engineering audit of their homes. This study showed that a strong relationship exists between building moisture content and common home maintenance and that routine maintenance is efficient in significantly reducing the growth of mould which impacts children's respiratory health. This paper provided useful information on the relation between housing conditions and respiratory health problems and the rest of the study will aim at determining which building conditions impact mould growth most.

  2. Renewed growth in hospital inpatient cost since 1998: variation across metropolitan areas and leading clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bernard S; Wong, Herbert S; Steiner, Claudia A

    2006-03-01

    To use disaggregated data about metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and clinical conditions to better describe the variation in cost increases and explore some of the hypothesized influences. The study uses the state inpatient databases from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, containing all discharges from hospitals in 172 MSAs in 1998 and 2001. The discharge summary information was combined with standardized hospital accounting files, surveys of managed care plans, MSA demographics, and state data pertaining to caps on medical malpractice awards. The analysis used descriptive comparisons and multivariate regressions of admission rate and cost per case in 9 leading disease categories across the MSAs. The increase in hospital input prices and changes in severity of illness were controlled. Metropolitan statistical areas with higher HMO market penetration continued to show lower admission rates, no less so in 2001 than in 1998. A cap on malpractice awards appeared to restrain admissions, but the net effect on hospital cost per adult eroded for those states with the most experience with award caps. Higher admission rates and increase in cost were found in several disease categories.

  3. Growth response and nutrient uptake of blue pine (Pinus wallichiana seedlings inoculated with rhizosphere microorganisms under temperate nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ahangar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants (Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens,Laccaria laccata inoculated either individually or in combinationsignificantly improved the growth and biomass of blue pine seedlings. The ECM fungus Laccaria laccata, when inoculated individually, showed significantly higher plant growth, followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. The combined inoculation of rhizosphere microorganisms showed synergistic growth promoting action and proved superior in enhancing the growth of blue pine than individual inoculation. Co-inoculation of L. laccata with P. fluorescens resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal root colonization. Uptake of nutrients (N, P, K was significantly improved by microbial inoculants, tested individually or in combination. Combined inoculation of L. laccata with T. harzianum and P. fluorescens significantly increased in N, P and K contents in blue pine seedlings as compared to control. Acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere of blue pine seedlings was also enhanced by these microorganisms. L. laccata exhibited higher acid phosphatase activity followed by P. fluorescens.

  4. Abscisic acid regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating root development under drought conditions is an important question for plant biology and world agriculture. We examine the effect of osmotic stress on abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinin and ethylene responses and how they mediate auxin transport, distribution and root growth through effects on PIN proteins. We integrate experimental data to construct hormonal crosstalk networks to formulate a systems view of root growth regulation by multiple hormones. Experimental analysis shows: that ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress responses increase under osmotic stress, but cytokinin responses are only slightly reduced; inhibition of root growth under osmotic stress does not require ethylene signalling, but auxin can rescue root growth and meristem size; osmotic stress modulates auxin transporter levels and localization, reducing root auxin concentrations; PIN1 levels are reduced under stress in an ABA-dependent manner, overriding ethylene effects; and the interplay among ABA, ethylene, cytokinin and auxin is tissue-specific, as evidenced by differential responses of PIN1 and PIN2 to osmotic stress. Combining experimental analysis with network construction reveals that ABA regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Predicting plant performance under simultaneously changing environmental conditions – the interplay between temperature, light and internode growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eKahlen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant performance is significantly influenced by prevailing light and temperature conditions during plant growth and development. For plants exposed to natural fluctuations in abiotic environmental conditions it is however laborious and cumbersome to experimentally assign any contribution of individual environmental factors to plant responses. This study aimed at analyzing the interplay between light, temperature and internode growth based on model approaches. We extended the light-sensitive virtual plant model L-Cucumber by implementing a common Arrhenius function for appearance rates, growth rates and growth durations. For two greenhouse experiments, the temperature-sensitive model approach resulted in a precise prediction of cucumber mean internode lengths and number of internodes, as well as in accurately predicted patterns of individual internode lengths along the main stem. In addition, a system’s analysis revealed that environmental data averaged over the experimental period were not necessarily related to internode performance. Finally, the need for a species-specific parameterization of the temperature response function and related aspects in modelling temperature effects on plant development and growth is discussed.

  6. Ge deposition on Si(1 0 0) in the conditions close to dynamic equilibrium between islands growth and their decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklyaev, A.A.; Budazhapova, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solid source MBE is used for island growth by Ge deposition on Si(1 0 0) at 700–900 °C. • Islands acquire a monomodal size distribution at temperatures above 800 °C. • Islands form ordered arrays during Ge deposition at 900 °C. • Conditions close to dynamic equilibrium are realized for growth and decay of islands at 900 °C. • Shape of ordered islands is cone with shallow sidewalls. - Abstract: The formation of islands arrays during Ge deposition on Si(1 0 0) at high temperatures is studied using scanning tunneling and electron microscopies. It is found that the island size and shape distributions, which are known to be bimodal at growth temperatures below 700 °C, become monomodal at temperatures above 800 °C. The obtained data suggest that the processes such as island nucleation and Ostwald ripening become less significant in the surface morphology formation, giving the advantage to selective attachment of deposited Ge atoms to island sidewalls and spatially inhomogeneous Si-Ge intermixing, as the temperature increases. At 900 °C, the islands exhibit a tendency to form laterally ordered arrays when the growth conditions approach the dynamic equilibrium between the growth of islands and their decay by means of Si-Ge intermixing. The islands ordering is accompanied by their shape transformation into the cone with shallow sidewalls inclined from (1 0 0) by angles of around 10°.

  7. Positive impact of bio-stimulators on growth and physiological activity of willow in climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Duda, Zdzisława

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the physiological activity and growth of willow (Salix viminalis L.) plants cultivated under the conditions of adverse temperature and soil moisture content, and to assess the effect of the foliar application of Biojodis (1.0%) and Asahi SL (0.03%) bio-stimulators, or a mixture of Microcistis aeruginosa MKR 0105 and Anabaena PCC 7120 cyanobacteria under such changing growth conditions. The obtained results showed different reactions to the applied constant or periodically changed temperature and soil moisture content. The plants which grew at periodically changed adverse temperature (from -5 to 40oC) or in scantily (20% m.c.) or excessively (60% m.c.) watered soils, grew slowly, in comparison with those growing at 20oC and in optimally moistened soil (30% m.c.). Foliar application of Biojodis and Asahi SL cyanobacteria increased the growth of willow at optimal and adverse temperature or in scantily and excessively moistened soil. The changes in plant growth were associated with the changes in electrolyte leakage, activity of acid or alkaline phosphatases, RNase, index of chlorophyll content in leaves and gas exchange. The above indicates that the foliar application of the studied cyanobacteria and bio-stimulators partly alleviates the harmful impact of adverse temperature and water stress on growth and physiological activity of willow plants

  8. Deciphering flux adjustments of engineered E. coli cells during fermentation with changing growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Lian; Xiu, Yu; Jones, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fermentation conditions are dynamic, due to transcriptional induction, nutrient consumption, or changes to incubation conditions. In this study, 13C-metabolic flux analysis was used to characterize two violacein-producing E. coli strains with vastly different productivities...

  9. Inoculation of Brassica oxyrrhina with plant growth promoting bacteria for the improvement of heavy metal phytoremediation under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drought resistant serpentine rhizobacteria on plant growth and metal uptake by Brassica oxyrrhina under drought stress (DS) condition. Two drought resistant serpentine rhizobacterial strains namely Pseudomonas libanensis TR1 and Pseudomonas reactans Ph3R3 were selected based on their ability to stimulate seedling growth in roll towel assay. Further assessment on plant growth promoting (PGP) parameters revealed their ability to produce indole-3-acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Moreover, both strains exhibited high resistance to various heavy metals, antibiotics, salinity and extreme temperature. Inoculation of TR1 and Ph3R3 significantly increased plant growth, leaf relative water and pigment content of B. oxyrrhina, whereas decreased concentrations of proline and malondialdehyde in leaves under metal stress in the absence and presence of DS. Regardless of soil water conditions, TR1 and Ph3R3 greatly improved organ metal concentrations, translocation and bioconcentration factors of Cu and Zn. The successful colonization and metabolic activities of P. libanensis TR1 and P. reactans Ph3R3 represented positive effects on plant development and metal phytoremediation under DS. These results indicate that these strains could be used as bio-inoculants for the improvement of phytoremediation of metal polluted soils under semiarid conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  12. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    <