WorldWideScience

Sample records for controles sobre factores

  1. Control reproductivo en vacas de cría mediante progesterona vaginal: Efecto de varios factores sobre la fertilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. DORAY

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacas Angus con cría, entre 30 y 90 días (d posparto y con buena condición corporal, recibieron 10 mg de benzoato de estradiol i.m. y 2 g de progesterona mediante esponja vaginal (tratamiento ESP. Se determinó si la fertilidad fue afectada por: la duración del tratamiento y el número de partos (Exp. 1; la presentación de celo inducido al momento de la inseminación artificial sistemática –IAS– y la longitud del posparto, en vacas en anestro (Exp. 2; y la hora o la cantidad de IAS (Exp. 3. Exp.1. Se trató con ESP durante 8 u 11 d a vacas primíparas y multíparas. Se hizo IAS a las 48 y 72 horas de retiradas las esponjas. La IA continuó por 30 d. Se determinaron las tasas de preñez de la IAS y la acumulada en 30 d (preñadas en la IAS + preñadas en el retorno. El ESP aplicado durante 8 d (n=72 y 11 d (n=71 no afectó la preñez de la IAS: 38% y 42% respectivamente, ni la preñez acumulada en 30 d: 56% y 61%, respectivamente (p 0.05. Las multíparas (n=83 tendieron a una mayor tasa de preñez respecto de las primíparas (n=53 en la IAS: 39% y 23%, y también en la acumulada en 30 d: 46% y 28%, respectivamente (p A treatment based on progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges has been used to control breeding in suckled beef cows under grazing conditions. However, fertility has not always been satisfactory. The objective of this trial was to determine whether fertility of treated cows was affected by the following factors: parity and duration of treatment (exp. 1, presence of signs of oestrus at the moment of timed AI and duration of postpartum in anoestrus cows (exp. 2, the time for double timed AI and reduction to a single timed AI (exp. 3. Spring-calved suckled Angus cows 30 to 90 days (d postpartum, in good body condition, were used. Cows received 10 mg of oestradiol benzoate i.m. and a vaginal sponge containing 2 g of progesterone (ESP treatment. Exp. 1. Parity (primiparous, n=53 vs multiparous, n=83 and duration of ESP (8 d, n

  2. Discusiones sobre el control patronal

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    Claudio Katz

    Full Text Available El artículo evalúa las principales tesis y críticas de la teoría del control patronal a la luz del desenvolvimiento actual del capitalismo. Analiza la consistencia de ese enfoque con la teoría marxista y contrasta el aporte de Braverman con problemas de la visión neoclásica y la Teoría de la Regulación. El texto también revisa el alcance asignado al concepto de taylorismo en función de la segmentación e intelectualización actual del trabajo. Estudia en qué sentido Braverman privilegió la problemática de la resistencia al análisis del consentimiento e indaga cómo abordó la relación entre los procesos de trabajo y valorización. También se señalan aciertos, en la medición de las calificaciones por el grado de dominio en la comprensión de la tarea realizada. Pero se destaca la problemática relación de los pronósticos de descalificación absoluta con el concepto de miseria creciente. Se subrayan las implicancias políticas de esta tesis. El artículo pondera del enfoque totalizador de Braverman y su énfasis en la centralidad y no el fin del trabajo. Destaca como su mirada permite comprender el trasfondo confiscatorio de la precarización actual del empleo.

  3. Considerations on the possible corrosion mechanisms of reinforced concrete structures and on the factors that control their kinetics; Consideraciones sobre los posibles mecanismos de corrosion de las estructuras de hormigon armado y sobre los factores que controlan su cinetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Miranda, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    It is well known that in normal circumstances steel remains passive in concrete, due to the highly alkaline pH, and that the passivity of the rebars guarantees the practically unlimited durability of reinforced concrete structures (RCS). However, a number of matters continue to cause controversy, with the risk of promoting the acceptance of behaviours or mechanisms that cannot be extended to all circumstances; for instance: (a) that when carbonation is ruled out, concrete always impose a highly alkaline pH on rebars. (b) that in RCSs corroding active state cathodic control by oxygen diffusion in the aqueous phase of the pore network is usual. (c) that the influence of galvanic macro couples strongly conditions the rebar corrosion process. (d) that the concrete coating always has a protective effect on rebars. (e) that the initial grade of corrosion of rebars does not matter, since the concrete's great alkalinity guarantees their passivation. This paper presents results which demonstrate that the response of RCSs in the above cases is variable, at times contradictory, depending on the set of experimental conditions. (Author) 29 refs.

  4. Mecanismos de control sobre la seguridad privada en el Brasil

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    Carolina de MATTOS RICARDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo sistematiza los mecanismos de control sobre la seguridad privada en el Brasil, ya sean éstos legales, institucionales o externos. La sistematización permite evaluar la organización de la estructura de reglamentación y fiscalización, así como la regularización de la prestación de estos servicios. Al final del artículo se dan algunas sugerencias para el perfeccionamiento de ese sistema.ABSTRACT: This article systematizes the control mechanisms on the private security in Brazil – the legal as well as the institutional and the external ones. That systematization enables to evaluate the organization of the structure of regulation and fiscalization, as well as the regularization of the provision of these services. At the end of the paper, some suggestions are proposed for the improvement of that system.

  5. Influencia de factores psicológicos, sociales y familiares sobre el control, la demanda asistencial y la adherencia terapéutica en pacientes con alto riesgo cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Atienza Martín, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Introducción Las enfermedades crónicas constituyen, en la actualidad, un problema de salud pública por su magnitud y su repercusión en términos de morbilidad, mortalidad y gasto sanitario. Entre las enfermedades crónicas tienen un papel relevante las enfermedades cardiovasculares que son uno de los principales motivos de atención sanitaria, tanto en sí mismas como por las actividades derivadas del control de sus factores de riesgo (hipertensión arterial, hipercolesterolemia, tabaquismo, et...

  6. Algunas reflexiones sobre el tabaquismo como factor de riesgo para diferentes enfermedades

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    Miriam Bolet Astoviza

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre el tabaquismo como factor de riesgo para muchas enfermedades, entre ellas, las cardiovasculares, con el objetivo de profundizar sobre los efectos perjudiciales de esta drogadicción, y para que todos los médicos se actualicen sobre el tema. Trata la magnitud del problema, enfermedades que provoca, fumadores activos y pasivos, prevención y recomendaciones.A literature review on smoking as a risk factor in many diseases, particularly, the cardiovascular diseases was made to delve into the harmful effects of this drug addiction and to update the knowledge of all the physicians on this topic. This paper deals with the size of the problem, the diseases caused, active and passive smokers, prevention and recommendations.

  7. Factors associated with asthma control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.P. de; Bemt, E.A.J.M. van den; Lince, S.; Muris, J.W.M.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors are associated with asthma control experienced by asthma patients. In a cross-sectional study patients aged 16-60 years with mild to moderate asthma were selected. The influence of the following factors on asthma control was studied in a multivaria

  8. Conocimientos sobre la prevención del cáncer cervicouterino, locus de control y realización del Papanicolaou

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue identificar la relación entre los conocimientos sobre la prevención del cáncer cervicouterino, el locus de control, y la realización de la prueba de Papanicolaou en mujeres mexicanas con diferentes niveles de escolaridad. Se estudió una muestra de 208 mujeres de entre 30 y 64 años de edad. Las mujeres con escolaridad media superior y superior sabían más sobre la utilidad de la prueba y cuándo realizarla. Todas las mujeres sabían poco sobre los factores de riesgo de...

  9. Conocimientos sobre riesgo de embarazo y autoeficacia en hombres adolescentes:apoyo parental y factores escolares

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    Fátima Estrada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar la asociación entre conocimiento sobre riesgo de embarazo y autoeficacia en el uso del condón, con el apoyo parental y factores escolares, en hom­bres. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal con 448 estudiantes en Puebla y Morelos. Se ajustaron dos modelos logísticos. Resultados. Los conocimientos sobre riesgo de embarazo se asocian con el que los padres hablen sobre sexualidad (RM=2.45, IC95% 1.35-4.47, con el agrado por asistir a la escuela (RM=2.18, IC95% 1.15-4.13, con el que los profesores hablen frecuentemente/muy frecuentemente sobre equidad de género (RM=1.69, IC95% 1.06-2.67 y con la edad (RM=1.77, IC95%1.26-2.50. La autoeficacia en el uso de condón se relaciona con el que los padres hablen sobre sexualidad (RM=1.80, IC95% 1.01-3.20, con el agrado por asistir a la escuela (RM=2.60, IC95% 1.42-4.77, con el nivel socioeconómico medio (RM=1.82, IC95% 1.07-3.11 y con alto grado de marginación (RM=0.47, IC95% 0.30-0.73. Con­clusiones. Estudiar el apoyo familiar y escolar, considerando la influencia del entorno social, permite mayor entendimiento de la adquisición de habilidades para una conducta sexual preventiva en hombres durante la adolescencia temprana

  10. On multivariate control charts Sobre gráficos de controle multivariados

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    Marianne Frisén

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production requires multivariate control charts to enable monitoring of several components. Recently there has been an increased interest also in other areas such as detection of bioterrorism, spatial surveillance and transaction strategies in finance. In the literature, several types of multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA and CUSUM methods have been proposed. We review general approaches to multivariate control chart. Suggestions are made on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods.A produção industrial requer o uso de gráficos de controle para permitir o monitoramento de vários componentes. Recentemente tem havido um aumento de interesse também em outras áreas como a detecção do bioterrorismo, vigilância espacial e estratégias de operação na área financeira. Na literatura, vários tipos de gráficos multivariados têm sido propostos contrapondo-se aos gráficos univariados de Shewhart, EWMA e CUSUM. Uma revisão geral sobre os gráficos de controle multivariados é apresentada. Sugestões são dadas em especial aos desafios em avaliar métodos multivariados em vigilância.

  11. El impacto de las adquisiciones transnacionales sobre los sistemas de control: el caso de TESA

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Pérez, Bernabé; Lobo Gallardo, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo es mejorar nuestro conocimiento sobre el impacto que el cambio organizativo, provocado por un cambio en la propiedad, tiene sobre el sistema de control de la organización vendida y conocer el papel que la Contabilidad de Gestión juega dentro de estos procesos. Para alcanzarlo, hemos desarrollado un estudio de caso longitudinal en una filial de un grupo químico multinacional que opera en nuestro país desde 1973.Como pricipales resultados podemos destacar: ...

  12. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR SOBRE LOS FACTORES INFLUYENTES EN LA ABSORCION AEREA Y TRANSPORTE DE ELEMENTOS NUTRITIVOS

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    Rubén O Meninato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Se efectúa una revisión sobre los principios de influencia en los tratamientos fertilizantes por las partes aéreas de las plantas.
    Por medio de aplicaciones de Zn65 en plantas jóvenes de café y siguiendo técnicas de radiautografía y contaje de elementos radiactivos se efectúan observaciones sobre la absorción del Zn y factores que puedan influenciar la misma y su posterior transporte a otros órganos de la planta.
    Dentro del carácter preliminar de la investigación se destacan algunas conclusiones como ser: importancia del esparcido uniforme, influencia del adhesivo, efecto de otros agregados en la absorción y presumible influencia en el traslado.
    Se destaca la importancia de los tratamientos aéreos con fertilizantes y la necesidad de estudios destinados a investigar su relación e influencia sobre la absorción de elementos por raíz.

  13. Aportes para la comprensión del fenómeno del control social sobre las mujeres

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    Mariana Malet Vázquez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: introducción. Precisiones sobre algunos conceptos. Control social. Enfoques feministas del derecho penal. Análisis de algunas normas penales desde la perspectiva de la mujer. Obra abierta

  14. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can control the following risk factors by making lifestyle changes. Your doctor might also suggest medicine to help control some risk factors, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. Poor blood cholesterol (koh-LESS-tur-ol) and triglyceride ( ...

  15. Fitotoxicidad de herbicidas postemergentes sobre Adesmia bicolor (Poir. DC y control de malezas asociadas

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    V.A Autrán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Un mejor conocimiento del manejo de las especies nativas de leguminosas forrajeras como Adesmia bicolor puede ayudar a lograr una mayor calidad y estabilidad en la producción de los pastizales. No existe información disponible en la Argentina sobre el tipo y dosis de herbicidas adecuados para el control de malezas en A. bicolor. Los objetivos fueron evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de herbicidas postemergentes a diferentes dosis sobre A. bicolor y el control de las malezas latifoliadas que crecen asociadas en ensayos a campo durante 2009 y 2010. El diseño fue de parcelas divididas donde la parcela mayor fue el tipo de herbicida (2,4-DB e imazetapir y la parcela menor la dosis (1/4X, 1/2X, 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, siendo X = 250 g i.a. ha-1 para 2,4-DB y X=100 g i.a. ha-1 para imazetapir, con tres repeticiones para cada tratamiento. La materia seca de A. bicolor y el control de malezas se ajustaron a curvas de dosis-respuesta. Se observó efectos fitotóxicos aun con muy baja dosis de 2,4-DB, mientras que imazetapir mostró baja fitotoxicidad para las dosis entre 25 y 100 g a.i. ha-1. El control de malezas con ambos herbicidas fue mayor al 80% con dosis de 1X.

  16. NUEVAS DIRECTRICES SOBRE EL USO DE LOS TESTS: INVESTIGACIÓN, CONTROL DE CALIDAD Y SEGURIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    José Muñiz; Ana Hernández; Vicente Ponsoda

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. Para llevar a cabo una evaluación psicológica rigurosa es necesario que los profesionales que la realizan tengan una preparación adecuada, que los tests utilizados muestren unas buenas propiedades psicométricas, y que se utilicen de forma correcta. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar las directrices recientes de la Comisión Internacional de Tests sobre el uso de los tests en tres ámbitos: investigación, control de calidad y seguridad en el manejo de las pruebas. Método. ...

  17. La metáfora como factor de textualidad en Ensayo sobre la lucidez, de José Saramago.

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Olívia Maria

    2006-01-01

    La metáfora como factor de textualidad es una reflexión sobre el modo como el sistema de la lengua se operacionaliza en el discurso. En este caso concreto, como es que en la obra literaria Ensayo sobre la lucidez las expresiones idiomáticas (expresiones compósitas) son transformadas de nuevo en expresiones metafóricas (expresiones componenciales). La incidencia del análisis se focaliza en la apreciación de cómo la expresión idiomática recupera su energía creadora y el primer impulso que la po...

  18. NUEVAS DIRECTRICES SOBRE EL USO DE LOS TESTS: INVESTIGACIÓN, CONTROL DE CALIDAD Y SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Muñiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Para llevar a cabo una evaluación psicológica rigurosa es necesario que los profesionales que la realizan tengan una preparación adecuada, que los tests utilizados muestren unas buenas propiedades psicométricas, y que se utilicen de forma correcta. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar las directrices recientes de la Comisión Internacional de Tests sobre el uso de los tests en tres ámbitos: investigación, control de calidad y seguridad en el manejo de las pruebas. Método. Se revisarán y comentarán los directrices recientes desarrolladas por la Comisión Internacional de Tests. Resultados. Las nuevas directrices sobre el uso de los tests ofrecen todo un conjunto de recomendaciones teórico-prácticas para guiar la utilización adecuada de los tests en contextos de investigación, para desarrollar e implementar procesos de control de calidad efectivos, y para salvaguardar la seguridad de todos los datos implicados en un proceso evaluativo. Conclusiones. Las nuevas directrices desarrolladas por la Comisión Internacional de Tests contribuirán a una adecuada utilización de los tests en contextos de investigación, a una mejora en los procesos de control de calidad de las pruebas, y a garantizar la seguridad en los procesos evaluativos.

  19. Factores incidentes sobre la gestión de sistemas de inventario en organizaciones venezolanas

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    Omaira Peña

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de sistemas de inventarios constituye una de las funciones más complejas de las organizaciones, ya que implica mantener existencias para protegerse contra incertidumbres al menor costo. Esta complejidad se hace más aguda en economías emergentes, donde factores internos propios de las organizaciones y externos de tipo económicos, políticos y sociales del entorno afectan esta gestión y las decisiones que se toman con base en la aplicación de modelos cuantitativos y políticas de administración desarrolladas para tal fin. De allí, surge la necesidad de analizar la gestión de inventarios desde el contexto en que se desenvuelven las empresas de estos países. En este artículo se presenta una revisión acerca de los factores que inciden sobre la gestión de los sistemas de inventario, tomando en cuenta aspectos operativos y de tipo estratégicos que son relevantes para su adecuada administración. Para tal fin, se hizo la revisión y contrastación de artículos en el marco de esta temática desarrollados por Vidal y otros (2004, Ortiz (2004, Lópes y Gómez (2013, Ponsot (2008 y Vries (2007 principalmente. Se encontró que son diversos los factores que tienen su incidencia en la adecuada gestión de los sistemas de inventarios en las organizaciones enmarcadas en entornos subdesarrollados como el caso de Venezuela.

  20. La metáfora como factor de textualidad en Ensayo sobre la lucidez, de José Saramago. A metáfora como factor de textualidade em Ensaio Sobre a Lucidez de José Saramago The Metaphor as a Textuality Factor in Ensaio Sobre a Lucidez by José Saramago

    OpenAIRE

    Olívia Maria Figueiredo

    2006-01-01

    La metáfora como factor de textualidad es una reflexión sobre el modo como el sistema de la lengua se operacionaliza en el discurso. En este caso concreto, como es que en la obra literaria Ensayo sobre la lucidez las expresiones idiomáticas (expresiones compósitas) son transformadas de nuevo en expresiones metafóricas (expresiones componenciales). La incidencia del análisis se focaliza en la apreciación de cómo la expresión idiomática recupera su energía creadora y el primer impulso que la po...

  1. Factores que influyen en la toma de decisiones sobre la RSC. Un estudio comparativo sobre las percepciones de estudiantes peruanos y brasileños

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    Elsa Del Castillo Mory

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La consideración de aspectos de responsabilidad social corporativa (RSC en las decisiones sobre la actuación empresarial se ve influenciada por diversos factores, entre los cuales destacan las creencias personales de los decisores respecto de las que constituyen las responsabilidades de la empresa en la sociedad –factor de motivación interna de la persona– y la influencia de los diversos grupos de interés con los que la organización interactúa –factor de motivación desde el entorno–. El estudio presentado en este artículo, realizado en una muestra de estudiantes de maestría del Perú y del Brasil, tuvo por objetivo analizar cómo esos factores son percibidos por los encuestados cuando deben priorizar los diversos campos de actuación social responsable de la empresa. Los resultados indican que el factor económico tiende a ser el principal motivador en la mayor parte de los procesos decisorios. Por otra parte, se evidenció el hecho de que los grupos de interés ejercen mayor influencia en temas vinculados con la oferta de productos y servicios, contexto en el cual la legitimidad percibida en las demandas de esos grupos es el atributo que se destaca como el más importante al priorizar los ámbitos de actuación empresarial.

  2. Vivir en el espacio público: consideraciones sobre las políticas de control urbano

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    Mariel Bufarani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los dispositivos de control sobre el espacio urbano implementados por el municipio de Rosario (Santa Fe, Argentina, particularmente en relación con la presencia de personas que viven en las calles. Se focaliza en los modos en que las políticas de control urbano permean la cotidianeidad de las personas sin hogar, y en los sentidos que éstas le otorgan al espacio en el que viven. Finalmente, se reflexiona sobre cómo las medidas de control se vinculan con la construcción de una imagen de ciudad.

  3. Consideraciones sobre el factor humano en dirección de la empresa colombiana

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    Enrique Rugeles Amaya

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El factor humano es importante para el éxito empresarial, ya que en general las universidades hacen énfasis en la planeación, organización, coordinación, dirección y control.

  4. Causal Factors in Genome Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Duibhir, E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study how genes are switched on and off in a coordinated way across an entire genome. In order to do this yeast is used as a model organism. The mechanisms that control gene expression in yeast are very similar to those of human cells. Chapter 1 provides a general introd

  5. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern Estudo caso-controle sobre distúrbios psiquiátricos e com álcool como fatores de risco para padrão de abuso de drogas

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    Claudia S. Lopes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.Avaliou-se os transtornos mentais e a dependência de álcool como fatores de risco para padrão de abuso de drogas em um estudo caso-controle (370 adultos. Casos (usuários de drogas e controles foram selecionados na comunidade segundo a técnica de "bola de neve" e pareados por sexo, idade e amizade. A coleta de dados foi feita por meio do CIDI (Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Considerou-se três padrões de abuso/dependência de drogas de acordo com o tipo utilizado: abuso/dependência de qualquer droga, apenas maconha e cocaína, e outras drogas. Na regressão logística condicional, dependência ao álcool, associou-se fortemente ao padrão de abuso/dependência de drogas. Comparado ao grupo de "não usuários de drogas", o

  6. O MARQUÊS DE SADE, O ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM E O CONTROLE SOCIAL ESTATAL SOBRE A LOUCURA

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgel, Wildoberto Batista; Universidade Federal do Maranhão - UFMA; Serra, Janete Valois Ferreira; Universidade Federal do Maranhão - UFMA; Oliveira, Victória Karoline Ramos de; Universidade Federal do Maranhão - UFMA; Silva Junior, Rogério José de Ribamar da; Universidade Federal do Maranhão - UFMA

    2013-01-01

    O controle social sobre a loucura como uma forma de suprassunção da ortopedia social dos comportamentos indesejados outrora mantido, dominantemente, pela família e igreja. Compreensão da ação do Estado Autoritário como forma de controle social sobre a loucura e o papel da psiquiatria como poder lateral. Analisa-se o caso do Marquês de Sade e observa-se, à luz das teorias de Marx, Engels, Horkheimer, Foucault e Szasz, como o poder autoritário, do Estado, da família e da igreja isolaram os inde...

  7. Factores potenciales para el desarrollo y fortalecimiento del mercado de derivados en Colombia: caso de futuros sobre TRM

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Molina, Leidy Katerine

    2015-01-01

    En este documento de investigación se presentan los factores potenciales que promueven o limitan la profundización del mercado de derivados estandarizado y OTC en Colombia, realizando una comparación con países de la región como México y Chile. Para el caso específico de Colombia se presenta un análisis del mercado de Futuros sobre TRM, considerando las variables que afectan el mercado de derivados para el año 2013. Al analizar los factores de mercado, normativos, tributarios, de capa...

  8. Los factores asociados a los trastornos psicológicos y su efecto sobre la cavidad oral (Mecanismos indirectos)

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Machuca-Portillo, M.C.; Martinez-Sahuquillo Marquez, Angel; Ríos-Santos, J.V.; Bullon, Pedro

    1994-01-01

    La salud oral puede ser influida directamente por factores psicoemocionales que intervienen en la etiopatogenia o en el desarrollo del cuadro clínico de diversas enfermedades orales. Sin embargo, otros factores de naturaleza compleja suman sus efectos a los psicológicos sobre la cavidad oral .Su carácter fundamental es que se encuentran íntimamente asociados a los anteriores. Así, los psicofármacos utilizados en el tratamiento mental alteran el medio bucal mediante los cambios salivales que o...

  9. El control parlamentario sobre las políticas públicas: los casos de Chile y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique PATRIAU

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo discute el control que los Congresos pueden ejercer sobre los cuerpos burocráticos y el proceso de las políticas públicas. Varios estudios explican de qué forma el Parlamento en los Estados Unidos influye sobre la administración, con la intención de garantizar que sus intereses y preferencias sean considerados en la toma de decisiones. El ejemplo estadounidense, que será abordado brevemente, demuestra que el modelo de separación de poderes que impera en América Latina no supone q...

  10. Discursos sobre a terapia de curta duração para o controle da tuberculose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mitano

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: analisar os sentidos produzidos por meio das experiências e percepções dos profissionais de saúde sobre a implementação da estratégia do tratamento diretamente observado de curta duração para o controle da tuberculose. Método: estudo qualitativo realizado em Moçambique com 15 profissionais de saúde. Critérios de inclusão: atuação no Programa de Controle da Tuberculose há mais de um ano e estar em atividade profissional no período da entrevista. Para a coleta de dados foi usado um roteiro semiestruturado e as entrevistas realizadas individualmente foram gravadas. Resultados: emergiram três unidades discursivas: os procedimentos no tratamento do doente; o papel de Agente Comunitário da Saúde e da família; as dificuldades na aplicação do tratamento diretamente observado de curta duração. Conclusão: o tratamento da tuberculose requer um envolvimento constante da família, da comunidade e principalmente do Estado na criação e aplicação de políticas de formação dos recursos humanos e melhoria de infraestruturas.

  11. El contrato de Factoring y la nueva Factura Cambiaria. Consideraciones sobre el contrato y el título valor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El contrato de Factoring y la nueva Factura Cambiaria. Consideraciones sobre el contrato y el título valor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda el análisis del contrato de factoring desde diferentes perspectivas, a saber: su definición, obligaciones, clases, interpretación, regulación de las compañías de factoring, y esquema de eficacia negocial. A partir de los anteriores puntos se analiza la incidencia de la nueva factura unificada sobre el negocio jurídico de factoring, y se demuestra como el deber de información puede conducir a prevenir las posibles falencias de la nueva factura unificada.Esperamos así entregar al lector un material de utilidad práctica, en el que además de abordar los aspectos legales y jurídicos del factoring y la factura unificada, se entreguen también suficientes elementos de juicio para la mejor comprensión de cada una de ellas.

  12. El contrato de Factoring y la nueva Factura Cambiaria. Consideraciones sobre el contrato y el título valor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Franco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda el análisis del contrato de factoring desde diferentes perspectivas, a saber: su definición, obligaciones, clases, interpretación, regulación de las compañías de factoring, y esquema de eficacia negocial. A partir de los anteriores puntos se analiza la incidencia de la nueva factura unificada sobre el negocio jurídico de factoring, y se demuestra como el deber de información puede conducir a prevenir las posibles falencias de la nueva factura unificada. Esperamos así entregar al lector un material de utilidad práctica, en el que además de abordar los aspectos legales y jurídicos del factoring y la factura unificada, se entreguen también suficientes elementos de juicio para la mejor comprensión de cada una de ellas.

  13. Thyristor Controlled Reactor for Power Factor Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mahapatra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Power factor improvement is the essence of any power sector for reliable operation. This paper provides Thyristor Controlled Reactor regulated by programmed microcontroller which aids in improving power factor and retaining it close to unity under various loading conditions. The implementation is done on 8051 microcontrollerwhich isprogrammed using Keil software. To determine time lag between current and voltage PSpice softwareis used and to display power factor according tothe variation in loadProteus software is used. Whenever a capacitive load is connected to the transmission linea shunt reactor is connected which injects lagging reactive VARs to the power system. As a result the power factor is improved. The results given in this paper provides suitable microcontroller based reactive power compensation and power factor improvement technique using a Thyristor Controlled Reactor module.

  14. Commercialization of the power factor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Motor Power Controller, also known as the Power Factor Controller, is to improve power factor and reduce power dissipation in induction motors operating below full load. These purposes were studied and tested in detail. The Motor Power Controller is capable of raising power factors from 0.2 to 0.8 and results in energy savings. It was found that many motors, in their present operating applications, are classified as unstable. The electronic nature of the controller vs. the electrical nature of the motor, compound this problem due to the differences in response time of the two devices. Many tests were successfully completed, the most indicating greater savings than anticipated. Also, there was an effect on efficiency which was not included in the calculations.

  15. Factores de necesidad asociados al uso adecuado del control prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarybel Miranda Mellado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Por las implicaciones sociales de la mortalidad y morbilidad materna es importante determinar los factores de necesidad que influyen en el uso adecuado del control prenatal en gestantes de Sincelejo. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio analítico de corte transversal, que incluyó 730 gestantes, seleccionadas mediante muestreo aleatorio por conglomerados, de las comunas de la ciudad. La información fue recolectada por medio de una encuesta sociodemográfica, una ficha de uso de control prenatal y un Cuestionario para evaluar los factores de necesidad  propuestos por el Modelo de Promoción de la Salud de Nola Pender. Las gestantes fueron contactadas en sus domicilios y diligenciaron los instrumentos. Los datos fueron analizados aplicando estadística descriptiva e inferencial para determinar las asociaciones entre variables. Resultados: El 97,7% (713 de las gestantes asistía al control prenatal, con una mediana de 4 controles prenatales. Un 2,3% (17 no lo habían iniciado al momento de la encuesta y 24,4% (178 hizo uso inadecuado. El 80,7% (589 de las gestantes califican su estado de salud como bueno o muy bueno, 94,8% (692 percibieron beneficios del control prenatal. Se encontró asociación significativa entre la percepción de beneficios y el uso adecuado de control prenatal [OR=5,5 (IC 95%: 2,8 - 10,8]. Discusión y Conclusiones: La percepción que las mujeres tienen sobre los buenos resultados que reporta la asistencia al control prenatal, es el principal factor que puede explicar la adherencia al control y el cumplimiento regular de las consultas. Cómo citar este artículo: Miranda C, Castillo IY. Factores de necesidad asociados al uso adecuado del control prenatal. Rev Cuid. 2016; 7(2: 1345-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v7i2.340

  16. Factores determinantes que ejercen influencia sobre el redimiento clínico de restauraciones con resina

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoud Salem, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Las resinas compuestas pertenecen a los materiales más modernos empleados en la odontología contemporánea. Representan un mejoramiento significativo sobre los primeros restauradores de tipo polímero que consistieron de resinas metacrílicos sin relleno, de calidad inferior, y han tenido muchas deficiencias y limitaciones, los resultados obtenidos con las resinas compuestas de la última generación han dado satisfacción tanto al paciente como al odontólogo debido a que ofrecen una estética supe...

  17. Efectos de los factores dietéticos sobre la conducta agresiva del perro

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotti, Valentina Maria

    2007-01-01

    La elección de una correcta alimentación en especies como el perro y el gato es fundamental para favorecer un adecuado crecimiento y desarrollo músculo-esquelético del animal, cubrir sus necesidades energéticas y prevenir la aparición de problemas metabólicos y enfermedades. Además, se ha observado que la dieta tiene efectos también sobre el comportamiento en diferentes especies domésticas1'2-3. Las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en perros", ratones de laboratorio3 y primates5-6 ponen de man...

  18. Estudio sobre los factores de cambio en grupos socioeducativos de familias de acogida extensa

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Ramajo, Belén

    2012-01-01

    La modalidad de acogimiento en familia extensa es una de las medidas de protección mayormente utilizada por los sistemas de protección de la infancia. Este acogimiento repercute beneficiosamente sobre el desarrollo de los menores al posibilitar el crecimiento junto a personas con las que ya mantienen vínculos y se refuerza la identidad familiar de origen. Sin embargo, las investigaciones demuestran que las familias de acogida extensa tienen una serie de características psicosociales específi...

  19. CONTROL MICROBIOLÓGICO SOBRE Streptococcus Mutans Y SU ACCIÓN ACIDOGÉNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Martínez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Las acciones realizadas por instituciones y directivas de salud en la prevención y control de la caries dental no han sido suficientes para lograr una reducción significativa de esta enfermedad. El control microbiológico o terapia de remplazo aplicado en la prevención de enfermedades infecciosas, no es más que una posibilidad terapéutica hipotética. Sin embargo, es importante estudiar y analizar el futuro valor que pueda tener esta estrategia en la solución de problemas odontológicos, específicamente en la caries dental. Una posibilidad terapéutica como esta, adquiere mayor interés cuando se tiene en cuenta que las medidas de salud tomadas hasta el momento no han tenido el impacto esperado en el control de la caries dental. El objetivo de este artículo de revisión bibliográfica es hacer un análisis de las investigaciones realizadas en la búsqueda, mejora y aplicación de cepas de Streptococcus mutans en el control microbiológico sobre cepas de S. mutans nativas, y por consiguiente en la prevención de la caries dental. Históricamente destacan los trabajos realizados por Hillman y colaboradores con las cepas mutantes de S. mutans, JH1001, JH1005, JH1140 y BCS3-L1. En este grupo de cepas se ha evaluado la estabilidad genética, la capacidad para colonizar y permanecer en el ambiente oral y otras características importantes para su uso en control microbiológico. Los logros obtenidos en estos trabajos, unidos a la disponibilidad de técnicas de ingeniería genética, hacen pensar que se está muy cerca de conseguir la cepa de S. mutans más adecuada para realizar prevención de la caries dental.

  20. Controle editorial: estudo sobre as percepções dos jornalistas de TV de Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Pepes Athanásio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda e discute a incidência do controle editorial pautado nos interesses do veículo enquanto empresa. Nesse aspecto, expõe-se o atual debate sobre essa questão ligando a Teoria do Jornalismo – e as premissas da ética da profissão – a realidade das redações. Contrapõe-se, portanto, a exigência de conceitos como imparcialidade, verdade e compromisso com o bem público à rotina organizacional das emissoras e jornais. Por fim, apresentam-se os resultados da pesquisa que deu origem a esse artigo. Pesquisa essa que ouviu, por meio de questionário online, 277 jornalistas do Paraná a fim de identificar a percepção desses profissionais em relação às interferências comerciais na definição de pautas. A análise quantitativa revela que há certa apatia por parte dos jornalistas que, embora reconheçam os prejuízos desse tipo de orientação editorial, se submetem às regras a fim de preservar sua imagem perante o mercado de trabalho, tal como tratado na Teoria Organizacional, de Warren Breed (1955. The current article discusses the incidence of editorial control based on the interests of the vehicle as a company. On this feature, the actual debate about this question is developed connecting the Journalism Theory – and the ethical assumptions of the job – to the editorial office reality. It opposes, then, the requirement of concepts like impartiality, truth and commitment with the public good to the organizational routine of the broadcasting stations and newspapers. At last, the results of the researches that originated this article are shown. Research that has received, through an online questionnaire, 277 journalists of Paraná in order to identify the perception of these professionals about the commercial interventions in the definition of the journalistic script. The quantitative analysis reveals that there is some apathy coming from journalists that, even though they recognize the losses of this kind of

  1. Controle editorial: estudo sobre as percepções dos jornalistas de TV de Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Pepes Athanásio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda e discute a incidência do controle editorial pautado nos interesses do veículo enquanto empresa. Nesse aspecto, expõe-se o atual debate sobre essa questão ligando a Teoria do Jornalismo – e as premissas da ética da profissão – a realidade das redações. Contrapõe-se, portanto, a exigência de conceitos como imparcialidade, verdade e compromisso com o bem público à rotina organizacional das emissoras e jornais. Por fim, apresentam-se os resultados da pesquisa que deu origem a esse artigo. Pesquisa essa que ouviu, por meio de questionário online, 277 jornalistas do Paraná a fim de identificar a percepção desses profissionais em relação às interferências comerciais na definição de pautas. A análise quantitativa revela que há certa apatia por parte dos jornalistas que, embora reconheçam os prejuízos desse tipo de orientação editorial, se submetem às regras a fim de preservar sua imagem perante o mercado de trabalho, tal como tratado na Teoria Organizacional, de Warren Breed (1955. The current article discusses the incidence of editorial control based on the interests of the vehicle as a company. On this feature, the actual debate about this question is developed connecting the Journalism Theory – and the ethical assumptions of the job – to the editorial office reality. It opposes, then, the requirement of concepts like impartiality, truth and commitment with the public good to the organizational routine of the broadcasting stations and newspapers. At last, the results of the researches that originated this article are shown. Research that has received, through an online questionnaire, 277 journalists of Paraná in order to identify the perception of these professionals about the commercial interventions in the definition of the journalistic script. The quantitative analysis reveals that there is some apathy coming from journalists that, even though they recognize the losses of this kind of

  2. Acción del factor de crecimiento epidérmico sobre el desarrollo de las células estriatales cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázara Castillo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la acción del factor de crecimiento epidérmico (FCE sobre las células del estriado embrionario en un sistema de cultivo disociado de neuronas y glías. El cultivo de células se preparó a partir de embriones de ratas de 16-17 días. En el sistema de cultivo empleado, la población celular fue cultivada durante 20-24 horas en un medio que contenía suero y, posteriormente, fue tratada con 20 ng/mL del FCE en un medio libre de suero. La eliminación del suero en este período inicial de desarrollo provocó una disminución apreciable de las células vivas en los cultivos tratados y en los controles. Al parecer, la población de células sobrevivientes estaba integrada, en su mayoría, por precursores celulares teniendo en cuenta su capacidad proliferativa. La acción del FCE sobre las células se manifestó en un aumento del número de células debido fundamentalmente a un estímulo de la proliferación de los precursores neuronales y astrocitos. Este efecto estuvo acompañado por una reducción de la diferenciación morfológica neuronal cuando se comparó con los cultivos controles. En los cultivos, a los 16 días, la detección de la actividad específica de la colina acetiltrasferasa evidenció la diferenciación de una subpoblación neuronal colinérgica, las cuales respondieron al tratamiento con el factor de crecimiento nervioso con un aumento de la actividad de la enzima.

  3. EDUCAÇÃO E INFÂNCIA: ENSAIO SOBRE PODER E CONTROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliandra Cristina Mesomo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende problematizar questões voltadas à educação no momento atual, procurando  refletir sobre as práticas educacionais institucionais a partir de situações de poder nelas verificadas. Para tanto, toma os estudos de Michel Foucault sobre a dominação dos corpos, tempos e espaços nas instituições (entre elas a escola como referencial teórico elementar para a fundamentação das problematizações. A faixa etária escolar sobre a qual serão feitas as considerações e reflexões educacionais refere-se às crianças de 0 a 6 anos, ou seja, a Educação Infantil. No entanto, muitas das considerações podem ser estendidas e entendidas no contexto escolar mais amplo.

  4. Factores que influyen sobre algunas variables productivas en corderos finalizados en corrales elevados con piso de rejilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germani Adrián Muñoz-Osorio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La finalización intensiva de corderos en corrales elevados con piso de rejilla permite que los animales se mantengan en un ambiente sano, con menos carga parasitaria, protección de los depredadores, reducción en el gasto energético y un mejor microclima, sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre el comportamiento productivo de los corderos bajo este sistema de producción. La identificación de los factores que influyen sobre el comportamiento productivo de los corderos en este tipo de alojamiento es crucial para mejorar su productividad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los efectos de granja, año y época del año sobre algunas variables productivas de corderos finalizados en corrales elevados con piso de rejilla en el trópico subhúmedo de México. Se analizaron 882 datos de la ganancia diaria de peso post-destete (GDP, del peso corporal final (PCF y del periodo de finalización (DE de corderos machos de cuatro granjas (granja A, n = 166; granja B, n = 122; granja C, n = 350; granja D, n = 244. El modelo estadístico incluyo los efectos fijos de la granja (A, B, C y D, de la época del año (lluvia y seca y del año (2010, 2011, 2012 y 2013 sobre GDP, PCF y DE. El modelo incluyó el peso corporal inicial como covariable. Las medias generales para GDP, PCF y DE fueron 263 g, 35 kg y 77 días, respectivamente. La granja afectó (P<0.001 todas las variables evaluadas. La época del año afectó (P<0.001 PCF y DE, pero no GDP. El año afectó (P<0.001 todas las variables evaluadas. La interacción granja × época del año afectó (P<0.001 PCF y DE, pero no GDP. En conclusión, el comportamiento productivo de corderos finalizados en jaulas elevadas en el trópico subhúmedo de México, fué afectado por la granja, el año y parcialmente por la época del año y la interacción granja × época del año.

  5. La metáfora como factor de textualidad en Ensayo sobre la lucidez, de José Saramago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Olívia Maria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La metáfora como factor de textualidad es una reflexión sobre el modo como el sistema de la lengua se operacionaliza en el discurso. En este caso concreto, como es que en la obra literaria Ensayo sobre la lucidez las expresiones idiomáticas (expresiones compósitas son transformadas de nuevo en expresiones metafóricas (expresiones componenciales. La incidencia del análisis se focaliza en la apreciación de cómo la expresión idiomática recupera su energía creadora y el primer impulso que la pone en circulación. Teniendo por fundamento las teorías de la anáfora (ampliada y de la reconceptualización, se muestra que tal reconversión se va haciendo a lo largo de la obra en un proceso de ampliación del enfoque cognitivo de que el recurso a las implicaturas es un trazo necesario para la comprensión de las explicaturas. Es preciso que el lector seleccione el contexto oportuno para entender pertinentemente el sentido comunicado. Y el sentido comunicado no es más que el cuestionamiento de la relación del hombre con el mundo por medio de la amplitud de escenarios metafóricos que sólo la lengua permite instaurar.

  6. La metáfora como factor de textualidad en Ensayo sobre la lucidez, de José Saramago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Maria Figueiredo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La metáfora como factor de textualidad es una reflexión sobre el modo como el sistema de la lengua se operacionaliza en el discurso. En este caso concreto, como es que en la obra literaria Ensayo sobre la lucidez las expresiones idiomáticas (expresiones compósitas son transformadas de nuevo en expresiones metafóricas (expresiones componenciales. La incidencia del análisis se focaliza en la apreciación de cómo la expresión idiomática recupera su energía creadora y el primer impulso que la pone en circulación. Teniendo por fundamento las teorías de la anáfora (ampliada y de la reconceptualización, se muestra que tal reconversión se va haciendo a lo largo de la obra en un proceso de ampliación del enfoque cognitivo de que el recurso a las implicaturas es un trazo necesario para la comprensión de las explicaturas. Es preciso que el lector seleccione el contexto oportuno para entender pertinentemente el sentido comunicado. Y el sentido comunicado no es más que el cuestionamiento de la relación del hombre con el mundo por medio de la amplitud de escenarios metafóricos que sólo la lengua permite instaurar.

  7. Estudio sobre tuberculosis en un distrito sanitario de Sevilla: Situación y alternativas de mejora en el control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limón Mora Juan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La situación actual en nuestro entorno (Distrito, Sevilla, Andalucía, España, donde no es raro observar incidencias anuales de TBC por encima de 30 casos nuevos por 100.000 habitantes, señala que el problema no está próximo, a ser erradicado. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo describir los patrones clínicos y de salud pública de presentación de la tuberculosis en el ámbito del Distrito Sanitario «Sevilla Este-Sur». Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de los casos de tuberculosis declarados (características personales, lugar, tiempo, tipo de enfermedad, factores de riesgos durante el periodo 1992- 2000 en el distrito sanitario «Sevilla Este-Sur», situado en la ciudad de Sevilla y con algunos núcleos rurales. Se calculan la distribución porcentual de casos para los distintos factores estudiados y las tasas de incidencia en variables de interés (sexo, grupos edad, áreas geográficas. Resultados: Se ha estimado una incidencia media anual de 19,4 casos / 100.000 habitantes. Existen diferencias en la incidencia por sexo (RR=2,1, por grupos de edad (incidencia anual por encima de 24 casos /100.000 habitantes en los niños de 0-4 y adultos 25-39 años de edad y zona geográfica. Se observa la frecuencia de recidivas y repeticiones de tratamientos, así como carencias en la realización o comunicación de los estudios de familiares y contactos, observándose problemas de mal cumplimiento terapéutico y deficiencias de control en el entorno de los pacientes. Conclusiones: El análisis de la situación en un distrito sanitario como el que se describe (alrededor de 610.000 habitantes en la actualidad durante nueve años de seguimiento y con 1.065 casos declarados, puede orientar sobre una situación más general en nuestro entorno, posibilitando comparaciones con otros estudios. Se observa una tendencia descendente de la incidencia desde 1997. Se señalan algunas medidas organizativas a tener en cuenta para el control de la infección.

  8. Estudio sobre las relaciones del síndrome de burnout con algunos factores psicosociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea López Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Burnout es un problema psicosocial relevante porque el trabajador pierde su capacidad de motivación por el trabajo, su rendimiento laboral es bajo y se deteriora su salud física y mental, por eso se considera que es un problema importante sobre todo en el ámbito penitenciario, donde los trabajadores están sometidos a constantes presiones. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la relación existente entre Burnout, autoestima, género y experiencia laboral en funcionarios de prisiones. El estudio se realizó con 34 funcionarios penitenciarios de la cárcel de Albolote (Granada. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (1965 y el Cuestionario de Maslach Burnout Inventory (1986. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que no existen relaciones significativas entre Burnout, autoestima, experiencia laboral y género; aunque se han encontrado algunas diferencias de género en las variables de estudio.

  9. EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leida Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR, índice de masas de huevos (IMH, el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes. La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados.

  10. Nivel de conocimiento sobre factores de riesgo prenatal para la prevención de discapacidades y desarrollo personal en gestantes adolescentes del Cono Sur de Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Masías Ynocencio, Ysabel

    2007-01-01

    El presente estudio se enmarca dentro de la psicología educacional en el enfoque de la promoción y prevención de la salud integral de las adolescentes y de los esfuerzos por reducir los riesgos de discapacidad en el bebé por nacer; que pueden ser generados por el desconocimiento y desinformación sobre los factores de riesgo biológico y ambiental por la futura madre gestante. Motivados por estas interrogantes nos planteamos ¿Qué relación existe entre el nivel de conocimiento sobre factores de ...

  11. Efectos de la fibra soluble cáscaras de plantago ovata sobre factores lípidicos de riesgo cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Anguera i Vilà, Anna

    2007-01-01

    TESIS DOCTORALANNA ANGUERA3 Mayo 2007Efectos de la fibra soluble cáscaras de Plantago ovata sobre factores lipídicos de riesgo cardiovascularAntecedentes: La fibra dietética puede reducir el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. No obstante, los efectos de las cáscaras del Plantago ovata (c-Po), una fibra soluble o de las semillas del Plantago ovata (s-Po), una fibra insoluble sobre los factores lipídicos de riesgo cardiovascular son poco conocidos, en especial, en pacientes con enfermedad car...

  12. Controle no trabalho: uma reflexão sobre antigas e novas formas de controle e suas conseqüências sobre os trabalhadores Control of work: old and new approaches and effects on workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Costa Guimarães

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O controle no trabalho tem se constituído em tema de estudo e foco de preocupação por parte de pesquisadores ligados a diferentes áreas do conhecimento (administração, ergonomia, engenharia, psicologia, medicina, etc.. Trata-se de um assunto nuclear, principalmente quando se pensa na centralidade do trabalho nos dias atuais e na sua importância para a construção da identidade. As transformações ocorridas no mundo do trabalho apontam para novas formas de controle, que afetam os indivíduos em seu bem-estar físico, cognitivo e afetivo. É com base nesses pressupostos que este artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma reflexão sobre as diferentes formas de controle presentes no contexto organizacional, por meio de uma análise histórica, buscando compreender o surgimento e evolução do controle no processo de produção, bem como de uma revisão de pesquisas que apontam as conseqüências da perda ou ausência de controle no trabalho. Parte-se, assim, de uma revisão teórico-conceitual para, num segundo momento, apresentar os resultados desses estudos.Control of work has been the subject of study and concern by researchers in areas such as administration, ergonomics, engineering, psychology and medicine. It is a core issue especially in view of the central importance of work today and it's role in building identity. Transformations in the working world point to new forms of control affecting the individual and his physical, cognitive and affective well being. Different forms of control present in the organizational context were analyzed historically. An understanding of the appearance and evolution of control in the production process was sought as well as evidence of the consequences of a loss or absence of control of work. These results were presented after an initial theoretical and conceptual review.

  13. El control parlamentario sobre las políticas públicas: los casos de Chile y Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patriau, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo discute el control que los Congresos pueden ejercer sobre los cuerpos burocráticos y el proceso de las políticas públicas. Varios estudios explican de qué forma el Parlamento en los Estados Unidos influye sobre la administración, con la intención de garantizar que sus intereses y preferencias sean considerados en la toma de decisiones. El ejemplo estadounidense, que será abordado brevemente, demuestra que el modelo de separación de poderes que impera en América Latina no supone que los Legislativos deban renunciar a controlar a la burocracia. A continuación, se desarrollan los casos de Perú y Chile y se expone cómo los Congresos de ambos países influyen informalmente sobre la burocracia y participan en el proceso de las políticas públicas, a pesar de la existencia de un diseño constitucional fuertemente presidencialista

  14. Em um mundo de incertezas: um survey sobre controle interno em uma perspectiva pública e privada

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    Rossana Guerra de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la uniformidad entre la teoría y la práctica de la gestión del control interno en los sectores públicos y privados, y la estructura de COSO CIFI 2013 como base, este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar cómo las organizaciones han puesto en práctica el concepto, las d imensiones esenciales control interno y cuáles son los desafíos implicados en este proceso. A partir de la percepción de los actores organizacionales que evalúan estas cuestiones en su contexto institucional, se realizó una encuesta con el uso de la escala de medición de Likert. Los datos se analizaron de forma descriptiva y se compararon entre los sectores público y privado con la prueba de Mann - Whitney. Los resultados muestran que, en ambos segmentos, el concepto de control se identifica sobre todo con su forma funcional, lo que puede afectar la eficacia de la gestión del sistema de control, sobre todo en la definición de la rendición de cuentas sobre las acciones de control en la entidad. Los encuestados, públicas y privadas, convergen en la percepción de la ejecución relativa de las dimensiones de control relacionadas con el entorno de control y los sistemas de información y comunicación, y los principales retos visualiza la institucionalización de las actividades de gestión de riesgos, control y seguimie nto. Los resultados reflejan la dificultad de absorber y la institucionalización de los conceptos y las dimensiones centrales estructurados para los controles de gestión en las organizaciones públicas y privadas. Esta situación puede conducir a la ineficie ncia del sistema de control, implementado o diseñado, lo que genera costos sin consideración de la obtención de los beneficios relacionados con la consecución de los objetivos de la organización. La actuación en la difusión y profesionalización del segment o de gestión de controles puede constituir una de las pocas alternativas viables para evitar este

  15. “Vivir en la inseguridad”: relatos sobre el delito y el control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, Maria del Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] En los últimos años, bajo el impulso de lógicas y políticas delrégimen neoliberal, la problemática del delito, hoy naturalizada en amplios sectores como “inseguridad”, constituye un tema de discusión arraigado en las agendas políticas, sociale y mediáticas. En los medios de comunicación, si bien la criminalidad no es un tópico “nuevo”, su delimitación, tratamiento y jerarquización han variado sustancialmente conformando una agenda marcadamente política.Partiendo de esta premisa, el presente trabajo se propone estudiar, a partir del estudio sincrónico de un corpus de noticiasen la prensa gráfica hegemónica, los discursos sobre la “inseguridad” y el delito. Nuestro objetivo es el de analizare interpretar en las representaciones sobre los sujetos y los territorios que allí se construyen los potenciales aportes ala instalación o desvirtuación de un debate crítico sobre la inclusión social y la integración nacional.

  16. Factores de riesgo para carcinoma basocelular: Estudio de casos-controles en Córdoba Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma: Case-control study in Cordoba

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    Alejandro Ruiz Lascano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma basocelular es una enfermedad compleja. Su etiología es todavía poco clara y a pesar de su frecuencia hay pocos datos sobre factores de riesgo. Nosotros evaluamos factores de riesgo potenciales para carcinoma basocelular en una población de Córdoba (Argentina. Este estudio de casos y controles incluyó a 88 casos nuevos de carcinoma basocelular, y 88 controles pareados por sexo y edad. Los siguientes factores de riesgo fueron significativos en el análisis multivariado: fototipos I, II y III, exposición solar recreativa alta después de los 20 años de edad, exposición solar alta en vacaciones en la playa y la presencia de queratosis actínicas.Basal cell carcinoma is undoubtedly a complex disease. Its etiology is still unclear and despite its frequency, there is a paucity of data on its risk factors. We assessed potential risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a population from Córdoba (Argentina. This case-control study involved 88 newly diagnosed cases and 88 controls, matched by age and sex. The following risk factors were significant in the multivariate analysis: skin type I-II-III, high recreational sun exposure after 20 years of age, high sun exposure for beach holidays and actinic keratosis.

  17. EFECTO DE FACTORES EXTRINSECOS SOBRE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DEL METABOLITO W10b PRODUCIDO POR Weissella confusa

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    LILIANA SERNA-COCK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las bacterias ácido lácticas producen sustancias antimicrobianas que pueden perder su actividad debido a factores extrínsecos. En este estudio se determinaron los efectos de temperatura, pH, tiempo de exposición y enzimas sobre la actividad antimicrobiana del metabolito W10b producido por la bacteria ácido láctica Weissella confusa. W10b es activo contra Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus agalactiae. W. confusa se produjo mediante fermentación a 32°C por 4 horas y el metabolito W10b se obtuvo a partir del sobrenadante libre de células mediante centrifugación, filtración y liofilización. W10b se sometió a pH ácido, neutro y básico, para dos tiempos de exposición (10 y 30 minutos y diferentes temperaturas (27, 40, 60 y 100°C. Además se midió el efecto de las enzimas pepsina y amiloglucosidasa sobre W10b. Se encontró diferencias significativas (p<0,05 de la actividad antimicrobiana de W10b por efectos de pH y temperaturas, donde la mayor actividad antimicrobiana se obtuvo, contra S. aureus en medio básico a 27°C y contra S. agalactiae en medio neutro a 27°C. W10b presentó sensibilidad frente a las enzimas pepsina y amiloglucosidasa, indicando la naturaleza proteica y complejidad química del metabolito. Estos resultados orientan el uso industrial o comercial del compuesto antimicrobiano y señala el camino de futuras investigaciones.

  18. A metáfora como factor de textualidade em Ensaio Sobre a Lucidez de José Saramago

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    Figueiredo Olívia Maria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Metáfora como Factor de Textualidade é uma reflexão sobre o modo como o sistema da língua se operacionaliza no discurso. Neste caso concreto, como é que na obra literária Ensaio sobre a Lucidez as expressões idiomáticas (expressões compósitas são transformadas de novo em expressões metafóricas (expressões componenciais. A incidência da análise focalizase na apreciação de como a expressão idiomática reganha a sua energia criadora e o impulso primeiro que a pôs em circulação. Tendo por fundamento as teorias da anáfora (ampliada e da reconceptualização, mostra-se que tal reconversão se vai fazendo ao longo da obra num processo de ampliação do enfoque cognitivo de que o recurso às implicaturas é um traço necessário para a compreensão das explicaturas. O que é preciso é que o leitor seleccione o contexto oportuno para pertinentemente entender o sentido comunicado. E o sentido comunicado não é mais do que a questionação da relação do homem com o mundo por meio da amplitude de cenários metafóricos que só a língua permite instaurar.

  19. Safety factor profile control in a tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Prieur, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Control of the Safety Factor Profile in a Tokamak uses Lyapunov techniques to address a challenging problem for which even the simplest physically relevant models are represented by nonlinear, time-dependent, partial differential equations (PDEs). This is because of the  spatiotemporal dynamics of transport phenomena (magnetic flux, heat, densities, etc.) in the anisotropic plasma medium. Robustness considerations are ubiquitous in the analysis and control design since direct measurements on the magnetic flux are impossible (its estimation relies on virtual sensors) and large uncertainties remain in the coupling between the plasma particles and the radio-frequency waves (distributed inputs). The Brief begins with a presentation of the reference dynamical model and continues by developing a Lyapunov function for the discretized system (in a polytopic linear-parameter-varying formulation). The limitations of this finite-dimensional approach motivate new developments in the infinite-dimensional framework. The t...

  20. Perfil dos artigos sobre controle interno no setor público em periódicos nacionais e internacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetiva identificar o perfil de artigos sobre controle interno no setor público, publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais indexados na base de dados Scopus. Nos artigos publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais indexados na base de dados Scopus, disponíveis no Portal Capes-BR, na área de Social Sciences & Humanities, realizaram-se buscas pelo termo internal control in the public sector. Identificou-se um total de 133 artigos publicados entre os anos de 1983 a 2011 e observou-se que está havendo um aumento na produção científica sobre a temática analisada. Em contrapartida, não há uma literatura específica predominante utilizada nesta área. Os temas mais explorados são: a auditoria, controle interno, gestão de riscos e governança; b finanças públicas; c políticas públicas; e d desenvolvimento econômico.

  1. FACTORES AMBIENTALES Y GENÉTICOS QUE INFLUYEN SOBRE LA EDAD AL PRIMER PARTO EN HEMBRAS DE LA RAZA ROMOSINUANO

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    Marco Suárez

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar los factores ambientales y genéticos que influyen sobre la edad al primer parto dehembras romosinuano. Materiales y métodos. Fueron estudiados 932 datos de la edad al primer partode hembras de la raza Romosinuano, nacidas en el Centro de Investigación Turipaná de CORPOICA,Cereté, Colombia, en el período de 1980 a 2001. Para el estudio de los factores ambientales se utilizóel análisis de varianza mediante modelos lineales utilizando el procedimiento GLM de SAS (1995.Resultados. La edad al primer parto fue de 1162.3±4.2 días, con un coeficiente de variación del 11.19%.El análisis de varianza reveló que el año y mes de nacimiento fueron causas estadísticamente significativasde variación de la edad al primer parto. La heredabilidad, calculada por la correlación intraclase entremedias hermanas paternas fue de 0.16±0.08. Conclusión. El año y mes de nacimiento influyeron en laedad al primer parto de hembras romosinuano, pero la heredabilidad de la edad al primer parto y elsexo de la cría no se constituyen en características importantes a tener en cuenta.

  2. Factores que inciden sobre el tiempo de permanencia de un catéter endovenoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bello-Villalobos

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores que inciden en el tiempo de permanencia de un catéter endovenoso central. Antecedentes: En el paciente con cáncer existen factores propios del estado de inmunocompromiso por el tumor y los efectos colaterales de su tratamiento que aumentan la probabilidad de infección y consecuentemente reducen el tiempo de uso de un catéter. Sujetos: Se integró una cohorte de 306 pacientes con cáncer, con una edad promedio de 59 ± 14,5 años. Intervenciones: Se definió tiempo cero como el día de colocación del catéter. Diariamente se buscaron signos clínicos de infección por catéter, con toma de hemocultivos simultáneos cada 7 días. El desenlace primario fue infección del catéter y el alternativo fin de tratamiento, obstrucción o fallecimiento del paciente. Se comparó el tiempo de permanencia del catéter infectado vs no infectado y su relación con factores de riesgo potenciales. Resultados: Se colocaron 306 catéteres para un total de 4.043 días/catéter. Se infectaron 25 (8,2%. La sobrevida media global fue de 50 días. Se encontró que a mayor tiempo de permanencia, mayor fue la incidencia de infección. En el análisis de sobrevida ajustado, la presencia de infección a distancia (OR = 4,71, IC95% = 1,7-10,1, p = 0,002 fue el factor que mostró una asociación significativa. Conclusiones: El tiempo de vida útil de un catéter es amplia, limitada por la presencia de infección a distancia como factor de riesgo potencial de infección por catéter.

  3. Uma revisão sobre depressão como fator de risco na Doença de Parkinson e seu impacto na cognição Revisión sobre la depressión como factor de riesgo en el Mal de Parkinson e impacto sobre la cognición A review of depression as a risk factor in Parkinson's disease and the impact on cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Débora Silberman

    2004-04-01

    utilizem critérios diagnósticos definidos e com amostras representativas da população podem trazer esclarecimento sobre o assunto.OBJETIVOS: Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: 1 Examinar el impacto de la depresión sobre la cognición en el Mal de Parkinson (MP. 2 Examinar el papel de la depresión como factor de riesgo tanto para el MP como para trastorno cognoscitivo en el MP. METODOLOGÍA: Revisión de la literatura internacional (Medline, de artículos clínicos, seccionales, prospectivos y de caso control evaluando la función cognoscitiva de Parkinsonianos con y sin depresión, entre 1967 y 2003. Palabras clave: Mal de Parkinson, Depresión y Cognición. RESULTADOS: Los trabajos sobre el impacto de la depresión en la cognición de parkinsonianos presentan afirmaciones divergentes. Cinco artículos concluyen que hay impacto e cuatro no confirman esos datos. Puede afirmarse que la depresión es un factor de riesgos para MP así como el MP es un factor de riesgo para la depresión. No en tanto, ninguna definición fue posible en lo que se refiere a la depresión como factor de riesgo para trastornos cognoscitivos en parkinsonianos. Se observa que los datos sobre a prevalencia de la depresión y déficit cognoscitivo en el MP son inconclusivos con grande margen porcentual entre los autores. La depresión en parkinsonianos está asociada con el avance de la gravedad del MP, estado avanzado de Hoehn y Yahr, puntuación alta en la Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS ocurrencia de caídas, baja puntuación en el Mini Examen del Estado Mental (MEEM y en la escala de Schwab y England, déficit cognoscitivo, bradykinesia axial, alteraciones en el caminar y en el balance, edad más avanzada, sexo femenino y presencia de alteración del pensamiento. CONCLUSIÓN: La interacción entre la depresión y MP es compleja y bi-direccional. La depresión es un factor de riesgo para MP así como MP es un factor de riesgo para la depresión. Es imposible trazar un perfil mas

  4. Factores de riesgo en las decisiones sobre cobertura financiera: mercado del cobre en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Donoso Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar la relación existente entre la decisión de cobertura financiera y los resultados de las empresas productoras de cobredurante el período 2005-2007. Para llevarlo a cabo se han analizado las mayores empresas productoras de cobre de Chile, el país de mayor producción mundial. El resultado del estudio muestra que existe una relación directa entre aquellas empresas de este mineral con mayor rentabilidad económica y financiera y la declaración formal y explícita de una política de cobertura financiera. A su vez la investigación permite verificar que el factor de riesgo derivado del mercado físico del cobre es el de mayor consideración a la hora de tomar decisiones de cobertura financiera, seguido del factor de riesgo derivado del mercado financiero

  5. Influencia de los factores modeladores sobre el efecto de borde, en un relicto de bosque altoandino en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeano Gloria

    2004-12-01

    humedad relativa mínima, temperatura del aire mínima y máxima y temperatura del suelo máxima, presentaron en algunos sitios diferencias con las características internas del bosque o blanco, determinando PIB mayores de 60 m dentro del bosque. La orientación relacionada con la ubicación del borde en el fragmento de bosque, fue el factor modelador que mostró una mayor influencia sobre los valores absolutos de las variables abióticas medidas y ligeramente sobre el efecto de borde de algunas variables. Por otro lado, la estructura de la vegetación presentó una PIB entre 20, 40 y > 60 m hacia el interior del borde, siendo los elementos del sotobosque los que parecieron verse más afectados por la cercanía al borde. La composición no pareció mostrar diferencias marcadas entre borde e interior, aunque en el estrato subarbustivo y arbustivo se alcanzó a detectar una distribución de algunas especies en tres franjas: de 30 m
    exterior al borde, borde a 20 ó 30 m en el interior y 30 m hacia el interior (incluido blancos. Así, se determinó los estratos regenerativos, como aquellos más amenazados por la influencia de los bordes. En el fragmento de estudio, la fisonomía del borde (abierta y cerrada y su relación con la intensidad de uso, parecieron ser los aspectos determinantes para la respuesta de la vegetación al borde. A partir de los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, se proponen opciones de manejo
    para favorecer el mantenimiento y recuperación de la vegetación del fragmento.

  6. Influencia de factores climáticos sobre las enfermedades infecciosas

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    Erick Huarcaya Castilla

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological evidence have been correlated with the effect of environmental factors over infectious diseases. Since the El Niño phenomenon in 1973, this event has been incriminated in the onset or trigger of epidemic changes and outbreaks. El Niño, which is responsible for the Ecuatorial Pacific Ocean water warming, produce a global effect, and as a consequence atmospheric humidity and environmental temperature are higher than usual. Currently, there are evidence that those changes have a direct effect on the biological life cycle of infectious diseases vectors and some microorganisms with a correlation in the epidemiology of those diseases. Recently, the molecular biology and the mathematical model analysis have been improving our understood about biological explanations, allowing the opportunity to predict outbreaks, risky areas, or epidemiological changes. We review the current evidence that may affect infectious diseases, as Malaria, Leishmaniasis, Bartonellosis, Cholera and others. (Rev Med Hered 2004;15:218-224.

  7. Conocimientos sobre factores de riesgo y prevención de enfermedades oculares en pacientes atendidos en la provincia de Cienfuegos

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    Armando Rafael Milanés Armengol

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el conocimiento de la población sobre factores de riesgo y cómo llevar a la práctica las medidas preventivas para evitar la aparición de enfermedades visuales es vital para conservar una buena salud ocular.Objetivo: determinar los conocimientos que poseen pacientes atendidos en la provincia de Cienfuegos sobre factores de riesgo y prevención de enfermedades oculares. Métodos: estudio descriptivo sobre 300 pacientes mayores de 18 años que asistieron a las consultas de oftalmología en Cienfuegos, desde enero hasta marzo del 2016, a los cuales se les aplicó una encuesta que incluyó variables como: edad, sexo, profesión, así como aspectos relacionados con el conocimiento que tenían sobre factores de riesgo y prevención de las enfermedades oculares. Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino, la edad comprendida en mayores de 50 años y el grupo de profesionales. Los más atentos a la prevención ocular fueron las personas de mayor edad y las mujeres. Los encuestados presumen tener conocimientos sobre la prevención ocular, pero existe un desconocimiento elevado de las acciones que deben realizar para preservar al órgano visual con una buena salud, fundamentalmente los dos pilares de la prevención: la protección solar y la visita al especialista. Conclusiones: aún existe desconocimiento de los factores de riesgo y la importancia de la prevención ocular. A pesar de la relevancia de la función visual en la sociedad actual, los ojos no son objeto de tantas medidas preventivas.

  8. Factors controlling contrail cirrus optical depth

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    B. Kärcher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft contrails develop into contrail cirrus by depositional growth and sedimentation of ice particles and horizontal spreading due to wind shear. Factors controlling this development include temperature, ice supersaturation, thickness of ice-supersaturated layers, and vertical gradients in the horizontal wind field. An analytical microphysical cloud model is presented and validated that captures these processes. Many individual contrail cirrus are simulated that develop differently owing to the variability in the controlling factors, resulting in large samples of cloud properties that are statistically analyzed. Contrail cirrus development is studied over the first four hours past formation, similar to the ages of line-shaped contrails that were tracked in satellite imagery on regional scales. On these time scales, contrail cirrus optical depth and microphysical variables exhibit a marked variability, expressed in terms of broad and skewed probability distribution functions. Simulated mean optical depths at a wavelength of 0.55 μm range from 0.05-0.5 and a substantial fraction 20-50% of contrail cirrus stay subvisible (optical depth <0.02, depending on meteorological conditions.

    A detailed analysis based on an observational case study over the continental USA suggests that previous satellite measurements of line-shaped persistent contrails have missed about 89%, 50%, and 11% of contrails with optical depths 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1, and 0.1-0.2, respectively, amounting to 65% of contrail coverage of all optical depths. When comparing observations with simulations and when estimating the contrail cirrus climate impact, not only mean values but also the variability in optical depth and microphysical properties need to be considered.

  9. Cálculo del factor de efectividad utilizando colocación ortogonal sobre elementos finitos

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    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente documento se resuelve el problema del cálculo del factor de efectividad para la transferencia de masa y calor con reacción química en un pellet catalítico utilizando una técnica adecuada especialmente para números de Thiele elevados en donde la solución se restringe a una pequeña zona muy cercana a la superficie. La técnica aprovecha la rapidez de convergencia de la colocación ortogonal y la facilidad de ubicación de elementos en zonas en donde se presentan grandes gradientes del método para las diferencias finitas. La eficiencia del método está basada en la utilización del método LV para la descomposición de matrices. Se muestran comparaciones con otros métodos numéricos de solución del problema.

  10. Drogas e democracia : reflexões sobre as políticas nacionais e internacionais de controle

    OpenAIRE

    Mvumbi, Betuel Virgílio

    2016-01-01

    O veio deste trabalho se firma na análise dos pressupostos do estado democrático de direito ante as políticas de controle sobre as drogas consideradas ilícitas. A política criminal de controle às drogas tem se mostrado ineficiente para atingir o fim declarado de proteção à saúde pública, visto que a criminalização do porte, consumo e tráfico de drogas tem gerado consequências negativas para a sociedade (encarceramento em massa, mortes, seletividade, violência e danos à saúde). Parte-se da hip...

  11. Manejo de las dislipidemias en pacientes cardíacos trasplantados. Hallazgos sobre nuevos factores de riesgo

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    Walter Masson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En pacientes cardíacos trasplantados, el desarrollo de enfermedad vascular coronaria es una complicación frecuente y la dislipidemia es uno de los predictores más importantes. Los inmunosupresores predisponen a las dislipidemias y dificultan la utilización de hipolipemiantes. En este grupo particular de pacientes se recomienda alcanzar las metas terapéuticas de prevención secundaria. Las estatinas son los hipolipemiantes de elección. No existen recomendaciones claras sobre nuevos factores de riesgo, como la homocisteína y la lipoproteína (a [Lp(a].Con el objetivo de conocer el perfil lipídico, la prevalencia de homocisteinemia y de Lp(a elevadas, el cumplimiento de las metas terapéuticas y la tolerancia a la medicación, se incluyeron en el estudio 23 pacientes cardíacos trasplantados. Los resultados mostraron que el cumplimiento de las metas lipídicas fue aceptable y que el 65% recibía tratamiento hipolipemiante. El uso de estatinas fue seguro. Se encontró una prevalencia alta de homocisteína y Lp(a elevadas. Su implicación en la modificación del tratamiento se desconoce.

  12. La metáfora como factor de textualidad en Ensayo sobre la lucidez, de José Saramago. A metáfora como factor de textualidade em Ensaio Sobre a Lucidez de José Saramago The Metaphor as a Textuality Factor in Ensaio Sobre a Lucidez by José Saramago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Maria Figueiredo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La metáfora como factor de textualidad es una reflexión sobre el modo como el sistema de la lengua se operacionaliza en el discurso. En este caso concreto, como es que en la obra literaria Ensayo sobre la lucidez las expresiones idiomáticas (expresiones compósitas son transformadas de nuevo en expresiones metafóricas (expresiones componenciales. La incidencia del análisis se focaliza en la apreciación de cómo la expresión idiomática recupera su energía creadora y el primer impulso que la pone en circulación. Teniendo por fundamento las teorías de la anáfora (ampliada y de la reconceptualización, se muestra que tal reconversión se va haciendo a lo largo de la obra en un proceso de ampliación del enfoque cognitivo de que el recurso a las implicaturas es un trazo necesario para la comprensión de las explicaturas. Es preciso que el lector seleccione el contexto oportuno para entender pertinentemente el sentido comunicado. Y el sentido comunicado no es más que el cuestionamiento de la relación del hombre con el mundo por medio de la amplitud de escenarios metafóricos que sólo la lengua permite instaurar.A Metáfora como Factor de Textualidade é uma reflexão sobre o modo como o sistema da língua se operacionaliza no discurso. Neste caso concreto, como é que na obra literária Ensaio sobre a Lucidez as expressões idiomáticas (expressões compósitas são transformadas de novo em expressões metafóricas (expressões componenciais. A incidência da análise focaliza-se na apreciação de como a expressão idiomática reganha a sua energia criadora e o impulso primeiro que a pôs em circulação. Tendo por fundamento as teorias da anáfora (ampliada e da reconceptualização, mostra-se que tal reconversão se vai fazendo ao longo da obra num processo de ampliação do enfoque cognitivo de que o recurso às implicaturas é um traço necessário para a compreensão das explicaturas. O que é preciso é que o leitor seleccione o

  13. Influencia de factores culturales en la tenencia de monos aulladores como mascotas y su efecto sobre los individuos en cautiverio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomez Ruiz, Catalina

    2010-01-01

    ...) como mascotas y los impactos de esta practica sobre los individuos en cautiverio, se analizaron diez casos de monos aulladores que fueron decomisados y remitidos entre septiembre de 2007 y junio...

  14. POSIBLES FACTORES DE RIESGO DE LA RETINOPATIA DIABETICA EN COLOMBIA EN DIFERENTES ZONAS ETNOGEOGRAFICAS y ALTURAS SOBRE EL NIVEL DEL MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sánchez Medina

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available

    SUMARIO

    1. Se estudió la retinopatía diabética en diabéticos tipo 1, insulinodependientes de ambos sexos y edades comprendidas entre los 20 y 40 años, para compararlos con la influencia que pueda tener la residencia de los pacientes en cuatro alturas diferentes: 2.600, 1.600, 1.200 y Ometros sobre el nivel del mar.

    2. Se estudiaron entre otros factores de riesgo como los de mayor importancia, el análisis de las multivariantes: retinopatía diabética, duración de la diabetes, proteinuria y hemoglobinas glicosiladas.

    3. Se estableció que las glicohemoglobinas se elevan gradualmente en los individuos no diabéticos estudiados como controles, a medida que sube la altura en su residencia, siendo las más elevadas las de los insulinodependientes que viven en la altura 2.600 m. sobre el nivel del mar.

    4. Es evidente que no hubo retinopatía proliferativa en ninguno de los grupos estudiados y que a distintas alturas del nivel del mar, tuvieron grados diferentes de retinopatía diabética no proliferativa de acuerdo con el sistema convenido para su graduación. Los pacientes que vivían en la altura estudiados en seguimiento junto con los que vivían a alturas inferiores
    a 2.600 m. tuvieron una graduación menor en la retinopatía y una evolución más demorada en el curso de la progresión del grado O al grado 4 y lo de uno a otro de cualquiera de ellos.

    S. Se planteó como hipótesis para control de posteriores estudios que la retinopatía diabética es desfavorablemente influenciada por la menor liberación de oxígeno en la altura a 2.600 m. hecho que posiblemente no favorece la oxigenación tisular y evita el deterioro de la circulación capilar, del endotelio del microvaso retiniano y por consiguiente de la primera manifestación de la retinopatía diabética, el microameurisma vascular.

  15. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  16. Control de la intervención estructural sobre el área del Teatro Romano de Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachón, P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Theatre of Cadiz (Spain is a piece of heritage that has been buried for centuries under the historical town. It is the oldest and biggest Roman theatre in Spain. In 2010, an intervention began in order to dig it up but respecting the monumental landmarks over it. The intervention consisted on the construction of some vaults under the blocks by grout injection. The control of this intervention is being done by two different techniques: topographic control points and Operational Modal Analysis. The methodology that has been followed to control the intervention on this area and the obtained results are the main goals of this paper.El Teatro Romano de Cádiz (España es parte de la herencia romana que ha permanecido oculta durante siglos bajo el casco histórico de la ciudad. Se trata del teatro romano más antiguo y de mayores dimensiones localizado en España. En el año 2010, se inició una intervención con el fin de descubrirlo. La intervención consiste en la construcción de una serie de bóvedas de hormigón bajo los edificios construidos sobre el teatro aplicando la técnica de la inyección armada. El control de esta intervención se está realizando por medio de dos técnicas: control topográfico y Análisis Modal Operacional. La metodología seguida para el control de la intervención en el área del teatro romano y los resultados obtenidos de la misma son los principales objetivos del presente artículo.

  17. Impacto do Sistema de Controle sobre a Venda de Novos Produtos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Afonso Vieira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s main goal is to understand the impact of control systems on the relationship between a salesperson’s effort and their performance. The control systems have two perspectives: outcome and behavior. The difference between them is how a salesperson is evaluated in regards to their job. If the sales manager is only concerned with sales results, the control system is based on outcome. However, if the sales manager is concerned with a salesperson’s capacities, abilities and knowledge, the control system is based on behavior. Based on the theories developed by Anderson and Oliver (1987 and Oliver and Anderson (1994, we proposed a theoretical framework to explain sales performance, positioning the control system as a moderating variable. We undertook two descriptive field investigations to test the proposed model’s hypotheses for pharmaceutical sales representatives and car dealer salespersons. We estimated four regression equations to test the hypotheses. The first conclusion is that the perception of product innovation by salespeople actually influences the launch of new products. The second conclusion showed that salesperson effort has a negative relationship with performance. Third, we demonstrated the moderating effect control systems have on the relationship between salesperson experience and sales efforts.

  18. Condicionantes nutricionales que influyen sobre los factores de riesgo de síndrome metabólico en niños de la Comunidad de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Quemada Arriaga, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    El Síndrome Metabólico (SM) es un conjunto de factores de riesgo asociados con el incremento del riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 (DM2). Dichos factores son obesidad (OB), resistencia a la Insulina (RI), hiperglucemia, dislipidemia e hipertensión (HTA) e interactúan entre sí sobre las anomalías vasculares, el estrés oxidativo, la grasa visceral, la inflamación y el cortisol en un entorno de OB y RI y bajo la influencia de las predisposiciones genéticas y condi...

  19. Factores biomecánicos en la rehabilitación por prótesis parcial fija sobre implantes Microdent

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Fundamento: la comprensión y aplicación de los factores biomecánicos garantizan una rehabilitación protésica funcional, biocompatible y estética. Objetivo: identificar los factores biomecánicos que están en relación con el resultado de la rehabilitación por prótesis parcial fija sobre implantes del sistema Microdent. Métodos: estudio comparativo representativo realizado en el período comprendido entre septi...

  20. Una revisión sobre los factores de riesgo en la infancia para la esquizofrenia y los trastornos mentales graves del adulto

    OpenAIRE

    Artigue, Jordi; Tizón, Jorge L.

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: A través de la revisión bibliográfica sobre los factores de riesgo psicosociales en salud mental se pretende demostrar la existencia de una asociación entre la acumulación de factores estresantes en la infancia y el incremento del riesgo de aparición de un trastorno mental en la vida adulta. Diseño: Búsqueda bibliográfica, realizada hasta diciembre del 2011, en las bases de datos electrónicas de Medline y de las universidades Autónoma y central de Barcelona. Las palabras clave ut...

  1. Power factor control system for ac induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A power control circuit for an induction motor is disclosed in which a servo loop is used to control power input by controlling the power factor of motor operation. The power factor is measured by summing the voltage and current derived square wave signals.

  2. Efeito da cobertura morta de milheto (Pennisetum americanum) sobre a eficácia do herbicida metribuzin no controle de Ipomoea grandifolia e Sida rhombifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy,M.C.; D.K. Meschede; C.A Carbonari; Correia, M. R.; E.D Velini

    2007-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do metribuzin (480 g i.a. ha-1) associado à palha de milheto no controle de Ipomoea grandifolia e Sida rhombifolia, foram realizados dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro, os tratamentos constituíram-se de diferentes posicionamentos do herbicida, aplicado sobre e sob a palha em diferentes condições de umidade. No segundo, foram estudados diferentes períodos de permanência (0, 7, 14 e 21 dias) do herbicida sobre a palha de milheto antes da oco...

  3. Consideraciones sobre el control de la escabiosis en la atención primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén José Larrondo Muguercia

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las diferentes causas del incremento de la incidencia de la escabiosis en los últimos tiempos. Se exponen las características clínicas y los métodos de diagnóstico. Se precisan las modalidades terapéuticas y las medidas de control de la escabiosis a nivel primario de atención médica: The different causes of the increase of the scabies incidence during the last times are analyzed. The clinical characteristics and the diagnostic methods are exposed. The therapeutic modalities and the measures to control scabies at the primary health care level ara also determined

  4. CONTROL MICROBIOLÓGICO SOBRE Streptococcus Mutans Y SU ACCIÓN ACIDOGÉNICA

    OpenAIRE

    María Cecilia Martínez; Benjamín Herazo Acuña; Fredy Gamboa

    2004-01-01

    Las acciones realizadas por instituciones y directivas de salud en la prevención y control de la caries dental no han sido suficientes para lograr una reducción significativa de esta enfermedad. El control microbiológico o terapia de remplazo aplicado en la prevención de enfermedades infecciosas, no es más que una posibilidad terapéutica hipotética. Sin embargo, es importante estudiar y analizar el futuro valor que pueda tener esta estrategia en la solución de problemas odontológicos, específ...

  5. Underlying Factors for Practicality of the Production Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arica, Emrah; Strandhagen, Jan Ola; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives indications to important factors that must be considered for effectiveness of the production control systems under uncertainty. Five key factors have been identified by the literature study. Production schedule generation and execution approach under uncertainty, information...

  6. La influencia de factores educativos y familiares sobre el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua, y los efectos sobre la inteligencia y cognición

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa Rusinque, Paola Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Actualmente, la investigación científica acerca de la influencia de los factores educativos y familiares en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua (L2) es limitada. En comparación, los efectos que tiene la L2 en la inteligencia y cognición han sido más estudiados. Por esta razón, el artículo presenta una revisión de la literatura empírica existente que relaciona lo mencionado anteriormente, ampliando así la temática del bilingüismo. Se buscaron artículos en cuatro bases de datos (PSICODOC, ISI...

  7. Controle da mancha acinzentada da cebola e seu impacto sobre a qualidade de mudas Control of onion leaf blight (Botrytis squamosa and their impact on the seedling quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou o efeito da adubação química e orgânica, fungicidas, fertilizantes foliares e extratos vegetais sobre a severidade da mancha acinzentada causada por Botrytis squamosa e a qualidade de mudas de cebola. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC, no período de maio a julho de 2005. Em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela sub-dividida, testou-se os seguintes tratamentos (Fator A: a testemunha; b fungicida ciprodinil (75 g i.a./100 L; c fosfito de potássio (00-30-20, 250 mL/100 L; d fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L; e calda bordalesa (0,3%; f calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio; g extrato da alga Ulva fasciata (0,2%, peso seco: volume; h extrato de cavalinha Equisetum arwense (0,26%; i extrato de Urtiga dióica (0,47%. Os canteiros foram conduzidos com adubação química ou orgânica (Fator B. A área foliar necrosada foi avaliada semanalmente e usada para calcular a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. O tipo de fertilização não afetou o desenvolvimento da mancha acinzentada, porém a adubação química aumentou o comprimento e o diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas. Os tratamentos ciprodinil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, calda bordalesa e fosfito combinado com calda bordalesa, reduziram significativamente a doença, enquanto que os extratos não foram eficazes.This work studied the effect of mineral and organic fertilization, fungicides, foliar fertilizers and plant extracts on the severity of onion leaf blight caused by Botrytis squamosa and onseedling quality. Field experiment was carried out at Epagri's experimental station in Ituporanga-SC from May to July 2005. In a split-plot design with four replicates the following treatments (factor A were tested: a control; b fungicide ciprodinil (75 g a.i./100 L; c potassium fosfite (00-30-20, 250 mL./100 L

  8. ESTUDO SOBRE A INFLUÊNCIA DO PROCESSO EDUCATIVO NO CONTROLE DA HIPERTENSÃO ARTERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Car

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com 23 pessoas hipertensas em tratamento ambulatorial submetidas a um processo educativo, visando avaliar a retenção de conhecimentos e sua influência no controle da pressão arterial. Os resultados evidenciaram que o nível de conhecimento foi inversamente proporcional aos níveis pressóricos.

  9. Consideración del factor Percepción Visual en el material bibliográfico sobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letelier Parga, Sofía

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa, análisis y reflexión sobre los tópicos manejados en la postulación y discusión acerca de la movilidad urbana sostenible, que aluden o consideran explícita o implícitamente en algún grado la incidencia del factor Percepción Visual. El estudio se circunscribe a los postulados, estrategias, instrumentos, normativas, ejemplos y sugerencias proporcionados como bibliografía básica y complementaria al curso "Movilidad y Planeamiento Sostenible". Para su revisión se elige el enfoque de la Percepción Visual (PV, dada la necesidad que tiene la filosofía de la sostenibilidad de concluir en 'artes' concretas, dispositivos, señaléticas y demás artilugios que deben ser captados a distancia, para finalmente inducir conductas y comportamientos. De no ser así, no se alcanzarían resultados esperados. Este enfoque se aplica, primero, bajo la hipótesis de que la PV , no obstante ser un filtro que se apropia personalizadamente de la realidad, se apoya en mecanismos comunes a la especie pero también culturales que responden y son centralmente activados y condicionados por atributos específicos de los estímulos o por condiciones de su contexto, lo que hace que el fenómeno de la PV en sus rasgos y efectos globales estructurales , pueda ser anticipado o vaticinado. En segundo lugar, suponiendo que la PV, por ser un fenómeno activo - que 'construye la realidad' en el circuito de las significaciones e 'ideas significativas'- es una experiencia que tanto promueve como inhibe conductas y comportamientos determinados. Para el efecto, luego de una puesta en común de los aspectos de la PV que se estiman a priori como incidentes a la escala urbana y a objeto de explicitar el alcance y profundidad que nos ocupa, nos abocamos a constatar la existencia de rasgos inductores, reforzadores o facilitadores de la percepción visua,l o bien que son disuasivos, distractores, ambiguadores o entorpecedores, perceptuales , deduciendo sus efectos y

  10. Aplicación de técnicas clásicas y de control moderno sobre minirobot con configuración Segway

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezuela Barreto, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Los objetivos del PFC son: -Construir mediante los elementos contenidos en el Kit LEGO Mindstorms NXT un minirobot similar al Segway (en adelante NXTway-G). -Implementar algoritmos de control (tradicional y moderno) para mantener el robot vertical en equilibrio dinámico estable sobre sus 2 ruedas. -El robot debe soportar perturbaciones externas moderadas y seguir manteniendo el equilibrio. -Permitir el control remoto desde Joystick para desplazarse hacia delante / atrás así como gira...

  11. O Impacto do Sistema de Transporte sobre o Espaço Urbano e seu Controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreina Nigriello

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of the impact caused by improvements made in the transportation system on urban areas presumes the recognition of the interaction between soil utilization and occupation and access thereto. Said interaction and its effects can be found in statistical studies concerned with the impact caused by São Paulo subway North-South line on urban areas, and the purpose thereof is to: develop a greater sense of social equity in the distribution of indirect benefits associated with public investments in the transportation sector; create new financing sources for said sector; and reduce the withdrawal of poor people from areas directly served by improved transportation system

  12. Efectos de la acupuntura vs. fisioterapia sobre el control postural y la funcionalidad en fibromialgia

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Ardila, Elisa María

    2016-01-01

    La Fibromialgia es una enfermedad reumatológica que cursa con alteraciones del equilibrio y de la capacidad funcional además de otros síntomas como el dolor, la rigidez articular o la depresión. Este estudio es un ensayo clínico aleatorizado con 135 mujeres diagnosticadas de Fibromialgia, previa aprobación por el Comité de Bioética de la Universidad de Extremadura, cuyo objetivo es valorar la efectividad de la Acupuntura y la Fisioterapia en la mejora del control postural, la capacidad funcio...

  13. ¿ES NECESARIO UN NUEVO MODELO DE CONTROLES SOBRE LOS ENTES LOCALES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Cerreda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the Spanish system of administrative controlupon the local authorities, as well as to evaluate other possible systems.Firstly, the article analyses two previous questions: the conceptual and taxonomicaldelimitation of the administrative control upon the local authorities, and the historical evolution of the Spanish system of administrativecontrol and its tension with the principle of local autonomy. Secondly, thearticle seeks to define which should ideally be the structure of the system ofcontrol that Spanish legislation should contemplate. In order to do so, thearticle explores whether such an ideal system should be pre-eminently judicialor administrative, and to which institution should correspond the establishmentof such a system and its implementation.

  14. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a boost converter configuration, control scheme and design of single phase power factor controller for permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) drive. PMBLDC motors are the latest choice of researchers, due to the high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high...... reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase...... with supply voltage. It uses a boost converter to obtain unity power factor with improved performance. The system includes a speed controller for PMBLDC drive and a voltage controller for boost converter.. The voltage or speed controllers can be realized using proportional integral (PI) controller...

  15. Impactos do controle do preço da gasolina sobre o etanol biocombustível no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Cabral da Costa

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho estimou os efeitos do controle de preço da gasolina A sobre os preços do etanol hidratado e da gasolina C no Brasil. Para isto, foram estimados os preços que teriam prevalecido sem a intervenção. Os resultados mostram que a intervenção do governo no preço da gasolina beneficiou a produção do etanol hidratado por manter seu preço 9% acima do que poderia ter ocorrido, em média, no período 2006 a 2010. No período 2011 a 2014, a intervenção governamental reduziu o preço da gasolina, afetando negativamente o preço do etanol hidratado (7% abaixo do preço estimado e sua produção, além da saúde financeira da empresa estatal ofertante de gasolina A. Em 2015, o governo restringiu a internalização de reduções no preço internacional da gasolina, mantendo o preço doméstico 7% acima do esperado, e prejudicando a competitividade de setores da economia brasileira demandantes de combustível fóssil como insumo de produção.

  16. Factores biomecánicos en la rehabilitación por prótesis parcial fija sobre implantes Microdent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliam Morales Rosell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la comprensión y aplicación de los factores biomecánicos garantizan una rehabilitación protésica funcional, biocompatible y estética. Objetivo: identificar los factores biomecánicos que están en relación con el resultado de la rehabilitación por prótesis parcial fija sobre implantes del sistema Microdent. Métodos: estudio comparativo representativo realizado en el período comprendido entre septiembre del 2007 y mayo del 2009. La muestra quedó conformada por 100 pacientes, para un total de 250 implantes. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadísticas de chi cuadrado de Pearson y el test de tendencia lineal de Mantel-Haenszel para establecer la asociación entre las variables y la determinación del riesgo relativo. Resultados: La rehabilitación protésica parcial fija sobre implantes Microdent tuvo éxito en el 66% de la muestra. La rehabilitación fracasó en el 100 % de los pacientes con mala higiene bucal, así como, en el 84,2 % de las rehabilitaciones con implantes no axiales. El riesgo de fracaso es de más de 6 veces superior en aquellos que presentan implantes no axiales. En el 100 % de los pacientes con superficies oclusales inadecuadas e interferencias, la rehabilitación fracasó. Los portadores de interferencias oclusales tienen 10,4 veces más riesgo de fracaso de las rehabilitaciones protésicas que los que no las tienen. Conclusiones: la influencia directa de los factores biomecánicos en el logro de una rehabilitación protésica sobre implantes exitosa es primordial, por lo que el rehabilitador debe velar por el cumplimiento de las normas establecidas para cada uno de ellos.

  17. Influencia de diferentes factores agrológicos y tecnológicos sobre la mejora de la calidad de los vinos tintos de bobal.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Diana, Nicolás

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo conocer la influencia de algunos factores agrologicos y tecnologicos sobre la calidad de los vinos tintos de la variedad tinta (Vitis vinifera L.) Bobal en las condiciones de cultivo tradicional de los viñedos situados en Requena. Todas las experiencias se han llevado a cabo en el campo y bodega experimental de la Escuela de Viticultura y Enología de Requena (Diputación de Valencia). El exceso de vigor alarga el ciclo fenologico de la viña , auma...

  18. Etiología y Factores de Riesgo de Malformaciones Congénitas:; Evaluación sobre conocimientos en residentes de pediatría

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Camps; Rodolfo Avila; María Samar; Gonzalo Ingolingo; Yanina Recuero

    2004-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar los conocimientos previos; acerca de etiología y factores de riesgo de; Malformaciones Congénitas en Residentes de; Pediatría del Hospital de la Santísima Trinidad.; Métodos: Se utilizó cuestionario de opciones; múltiples, con 9 opciones.; Resultados: De los 50 Residentes del servicio, se; entrevistó a 11, registrándose 61% de respuestas; correctas. En la pregunta 1, sobre fármacos; teratogénicos, el porcentaje total de respuestas; correctas...

  19. Resultados del tratamiento de la orbitopatía tiroidea y factores que influyen sobre la respuesta terapéutica

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres Toledo, María

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio observacional en una cohorte de 82 pacientes con Orbitopatía Tiroidea (OT), desde el año 1997 al 2009, con el propósito de evaluar los resultados terapéuticos y los factores que influyeron sobre los mismos. En los casos con OT activa la corticoterapia se inició a los 19 meses de evolución y no fue satisfactoria en la mayoría de estos. Para preservar la visión se realizaron las siguientes intervenciones quirúrgicas: descompresión orbitaria, corrección del estrabismo y de ...

  20. Factores con mayor influencia sobre la elección de alimentos en la población española

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Azpiazu, I. (Isabel); Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A.; Gibney, M J; Kearney, J; Kearney, M. (M.); Martinez, J A

    1997-01-01

    Fundamentos: Encuesta poblacional dirigida a conocer los factores que influyen en la elección de los alimentos de la población española. Métodos: Análisis de una muestra de todo el territorio español compuesta por 1009 individuos y seleccionada por un procedimiento aleatorio multietápico. Este estudio corresponde a la participación española en un estudio europeo sobre las actitudes de la población frente a la alimentación, nutrición y salud dirigido por el Instituto Europeo de Estudios Nutric...

  1. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  2. Tumoral response factors after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic liver Factores de respuesta tumoral tras ablación mediante radiofrecuencia del carcinoma hepatocelular sobre cirrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Calleja Kempin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC ablation by radiofrequency (RFA is a novel technique with a great variety of methods whose efficacy and predictive factors have not been completely studied. Some of the main predictive factors in this type of treatment are analyzed in the present study. Patients and methods: ninety-three patients with hepatocellular carcinoma over cirrhosis, and with no indication for surgical resection were treated by RFA. Two different types of electrodes were used for RFA (refrigerated-"Cool-Tip" and perfusion with saline solution, the approach was percutaneous, by laparoscopy or laparotomy. Results: overall survival at 1, 2 and 3 years was 88, 81, and 76%, with a free-disease survival (FDS of 66, 31 and 17%, respectively. For tumors less than 3 cm, FDS at 1,2 and 3 years was 74, 44 and 30%, while for more than 3 cm in size FDS was 55, 12 and 0% (p = 0.02. FDS for HCC with one nodule was 70, 36 and 22%, and for more than one nodule it decreased to 50, 17 and 0% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively (p = 0.07. Surprisingly, the method employed for RFA has a main influence in FDS, with 0% at 3 years for perfusion electrodes and 26% for cool-tip electrodes at the same period. Conclusions: in this series, overall survival at three years was relatively high; however, tumoral size, number of nodules and RFS method were independent variables associated with disease-free survival.Objetivo: la ablación por radiofrecuencia del hepatocarcinoma (ARF es una técnica de reciente adquisición, cuya eficacia y factores predictivos no han sido suficientemente evaluados. El presente estudio fue diseñado para este análisis. Pacientes y métodos: se han tratado 93 pacientes con hepatocarcinoma sobre hígado cirrótico sin criterios de resección ni de trasplante hepático. El tratamiento se realizó mediante abordaje percutáneo, laparoscópico o mediante laparotomía con dos tipos de electrodos de radiofrecuencia, electrodo refrigerado y

  3. Efeito do controle da placa supragengival sobre a microflora subgengival e tecidos periodontais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREIRA Allyson Nogueira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar, clínica e microbiologicamente, 44 sítios em 11 pacientes com periodontite crônica generalizada. IP, IG, SS, PS e NI foram registrados. Amostras de placa subgengival foram colhidas nos mesmos sítios para cultivo de bactérias anaeróbias e determinação dos morfotipos microbianos por MCE. Os registros clínicos e estudos microbiológicos foram tomados no "baseline" e 4 semanas após a incorporação em um programa de controle de placa e cálculo supragengival. A análise microbiológica categorizou o grau de desenvolvimento em: 0 - não detectado, 1 - escasso, 2 - moderado e 3 - abundante. Os registros clínicos no "baseline" e dia 28 foram: IP - 1,73 ± 0,10 e 0,30 ± 0,08, IG - 1,73 ± 0,08 e 1,41 ± 0,08, SS - 0,91 ± 0,04 e 0,59 ± 0,07, PS - 6,43 ± 0,20 e 5,77 ± 0,25, NI - 6,86 ± 0,32 e 6,52 ± 0,34, respectivamente. A redução do IP, IG, SS e PS foi significativa. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas no NI. As proporções relativas dos morfotipos bacterianos observados por MCE no "baseline" e dia 28 foram: células cocóideas - 21,16 ± 3,77 e 36,00 ± 4,66, bacilos móveis - 44,86 ± 2,65 e 39,50 ± 2,64, treponemas totais - 24,66 ± 3,08 e 19,25 ± 2,75. No "baseline" e no dia 28 foi observado: Pi/n - 1,36 ± 0,18 e 0,43 ± 0,11, Pg - 0,48 ± 0,16 e 0,32 ± 0,13, Aa - 0,23 ± 0,09 e 0,23 ± 0,10, Fusobacterium nucleatum - 0,32 ± 0,14 e 0,41 ± 0,13 e peptostreptococos - 0,82 ± 0,19 e 0,54 ± 0,16, respectivamente. Houve um aumento significativo das células cocóideas, diminuição de treponemas e de Pi/n.

  4. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  5. Estudio de los factores de patogenicidad/virulencia de Penicillium digitatum sobre frutos cítricos.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Las pérdidas causadas por podredumbres durante la post-cosecha de frutos cítricos suelen suponer entre un 5 y un 10 % de la producción, siendo Penicillium digitatum el principal hongo patógeno, responsable de hasta el 80 % de las pérdidas causadas por podredumbres en frutos almacenados a temperatura ambiente. A pesar de la importancia económica de este patógeno nuestro conocimiento sobre los mecanismos de patogenicidad/ virulencia son muy escasos, en contraste con el avance experimentado en l...

  6. Coberturas mortas de inverno e controle químico sobre plantas daninhas na cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A escolha correta das culturas para cobertura do solo melhora a sustentabilidade do sistema de cultivo, pois pode potencializar o uso dos herbicidas, reduzir a infestação de plantas daninhas e melhorar o desempenho das culturas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de coberturas mortas de inverno e do uso de herbicidas sobre comunidade de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho, foi realizado um estudo no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas, em número de seis, foram compostas pelas seguintes culturas de inverno: Lupinus albus, Lathyrus sativos, Triticum aestivum, Avena strigosa, Raphanus sativus, mais uma testemunha mantida em pousio. As subparcelas em número de três, foram compostas por: 1 - pulverização apenas de herbicida de manejo antes da semeadura do milho; 2 - herbicida de manejo após a semeadura do milho + herbicida residual, e 3 - testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. As coberturas mortas de aveia-preta e nabo-forrageiro proporcionam as menores densidades de plantas daninhas e acúmulos de massa seca da comunidade infestante, independente da aplicação ou não de herbicidas. Houve uma maior germinação de B. pilosa nas parcelas mantidas com a cobertura de tremoço, com exceção das subparcelas onde se aplicou herbicida em pré-emergência, o que evidencia um efeito estimulante da cobertura morta. O emprego de algumas espécies na formação da cobertura morta para o plantio direto pode dispensar ou reduzir a quantidade de herbicidas necessária para o controle das plantas daninhas.

  7. Chalcopyrite leaching: The rate controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Kawashima, N.; Kaplun, K.; Absolon, V. J.; Gerson, A. R.

    2010-05-01

    The processes that determine the rate of chalcopyrite leaching are central to understanding how chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2) behaves under the environmentally adverse conditions of acid rock drainage. To this end the effect of the acid anion on chalcopyrite leach rates using a variety of acidic media (H 2SO 4, HClO 4, HCl and H 2SO 4 with 0.25 M NaCl) under carefully controlled solution conditions (pH 1 and 2, Eh 750 mV (SHE) and 75 °C) has been examined. These conditions have been chosen to enable sufficient leach rates for accurate experimental determination and to compare to the previous mechanistic analysis carried out by Harmer et al. (2006). Extensive surface analysis of leach residues demonstrated that variations in the surface speciation could not be responsible for the observed variations in leach rate. The rate of Cu release, however, was found to be first order with respect to Fe 3+ activity and inversely proportional with respect to H + activity to the power of 0.7: {1}/{S}{dC}/{dt}=(2.0±0.2){a}/{aH0.7} where S is the relative surface area, C is concentration of Cu in the solution (M), t is the time (h), 2.0 is the rate constant (M 0.7 h -1) and a and a are Fe 3+ and H + activities, respectively (M). The rate model was further validated against additional leaches carried out in H 2SO 4 media with the initial addition of Fe 3+ (8 mM as Fe 2(SO 4) 3) at 75 °C under various pH and Eh regimes. The only condition under which this rate model was found not to hold was at simultaneously low a and high a, that is at pH 1 and a<5×10-5M, where the concentration of dissolved O 2 may be leach rate determining.

  8. Double blind randomized clinical trial controlled by placebo with a fos enriched cookie on saciety and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; de la Fuente, B; Izaola, O; Aller, R; Gutiérrez, S; Morillo, María

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Es importante evaluar el papel de los alimentos tipo «snacks» sobre el apetito. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta en términos de saciedad y el efecto sobre factores de riesgo cardiovascular de dos galletas diferentes. Material y Métodos: Se randomizaron 38 pacientes: grupo I (galleta enriquecida en FOS, n=19) y grupo II (galleta control, n=19). Antes de la intervención nutricional y tras un mes, a los pacientes se les valoró la saciedad con un test de prueba con 5 galletas. Resultados: Tras el test de prueba, el area bajo la curva del test de saciedad fue mayor con la galleta saciante que con la galleta control, detectándose el mismo resultado con el test trás 1 mes de ingerir las galletas. Analizando los diferentes tiempos, el score de saciedad mostró una puntuación superior en los tiempos 20 y 40 minutos frente al valor basal (tiempo 0) tras la ingesta de la galleta saciante, comparado con la galleta control. Los valores de saciedad en los tiempos (20 minutos y 40 minutos) fueron superiores que los que presentó la galleta control. Este resultado fue similar, al realizar el test tras 1 mes tomando la galleta saciante. Los resultados fueron similares al utilizar una escala visual de saciedad de 100 mm con 5 cuestiones. No se detectaron efectos sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular tras la intervención nutricional, ni sobre la ingesta dietética global. Conclusion: La galleta enriquecida en FOS produce mayores niveles de saciedad que la galleta control. Sin embargo no existieron efectos sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular ni la ingesta dietética global.

  9. Physical excercises on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus Ejercicios físicos sobre el control glucémico en la diabetes mellitus tipo 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopes Souto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is a metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, results from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Diabetes management usually by insulin, dietary and physical activity. Aim: Assess the relationship between physical activity and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes subjects. Methods: The literature search conducted in Pubmed and ScienceDirect databases and was initially identified 24 articles and we applied the inclusion criteria that considered original, full-text, remaining thirteen articles published between 1992 and 2009. Results and discussion: Two studies found a positive association between physical exercises and adequacy of glycemic control on long-term, determining by glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc and increase the insulin sensitivity, whereas three articles didn't found relations between exercises and glucose, insulin sensitivity and formation of ketone bodies. Conclusion: There are positive influences of exercise of long-term glycemic control in type 1 diabetes, however results are contradictory with respect to insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose. Glycemic control in diabetes should be based on HbA1c values, self-monitoring of blood glucose and reduction of insulin requirement, such as have been demonstrated in several studies. Thus physical exercise, along with dietary therapy and medication, are important to control diabetes.La diabetes tipo 1 es una enfermedad metabólica caracterizada por hiperglucemia, resultante de la destrucción autoinmune de las células beta productoras de insulina del páncreas. El tratamiento de la diabetes se basa en la insulina, dieta y actividad física. Métodos: La búsqueda bibliográfica se realizó sobre la base de Pubmed y ScienceDirect, que se identificaron inicialmente 24 artículos y aplicarse teniendo en cuenta los criterios de inclusión artículos originales en texto completo, la obtención de treze articulos publicados entre 1992 y 2009

  10. Factores que influyen sobre la aparición de infecciones hospitalarias en los pacientes de cuidados intensivos Factors influencing hospital infection in patients in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Llanos-Méndez; Carmen Díaz-Molina; José Luis Barranco-Quintana; Visitación García-Ortúzar; Rafael Fernández-Crehuet

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: La acumulación de factores de riesgo en los pacientes atendidos en el hospital es uno de los elementos que condicionan el aumento de la infección nosocomial y su mayor frecuencia en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Nuestro objetivo es la identificación de los factores de riesgo de la infección nosocomial en la UCI de nuestro hospital. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio de cohortes prospectivo sobre los 1.134 pacientes ingresados, al menos durante 24 h en dicha UCI durante el a...

  11. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Tagesson, Håkan Torbern;

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  12. INFORME DEL ANÁLISIS DE COSTES REALIZADO SOBRE LOS ENSAYOS REALIZADOS EN LABORATORIOS DE CONTROL DE EDIFICACIÓN SOBRE HORMIGÓN Y ACERO.

    OpenAIRE

    ARAGÓN IZQUIERDO, PATRICIA

    2013-01-01

    El presente Trabajo Final de Carrera analiza en profundidad el proceso de elaboración de los ensayos de Hormigón y Acero realizados en los Laboratorios de Control de Edificación. Al analizar el proceso de elaboración se han determinado los costes a los que se enfrentan estos Laboratorios en cada una de las etapas del proceso que determina la normativa, siendo el estudio de dichos costes el objeto principal del proyecto. Así pues una de las tareas principales para poder realizar este anális...

  13. Intervención clínica sobre los principales factores de riesgo vascular (estudio RIVANA Clinical interventions on the major vascular risk factors (RIVANA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amézqueta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. El objetivo es describir la frecuencia de diagnóstico de los factores clásicos de riesgo vascular y de las intervenciones dietéticas y terapéuticas, así como su control. Sujetos y métodos. Dentro del proyecto Riesgo Vascular de Navarra (RIVANA, se lleva a cabo el estudio transversal en una muestra aleatoria de 4.354 personas entre 35 y 84 años, recogiendo por encuesta antecedentes y realizando exploración clínica y analítica. Los sujetos se han clasificado para cada factor de riesgo en: diagnosticados por información -cuando el personal sanitario le había informado de que presentaba el factor de riesgo-; por intervención -cuando toma medicación para ello-; y por detección en personas asintomáticas. Se identifican las variables de intervención por árboles dicotómicos expresadas por frecuencias relativas. Resultados. El 45,3% de los sujetos son hipertensos: 27% diagnosticados previamente y 18,3% en el momento de la exploración. El 39% son hipercolesterolémicos: 33,4% diagnosticados previamente y 5,6% en el momento de la exploración. El 21,2% presentaban hiperglucemia: 9,7% diagnosticados previamente y 11,6% en el momento de la exploración. El 65,6% fue diagnosticado de sobrepeso u obesidad: 25,9% previamente y el 39,6% en el momento de la exploración. Recibían consejo dietético y tratamiento farmacológico respectivamente: el 79,8% y el 70,3% de los hipertensos; el 75,4% y el 35% de los hipercolesterolémicos; el 83,1% y 47,4% de los que presentaban hiperglucemia y el 68,5% y 4% de los que presentaban sobrepeso u obesidad. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular es elevada. Existe un margen de mejora importante en la detección, intervención y control de los factores de riesgo.Background. To describe the diagnostic frequency of classical vascular risk factors, dietary and therapeutic interventions and their control. Methods. Within the project Vascular Risk in Navarre (RIVANA, a

  14. Las negociaciones sobre las armas químicas. En aras de un régimen multilateral efectivo de prohibición y control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Hernández-Vela Salgado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se destaca el ominoso significado de la existencia y utilización de las armas químicas en sus diferentes formas y modalidades así como la trascendental culminación de las arduas, difíciles y prolongadas negociaciones multilaterales cuyo objeto fundamental ha sido el establecimiento de un régimen multilateral efectivo de prohibición y control de las mismas. Asimismo, se abordan los aspectos y disposiciones más significativos de la Convención sobre la prohibición del desarrollo, la producción, el almacenamiento y el empleo de armas químicas y sobre su destrucción, cuyo conocimiento es condición necesaria para exigir y vigilar su cabal cumplimiento.

  15. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Work Locus of Control Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Joseph E.; Jose, Paul E.; Brough, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Original formulations of the Work Locus of Control Scale (WLCS) proposed a unidimensional structure of this measure; however, more recently, evidence for a two-dimensional structure has been reported, with separate subscales for internal and external loci of control. The current study evaluates the one- and two-factor models with confirmatory…

  17. Factores biomecánicos en la rehabilitación por prótesis parcial fija sobre implantes Microdent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliam Morales Rosell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la comprensión y aplicación de los factores biomecánicos garantizan una rehabilitación protésica funcional, biocompatible y estética. Objetivo: identificar los factores biomecánicos que están en relación con el resultado de la rehabilitación por prótesis parcial fija sobre implantes del sistema Microdent. Métodos: estudio comparativo representativo realizado en el período comprendido entre septiembre del 2007 y mayo del 2009. La muestra quedó conformada por 100 pacientes, para un total de 250 implantes. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadísticas de chi cuadrado de Pearson y el test de tendencia lineal de Mantel-Haenszel para establecer la asociación entre las variables y la determinación del riesgo relativo. Resultados: La rehabilitación protésica parcial fija sobre implantes Microdent tuvo éxito en el 66% de la muestra. La rehabilitación fracasó en el 100 % de los pacientes con mala higiene bucal, así como, en el 84,2 % de las rehabilitaciones con implantes no axiales. El riesgo de fracaso es de más de 6 veces superior en aquellos que presentan implantes no axiales. En el 100 % de los pacientes con superficies oclusales inadecuadas e interferencias, la rehabilitación fracasó. Los portadores de interferencias oclusales tienen 10,4 veces más riesgo de fracaso de las rehabilitaciones protésicas que los que no las tienen. Conclusiones: la influencia directa de los factores biomecánicos en el logro de una rehabilitación protésica sobre implantes exitosa es primordial, por lo que el rehabilitador debe velar por el cumplimiento de las normas establecidas para cada uno de ellos.

  18. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  19. A influência da estrutura de propriedade e controle sobre o valor de mercado corporativo no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira Caixe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O modelo brasileiro de governança corporativa é caracterizado pela elevada concentração na estrutura societária que, em geral, culmina na sobreposição da propriedade e da administração das companhias. Segundo a literatura, o acúmulo de ações pelo(s controlador(es pode impactar o desempenho corporativo devido ao efeito-alinhamento (ou incentivo e ao efeito-entrincheiramento. A princípio, a presença de grandes acionistas estaria associada a benefícios para a organização, uma vez que poderia aumentar a eficácia do monitoramento da gestão. Todavia, patamares muito elevados de concentração acionária podem permitir que os controladores dominem o processo decisório da corporação, o que poderia resultar na expropriação da riqueza dos acionistas minoritários. A relevância da estrutura societária como mecanismo interno dos sistemas de governança corporativa motivou a realização do presente estudo. Este artigo teve como objetivo testar se a concentração de propriedade e controle influencia o valor de mercado corporativo. Para tanto, foi utilizado um painel não balanceado para o período de 2001 a 2010, composto por 237 empresas brasileiras não financeiras de capital aberto, que somou 1.199 observações. Foram empregados modelos dinâmicos de regressão, estimados pelo Método dos Momentos Generalizado Sistêmico (MMG-Sis, para mitigar possíveis fontes de endogeneidade como a omissão de variáveis, o efeito-feedback e a simultaneidade. Constatou-se a existência de relação quadrática entre concentração no direito sobre o fluxo de caixa do acionista controlador e o valor de mercado das firmas. Ademais, os resultados indicam que o valor de mercado corrigido das ações do maior acionista captou o efeito-incentivo, enquanto a concentração no direito de voto capturou o efeito-entrincheiramento.

  20. Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Controlling Office is (insert controlling DoD office). NUREG /CR-6635 BNL- NUREG -52565 Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance...DC 20555-0001 AVAILABILITY NOTICE Availability of Reference Materials Cited in NRC Publications NRC publications in the NUREG series, NRC regu...Technical Information Service Springfield, VA 22161 -0002 <http://www.ntis.gov> 1 -800-553-6847 or locally 703-605-6000 The NUREG series

  1. Aircraft Loss of Control Causal Factors and Mitigation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control is the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding a large number of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, the NASA Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified the causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. This report describes the study approach, the key causal factors for aircraft loss of control, and recommended mitigation strategies to make near-term impacts, mid-term impacts, and Next Generation Air Transportation System impacts on the loss of control accident statistics

  2. Revisión sobre la lesión de la musculatura isquiotibial en el deporte: factores de riesgo y estrategias para su prevención

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyo Lora, Moisés del; Naranjo Orellana, José; Carrasco, Luis; Sañudo Corrales, Francisco de Borja; Jiménez Barroco, J. J.; Domínguez Cobo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    La lesión aguda de la musculatura isquiotibial es una de las más frecuentes en el ámbito deportivo, presentando una alta incidencia e, incluso, una elevada tasa de recurrencia. Ambos fenómenos se han relacionado a menudo con la ineficacia de las estrategias utilizadas para prevenir la aparición de esta lesión, ya que éstas no tienen en cosideración, en muchas de las ocasiones, el carácter multifacético de la lesión. Además, la evidencia científica sobre los factores de riesgo asoc...

  3. Control difuso para la corrección activa del factor de potencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Jairo Galvis López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La distorsión armónica que se introduce a la red eléctrica de potencia por el uso masivo de equipo electrónico de baja potencia es actualmente un gran problema de calidad y eficiencia de la red a nivel mundial. La característica no lineal de estos equipos produce grandes armónicos de corriente que generan calentamientos, fallas y sobrecorrientes cuando circulan en un sistema diseñado para 60 Hz. Las soluciones tradicionales basadas en filtros pasivos no logran resolver completamente el problema, si bien diseñarlas a frecuencias de red y potencia del equipo resulta voluminoso y costoso. Por otro lado, las soluciones activas exigen el uso de esquemas de control de alto desempeño, dada la necesidad de reconstrucción de la onda de corriente mientras se realiza regulación de salida, todo ello a una velocidad muy superior a la de la red. En este sentido, se presenta aquí una propuesta de esquema de control basado en lógica difusa para la corrección activa del factor de potencia sobre un convertidor DC/DC tipo boost. La estructura y diseño se plantean de acuerdo a las necesidades de operación y desempeño para una aplicación típica de media potencia. El desempeño final se verifica con base en pruebas sobre un prototipo de laboratorio, evaluando y analizando el comportamiento frente a cambios en el voltaje de entrada. Los resultados demuestran una significativa reducción en el contenido armónico (PF = 0.924, THD = 21.2%, y una gran respuesta dinámica alrededor del punto de operación (tiempos de respuesta inferiores a los 100 ms.

  4. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques; Clefton, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  5. Neurotrophic Factor Control of Satiety and Body Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Energy balance, the relationship between energy intake and expenditure, is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene for BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383

  6. Transcription Factor Zbtb20 Controls Regional Specification of Mammalian Archicortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial expression of sets of transcription factors (TFs) along the mammalian cortex controls its subdivision into functional areas. Unlike neocortex, only few recent data suggest genetic mechanisms controlling the regionalization of the archicortex. TF Emx2 plays a crucial role in patterning...... later on becoming restricted exclusively to postmitotic neurons of hippocampus (Hi) proper, dentate gyrus (DG), and two transitory zones, subiculum (S) and retrosplenial cortex (Rsp). Analysis of Zbtb20-/- mice revealed altered cortical patterning at the border between neocortex and archicortex...

  7. Teleoperator hand controllers: A contextual human factors assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides a human factors assessment of controllers for use with remotely controlled manipulators deployed to remove hazardous waste from underground storage tanks. The analysis concentrates on controller technique (i.e., the broad class of hand controller) and not on details of controller ergonomics. Examples of controller techniques include, for example, direct rate control, resolved unilateral position control, and direct bilateral position control. Using an existing concept, the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System, as a reference, two basic types of manipulators may be identified for this application. A long reach, gross-positioning manipulator (LRM) may be used to position a smaller manipulator or an end-effector within a work site. For a Long Reach Manipulator, which will have an enormous motion range and be capable of high end-effector velocity, it will be safest and most efficient to use a resolved rate control system. A smaller, dexterous manipulator may be used to perform handling work within a relatively small work site, (i.e., to complete tasks requiring near-human dexterity). For a Dexterous Manipulator, which will have a smaller motion range than the LRM and be required to perform more difficult tasks, a resolved bilateral position control system will be safest and most efficient. However, during some waste recovery tasks it may be important to support the users by restricting movements to a single plane or axis. This can be done with a resolved bilateral position control system by (1) using the master controller force output to restrict controller inputs or (2) switching the controller to a multiaxis rate control mode and using the force output to provide a spring return to center functionality.

  8. EL FACTOR DE SOSTENIBILIDAD: DISEÑOS ALTERNATIVOS Y VALORACIÓN FINANCIERO - ACTUARIAL DE SUS EFECTOS SOBRE LOS PARÁMETROS DEL SISTEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Meneu Gaya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La Ley 27/2011, que reforma el sistema de pensiones español, introduce el factor de sostenibilidad, un instrumento que ajusta automáticamente los parámetros del sistema a la evolución de la esperanza de vida a partir del año 2027 y con revisiones cada 5 años, aunque la reciente Ley Orgánica 2/2012 de Estabilidad Presupuestaria y Sostenibilidad Financiera abre la posibilidad de que se anticipe su entrada en vigor si se proyecta un déficit a largo plazo en el sistema de pensiones. Dado que el diseño concreto del factor de sostenibilidad está pendiente, resulta relevante analizar cómo otros países de la Unión Europea han incorporado instrumentos similares en sus sistemas de pensiones y, desde esas experiencias, ofrecer diseños alternativos para el caso español, valorando los efectos de cada uno de ellos sobre los parámetros del sistema, utilizando para ello las recientes proyecciones de esperanza de vida del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. La Ley 27/2011, que reforma el sistema de pensiones español, introduce el factor de sostenibilidad, un instrumento que ajusta automáticamente los parámetros del sistema a la evolución de la esperanza de vida a partir del año 2027 y con revisiones cada 5 años, aunque la reciente Ley Orgánica 2/2012 de Estabilidad Presupuestaria y Sostenibilidad Financiera abre la posibilidad de que se anticipe su entrada en vigor si se proyecta un déficit a largo plazo en el sistema de pensiones. Dado que el diseño concreto del factor de sostenibilidad está pendiente, resulta relevante analizar cómo otros países de la Unión Europea han incorporado instrumentos similares en sus sistemas de pensiones y, desde esas experiencias, ofrecer diseños alternativos para el caso español, valorando los efectos de cada uno de ellos sobre los parámetros del sistema, utilizando para ello las recientes proyecciones de esperanza de vida del Instituto Nacional de Estadística.

  9. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  10. Plataforma virtual de péndulo sobre carro deslizante para la enseñanza del control automático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodriguez D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de plataforma virtual para la enseñanza del control automático basado en el péndulo invertido sobre carro deslizante, el cual se desarrolla herramientas didácticas sobre un prototipo virtual, simulando el modelo no lineal en matlab y presentado en un entorno amigable basado en easy-java. Para el diseño de los controladores, se tienen en cuenta dos aspectos principales como los son el “swing up” (llevar el péndulo a posición vertical y el balanceo (mantener el péndulo en la posición vertical. La interfaz al usuario busca facilitar el aprendizaje de los conceptos básicos de un sistema de control automático para estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado, buscando minimizar costos y tiempo en la enseñanza e implementación de sistemas de control.

  11. Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Márquez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia rítmica, patinaje artístico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifestándose con frecuencia una baja autoestima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de pérdida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejercido a través de la manipulación de la comida y la utilización de métodos inadecuados de control del peso. Con frecuencia se asocian en deportistas del sexo femenino a irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, reducción de la densidad mineral ósea y osteoporosis, dando lugar a la denominada tríada de la atleta femenina. Pueden aparecer problemas cardiovasculares, una mayor incidencia de fracturas y pérdidas de potencia muscular y resistencia que repercuten negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Entre los factores de riesgo para su aparición se encuentran los intentos de perder peso, muchas veces por recomendación del entrenador, los incrementos del volumen de entrenamiento asociados a dichas pérdidas de peso, rasgos de la personalidad que llevan a preocupación excesiva por la imagen corporal, o lesiones y traumatismos. Su tratamiento requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar, con participación de médicos, psicólogos/psiquiatras, nutricionistas, entrenador y familia del deportista, siendo especialmente importantes las medidas preventivas.Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their incidence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectionism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory attempts exerted through food

  12. Dominant factors in controlling marine gas pools in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Watney, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    In marine strata from Sinian to Middle Triassic in South China, there develop four sets of regional and six sets of local source rocks, and ten sets of reservoir rocks. The occurrence of four main formation periods in association with five main reconstruction periods, results in a secondary origin for the most marine gas pools in South China. To improve the understanding of marine gas pools in South China with severely deformed geological background, the dominant control factors are discussed in this paper. The fluid sources, including the gas cracked from crude oil, the gas dissolved in water, the gas of inorganic origin, hydrocarbons generated during the second phase, and the mixed pool fluid source, were the most significant control factors of the types and the development stage of pools. The period of the pool formation and the reconstruction controlled the pool evolution and the distribution on a regional scale. Owing to the multiple periods of the pool formation and the reconstruction, the distribution of marine gas pools was complex both in space and in time, and the gas in the pools is heterogeneous. Pool elements, such as preservation conditions, traps and migration paths, and reservoir rocks and facies, also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China. Especially, the preservation conditions played a key role in maintaining marine oil and gas accumulations on a regional or local scale. According to several dominant control factors of a pool, the pool-controlling model can be constructed. As an example, the pool-controlling model of Sinian gas pool in Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin was summed up. ?? Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007.

  13. Dominant factors in controlling marine gas pools in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sihuang; W.Lynn Watney

    2007-01-01

    In marine strata from Sinian to Middle Triassic in South China,there develop four sets of regional and six sets of local source rocks,and ten sets of reservoir rocks.The occurrence of four main formation periods in association with five main reconstruction periods,results in a secondary origin for the most marine gas pools in South China.To improve the understanding of marine gas pools in South China with severely deformed geological background,the dominant control factors are discussed in this paper.The fluid sources,including the gas cracked from crude oil,the gas dissolved in water,the gas of inorganic origin,hydrocarbons generated during the second phase,and the mixed pool fluid source,were the most significant control factors of the types and the development stage of pools.The period of the pool formation and the reconstruction controlled the pool evolution and the distribution on a regional scale.Owing to the multiple periods of the pool formation and the reconstruction,the distribution of marine gas pools was complex both in space and in time,and the gas in the pools is heterogeneous.Pool elements,such as preservation conditions,traps and migration paths,and reservoir rocks and facies,also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China.Especially,the preservation conditions played a key role in maintaining marine oil and gas accumulations on a regional or local scale.According to several dominant control factors of a pool,the pool-controlling model can be constructed.As an example,the pool-controlling model of Sinian gas pool in Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin was summed up.

  14. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  15. Responses of Lens esculenta Moench to controlled environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saint-Clair, P.M.

    1972-01-01

    Many experiments were undertaken to study the responses of the lentil cultivars 'Large blonde' and 'Anicia' to controlled environmental factors. They covered different aspects of the physiology and the ecology of the crop.The orientation experiments (2) involved germination and depth of sowing. The

  16. Simple Expressions for Safety Factors in Inventory Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbosch, L.W.G.; Moors, J.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on inventory control discusses many methods to establish the level of decision parameters -like reorder levels or safety factors-, necessary to attain a prescribed service level. In general, however, these methods are not easy applicable: they often use time-consuming iterations, requ

  17. Behavioural factors related to metabolic control in patients with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, MR; van Spronsen, FJ; Oudshoorn, K; Bekhof, J; van Rijn, G; Verkerk, PH

    2005-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of parental factors possibly related to dietary control in early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods. A questionnaire was disseminated among parents of 238 patients with PKU born after the natio

  18. Reflexões sobre poder e controle nas Organizações da Economia Solidária (OES: um olhar à luz dos bichos de Orwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Gomes de Sá

    Full Text Available Partindo das nuances da fábula A Revolução dos Bichos de George Orwell e estendendo as reflexões para o campo organizacional, este ensaio tem como objetivo refletir sobre Poder e Controle no contexto específico das organizações produtivas que visam atender aos requisitos propostos pelo modelo econômico solidário, ou seja, as Organizações da Economia Solidária (OES. O texto está estruturado em cinco seções, sendo a Apresentação a primeira. Em seguida, a Introdução, que oferece as linhas gerais da temática das OES, assim como a questão central que norteia o ensaio. Na terceira seção, procede-se a Fundamentação Teórica, trazendo uma visão geral dos conceitos fundamentais - na concepção dos autores - para o entendimento dos principais pontos que serão tratados mais adiante, se constituindo como lastro a partir do qual é soerguida a quarta seção, Poder e Controle: Algumas Reflexões sobre a Práxis em OES. Por fim, retomamos as "lições" oriundas da obra Orwell para construir as Considerações Finais, discorrendo uma visão crítica sobre a problemática em questão, assim como levantando algumas possibilidades para estudos posteriores.

  19. Os efeitos do treinamento de força sobre os fatores de risco da síndrome metabólica Effects of resistance training over metabolic syndrome risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Muniz Guttierres

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Medidas não-farmacológicas, como a atividade física, vêm sendo recomendadas para prevenção e tratamento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. OBJETIVO: Realizar revisão da literatura para verificar os mecanismos por meio dos quais o treinamento de força provoca alterações metabólicas e celulares, agindo positivamente sobre os fatores de risco da síndrome metabólica. METODODOLOGIA: Foram utilizadas as bases de dados Medline, Scielo, Science Direct e Capes. A busca foi restrita aos últimos 10 anos. Os termos utilizados para pesquisa foram: obesity, dislipidemy,hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, resistance training, weight lifting, exercise. RESULTADOS: O treinamento de força atua sobre parâmetros metabólicos e celulares promovendo efeitos positivos no controle e na prevenção dos fatores de risco relacionados à síndrome metabólica, tais como diminuição do peso corporal, aumento da sensibilidade à insulina, aumento da tolerância à glicose, diminuição dos níveis pressóricos de repouso e melhoria do perfil lipídico. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão dos artigos científicos apresentados fornece dados que permitem concluir que o treinamento de força pode contribuir de forma efetiva na diminuição dos fatores de risco relacionados à síndrome metabólica.INTRODUCTION: Non-pharmacological measures, such as practicing physical activity, have been recommended for prevention and treatment of non-transmissible chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To review the mechanisms by which resistance training results in metabolic and cellular alterations that act positively on metabolic syndrome risk factors. METHOD: The search was limited to the past 10 years, using the Medline, Scielo, Science direct and Capes databases. The terms used in the search were: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, resistance training, weight lifting, and exercise. RESULTS: Resistance training

  20. Designing Simulation Experiments with Controllable and Uncontrollable Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Kulahci, Murat; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    In this study we propose a new method for designing computer experiments inspired by the split plot designs used in physical experimentation. The basic layout is that each set of controllable factor settings corresponds to a whole plot for which a number of subplots, each corresponding to one...... combination of settings of the uncontrollable factors, is employed. The caveat is a desire that the subplots within each whole plot cover the design space uniformly. A further desire is that in the combined design, where all experimental runs are considered at once, the uniformity of the design space coverage...... should be guaranteed. Our proposed method allows for a large number of uncontrollable and controllable settings to be run in a limited number of runs while uniformly covering the design space for the uncontrollable factors....

  1. Risk factors of Cancer Prostate A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Nahed M; Tayel, Eiman S; El Abbady, Ahmed A; Khashab, Sahar S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the different risk factors related to this cancer particularly that there is no agreement about which factors affect the risk. A fishing expedition hospital based case control study was carried out. Cases and controls were identified from the Urology Department of Alexandria Main University Hospital, 2004. All cases diagnosed as having the tumor were included in the case series. For each case the second subject proved to have a negative pathological examination was included in the control group (50).Data collection was carried out blindly using a structured interview schedule. Analysis was applied using Chi-square test, Fisher exact and Student's t-test. Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Results indicated that regular consumption of sausages was greater among cases than controls (X(2)= 10.19, p= 0.001 and an odds ratio of 5.92 (CI: 1.69-25.99). Also more cases claimed consuming regularly butter and natural ghee than controls (X(2)= 5.47, p= 0.019). The estimate risk was as high as 2.79 (Cl: 1.07-7.33). However regular consumption of vegetables was more encountered among controls than cases (X(2) = 5.005, p= 0.025 where the odds ratio was 0.19 (Cl: 0.02-1.01). Moreover the multiple regression analysis confirmed the results obtained from univariate analysis. The consistency of results of current work as regards sausages and butter with several other research works can support the identification of these specific possible risk factors. Also other research workers pointed out to the protective effect of vegetables. However further research is needed to address other risk factors.

  2. Simplifying the audit of risk factor recording and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Min; Cooney, Marie Therese; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To simplify the assessment of the recording and control of coronary heart disease risk factors in different countries and regions. DESIGN: The SUrvey of Risk Factors (SURF) is an international clinical audit. METHODS: Data on consecutive patients with established coronary heart disease...... from countries in Europe, Asia and the Middle East were collected on a one-page collection sheet or electronically during routine clinic visits. Information on demographics, diagnostic category, risk factors, physical and laboratory measurements, and medications were included and key variables...... summarized in a Cardiovascular Health Index Score. RESULTS: Coronary heart disease patients (N = 10,186; 29% women) were enrolled from 79 centres in 11 countries. Recording of risk factors varied considerably: smoking was recorded in over 98% of subjects, while about 20% lacked data on laboratory...

  3. Risk factors for anal fistula: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Yang, G; Qiu, J; Song, Y; Wang, L; Gao, J; Wang, C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of our study was to identify potential risk factors for anal fistula in order to improve prevention and treatment of anal fistula. A retrospective case-control study for anal fistula was conducted at our unit. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify associated risk factors for anal fistula. The final model obtained by the stepwise forward logistic regression analysis method identified the following items as independent risk factors: body mass index of >25.0 kg/m(2), high daily salt intake, history of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, dermatosis, anorectal surgery, history of smoking and alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, excessive intake of spicy/greasy food, very infrequent participation in sports and prolonged sitting on the toilet for defecation. Our results indicate that lifestyle factors and certain medical conditions increase an individual's risk of developing anal fistula.

  4. Que hay en el horizonte sobre el virus del papiloma humano, vacunas y el control del cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. García

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión provee una visión general sobre las infecciones genitales producidas por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH y de las neoplasias relacionadas con éste y la información sobre las expectativas crecientes de la vacunación como medio de prevención. Se explora como se han desarrollado las vacunas contra el VPH y que aspectos hay que tener en cuenta para una posible implementación de un programa de vacunación para prevenir el cáncer cervical, como los costos, el público objetivo (varones, mujeres o ambos, grupos de riesgo, a que edad vacunarlos, consideraciones que debemos tener en cuenta en la promoción de la vacuna, que pasaría con los programas de detección precoz de cáncer cervical y cuales son los potenciales problemas que tendría en países en desarrollo.

  5. Percepção das enfermeiras sobre fatores de risco para a infecção hospitalar Nurses perception about risk factors for nosocomial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Natalia Teresa Turrini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo num hospital público pediátrico com o intuito de avaliar o conhecimento das enfemeiras-chefes sobre possíveis fatores de risco envolvidos na ocorrência de infecções hospitalares. Entrevistou-se as enfermeiras responsáveis pelos serviços de cuidados semi-intensivos, intensivos e emergências. Através da análise de conteúdo dos discursos, identificou-se os seguintes fatores de risco: ausência de rotinas pré-estabelecidas, inadequação de planta física e instalações, falta de material e equipamentos, desproporção entre o número de profissionais e o número de leitos ocupados, falta de treinamento e orientação dos funcionários e acompanhantes.A study was undertaken in a pediatric teaching hospital to evaluate the nurses understanding about risk factors for nosocomial infections. The data were obtained in interviews with nurses of the emergency room, intensive and semi-intensive units. The analysis of the meaning of the conversation permitted the identification of the following risk factors: inadequacy of the hospital design and construction, deficiency of care equipments and supplies, understaffing, lack of education and training to the healthcare workers and orientation to the patients family.

  6. Percepciones de docentes y directores sobre los factores que promueven u obstaculizan la educación ambiental en escuelas del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Saidón

    Full Text Available Resumen: El trabajo aborda las percepciones de docentes y directores de escuelas acerca delos factores que promueven u obstaculizan una educación ambiental compleja, generadora de conocimientos, con dispositivos participativos y orientados a la equidad en instituciones educativas del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Como resultado se observaron experiencias heterogéneas y voluntad de instalar nuevas prácticas, pero con factores que limitan el cambio: pautas culturales arraigadas; deficiencias en la capacitación docente, en cuanto a las políticas públicas; poca claridad en las definiciones sobre los objetivos de la educación ambiental, su abordaje curricular y los dispositivos pedagógicos. Prevalecen enfoques fragmentados, naturalistas y la ausencia de una visión crítica. A nivel institucional, se discute la pertinencia de implementar prácticas sustentables en el aula. Las propias percepciones también operan como obstáculos. Todo esto dificulta la adopción de nuevas acciones de educación ambiental con el ímpetu necesario para sostenerlas en el tiempo.

  7. Efecto del incremento en el número de señales de biofeedback-EMG sobre el control muscular en la hemiplejia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Contreras

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el control diferencial y simultáneo entre grupos musculares del miembro inferior derecho en un paciente hemipléjico. Los músculos registrados fueron el peroneo lateral largo (PLL, el tibial anterior (TA y el gemelo externo (GE. Se realizó un experimento de caso único con un diseño AB compuesto de dos tratamientos A y B. El tratamiento A estuvo compuesto de 6 sesiones y cada sesión por 12 ensayos, alcanzando un total de 72 ensayos; el tratamiento B estuvo compuesto por 7 sesiones con 12 ensayos en cada sesión alcanzando un total de 84. En el tratamiento A se proporcionaba información al sujeto sobre la actividad electromiográfica de los músculos PLL, TA y GE simultáneamente, y en el tratamiento B sobre los músculos PLL y TA; en ambas condiciones el sujeto debía incrementar la actividad del músculo PLL mientras decrementaba la actividad de los músculos TA y GE (tratamiento A o bien solamente del músculo TA (tratamiento B. Se realizó un análisis de intervención en series temporales, observándose un mejor control muscular en el tratamiento B (dos señales que en el tratamiento A (tres señales.

  8. Efecto de iones y otros factores físicos sobre la germinación de semillas

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    El bioensayo de germinación se ha convertido en una herramienta útil para el estudio de otros parámetros en Bioquímica Vegetal, por lo cual debe ser optimizado cuidadosamente. Algunas sales producen efectos inhibitorios en la germinación por ello sus cantidades deben controlarse cuidadosamente. Otros factores que influyen para la germinación como volumen, luz, tiempo de imbibición, tamaño de las semillas, varían conforme a la especie de semilla elegida. Se describen las condiciones óptimas de...

  9. Influencia de factores ambientales sobre el otolito de Australoheros facetus (Pisces, Cichlidae) y algunas comparaciones con otras especies Neotropicales

    OpenAIRE

    González Naya, María Jimena Aída

    2011-01-01

    La familia Cichlidae es una de las más numerosas del Orden Perciformes, está constituida por alrededor de 1300 especies. En Sudamérica existen unas 400 especies que representan cerca del diez por ciento de la ictiofauna de agua dulce. En la Argentina existen unas 45 especies de cíclidos formalmente descriptas. La distribución de los peces está determinada por factores históricos y por los mecanismos adaptativos en las tres dimensiones elementales del nicho ecológico (la espacial, la trófica y...

  10. A influência do peso da mochila escolar de alças sobre o controle postural de crianças

    OpenAIRE

    Aryane Karoline Vital de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A literatura recomenda que a carga das mochilas escolares esteja entre 10 e 15% da massa corporal da criança, para que se minimize a instalação de alterações posturais e mudanças na marcha. O controle postural é componente fundamental para o desenvolvimento de habilidades e funções na criança. No entanto, há escassez de estudos sobre o efeito da mochila escolar no controle postural em crianças, além disso, não são conclusivos. Objetivo: Investigar a influência do peso das mochilas...

  11. Risk factors for episiotomy: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordana Campos Braga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: obtaining information on the factors associated with episiotomy will be useful in sensitizing professionals to the need to minimize its incidence. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for episiotomy in pregnant women who had undergone vaginal delivery at a university maternity hospital in northeastern Brazil. Methods: a case-control study was conducted with pregnant women submitted to episiotomy (cases and pregnant women not submitted to episiotomy (controls between March 2009 and July 2010 at the Professor Fernando Figueira Integral Medicine Institute (IMIP in Recife, Brazil, in a ratio of 1 case to 2 controls. The study variables consisted of: whether episiotomy was performed, demographic, obstetric and fetal characteristics (primiparity, analgesia, instrumental delivery, fetal distress, etc., external factors (day and time of delivery, professional attending delivery and factors directly related to delivery. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the adjusted risk of episiotomy. Results: a total of 522 women (173 cases and 349 controls were included. It was found that deliveries with episiotomy were more likely to have been attended by staff physicians (OR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.01 - 3.48, to have required forceps (OR = 12.31; 95%CI: 4.9 - 30.1 and to have occurred in primiparas (OR = 4.24; 95%CI: 2.61 - 6.89. The likelihood of a nurse having attended the delivery with episiotomy was significantly lower (OR = 0.29; 95%CI: 0.16 - 0.55. Conclusion: episiotomy was found to be strongly associated with deliveries attended by staff physicians, with primiparity, and with instrumental delivery, and was less common in deliveries attended by nurses.

  12. Factors Controlling the Distribution of Trace Metals in Macroalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝利; 刘丛强

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concentrations of trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) in macroalgae from five areas. Significant differences were noticed in trace metal concentration in macroalgae, and a large range of variations between the minimum and maximum concentrations of trace metals was found. Trace metals detected in macroalgae generally occur in adsorbed and absorbed forms. Environmental and biological factors jointly control the trace metal compositions and concentrations in macroalgae. The complexity and variation of these factors cause significant differences in trace metal concentrations in macroalgae. Environmental factors play a more important role in controlling trace metal compositions and concentrations when external available trace metals are beyond requirement for algal metabolism and growth, especially for non-essential trace metals; however, when the external available trace metals just satisfy the needs of algal metabolism and growth, biological factors would play a more important role, especially for essential trace metals. Interactions among the trace metals can also influence their compositions and concentrations in macroalgae. It is also discussed how to make macroalgae as an excellent biomonitor for trace metals.

  13. Homicídios de adolescentes: refletindo sobre alguns fatores associados Adolescents’ homicide: thinking about some associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Kodato

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é uma investigação de alguns fatores associados a homicídios praticados contra adolescentes, no município de Ribeirão Preto (SP, onde, no período de 1995 a 1998, foram assassinados 101 adolescentes. A coleta e a análise dos dados foram realizadas através da conjunção das seguintes técnicas: levantamento de dados sociográficos, através da análise dos processos judiciais instaurados no Ministério Público local; observação participante da instituição de internamento no município, destinada para adolescente autor de ato infracional; entrevistas com adolescentes internos pela prática de homicídio (n= 8. Como resultado, pode-se afirmar que as condições de vida que levaram à morte os adolescentes, são fruto de uma sincronização de fatores, onde, além da fragilidade institucional, observa-se como determinantes a disputa pela apropriação de bens materiais, o conflito de interesses financeiros, o tráfico de drogas, e, um modo de relacionamento interpessoal, cuja resolução de situações conflitivas se dá de forma não mediada e violenta.This research is an investigation of some factors associated to homicides committed against adolescents, at the city of Ribeirão Preto (SP, in which, during the period of 1995-1998, 101 children and adolescents were killed. The collect and analysis of data were made throughout the association of the following methods: sociographics data enrollment, analysis of taken lawsuits in the local prosecuting counsel; participant observation of the local internment institution, destined to adolescents authors of infraction acts; interview with intern adolescents for homicide acts (n=8. As a result one may state that the life conditions that ends on death of adolescents are product of a synchronization of factors, where, besides the fragility of institutions, one may observe determinants the dispute for appropriation of goods, conflict of financial interests, drug traffic and, a mode

  14. Dietary fibre: influence on body weight, glycemic control and plasma cholesterol profile Fibra dietética: influencia sobre el peso corporal, el control glicémico y el perfil del colesterol plasmático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Babio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been several studies on the effects of dietary fibre on the metabolism. Epidemiologic studies have consistently reported an inverse relationship between dietary fibre and type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular mortality. This review focuses on observational and experimental studies that examine the effect of different types and sources of dietary fibre on body weight, glucose metabolism and lipid profile. From the available evidence, we conclude that clinical studies consistently show that the intake of viscous dietary fibre decreases the low density lipoprotein cholesterol and postprandial glucose levels, and induces short term satiety. However, few clinical trials have demonstrated that the intake of dietary fibre has a positive effect on the control of diabetes and body weight.Existen diversos estudios que han evaluado el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética sobre el metabolismo. Diversos estudios epidemiológicos observaron una relación inversa entre la fibra dietética y la diabetes mellitas tipo 2 o la mortalidad cardiovascular. Esta revisión se basa sobre estudios observacionales y experimentales que han valorado los efectos de diferentes tipos y fuentes de fibra dietética sobre el peso corporal, el metabolismo de la glucosa y el perfil lipídico. De la evidencia disponible, concluimos que los estudios clínicos consistentemente muestran que la ingesta de alimentos fuentes de fibra viscosa disminuye el colesterol de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad y los niveles de glucosa postprandial e induce la saciedad a corto plazo. Sin embargo, pocos ensayos clínicos han demostrado un efecto positivo sobre el control de la diabetes y el peso corporal.

  15. Understanding disease control: influence of epidemiological and economic factors

    CERN Document Server

    Oles, Katarzyna; Kleczkowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    We present a local spread model of disease transmission on a regular network and compare different control options ranging from treating the whole population to local control in a well-defined neighborhood of an infectious individual. Comparison is based on a total cost of epidemic, including cost of palliative treatment of ill individuals and preventive cost aimed at vaccination or culling of susceptible individuals. Disease is characterized by pre- symptomatic phase which makes detection and control difficult. Three general strategies emerge, global preventive treatment, local treatment within a neighborhood of certain size and only palliative treatment with no prevention. The choice between the strategies depends on relative costs of palliative and preventive treatment. The details of the local strategy and in particular the size of the optimal treatment neighborhood weakly depends on disease infectivity but strongly depends on other epidemiological factors. The required extend of prevention is proportiona...

  16. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  17. Effect of hypercortisolism control on high blood pressure in Cushing's syndrome Efecto del control del hipercortisolismo sobre la hipertensión arterial en el síndrome de Cushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo M. Gómez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Many hypertensive patients affected by endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS persist with high blood pressure (HBP despite good control of cortisol excess. We assessed the effect of preoperative ketoconazole administration and of definitive treatment of CS on arterial hypertension and analysed the factors involved in the persistence of hypertension. We assessed retrospectively 71 patients with CS and HBP (60 women, 11 men; 50 pituitary, 21 adrenal successfully treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy; 19 of them received ketoconazole (KNZ before surgery. After treatment, patients were divided into those with persistent high blood pressure (PHBP and those with normal blood pressure (NBP. As possible predictive factors for PHBP we analysed age, duration and family history of HBP, pre-treatment 24 hour urinary free cortisol (24h-UFC and body mass index (BMI. HBP normalized in 53 out of 71 patients (74.6%, regardless of the origin of Cushing's syndrome. PHBP patients were older (p=0.003, had longer duration (p=0.007 and higher systolic blood pressure before treatment (p=0.046 than NBP patients. Thirteen out of 19 patients (68.4% treated with ketoconazole, normalized their hypertension and remained normotensive after successful surgery. Five patients became normotensive only after surgery. In conclusion: a blood pressure levels normalized in most patients after remission of CS; b ketoconazole was effective for the control of HBP, and seems to be a good indicator of post-surgical outcome, and c higher age at presentation, longer duration of hypertension and higher systolic blood pressure figures before treatment negatively influence normalization of blood pressure after resolution of Cushing's syndrome.Muchos pacientes con síndrome de Cushing (SC permanecen hipertensos a pesar del control del exceso glucocorticoideo. Investigamos el efecto de la administración de ketoconazol (KNZ y del tratamiento definitivo del SC sobre la hipertensión arterial (HTA

  18. Influencia de algunos factores sobre la calidad del anodizado de piezas de aluminio para la construcción. // Influence of some factors over the quality of anodizing process of aluminum articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Pérez García

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ya ha sido establecido que de todos los factores que están presentes en el proceso de anodizado, hay tres que tienen la mayorpreponderancia: el tratamiento previo de la superficie a anodizar, el color a aplicar y el espesor de la capa anodizada. A su vez, elprimero de ellos es el que mayor influencia presenta. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados cuantitativos de la influencia deestos factores sobre la calidad de la superficie anodizada, expresada en función de los parámetros Ra , Ry y Rq de la superficieanodizada.Palabras claves: Aluminio, anodizado, calidad._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIt has been established that there are three factors with the most relevance in the anodizing process: Previous surfacetreatment, color and thickness of the anodized layer. Besides, the influence of the first of them is several times moreimportant than the influence of the others. This paper presents the quantitative study of the influence of these factors overthe quality of the anodized surface, expressed in terms of parameters Ra, Ry and Rq.Key words: Aluminum, anodizing process, quality.

  19. Factores que inciden sobre el tiempo de permanencia de un catéter endovenoso central Factors that affect the dwell time of a central venous catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bello-Villalobos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores que inciden en el tiempo de permanencia de un catéter endovenoso central. Antecedentes: En el paciente con cáncer existen factores propios del estado de inmunocompromiso por el tumor y los efectos colaterales de su tratamiento que aumentan la probabilidad de infección y consecuentemente reducen el tiempo de uso de un catéter. Sujetos: Se integró una cohorte de 306 pacientes con cáncer, con una edad promedio de 59 ± 14,5 años. Intervenciones: Se definió tiempo cero como el día de colocación del catéter. Diariamente se buscaron signos clínicos de infección por catéter, con toma de hemocultivos simultáneos cada 7 días. El desenlace primario fue infección del catéter y el alternativo fin de tratamiento, obstrucción o fallecimiento del paciente. Se comparó el tiempo de permanencia del catéter infectado vs no infectado y su relación con factores de riesgo potenciales. Resultados: Se colocaron 306 catéteres para un total de 4.043 días/catéter. Se infectaron 25 (8,2%. La sobrevida media global fue de 50 días. Se encontró que a mayor tiempo de permanencia, mayor fue la incidencia de infección. En el análisis de sobrevida ajustado, la presencia de infección a distancia (OR = 4,71, IC95% = 1,7-10,1, p = 0,002 fue el factor que mostró una asociación significativa. Conclusiones: El tiempo de vida útil de un catéter es amplia, limitada por la presencia de infección a distancia como factor de riesgo potencial de infección por catéter.Objective: To determine the factors that affect the dwell time of a central venous catheter. Background: The own immunodeficiency in cancer patient and the collateral effects of their treatment increase the probability of infection and reduce the time of use of a catheter. Subjects: Incipient cohort of 306 patients with cancer, with an average age of 59 ± 14.5 years. Interventions: Time zero like the day of the placement of the catheter was defined. Daily

  20. Gelatin methacrylate microspheres for controlled growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh H; McKinney, Jay; Miller, Tobias; Bongiorno, Tom; McDevitt, Todd C

    2015-02-01

    Gelatin has been commonly used as a delivery vehicle for various biomolecules for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications due to its simple fabrication methods, inherent electrostatic binding properties, and proteolytic degradability. Compared to traditional chemical cross-linking methods, such as the use of glutaraldehyde (GA), methacrylate modification of gelatin offers an alternative method to better control the extent of hydrogel cross-linking. Here we examined the physical properties and growth factor delivery of gelatin methacrylate (GMA) microparticles (MPs) formulated with a wide range of different cross-linking densities (15-90%). Less methacrylated MPs had decreased elastic moduli and larger mesh sizes compared to GA MPs, with increasing methacrylation correlating to greater moduli and smaller mesh sizes. As expected, an inverse correlation between microparticle cross-linking density and degradation was observed, with the lowest cross-linked GMA MPs degrading at the fastest rate, comparable to GA MPs. Interestingly, GMA MPs at lower cross-linking densities could be loaded with up to a 10-fold higher relative amount of growth factor than conventional GA cross-linked MPs, despite the GA MPs having an order of magnitude greater gelatin content. Moreover, a reduced GMA cross-linking density resulted in more complete release of bone morphogenic protein 4 and basic fibroblast growth factor and accelerated release rate with collagenase treatment. These studies demonstrate that GMA MPs provide a more flexible platform for growth factor delivery by enhancing the relative binding capacity and permitting proteolytic degradation tunability, thereby offering a more potent controlled release system for growth factor delivery.

  1. Una revisión de la literatura experimental sobre los efectos motivacionales del alcohol y su modulación por factores biológicos y ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. de la Torre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El alcohol es posiblemente la droga psicoactiva más consumida en el mundo. La ingesta moderada es común, pero para algunos individuos el consumo de alcohol se convierte en un trastorno adictivo. La progresión desde un consumo moderado de alcohol hasta el abuso podría deberse a la existencia de una sensibilidad diferencial, genéticamente determinada, a los efectos reforzantes y aversivos del alcohol. Así mismo, se sugiere que factores ambientales, como el estrés, podrían intervenir en el inicio del alcoholismo, influyendo sobre dicha sensibilidad diferencial y, en última instancia, sobre el consumo de alcohol. En el presente trabajo se revisa la literatura experimental existente acerca de los elementos protagonistas en la relación entre estrés y etanol. Por una parte se revisan los principales modelos de estrés existentes y, por otra, se aborda el estudio de las propiedades reforzantes y aversivas de esta droga, incluyendo datos sobre la influencia de variables como la edad, el sexo, y la experiencia previa con la droga. Finalmente, se expone un resumen de los datos existentes sobre la investigación con animales sobre la influencia del estrés en la percepción de las propiedades motivacionales opuestas del etanol. Nuestro objetivo es contribuir a clarificar el conocimiento existente acerca de las relaciones entre determinados factores biológicos (como el sexo o la edad y ambientales (experiencia previa y estrés, y la conducta de ingesta de alcohol, poniendo de manifiesto la importancia de algunos factores de riesgo para el desarrollo del alcoholismo.

  2. Based on Multi-Factors Grey Prediction Control for Elevator Velocity Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the double-factors grey prediction and the fuzzy controller for the elevator car speed control. We introduce double-factors grey control to predict car vibration for elevator speed during the operation. Simulation results show that based on multi-factors gray prediction fuzzy PI control for elevator velocity modulation system closer than simple gray fuzzy PI control elevator speed control system to the actual operation. The control effect of double factors grey fuzzy PI contro...

  3. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  4. Social and cultural factors in the successful control of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, A J; Garro, L C

    1992-01-01

    The burden of tuberculosis on the public health is staggering. Worldwide, annual incidence of new cases is estimated to be about 8 million. Almost 3 million deaths occur yearly. Early case identification and adherence to treatment regimens are the remaining barriers to successful control. In many nations, however, fewer than half those with active disease receive a diagnosis, and fewer than half those beginning treatment complete it. The twin problems of delay in seeking treatment and abandonment of a prescribed regimen derive from complex factors. People's confusion as to the implications of the tuberculosis symptoms, costs of transportation to clinic services, the social stigma that attaches to tuberculosis, the high cost of medication, organizational problems in providing adequate followup services, and patients' perception of clinic facilities as inhospitable all contribute to the complexity. Sociocultural factors are emphasized in this report because hitherto they have not been adequately explored. Salient among those sociocultural factors is the health culture of the patients. That is, the understanding and information people have from family, friends, and neighbors as to the nature of a health problem, its cause, and its implications. A knowledge of the health culture of their patients has become a critical tool if tuberculosis control programs are to be successful. Several anthropological procedures are recommended to help uncover the health culture of people served by tuberculosis clinics.

  5. Control de calidad de superfluidificantes. Informe técnico sobre la utilización de aditivos superfluidificantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Nicolás, Francisco Javier

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El desarrollo de esta investigación parcial se encuentra actualmente en fase de valoración de resultados. Como método de análisis se ha escogido uno, comparativo entre los diversos productos y el hormigón testigo, expresándose las variaciones respecto a éste en porcentajes en los sucesivos tipos de ensayos realizados. Posteriormente se debe valorar la tendencia general de cada producto en lo referente a las propiedades del hormigón fresco y endurecido. Es obvio que la limitación del tipo de conglomerante hace limitadas las conclusiones que se van obteniendo. Por ello, es de esperar que en los sucesivos programas que se tienen en marcha sobre el tema de aditivos, se obtengan resultados y conclusiones más generalizadas en este campo y que, si hay oportunidad, puedan ser recogidas en sucesivos artículos o futuras publicaciones.

  6. Papel del factor tumoral en el control de las reservas grasas y la obesidad.

    OpenAIRE

    M Bullo Bonet; P Garcia-Lorda; JM Argilés; J Salas Salvado

    2000-01-01

    Papel del factor tumoral en el control de las reservas grasas y la obesidad. The role of tumor necrosis factor in the control of fat reserve and obesity. Papel del factor tumoral en el control de las reservas grasas y la obesidad. The role of tumor necrosis factor in the control of fat reserve and obesity.

  7. Reflections on production planning and control (PPC Reflexões sobre o planejamento e controle da produção (PCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Bonney

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the current state of Production Planning and Control (PPC, identifies some technical and systems changes that have occurred over recent years and links these with the requirements being placed on companies by the market. PPC is being asked to respond effectively to these internal and external changes by being more dynamic and providing better control of resources and delivery performance. Some of the requirements to be satisfied by the new PPC systems are identified. To meet these requirements it is suggested that better understanding is required of how different factors affect PPC systems performance and that administrative systems need improving. The quantitative, administrative and behavioural aspects of PPC are discussed. A framework for developing an agenda for action and research is provided.O artigo examina o estado da arte do Planejamento e Controle da Produção (PCP, identifica algumas mudanças técnicas e nos sistemas que têm ocorrido em anos recentes, e as relaciona com as necessidades que estão sendo colocadas nas companhias pelo mercado. O PCP está sendo solicitado para responder efetivamente a essas mudanças internas e externas, para ser mais dinâmico e fornecer um melhor controle dos recursos e desempenho nas entregas. Algumas das necessidades a serem satisfeitas pelos novos sistemas de PCP são identificadas. Para atender essas necessidades é sugerido que é preciso um melhor entendimento de como diferentes fatores afetam o desempenho dos sistemas de PCP, e que os sistemas administrativos precisam melhorar. Os aspectos quantitativos, administrativos e comportamentais do PCP são discutidos. Uma estrutura para desenvolver uma agenda de ação e pesquisa é proposta.

  8. Los sistemas de control de gestión y la innovación: Su efecto sobre el rendimiento de las PYMES

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio J. Uc Heredia; Domingo García Pérez de Lema; Francisco J. Bastida A.

    2008-01-01

    El objeto de este trabajo es analizar empíricamente la relación existente entre el uso de sistemas de control de gestión (SCG) y la innovación sobre el rendimiento de las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (PYMES) en México. Para cumplir este propósito se realiza un estudio con 170 PYMES industriales manufactureras de Yucatán, México. A través de la ANOVA pudo comprobarse que variables como un mayor tamaño, una posición tecnológica buena-fuerte y una estrategia de innovación exploradora-analizadora...

  9. Control de la posició i balanceig d’una bola sobre un pla emprant una plataforma Gough-Stewart

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet Muñoz, Albert

    2015-01-01

    El treball que es presenta a continuació consisteix en el plantejament, disseny i construcció d’un robot paral·lel amb 6 graus de llibertat del tipus Gough-Stewart per controlar, mitjançant un control PID, la posició d’una bola situada a sobre de la seva plataforma mòbil. La detecció de la bola s’ha realitzat mitjançant un sistema de visió, amb una càmera en posició zenital enfocant la part superior de la plataforma mòbil del robot. S’ha procurat assegurar una resposta ràpida, amb la màxima p...

  10. Control estructural sobre el plutón Los Ratones y la mineralización de uranio en la sierra de Fiambalá, Sierras Pampeanas, Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hongn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Granito Los Ratones, de edad carbonífera, está compuesto por dos facies principales: porfírica y equigranular. La mineralización de uranio alojada en la caja metamórfica sobre el borde NO del plutón se interpreta asociada a un greisen abierto rico en flúor vinculado con las facies equigranular. La cartografía detallada de la roca de caja del plutón, de parte de los bordes del intrusivo y de las manifestaciones uraníferas muestra un marcado control estructural sobre el emplazamiento del plutón, particularmente de la facies porfírica, y sobre la circulación de los fluidos mineralizantes. Cuatro juegos de fracturas participan de este control. Los dos principales de rumbo N y NE coinciden nítidamente con los bordes oeste y noroeste de la facies porfírica y con las expresiones más notables de la mineralización de uranio. El tercer juego corresponde a fracturas de rumbo E-O que son secundarias respecto a las anteriores considerando su frecuencia y longitud, al igual que el cuarto de rumbo NO. Los buzamientos de los juegos de fracturas N y NE son próximos a la vertical, orientación corroborada por estudios geofísicos en la zona dominada por las fracturas NE. Además de los rasgos mencionados, los diques básicos y ácidos que acompañan al plutón siguen preferentemente estas orientaciones. Las estructuras que controlan el magmatismo y la mineralización estarían vinculadas con un sistema de fallas meridianas con movimiento horizontal derecho principal y normal subordinado que parcialmente reactivaron heterogeneidades del basamento metamórfico, básicamente la foliación principal. Flexiones y quiebres a lo largo de estas estructuras generaron zonas dilatantes en las que se concentraron el magmatismo y la mineralización.

  11. Frequency control system based on power factor control of asynchronous motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-chun; YANG Fei-xia; REN Zhi-ling

    2005-01-01

    Deduced the relationship between the power factor (PF) and the angular frequency according to the simplified equivalent circuit of asynchronous motor, forming a power factor auto-control system. An anti-interference circuit was also introduced in the middle voltage link of inverter to avoid the shift of the optimum PF point caused by the change of the load and the reliable run of the control system was assured. The experiment results show that it has a good self-adaptation in the whole scope of speed adjustment and an obvious economization on energy while it runs under load.

  12. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

  13. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.;

    2013-01-01

    with measurements made outside the growing season, are underrepresented in the literature. Here we present results of 5 yr (2006-2010) of automatic chamber measurements at a high-Arctic location in Zackenberg, NE Greenland, covering both the growing seasons and two months of the following freeze-in periods...... explained by high seasonality of both variables, and weakly correlated with the water table. The greatest variability in fluxes between the study years was observed during the first part of the growing season. Somewhat surprisingly, this variability could not be explained by commonly known factors...... controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...

  14. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal POOROLAJAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS. A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program.Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20 for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91 for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates.Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Risk factors, Case-control study, Iran

  15. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  16. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  17. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  18. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  19. Three controllable factors of steady operation of EGSB reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-li; LU Bing-nan; LI Fang

    2008-01-01

    The bench- scale EGSB (expanded granular sludge bed) reactor was operated to study the effect of sludge loading rate, pH value and nutrient element on the operation of the EGSB reactor and the control rule of these factors. Continuous flow was used to treat synthetic wastewater containing dextrose and beer, and the temperature of reactor was controlled at mesophiles temperature (33 ℃). The experimental results demonstrated trolled by adding sodium bicarbonate, the proper additive quantity was 1000-1200 mg/L; the additive quantity wastewater with 400-5000 mg/L COD concentration. The COD removal efficiency was over 85%. The operation of the EGSB reactor was steady and the EGSB reactor had strong anti-shock load ability.

  20. Factors Associated with Academic Achievement in Children with Controlled Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane; Phillips, Tonya; Griebel, May L.; Sharp, Gregory B.; Lange, Bernadette; Edgar, Terence; Simpson, Pippa

    2001-06-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for academic underachievement. Multiple etiologies for this academic vulnerability have been suggested by past research including lower self-esteem, inattention, memory inefficiency, and lower socioeconomic status. The present study assessed 65 children (mean age = 10 years, 5 months) with well-controlled epilepsy on the four primary factors, as well as academic achievement and intelligence. A stepwise regression analysis was employed with academic achievement as the dependent variable and measures of self-esteem, attention, memory, and socioeconomic status as independent variables. When intelligence was controlled, attention was the only variable associated with achievement scores. Seizure variables including seizure type and duration of epilepsy were not associated with differences in academic performance. Findings support the importance of measuring attention skills in children with epilepsy and suggest that reduced auditory attention skills may be associated with decreased academic performance in these children.

  1. An Evolutionarily Conserved Plant RKD Factor Controls Germ Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koi, Satoshi; Hisanaga, Tetsuya; Sato, Katsutoshi; Shimamura, Masaki; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Nakajima, Keiji

    2016-07-11

    In contrast to animals, in which the germ cell lineage is established during embryogenesis, plant germ cells are generated in reproductive organs via reprogramming of somatic cells. The factors that control germ cell differentiation and reprogramming in plants are poorly understood. Members of the RKD subfamily of plant-specific RWP-RK transcription factors have been implicated in egg cell formation in Arabidopsis based on their expression patterns and ability to cause an egg-like transcriptome upon ectopic expression [1]; however, genetic evidence of their involvement is lacking, due to possible genetic redundancy, haploid lethality, and the technical difficulty of analyzing egg cell differentiation in angiosperms. Here we analyzed the factors that govern germ cell formation in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. This recently revived model bryophyte has several characteristics that make it ideal for studies of germ cell formation, such as low levels of genetic redundancy, readily accessible germ cells, and the ability to propagate asexually via gemma formation [2, 3]. Our analyses revealed that MpRKD, a single RWP-RK factor closely related to angiosperm RKDs, is preferentially expressed in developing eggs and sperm precursors in M. polymorpha. Targeted disruption of MpRKD had no effect on the gross morphology of the vegetative and reproductive organs but led to striking defects in egg and sperm cell differentiation, demonstrating that MpRKD is an essential regulator of germ cell differentiation. Together with previous findings [1, 4-6], our results suggest that RKD factors are evolutionarily conserved regulators of germ cell differentiation in land plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding disease control: influence of epidemiological and economic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Oleś

    Full Text Available We present a model of disease transmission on a regular and small world network and compare different control options. Comparison is based on a total cost of epidemic, including cost of palliative treatment of ill individuals and preventive cost aimed at vaccination or culling of susceptible individuals. Disease is characterized by pre-symptomatic phase, which makes detection and control difficult. Three general strategies emerge: global preventive treatment, local treatment within a neighborhood of certain size and only palliative treatment with no prevention. While the choice between the strategies depends on a relative cost of palliative and preventive treatment, the details of the local strategy and, in particular, the size of the optimal treatment neighborhood depend on the epidemiological factors. The required extent of prevention is proportional to the size of the infection neighborhood, but depends on time till detection and time till treatment in a non-nonlinear (power law. The optimal size of control neighborhood is also highly sensitive to the relative cost, particularly for inefficient detection and control application. These results have important consequences for design of prevention strategies aiming at emerging diseases for which parameters are not nessecerly known in advance.

  3. Risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Leonilda Giani; Menezes, Fernando Gatti de; Gonçalves, Priscila; Toniolo, Alexandra do Rosário; Silva, Claudia Vallone; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; Santos, Camila Marques Dos; Castagna, Helena Maria Fernandes; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Corrêa, Luci

    2017-01-01

    To describe the microbiological characteristics and to assess the risk factors for mortality of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in a case-control study of intensive care patients. This case-control study was conducted over a 6-year period in a 40-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care, private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Case patients were identified using the Nosocomial Infection Control Committee database. For the analysis of risk factors, matched control subjects were selected from the same institution at a 1:8.8 ratio, between January 2006 and December 2011. A total of 40 episodes of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis were evaluated in 40 patients in the intensive care unit, and 354 intensive care patients who did not experience tracheobronchitis were included as the Control Group. During the 6-year study period, a total of 42 organisms were identified (polymicrobial infections were 5%) and 88.2% of all the microorganisms identified were Gram-negative. Using a logistic regression model, we found the following independent risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis patients: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation I score (odds ratio 1.18 per unit of score; 95%CI: 1.05-1.38; p=0.01), and duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio 1.09 per day of mechanical ventilation; 95%CI: 1.03-1.17; p=0.004). Our study provided insight into the risk factors for mortality and microbiological characteristics of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis. Descrever as características microbiológicas e avaliar os fatores de risco para mortalidade na traqueobronquite associada à ventilação mecânica em um estudo caso-controle de pacientes de terapia intensiva. Estudo realizado ao longo de 6 anos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva médico-cirúrgica de 40 leitos, em um hospital privado e de nível terciário em São Paulo, Brasil. O Grupo Caso foi identificado usando o banco de dados da Comissão de

  4. Factors Controlling Sediment Denitrification Rates in Grassland and Forest Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment denitrification is an important nitrate (NO3- removal process from agricultural streams. The direct and indirect factors that control denitrification rates in tributary sediments can vary depending on the types of agricultural activities and vegetation. Our research investigated (1 tributary sediment denitrification rates in a grassland stream affected by pasture ecosystems and a forest stream affected by N fertilization; and (2 the environmental factors that determine denitrification rates in tributary sediments. The denitrification enzyme activity (DEA in grassland stream sediments is positively correlated with precipitation likely due to the increased nutrient exchange rates between stream water and sediments, and was higher than in forest stream sediments, leading to a decrease in NO3- concentration ([NO3-] in stream sediments. The DEA in riparian sediments was regulated by carbon concentrations and did not contribute to NO3- removal from the riparian sediment in grassland and forest streams. Thus, environmental factors affected by different types of agricultural activities and vegetation might regulate denitrification rates and [NO3-] in agricultural stream ecosystems.

  5. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is the most committed type of regulation in living cells where transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of their target genes and TF expression is controlled by other TFs forming complex transcriptional regulatory networks that can be highly interconnected. Here...... we analyze the topology and organization of nine transcriptional regulatory networks for E. coli, yeast, mouse and human, and we evaluate how the structure of these networks influences two of their key properties, namely controllability and stability. We calculate the controllability for each network...... as a measure of the organization and interconnectivity of the network. We find that the number of driver nodes n(D) needed to control the whole network is 64% of the TFs in the E. coli transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to only 17% for the yeast network, 4% for the mouse network and 8...

  6. Risk factor control is key in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged duration of diabetes, poor glycaemic control and hypertension are major risk factors for both diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. Optimising blood sugar control together with excellent control of blood pressure can reduce the risk of developing diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy should be considered in any patient with diabetes when persistent albuminuria develops. Microalbuminuria is the earliest clinically detectable indicator of diabetic nephropathy risk. The majority of patients with diabetic nephropathy are appropriately diagnosed based on elevated urinary albumin excretion and/or reduced 0032-6518 renal function. Patients with type 2 diabetes should have annual urinary ACR measurements from the time of diabetes diagnosis while those with type 1 diabetes should commence five years after diagnosis. Blood pressure lowering to 130/80mmHg and reduction of proteinuria to diabetic nephropathy and reduces the number of cardiovascular events. Drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are effective in reducing proteinuria, managing hypertension and reducing cardiovascular risk. Unless there are clear contraindications or intolerance all patients with diabetic nephropathy should be prescribed an ACEI or ARB. Stopping an ACEI or ARB during intercurrent illness or times of volume depletion is critically important. Patients with diabetic nephropathy should have at least yearly measurements of blood pressure, renal function and urinary ACR.

  7. Geochemical factors controlling free Cu ion concentrations in river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozan, Tim F.; Benoit, Gaboury

    1999-10-01

    Copper speciation was determined monthly at seven sites on four rivers in southern New England to understand which geochemical factors control free metal ion concentrations in river water. Samples were conventionally filtered (stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was used to quantify natural organic complexation and cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry (CSSWV) to measure directly both Cu sulfide complexes and total EDTA concentrations. The results showed both dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sulfide complexation dominate Cu speciation and control the concentrations of free ion. Free Cu2+ was calculated to be in the subnanomolar range for the majority of the year. Only in the winter months, when concentrations of DOM and metal sulfides complexes were at a minimum were free metal ions directly measurable by DPASV at low nanomolar concentrations. The extent of sulfide complexation appears to be dominated by the size of headwater marshes (upstream sampling sites) and by the amount of sewage treatment plant effluent (downstream sites). DOM complexation was related to the organic matter composition and followed model organic ligands. Indirect evidence suggests variations in river water pH and Ca2+ (metal competition) has only a minor role in Cu complexation. Measured concentrations of total EDTA suggest this synthetic ligand can control Cu speciation in some highly developed watersheds; however, competition from Ni (and possibly Fe) limits the extent of this complexation.

  8. El control de calidad en las obras de carretera. Nuevas tendencias sobre los ensayos y su organización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llamazares Gómez, Olegario

    1969-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality control in road works is a subject that is being very much studied at present owing to the large volume of work involved in the construction of motor roads. There is need to revise the traditional methods of testing and of interpreting these tests. The modern rate of work requires a quick and continuous control of the work; in addition, statistical analysis should be applied to the results to avoid subjective interpretations and Ijetter meet the contract requirements. The present author discusses these problems in a clear manner, and also gives information on the control organisation in Spain and on frequency and cost of these tests.El control de calidad en las obras de carretera es un tema de actualidad, ya que los grandes volúmenes que exigen las autopistas requieren una revisión de los métodos de ensayo clásicos y de los criterios de interpretación. El ritmo de obra exige un control rápido y continuo, al mismo tiempo que la aplicación del análisis estadístico a los resultados puede evitar criterios subjetivos y permitir una mejor definición de las prescripciones técnicas contractuales. Tan interesantes temas son expuestos con claridad por el autor, que informa también de la organización del control en España y de la frecuencia y coste de los ensayos.

  9. El efecto del control de la retroalimentación sobre la competencia de resolución de problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Otero Sotomayor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación es de tipo explicativo y experimental, aborda el problema relacionado con el control de la retroalimentación en objetos de aprendizaje, con dos valores, control de la retroalimentación por parte del sistema y control de la retroalimentación por parte del estudiante. Los resultados indicaron que no hubo diferencia significativa entre dos grupos, cada uno formado con un tipo de control de la retroalimentación. Pero en un análisis por preguntas, los estudiantes que trabajaron bajo la retroalimentación con control de estudiante tuvieron mejor desempeño en el punto de transferencia de conocimiento a otro tema, usando los conceptos estudiados en el experimento. Los estudiantes con control de la retroalimentación, antes de usar esta, recurrían al procesamiento de información para encontrar sus errores, lo que permitió procesos metacognitivos que los hizo conscientes del conocimiento que estaban manejando. El otro grupo, parecían actuar mecánicamente, siguiendo las instrucciones que les presentaba la retroalimentación.

  10. Los retos del convenio marco para el control del tabaco en México: un diagnóstico a partir de la Encuesta sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes

    OpenAIRE

    Raydel Valdés-Salgado; James Thrasher; Luisa María Sánchez-Zamorano; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce; Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu; Fernando Meneses-González; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo. Analizar la información de la Encuesta sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (ETJ) sobre consumo de cigarrillo y otros indicadores que resulten útiles para una medición inicial de las condiciones en que el país ratificó el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT). Material y métodos. La ETJ usa un diseño de muestreo por conglomerado en dos etapas que genera muestras representativas de estudiantes de 12 a 15 años de las escuelas secundarias públicas, privadas y técnicas. Incluye 42 024...

  11. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, Vilma Costa de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-08-17

    To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. Determinar os fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de assistência à sa

  12. Factors Controlling Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetics: An Integrated Analysis and Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Hunter, A.C.; Andresen, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    of interrelated core and interfacial physicochemical and biological factors. Pertinent to realizing therapeutic goals, definitive maps that establish the interdependency of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface characteristics in relation to interfacial forces, biodistribution, controlled drug release, excretion......, and adverse effects must be outlined. These concepts are critically evaluated and an integrated perspective is provided on the basis of the recent application of nanoscience approaches to nanocarrier design and engineering. The future of this exciting field is bright; some regulatory-approved products...... are already on the market and many are in late-phase clinical trials. With concomitant advances in extensive computational knowledge of the genomics and epigenomics of interindividual variations in drug responses, the boundaries toward development of personalized nanomedicines can be pushed further....

  13. Factors Influencing Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Çakır

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are a plenty of factors influencing glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing metabolic control in children with type 1 DM. Materials and Method: The study was performed in 200 children with type 1 DM between the ages 6 months to 18 years. This study was conducted by interviewing individually with the children and their families and completing the questionnaires related to their demographic features and data associated with their illness. The laboratory findings and medical information of the patients from the charts were also retrospectively recorded. Results: There were a total of 200 patients including 104 (52% girls and 96 (48% boys. The mean age of the patients was 11.7 (±4.26 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 3.8 years (6 months to 14 years. Eighty-nine percent of all patients and all of the patients between 12 and 18 years of age were on intensive insulin therapy. Mean insulin dose was 0.84±0.19 units/kg/day. The mean HbA1c value was 8.8%. Body mass index (BMI mean z-score was -0.06±1.19. There were no correlations between HbA1c and the duration of diabetes or age although a positive correlation was found with insulin dose (r=0.27 p<0.01. It was found that intensive therapy did not lower HbA1c values or the risk of severe hypoglycemia. Nevertheless, there was a decrease in HbA1c values of 72 (36% patients whose therapy was converted from conventional therapy to intensive therapy (p<0.05. HbA1c values were found to be higher in patients who lived with more than 4 persons in the house, who were non-compliant to follow-up or diet, who had more than 3 symptomatic hypoglycemia in the last 6 months, who had episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA, who were adolescent at the time of diagnosis, and who were admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis at the time of diagnosis (p<0.05. Although there was a correlation between insulin doses and

  14. Aspectos probabilísticos sobre el control de calidad de algunos materiales de construcción

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Bolívar, Orlando

    1994-01-01

    EI control estadístico de calidad en la industria es actualmente la piedra angular en que está apoyada toda la tecnología moderna. Es un hecho ya comprobado que en un mercado cada vez más exigente el uso de las herramientas estadísticas ya sea en el control de procesos o de productos repercute significativamente en la vida futura de una empresa. A nivel mundial se ha emprendido una amplia campaña de difusión y actualización del tema con la implantación en algunos proyectos, de un sistema de c...

  15. Efectos letales y subletales de monoterpenos sobre vectores de Chagas y su posible uso como herramientas de control

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Ariadna Noelia

    2015-01-01

    El control de vectores de la Enfermedad de Chagas se realiza en Argentina mediante la aplicación de insecticidas piretroides. En las últimas décadas, la aparición del fenómeno de resistencia a los piretroides y la necesidad de identificar sustancias menos peligrosas para los humanos y el ambiente, motivaron la búsqueda de alternativas naturales para el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas de control y diagnóstico entomológico (presencia de insectos vectores en viviendas). El objetivo de esta tes...

  16. OBSERVACIONES SOBRE LA PROPUESTA DE REFORMA A LOS DELITOS DE LAVADO DE ACTIVOS Y OMISIÓN DE CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla Pinilla, Nilson; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains some comments about aspects on money laundering and failure to comply with internal money laundering controls, from the changes and additions to the Colombian Criminal Code, propounded on July 20th, 2003, to the Congress, by the Office of the Public Prosecutor (A. L. 03, 2002). En este artículo se realiza un breve análisis inicial, en lo relacionado con los delitos de lavado de activos y omisión de control, de las modificaciones y adiciones al Código Penal colombiano pr...

  17. Sobre el uso del problema de complementariedad lineal extendido para el control óptimo de semáforos

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Fernández, Carmen S.; Allende Alonso, Sira; Pedreira Andrade, Luís P.

    2007-01-01

    En el trabajo titulado “Modelo de optimización con restricciones de equilibrio para el control de semáforos” que presentamos en las XIV Jornadas de ASEPUMA (2006) analizábamos un problema de control óptimo de semáforos para un cruce de dos carreteras con los dos sentidos de circulación; allí interpretábamos las restricciones del problema como un problema de complementariedad lineal extendido (ELCP). También proponíamos un método híbrido de solución basado en una propiedad que demostraba que m...

  18. Risk factors for gastroenteritis: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, S; Sinclair, M; Wolfe, R; Leder, K

    2011-04-01

    This nested case-control study investigated the risk factors for gastroenteritis in a cohort using rainwater as their primary domestic water source. Consumption of beef [odds ratio (OR) 2·74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·56-4·80], handling of raw fresh chicken in the household (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·02-2·29) and animal contact (OR 1·83, 95% CI 1·20-2·83) were found to be significant risk factors (P>0·05). Significant protective effects were observed with raw salad prepared at home (OR 0·33, 95% CI 0·18-0·58), consumption of salami (OR 0·60, 95% CI 0·36-0·98), and shellfish (OR 0·31, 95% CI 0·14-0·67). This study provides novel insight into community-based endemic gastroenteritis showing that consumption of beef was associated with increased odds of illness and with a population attributable fraction (PAF) of 57·6%. Detecting such a high PAF for beef in a non-outbreak setting was unexpected.

  19. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Conhecimento e prática dos enfermeiros sobre hanseníase: ações de controle e eliminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Feitosa Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar o conhecimento e a prática de enfermeiros da atenção primária de saúde quanto às ações de controle e eliminação da hanseníase. Método: estudo avaliativo, com abordagem qualitativa, utilizando o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo, cujos dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, realizada com 16 enfermeiros. Resultados: os dados coletados revelaram que os profissionais de saúde possuem conhecimento suficiente sobre a Política Nacional de Controle e Eliminação da Hanseníase (PNCEH e que as principais ações preconizadas foram executadas, porém, a notificação de casos suspeitos ou confirmados e a reinserção social do doente não foram citadas. Conclusão: manter os doentes em tratamento, sobrecarga de trabalho, falta de interdisciplinaridade e tratamento realizado em outros locais fora da comunidade foram dificuldades relatadas pelos profissionais. Os enfermeiros conhecem as ações direcionadas à assistência ao hanseniano, entretanto, o estudo aponta para a necessidade de uma prática mais alinhada ao que preconiza a PNECH.

  1. Revisión sobre la problemática y los últimos avances en el control de la garrapata Boopilus microplus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mora Hernández

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available La garrapata Boopilus microplus es el ectoparásito más importante de la ganadería bovina en los trópicos. A raíz de su proliferación, se convirtió en un importante problema económico y, el surgimiento de la producción animal intensiva, estimuló el desarrollo de investigaciones sobre la forma de controlar esta plaga. Estos estudios hicieron posible la creación de diversos métodos de control: la formulación de los nuevos radicales químicos, el control biológico, genético, inmunológico, y el empleo de técnicas de ingeniería genética para la síntesis de vacunas recombinantes, que se emplean con éxito en algunas explotaciones ganaderas de América Latina.

  2. Novas aventuras em sala de aula: uma análise sobre a educação na sociedade de controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Vargas Mansano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma sociedade caracterizada pela expansão dos dispositivos de controle pode gerar diferentes análises sobre as maneiras como eles colaboram para produzir modos de viver que são postos em circulação na esfera social. No presente artigo, faremos a cartografia de algumas mudanças que estão sendo precipitadas nas diferentes instituições, em especial nas instituições escolares, uma vez que estas se apresentam como um campo vivo a ser explorado e reinventado pelos seus agentes. Cabe então problematizar quais são as possibilidades de implicação com a produção de conhecimento e com a promoção da aprendizagem nas escolas atuais. Tomando como referencial o contexto do trabalho imaterial afetivo, no qual as atividades do professor podem ser localizadas, buscaremos investigar: Como os dispositivos de controle fazem-se presente no contexto educacional? De que maneira as relações afetivas vivenciadas na sala de aula podem ser compreendidas em nossos dias? Quais os novos desafios colocados para os professores nesse contexto mutante?

  3. Influence of nutritional and management practices on productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens = Influencia de factores nutricionales y de manejo sobre la productividad y calidad del huevo en gallinas ponedoras rubias

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Bonilla, A.

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo general de esta Tesis Doctoral fue estudiar la influencia de diversos factores nutricionales y de manejo sobre la productividad y la calidad del huevo en gallinas ponedoras comerciales rubias. Los factores estudiados fueron: 1) Cereal principal y tipo de grasa en la dieta; 2) Nivel de proteína bruta y grasa en la dieta; 3) Nivel energético de la dieta; 4) Peso vivo al inicio del período de puesta. En el experimento 1, la influencia del cereal principal en la dieta y el tipo de gra...

  4. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mastepanov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The northern latitudes are experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the mid-latitudes, and there is growing concern about feedbacks between this warming and methane production and release from high-latitude soils. Studies of methane emissions carried out in the Arctic, particularly those with measurements made outside the growing season, are underrepresented in the literature. Here we present results of 5 yr (2006–2010 of automatic chamber measurements at a high-Arctic location in Zackenberg, NE Greenland, covering both the growing seasons and two months of the following freeze-in periods. The measurements show clear seasonal dynamics in methane emission. The start of the growing season and the increase in CH4 fluxes were strongly related to the date of snowmelt. Within each particular growing season, CH4 fluxes were highly correlated with the soil temperature (R2 > 0.75, which is probably explained by high seasonality of both variables, and weakly correlated with the water table. The greatest variability in fluxes between the study years was observed during the first part of the growing season. Somewhat surprisingly, this variability could not be explained by commonly known factors controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010 despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table. Late-season bursts of CH4 coinciding with soil freezing in the autumn were observed during at least three years. The cumulative emission during the freeze-in CH4 bursts was comparable in size with the growing season emission for the year 2007, and about one third of the growing season emissions for the years 2009 and 2010. In all three cases the CH4 burst was accompanied by a corresponding episodic increase in CO2 emission, which can compose a significant contribution to the annual CO2

  5. Risk factors in pediatric asthmatic patients. Cases and control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alejandro Gómez Baute

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma constitutes the first disease among chronic diseases in children. The morbid-mortality promoted to continue being elevated in spite of the new therapies. For this reason it is a disease with high priority for investigation in pediatric ages. Method: A control and case group study was carried out. The samples was composed by 72 asthmatic children from three General Comprehensive doctor offices from Palmira health area located in Cienfuegos Province, Cuba; and a control group of 72 children apparently healthy from the same population. A questionnaire with the different risk variables was elaborated. Odds ratio technique was used to estimate the risk. Results: low weight at birth, family history of asthma, brochiolitis antecedent and the excessive usage of antibiotics in children under 1 year old were the main risks found. Conclusions: It is conclusive that the exposure to home allergen plus a genetic favorable factor, the prematurity, and brochiolitis constituted the most outstanding elements to suffer from asthma in the population studied.

  6. Gestão pública estadual: percepção dos gestores sobre a qualidade dos controles internos = Public management state: perception of managers about quality of internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro de Souza Junior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a qualidade das práticas de controle interno evidenciadas no Relatório de Gestão, pelas Superintendências dos Estados brasileiros, e verificar a simetria de percepção sobre tais práticas. Os dados foram coletados a partir dos quadros de autoavaliação constantes Do Relatório de Gestão, reportado anualmente ao Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU. A análise quantitativa adota estatística descritiva e a entropia informacional, a qual possibilitou inferir sobre a qualidade das práticas de controle interno e a convergência ou divergência de percepções dos gestores das 24 Unidades da Federação investigadas. Os resultados evidenciaram que há aspectos e conceitos de controles internos mais bem gerenciados e esclarecidos dentro das Unidades Jurisdicionadas, como é o caso do ambiente de controle e a informação e comunicação. Por outro lado, também existem aspectos que trazem discordância de opiniões entre os gestores e as deficiências apontadas, conforme os valores atribuídos na autoavaliação. Indicam que alguns aspectos de controle interno requerem maior atenção, em especial a avaliação de riscos, os procedimentos de controle e o monitoramento. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the quality of internal control practices highlighted in the Management Report, the Superintendence of Brazilian states, and to verify that the similarity in the perception of such practices. Data were collected from the tables of self-assessment contained in the Management Report, reported annually to the Tribunal de Contas da União - TCU (Court of Audit. Quantitative analysis adopts descriptive statistics and informational entropy, which made it possible to infer the quality of internal control practices and the convergence or divergence of perceptions of managers of 24 units of the Federation investigated. The results showed that there are aspects and concepts of internal controls better managed and

  7. Factores que influyen sobre la aparición de infecciones hospitalarias en los pacientes de cuidados intensivos Factors influencing hospital infection in patients in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Llanos-Méndez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La acumulación de factores de riesgo en los pacientes atendidos en el hospital es uno de los elementos que condicionan el aumento de la infección nosocomial y su mayor frecuencia en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI. Nuestro objetivo es la identificación de los factores de riesgo de la infección nosocomial en la UCI de nuestro hospital. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio de cohortes prospectivo sobre los 1.134 pacientes ingresados, al menos durante 24 h en dicha UCI durante el año 2001. El seguimiento de los pacientes prosiguió 48 h tras el alta del paciente de la unidad. Los factores de riesgo se identificaron mediante un análisis multivariable de regresión de Cox. Resultados: Los factores de riesgo intrínsecos integrantes del modelo son el diagnóstico principal que motivó el ingreso del paciente en la unidad, la presencia de traumatismo craneoencefálico y la insuficiencia renal. Las técnicas invasivas que se asocian de forma independiente a la infección nosocomial son, de mayor a menor riesgo, el sondaje urinario, la traqueostomía, la ventilación mecánica, la inserción de un catéter de Swan-Ganz y la nutrición parenteral. Conclusiones: Si bien la mayor fuerza de asociación se encuentra entre los factores de riesgo endógenos, ya que son poco modificables, habrá que orientar las propuestas de mejora hacia los siguientes factores exógenos: ventilación mecánica, traqueostomía, sondaje urinario, catéter de Swan-Ganz y nutrición parenteral.Objective: The accumulation of risk factors in hospitalized patients is one of the elements contributing to the increase in the frequency of nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit (ICU. Our aim was to identify nosocomial infection risk factors in the ICU of our hospital. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study of 1134 patients admitted to the ICU for at least 24 hours in 2001. The patients were followed-up for 48 hours after leaving the ICU

  8. Conselhos gestores de políticas públicas: aspectos teóricos sobre o potencial de controle social democrático e eficiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Granha Magalhães Gomes

    Full Text Available Resumo:A proliferação dos conselhos gestores de políticas públicas enseja a avaliação do seu potencial para aprofundar o conteúdo democrático da gestão pública e aumentar a eficiência das políticas públicas por meio do controle social. Com esse intuito, este ensaio teórico contrapõe as dimensões representativa e deliberativa de democracia com as críticas ao sistema representativo e ao método democrático de agregação de preferências, e analisa, ainda, a propensão à responsabilização do governo no tocante às sinalizações de políticas processadas pelo conselho. A argumentação apoia-se em estudos internacionais importantes sobre os modelos representativo e deliberativo de democracia em diálogo com referências nacionais sobre o tema controle social. Conclui-se que os conselhos possuem potencial para promover o aprofundamento democrático na gestão das políticas públicas, particularmente pelo fortalecimento de condições que viabilizam um processo deliberativo igualitário. No entanto, tal potencial é estreitamente relacionado ao âmbito geográfico e à abrangência setorial: instâncias participativas municipais e de escopo singular possuem maior potencial democrático do que instâncias nacionais de amplitude temática mais abrangente. Em qualquer caso, a realização desse potencial condiciona-se a arranjos institucionais que viabilizem os incentivos para assegurar a legitimidade tanto dos representantes da sociedade civil como do governo, o processo deliberativo igualitário e a disponibilidade dos instrumentos de enforcement das decisões do conselho. Este artigo almeja contribuir para o desenvolvimento do ferramental analítico necessário ao estudo dos conselhos e à construção de arranjos institucionais efetivos dessas instâncias vis-à-vis seus objetivos democráticos e de eficiência.

  9. Literatura científica de autores españoles sobre análisis de citas y factor de impacto en Biomedicina (1981-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Alcaide, Gregorio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the development of Spanish research literature in the field of citation analysis and impact factor (IF in biomedicine over the period 1981-2005. Bibliometric methods and social network analysis were used to examine papers indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI, MEDLINE, Índice Médico Español (IME and Índice de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades (ISOC databases. 184 papers were identified, 79.89% of which were original research articles. Only four of these papers had been published before the 1990s. The mid 1990s saw a remarkable increase in the number of papers published (8-14 papers/year with the highest productivity being reached from 2002 onwards (14-25 papers/year. The IME and SCI-Expanded/SSCI databases were those recording the largest numbers of papers, both in absolute (67.93% and 40.76 respectively and singularity terms (42.39% and 21.74% respectively. The detected papers were published in 76 Biomedical and Documentation journals (82.06% and 15.22% respectively. The most productive authors were identified along with the main co-authorships and institutional collaboration networks operating in the field. These results are related to the importance of impact factor at both national and international level.

    Se analiza el desarrollo de la literatura científica sobre análisis de citas y Factor de Impacto (FI en Biomedicina en España a lo largo del período 1981-2005, mediante la aplicación de metodologías bibliométricas y análisis de redes sociales a los trabajos indizados en las bases de datos Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI, MEDLINE, Índice Médico Español (IME e Índice de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades (ISOC. Se han recuperado 184 trabajos, el 79,89% artículos originales. Únicamente cuatro de ellos han sido publicados con anterioridad

  10. Efectos de un entrenamiento propioceptivo (TRAL de tres meses sobre el control postural en jóvenes deportistas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Antolín Ruiz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Es un estudio de intervención de diseño longitudinal con una duración de 6 meses, de grupo único con evaluación antes-después, que pretende evaluar la eficacia de un programa propioceptivo como método para mejorar el control postural en jóvenes deportistas. Métodos: La muestra de estudio fue de 28 jugadores/as de voleibol (15-18 años. Se tomaron datos una primera vez antes de un primer trimestre sin intervención, una segunda ocasión, una vez finalizado este periodo, y en una tercera ocasión después de un segundo trimestre con entrenamiento. El entrenamiento propioceptivo utilizado se realizó mediante el método Terapia Reequilibradora del Aparato Locomotor (TRAL. La estabilidad corporal se midió calculando el área de desviación del centro de presiones mediante una plataforma de fuerzas con sensores electrónicos Buratto Advanced. Las posiciones analizadas fueron la posición unipodal con ojos abiertos y cerrados de las dos piernas. Resultados: Reducción significativa del área de desviación del centro de presiones en los cuatro tests en el caso de las chicas y sólo reducción significativa en uno de los tests con el grupo de chicos. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento con TRAL mejora el control postural en chicas y produce tendencia a la mejoría en el caso de los chicos. Son necesarios nuevos estudios con grupo control y mayor muestra.

  11. Sobre el uso del problema de complementariedad lineal extendido para el control óptimo de semáforos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lema Fernández, Carmen S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo titulado “Modelo de optimización con restricciones de equilibrio para el control de semáforos” que presentamos en las XIV Jornadas de ASEPUMA (2006 analizábamos un problema de control óptimo de semáforos para un cruce de dos carreteras con los dos sentidos de circulación; allí interpretábamos las restricciones del problema como un problema de complementariedad lineal extendido (ELCP. También proponíamos un método híbrido de solución basado en una propiedad que demostraba que mediante un cambio de variable adecuado, las restricciones de ELCP describen un problema de complementariedad lineal (LCP. Nos interesa pues, estudiar bajo que condiciones dichos problemas tienen solución y además única. Así introducimos tres propiedades importantes para los ELCP y como caso particular para los LCP:• La propiedad de suficiencia en columnas que caracteriza la convexidad del conjunto solución.• La propiedad de suficiencia en filas que describe una clase importante de pares de matrices (respecto a K para las cuales la factibilidad del ELCP(M,N,K implica su solucionabilidad.• La P-propiedad (que para el caso del LCP(M,q significa que M ha de ser una P-matriz, que caracteriza la unicidad de solución.

  12. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  13. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nahla A Morad; M H Masoud; S M Abdel Moghith

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  14. Legislacion sobre seguridad vial en las Americas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hijar, Martha; Perez-Nunez, Ricardo; Inclan-Valadez, Cristina; Silveira-Rodrigues, Eugenia Maria

    2012-01-01

    La legislacion sobre cinco de los principales factores de riesgo de sufrir lesiones causadas por el transito, asi como el cumplimiento de la ley, son esenciales para forjar una cultura integral de seguridad vial...

  15. Determinación de las percepciones de la usuaria sobre los factores que intervienen en la comunicación con el médico durante la consulta externa de Gineco Obstetricia del Hospital Santa Rosa del Ministerio de Salud

    OpenAIRE

    Dusek Paz, Magnolia Jesús

    2005-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende profundizar sobre uno de los temas que debería preocupar a toda institución; los factores de la comunicación interpersonal, y en especial las que prestan servicios de salud: nuestro objetivo es conocer la percepción de las usuarias sobre los factores que intervienen en la comunicación con el médico durante la consulta externa en los servicios de gineco obstetricia del Hospital Santa Rosa.

  16. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety..., 2010, PHMSA published a Control Room Management/Human Factors notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... to expedite the program implementation deadlines of the Control Room Management/Human Factors rule...

  17. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines where... 63310) entitled ``Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors.'' This final rule...

  18. Efectos de un entrenamiento propioceptivo (TRAL) de tres meses sobre el control postural en jóvenes deportistas.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro de Antolín Ruiz; Lluís Costa Tutusaus; Núria Massó i Ortigosa; Lluís Rueda Pelàez; Mario Lloret i Riera

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: Es un estudio de intervención de diseño longitudinal con una duración de 6 meses, de grupo único con evaluación antes-después, que pretende evaluar la eficacia de un programa propioceptivo como método para mejorar el control postural en jóvenes deportistas. Métodos: La muestra de estudio fue de 28 jugadores/as de voleibol (15-18 años). Se tomaron datos una primera vez antes de un primer trimestre sin intervención, una segunda ocasión, una vez finalizado este periodo, y en una te...

  19. Efectos de un entrenamiento propioceptivo (TRAL) de tres meses sobre el control postural en jóvenes deportistas.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro de Antolín Ruiz; Lluís Costa Tutusaus; Núria Massó i Ortigosa; Lluís Rueda Pelàez; Mario Lloret i Riera

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: Es un estudio de intervención de diseño longitudinal con una duración de 6 meses, de grupo único con evaluación antes-después, que pretende evaluar la eficacia de un programa propioceptivo como método para mejorar el control postural en jóvenes deportistas. Métodos: La muestra de estudio fue de 28 jugadores/as de voleibol (15-18 años). Se tomaron datos una primera vez antes de un primer trimestre sin intervención, una segunda ocasión, una vez finalizado este periodo, y en una te...

  20. Factors controlling high-frequency radiation from extended ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-09-01

    Small-scale slip heterogeneity or variations in rupture velocity on the fault plane are often invoked to explain the high-frequency radiation from earthquakes. This view has no theoretical basis, which follows, for example, from the representation integral of elasticity, an exact solution for the radiated wave field. The Fourier transform, applied to the integral, shows that the seismic spectrum is fully controlled by that of the source time function, while the distribution of final slip and rupture acceleration/deceleration only contribute to directivity. This inference is corroborated by the precise numerical computation of the full radiated field from the representation integral. We compare calculated radiation from four finite-fault models: (1) uniform slip function with low slip velocity, (2) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function, (3) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function with random roughness added, and (4) uniform slip function with high slip velocity. The addition of "asperities," both regular and irregular, does not cause any systematic increase in the spectral level of high-frequency radiation, except for the creation of maxima due to constructive interference. On the other hand, an increase in the maximum rate of slip on the fault leads to highly amplified high frequencies, in accordance with the prediction on the basis of a simple point-source treatment of the fault. Hence, computations show that the temporal rate of slip, not the spatial heterogeneity on faults, is the predominant factor forming the high-frequency radiation and thus controlling the velocity and acceleration of the resulting ground motions.

  1. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptional regulation is the most committed type of regulation in living cells where transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of their target genes and TF expression is controlled by other TFs forming complex transcriptional regulatory networks that can be highly interconnected. Here we analyze the topology and organization of nine transcriptional regulatory networks for E. coli, yeast, mouse and human, and we evaluate how the structure of these networks influences two of their key properties, namely controllability and stability. We calculate the controllability for each network as a measure of the organization and interconnectivity of the network. We find that the number of driver nodes nD needed to control the whole network is 64% of the TFs in the E. coli transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to only 17% for the yeast network, 4% for the mouse network and 8% for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles can be associated with potential unstable steady-states where even small changes in binding affinities can cause dramatic rearrangements of the state of the network.

  2. Factors associated with complete endoscopic resection of an invasive adenocarcinoma in a colorectal adenoma Factores asociados a la resección endoscópica completa del adenocarcinoma invasivo sobre adenoma de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Quintas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: endoscopic polypectomy may allow curative resection of invasive adenocarcinoma on colorectal adenoma. Our goal is was to determine the factors associated with complete endoscopic resection of invasive adenocarcinoma. Methods: retrospective observational study. We included 151 patients with invasive adenocarcinoma on adenomas endoscopically resected between 1999 and 2009. We determined those variables independently related to incomplete resection by a logistic regression. Relation was expressed as Odds Ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI. Results: patients were predominantly male (66.2% and their mean age was 68.03 ± 10.65 years. Colonoscopy was incomplete in 84% of the patients and 60.3% had synchronous adenomas. Invasive adenocarcinoma was mainly located in distal colon (90.7% and morphology was pedunculated in 75.5%. The endoscopic average size was 22.61 ± 10.86 mm. Submucosal injection was required in 32.5%. Finally, the resection was in one piece in 73.5% and incomplete in 8.6% of the adenocarcinomas. Factors independently associated with incomplete endoscopic resection were size (mm (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14, p = 0.002, sessile or flat morphology (OR 8.78, 95% CI 2.24-34.38, p = 0.002 and incomplete colonoscopy (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.15-19.34, p = 0.03. Conclusions: endoscopic polypectomy allows complete resection of 91.4% of invasive adenocarcinomas on colorrectal adenoma in our series. Factors associated with incomplete resection were the size of the lesion, sessile or flat morphology and incomplete colonoscopy.Antecedentes y objetivo: la polipectomía endoscópica puede permitir la resección con intención curativa del adenocarcinoma invasivo sobre adenoma de colon. Nuestro objetivo es determinar los factores asociados a la resección endoscópica completa del adenocarcinoma invasivo. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo observacional. Se incluyeron 151 individuos con un adenocarcinoma invasivo sobre

  3. Las leyes sobre vagancia: Control policial y práctica judicial en el ocaso de la frontera (Tandil 1872-1881

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Sedeillán

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A fines de la década de 1870, el gobierno provincial, con el objeto de lograr mayor control social sobre la población rural, implementó una reestructuración policial en la campaña bonaerense. La misma tenía por objetivo afianzar la propiedad privada y contribuir al mercado de trabajo, asimismo perseguía un fuerte interés en satisfacer la necesidad del estado de hombres en plena etapa de expansión de la frontera. La presión reclutadora del estado se reflejará en un aumento de detenidos por vagancia, dado que las leyes de represión de la vagancia del Código Rural permitían su penalización al servicio de las armas. El Código Rural sancionado en 1865 estipulaba dos normas procesales a cumplir en los acusados: formación de un sumario y constitución de un jury para su juzgamiento. Disposiciones que raramente se pusieron en práctica por los jueces de paz desde que esta legislación entró en vigencia. Será a fines de la década de 1870 cuando el gobierno exigirá más firmemente no solo la persecución de la vagancia sino también la aplicación de estas normas procesales en los acusados. Aún así, el análisis de la práctica judicial revelará que continuará existiendo una constante manipulación normativa sobre la base de dos valores que se intentaban afianzar, el trabajo y la propiedad. En los perjudiciales que atentaran contra estos dos valores, será en quienes se manipulará la normativa sancionada y se canalizará la presión reclutadora.

  4. Sobre el control convencional en la praxis penal internacional y doméstica de los Derechos Fundamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvi Teixidor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de una aproximación a la dogmática penal internacional, en el ámbito interamericano y europeo, con especial énfasis en el paradigma normativo asumido en la praxis de derechos humanos. El enfoque discurre desde el principio transversal de imparcialidad a la justificación y aplicación del Derecho Penal Internacional de Derechos humanos, mediante la adopción del espiral hermenéutico. En este plano analítico relacional, se arriba al examen de la teoría del caso asumida en distintos ejemplos que consolidan una jurisprudencia principialista, para la efectiva realización de los derechos fundamentales aquí y ahora (Dasein. A partir de esa expresión de sentido, se hace hincapié en las fases del control de convencionalidad a nivel jurisdiccional doméstico e internacional.

  5. EL CONTROL DE LA INTENSIDAD DEL ESFUERZO Y SU INCIDENCIA SOBRE LA ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN EDAD ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Sañudo Corrales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue dotar a los alumnos de una herramienta que les permitiese controlar la intensidad de su actividad física utilizando para ello la valoración subjetiva del esfuerzo. 32 sujetos (n1=12 niños y n2=20 niñas de 11,5 ± 0,5 años participaron en un programa de entrenamiento en circuito integrado por seis postas. Se registró la frecuencia cardiaca con pulsómetros y la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo mediante la escala OMNI. Tras las siete sesiones del programa se observaron correlaciones muy altas entre ambos parámetros (r=0,54-0,76. Una vez finalizado el estudio los alumnos fueron capaces de regular su esfuerzo dentro de un rango de frecuencia cardiaca establecido en un 53,13% respecto a la frecuencia cardiaca percibida y 56,25% respecto a la frecuencia cardiaca medida, facilitándoles así un procedimiento práctico para el control de la intensidad durante la actividad física.

  6. Comentários sobre a legalidade do controle jurisdicional de políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Vitor Lima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedica-se, o presente artigo, a investigar a legalidade da proposta doutrinária de se instituir o controle jurisdicional de políticas públicas, através da análise aprofundada das três principais críticas que orbitam o tema, bem como dos pareceres jurídicos que as contestam. Precisamente, serão endereçadas as dúvidas acerca da possibilidade de intromissão do direito a espaços discricionários dos demais Poderes;da aparente ilegitimidade dos magistrados para desempenho desta atribuição e da viabilidade procedimental da proposta. Por último, abordar-se-ão aspectos do Projeto de Lei 8.058/2014, o qual pretende o disciplinamento legal da intervenção do Poder Judiciário na implementação e execução de políticas públicas.

  7. Control reproductivo en vacas de cría mediante progesterona vaginal: Efecto de varios factores sobre la fertilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. DORAY

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacas Angus con cría, entre 30 y 90 días (d posparto y con buena condición corporal, recibieron 10 mg de benzoato de estradiol i.m. y 2 g de progesterona mediante esponja vaginal (tratamiento ESP. Se determinó si la fertilidad fue afectada por: la duración del tratamiento y el número de partos (Exp. 1; la presentación de celo inducido al momento de la inseminación artificial sistemática –IAS– y la longitud del posparto, en vacas en anestro (Exp. 2; y la hora o la cantidad de IAS (Exp. 3. Exp.1. Se trató con ESP durante 8 u 11 d a vacas primíparas y multíparas. Se hizo IAS a las 48 y 72 horas de retiradas las esponjas. La IA continuó por 30 d. Se determinaron las tasas de preñez de la IAS y la acumulada en 30 d (preñadas en la IAS + preñadas en el retorno. El ESP aplicado durante 8 d (n=72 y 11 d (n=71 no afectó la preñez de la IAS: 38% y 42% respectivamente, ni la preñez acumulada en 30 d: 56% y 61%, respectivamente (p 0.05. Las multíparas (n=83 tendieron a una mayor tasa de preñez respecto de las primíparas (n=53 en la IAS: 39% y 23%, y también en la acumulada en 30 d: 46% y 28%, respectivamente (p < 0.1. Exp. 2. Se trataron 124 vacas multíparas en anestro con ESP durante 11 d. Se inseminó como en Exp. 1. La tasa de celo inducido fue del 24% y se manifestó entre las 36 y 48 horas postratamiento. La preñez de la IAS fue del 53% en las vacas que presentaron celo y del 44% en las vacas sin celo, mientras que la preñez acumulada fue del 64% y 60%, respectivamente (p 0.05. Las vacas en anestro tratadas entre los d posparto 30 a 59 (n=15, 60 a 89 (n=28 y 90 a 145 (n=20 tuvieron similar tasa de preñez en la IAS: 53%, 57% y 55%, respectivamente (p 0.05. Exp.3. Se trataron vacas multíparas con ESP durante 11 d. En un rodeo se determinó el efecto de la IAS a las 40 y 64 horas (n=47 respecto de la IAS a las 48 y 72 horas (n=42: la tasa de preñez fue del 38% en ambos grupos. En otro rodeo se determinó el efecto de una IAS simple; las vacas se distribuyeron entre la IAS a las 48 y 72 horas (n=46 o las 56 horas (n=48: la tasa de preñez fue del 22 y 29%, respectivamente (p 0.05, la preñez acumulada al d 30 no fue diferente. Se concluye que la fertilidad de vacas de cría tratadas con ESP tiende a ser menor en primíparas que en multíparas; pero no es afectada por la reducción del tratamiento de 11 a 8 d, la presentación o no de celo inducido al momento de la inseminación sistemática en vacas en anestro, la longitud del anestro posparto, el desplazamiento de la doble inseminación sistemática en 8 horas o la reducción a una inseminación sistemática simple

  8. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents of a Brazilian University: a case-control study Factores de riesgo para el sobrepeso y a obesidad en adolescentes de una Universidad de Brasil: un estudio de casos-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. Carvalho Francescantonio Menezes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the risk factors associated to overweight and obesity in freshmen of a public university in the Center-West region of Brazil. Methods: A case-control study comprising 1,465 adolescents, identifying 106 cases (Body Mass Index (BMI> = 85th percentile of National Center for Health Statistics -NCHS and 233 controls (BMI > 5th and Objetivo: Analizar los factores de riesgo asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad en estudiantes de primer curso de una universidad pública en la zona centro-oeste de Brasil. Métodos: Estudio de casos-control en 1465 adolescentes, identificando 106 casos (IMC = índice de masa corporal> percentil 85 del Centro Nacional de Estadística Sanitaria (NCHS y 233 controles (IMC > percentil 5,< percentil 85 de NCHS. Se realizaron entrevistas para recopilar datos sobre condiciones socio-económicas, hábitos alimentarios, actividad física y hábitos saludables. Se obtuvieron por vía telefónica los datos sobre el peso y la talla de los padres. Resultados: El análisis de regresión logística multivariable y jerárquica, no condicional, mostró que el sobrepeso y la obesidad se asociaban de forma positiva al sexo masculino (odds ratio (OR 2,25, con un intervalo de confianza (IC del 95% de 1,37-3,69, al IMC materno (OR 3,45, con IC 95% de 2,16-5,8, al sobrepeso en la infancia (OR 2,81, IC 95% de 1,62-4,85, consumo de frutas inferior a una vez al día (OR 1,84, IC 95% de 1,05-3,21 y el hábito de dietas de adelgazamiento (OR 6,33, IC 95% de 2,68-14,94. Conclusión: Los resultados refuerzan la necesidad de intervenciones educativas en edades tempranas, implicando a toda la familia, para controlar el exceso de peso.

  9. Déjame hablar sobre mis emociones y sentimientos! la comunicación de los factores afectivos en clase de alemán como lengua extranjera

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La tesis de maestría ¡Déjame hablar sobre mis emociones y sentimientos! El fomento de la habilidad de hablar en clase de alemán como lengua extranjera a través de enfoques pedagógicos humanísticos1 tiene por objetivo analizar la habilidad comunicativa de hablar sobre emociones y sentimientos en clase de alemán a partir de los enfoques pedagógicos, un tema poco tratado en la teoría y práctica de enseñanza del alemán. El interés por los enfoques humanísticos surge como consecuenc...

  10. Controle de tiririca (Cyperus rotundus e efeito residual sobre a cultura do feijão do herbicida imazapyr Control of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and residual effect on dry beans crop of the herbicide imazapyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Gonçalves

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de doses de imazapyr no controle de tiririca (Cyperus rotundus em solos de várzea e também seu efeito residual no solo sobre a cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, cultivar Carioca, cultivado em diferentes períodos após a aplicação do herbicida imazapyr. Para determinação da eficiência de controle da tiririca foram avaliadas três doses de imazapyr - 375, 750 e 1.500 g ha-1 - aplicadas sobre as plantas de tiririca no estádio de quatro ou cinco folhas verdadeiras. As avaliações de eficiência de controle da planta daninha foram feitas aos 14, 35, 56, 70, 77, 84 e 91 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos herbicidas (DAA. Na avaliação do efeito residual do imazapyr no solo foram utilizadas as mesmas doses, porém aplicadas em oito épocas: 98, 84, 63, 42, 28, 21, 14 e 7 dias antes da semeadura (DAS do feijão. Constatou-se que 375 g ha-1 de imazapyr resultou em bom controle da tiririca até 35 dias após a aplicação do produto; após esse período observou-se reinfestação da área com esta espécie. Para as doses de 750 e 1.500 g ha-1 observou-se controle eficiente por um período de 70 dias após a aplicação do herbicida. Quanto ao efeito residual do herbicida sobre a cultura de feijão, verificou-se que, quanto maior a dose utilizada e mais próximo da semeadura for aplicado o herbicida, menor a produtividade da cultura. A dose de 375 g ha-1 aplicada aos 98 DAS mostrou-se menos prejudicial à cultura, não havendo perda de rendimento.The objective of this research was to study rates of the herbicide imazapyr for purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus control in lowland soils and to determine the carryover period for dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, cv Carioca, grown at different timings after the herbicide application. The experiment was carried out at EMBRAPA/CNPMS, in Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil, and the effect of imazapyr on purple nutsedge was evaluated spraying at three

  11. A global health perspective on the future of tobacco control Una perspectiva de salud global sobre el futuro del control del tabaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Samet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, the outcome of tobacco control in one country is connected to events on the global stage. Tobacco control has become an increasingly consolidated global movement, catalyzed by the global tobacco control treaty, the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC as well as the Bloomberg Initiative. This global collective effort is necessary in the face of an increasingly aggressive tobacco industry that has consolidated into a small number of very large multinational corporations, operating globally to expand their markets. Looming issues for tobacco control include the success with which the FCTC is implemented within individual nations, finding the proper role of harm reduction approaches, and using "lessons learned" from experience in the United States with tobacco product regulation.Con el desarrollo de la globalización, el resultado del control del tabaco en un país está conectado con eventos mundiales. El control del tabaco se ha convertido en un movimiento mundial cada vez más consolidado, catalizado por el Convenio Marco de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el Control del Tabaco así como de la Iniciativa Bloomberg. Este esfuerzo colectivo global es necesario, ya que la industria del tabaco ha consolidado una serie de grandes corporaciones multinacionales que trabajan globalmente para hacer crecer sus mercados. Algunos problemas pendientes siguen limitando el éxito del control del tabaco. Los problemas incluyen el relativo éxito de cada país al implementar el Convenio Marco, encontrar el papel del enfoque de reducción de daños, y utilizar experiencias y éxitos de los Estados Unidos en la regulación de productos de tabaco.

  12. Adultos livres de cárie: estudo de casos e controles sobre conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas preventivas Adults free of caries: a case-control study about: awareness/consciousness, attitudes and preventive practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Petry

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o efeito do conhecimento e atitudes pessoais, hábitos de higiene oral e uso de fluoretos sobre a total ausência de cáries, realizou-se um estudo do tipo caso-controle entre estudantes universitários da região sul do Brasil. A análise bruta por regressão logística condicional não demonstrou efeito para as variáveis relacionadas ao uso de fluoretos e hábitos de higiene oral (p > 0,20. Já o uso de fio dental apareceu como um fator de risco: os que afirmaram não usá-lo apresentaram "odds ratio" (OR bruto de 0,70, e de 0,73 quando ajustado para visitas regulares ao dentista. O efeito para as visitas regulares ao dentista foi de risco. Pessoas com história de cárie visitavam mais os profissionais. Aqueles com história de cárie apresentaram um "odds ratio" bruto de 1,55; após o ajuste para uso de fio dental o risco foi levemente superior (OR = 1,67. Hábitos de higiene oral não demonstraram efeito protetor esperado. O uso de fluoretos não esteve significativamente associado à ausência de cáries. Permanece intrigando o fato de que algumas pessoas não desenvolvam cáries, mesmo não relatando cuidados considerados ideais à saúde bucal.The purpose of this article was to investigate the effect of personal awareness and attitudes, the dentist's role, oral hygiene habits, and fluoride use on total absence of caries in adults, using a case-control study matched for sex and age with undergraduate students from two private Brazilian universities. Crude analysis using conditional logistic regression failed to show any effect for the related variables regarding fluoride use and oral hygiene habits (p > 0.20. Use of dental floss was the only exception in this set. It appeared as a risk factor, since individuals who stated not flossing presented a crude odds ratio (OR of 0.70, or 0.73 when adjusted for regular visits to the dentist. The effect for regular visits to the dentist was that of a risk. Those with a

  13. Factors controlling large-wood transport in a mountain river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Zawiejska, Joanna; Hajdukiewicz, Maciej; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-11-01

    As with bedload transport, wood transport in rivers is governed by several factors such as flow regime, geomorphic configuration of the channel and floodplain, or wood size and shape. Because large-wood tends to be transported during floods, safety and logistical constraints make field measurements difficult. As a result, direct observation and measurements of the conditions of wood transport are scarce. This lack of direct observations and the complexity of the processes involved in wood transport may result in an incomplete understanding of wood transport processes. Numerical modelling provides an alternative approach to addressing some of the unknowns in the dynamics of large-wood in rivers. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of controls governing wood transport in mountain rivers, combining numerical modelling and direct field observations. By defining different scenarios, we illustrate relationships between the rate of wood transport and discharge, wood size, and river morphology. We test these relationships for a wide, multithread reach and a narrower, partially channelized single-thread reach of the Czarny Dunajec River in the Polish Carpathians. Results indicate that a wide range of quantitative information about wood transport can be obtained from a combination of numerical modelling and field observations and from document contrasting patterns of wood transport in single- and multithread river reaches. On the one hand, log diameter seems to have a greater importance for wood transport in the multithread channel because of shallower flow, lower flow velocity, and lower stream power. Hydrodynamic conditions in the single-thread channel allow transport of large-wood pieces, whereas in the multithread reach, logs with diameters similar to water depth are not being moved. On the other hand, log length also exerts strong control on wood transport, more so in the single-thread than in the multithread reach. In any case, wood transport strongly

  14. A cross-sectional study of factors underlying the risk of female nurses' suffering abuse by their partners Estudio transversal sobre factores de riesgo de sufrir violencia por compañero íntimo en la mujer enfermera Estudo transversal sobre fatores de risco de violência por parceiro íntimo entre enfermeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify factors underlying the risk of suffering abuse by a partner. A cross-sectional study of 622 female nurses was accomplished, randomly chosen at their place of work, at a hospital and health centers. We used a self-administered validated questionnaire that covered psychological, physical and sexual abuse, complemented by a set of sociodemographic questions. The nurses at most risk of being abused by their partners were those who supported their family by their own salary (Odds Ratio: 2.41 [0.63-9.15], those who lived with dependents (Odds Ratio: 4.27 [1.43-2.78] and had a partner from social class IIIa (Odds Ratio: 2.62 [1.37-5.00]. The data appear to indicate financial independence as a risk factor for this type of abuse.Se tuvo por objetivo investigar los factores de riesgo relacionados al maltrato por compañero íntimo. Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado en 622 enfermeras, elegidas por aleatorización de sus lugares de trabajo, Hospitales y Centros de Salud. Se utilizó un cuestionario autoadministrado sobre maltratos psicológico, físico y sexual, complementado con preguntas de carácter sociodemográfico. Las mujeres enfermeras con mayor probabilidad de sufrir violencia del compañero íntimo fueron las que mantienen la familia con su salario (Odds Ratio: 2,41 [0,63-9,15], las que conviven con hijos (Odds Ratio: 4,27 [1,43-2,78] y las con pareja de clase social IIIa (Odds Ratio: 2.62 [1.37-5.00]. Se concluye que los datos parecen indicar que la independencia constituye un riesgo de maltrato.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores de risco de abuso por parceiro íntimo entre enfermeiras. Trata-se de estudo transversal, realizado com 622 enfermeiras, selecionadas aleatoriamente nos seus locais de trabalho (hospitais e centros de saúde. Utilizou-se um questionário autoadministrado sobre maus-tratos psicológico, físico e sexual, complementado com perguntas de caráter sociodemográfico. As

  15. Phlebotomus y DDT en el Perú: Experimentos sobre control de la verruga y la uta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Herrer

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar los alcances del insecticida DDT en la prevención de la leishmaniasis tegumentaria (uta y la enfermedad de Carrión (verruga en la población autóctona de las zonas endémicas, entre 1947 y 1953 se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos de control con dicho insecticida, uno en Surco y el otro en San Juan, ambos en el valle del Rímac. En Surco, localidad con población autóctona, en 1947 y 1948 se aplicó el DDT a las pircas existentes tanto dentro de la ciudad como también en la campiña circundante, excluyendo las habitaciones humanas; y en San Juan, colegio agropecuario cuya población estudiantil en su mayoría no era inmune a ninguna de las dos enfermedades, el DDT fué aplicado en 1947 y 1948 a las paredes de los diversos edificios, y en 1949 a las pircas de los alrededores. En la apreciación de los resultados se adoptó el criterio de verificar el descenso en la incidencia de la uta y la verruga, así como la reducción de la población del insecto vector, el Phlebotomus verrucarum. Como un resumen de los resultados obtenidos se puede mencionar lo siguiente: 1. En el experimento de Surco. a A los dos años de haberse iniciado el experimento la leismaniasis tegumentaria canina había descendido del 22.0 al 1.7 por ciento. b La incidencia tanto de la verruga como de la uta en la población infantil, verificada a los seis años de la primera aplicación del insecticida, había descendido en tal proporción que hace pensar haya cesado la trasmisión durante dicho lapso. Los pocos casos observados en el curso del experimento es muy posible que hayan adquirido la infección fuera de la zona tratada con el DDT. c No obstante que el DDT fué aplicado tan sólo en las pircas, la población de titiras o phlebotomus (P. verrucarum disminuyó apreciablemente en las habitaciones humanas designadas como puestos de observación, lo que subsistía hasta 1953. d En tres cuevas usadas también como puestos de observación y en

  16. Control factors of partial nitritation for landfill leachate treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhu; LIU Jun-xin

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) technology has potential technical superiority and economical efficiency for the nitrogen removal from landfill leachate, which contains high-strength ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and refractory organics. To complete the ANAMMOX process, a preceding partial nitritation step to produce the appropriate ratio of nitrite/ammonium is a key stage. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal conditions to acquire constant partial nitritation for landfill leachate treatment, and a bench scale fixed bed bio-film reactor was used in this study to investigate the effects of the running factors on the partial nitritation. The results showed that both the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and the ammonium volumetric loading rate (Nv) had effects on the partial nitritation. In the controlling conditions with a temperature of 30±1℃, Nv of 0.2-1.0 kg NH4+-N/(m3·d), and DO concentration of 0.8-2.3 mg/L, the steady partial nitritation was achieved as follows: more than 94% partial nitritation efficiency (nitrite as the main product), 60%-74% NH4+-N removal efficiency, and NO2--N/NH4+-N ratio (concentration ratio) of 1.0-1.4 in the effluent.The impact of temperature was related to Nv at certain DO concentration, and the temperature range of 25-30℃ was suitable for treating high strength ammonium leachate. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) could be acclimated to higher FA (free ammonium) in the range of 122-224 mg/L. According to the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis result of the bio-film in the reactor, there were 25 kinds of 16S rRNA gene fragments, which indicated that abundant microbial communities existed in the bio-film, although high concentrations of ammonium and FA may inhibit the growth of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and other microorganisms in the reactor.

  17. O falso dilema sobre a luta antivetorial e as perspectivas de controle da doença de Chagas no Brasil: BHC ou BNH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Coura

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available As bases técnicas para o controle da doença de Chagas no Brasil foram estabelecidas com a criação do posto avançado de pesquisa do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz em Bambuí, no oeste de Minas Gerais, no começo da década de 40, sob a liderança de Emmanuel Dias. Entretanto, somente com a criação do Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais (DNERu, em março de 1956, sob a direção de Mario Pinotti, no governo de Juscelino Kubitschek, as medidas de controle foram implementadas. Das "campanhas" de controle das 12 endemias rurais estabelecidas pelo DNERu, a malária, pelo seu caráter de doença aguda e explosiva, sempre teve a maior parte orçamentária. A doença de Chagas e as outras endemias foram sempre relegadas a um plano secundário de prioridade. Por outro lado, a partir da década de 60, os "novos ecologistas" passaram a criticar o uso de inseticidas, com o slogan de que para controlar a doença de Chagas era necessário o BNH (construção de casas, e não o BHC (uso de inseticidas. Esta opinião, embora equivocada para o controle a curto prazo, teve uma enorme influência negativa sobre o controle dos vetores domiciliados. Apesar disso, algum progresso foi feito neste sentido. Na década de 70, a epidemia de meningite meningocócica e a priorização do Programa Especial de Controle da Esquistossomose (PECE, pelo Ministro Almeida Machado, com deslocamento de verbas e de pessoal da Superintendência de Campanhas (Sucam para esses programas, atrasaram ainda mais o controle da doença de Chagas. Somente na década de 80, com a decisão política do Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES de alocar 10 bilhões de cruzeiros do Finsocial, o programa de controle da doença de Chagas teve um importante desenvolvimento em 2.000 municípios de 19 Estados brasileiros. Mais uma vez o programa sofre um atraso nesta década, com o deslocamento do pessoal da Sucam para a campanha contra a epidemia da dangue. Finalmente, conclu

  18. Diagnóstico cualitativo sobre los factores que condicionan la participación de las mujeres en puestos laborales de liderazgo y su vinculación al plan nacional de igualdad de género

    OpenAIRE

    Arana Alva, Karla María; Carrillo Palomino, Sara

    2016-01-01

    El presente documento aborda, tanto la identificación del problema a investigar, como la investigación misma y los resultados obtenidos a partir del análisis de opiniones y percepciones recogidas a lo largo del relevamiento de la muestra. A fin de establecer criterios que permitan un punto de partida sobre qué se entiende por factores que condicionan la participación de mujeres en puestos de liderazgo en instituciones públicas y privadas, se identifica el problema social por ...

  19. Notas sobre o marcellismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sampaio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Para el salazarismo, la estabilidad consistía en erradicar de la sociedad la elección de alternativas, esto es el conflicto. Ese orden comenzó a desmoronarse sobre todo desde los años 60, como consecuencia de los cambios socioeconómicos y culturales que acentuaban los factores de información y de concurrencia en la sociedad portuguesa. Ante este nuevo panorama, el éxito de Marcelo Caetano sólo era posible mediante un compromiso con los nuevos actores sociales y con las nuevas fuerzas políticas empeñadas en la instauración de la democracia. Sin embargo el Presidente del Consejo no quiso o no pudo asumir ese compromiso, viéndose obligado al cabo de un tiempo a volver sobre sus iniciales pasos aperturistas.The social and political stability under salazarism was contemplated as a result of alternatives choice and conflicts suppression. That order was mainly eroding along the decade of sixteenth as a consequence of social, economic and cultural changes that were accentuating information and concurrence factors in Portuguese society. Facing this new stage, the success of Marcelo Caetano’s reformism was depending on his capacity of commitment with the new social actors and the opposition political forces solidly engage in democratic goal. However, the President wasn’t capable —or wasn’t allowed— to assume this commitment, even reversing after the first hopeful times his initial reformist trends.

  20. What factors control the size of an eruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-04-01

    pressure so as to drive out magma for a much longer time during an eruption than is otherwise possible. As a consequence a much higher proportion of the magma in the chamber is driven or squeezed out during an eruption associated with caldera or graben subsidence than is possible during an ordinary poroelastic chamber behaviour. It follows that the volume of eruptive materials may approach the total volume of the chamber resulting in a large eruption. Here a large eruption is thus the consequence—not the cause—of the subsidence of the caldera/graben block. Thus, once the factors controlling large-scale subsidence of a caldera/graben block are established during a particular unrest/rifting episode, primarily using geodetic and seismic data, the probability of a large eruption can be assessed and used for reliable forecasting. Gudmundsson, A., 2015. Collapse-driven large eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 304, 1-10. Gudmundsson, A., 2016. The mechanics of large volcanic eruptions. Earth-Science Reviews, 163, 72-93.

  1. Mujer de edad mediana y control percibido sobre la educación sexual del niño preescolar Mean age woman and the perceived control on sexual education of preschool child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Díaz Llanes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el control percibido tiene en la sexualidad una de las áreas de más difícil expresión. OBJETIVO: incrementar el control sobre el rol de educadoras para la sexualidad de niños preescolares, a partir del reconocimiento de su papel como sujetos y objetos de la educación para la sexualidad en la cotidianidad, la identificación de manifestaciones de la represión sexual, sus condicionantes socioculturales y la distinción de diferencias e interrelación entre información y educación. MÉTODOS: estrategia de investigación-acción, con 46 mujeres de edad mediana del policlínico "Carlos J. Finlay", de Marianao, en el primer semestre de 2008. Se aplicaron encuestas semiestructuradas y entrevistas grupales focalizadas. RESULTADOS: se consiguió el incremento de las creencias de control sobre el rol en el grupo, mediante el reconocimiento del carácter cotidiano de la educación para la sexualidad y su expresión por diversas vías, el conocimiento de las diferencias entre educación e información sexuales, y la identificación de la contribución de las interacciones positivas a la formación de la autoimagen, el desarrollo de los afectos y la forma de relacionarse con el otro.INTRODUCTION: perceived control has in sexuality one of more difficult expression areas. AIM: to increase the control on teachers related to sexuality of preschool children from the recognition of its role as subjects and objects of sexuality education in every life, identification of manifestations of sexual repression, its social-cultural determinants, and the clearness of differences and interrelationship between information and education. METHODS: investigation-action strategy with 46 means age women from "Carlos J. Finlay" Polyclinic, Marianao municipality during the first semester of 2008. Semi-structured and focalized group surveys were applied. RESULTS: an increment of control believes on its role in group was achieved, by means of the recognition

  2. Influência do conhecimento sobre o estilo de vida saudável no controle de pessoas hipertensas Influencia del conocimiento sobre el estilo de vida saludable en el control de personas hipertensas Influence of knowledge on healthy lifestyle in the control of hypertensive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita de Souza Serafim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar hábitos de vida e conhecimentos sobre eles associando variáveis estudadas com o controle da hipertensão arterial em pessoas atendidas em ambulatório. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo utilizando entrevistas e mensuração da pressão arterial, peso, altura e circunferência abdominal de 511 pessoas hipertensas em controle ambulatorial. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se o Índice de Massa Corporal no limite superior da faixa de sobrepeso (29,04±4,35 kg/m²; 32,9% dos homens e 74,1% das mulheres tinham cintura maior que 102 cm e 88 cm, respectivamente; a pressão arterial era maior que o limite caracterizador da hipertensão arterial (151,3±20,5/91,8±15,5 mmHg; 44% referiram tabagismo ou ex-tabagismo; 59% não praticavam atividade física regular; e 24% referiram ingestão ou interrupção de bebida alcoólica e, nestes, a quantidade de etanol/dia foi excessiva (71,4±83,2 g. Apenas 22% dos hipertensos estavam controlados e, os que conheciam que o tratamento inclui a redução de peso estavam mais controlados (pOBJETIVOS: Caracterizar hábitos de vida e conocimientos sobre los mismos, asociando las variables estudiadas con el control de la hipertensión arterial, en personas atendidas en ambulatorio. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo utilizando entrevistas y midiendo: presión arterial, peso, altura y circunferencia abdominal, de 511 personas hipertensas, controladas en un ambulatorio. RESULTADOS: El Índice de Masa Corporal se encontraba en el límite superior del intervalo de sobrepeso (29,04±4,35 kg/m2; 32,9% de los hombres y 74,1% de las mujeres tenían cintura mayor que 102 cm y 88 cm, respectivamente; la presión arterial era mayor que el límite que caracteriza la hipertensión arterial (151,3±20,5/91,8±15,5 mmHg; 44% refirieron tabaquismo o ex-tabaquismo; 59% no practicaban actividades físicas regularmente; y 24% refirieron ingestión o interrupción de bebida alcohólica y, entre estos, la cantidad de etanol

  3. Diabetes and age-related demographic differences in risk factor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wolfman, Tamara E; Sinopoli, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Disparate vascular outcomes in diabetes by race and/or ethnicity may reflect differential risk factor control, especially pre-Medicare. Assess concurrent target attainment for glycohemoglobin 2, P factor awareness and treatment were lower in Hispanics than whites. When treated, diabetes and hypertension control were greater in whites than blacks or Hispanics. Concurrent risk factor control is low in all diabetics and could improve with greater statin use. Insuring younger adults, especially Hispanic, could raise risk factor awareness and treatment. Improving treatment effectiveness in younger black and Hispanic diabetics could promote equitable risk factor control.

  4. Adultos livres de cárie: estudo de casos e controles sobre conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas preventivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petry Paulo C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o efeito do conhecimento e atitudes pessoais, hábitos de higiene oral e uso de fluoretos sobre a total ausência de cáries, realizou-se um estudo do tipo caso-controle entre estudantes universitários da região sul do Brasil. A análise bruta por regressão logística condicional não demonstrou efeito para as variáveis relacionadas ao uso de fluoretos e hábitos de higiene oral (p > 0,20. Já o uso de fio dental apareceu como um fator de risco: os que afirmaram não usá-lo apresentaram "odds ratio" (OR bruto de 0,70, e de 0,73 quando ajustado para visitas regulares ao dentista. O efeito para as visitas regulares ao dentista foi de risco. Pessoas com história de cárie visitavam mais os profissionais. Aqueles com história de cárie apresentaram um "odds ratio" bruto de 1,55; após o ajuste para uso de fio dental o risco foi levemente superior (OR = 1,67. Hábitos de higiene oral não demonstraram efeito protetor esperado. O uso de fluoretos não esteve significativamente associado à ausência de cáries. Permanece intrigando o fato de que algumas pessoas não desenvolvam cáries, mesmo não relatando cuidados considerados ideais à saúde bucal.

  5. Adultos livres de cárie: estudo de casos e controles sobre conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas preventivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Petry

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o efeito do conhecimento e atitudes pessoais, hábitos de higiene oral e uso de fluoretos sobre a total ausência de cáries, realizou-se um estudo do tipo caso-controle entre estudantes universitários da região sul do Brasil. A análise bruta por regressão logística condicional não demonstrou efeito para as variáveis relacionadas ao uso de fluoretos e hábitos de higiene oral (p > 0,20. Já o uso de fio dental apareceu como um fator de risco: os que afirmaram não usá-lo apresentaram "odds ratio" (OR bruto de 0,70, e de 0,73 quando ajustado para visitas regulares ao dentista. O efeito para as visitas regulares ao dentista foi de risco. Pessoas com história de cárie visitavam mais os profissionais. Aqueles com história de cárie apresentaram um "odds ratio" bruto de 1,55; após o ajuste para uso de fio dental o risco foi levemente superior (OR = 1,67. Hábitos de higiene oral não demonstraram efeito protetor esperado. O uso de fluoretos não esteve significativamente associado à ausência de cáries. Permanece intrigando o fato de que algumas pessoas não desenvolvam cáries, mesmo não relatando cuidados considerados ideais à saúde bucal.

  6. Content of the sixth conference on quality on the control of environmental radioactivity; Contenido de las sextas jornadas sobre calidad en el control de la radiactividad ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.S.

    2010-07-01

    The sixth conference on Quality on the Control of Environmental Radioactivity has been developed with its classic structure. After the inaugural conference, six round tables were carried out in which the major problems detected and the actions taken to solve them were reviewed from multiple perspectives. Possible future projects of action were also anticipated and discussed. (Author). 9 refs.

  7. Pânicos morais e controle social: reflexões sobre o casamento gay Moral panics and social control: reflections about gay marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Miskolci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da reconstituição histórica dos medos coletivos por trás da rejeição social a gays e lésbicas e de como estes mesmos temores moldam as reações afirmativas desses grupos, este artigo discute as relações entre pânicos morais e formas de controle social. A luta pela parceria civil entre pessoas do mesmo sexo, ou casamento gay, serve de exemplo contemporâneo da forma como nossa sociedade renegocia padrões normativos e práticas sexuais na moeda do controle social.Starting with a historical re-construction of the colective fears behind the social rejection of gays and lesbians and how these same fears shape the reaction of these groups this article discusses the relations between moral panics and forms of social control. The fight for gay marriage is a contemporary example of how our society renegotiates normative patterns and sexual practices. It does so always aiming a social control to keep and to reinforce conventional relational models.

  8. Study on the feasibility of intensity-modulated treatments with breath control; Estudio sobre la viabilidad de tratamientos de intensidad modulada con control respiratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrrilla, J.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2011-07-01

    The present work is to study the feasibility of IMRT treatments, both static and dynamic, with breath control offered by BrainLAB gating system and to quantify how the shadows of the measured dose profiles in case of respiratory motion are distorted for the case of NO movement.

  9. Efeitos de métodos de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. sobre a qualidade física do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Alcântara

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos de diferentes métodos de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do cafeeiro sobre alguns indicadores da qualidade física do solo. O experimento foi instalado, em 1977, na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG em São Sebastião do Paraíso (MG, em um Latossolo Roxo distrófico. Foi utilizado o cultivar "Catuaí Vermelho" LCH 2077-2-5-99, plantado no espaçamento 4 x 1 m. Roçadeira (RÇ, grade (GR, enxada rotativa (RT, herbicida de pós-emergência (HC, herbicida de pré-emergência (HR e capina manual (CM foram empregados no controle das plantas daninhas na entrelinha de plantio ("ruas", em comparação com a área cultivada mantida sem capina (SC e a condição original de mata (MT. Os seguintes indicadores da qualidade física do solo foram avaliados, entre 1978 e 1995, nas camadas de 0-15 e 15-30 cm: matéria orgânica, densidade do solo, volume total de poros e estabilidade de agregados em água. Após dezoito anos de avaliações, a qualidade física do solo mostrou-se diretamente correlacionada com o seu teor de matéria orgânica. A utilização contínua de herbicida de pré-emergência, além de reduzir o teor de matéria orgânica do solo, provocou o surgimento de encrostamento superficial do solo. Os usos da enxada rotativa e da roçadeira acarretaram o surgimento de camada subsuperficial compactada. O controle das plantas daninhas por meio de capinas manuais e herbicidas de pós-emergência mostraram-se eficientes na manutenção da qualidade física do solo.

  10. Factors controlling the initiation of Snowball Earth events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, A.

    2012-12-01

    During the Neoproterozoic glaciations tropical continents were covered by active glaciers that extended down to sea level. To explain these glaciers, the Snowball Earth hypothesis assumes that oceans were completely sea-ice covered during these glaciation, but there is an ongoing debate whether or not some regions of the tropical oceans remained open. In this talk, I will describe past and ongoing climate modelling activities with the comprehensive coupled climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM that identify and compare factors that control the initiation of Snowball Earth events. I first show that shifting the continents from their present-day location to their Marinoan (635 My BP) low-latitude location increases the planetary albedo, cools the climate, and thereby allows Snowball Earth initiation at higher levels of total solar irradiance and atmospheric CO2. I then present simulations with successively lowered bare sea-ice albedo, disabled sea-ice dynamics, and switched-off ocean heat transport. These simulations show that both lowering the bare sea-ice albedo and disabling sea-ice dynamics increase the critical sea-ice cover in ECHAM5/MPI-OM, but sea-ice dynamics due to strong equatorward sea-ice transport have a much larger influence on the critical CO2. Disabling sea-ice transport allows a state with sea-ice margin at 10 deg latitude by virtue of the Jormungand mechanism. The accumulation of snow on land, in combination with tropical land temperatures below or close to freezing, suggests that tropical land glaciers could easily form in such a state. However, in contrast to aquaplanet simulations without ocean heat transport, there is no sign of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. Ocean heat transport is not responsible for the lack of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. By relating the above findings to previous studies, I will outline promising future avenues of research on the initiation of Snowball Earth events. In particular, an

  11. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  12. Molecular factors controlling photosynthetic light harvesting by carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polívka, Tomás; Frank, Harry A

    2010-08-17

    Carotenoids are naturally occurring pigments that absorb light in the spectral region in which the sun irradiates maximally. These molecules transfer this energy to chlorophylls, initiating the primary photochemical events of photosynthesis. Carotenoids also regulate the flow of energy within the photosynthetic apparatus and protect it from photoinduced damage caused by excess light absorption. To carry out these functions in nature, carotenoids are bound in discrete pigment-protein complexes in the proximity of chlorophylls. A few three-dimensional structures of these carotenoid complexes have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Thus, the stage is set for attempting to correlate the structural information with the spectroscopic properties of carotenoids to understand the molecular mechanism(s) of their function in photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we summarize current spectroscopic data describing the excited state energies and ultrafast dynamics of purified carotenoids in solution and bound in light-harvesting complexes from purple bacteria, marine algae, and green plants. Many of these complexes can be modified using mutagenesis or pigment exchange which facilitates the elucidation of correlations between structure and function. We describe the structural and electronic factors controlling the function of carotenoids as energy donors. We also discuss unresolved issues related to the nature of spectroscopically dark excited states, which could play a role in light harvesting. To illustrate the interplay between structural determinations and spectroscopic investigations that exemplifies work in the field, we describe the spectroscopic properties of four light-harvesting complexes whose structures have been determined to atomic resolution. The first, the LH2 complex from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, contains the carotenoid rhodopin glucoside. The second is the LHCII trimeric complex from higher plants which uses the carotenoids

  13. Efeito de fatores neurotróficos sobre o reparo de nervo periférico = Effect of neurotrophic factors on peripheral nerve repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebben, Alessandra Deise

    2011-01-01

    Conclusões: é possível concluir que a combinação de dois ou mais fatores de crescimento provavelmente exerça um efeito sinérgico na regeneração do nervo, principalmente quando associada a biomateriais absorvíveis com liberação controlada. Apesar do conhecimento obtido sobre essas proteínas apontar para um melhora da regeneração nervosa, ainda são necessários mais estudos experimentais antes de transpô-los para a aplicação clínica

  14. Factores que influyen en la confianza en los medios: explorando la asociación entre el consumo de medios y las noticias sobre el Movimiento 15M

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadna Fernández-Planells

    2015-01-01

    La aparición de los movimientos sociales en red ha intensificado el debate sobre la confianza del consumidor en los medios tradicionales. Especialmente, debido a la cobertura mediática de las protestas, la aparición de los medios de comunicación alternativos y a la emergencia de las redes sociales como fuentes de información. A través de los resultados de una encuesta realizada en la #acampadabcn, la plaza ocupada por el Movimiento 15M en Barcelona, se estudia la asociación entre la exposició...

  15. Liderazgo y relaciones sociales en el trabajo como factor de riesgo psicosocial: su incidencia sobre gestión humana en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Calderón Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende analizar los tópicos liderazgo y relaciones sociales en el trabajo, como factores de riesgo psicosocial, fundamentados en los modelos: demanda control-apoyo social, el modelo de desequilibrio esfuerzo-recompensa y el modelo dinámico de los factores de riesgo. La contrastación empírica se hizo mediante la aplicación de una batería de instrumentos validados por el Ministerio de Protección Social de Colombia a un grupo de 148 jefes y 267 profesionales y técnicos, de 44 empresas localizadas en el Eje Cafetero colombiano. Los resultados permiten identificar un alto índice de riesgo en las dimensiones relaciones con colaboradores y relaciones sociales; no se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de riesgo por género y tipo de cargo, pero sí diferencias entre algunos grupos de edad, tiempo de servicio y tipo de contrato.

  16. Physical excercises on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus Ejercicios físicos sobre el control glucémico en la diabetes mellitus tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    D. Lopes Souto; M. Paes de Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, results from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Diabetes management usually by insulin, dietary and physical activity. Aim: Assess the relationship between physical activity and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes subjects. Methods: The literature search conducted in Pubmed and ScienceDirect databases and was initially identified 24 articles and we applied the inclusion criteria that considered or...

  17. Investigating the effective factors on management internal controls applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing internal control in many organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of information technology, hiring high quality skilled management team, using high quality standards and increasing employees' awareness on managing internal control. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale and distributes among the people who work in either administration or financial sectors of governmental agencies in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of information technology positively influences management team to control their system, more effectively, using more skilled and specialized managers positively influences management internal control, an organization with suitable standard positively influences management internal control and increasing employees' awareness positively influences management internal control.

  18. Efecto del entrenamiento sistemático de gimnasia rítmica sobre el control postural de niñas adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Guimaraes-Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que el control postural, en condiciones estáticas, es un factor discriminante entre niñas practicantes de GR y sus homólogas no deportistas. Sin embargo, metodologías tradicionales para el análisis del CP no son lo suficiente sensibles para el total entendimiento de la dinámica del CP.

  19. Environmental exogenous factors and facial dermatitis: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Contact factors play an important role in facial dermatitis. Aggravation by sunlight exposure, ingestion of spicy food, or alcohol are more reported in facial dermatitis compared with nonfacial dermatitis.

  20. Mídia, medo e controle: Ensaio sobre o papel da mídia na dinãmica do recrudescimento do sistema penal

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzari da Silveira, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Partindo do pressuposto que a mídia possui grande influência sobre os indivíduos, e que ao veicular notícias sobre crimes de forma excessiva, muitas vezes sob um viés sensacionalista, dissemina o medo e a insegurança no tecido social, o presente artigo tem como objetivo identificar de que modo a mídia se relaciona com o sistema penal, bem como o papel que desempenha na dinâmica que enseja o seu recrudescimento.Resumen: Partiendo de la suposición de que los medios de comunicación ejercen gran ...

  1. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MULCHES ON THE CONTROL OF UNWISHED PLANTS IN MAIZE CROP (Zea mays EFEITO DE DIVERSAS ESPÉCIES DE COBERTURA MORTA SOBRE O CONTROLE DE PLANTAS DANINHAS DA CULTURA DO MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Araújo Almeida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Researches of many South American countries point the zero tillage system of crop production for little farmers as a responsible factor for best soil and water conservation, less costs of production and best profits to improve the rural way of life. The treatments usually include the application of herbicides. To find agricultural systems that allow zero tillage without herbicide or with reduced usage has been considered a challenge by the researchers. This experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of different mulches on the control of unwished plants in maize crop (Zea mays. Plants such as sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea, millet (Pennisetum americanum and sunflower (Helianthus annus L. cv. Stanzuela and V 2000 were grown in 100 m² areas. The sowing was made at the second April fortnight and, after sixty days, the zero tillage system with maize was established by using a manual planting machine. Just after, the plants grown in the plots were manually cut and used as mulch. The soil fertility was corrected according to the laboratorial analyses and the plant population adopted was around 60,000 plants per hectare. No weed control was made. At the maize flowering, the seed weeds grown in the plots were collected by using two samples of 1 m² plot (two replications. The plant material was dried till constant weight. Statistical analyses obtained from the data indicated the millet mulch as the best treatment to the weed control.

    Vehicle fingertip reach controls--human factors recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Hamouda, E; Mourant, R R

    1981-06-01

    Interviews were conducted with 405 drivers of cars equipped with fingertip reach controls. A high percentage of finding problems was reported when the horn was mounted on a stalk and also when the turn signal was on a right stalk. Drivers of configurations with two left stalks had a large percentage of inadvertent operation problems for the turn signal and for the headlight beam selector. A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate modes of operation for the wiper on/off, wiper speed and washer on/off functions. Subjects performed best when the wiper on/off and speed control were actuated by a rotating had switch. Subjects' reactions to stalk mounted controls were much faster than their reactions to dash mounted controls. Recommendations to eliminate finding and inadvertent operation problems associated with fingertip reach controls are given.

  2. Reproducibilidad de un cuestionario telefónico sobre factores de riesgo asociados al comportamiento y las prácticas preventivas Reproducibility of a telephone questionnaire on risk factors associated with behavior and preventive practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Galán

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Se evalúa la reproducibilidad del cuestionario utilizado en un sistema de vigilancia de factores de riesgo de enfermedades no transmisibles (SIVFRENT, basado en encuestas continuas con entrevista telefónica. Métodos: El mismo cuestionario fue aplicado telefónicamente en 2 ocasiones a una muestra de 586 personas de 18-64 años representativas de la Comunidad de Madrid, con un intervalo de 13-32 días. Se analizan 27 variables relacionadas con la percepción del estado de salud, antropometría, actividad física, consumo de tabaco y alcohol, prácticas preventivas, accidentalidad y seguridad vial. Para valorar la estabilidad de las respuestas se analizó la concordancia absoluta, los valores del índice kappa sin ponderar y ponderado, y el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI, en las variables categóricas nominales, ordinales y cuantitativas, respectivamente. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta a la segunda entrevista fue del 78,7%, y participaron 461 personas. La comparación de las prevalencias y promedios en las 2 entrevistas refleja que en 19 de los 27 indicadores analizados la desviación relativa fue inferior al 5%, y sólo 2 superaron el 20%. La concordancia absoluta excedió del 85% en 13 de las 20 variables categóricas, y los coeficientes kappa y CCI superaron el valor de 0,8 en 10 variables, en 13 oscilaron entre 0,6 y 0,8, en 3 entre 0,4 y 0,6, y sólo una fue inferior a 0,4. No se observó un patrón uniforme de variables sociodemográficas asociadas a la discordancia. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que el cuestionario telefónico utilizado en el SIVFRENT sobre factores de riesgo asociados al comportamiento y las prácticas preventivas es reproducible en una amplia muestra representativa de la población adulta de la Comunidad de Madrid.Objective: To assess the reproducibility of a questionnaire used in a surveillance system for risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SIVFRENT, based on continuous surveys

  3. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B. RIQUELME VIRGALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, es una plaga clave de este cultivo en Argentina. Su manejo integrado debería incluir una selección de productos fitosanitarios que sean eficaces para su control y, al mismo tiempo, selectivos respecto de sus enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de control de los insecticidas triflumurón, clorfenapir, abamectin y una cepa experimental de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre la plaga, y el poder residual de los mismos sobre Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja. Se registró la mortalidad de la polilla cada cuatro días, desde la aplicación hasta la emergencia de los adultos. El efecto sobre el parasitoide, se evaluó a través del número de huevos parasitados por hembra expuesta durante 48 horas a folíolos tratados, y su mortalidad luego de 1, 3, 7, 14 y 30 días de la pulverización. Todos los productos ocasionaron una mortalidad de T. absoluta mayor al 65% después de 12 días de aplicados. El Bt fue el único insecticida que no afectó la supervivencia y el parasitismo de T. bactrae . Estos resultados aportan información de interés para la selección de plaguicidas, a emplearse en programas de manejo integrado.

  4. Controle sobre GnRH durante o anestro pós-parto em bovinos GnRH control during bovine postpartum anestrous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Francisco Coelho de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O pós-parto em bovinos é caracterizado como um momento em que as fêmeas bovinas não ovulam, principalmente devido a uma inadequada liberação de gonadotrofinas. Os conceitos e os mecanismos regulatórios do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (GnRH têm sido descritos isoladamente. Esta revisão aborda a influência da nutrição e amamentação, com enfoque na regulação do GnRH, e fornece conceitos atuais do controle neuroendocrinológico da secreção de GnRH durante o pós-parto em bovinos. Conhecimentos atuais das funções do hormônio inibitório de gonadotrofinas (GnIH, da leptina, dos estrógenos, da kisspeptina e da adiponectina, bem como suas complexas inter-relações durante este período estão detalhados para melhor entendimento do assunto.The bovine postpartum period is characterized as a moment when the ovulation is suppressed, mainly in consequence of insufficient release of gonadotropins. Concepts and regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH had been described independently. This review covers the influence of nutrition and suckling with emphasis on GnRH regulation, and provides up to date concepts of neuroendocrine control of GnRH secretion during postpartum in cattle. Current knowledge of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, leptin, estrogens and kisspeptin during this period are presented in order to provide a better understanding of the subject.

  5. Impacts on Power Factor of AC Voltage Controllers Under Non-Sinusoidal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtiar Ahmed Mahar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AC-AC conversion is obtained with the help of Cyclo-converters, DC Link converters and AC Voltage Controllers. AC voltage controllers are also referred to as voltage regulators. Main issue concerned to these converters is that they generate harmonics due to periodic variable structure system. The generated harmonics create disturbances and degrade the performance of converter. The power factor of supply side is affected due to these harmonics. This paper focuses on source side power factor of ac voltage controllers under nonsinusoidal conditions. In order to observe the power factor, measurement tool of power factor and simulation model of ac voltage controller is also developed in MATLAB software.

  6. Control to goal of cardiometabolic risk factors among Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-12

    Jul 12, 2011 ... dyslipidemia, and obesity so as to minimize the development of ... Therapeutic goals used to define risk or poor control were values adopted by expert groups such as .... debated on a lot, the best approach to management still.

  7. CubeSat Form Factor Thermal Control Louvers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal control of small spacecraft, including CubeSats, is a challenge for the next era of NASA spaceflight. Science objectives and components will still require...

  8. Patient related factors for optimal blood pressure control in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Province, PR China. 3. School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia. ... Board of our hospital, and written consent form ..... community-based case-control study in Singapore.

  9. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kandeel, Amr M; Talaat, Maha; Afifi, Salma A; El-Sayed, Nasr M; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa A; Hajjeh, Rana A; Mahoney, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    .... We conducted a case-control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two...

  10. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  11. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  12. Controlled growth factor release from synthetic extracellular matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Peters, Martin C.; Anderson, Kenneth W.; Mooney, David J.

    2000-12-01

    Polymeric matrices can be used to grow new tissues and organs, and the delivery of growth factors from these matrices is one method to regenerate tissues. A problem with engineering tissues that exist in a mechanically dynamic environment, such as bone, muscle and blood vessels, is that most drug delivery systems have been designed to operate under static conditions. We thought that polymeric matrices, which release growth factors in response to mechanical signals, might provide a new approach to guide tissue formation in mechanically stressed environments. Critical design features for this type of system include the ability to undergo repeated deformation, and a reversible binding of the protein growth factors to polymeric matrices to allow for responses to repeated stimuli. Here we report a model delivery system that can respond to mechanical signalling and upregulate the release of a growth factor to promote blood vessel formation. This approach may find a number of applications, including regeneration and engineering of new tissues and more general drug-delivery applications.

  13. El factor de la percepción de control como determinante en la intención de compra de productos ecológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Puelles Gallo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El papel que pueden desempeñar las cadenas de alimentación minorista en el desarrollo de la categoría de productos ecológicos de alimentación es lo que subyace en este trabajo. Se ha comprobado que la teoría del comportamiento planificado -TPB- (Ajzen, 1988, 1991 es aplicable para la medición de la intención de compra hacia productos ecológicos de alimentación bajo la dualidad Marca de Fabricante (MDF vs. Marca de Distribuidor (MDD, y para la detección y diferenciación de los factores que más influyen en la decisión sobre ambos tipos de marca. Se aportan evidencias sobre cómo determinadas acciones de marketing en el punto de venta pueden ser utilizadas como estímulo a la compra de productos ecológicos. Adicionalmente, se ha comprobado que la TPB es aplicable a la evaluación de las diferencias en la actitud hacia la compra de productos ecológicos bajo MDF y bajo MDD. Los resultados muestran que el factor de percepción de control es fundamental en la determinación del comportamiento de compra de estos productos, poniendo de manifiesto, por ejemplo, que una mayor variedad de productos en los lineales, un precio asequible e información adicional sobre las utilidades y beneficios en el punto de venta pueden influir positivamente en el comportamiento de compra.

  14. Poor stroke-related risk factor control even after stroke: an opportunity for rehabilitation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charles; Breland, Hazel L

    2014-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease worldwide is substantial. Unfortunately, risk factor control for most chronic diseases remains poor even after diagnoses. This is a major concern because poor risk factor control often leads to secondary consequences of the disease and the development of co-existing diseases. Stroke is a chronic condition that frequently requires the services of rehabilitation professionals who can also play an important role in risk factor management to reduce recurrent stroke. Approaches to the management of stroke risk factors in stroke survivors vary greatly and consequently outcomes vary in a similar fashion. The current literature suggests that uniform offering of structured risk factor control programs over time to individuals with chronic disease can improve knowledge of stroke risk factors, knowledge of action to control risk factors and in turn facilitate self-management practices that reduce the negative consequences of chronic diseases. Rehabilitation professionals can play a vital role in the management and secondary prevention of chronic diseases during the rehabilitation process via patient education and training. Implications for Rehabilitation Evidence suggests that risk factor control remains poor in many individuals with chronic conditions such as stroke. Rehabilitation professionals can play a key role in programs designed to improve risk factor control in chronic conditions. Future risk factor control programs can be structured and implemented over time to include rehabilitation professionals.

  15. Digital signage sobre IP

    OpenAIRE

    Casademont Filella, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Projecte que versa sobre el disseny i la implementació d'un sistema de Digital Signage (Cartelleria Digital) sobre IP, creant un gestor que permeti controlar de forma remota tot un conjunt de petits dispositius connectats a pantalles que emeten continguts multimèdia com vídeos, imatges, feeds rss...

  16. Impuesto sobre la renta

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Grup d'Innovació Docent en Economia dels Impostos (GIDEI)

    2016-01-01

    Tema 7. Esquema de presentación del tema "Impuesto sobre la renta". Incorpora datos actuales, gráficos, cuadros y tablas. Esquema de presentació del tema "Impuesto sobre la renta". Incorpora dades actuals, gràfics, quadres i taules.

  17. Impuesto sobre sociedades

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Grup d'Innovació Docent en Economia dels Impostos

    2016-01-01

    Tema 8. Esquemas de la presentación del tema "Impuesto sobre sociedades". Incorpora datos actuales, gráficos, cuadros y tablas. Esquemes de la presentació del tema "Impuesto sobre sociedades". Incorpora dades actuals, gràfics, quadres i taules

  18. Regulated assembly of transcription factors and control of transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, D

    2001-11-30

    Proteins that function in regulation of transcription initiation are typically homo or hetero-oligomeric. Results of recent biophysical studies of transcription regulators indicate that the assembly of these proteins is often subject to regulation. This regulation of assembly dictates the frequency of transcription initiation via its influence on the affinity of a transcription regulator for DNA and its affect on target site selection. Factors that modulate transcription factor assembly include binding of small molecules, post-translational modification, DNA binding and interactions with other proteins. Here, the results of recent structural and/or thermodynamic studies of a number of transcription regulators that are subject to regulated assembly are reviewed. The accumulated data indicate that this phenomenon is ubiquitous and that mechanisms utilized in eukaryotes and prokaryotes share common features. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  1. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Kramer, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  2. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  3. Enhanced imaging of DNA via active quality factor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, A. D. L.; Round, A. N.; Miles, M. J.

    2001-10-01

    Adsorption processes at single molecule level are of fundamental importance for the understanding and development of biomaterials. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has played a critical role in this field due to its high resolution and ability to image in a liquid environment. We present a method that improves the dynamic force sensitivity and the resolution of a conventional AFM. This is achieved via a positive feedback loop that enhances the effective quality factor of the cantilever in a liquid environment to values in excess of 300, compared to a nominal value of ˜1. This active quality factor enhancement has been used to image DNA and an increase in the height of the molecule observed.

  4. Optimal replicator factor control in wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    For TDMA MAC protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), redundancy and retransmission are two important methods to provide high end-to-end transmission reliability. Since reliable transmissions will lead to more energy consumption, there exists an intrinsic tradeoff between transmission reliability and energy efficiency. For each link, we name the number of its reserved time slots in each MAC superframe as a replicator factor. In the following paper, we propose a reliability-lifetime tradeoff framework (...

  5. Well productivity controlling factors in crystalline terrains of southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mirna A.; Morales, Norberto

    2007-05-01

    Over the last decades, increasing water demands have fostered research to obtain high well yields in crystalline terrains where, besides the intrinsic properties of rocks, the groundwater flow depends on several factors. The depth of the wells, the lithotypes, the presence and thickness of sedimentary coverings and weathered layers, the landforms, the geological structures, and the effects of tectonic stresses are among the most investigated factors considered as determinant of well productivity. The influence of these factors on productivity of wells that exploit the Crystalline Aquifer System in the Jundiaí River Catchment, southeastern Brazil, is investigated in this work. The largest region of the studied area is located on the Precambrian Basement, partially covered by sedimentary deposits. The results show that the sedimentary deposits and the weathered layer are important for high well yield, but it also depends on the existence of a net of open fractures, in order to maintain high productivity. The sites that have more possibility of occurrence of such structures are the regional shear and fault zones and other minor structures with NW-SE and E-W directions, which characterize areas subjected to transtensional stress related to the neotectonics.

  6. Factors controlling vertical fluxes of prrticles in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Parthiban, G.; Shankar, R.

    in the mixed layer depth which, in turn, is controlled by the strength of the Findlater Jet and the curl of the wind stress. The increase in biogenic silica fluxes during the late SW monsoon is related to the advection of nutrient-rich water from the Oman...

  7. Factors Contributing to Self Control for Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winquist, Trancita

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine characteristics contributing to high self control for incarcerated youth. Subjects include fifty youth (8 females and 42 males) ages 14 through 18 incarcerated for at least 60 days. Data on subjects' responses from a validated measure (Grasmick et. al. Scale, 1993) and data from historical records, STAR reading…

  8. Evaluation of the surgical factor in postoperative pain control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain control has been studied extensively, including many perioperative pain control procedures. Unfortunately, the impact of the surgical technique was not objectively studied. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate if the type of surgical dissection needed for extensive abdominal wall dissection actually has an effect in the reduction of postoperative pain or not. Materials and Methods: Forty adult patients, 19 males and 21 females, were randomly divided into two groups with each group containing 20 patients having different varieties of anterior abdominal wall ventral hernia. Patients in group I had their hernias and abdominal wall flaps dissected by only sharp dissection using scalpel. Patients in group II had their hernias and abdominal wall flaps dissected using mainly blunt dissection assisted by sharp dissection where blunt dissection could not do the job. All the patients had general anesthesia. No preemptive analgesia was used. Nalbufen was used as the only postoperative pain killer and the total amount used of it was treated as the indicator for the intensity of postoperative pain. Results: The results of the present study showed that the total amount of Nalbufen used for the control of postoperative pain is significantly less in group I throughout the postoperative follow-up period. Conclusion: This study concludes that use of sharp dissection in cases of extensive abdominal wall dissection is statistically better than other methods of dissection in terms of postoperative pain control.

  9. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  10. Resource Form Factor and Installation of GFA Controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2009-11-15

    The focus of this task is to optimize the form and placement of a controller comprising the Grid Friendly™ appliance (GFA) controller, power supply and power relay (and/or a solid-state power electronic switch) that would command a domestic water heater to shed its load in response to stress on the electric power grid. The GFA controller would disconnect the water heater from its supply circuit whenever it senses a low voltage signal or other indicators of system stress communicated via the electric power distribution system. Power would be reconnected to the appliance when the GFA controller senses the absence of these signals. This project has also considered more frequent cycling of this controller’s relay switch to perform demand-side frequency regulation. The principal criteria considered in this optimization are reliability, cost and life expectancy of the GFA components. The alternative embodiments of the GFA equipment under consideration are: Option 1- installation inside the insulation space of the water heater between the tank and jacket Option 2 containment in a separate nearby electrical enclosure Option 3 - as a modification or adjunct to the distribution panel housing and/or the breaker that protects the water heater supply circuit.

  11. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adherence to asthma treatment was rated using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. A ... The prevalence of low adherence rate to asthma controller therapy was 44.8% and the absence of any .... Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). No. Yes.

  12. On the constrained economic design of control charts: a literature review Sobre planejamento de gráficos de controle com restrição: uma revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Celano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic design is an appealing approach to settle the design parameters of a control chart. Unfortunately, the economic models to design control charts have been scarcely implemented by quality practitioners due to the simplifying assumptions when representing the multifaceted complexity and constraints present within manufacturing and transactional environments. Although there has been an increasing scepticism about the economic models usefulness in practice, some recent studies proposed in literature face the problem of the control charts economic design from a new point of view: the objective is to achieve a well balanced trade-off between the operational and the statistical aspects. Under this perspective, the economic design problem can be intended in a broader sense as the constrained design of a SPC inspection procedure. This paper presents a discussion of some recent trends in the economic design stream of research and outlines the importance of considering the constraints related to SPC resources availability and modelling the occurrence of random shifts.O planejamento econômico é uma abordagem interessante para estabelecer os parâmetros de um gráfico de controle. Infelizmente, os modelos econômicos para planejar gráficos de controle têm sido pouco aplicados por profissionais de qualidade, devido às suposições simplificadoras utilizadas para representar complexos e multifacetados (com restrições presentes processos de produção e ambientes transacionais. Embora tenha havido um crescente ceticismo sobre a utilidade de modelos econômicos, na prática, alguns estudos recentes na literatura tratam o problema de planejameto econômico dos gráficos de controle sob um novo ponto de vista: o objetivo é conseguir um bom trade-off e ligação entre aspectos operacionais e estatísticos. Sob essa perspectiva, o problema de planejamento econômico pode ser visto, em um sentido mais amplo, como um planejamento com restrição em

  13. Evidenciação voluntária: fatores explicativos da extensão da informação sobre recursos intangíveis Voluntary disclosure: factors explaining the extent of information on intangible resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clea Beatriz Macagnan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A redução da assimetria de informação contribui para uma melhor distribuição econômica e oportunidades de investimentos. Partindo desse pressuposto, este artigo identifica fatores que influenciam a extensão da evidenciação de informação voluntária, sobre os recursos intangíveis, de empresas listadas na Bolsa Espanhola. Para a análise, utiliza-se a técnica de mínimos quadrados ordinários. Os resultados apontam que fatores como: o tamanho, o setor, o endividamento, o grau de internacionalização, os anos de existência e a diferença entre o preço da ação sobre o valor contábil da empresa explicam a maior extensão da evidenciação de informação de recursos intangíveis. Já, fatores tais como a rentabilidade, o grau de monopólio e o capital flutuante da empresa, explicam a menor extensão da evidenciação dessas informações.The reduction of information asymmetry leads to a sound economic distribution with better investment opportunities. From this perspective, this paper aims to investigate factors that affect the extent of voluntary information disclosure by companies listed in the Spanish stock exchange. The statistical technique ordinary least squares was used for the sake of analysis. The results suggest that factors like: firm size, economic industry, debt ratio, level of internationalization, age and difference between common stock value and book value explain the greater extent of information disclosure for intangible resources. In turn, factors like profitability, level of monopoly and floating capital of the company explain the lower levels of information disclosure.

  14. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three...... factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which m...... transcription factor target sets, transcription factors that coordinate balanced growth were also identified. Our analysis shows that FhII, Rap1, and Sfp1, regulating protein biosynthesis, have significantly enriched target sets for genes up-regulated with increasing growth rate. Cell cycle regulators...

  15. Conhecimento sobre fatores de risco para doenças crônicas: estudo de base populacional Knowledge on risk factors for chronic diseases: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Terra Borges

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento populacional sobre as associações de quatro fatores comportamentais (sedentarismo, tabagismo, consumo excessivo de álcool e alimentação inadequada com oito morbidades (diabetes, hipertensão arterial, AIDS, osteoporose, câncer de pulmão, depressão, cirrose hepática e infarto agudo do miocárdio. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional, incluindo 2.096 indivíduos de dez anos ou mais. O processo de amostragem foi probabilístico por conglomerados. Para cada fator comportamental, foi gerado um escore de conhecimento, que variava de zero a oito pontos. A maior média do escore foi registrada para o conhecimento sobre alimentação inadequada (5,3, seguida por tabagismo (5,1, sedentarismo (4,7 e consumo excessivo de álcool (4,5. Em geral, maiores escores de conhecimento estiveram relacionados com maior escolaridade, nível sócio-econômico e faixas etárias intermediárias. Estratégias governamentais a fim de aumentar o conhecimento populacional sobre fatores de risco para doenças crônicas são necessárias.The aim of the present study was to evaluate public awareness of the association between four behavioral factors (sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol abuse, and inadequate diet and eight diseases (diabetes, hypertension, AIDS, osteoporosis, lung cancer, depression, liver cirrhosis, and acute myocardial infarction. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study including 2,096 individuals 10 years or older. A random clustered sampling strategy was used. For each behavioral factor, a knowledge score was constructed, ranging from zero to eight points. The highest mean score was observed for inadequate diet (5.3, followed by smoking (5.1, sedentary lifestyle (4.7, and alcohol abuse (4.5. Overall, higher knowledge scores were observed among people with high socioeconomic status and more schooling, and in intermediate age groups. Government health promotion

  16. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was asse

  17. Social and cultural factors in the successful control of tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubel, A J; Garro, L C

    1992-01-01

    The burden of tuberculosis on the public health is staggering. Worldwide, annual incidence of new cases is estimated to be about 8 million. Almost 3 million deaths occur yearly. Early case identification and adherence to treatment regimens are the remaining barriers to successful control. In many nations, however, fewer than half those with active disease receive a diagnosis, and fewer than half those beginning treatment complete it. The twin problems of delay in seeking treatment and abandon...

  18. Efecto de la suplementación con magnesio en alimento y agua sobre el control de tetania hipomagnesémica en rebaños Hereford

    OpenAIRE

    F. WITWER; P A Contreras; Silva, N; H. BOHMWALD

    1997-01-01

    Para estudiar el efecto de la suplementación con Mg en rebaños de carne hipomagnesémicos, sobre las concentraciones sanguíneas y urinarias de Mg y la prevención de la tetania hipomagnesémica, se realizaron 4 ensayos en rebaños Hereford (vacas pre y postparto) con casos clínicos y muertes por tetania hipomagnesémica e hipomagnesemia diagnosticada mediante un perfil metabólico. En el ensayo 1 se utilizaron 50 g/d/vaca de MgO (equivalente a 25 g de Mg) sobre ensilaje o heno por 44 días; en el en...

  19. Systemic Venous Thrombosis after Recombinant Factor VIIa in the Control of Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Amr; Al-Ruzzeh, Sharif; McKeague, Helena; Cross, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant factor VIIa has been licensed in the United Kingdom since 1996 for the control of bleeding in hemophilic patients who are actively bleeding or are about to undergo surgery. Medical practitioners are also applying recombinant factor VIIa toward the control of bleeding in patients without hemophilia. Although the efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa has been shown in many patients, concerns have arisen about the risk of thrombotic adverse events.

  20. Tunable signal processing through modular control of transcription factor translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Budnik, Bogdan A.; Gunawardena, Jeremy; O’Shea, Erin K.

    2013-01-01

    Signaling pathways can induce different dynamics of transcription factor (TF) activation. We explored how TFs process signaling inputs to generate diverse dynamic responses. The budding yeast general stress responsive TF Msn2 acted as a tunable signal processor that could track, filter, or integrate signals in an input dependent manner. This tunable signal processing appears to originate from dual regulation of both nuclear import and export by phosphorylation, as mutants with one form of regulation sustained only one signal processing function. Versatile signal processing by Msn2 is crucial for generating distinct dynamic responses to different natural stresses. Our findings reveal how complex signal processing functions are integrated into a single molecule and provide a guide for the design of TFs with “programmable” signal processing functions. PMID:23349292

  1. Tunable signal processing through modular control of transcription factor translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Budnik, Bogdan A; Gunawardena, Jeremy; O'Shea, Erin K

    2013-01-25

    Signaling pathways can induce different dynamics of transcription factor (TF) activation. We explored how TFs process signaling inputs to generate diverse dynamic responses. The budding yeast general stress-responsive TF Msn2 acted as a tunable signal processor that could track, filter, or integrate signals in an input-dependent manner. This tunable signal processing appears to originate from dual regulation of both nuclear import and export by phosphorylation, as mutants with one form of regulation sustained only one signal-processing function. Versatile signal processing by Msn2 is crucial for generating distinct dynamic responses to different natural stresses. Our findings reveal how complex signal-processing functions are integrated into a single molecule and provide a guide for the design of TFs with "programmable" signal-processing functions.

  2. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maia

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A controlled trial was performed with the purpose of investigating which factors could be considered of significant risk for the development of basal cell carcinoma. A total of 259 cases of basal cell carcinoma diagnosed from July 1991 to July 1992 were compared with 518 controls matched for age and sex. All subjects in both groups were white. Protocol data were submitted to statistical analysis by the chi-square test and by multiple conditional logistic regression analysis and the following conclusions were reached: 1 light skin color (types I and II of the Fitzpatrick classification, odds ratio of 2.8; outdoor work under constant sunlight, odds ratio of 5.0; the presence of actinic lesions due to exposure to the sun, odds ratio of 4.9, are risk factors perse. 2 Type III skin in the Fitzpatrick classification only represents a risk factor when the patient reports a history of intense sunburns, but not in the absence of such a history. 3 Sunburns per se do not represent a risk factor althorig the point made in item 2 of these conclusions is valid. 4 Other suspected risk factors whose significance was not confirmed by multiple conditioned logistic regression analysis were: residence in rural areas, light eyes and blond hair color, extent of the awareness of the "sun x skin cancer" relationship, familial occurrence of skin cancer, excessive exposure to the sun, and freckles appearing in childhood.Realizou-se estudo controlado para investigar quais os fatores de risco, para o desenvolvimento do carcinoma basocelular, são significantes. Foram utilizados 259 casos de carcinoma basocelular (diagnosticados entre julho de 1991 e julho de 1992 e 518 controles, pareados segundo sexo e idade. Submetidos os dados constantes do protocolo à análise estatística (Qui-quadrado e Regressão Logística Múltipla Condicional, foi possível obter as seguintes conclusões na população estudada: 1 - Representam fatores de risco, por si só: - as peles claras de

  3. Manejo mecânico e químico da aveia preta e sua influência sobre a taxa de decomposição e o controle de plantas daninhas em semeadura direta de milho Mechanical and chemical management of black oat and its influence on decomposition rate and weed control in no-till of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto G. de Araújo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A formação da cobertura vegetal morta sobre a superfície do solo constitui um dos principais requisitos da semeadura direta devido a seus efeitos alelopáticos e físicos, os quais proporcionam maior eficiência no controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de seis manejos da aveia preta sobre a taxa de decomposição do vegetal e a incidência de plantas daninhas, visando a formação de cobertura morta para semeadura direta de milho. Os sistemas avaliados foram: dessecação com sulfosate; dessecação seguida da rolagem; rolagem seguida da dessecação; rolagem exclusiva; trituração exclusiva e trituração seguida da dessecação. A eficiência no controle foi avaliada através da cobertura do solo por plantas daninhas aos 35 dias após a semeadura e pelo peso de plantas daninhas na colheita do milho. Houve diferenças significativas entre os manejos quanto à taxa de decomposição da aveia e o controle de plantas daninhas. Entretanto, os tratamentos com taxas diferenciadas de decomposição foram semelhantes em relação à eficiência do controle. Os tratamentos que se diferenciaram quanto ao controle de plantas daninhas foram a dessecação seguida do rolo-faca e o rolo-faca seguida da dessecação. A combinação dos manejos mecânico e químico não trouxe nenhum benefício em relação aos manejos exclusivos e os manejos mecânicos exclusivos foram iguais entre si.A good soil coverture is one of the most important direct seeding requirements because, among others factors, it improves the weed control due to the allelopathical and physical effects. The objective was to evaluate the influence of six management systems of black oat on it's decomposition rate and weed control under direct seeding of maize. The management systems evaluated were herbicide (sulfosate; herbicide before knife roller; knife roller before herbicide; knife roller; rotary shredders and rotary shredders before herbicide. The

  4. J-Inner-Outer Factorization, J-Spectral Factorization, and Robust Control for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Joseph A.; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The problem of expressing a given nonlinear state-space system as the cascade connection of a lossless system and a stable, minimum-phase system (inner-outer factorization) is solved for the case of a stable system having state-space equations affine in the inputs. The solution is given in terms of

  5. Sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes: un análisis exploratorio sobre su diseño y uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araujo Pinzón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de canales de exportación independientes es la forma más extendida de exportación, si bien la ausencia de propiedad dificulta su gestión y afecta al rendimiento exportador. Dado el creciente interés académico y profesional por mejorar la gestión de los procesos de exportación de las empresas y la laguna existente en el estudio de las relaciones inter-organizativas orientadas al mercado (down-stream, se plantea como objetivo del presente estudio la exploración de los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en el contexto de los canales de exportación, desde la perspectiva de la empresa exportadora. Mediante la realización de un estudio cualitativo exploratorio, se pretende contribuir a la literatura sobre los SCG inter-organizativos ampliando su ámbito de interés a las relaciones down-stream de la cadena de suministros, esenciales para la competitividad de muchas empresas. Frente a estudios previos sobre SCG enfocados en relaciones proveedor-comprador, los resultados muestran que las empresas exportadoras analizadas (1 emplean múltiples mecanismos de control, principalmente cualitativos, que (2 se caracterizan por su ámbito amplio y la oportunidad en el tiempo, así como por sus bajos niveles de integración y agregación, y (3 usan algunos mecanismos -p.e., reuniones con los intermediarios- de modo interactivo, mientras que otras herramientas -p.e., contratos y acuerdos- son usadas de modo diagnóstico. Asimismo, la evidencia sugiere que la definición de sistemas formales en este contexto puede diferir de la tradicional, con amplias repercusiones sobre los marcos de análisis de los sistemas de control de gestión.

  6. Investigation of rule control by controlling the effetcts of reinforcement history on human behavior / Investigação do controle por regras e do controle por histórias de reforço sobre o comportamento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Albuquerque

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of experimental history and of relative density of reinforcement on rule following behavior. Sixteen undergraduate students participated. Under a matching-to-sample procedure, with 3 comparison stimuli, the participants were asked to point the comparisons in sequence, according to their dimension, Color, Thickness or Form, in common to the sample. At the beginning of Phases 1, 2, 3 and 4, participants were exposed, respectively, to minimal instructions, a discrepant rule (specifying a non reinforced sequence, a corresponding rule (specifying a TFC sequence and a repeated discrepant rule. Only the CTF sequence was reinforced in all phases. In Phase 3, two sequences, TFC and CTF, were concurrently reinforced (Concurrent FR 2 FR6 and FR2 FR6. Control by rules and by reinforcement history were both observed, under specific conditions. These findings have implications for drawing a distinction between behaviors controlled by rules and those shaped by contingencies.

  7. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjana Devi Shrestha

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  8. Negative elongation factor controls energy homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haihui; Qin, Kunhua; Guo, Zhanyong; Ma, Yonggang; April, Craig; Gao, Xiaoli; Andrews, Thomas G; Bokov, Alex; Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Yidong; Weintraub, Susan T; Fan, Jian-Bing; Wang, Degeng; Hu, Yanfen; Aune, Gregory J; Lindsey, Merry L; Li, Rong

    2014-04-10

    Negative elongation factor (NELF) is known to enforce promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), a pervasive phenomenon observed across multicellular genomes. However, the physiological impact of NELF on tissue homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we show that whole-body conditional deletion of the B subunit of NELF (NELF-B) in adult mice results in cardiomyopathy and impaired response to cardiac stress. Tissue-specific knockout of NELF-B confirms its cell-autonomous function in cardiomyocytes. NELF directly supports transcription of those genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. NELF also shares extensively transcriptional target genes with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of energy metabolism in the myocardium. Mechanistically, NELF helps stabilize the transcription initiation complex at the metabolism-related genes. Our findings strongly indicate that NELF is part of the PPARα-mediated transcription regulatory network that maintains metabolic homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.

  9. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  11. [Transforming growth factor-beta controls pathogenesis of Crohn disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, H; di Mola, F F; Egger, B; Scheuren, A; Kleeff, J; Zimmermann, A; Büchler, M W

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms which contribute to the progression of Crohn's disease are still not known. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and its subtypes are multifunctional polypeptides which regulate immunological processes as well as the synthesis of the extracellular matrix and fibrogenesis. In the present study, Crohn's disease tissue samples of 18 patients undergoing intestinal resection were analyzed by Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization and immunostaining for TGF-beta 1-3 and the TGF-beta receptors type I-III (T beta R-I, T beta R-II, T beta R-III). There was a marked overexpression of TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 3 and T beta R-II in 94% of the Crohn's disease tissue samples. TGF-beta 2 and T beta R-I ALK5 and T beta R-III were enhanced in 72%, 72% and 82% of the Crohn tissue samples, respectively. In situ hybridization and immunostaining revealed that there was frequent coexpression of TGF-beta with its signaling receptors. Our data indicate that TGF-beta and their receptors seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Their enhanced expression might contribute to the increase in extracellular matrix resulting in fibrosis and subsequently in intestinal obstruction.

  12. Research on Open-Closed-Loop Iterative Learning Control with Variable Forgetting Factor of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an iterative learning control algorithm (ILC that is developed using a variable forgetting factor to control a mobile robot. The proposed algorithm can be categorized as an open-closed-loop iterative learning control, which produces control instructions by using both previous and current data. However, introducing a variable forgetting factor can weaken the former control output and its variance in the control law while strengthening the robustness of the iterative learning control. If it is applied to the mobile robot, this will reduce position errors in robot trajectory tracking control effectively. In this work, we show that the proposed algorithm guarantees tracking error bound convergence to a small neighborhood of the origin under the condition of state disturbances, output measurement noises, and fluctuation of system dynamics. By using simulation, we demonstrate that the controller is effective in realizing the prefect tracking.

  13. EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

    The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

  14. EL CONTROL DE LA ACTIVIDAD REGISTRAL COOPERATIVA: ESTUDIO CRÍTICO SOBRE SUS DIFICULTADES E INCÓGNITAS/THE CONTROL OF THE REGISTRAL ACTIVITY ON CO-OPERATIVES: A CRITICAL STUDY OF ITS DIFFICULTIES AND ENIGMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María BURZACO SAMPER

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La configuración de los Registros de Cooperativas como instrumentos de carácter administrativo con eficacia jurídica encierra una serie de dificultades de indudable trascendencia práctica entre los que destaca el control de la actividad registral. En este sentido, la multiplicidad normativa característica del actual escenario jurídico cooperativo propicia la existencia de soluciones divergentes que, al margen de los problemas que plantean sobre un eventual exceso competencial, pueden tener incidencia tanto en la seguridad jurídica como en el tipo y alcance de la fiscalización judicial. Por otro lado, la naturaleza híbrida de los Registros de Cooperativas provoca distorsiones cuya salida no siempre es clara, en cuanto las previsiones legales y reglamentarias chocan con ciertas limitaciones de la normativa administrativa general aplicable: así ocurre singularmente con el principio registral de legitimación en relación con aquellos mecanismos de control en vía administrativa cuya puesta en marcha corresponde de oficio a la propia Administración Pública./The configuration of the Registries of Cooperatives as administrative instruments withlegal effect, raises a series of difficulties of doubtless practical importance. Out of them, wecan underline one: the control behind the registration activity.In this sense, the multiplying number of norms that shape current legal cooperativescene, may involve many divergent resolutions that, on top of the issues caused behind apotential excess of competence, may also has consequences on both the legal security as wellas on the nature and reach of the judicial control.On the other hand, the hybrid character of the Registries of Cooperatives may needsome adjustments whose solution is not always clear, due to the legal and legitimateassessments mismatching some restrictions of the applicable general administrative norm.This can be illustrated behind the registry principle of legitimacy, related to

  15. Factors controlling black carbon distribution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ling; Li, Qinbin; Li, Yinrui; He, Cenlin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, including BC concentration in snow (BCsnow, ng g-1) and surface air (BCair, ng m-3), as well as emissions, dry deposition, and wet scavenging using the global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (CTM) GEOS-Chem. We find that the model underestimates BCsnow in the Arctic by 40 % on average (median = 11.8 ng g-1). Natural gas flaring substantially increases total BC emissions in the Arctic (by ˜ 70 %). The flaring emissions lead to up to 49 % increases (0.1-8.5 ng g-1) in Arctic BCsnow, dramatically improving model comparison with observations (50 % reduction in discrepancy) near flaring source regions (the western side of the extreme north of Russia). Ample observations suggest that BC dry deposition velocities over snow and ice in current CTMs (0.03 cm s-1 in the GEOS-Chem) are too small. We apply the resistance-in-series method to compute a dry deposition velocity (vd) that varies with local meteorological and surface conditions. The resulting velocity is significantly larger and varies by a factor of 8 in the Arctic (0.03-0.24 cm s-1), which increases the fraction of dry to total BC deposition (16 to 25 %) yet leaves the total BC deposition and BCsnow in the Arctic unchanged. This is largely explained by the offsetting higher dry and lower wet deposition fluxes. Additionally, we account for the effect of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process in mixed-phase clouds, which releases BC particles from condensed phases (water drops and ice crystals) back to the interstitial air and thereby substantially reduces the scavenging efficiency of clouds for BC (by 43-76 % in the Arctic). The resulting BCsnow is up to 80 % higher, BC loading is considerably larger (from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2), and BC lifetime is markedly prolonged (from 9 to 16 days) in the Arctic. Overall, flaring emissions increase BCair in the Arctic (by ˜ 20 ng m-3), the updated vd more than halves BCair (by ˜ 20 ng m-3

  16. FACTORES ASOCIADOS AL CUMPLIMIENTO DE LAS RECOMENDACIONES SOBRE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN POBLACIÓN TRABAJADORA DE ENTRE 40 Y 55 AÑOS DE EDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Moreno-Franco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos:La inactividad física continúa siendo un problema desalud pública a nivel mundial. El objetivo del presente estudio fue deter-minar la adherencia a las recomendaciones de actividad física (AF esta-blecidas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS de una muestrade trabajadores españoles, así como analizar su asociación con diferentesfactores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV, indicadores sociodemográficosy de estilo de vida.Métodos:Estudio tranversal con 2.651 participantes en la cohorte delAragon Workers’ Health Study(AWHS (2.428 varones y 133 mujeres, conedades comprendidas entre los 40-55 años. Se dividió a la población en dosgrupos en función de si habían cumplido o no durante el último año lasrecomendaciones sobre AF establecidas por la OMS, teniendo en cuenta lasactividades relacionadas con la ocupación, ocio y recreación y desplaza-mientos. Se registraron variables sociodemográficas, antropométricas, clí-nicas, farmacológicas y de estilo de vida entre los años 2011-2014. Se cal-cularon la mediana y el intervalo intercuartílico para variables cuantitativasy la distribución de frecuencias para las categóricas. Se estimó un modelode regresión logística binaria crudo y ajustado para analizar la probabilidadde cumplir las recomendaciones de AF en función del número de FRCV(hipertensión, dislipemia, diabetes, obesidad y tabaquismo.Resultados:El 47,0% de participantes cumplían las recomendaciones.El cumplimiento fue del 39,7% en hipertensos, del 38,7% en dislipémicos y32,7% en diabéticos. El 51,3% reportó no realizar AF o realizar una AF lige-ra, el 20,2% moderada y el 28,5% vigorosa o muy vigorosa. Los resultadosmostraron cómo a medida que aumentaba el número de FRCV disminuíala probabilidad de adherirse a las recomendaciones: 1 FRCV (OR: 0,62;95%CI: 0,49-0,78, 2 FRCV (OR: 0,49; 95%CI: 0,38-0,62, 3 FRCV (OR:0,34; 95%CI: 0,25-0,46, 4 FRCV (OR: 0,19; 95%CI: 0,11-0,32.Conclusiones

  17. Factores que influyen en la confianza en los medios: explorando la asociación entre el consumo de medios y las noticias sobre el Movimiento 15M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Fernández-Planells

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de los movimientos sociales en red ha intensificado el debate sobre la confianza del consumidor en los medios tradicionales. Especialmente, debido a la cobertura mediática de las protestas, la aparición de los medios de comunicación alternativos y a la emergencia de las redes sociales como fuentes de información. A través de los resultados de una encuesta realizada en la #acampadabcn, la plaza ocupada por el Movimiento 15M en Barcelona, se estudia la asociación entre la exposición a los medios de comunicación, la confianza en ellos y la participación política en los movimientos sociales en red, específicamente, entre los activistas del Movimiento 15M. Los resultados indican que los usuarios de medios digitales políticamente involucrados conceden más confianza a la información difundida por los medios alternativos que por los medios convencionales. Por otra parte, la exposición a los medios sociales se asocia con la confianza en los medios, mientras que la edad y el sexo no. Eso significa que, a mayor uso de los medios alternativos y sociales, menor es la confianza en la información proporcionada por los medios tradicionales. En cambio, entre aquellos que no utilizan los medios sociales y son consumidores de medios tradicionales, encontramos mayores porcentajes de confianza en los medios convencionales.

  18. CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE INFECTION: RISK FACTORS, DIAGNOSIS AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhelil Koleci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI has changed over the past decade. In addition to dramatic worldwide increases in incidence, new CDI populations are emerging. These populations include patients with community acquired infections with no previous antibiotic exposure, children, pregnant women and patients with IBD. Diagnosis of CDIs requires the identification of C. difficile toxin A or B in diarrheal stool. Current diagnostic tests, however, remains inadequate and an optimal diagnostic testing algorithm has not yet been defined. Metronidazole and vancomycin are currently first-line agents for CDI treatment. Vancomycine, however, has demonstrated superior efficacy and therefore is the preferred agent in patients with severe infections. As with many antibiotics, the incidence of treatment failure with metronidazole is increasing, thereby emphasizing the need to find alternative treatments. Disease recurrence continues to occur in 20-40% of patients and its treatment remains challenging. In patients who develop fulminant colitis from a CDI, early surgical consultation is essential. Intravenous immunoglobulin and tigecycline have been used in patients with severe refractory disease, however delaying surgery may be associated with worse outcomes. Due to the risk of horizontal transmission of C.difficile infection control measures are necessary. Animals may serve as reservoirs for humans. Ongoing research by human and veterinary scientist into, epidemiology, diagnosis, effective treatment protocols and prevention are essential.

  19. Carbohydrate as a factor controlling leaf development in cocoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, R.C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Cocoa shows growth periodicity of the shoot apex where periods of active new leaf development (flushing) alternate with periods of dormancy (Interflush). This thesis presents the results of an investigation into the characteristics of leaf growth, and the production and translocation of photosynthate/carbohydrate between source and sink leaves aimed to investigate the possible role of plant carbohydrate status in the control of the intermittent leaf production. The photosynthetic capacity of mature leaves did not increase during the phase of major increase in carbohydrate consumption by developing leaves but rather decreased slightly. Translocation of assimilated /sup 14/carbon from mature leaves was however significantly increased during phase of rapid expansion of the new leaves. Compensatory changes in the /sup 14/carbon-export from a single remaining source leaf after defoliation showed that mature leaves normally operate much below both their maximum photosynthate loading capacity and export potential. Partial removal of developing leaves within one flush resulted in increased /sup 14/C-photosynthate import into the remaining leaf showing that a developing leaf has a greater import and unloading potential than that utilized during its development in one normal flush.

  20. Factors controlling carbon metabolism and humification in different soil agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the processes that control humic carbon sequestration in soil. Three experimental sites differing in terms of management system and climate were selected: (i) Abanilla-Spain, soil treated with municipal solid wastes in Mediterranean semiarid climate; (ii) Puch-Germany, soil under intensive tillage and conventional agriculture in continental climate; and (iii) Alberese-Italy, soil under organic and conventional agriculture in Mediterranean subarid climate. The chemical-structural and biochemical soil properties at the initial sampling time and one year later were evaluated. The soils under organic (Alberese, soil cultivated with Triticum durum Desf.) and nonintensive management practices (Puch, soil cultivated with Triticum aestivum L. and Avena sativa L.) showed higher enzymatically active humic carbon, total organic carbon, humification index (B/E(3)s), and metabolic potential (dehydrogenase activity/water soluble carbon) if compared with conventional agriculture and plough-based tillage, respectively. In Abanilla, the application of municipal solid wastes stimulated the specific β-glucosidase activity (extracellular β-glucosidase activity/extractable humic carbon) and promoted the increase of humic substances with respect to untreated soil. The evolution of the chemical and biochemical status of the soils along a climatic gradient suggested that the adoption of certain management practices could be very promising in increasing SOC sequestration potential.

  1. Factors Controlling Carbon Metabolism and Humification in Different Soil Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Doni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the processes that control humic carbon sequestration in soil. Three experimental sites differing in terms of management system and climate were selected: (i Abanilla-Spain, soil treated with municipal solid wastes in Mediterranean semiarid climate; (ii Puch-Germany, soil under intensive tillage and conventional agriculture in continental climate; and (iii Alberese-Italy, soil under organic and conventional agriculture in Mediterranean subarid climate. The chemical-structural and biochemical soil properties at the initial sampling time and one year later were evaluated. The soils under organic (Alberese, soil cultivated with Triticum durum Desf. and nonintensive management practices (Puch, soil cultivated with Triticum aestivum L. and Avena sativa L. showed higher enzymatically active humic carbon, total organic carbon, humification index (B/E3s, and metabolic potential (dehydrogenase activity/water soluble carbon if compared with conventional agriculture and plough-based tillage, respectively. In Abanilla, the application of municipal solid wastes stimulated the specific β-glucosidase activity (extracellular β-glucosidase activity/extractable humic carbon and promoted the increase of humic substances with respect to untreated soil. The evolution of the chemical and biochemical status of the soils along a climatic gradient suggested that the adoption of certain management practices could be very promising in increasing SOC sequestration potential.

  2. Factors controlling seasonal variations in Arctic black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z.; Ming, Y.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic haze has a distinct seasonality with higher concentrations in winter and spring. This study evaluates how different processes of large-scale circulation and removal control seasonal variations in Arctic black carbon (BC) using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric general circulation model (AM3). We find that transport and wet deposition play unequal roles in determining Arctic BC seasonal cycle. Despite seasonal differences in general circulation patterns, the eddy-driven BC transport changes little throughout the year, and the seasonal cycle of Arctic BC is attributed to wet removal. BC hydrophilic fraction affected by the aging process and hydrophilic BC (BCpi) wet deposition rate affected by cloud microphysics determine wet deposition. Both low hydrophilic fraction and low wet deposition rate account for the peak of BC in winter. The transition to low BC in summer results from an increase in wet deposition rate, while the return of BC in late autumn is mainly caused by a sharp decrease in hydrophilic fraction. The results suggest that the concentrations of Arctic aerosols as well as their climate impacts may be susceptible to modification in a future climate.

  3. Factors controlling navigation-channel Shoaling in Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Nava, R.C.; Arhelger, M.

    2001-01-01

    Shoaling in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Laguna Madre, Tex., is caused primarily by recycling of dredged sediments. Sediment recycling, which is controlled by water depth and location with respect to the predominant wind-driven currents, is minimal where dredged material is placed on tidal flats that are either flooded infrequently or where the water is extremely shallow. In contrast, nearly all of the dredged material placed in open water >1.5 m deep is reworked and either transported back into the channel or dispersed into the surrounding lagoon. A sediment flux analysis incorporating geotechnical properties demonstrated that erosion and not postemplacement compaction caused most sediment losses from the placement areas. Comparing sediment properties in the placement areas and natural lagoon indicated that the remaining dredged material is mostly a residual of initial channel construction. Experimental containment designs (shallow subaqueous mound, submerged levee, and emergent levee) constructed in high-maintenance areas to reduce reworking did not retain large volumes of dredged material. The emergent levee provided the greatest retention potential approximately 2 years after construction.

  4. Factores de riesgo asociados con el intento suicida y criterios sobre lo ocurrido en adolescentes Risk factors associated with the suicide attempt and the criteria on it happened in the adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cortés Alfaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las tentativas de suicidio se han incrementado considerablemente antes de los 20 años en las últimas décadas. Objetivos: identificar los factores de riesgo asociados con los intentos suicidas en adolescentes de 10 a 19 años. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico (casos controles pareados de los adolescentes que tuvieron intento de suicidio en la provincia de Cienfuegos durante el segundo semestre de 2007. Se calcularon porcentajes y medias aritméticas, para identificar asociación se utilizó la prueba chi cuadrado de Mantel y Haenszel y cálculo de odds ratio, sus intervalos de confianza y significación para a= 0,05. Resultados: se identificó asociación con el intento de suicidio de las variables siguientes: deseos de hacerse daño, elaboración de planes anteriores para cometer dicho acto, presencia de desesperanza, maltrato físico, disputa, desconfianza y malas relaciones con los padres, antecedentes familiares de suicidio y enfermedad psiquiátrica, sentirse atormentado, y problemas con la pareja, entre otros. Se encontró que un 9,0 % de los adolescentes estudiados manifestaron no arrepentimiento o sin crítica de lo ocurrido. Conclusiones: existieron factores personales y familiares asociados con los intentos de suicidio, así como un alto porcentaje de adolescentes que intentaron suicidarse con crítica o arrepentimiento de lo ocurrido.Introduction: suicide attempts have increased before the twenties in past decades. Objectives: to identify the risk factors associated with the suicide attempts in adolescents aged 10-19. Methods: an analytical study (matched case-controls was conducted in adolescents with a suicide attempt in the Cienfuegos province during the second semester of 2007. The percentages and arithmetic means were estimated to identify the association we used the Mantel-Haenszel Chi2 test and the odds-ratio calculus, its confidence and signification interval (IC for a= 0,05. Results: the

  5. Influência das condições climáticas sobre a eficácia de fungicidas empregados para o controle do míldio em Vitis vinifera Effect of environmental conditions on efficacy of fungicides to downy mildew control in Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Costa Czermainski

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fatores a serem manejados para a máxima produtividade de um vinhedo é o míldio, doença causada por Plasmopara viticola, que afeta regiões produtoras de uva do mundo inteiro. No Brasil, são necessárias diversas aplicações de fungicida para seu controle. Diferentes princípios ativos são encontrados no mercado. Com base em resultados de ensaios de fungicidas para controle do míldio em Vitis vinifera conduzidos em 1995 e 1996, foi analisada a influência dos fatores climáticos temperatura do ar, precipitação e umidade relativa do ar sobre a eficácia dos produtos disponíveis. Os experimentos foram instalados na Embrapa Uva e Vinho, sobre a cv. Tannat, conduzida no sistema espaldeira. A análise dos fatores ambientais apontou períodos de infecções primárias e secundárias. A maior ocorrência de chuvas e alta umidade relativa do ar foram determinantes da maior severidade do míldio no ano de 1996. A análise da incidência e do índice de intensidade de doença em folhas e em cachos, indicou maior eficácia dos fungicidas cymoxanil + mancozeb, metalaxil + mancozeb e dithianona, nos dois anos. Os princípios ativos cúpricos - oxicloreto de cobre, isolado ou combinado com mancozeb, e sulfato de cobre - não foram eficazes para controlar o míldio nos cachos sob condições climáticas favoráveis à doença.One of the factors to be managed for maximum vineyard productivity is the downy mildew, disease caused by Plasmopara viticola that affects grape production in many parts of the world. In Brazil, several fungicide applications for its control are necessary. Different active ingredients are available on the market. The influence of climatic factors (air temperature, rainfall and relative humidity on fungicide efficacy in Vitis vinifera was analyzed using results of fungicide trials for downy mildew control as a base. The experiments were carried out at Embrapa Uva e Vinho with the cv. Tannat conducted on vertical trellis

  6. Southern Carpathian rock glaciers: Inventory, distribution and environmental controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaca, Alexandru; Ardelean, Florina; Urdea, Petru; Magori, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Rock glaciers are valuable diagnostic landforms indicating permafrost creeping during their genesis and activity. Based on the analysis of high quality air-orthophoto and field work, a first polygon-based inventory of rock glaciers from the Southern Carpathians has been elaborated. In total, 306 rock glaciers were included in the inventory comprising 79 debris and 227 talus rock glaciers. Most of these landforms were classified as relict (258), while only 48, covering 2.81 km2, were considered intact. The size of rock glaciers, considered as a proxy for past environmental conditions, and the relationships with the predictor variables (lithology, aspect, contributing area, geographic coordinates, elevation and slope range) were analysed using bivariate statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and various post hoc tests. The statistical analysis revealed that the rock glaciers occurring in the highest mountain ranges in areas composed of granites and granodiorites are considerably larger than the others, because their duration of activity is greater. Strong dependences between rock glacier size and other topographic attributes (contributing area, aspect and slope range) were also confirmed. The rock glacier distribution in the Southern Carpathians is clearly controlled by topography, lithology and debris availability. The abundance of rock glaciers increases with altitude, but their size decreases slightly. In mountain units where granites and granodiorites predominate (Retezat and Parâng Mountains), the density of rock glaciers and the mean specific area covered by these spectacular landforms are considerably higher than in other areas. The higher continentality effects of the Southern Carpathians enabled the formation of rock glaciers at substantially lower elevations than in the Alps. The mean altitude of intact rock glaciers front, which could be used as a morphological indicator of discontinuous permafrost, is located at 2088 m.

  7. Resíduos de calda sulfocálcica sobre a eficiência de acaricidas no controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis Lime sulfur residue on acaricide efficiency in the control of Brevipalpus phoenicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Junior de Andrade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a influência dos resíduos de calda sulfocálcica sobre a eficiência de acaricidas empregados no controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis. Inicialmente, o experimento foi instalado em um pomar de citros, em que foram selecionadas 10 plantas que continham frutos com verrugose. Realizou-se a aplicação de calda sulfocálcica (8g i.a. L-1 de água em cinco plantas e as outras cinco plantas permaneceram sem aplicação de produto fitossanitário. Protegeram-se, com copos de plástico transparente de 500mL, 64 frutos nas plantas tratadas com calda e 64 frutos nas plantas não-tratadas, totalizando 128 frutos protegidos. Decorridos 30 dias da aplicação, os frutos foram colhidos e levados para o laboratório. Estes frutos foram parcialmente parafinados, deixando-se em cada fruto uma arena de 2,5cm de diâmetro com verrugose e sem parafina, delimitada com cola entomológica. Em seguida, procedeu-se à aplicação sobre os frutos em Torre de Potter dos seguintes acaricidas nas concentrações expressas em mg de ingrediente ativo por litro de água: propargite a 720mg, óxido de fenbutatina a 400mg, cyhexatin a 250mg, azocyclotin a 250mg, fenpyroximate a 50mg, dicofol a 960mg e dinocap a 738mg e a testemunha sem aplicação de acaricida. Após 1, 7 e 16 dias da aplicação, transferiram-se para cada fruto 10 ácaros B. phoenicis para avaliar a mortalidade. Constatou-se que os resíduos de calda sulfocálcica não prejudicaram a eficiência dos acaricidas avaliados no controle de B. phoenicis.The objective was to assess the influence of lime sulfur residues on the acaricidal efficiency against Brevipalpus phoenicis mite. Initially, the experiment was conducted in a citrus orchard where 10 plants presenting scab fruits were selected. Secondly, the application of lime sulfur (8mg a.i. L-1 of water was performed in five plants, and the other five plants remained without application. Next lime sulfur application, 64 fruits in

  8. Digital power factor control and reactive power regulation for grid-connected photovoltaic inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassaine, L. [Power Electronics Systems Group, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria); Olias, E.; Quintero, J. [Power Electronics Systems Group, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Haddadi, M. [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-01-15

    The overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to the grid depends on the efficiency of direct current (DC) of the solar modules to alternate current (AC) inverter conversion. The requirements for inverter connection include: maximum power point, high efficiency, control power injected into the grid, high power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the currents injected into the grid. An approach to power factor control and reactive power regulation for PV systems connected to the grid using field programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. According to the grid demands; both the injected active and reactive powers are controlled. In this paper, a new digital control strategy for a single-phase inverter is carried out. This control strategy is based on the phase shift between the inverter output voltage and the grid voltage, and the digital sinusoidal pulse width modulation (DSPWM) patterns, in order to control the power factor for a wide range of the inverter output current and consequently the control and the regulation of the reactive power will be achieved. The advantage of the proposed control strategy is its implementation around simple digital circuits. In this work, a simulation study of this strategy has been realized using Matlab/Simulink and PSIM. In order to validate its performance, this control has been implemented in a FPGA. Experimental tests have been carried out demonstrating the viability of this control in order to control the power factor and the injected power into the grid. (author)

  9. Creencias y representaciones de los profesores de lenguas extranjeras sobre la influencia de los factores motivacionales y emocionales en los alumnos y en las alumnas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr??guez-P??rez, Nieves

    2014-01-01

    En el contexto del aula encontramos alumnos que se implican activamente en el aprendizaje de idiomas, para los cuales aprender otra lengua-cultura resulta gratificante. Sin embargo, otros muestran desinter??s y dificultad. El entusiasmo de unos o el desencanto de otros suele explicarse como el efecto de los factores motivacionales-afectivos que genera en el aprendiz la adquisici??n de otro idioma. Nos preguntamos, adem??s, si estos factores influyen de manera diferente en los a...

  10. Nursing students' perception regarding predicting factors of drugs use Percepción de las estudiantes de enfermería sobre los predictores del uso de drogas Percepção de estudantes de enfermagem sobre os preditores do uso de drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsyna Montoya de Abarca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the perception of 264 (33.2% nursing students from the Professionalization and Regular groups regarding predicting factors of drugs consumption shows these students consume alcohol and tobacco and view alcohol as a leading factor in the consumption of drugs. The Professionalization group consumes tranquilizers and stimulants at a higher rate than the Regular group. The Professionalization students argue that they have to deal with an excessive personal load: career, job, family and stress. According to them, these factors motivate the consumption of tranquilizers and stimulants. The Professionalization group views the family and religion as protective factors; friends and school, on the other hand, are considered risk factors. Both groups consider drug users as amoral and addicts. The present study provides indicators that can support real actions aimed at improving the education of nursing personnel.Al estudiar la percepción de 264 (33.2% estudiantes de enfermería del grupo de Profesionalización y del grupo Regular sobre los factores que predicen el consumo de drogas entre estudiantes, se evidencia que éstos consumen alcohol y tabaco y perciben el alcohol como una propensión al consumo de drogas; el grupo de Profesionalización consume, además, tranquilizantes y estimulantes en mayor porcentaje que los estudiantes del grupo Regular. El grupo de Profesionalización percibe la familia y la iglesia como factores protectores, y de riesgo al grupo de amigos y la escuela. Igualmente, este mismo grupo considera entre las motivaciones para el uso la excesiva carga (estudio, trabajo y familia y el estrés; percibe a los usuarios de drogas como amorales y viciosos. El factor de riesgo es la escuela, y los protectores la sociedad, la iglesia y la familia. Ese estudio nos da indicadores para replantearse acciones concretas en la formación del personal de enfermería.Ao estudar a percepção de 264 (33,2% estudantes de enfermagem, do

  11. RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS FOR GASTRIC METAPLASIA AND CANCER: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN ECUADOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Iván; Mercado, Andrés; Bravo, Gabriela Liliana; Baldeón, Manuel; Fornasini, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el cáncer de estómago ocupa la quinta posición entre los cánceres más frecuentes en el mundo, con 952.000 casos diagnosticados en el 2012. El Ecuador ocupa el 15º lugar entre los países con la incidencia más alta de cáncer gástrico en ambos sexos. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los factores de protección y de riesgo para cáncer/metaplasia gástrico. Métodos: se realizó un estudio hospitalario de casos y controles en la ciudad de Quito, Ecuador. Se definieron como casos a los pacientes con diagnóstico histológico confirmado de cáncer gástrico (N = 60) o con metaplasia gástrica incompleta (N = 53). Se definieron como controles a los pacientes sin cáncer gástrico o lesiones premalignas (N = 144). A todos los pacientes se les realizó una entrevista personalizada utilizando un cuestionario estructurado para recoger datos sobre hábitos dietéticos, estilo de vida e historia clínica. Resultados: los factores de riesgo asociados significativamente con el diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico/metaplasia fueron el consumo de alimentos recalentados al menos tres veces a la semana, (AOR: 4,57; CI: 2,2 – 9,5) y añadir sal a más del 50% de las comidas (AOR: 1,32; CI: 1,04 – 1,67). Los factores de protección asociados significativamente para no desarrollar cáncer/metaplasia gástrico fueron el uso de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AOR: 0,39; CI 0,19 – 0,83), edad menor a 58 años (AOR: 0,38; CI: 0,18 – 0,79) y haber recibido tratamiento para la infección por H. Pylori (AOR: 0,33; CI: 0,16 – 0,71). Conclusiones: este estudio reporta por primera vez los factores de riesgo y de protección asociados con el cáncer/ metaplasia gástrico en Ecuador.

  12. Investigação do controle por regras e do controle por histórias de reforço sobre o comportamento humano Investigation of rule control by controlling the effetcts of reinforcement history on human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Albuquerque

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou, com 16 universitários, o papel da história de reforço e da densidade relativa de reforço no seguimento de regra. Utilizou-se um procedimento de escolha segundo o modelo, com 3 estímulos de comparação; a tarefa consistia em apontar cada um dos 3 estímulos de comparação, em seqüência, de acordo com a dimensão (Cor, Espessura ou Forma em comum com o modelo. As Fases 1, 2, 3 e 4 eram iniciadas, respectivamente, por instruções mínimas, regra discrepante (especificava a seqüência FCE, correspondente (especificava EFC e discrepante. A seqüência CEF era a única reforçada em todas as fases. Na Fase 3, EFC era reforçada concorrentemente com CEF (concorrente FR2 FR6 e concorrente FR6 FR2. Nenhuma outra seqüência era reforçada. Observou-se tanto controle por regras quanto pela história de reforço, sob condições específicas. Os resultados têm implicações para a distinção entre o comportamento controlado por regras e o controlado por contingências.This study investigated the role of experimental history and of relative density of reinforcement on rule following behavior. Sixteen undergraduate students participated. Under a matching-to-sample procedure, with 3 comparison stimuli, the participants were asked to point the comparisons in sequence, according to their dimension, Color, Thickness or Form, in common to the sample. At the beginning of Phases 1, 2, 3 and 4, participants were exposed, respectively, to minimal instructions, a discrepant rule (specifying a non reinforced sequence, a corresponding rule (specifying a TFC sequence and a repeated discrepant rule. Only the CTF sequence was reinforced in all phases. In Phase 3, two sequences, TFC and CTF, were concurrently reinforced (Concurrent FR 2 FR6 and FR2 FR6. Control by rules and by reinforcement history were both observed, under specific conditions. These findings have implications for drawing a distinction between behaviors controlled by

  13. Estudio numérico de explosiones en túneles y aplicación de la norma UNE 22.381/93 sobre control de vibraciones

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Hernández, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    En este proyecto se estudiarán las respuestas que sobre el terreno, recubrimiento de hormigón y superficie provocan diversas explosiones, se comentarán los métodos tradicionales más importantes en la ejecución de túneles continuando con los sistemas de anclaje y revestimientos típicos tanto para métodos convencionales, cómo para el ejecutado mediante tuneladora. Se analizará y comentarán los diversos tipos de ondas provocadas por explosiones, comentando de igual modo el fenómeno ondulatorio y...

  14. Optimal Fuzzy PID Controller with Adjustable Factors and Its Application to Intelligent Artificial Legs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Guanzheng(谭冠政); Xiao Hongfeng; Wang Yuechao

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of optimal fuzzy PID controller is proposed, which contains two parts. One is an on-line fuzzy inference mechanism and another is a conventional PID controller. In the fuzzy inference mechanism, three adjustable factors xp, xi, and xd are introduced. Their function is to further modify and optimize the result of the fuzzy inference to make the controller have the optimal control effect on a given object. The optimal values of these factors are determined based on the ITAE criterion and the flexible polyhedron search algorithm of Nelder and Mead. This PID controller has been used to control a D.C. motor of the intelligent artificial leg designed by the authors. The result of computer simulation indicates that the design of this controller is very effective and can be widely used to control different kinds of objects and processes.

  15. Optimal fuzzy PID controller with adjustable factors based on flexible polyhedron search algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭冠政; 肖宏峰; 王越超

    2002-01-01

    A new kind of optimal fuzzy PID controller is proposed, which contains two parts. One is an on-line fuzzy inference system, and the other is a conventional PID controller. In the fuzzy inference system, three adjustable factors xp, xi, and xd are introduced. Their functions are to further modify and optimize the result of the fuzzy inference so as to make the controller have the optimal control effect on a given object. The optimal values of these adjustable factors are determined based on the ITAE criterion and the Nelder and Mead′s flexible polyhedron search algorithm. This optimal fuzzy PID controller has been used to control the executive motor of the intelligent artificial leg designed by the authors. The result of computer simulation indicates that this controller is very effective and can be widely used to control different kinds of objects and processes.

  16. Geological factors controlling radon hazardous concentration in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylibski, T. A.

    2009-04-01

    Radon waters are classified as waters containing more than 100 Bq/L of Rn-222. In many regions radon groundwaters are commonly used as a tap waters. Exploitation of radon groundwater without removing radon out of water in the intake may be hazardous for the consumers. Radon removing is relatively simple and cheap, and may be achieved trough the degassing of tapped water. The following factors are crucial for the genesis of radon (Rn-222) and changes in its concentration in groundwaters: the content of parent Ra-226 in the reservoir rock, the emanation coefficient of the reservoir rock, mixing of various groundwater components. Simplifying the geochemical characterisctics of Ra-226, one can say that the highest radium contents outside uranium deposits could be expected above all in crystalline rocks such as granites, ryolites and gneisses, and among sedimentary rocks - in fine-grained rocks - mudstones and clay rocks. Therefore the highest content of Rn-222 is characteristic of groundwaters flowing through the abovementioned rocks. What is very important for the genesis of groundwater dissolved Rn-222 is not only the total content of Ra-226 in the aquifer, but also the distribution of this isotope's atoms in relation to the surface of mineral grains (crystals) and crack surfaces. Only if Ra-226 atoms lie in the outer zone of grains (crystals), they can be the source of Rn-222 atoms released directly or indirectly into pores and fissures. If the pores and fissures are filled with free groundwater, then the radon dissolved in this water can migrate with it. Therefore particularly high Rn-222 concentration values can be expected in groundwaters circulating in zones of strongly cracked reservoir rocks, i.e. in the weathering zone, reaching the depth of several dozen meters below ground surface, as well as in zones of brittle tectonic deformations. The number of Rn-222 atoms formed in groundwater as a result of the decay of Ra-226 ion (Ra2+) dissolved in this water

  17. Estudio sobre los Factores Contables que Influencian el Índice FIRJAN de Desarrollo Municipal (IFDM en las Capitales Brasileñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Camargos Avelino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El impacto de los gastos públicos sobre el desarrollo de un municipio puede ser considerado una preocupación constante por parte de los gobernantes. En ese escenario, como el ciudadano es llamado a contribuir compulsoriamente, por medio de tributos, para el mantenimiento de la estructura de la máquina administrativa municipal, este tiene especial interés en la maximización del desarrollo humano de la colectividad, siendo tal desarrollo pasible de ser medido por el Índice FIRJAN de Desarrollo Municipal (IFDM. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en identificar las variables contables condicionantes del IFDM de las capitales brasileñas, de modo a permitir evaluar la relevancia de la información contable en el índice en cuestión. Para tal, fueron abordadas cuestiones referentes a la accountability y transparencia en la gestión pública, así como al papel de la evidenciación contable en la reducción de la asimetría informacional existente en la relación entre los ciudadanos y los gobernantes electos. En relación a los procedimientos metodológicos, se estimó un modelo de datos en panel a partir del cruzamiento de los datos del IFDM de las capitales brasileñas, considerado una importante herramienta de gestión pública y accountability democrática, referente a los ejercicios de 2005 a 2010, con los datos de diecisiete variables contables. Los resultados mostraron que las variables Intereses y Gastos de la Deuda, Gasto de Capital, Inversiones, gastos con Cultura y Asistencia Social, y Transferencias Corrientes presentaron una asociación estadísticamente significativa con el IFDM total de los entes públicos seleccionados, permitiendo constatar que informaciones contables poseen relevancia en la determinación del IFDM de los capitales analizados. Esta situación corrobora la afirmativa de cuño teórico según la cual los gastos gubernamentales, registrados por la contabilidad, afectan al desarrollo de un municipio. De esa

  18. Correction factor based double model fuzzy logic control strategy of arc voltage in pulsed MIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kaiyuan; Huang Shisheng; Meng Yongmin

    2005-01-01

    According to the feature of arc voltage control in welding steel using pulsed MIG welding, a correction factor based double model fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was developed to realize the arc voltage control by means of arc voltage feedback.When the error of peak arc voltage was great, a coarse adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed,in the controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the wire feeding speed by means of arc voltage feedback. When the error of peak arc voltage was small, a fine adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed, in this controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the background time by means of arc voltage feedback. The FLC was realized in a Look-Up Table ( LUT) method. Experiments had been carried out aiming at implementing the control strategy to control the arc length change in welding process. Experimental results show that the controller proposed enables the consistency of arc length and the stabolity of arc voltage and welding process to be achieved in pulsed MIG welding process.

  19. Factores que influyen sobre la conducta de una persona frente al riesgo de emprender un negocio en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Samaniego Alcántar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El desempleo y la baja calidad de los empleos existentes, han creado la necesidad de emprender y pasar de ser empleado a emprendedor. Sin embargo, existen algunos factores que caracterizan a este comportamiento. La presente investigación identifica algunos de los factores que incrementan en una persona el riesgo de emprender un negocio en América Latina. Los principales factores que influyen en este comportamiento son: la experiencia, el conocimiento, la habilidad y la edad entre las once variables utilizadas en el periodo 2009-2011. Los modelos de redes neuronales utilizados clasifican a la variable dependiente (miedo al fracaso con un porcentaje de acierto del 68% en el periodo de estudio.

  20. Estudio sobre los factores internos y externos que inciden en el éxito o fracaso de los emprendimientos en la ciudad de Cuenca, estudio aplicado en pymes

    OpenAIRE

    Neira Salazar, Freddy Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación describe y analiza los factores que inciden en la creación de Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (pymes), que nacen de emprendimientos que han logrado sostenibilidad. Se realizaron entrevistas a propietarios de pymes y se aplicaron escalas para identificar estrategias y factores que influyen en el éxito de un negocio. Como resultado se determinó la falta de apoyo del sector financiero, el cómo miembros de la sociedad sin formación especializada han logrado permanecer con s...

  1. CREENCIAS SOBRE EL ORIGEN DE LOS FACTORES DE RIESGO PARA PADECER HIPERTENSIÓN ARTERIAL EN UN GRUPO DE PACIENTES HIPERTENSOS MEXICANOS

    OpenAIRE

    RT Arrieta-Pérez; F. Garfías-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar las creencias que sustentan el origen de los factores de riesgo en la Hipertensión Arterial en un grupo de pacientes hipertensos. Material y Métodos, Estudio cualitativo de tipo etnográfico desde la perspectiva de la teoría fundamentada. Se entrevistó a 16 pacientes hipertensos, adscritos a una Unidad de Medicina Familiar de la ciudad de México. A partir de la revisión de la literatura médica se conformaron las categorías para el análisis, se integró cada factor de riesg...

  2. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling temperatures (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  3. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.

  4. Consideraciones criminológicas sobre las bandas juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Juanjo

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo ofrece una serie de reflexiones originales sobre la definición de las bandas juveniles y resume algunos de los debates claves en el campo de investigación sobre bandas. En particular, se presta especial atención a los estudios sobre la relación entre bandas y delincuencia, las teorías que explican la formación de las bandas y los factores que empujan a los jóvenes a vincularse a las mismas, los estudios sobre respuestas de política criminal a este fenómeno, ...

  5. Nacionalismo metodológico y control subjetivo: una investigación sobre las redes de consejeros y las de accionistas en España y Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Pizarro Ponce de la Torre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora dos problemas teóricos estrechamente ligados: el concepto de control en el gobierno de las empresas y el nacionalismo metodoló - gico implícito en el tipo de conjuntos de datos usados en la mayoría de los aná - lisis estructurales del poder económico. El soporte empírico está constituido por cuatro redes: las de las mayores empresas españolas relacionadas por consejeros comunes, el mismo tipo de red para las mayores empresas francesas y las redes constituidas por las mismas empresas de ambos países relacionas por inversores comunes. Se analizan las consecuencias de elegir uno u otro tipo de relaciones – consejeros comunes o inversores comunes - sobre el carácter nacional de sus respectivas estructuras. Aparece que el uso de redes de relaciones derivadas de los mayores inversores de cada empresa conduce a la difuminación del carácter nacional inicial de los dos conjuntos de empresas. Y también cuestiona las ideas aceptadas sobre la naturaleza del control de la actividad empresarial.

  6. Neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm babies: case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, D. J.; Hope, P. L.; Johnson, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy among very preterm babies and in particular the associations independent of the coexistence of antenatal and intrapartum factors. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Oxford health region. SUBJECTS: Singleton babies born between 1984 and 1990 at less than 32 weeks' gestation who survived to discharge from hospital: 59 with cerebral palsy and 234 randomly selected controls without cerebral palsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse neo...

  7. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  8. Violência sobre Crianças

    OpenAIRE

    Sacadura, Catarina Brito; Aragão, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Trata-se de um estudo de revisão sobre a violência exercida sobre crianças, os agentes da violência, os sujeitos da violência, os factores de risco, as consequências na idade adulta e a recidividade de violência sexual.

  9. Voltage-Sensitive Load Controllers for Voltage Regulation and Increased Load Factor in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    consumption which can be mapped to temperature setpoint offsets of thermostat controlled loads. In networks where a lower voltage level corresponds to high system load (and vice versa), this controller acts to regulate voltage and increase the load factor. Simulations are conducted on low- and medium-voltage......This paper presents a novel controller design for controlling appliances based on local measurements of voltage. The controller finds the normalized voltage deviation accounting for the sensitivity of voltage measurements to appliance state. The controller produces a signal indicating desired power...... distribution systems with residential loads including voltage-sensitive water heaters. In low-voltage systems, the results of the simulations show the controller to be effective at reducing the extremes of voltage and increasing the load factor while respecting end-use temperature constraints. In medium-voltage...

  10. Measuring Learned Resourcefulness in College Students: Factor Structure of the Self-Control Schedule (SCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Benedict T.; Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Townsend, Katesy C.

    2008-01-01

    Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS) has been used as a unidimensional measure of Learned Resourcefulness (LR) in previous research. In this study we clarified the factor structure of the SCS among college students (N = 583) by conducting a principal axis factor analysis with oblique (Oblimin) rotation on the SCS. Results revealed a…

  11. Desarrollo de aplicaciones sobre SCTP

    OpenAIRE

    López Aragoneses, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    En el año 2000, el grupo SIGTRAN definió un nuevo protocolo de capa de transporte conocido como Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) pensado, inicialmente, para transportar señalización telefónica SS7 sobre IP. La intención fue proveer en IP algunas de las características de confiabilidad de SS7. Por su versatilidad, más tarde, se ha propuesto utilizarlo en otras áreas. Para tal fin, se ha realizado este proyecto fin de carrera, en el cual se estudiarán las características del protocol...

  12. Dynamic increase and decrease of photonic crystal nanocavity Q factors for optical pulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upham, Jeremy; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2008-12-22

    We introduce recent advances in dynamic control over the Q factor of a photonic crystal nanocavity system. By carefully timing a rapid increase of the Q factor from 3800 to 22,000, we succeed in capturing a 4ps signal pulse within the nanocavity with a photon lifetime of 18ps. By performing an additional transition of the Q factor within the photon lifetime, the held light is once again ejected from of the system on demand.

  13. Índice de controle de capitais: uma análise da legislação e seu impacto sobre o fluxo de capital no Brasil no período 1990-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Terra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardoso e Goldfajn (1997 constroem um índice de controle de capital para o Brasil para o período de 1988 a 1995, e estudam o efeito do índice sobre o fluxo de capitais. Este trabalho se propõe a construir o índice apresentado naquele trabalho para o período de 1990 a 2000, e estudar, em termos quantitativos, a influência deste índice sobre os fluxos de capitais. Foram analisados cerca de 200 principais normativos editados pelo Banco Central e Ministério da Fazenda, referentes a controle de capital no período 1990-2000. O período foi marcado pela liberalização do fluxo de capital, com alguns subperíodos nos quais houve restrição principalmente à saída de capital. Os resultados empíricos mostram que o índice de controle de capital, bem como desvios da paridade coberta de juros, o Plano Real e os efeitos provocados pelas crises mexicana, asiática e russa foram fatores determinantes para explicar o fluxo de capital total entre 1990 e 2000.Cardoso and Goldfajn (1997 build an index of capital control for Brazil for the period 1988 to 1995, and they study the impact of the index on the capital flows. This paper computes the same index for the period 1990-2000 and analyzes, quantitavely, the impact of this index on capital flows. The period studied was characterized by the liberalization of capital flows, with a few sub-periods where restriction were imposed, specially to capital outflows. The empirical results show that the capital control index helps explaining the total capital flows between 1990 and 2000, together with deviation from covered interest parity, the Real Stabilization Plan, and the impact of the Mexican, Asian and Russian crises.

  14. Factors associated with severe uncontrolled asthma and the perception of control by physicians and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennera, María del Carmen; Picado, César; Herráez, Lys; Galera, Jordi; Casafont, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    Despite current treatments, more than half of patients with asthma are not controlled. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between control perceived by patients and physicians, compared with control evaluated according to criteria of the Spanish Guidelines for Asthma Management (GEMA), and to investigate the factors associated with that control. Multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study including 343 patients with severe persistent asthma according to GEMA criteria seen in the Department of Pulmonology and Allergology. The correlation between asthma control perceived by the patient, the physician and according to clinical judgment based on the GEMA criteria was calculated, and a multivariate analysis was used to determine variables related to the perception of asthma control. According to GEMA criteria, only 10.2% of patients were well controlled, 27.7% had partial control and 62.1% were poorly controlled. Both the physicians and the patients overestimated control: 75.8% and 59.3% of patients had controlled asthma according to the patient and the physician, respectively, and were not controlled according to GEMA (P<.0001). Patients with uncontrolled asthma according GEMA had higher body mass index (P=.006) and physical inactivity (P=.016). Factors associated with a perceived lack of control by both physicians and patients were: nocturnal awakenings (≥ 1 day/week), frequent use of rescue medication (≥ 5 days/week) and significant limitation in activities. Discrepant factors between physicians and patients were dyspnea and emergency room visits (patients only), FEV1 ≤ 80% and a poorer understanding of the disease by the patient (physicians only). Only 10% of patients with severe asthma evaluated in this study are controlled according to GEMA criteria. Patients and physicians overestimate control and the overestimation by patients is greater. Physical inactivity and obesity are associated with a lack of control according to GEMA. Copyright

  15. Perceptions of milk producers from Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, regarding Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control Percepção dos produtores de leite de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi-systematized interviews were conducted with 100 dairy cattle producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, with the aim of ascertaining their perceptions regarding the importance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and of combating it. Content analysis was performed and the frequency distribution of each of the variables was used to construct profiles of the producers interviewed. The production losses caused by ticks were perceived incompletely by the producers, who were unaware of the pathogen transmission caused by the parasite and the indirect losses through combating it, such as the cost of acaricide and labor. The combat operations were performed in a traditional manner, with an excessive number of inefficient treatments that aimed to control the level of infestation at that moment. The quality of the acaricide dipping/spraying applied was affected by the quality of the equipment used to apply the products, lack of knowledge of the mode of action of these products, lack of the specific information needed and lack of motivation caused by unawareness of the disadvantages of chemical combat. It was concluded that the lack of knowledge about combat methods and the acceptance of endemicity of the parasitosis were impediments to changing the realities encountered.Entrevistas semissistematizadas foram aplicadas a 100 produtores de bovinos leiteiros do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de verificar a sua percepção sobre a importância de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus e seu combate. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" e a distribuição de frequência de cada uma das variáveis para a construção de perfis dos produtores entrevistados. Os prejuízos causados à produção pelo carrapato são percebidos de forma incompleta pelos produtores, que ignoram a transmissão de patógenos pelo parasito e as perdas indiretas pelo combate, como o custo do carrapaticida e da mão de obra. O combate era feito

  16. Ensaio clínico controlado sobre o curativo de cateter venoso central Ensayo clínico controlado sobre la cobertura de catéter venoso central Clinical controlled trial on central venous catheter dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivane Pedrolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia dos curativos de gaze e fita e filme transparente de poliuretano para cobertura de cateteres venosos centrais. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico controlado randomizado. RESUlTADOS: Não foi identificada uma diferença significativa com relação à infecção relacionada ao cateter (p=1 e à fixação do curativo (p=0,670. Foi identificada diferença estatisticamente significativa com relação à absorção de exsudato (pOBJETIVO: Evaluar la eficacia de las curaciones de gasa y cinta y película transparente de poliuretano para la cobertura de catéteres venosos centrales. MÉTODOS: Ensayo clínico controlado randomizado. RESULTADOS: No se identificó una diferencia significativa con relación a la infección relacionada al catéter (p=1 y a la fijación de la curación (p=0,670. Fue identificada la diferencia estadísticamente significativa con relación a la absorción del exudado (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of gauze and tape as compared to transparent polyurethane film for dressing central venous catheters. METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. RESULTS: No significant difference was identified in catheter-related infection (p = 1 or the stability of the dressing (p = 0.670. There was no statistically significant difference with respect to the absorption of exudate (p <0.001. The likelihood of local reaction in the control group (gauze and tape was different from the study group (p = 0.024. CONCLUSION: The type of dressing does not decrease the incidence of catheter-related infection, the binding capacity is similar, and the gauze dressing has the capacity to absorb exudate. However, the gauze dressing resulted in a higher probability of developing a local reaction. Record WHO: ACTRN12609000951257.

  17. Diferentes enfoques sobre o controle e a autonomia da atividade tecnológica no capitalismo atual Different approaches to the control and the autonomy of the technological activity in current capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Novaes de Andrade

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende discutir o tema da autonomia e do controle externo exercido sobre os técnicos no mundo contemporâneo. Essa questão vem mobilizando a atenção de uma série de autores de diferentes áreas. A Sociologia do Trabalho desde Marx tem discutido a crise do gesto técnico atrelada à complexificação dos sistemas produtivos. A Economia da Inovação aponta os impasses que os sistemas econômicos enfrentam à medida que a esfera dos técnicos tem que se submeter aos parâmetros organizacionais. Por sua vez, a Sociologia da Ciência tem disponibilizado diversas reflexões a respeito das transformações do campo científico e os desafios que técnicos e experts enfrentam na busca de autonomização de suas práticas de atuação. Os filósofos das técnicas adentram nesse debate indicando uma ampliação do sistema tecnológico misturada com crise do gesto técnico. Ao cabo, a intenção é mostrar as proximidades dessas correntes no entendimento dos problemas enfrentados pelos agentes técnicos.This article aims to discuss the problem of autonomy and control exerted upon technicians in the contemporary world. This question calls for attention to researchers in different fields. Since Marx, sociology of work discusses a crisis of technical gesture combined with a complexification of production systems. Innovation economics points the dilemmas that economic systems face while technicians must attend management determinations. On one hand, the sociology of science has provided much attention regarding the transformations of the scientific field and the many challenges that technicians and experts face in reaching autonomy for their practices. Philosophers of techniques join the debate pointing out an expansion of the technological system mixed with a crisis of technical gesture. In the end, our intention is to show similarities within these trends to understand the problems faced by technical agents.

  18. A novel arc welding inverter with unit power factor based on DSP control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shujun; Zeng Hua; Du Li; Yin Shuyan; Chen Yonggang

    2006-01-01

    A novel inverter power source is developed characterized with constant output current and unit power factor input.Digital signal processor (DSP) is used to realize power factor correction and control of back-stage inverter bridge of the arc welding inverter. The fore-stage adopts double closed loop proportion and integration (PI) rectifier technique and the backstage adopts digital pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. Simulated waves can be obtained in Matlab/Simulink and validated by experiments. Experiments of the prototype showed that the total harmonic distortion (THD) can be controlled within 10% and the power factor is approximate to 1.

  19. Main controlling factors of distribution and genetics of marine reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Marine reservoirs are mainly made up of clastics and carbonate reservoirs, which are distributed widely in central Tarim, Sichuan, Ordos basins from the Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic, mainly in Palaeozoic. Marine clastic reservoirs are developed in foreshore and nearshore, tidal flat and delta environment. The sedimentary facies are important controlling factors for reservoir quality. Compaction, pressolution and cementation are factors of decreasing porosity, and low palaeo-temperature gradient, early emplacement of oil and gas and dissolution are favorable for preservation of pore. Carbonate reservoirs are divided into reef and bank, karst, dolomite and fracture reservoirs. Dolomitization, dissolution, TSR and fracture are important factors of controlling carbonate reservoirs' quality.

  20. Maternal sleep deprivation, sedentary lifestyle and cooking smoke: Risk factors for miscarriage: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Yasindu; Abeysena, Chrishantha

    2010-08-01

    To determine risk factors for miscarriage. A case control study was carried out at the gynaecological wards and antenatal clinics of the De Soysa Maternity Hospital in Sri Lanka. A case was defined as that of mothers with a confirmed diagnosis of partial or full expulsion of the fetus during the first 28 weeks of gestation. Controls comprised ante-natal clinic attendees whose period of gestation was sedentary lifestyle, exposure to cooking smoke and physical trauma during pregnancy were risk factors for miscarriage. Most of the risk factors are therefore modifiable.

  1. Um “Choque de ordens”: uma análise sobre o controle do espaço público na orla carioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Farias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute o papel da esfera pública e do espaço público na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, a partir da análise de políticas públicas e ações de segurança que vem sendo implementadas na orla carioca. Etnografia, observação participante e entrevistas em profundidade foram utilizadas para compor o estudo, que se estrutura sobre as percepções dos agentes públicos – guarda-vidas, guardas municipais e policiais militares – e dos freqüentadores das praias, tanto banhistas quanto trabalhadores. O foco é investigar as noções de democracia e de ordem vinculadas aos conceitos de espaço público e esfera pública alinhadas pelos diversos segmentos em questão.

  2. A Multilevel Study on Factors of School Effectiveness in Developing Countries: The Case of Brazilian Resources Un Estudio Multinivel Sobre los Factores de Eficacia Escolar en Países en Desarrollo: El Caso de los Recursos en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gaviria

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic research on school effectiveness ensures that the material resources of schools do not have any relevant effects on the academic performance of the pupils.  Such research was carried out in developed countries, with no serious economic problems. This research is based on a secondary data analysis from the evaluation of basic education in Brazil in 1995. Specifically, a multi-level study has been performed with data on pupils (6.471, teachers and schools (975, and the Brazilian Federal States (27. The main conclusion is that educational resources have an important impact on the academic development of the pupils, both with regard to the amount and quality of the resources and, above all, the use to which they are put. La investigación clásica sobre eficacia escolar afirma que los recursos educativos no tienen incidencia en el rendimiento académico de los alumnos. Dicha investigación se ha realizado en países desarrollados, donde no hay graves problemas económicos en los sistemas educativos. Sin embargo, estos resultados han justificado ciertas políticas educativas de organismos internacionales para países en vías de desarrollo. En este trabajo se ha realizado una explotación secundaria de los datos de la evaluación de la educación básica de Brasil en 1995. Concretamente se ha realizado un estudio multinivel con datos de alumnos (6.471, profesores y escuelas (975, y Estados Federados brasileños (27. Su principal conclusión es que los recursos educativos tienen un importante impacto en el desarrollo académico de los alumnos, tanto en lo que se refiere a la cantidad y calidad de recursos como, sobre todo, a su utilización.

  3. Research on the sudden changes and the controlling factors of deep coal mining conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei-yue; DONG Shu-ning

    2008-01-01

    It was illustrated that the mining conditions inducing disasters changed with depthboth in regularity of gradual and sudden change. The sudden change depth for differentdisaster conditions are different and controlled by different factors. The high temperatureand its change with depth are mainly controlled by strata structures and rock heat conductiv-ity property, the high rock stress and dynamical engineering disasters and their change withdepth are mainly controlled by tectonic conditions, roof strata rock property and deep rockmechanical property, coal mine water disasters and their change with depth are mainly con-trolled by rock mechanical property of coal seam floor and regional groundwater circulationconditions, gas disaster conditions and their change with depth are mainly controlled byburied conditions of coal seam and opening conditions of geological structures. It is men-tioned that the key point for the control of deep coal mining disaster is to clearly understandthe sudden change depth of different factors causing disasters.

  4. Factors contributing to poor glycaemic control in diabetic patients at Mopani District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Shiluban

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is not only a major burden in the developed world, it is also an increasing health problem in less developed countries. Although health education could be a tool to achieve better glycaemic control, it is important to understand that health education should be adjusted to patients’ literacy, cultural environment and economic status. Among other factors, lack of money has an influence on the outcome of diabetes mellitus. Thus the purpose of the study is to identify factors contributing to poor glycaemia control in diabetic patients. Data was collected using self-report questionnaire on a convenient sample of 32 diabetic patients and unstructured, open-ended interviews on eight patients’ inorder to allow them freedom of expressing themselves with regard to factors that contribute to poor glycaemic control on diabetic patients. Data was then analysed using a computer program called Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The socioeconomic factors appeared to have significant influence on glycaemic control among participants, for instance 75% of the total subjects (32 indicated that they experienced problems of accessing health care services due to lack of money. Ignorance related to where to seek support system such as educational programme, and nutrition counselling were factors that were identified to contribute to diabetic patients’ poor glycaemia control.Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Provincial Department of Health and the managers of the institutions where the study was conducted. Recommendations for dealing with the identified factors have been formulated.

  5. Factors contributing to poor glycaemic control in diabetic patients at Mopani District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Shilubane,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is not only a major burden in the developed world, it is also an increasing health problem in less developed countries. Although health education could be a tool to achieve better glycaemic control, it is important to understand that health education should be adjusted to patients’ literacy, cultural environment and economic status. Among other factors, lack of money has an influence on the outcome of diabetes mellitus. Thus the purpose of the study is to identify factors contributing to poor glycaemia control in diabetic patients. Data was collected using self-report questionnaire on a convenient sample of 32 diabetic patients and unstructured, open-ended interviews on eight patients’ inorder to allow them freedom of expressing themselves with regard to factors that contribute to poor glycaemic control on diabetic patients. Data was then analysed using a computer program called Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The socioeconomic factors appeared to have significant influence on glycaemic control among participants, for instance 75% of the total subjects (32 indicated that they experienced problems of accessing health care services due to lack of money. Ignorance related to where to seek support system such as educational programme, and nutrition counselling were factors that were identified to contribute to diabetic patients’ poor glycaemia control. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Provincial Department of Health and the managers of the institutions where the study was conducted. Recommendations for dealing with the identified factors have been formulated.

  6. Constitucional sobre la justicia ordinaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cea Egaña

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el efecto vinculante y de irradiación de las sentencias del Tribunal Constitucional sobre el conjunto del ordenamiento jurídico y de sus órganos. El autor toma partido por la consideración de la ratio decidendi del fallo como vinculante junto al dictum de la sentencia respectiva. Se plantea la necesidad que la LOC del Tribunal Constitucional explicite los efectos vinculantes de los fallos respecto de los tribunales ordinarios y especiales. Finalmente analiza los efectos de la res iudicata en el ámbito del control reparador de constitucionalidad de preceptos legales en control concreto y en control abstracto.

  7. APPLICATION OF FUZZY CONTROL METHOD WITH SELF-TUNING FACTOR IN JIGGERS DISCHARGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁明; 魏晋宏; 刘素芬

    2000-01-01

    Adopting the strategy of fuzzy control with self-tuning factor within whole universe of discourse, a kind of fuzzy control method for jigger discharging is put forward. This method has many advantages over the conventional PID controller in terms of response speed, stability and robustness. It is effective to restrain the jig bed from over-thick or empty, and the stability of the bed is markedly improved. The good results are obtained in factory tests.

  8. Human factors design review guidelines for advanced nuclear control room technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.; Brown, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Granda, T.; Baker, C. (Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  9. EFICIÊNCIA DO CONTROLE QUÍMICO SOBRE A MOSCA BRANCA Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE EM MELOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lindemberg Martins Mesquita

    2007-01-01

    efficient to control eggs, nymphs and adults of the whitefly, while the insect growth regulators buprofezin and pyriproxyfen did not control eggs and adults, but they controled nymphs, being pyriproxyfen more efficient than buprofezin.

  10. Risk Factors for and Barriers to Control Type-2 Diabetes among Saudi Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alneami, Yahya Mari; Coleman, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Type-2 Diabetes is dramatically increasing in urban areas within Saudi Arabia. Hence, Type-2 Diabetes has now become the most common public health problem. Understanding the major risk factors for and barriers to control Type-2 Diabetes may lead to strategies to prevent, control, and reduce in the burden of disease cases. Objective: To describe risk factors for and barriers to control Type- 2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The literature search was conducted on risk factors for and barriers to control Type- 2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia using the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar (2007-2015). The literature search yielded 80 articles, of which 70 articles were included in this review after excluding non-relevant articles. Results: The literature review revealed that obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, smoking, and aging are the major risk factors for Type-2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Further, the review allocated a complex set of barriers including, lack of education, social support, and healthy environment. These barriers may hinder Saudis with Type-2 Diabetes from controlling their disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of Type-2 Diabetes is high among the Saudi population and represents a major public health problem. Effective research programs are needed to address the modifiable risk factors for and barriers to control Type-2 Diabetes among Saudi population. PMID:27157156

  11. Análisis de los efectos de anti-factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular (anti-VEGF)sobre el desprendimiento del epitelio pigmentario asociado a DMAE exudativa

    OpenAIRE

    Karandiuk, Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    La degeneración macular asociada a la edad (DMAE) representa, en la actualidad, un importante problema de salud pública en todos los países desarrollados. Está considerada como la principal causa de ceguera legal por encima de los 50 años y una de las primeras causas de mala visión. La implicación del factor de crecimiento vascular endotelial (VEGF) en su patogenia y la llegada de la terapia antiangiogénica han cambiado su pronóstico funcional, si bien es cierto que la eficacia de la misma...

  12. Repercusión de algunos factores de riesgo sobre el daño a órganos diana en pacientes hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaín Alonso Remedios

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hipertensión arterial constituye un factor de riesgo para otras enfermedades, el cual no solo es determinado por las cifras tensionales si no por la aparición de otros factores de riesgo. Objetivo: identificar la relación de los principales factores de riesgo con la aparición de daño en órganos diana en la población hipertensa del consultorio 5 del área de salud de Rodas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de correlación. Para ello se encuestaron 324 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se analizaron variables como: sexo, edad, color de la piel, estado nutricional, valores de colesterol, triglicéridos, glicemia y daño en órganos diana. Se utilizó el SPSS. Los resultados se expresaron en tablas. Resultados: hubo un ligero predominio del sexo femenino (51,9 %, además de un incremento proporcional de la hipertensión arterial y la edad de los pacientes, así como el predominio de los pacientes blancos (75,9 %. La población estudiada tiende al sobrepeso (IMC de 26.9 Desv típ. 3,53 kg/m², además de presentar valores promedios de colesterol de 5,08 Desv típ 1,05 mmol/l y triglicéridos de 2,09 Desv típ 0,84 mmol/l, los valores de glucemia en sangre venosa fueron de 5,5 mmol/l Desv típ 1,22 mmol/l. El incremento de la edad, el sobrepeso, así como de los valores de glucemia, colesterol y triglicéridos se asocian con la aparición de daño en órganos diana (V de Cramer 0,21; 0,97; 0,92; 0,99; 0,94. todos mayores que el nivel de significación. Conclusiones: los factores de riesgos encontrados, en su mayoría, incrementaron el riesgo de presentar daño en órganos diana de los pacientes estudiados.

  13. Todo sobre el neobarroco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Carrera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lo que hemos escuchado y atendido hasta aquí, hoy, ayer, sobre todo en la propuesta poética esbozada por Sergio Raimondi en su ensayo sobre Aldo Oliva, demuestra que las singularidades, su pasión, anulan subrepticiamente las nominaciones.Anoche en la televisión una orquesta sinfónica y un coro numeroso. Súbitamente, me hubiera gustado ser uno de esos intérpretes solitarios para sí, a pesar de la armonía, anónimos, a pesar del brillo sonoro… un violín, un triángulo… apenas… tres grillos… como ...

  14. Applying human factors to the design of control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Goncalves, Gabriel de L., E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tamara D.M.F.; Falcao, Mariana A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Desenho Industrial

    2013-07-01

    Human factors is a body of scientific factors about human characteristics, covering biomedical, psychological and psychosocial considerations, including principles and applications in the personnel selection areas, training, job performance aid tools and human performance evaluation. Control Centre is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations which are functionally related and all on the same site. Digital control room includes an arrangement of systems, equipment such as computers and communication terminals and workstations at which control and monitoring functions are conducted by operators. Inadequate integration between control room and operators reduces safety, increases the operation complexity, complicates operator training and increases the likelihood of human errors occurrence. The objective of this paper is to present a specific approach for the conceptual and basic design of the control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards, guidelines and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the conceptual and basic phases of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team, an initial sketch 3D of the control centre and workstation are being developed. (author)

  15. Efecto hormonal sobre el crecimiento y la maduración de ratas con retardo prenatal del crecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Fabián; Orden, Alicia Bibiana; Fucini, María Cecilia; Guimarey, Luis Manuel; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2001-01-01

    Los factores que influyen sobre el crecimiento postnatal en niños con retardo del crecimiento intrauterino (IUGR) son, fundamentalmente, de naturaleza ambiental. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los efectos que las hormonas de crecimiento (GH) y gonadales ejercen sobre la recuperación del peso corporal y la maduración ósea en ratas IUGR. Se constituyeron los siguientes grupos experimentales: Control, IUGR, IUGR+GH, IUGR+testosterona (machos), IUGR+estradiol (hembras) y Sham-op...

  16. Factor V Leiden, factor V Cambridge, factor II GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatnia, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansour; Movahedian, Ahmad; Shariat, Seyed Ziaeddin Samsam; Salari, Mehri; Tajmirriahi, Marzieh; Asadimobarakeh, Elham; Salehi, Rasoul; Amini, Gilda; Ebrahimi, Homa; Kheradmand, Ehsan

    2015-06-01

    Factor V G1691A (FV Leiden), FII GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutations are the most common genetic risk factors for thromboembolism in the Western countries. However, there is rare data in Iran about cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of common genetic thrombophilic factors in CVST patients. Forty consequently CVST patients from two University Hospital in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences aged more than 15 years from January 2009 to January 2011 were recruited. In parallel, 51 healthy subjects with the same age and race from similar population selected as controls. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, MTHFR C677T, and FV Cambridge gene mutations by polymerase chain reaction technique were evaluated in case and control groups. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge gene mutations had very low prevalence in both case (5%, 2%, 0%) and control (2.5%, 0%, 0%) and were not found any significant difference between groups. MTHFR C677T mutations was in 22 (55%) of patients in case group and 18 (35.5%) of control group (P = 0.09). This study showed that the prevalence of FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge were low. Laboratory investigations of these mutations as a routine test for all patients with CVST may not be cost benefit.

  17. Design of a T Factor Based RBFNC for a Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of modified radial basic function neural controller (MRBFNC for the pitch control of an aircraft to obtain the desired pitch angel as required by the pilot while maneuvering an aircraft. In this design, the parameters of radial basis function neural controller (RBFNC are optimized by implementing a feedback mechanism which is controlled by a tuning factor “α” (T factor. For a given input, the response of the RBFN controller is tuned by using T factor for better performance of the aircraft pitch control system. The proposed system is demonstrated under different condition (absence and presence of sensor noise. The simulation results show that MRBFNC performs better, in terms of settling time and rise time for both conditions, than the conventional RBFNC. It is also seen that, as the value of the T factor increases, the aircraft pitch control system performs better and settles quickly to its reference trajectory. A comparison between MRBFNC and conventional RBFNC is also established to discuss the superiority of the former techniques.

  18. Frecuencia de control prenatal inadecuado y de factores asociados a su ocurrencia: Frequency of inadequate prenatal care and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arispe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de pacientes con control prenatal (CPN inadecuado y los factores asociados a dicho evento. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal donde se entrevistó a puérperas en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia entre agosto 2010 y enero 2011, y se revisó la historia clínica y carnet materno perinatal (CLAP. Se definió CPN inadecuado al incumplimiento del número mínimo y cronograma de visitas propuesto por el Ministerio de Salud. Se compararon factores epidemiológicos, maternos y socioeconómicos entre grupos de gestantes con CPN adecuado e inadecuado.Resultados: Se incluyeron 384 puérperas, 66,05% recibieron 6 ó más controles prenatales y sólo 7,36% tuvo CPN adecuado. Ciento cuarenta y cinco puérperas tuvieron su primer CPN antes de las 12 semanas. Los factores que se presentaron con mayor frecuencia en el grupo de CPN inadecuado fueron paridad mayor a 2 (p=0,02 y no planificación de la gestación (p=0,003. Conclusiones: El porcentaje de CPN inadecuado fue elevado. El CPN inadecuado se asoció con paridad mayor a 2 y gestación no planificada. (Rev Med Hered 2011;22:169-175.

  19. Factores psicosociales y formación de imágenes en el turismo urbano: un estudio de caso sobre Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño, José Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the influence of psychosocial factors on image-destination, using for this purpose the case of Madrid. We have used two different samples with 1200 and 2000 visitors respectively, to whom we have applied two questionnaires –in relevant city tourist settings-. With this questionnaire we aimed to measure the following variables in relation with the visit in Madrid: socio demographic information; stay characteristics (such as type of accommodation, stay duration, visiting frequency; primary and secondary motivation; level of satisfaction in relation to several services and destination image (measured trough a five intervals Likert’s scale with 15 items about infrastructures and services, cultural and leisure offer, host characteristics, etc.. We have calculated independent contrasts between variables related to travel characteristics and sociodemographic and psychosocial ones. Fur-thermore we have contrasted, through regression analysis, the influence of all these variables on the image of Madrid

  20. Considerações sobre analgesia controlada pelo paciente em hospital universitário Consideraciones sobre analgesia controlada por el paciente en hospital universitario Patient controlled analgesia in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Antônio Moreira de Barros

    2003-02-01

    ás utilizado (54,2%, siendo la vía peridural la que tiene preferencia (49,5%. La escala numérica verbal media fue de 0,8 (0-10. Los efectos colaterales ocurrieron en 22,4% de los enfermos tratados. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados fueron considerados excelentes en lo que se refiere a la calidad de la analgesia, no obstante con ocurrencia de efectos colaterales indeseables, siendo que hubo buena aceptación de la técnica de analgesia por las clínicas atendidas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The rapid development seen in recent years in surgical and anesthetic techniques allowed for an increased indication of invasive procedures. At the same time, with the aging of the population, the postoperative recovery period became the focus of major concern for the healthcare team. For such, new analgesic techniques were developed, among them, Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA. In Brazil, the Acute Pain Service (SEDA of the Anesthesiology Department, Botucatu Medical School - UNESP, has been using PCA for many years. Aiming at verifying the quality of the service provided, this research has evaluated the efficacy and safety of the technique, in addition to identifying and characterizing patients submitted to PCA. METHODS: Participated in this retrospective study 679 patients treated by SEDA with the PCA method only, during a 3-year period. Patients were randomly included in the study with no restrictions concerning age, gender and type of surgery, considering only the possibility of PCA. The following parameters were evaluated: gender, age, type of surgery, pain score, treatment duration, analgesic drugs used, administration route, side effects and complications. RESULTS: The PCA technique was used in 3.96% of patients submitted to surgical procedures and in 1.64% of all hospitalized patients. Thoracic surgeries were the most frequent procedures and accounted for 25% of patients. Morphine was the most commonly used analgesics (54.2% and the epidural route was the most frequent route of

  1. Las actividades en el medio natural en Educación Física. Valoración del profesorado de Secundaria sobre los principales factores de limitación para su desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Peñarrubia Lozano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio que presentamos analiza el grado en el que las Actividades en el Medio Natural se han ido desarrollando a lo largo de los últimos años como parte de las programaciones de Educación Física en Aragón. Los 131 profesores que han participado en el mismo (en dos momentos, curso 2007-2008 en la ciudad de Zaragoza, y 2008-2009 para el resto de la Comunidad Autónoma han indicado los contenidos que organizan (destacando la orientación y el senderismo, con porcentajes de realización del 66,41% y el 47,33 %, respectivamente y los ámbitos en los que los presentan (un 61,83 % del profesorado lo hace en las propias sesiones de Educación Física. Además, para cada uno de ellos han mostrado su valoración sobre los cuatro factores de limitación indicados por el grupo investigador: seguridad del alumnado (un 30,95 % del profesorado señala el rápel y la escalada como los contenidos más influenciados por este factor, responsabilidad del profesorado (con influencia mínima para un 51,72 % de los encuestados, formación específica del profesorado en materia de Actividades en el Medio Natural (considerada como factor de limitación únicamente para el rápel y la escalada y horario de práctica de Educación Física (con un porcentaje de influencia máxima inferior al 6 % para todos los contenidos excepto la BTT, con un 18,75 %.

  2. Evaluación del efecto de factores físico-químicos sobre cultivos celulares primarios de corto término de Apis mielífera (Hymenoptera, Apoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nates Parra Guiomar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de cultivos celulares en investigaciones entomológicas se inició a comienzos del siglo XX, desde entonces se han desarrollado sistemas de cultivo más eficientes y apropiados para el establecimiento de líneas celulares de crecimiento continuo, que han sido esenciales para estudios de patología, fisiología, biología molecular y del desarrollo y en  biotecnología como modelos para la expresión de genes foráneos. Existe un altísimo porcentaje de especies de las que no se han establecido líneas celulares o cuyo establecimiento es extremadamente difícil, lo
    cual se debe en gran medida del escaso conocimiento que se tiene sobre los requerimientos nutricionales y del ambiente de cultivo de cada tipo celular estudiado. Para Apis mellifera no se conoce ninguna línea celular establecida a pesar de que es un excelente modelo experimental.
    Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el efecto de factores físico-químicos sobre cultivos celulares primarios de corto término desarrollados a partir de hemocitos de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apoidea. Para cumplir con este objetivo, se realizaron cultivos de hemocitos obtenidos de larvas de quinto instar de 0,1537 gramos, en las cuales se obtuvo un volumen alto de hemolinfa (45μL con una mayor cantidad de hemocitos en suspensión y alta pureza y esterilidad. Para determinar los valores de pH, osmolalidad, temperatura de incubación, medio de cultivo y concentración de estimulantes del crecimiento en los que los hemocitos presentaban mayor adaptabilidad estimada en una mayor área, morfología normal con membrana íntegra, adherencia y alto porcentaje de viabilidad, se realizaron ensayos sucesivos modificando en cada experimento uno de estos factores mientras se mantenían los otros constantes. Se realizaron observaciones, conteos y mediciones de las células en suspensión y luego de tres y 120 horas de cultivo por análisis en el programa ImageJ (1.29 de im

  3. Influence of corn sowing density and gliricidia intercropping on weed control Influências da densidade de semeadura do milho e da consorciação com gliricídia sobre o controle de plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There is interest in the identification of the best seeding density for new corn hybrids and on reduced use of herbicides for weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seeding density (30, 50, 70, and 90 thousand plants ha-1 and weed control on green ear yield and grain yield in corn cultivar AG 1051. A completely randomized block design was adopted with split-plots (seeding densities assigned to plots and ten replicates. Weed control was achieved by means of two hoeings and by planting corn intercropped with gliricidia (between corn rows, in pits spaced 0.3 m apart. A "no weeding"treatment was included as well. Increased seeding density increased the total number and weight of marketable green ears and decreased the biomass of both weeds and gliricidia. In non-weeded, intercropped and hoed plots, the maximum grain yield values achieved as seeding density increased were 7,881, 7,021, and 9,213 kg ha-1, respectively, obtained with populations of 67 thousand, 74 thousand, and 67 thousand plants per hectare, respectively. Intercropping did not control weeds (26 species and provided weed growth, green ear yield, and grain yield (at the lowest densities similar to those obtained without hoeing, except for total number of green ears, in which no influence of weed control was observed. At densities of 70 thousand and 90 thousand plants per hectare, grain yield with two hoeings was not different from yield values obtained without weeding or in the treatment intercropped with gliricidia, respectively, indicating that increased corn seeding density as well as gliricidiamay help to control weeds.Existe interesse na identificação da densidade de semeadura ideal para os novos híbridos de milho e na redução do uso de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da densidade de semeadura (30, 50, 70 e 90 mil plantas ha-1 e do controle de plantas daninhas sobre os rendimentos de

  4. Unity power factor converter based on a fuzzy controller and predictive input current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Babes, Badreddine

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes analysis and control of a single-phase power factor corrector (PFC). The proposed control is capable of achieving a unity power factor for each DC link voltage or load fluctuation. The method under study is composed of two intelligent approaches, a fuzzy logic controller to ensure an output voltage at a suitable value and predictive current control. The fuzzy controller is used with minimum rules to attain a low cost. The method is verified and discussed through simulation on the MATLAB/Simulink platform. It presents high dynamic performance under various parameter changes. Moreover, in order to examine and evaluate the method in real-time, a test bench is built using dSPACE 1104. The implantation of the proposed method is very easy and flexible and allows for operation under parameter variations. Additionally, the obtained results are very significant.

  5. Tecia solanivora, Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae: a Review of its Origin, Dispersion and Biological Control Strategies Tecia solanivora, Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae: una revisión sobre su origen, dispersión y estrategias de control biológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Villanueva Mejía

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1956, Tecia solanivora was reported by the first time in Central America. This Lepidopteran insect of the Gelechiidae family was found to severely damage potato crops (Solanum tuberosum, which adversely affected local economy. Although this insect has reduced mobility, it has invaded several countries in Central and South America as well as the Canary Islands in Spain. The damage caused by T. solanivora has been detected in both field crops and stored tubers. The economic impact of the pest in countries of the Andean area is much more serious than in Central America, mainlybecause potato is an important family staple and production is very intensive. Therefore, T. solanivora is considered the most damaging crop insect pest in such countries. This review focuses on the actual scientific knowledge on T. solanivora, which includes its origin and spread across different countries, implications, strategies for controlling its impact. In addition, current knowledge generated from phylogeography and population genetics of T. solanivora are discussed as complementary strategies to deal with this pest.En 1956 Tecia solanivora fue reportada por primera vez en Centroamérica, insecto Lepidóptero de la familia Gelechiidae, causando pérdidas económicas a los cultivos de papa (Solanum tuberosum. A pesar de que se considera como un insecto de movilidad reducida, ha invadido varios países en Centro y Sur américa así como las Islas Canarias en España. El daño se ha detectado en campos así como en tubérculos almacenados con promedios superiores al 50% de la capacidad de producción. El Impacto económico de la plaga en países del área andina es mucho mas serio que en Centro América, principalmente debido a que la papa es un importante alimento básico de las familias y su producción es intensiva, razones por las cuales T. solanivora es considerada la plaga mas perjudicial del cultivo de la papa en diferentes países. Aquí se presenta el

  6. Manejo de la fibra de vidrio en entorno laboral, potenciales efectos sobre la salud y medidas de control (Revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Pietropaoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La utilización de fibras de vidrio en sustitución del amianto, además de otras aplicaciones, ha contribuido a disminuir drásticamente la incidencia del mesotelioma y otras asociadas patologías asociadas a su utilización. Sin embargo, estudios recientes apuntan a la posibilidad de que su manipulación no se encuentre exenta de riesgos. Metodología: Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura científica publicada recientemente en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas biomédicas. Resultados: La principal forma de entrada en el organismo es por vía inhalatoria, por lo que sus principales efectos sobre la salud se producen a nivel de vías respiratorias y su capacidad patogénica depende de su composición química, el tamaño, la biopersistencia y la concentración ambiental. Conclusiones: Existe controversia en la interpretación de resultados de estudios experimentales, aunque muchos autores parecen coincidir en que las fibras 475-glass y la E-glass pueden presentar un mayor riesgo de presentar fibrosis o cáncer pulmonar en animales. La mayoría de estudios en humanos no parece demostrar relación entre exposición con fibrosis pulmonar o la disminución de la capacidad pulmonar, que parecen más relacionadas con el consumo de tabaco. Tampoco existen evidencias claras en cuanto a una posible asociación con determinados cánceres del aparato respiratorio. Estudios recientes sobre efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos, apuntan a que FMA de diámetro menor de 3 lm y longitud superior a los 5 lm pueden inducir alteraciones en las células A549 del epitelio alveolar de los seres humanos con estrés oxidativo y peroxidación de lípidos de membrana, aunque faltan elementos suficientes que permitan confirmar estos hallazgos. En base a las evidencias existentes en la actualidad, la IARC incluye las fibras de vidrio de filamentos continuos y las lanas de vidrio, roca y escoria dentro del grupo 3 como no

  7. Resumen estudios sobre tabaquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Gónzalez, M.M. (M.)

    2009-01-01

    Este documento se realizó para publicar en la página Web de la Gerencia de Atención primaria del Área III. Este documento es una recopilación de estudios sobre tabaquismo. Gerencia de Atención Primaria Área III

  8. Multimedia sobre mantenimiento industrial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    ..., entre otras facilidades. Puntualizado, el mantenimiento industrial es una actividad que conserva la calidad del servicio que se presta, y sobre todo en la infraestructura existente en los centros de produccion con optimas condiciones de seguridad, eficiencia y economia. El mantenimiento es de gran importancia, pues sus objetivos son la base para un adecuado f...

  9. Ley sobre Realengos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Historia Social y de la Cultura Anuario Colombiano de

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Propuesta y Aprobada por el Senado y la Cámara de Antioquia en el año de 1.812 En nombre del Estado de Antioquia, el Senado y la Cámara de Representantes han decretado lo siguiente: Proyecto de Ley sobre Realengos: …

  10. Controlled multiple growth factor delivery from bone tissue engineering scaffolds via designed affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Darilis; Lee, Jae Sung; Diggs, Alisha; Lu, Yan; Nemke, Brett; Markel, Mark; Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2014-08-01

    It is known that angiogenesis plays an important role in bone regeneration and that release of angiogenic and osteogenic growth factors can enhance bone formation. Multiple growth factors play key roles in processes that lead to tissue formation/regeneration during natural tissue development and repair. Therefore, treatments aiming to mimic tissue regeneration can benefit from multiple growth factor release, and there remains a need for simple clinically relevant approaches for dual growth factor release. We hypothesized that mineral coatings could be used as a platform for controlled incorporation and release of multiple growth factors. Specifically, mineral-coated scaffolds were "dip coated" in multiple growth factor solutions, and growth factor binding and release were dictated by the growth factor-mineral binding affinity. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were fabricated using indirect solid-free form fabrication techniques and coated with a thin conformal mineral layer. Mineral-coated β-TCP scaffolds were sequentially dipped in recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and a modular bone morphogenetic peptide, a mineral-binding version of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), solutions to allow for the incorporation of each growth factor. The dual release profile showed sustained release of both growth factors for over more than 60 days. Scaffolds releasing either rhVEGF alone or the combination of growth factors showed an increase in blood vessel ingrowth in a dose-dependent manner in a sheep intramuscular implantation model. This approach demonstrates a "modular design" approach, in which a controllable biologics carrier is integrated into a structural scaffold as a thin surface coating.

  11. A Phylogenetically Conserved Group of Nuclear Factor-Y Transcription Factors Interact to Control Nodulation in Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Maël; Laloum, Tom; Lepage, Agnès; Rípodas, Carolina; Ariel, Federico; Frances, Lisa; Crespi, Martin; Gamas, Pascal; Blanco, Flavio Antonio; Zanetti, Maria Eugenia; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Niebel, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The endosymbiotic association between legumes and soil bacteria called rhizobia leads to the formation of a new root-derived organ called the nodule in which differentiated bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be assimilated by the host plant. Successful root infection by rhizobia and nodule organogenesis require the activation of symbiotic genes that are controlled by a set of transcription factors (TFs). We recently identified Medicago truncatula nuclear factor-YA1 (MtNF-YA1) and MtNF-YA2 as two M. truncatula TFs playing a central role during key steps of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-M. truncatula symbiotic interaction. NF-YA TFs interact with NF-YB and NF-YC subunits to regulate target genes containing the CCAAT box consensus sequence. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid screen approach, we identified the NF-YB and NF-YC subunits able to interact with MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in planta, we further demonstrated by both coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation that these NF-YA, -B, and -C subunits interact and form a stable NF-Y heterotrimeric complex. Reverse genetic and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR approaches revealed the importance of these newly identified NF-YB and NF-YC subunits for rhizobial symbiosis and binding to the promoter of MtERN1 (for Ethylene Responsive factor required for Nodulation), a direct target gene of MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. Finally, we verified that a similar trimer is formed in planta by the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) NF-Y subunits, revealing the existence of evolutionary conserved NF-Y protein complexes to control nodulation in leguminous plants. This sheds light on the process whereby an ancient heterotrimeric TF mainly controlling cell division in animals has acquired specialized functions in plants.

  12. Risk factors associated with sporadic salmonellosis in adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, D; Dreesman, J; Campe, A; Kreienbrock, L; Pulz, M

    2013-02-01

    In order to identify and assess recent risk factors for sporadic human infections with Salmonella enterica, we conducted a case-control study in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data collection was based on standardized telephone interviews with 1017 cases and 346 controls aged >14 years. Odds ratios were calculated in single-factor and multi-factor analyses for Salmonella cases and two different control groups, i.e. population controls and controls with rotavirus infection. Multi-factor analysis revealed associations between sporadic Salmonella infections for two exposures by both sets of controls: consumption of raw ground pork [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·27-4·44] and foreign travel (aOR 2·12, 95% CI 1·00-4·52). Other exposures included consumption of food items containing eggs (aOR 1·43, 95% CI 0·80-2·54), consumption of chicken meat (aOR 1·77, 95% CI 1·26-2·50), outdoor meals/barbecues (aOR 3·96, 95% CI 1·41-11·12) and taking gastric acidity inhibitors (aOR 2·42, 95% CI 1·19-4·92), all were significantly associated with respect to one of the two control groups. The impact of consuming food items containing eggs or chicken meat was lower than expected from the literature. This might be a consequence of Salmonella control programmes as well as increased public awareness of eggs and chicken products being a risk factor for salmonellosis. Efforts to reduce Salmonella infections due to raw pork products should be intensified.

  13. RF control at transient beamloading for high-duty-factor linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernogubovsky, M.A.; Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    An effective RF control with the transient beamloading is the major issue in the operation of the high-duty-factor linacs to suppress the undesirable beam loss. The RF control method is considered to obtain the control principle and the state equation, under the analysis of electrodynamical properties of the excitation in the resonator of the linac due to the transient beamloading. The concept of the directional selective coupling is applied for the RF system to define the main characteristics and to optimize the RF control parameters. (author)

  14. Iterative Learning Control with Forgetting Factor for Linear Distributed Parameter Systems with Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisheng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iterative learning control is an intelligent control algorithm which imitates human learning process. Based on this concept, this paper discussed iterative learning control problem for a class parabolic linear distributed parameter systems with uncertainty coefficients. Iterative learning control algorithm with forgetting factor is proposed and the conditions for convergence of algorithm are established. Combining the matrix theory with the basic theory of distributed parameter systems gives rigorous convergence proof of the algorithm. Finally, by using the forward difference scheme of partial differential equation to solve the problems, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the feasibility of the algorithm.

  15. Evaluation of induction motor performance using an electronic power factor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The concept of reducing the losses in an induction motor by electronically controlling the time interval between the zero crossing of the applied voltage and the zero crossing of the armature current was evaluated. The effect on power losses and power factor of reducing the applied sinusoidal voltages below the rated value was investigated experimentally. The reduction in power losses was measured using an electronic controller designed and built at MSFC. Modifications to the MSFC controller are described as well as a manually controlled electronic device which does not require that the motor be wye connected and the neutral available. Possible energy savings are examined.

  16. Densidades de plantas daninhas e épocas de controle sobre os componentes de produção da soja Effect of weed densities and control periods on soybean yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar os efeitos de diferentes densidades de plantas daninhas sobre os componentes de rendimento da soja, cv. BRS 243-RR. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre dez períodos crescentes de convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura (0, 0-5, 0-10, 0-15, 0-21, 0-28, 0-35, 0-42, 0-49 e 0-125 dias e três níveis de infestação (baixa, média e alta. Na área de baixa infestação, a comunidade infestante foi composta principalmente por Brachiaria plantaginea, Ipomoea nil, Euphorbia heterophylla e outras. Nas áreas de média e alta infestação destacaram-se Brachiaria plantaginea, Ipomoea nil, Digitaria horizontalis, Cyperus rotundus e outras. B. plantaginea foi responsável pelo maior acúmulo de fitomassa seca em todos os níveis de infestação. Com relação aos componentes de produção, o número de vagens por planta foi o mais afetado pela competição, com reduções de até 58% na área de baixa infestação, 71% na de média infestação e 78% na de alta infestação. O número de sementes por vagens e peso de mil grãos se mostraram menos responsivos aos efeitos de competição; contudo, houve redução desses parâmetros, indicando relação entre o período de convivência e nível de infestação e os componentes de produção da soja.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different weed densities on the yield components of soybean grain, cv. BRS 243 RR. The experimental design was arranged in completely randomized blocks, and the treatments consisted of increasing periods of control and three weed densities (low, medium and high. The initial periods of control were: 0, 0-5, 0-10, 0-15, 0-21, 0-28, 0-35, 0-42, 0-49 and 0-125 (harvesting. In low infestation areas, the weed community was composed mainly of Brachiaria plantaginea, Ipomoea nil, Euphorbia heterophylla and others. In medium and high

  17. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahmoudi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran, yet there are few studies examining risk factors specific to the Iranian context. We conducted a case-control study to explore risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran, Iran from 2005 to 2008. The cases were 137 men with clinicopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Controls were 137 neighborhood and age match men without prostate cancer by PSA and digit examination. Analysis comprised an exploratory stage to identify potential risk factors, defined as variables associated with case status at the P < 0.20 level in conditional logistic regression. A second stage included all potential risk factors in multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, retaining those associated with prostate cancer at the P < 0.05 level. Potential risk factors for prostate cancer in exploratory analysis included family history of prostate cancer, history of other cancer, prostatitis, alcohol consumption, pipe or hookah smoking, walking to work, duration of occupational physical activity, intensity of occupational physical activity, body mass index, and older age. Multivariate analysis found intensity of occupational physical activity, prostatitis, and older age as independent predictors of increased risk for prostate cancer in this Iranian population. Our study confirms several recognized risk factors for prostate cancer, contributes evidence to the discussions of other hypothesized risk factors, and points to potentially new factors. Findings, along with confirmatory studies, can help guide efforts for early detection, treatment, and prevention for this common malignancy that is set to increase in Iran in future decades.

  18. Temporally controlled release of multiple growth factors from a self-assembling peptide hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Kiara F.; Rodriguez, Alexandra L.; Parish, Clare L.; Williams, Richard J.; Nisbet, David R.

    2016-09-01

    Protein growth factors have demonstrated great potential for tissue repair, but their inherent instability and large size prevents meaningful presentation to biologically protected nervous tissue. Here, we create a nanofibrous network from a self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogel to carry and stabilize the growth factors. We significantly reduced growth factor degradation to increase their lifespan by over 40 times. To control the temporal release profile we covalently attached polysaccharide chitosan molecules to the growth factor to increase its interactions with the hydrogel nanofibers and achieved a 4 h delay, demonstrating the potential of this method to provide temporally controlled growth factor delivery. We also describe release rate based analysis to examine the growth factor delivery in more detail than standard cumulative release profiles allow and show that the chitosan attachment method provided a more consistent release profile with a 60% reduction in fluctuations. To prove the potential of this system as a complex growth factor delivery platform we demonstrate for the first time temporally distinct release of multiple growth factors from a single tissue specific SAP hydrogel: a significant goal in regenerative medicine.

  19. Abordagem sobre o controle do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Studies of the management of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina B. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul a infestação dos bovinos por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ocorre, principalmente, entre os meses de outubro e abril, devido às condições climáticas. Além do conhecimento do ciclo biológico desse parasito, também é fundamental conhecer a epidemiologia, para estabelecer estratégias de controle. No Rio Grande do Sul, e também no Brasil, existem poucos estudos epidemiológicos a respeito da resistência aos acaricidas. Além disso, a grande área geográfica e a deficiência estrutural quanto ao uso e acesso a bancos de dados dificultam a obtenção de dados confiáveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar um inquérito abordando a percepção dos produtores da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto à identificação de populações de R. (B. microplus difíceis de controlar com acaricidas e os fatores de risco para a seleção de populações de carrapatos resistentes. Para execução do trabalho foram coletados dados sobre o controle do carrapato de bovinos de corte, em 85 propriedades de sete municípios, localizados na região sul do Estado. Os resultados revelaram a existência de associação positiva entre a dificuldade de controlar o carrapato com os acaricidas e o grau de instrução do proprietário (até o ensino fundamental com OR=3,67 e p=0,01 e o número de aplicação de carrapaticida por ano (superior a 4 com OR=4,05 e p=0,006. Esses resultados indicam também que propriedades com mais de 100 bovinos de corte em criação extensiva, na região sul do rio Grande do Sul apresentam características que podem contribuir para uma maior vida útil dos carrapaticidas do que as verificadas em outras regiões do País.In the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, cattle become infested with Rhipicephalus (B. microplus mainly between October and April due to the climatic conditions. In addition to knowing its life cycle, knowledge of parasite's epidemiology is essential to

  20. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur

    2010-08-11

    The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  1. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  2. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  3. The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material may already provide adequate coverage of certain issues. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  4. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  5. FACTORES PROTECTORES DE LA SALUD MENTAL: UN ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO SOBRE VALORES, AUTOESTIMA E INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL EN POBLACIÓN CLÍNICA Y POBLACIÓN GENERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESA C. GÓNGORA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo que se informa fue realizar un estudio comparativo de tres factores protectores de la salud mental: inteligencia emocional, valores y autoestima entre 60 pacientes diagnosticados con trastornos de ansiedad y/o depresión y 60 sujetos de población normal. Así la muestra total quedó conformada por 120 sujetos. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: la Escala de Valores de Schwartz (1992, la Escala de Inteligencia Emocional Bar-On (1997, la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (1965, la Escala de Ansiedad STAI-rasgo (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg & Jacobs, 1983 y la Escala de Depresión de Beck-II (Beck, Steer & Brown, 2006. Los resultados indicaron que Autoestima y un aspecto de la inteligencia emocional, Felicidad, fueron las variables que mejor distinguieron al grupo clínico del grupo de población general. Dos componentes de la inteligencia emocional, Manejo de Estrés y Estado de Animo, distinguieron claramente entre sujetos con alta y baja ansiedad. Ambas dimensiones permitieron identificar correctamente a un 91.7% de sujetos con alta ansiedad. Un bajo nivel de valores de Autotrascendencia, una alta Autoestima y una alta dimensión del Estado de Animo de la inteligencia emocional permitieron distinguir un 85.3% de los pacientes con alta y baja depresión. Los resultados están en consonancia con los principios de la Psicología Positiva, en tanto que aspectos positivos también contribuyen a las variables patológicas y por lo tanto pueden fortalecerse a través de intervenciones positivas.

  6. Factores que influyen sobre la producción científica en Contabilidad en España: la opinión de los profesores universitarios de Contabilidad (II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar-Pérez, Bernabé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of an article, the first part of which was published in REDC, 2013, nº3. The aim of this paper is to analyse the opinion of academics in the field of accounting about their research productivity and the factors that could explain the differences with respect to other areas. It is a cross-sectional study of the population of members of ASEPUC by means of surveys. The results show that the causes of the differences in research productivity are explained as: problems for delimiting the research in accounting, a lack of motivation due to rejected papers and non-compensated efforts, sparse incentives for researching, and a lack of methodological training, as well as the amount of time needed for dedication to teaching activities. Tenure, professional position, productivity and university size all influence the opinion concerning scientific productivity in accounting.Este trabajo es la segunda parte del publicado en la REDC, 2013, nº 3, e015, siendo su objetivo analizar la opinión del profesorado universitario en Contabilidad sobre su producción científica y las causas que pueden explicar su diferencia con respecto a otras áreas afines. Para ello, realizamos una encuesta, cuyos resultados ponen de manifiesto que las causas que permiten explicar la diferencia de la producción científica en Contabilidad con otras áreas afines son muy diversas, pudiéndose destacar entre ellas la dificultad para delimitar la investigación en Contabilidad, la desmotivación por los rechazos sufridos y el esfuerzo no recompensado, así como la falta de incentivos a la investigación, el tiempo dedicado a la docencia y la falta de formación metodológica. Asimismo, hemos constatado que tanto la edad, como el tamaño de la universidad de pertenencia, la categoría profesional del profesor y la posesión de tramos de investigación influyen en su opinión sobre la producción científica contable en España.

  7. Krüppel-like transcription factors and control of pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourillot Pierre-Yves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent papers have demonstrated a role for Krüppel-like transcription factors 2, 4 and 5 in the control of mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency. However, it is not clear whether each factor has a unique role or whether they are functionally redundant. A paper by Parisi and colleagues in BMC Biology now sheds light on the mechanism by which Klf5 regulates pluripotency. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/128

  8. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar Salihu Anka; Latiffah Hassan; Siti Khairani-Bejo; Mohamed Abidin Zainal; Ramlan Bin Mohamad; Annas Salleh; Azri Adzhar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-fiv...

  9. Clusters Regarding Key Factors Affecting Changes in Accounting, Finance, Administration and Management Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Gabriela Blidisel; Adina Simona Popa; Raimondo Lo Russo; Maria Moraru

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, important changes have occurred in public governance, which has evolved in this time from hierarchical bureaucracy to participatory governance, where the role of citizens in public decision-making process is more direct. There were performed reforms in finance, management administration and finances of public sector. Starting from the factors that influenced during the history the accounting, finances, administration and management control, we want to test the factors ...

  10. Les visites pastorals a Catalunya durant l’època moderna : mètodes de control sobre la parròquia, el clergat i la població

    OpenAIRE

    Solà Colomer, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Les visites pastorals catalanes de l’època moderna esdevenen una poderosa arma de confessionalització. El seu objectiu serà múltiple i divers, en evolució constant, adaptant-se als canvis: la instauració d’un ordre social (amb l’Església i l’Estat a dalt de tot), l’establiment d’una religió homogènia i unitària, el control sobre la població i el coneixement del territori. Las visitas pastorales de la época moderna se convierten en una poderosa arma de confesionalización. Su objetivo será m...

  11. Determinant factors on children in sport Um estudo sobre os fatores influenciadores na iniciação esportiva precoce da criança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arli Ramos de Oliveira

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has the purpose of analyzing the possible factors that early sport practice can develop on children especially without pedagogical and scientific based. The lack of a specific subject concentrated on child development studies in most physical education courses in Parana l according to Sports and Tourism Secretary. Presents different degrees of competency levels in the field. The more meaningful the Physical Education teaching is the greater the respect to the principles of age, growth, maturation and development. It is necessary to improve sport skills, and to respect children's individual differences. The child learns when he/she is ready to learn, and excessive emphasis on winning should be avoided before the age of twelve, especially for injuries prevention. The awareness of child development changes and the modification of the curriculum in the Physical Education Schools are suggested. Physical activities for children should be meaningful, according to children age level and motivation, stimulating an active and healthy freestyle. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar os possíveis fatores que a prática desportiva precoce pode desenvolver nas crianças, especialmente sem base pedagógica e científica. A falta de um assunto específico concentrou-se em estudos do desenvolvimento infantil na maioria dos cursos de educação física no Estado do Paraná. l de acordo com a Secretaria de Turismo e Desporto. Apresenta diferentes graus de níveis de competência no campo. O mais significativo o ensino de Educação Física é o maior do respeito aos princípios de idade, o crescimento, maturação e desenvolvimento. É necessário melhorar habilidades esportivas, e de respeitar as diferenças individuais das crianças. A criança aprende quando ele / ela está pronta para aprender, e uma ênfase excessiva na conquista deve ser evitado antes da idade de doze anos, especialmente para a prevenção de lesões. A consciência das mudan

  12. Power factor controller used as DC-DC converter for photovoltaic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, A.K.; Dasgupta, Nivedita [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-06-15

    An active power factor controller (PFC) integrated circuit, normally used in AC circuits, has been used for DC-to-DC boost conversion with a stable output voltage for a variable DC input voltage as obtained from photovoltaic (PV) sources. The circuit described here uses a power factor controller MC 34262 to give approximately 400 V{sub DC} output for an input variation from 90 to 280 V{sub DC}. The maximum efficiency achieved was 98% at 450 W. Comparisons between AC and DC operations have been made. (author)

  13. A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic campylobacter infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, J.; Engberg, J.; Molbak, K.;

    2003-01-01

    A case control study comprising 282 cases and 319 matched controls was conducted in Denmark during 1996-7. Two estimates of the odds ratio (OR) were determined for each risk factor with and without 'protective factors' fitted into the final model. Consumption of undercooked poultry (OR 4(.)5; 8......(.)2), consumption of red meat at a barbecue (OR 2(.)3; 4(.)1), consumption of grapes (OR 1(.)6; 2(.)8) and drinking unpasteurized milk (OR 2(.)3; 11(.)8) were identified as risk factors in both models. Frequent consumption of pork chops (OR 4(.)4) and daily contact with domestic animals and pets were identified...... as risk factors in one of the two models only. Finally, foreign travel was found to be a significant risk factor (OR 2(.)5). Seasonal and regional interaction was observed for several risk factors and the time elapsed from interviewing of cases to interviewing of controls seemed to influence the effect...

  14. Determinants of risk factor control in subjects with coronary heart disease : a report from the EUROASPIRE III investigators.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2012-04-18

    The EUROASPIRE audits of risk factor control have indicated that, even in those with established coronary heart disease, risk factor control remains poor. We therefore analysed the EUROASPRE III data set to establish the factors associated with success or failure in risk factor control in order to inform future risk factor management strategies. University education, attendance at a specialist cardiology clinic, and participation in a cardiac rehabilitation programme were associated with improved risk factor control. Risk factor control was poorer in women, those with diabetes, and those undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery as opposed to medical therapy or percutaneous coronary intervention. Increasing age, depression, and anxiety were not associated with poorer risk factor control.

  15. 3D microwave cavity with magnetic flux control and enhanced quality factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshitnyk, Yarema [The University of Queensland, School of Mathematics and Physics, St Lucia (Australia); Jerger, Markus [The University of Queensland, ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, 4072 (Australia); Fedorov, Arkady [The University of Queensland, School of Mathematics and Physics, St Lucia (Australia); The University of Queensland, ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, 4072 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) microwave cavities have been extensively used for coupling and interacting with superconducting quantum bits (qubits), providing a versatile platform for quantum control experiments and for realizing hybrid quantum systems. While having high quality factors (>10{sup 6}) superconducting cavities do not permit magnetic field control of qubits. In contrast, cavities made of normal metals are transparent to magnetic fields, but experience lower quality factors (∝10{sup 4}). We have created a hybrid cavity which is primarily composed of aluminium but also contains a small copper insert reaching the internal quality factor of ≅10{sup 5}, an order of magnitude improvement over all previously tested normal metal cavities. In order to demonstrate precise magnetic control, we performed spectroscopy of three superconducting qubits, where individual control of each qubit's frequency was exerted with small external wire coils. An improvement in quality factor and magnetic field control makes this 3D hybrid cavity an attractive new element for circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments. (orig.)

  16. Dissemination of information on visceral leishmaniasis from schoolchildren to their families: a sustainable model for controlling the disease Informação sobre leishmaniose visceral por escolares aos seus familiares: uma abordagem sustentável para o controle da doença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ferreira de Magalhães

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A model for the dissemination of information on visceral leishmaniasis from schoolchildren to their families was evaluated in two schools in Caeté, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Age ranged from 9 to 17 years in the two schools, one receiving the intervention (with 92 students and the other serving as the control (96 students. All the students attended a class and received a pamphlet on visceral leishmaniasis. The intervention consisted of a homework assignment in which the student discussed the class content and pamphlet with a family member. Knowledge by family members (n = 100 on visceral leishmaniasis was evaluated with a pre and post-intervention questionnaire applied by a health agent, who also completed a form on hygiene around the household as observed during the home visit. A significant improvement was observed in knowledge and hygiene (e.g., sweeping of leaves, fruit, and branches from the yards among the families that were exposed to the intervention (p Modelo de disseminação da informação sobre a leishmaniose visceral por escolares aos seus familiares foi avaliado em duas escolas no Município de Caeté, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Em ambas as escolas, intervenção (92 alunos e controle (96 alunos, as idades dos alunos variaram de 9 a 17 anos. Todos assistiram a uma aula e receberam um panfleto sobre a doença. A intervenção consistiu de uma tarefa de casa, na qual o aluno discutia com o familiar o conteúdo da aula e do folheto. O conhecimento dos familiares (n = 100 sobre a leishmaniose visceral foi avaliado por meio de questionário antes e após a intervenção, aplicado por um agente de saúde, que também preenchia um formulário sobre as condições de limpeza no peridomicílio, no momento da visita. Observou-se melhora significativa do conhecimento sobre a enfermidade e da limpeza relacionada à retirada de folhas entre as famílias que receberam a intervenção (p < 0,05. A disseminação da informação sobre a leishmaniose

  17. El proyecto Epicardian: un estudio de cohortes sobre enfermedades y factores de riesgo cardiovasculares en ancianos españoles: consideraciones metodológicas y principales hallazgos demográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gabriel Sánchez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: A pesar de que la incidencia de cardiopatía isquémica es más alta en sujetos mayores de 65 años, la mayor parte de la investigación cardiovascular se ha centrado en la población adulta de mediana edad, careciendo en España hasta la fecha de un estudio de cohortes en este grupo de población. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar el papel y la metodología de los estudios de cohortes como herramienta epidemiológica imprescindible para la investigación de la prevalencia e incidencia de angina, IAM, ictus, y sus principales factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: Estudio de cohortes en tres zonas de España: Madrid (barrio de Lista, Arévalo (Avila y Begonte (Lugo. Muestra aleatoria estratificada por edad y sexo a partir de los padrones municipales de cada zona y municipio (n=5,079. Evaluación basal de la cohorte en dos fases: domiciliaria mediante encuesta estructurada para cribado de enfermedad isquémica cardiaca y factores de riesgo clásicos (hipertensión, dislipemia, diabetes y tabaquismo y clínica para confirmación de casos. En la fase de seguimiento se utilizó el «método de búsqueda en frío» del proyecto MONICA modificado para la búsqueda e indagación de casos incidentes usando todos los informes clínicos hospitalarios y de atención primaria para la confirmación del evento cardiovascular. Adicionalmente se solicitó al INE información sobre causa y fecha de la muerte de los individuos de la cohorte fallecidos...

  18. Cuestionarios sobre factores de riesgo de la exposición y la accidentalidad por tráfico en conductores: Una revisión A review of questionnaires exploring driver´s exposure and risk factors in road crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jiménez Mejías

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dada la diversidad de cuestionarios empleados en el estudio de la epidemiología analítica de las lesiones por tráfico, realizamos una revisión de los estudios publicados al respecto entre 1989 a 2011, con objeto de identificar sus fortalezas y debilidades. Dicha revisión puso de relieve que la mayor parte de los cuestionarios se centran en el factor humano sobre el riesgo de accidente, pero son muy pocos los que incluyen la intensidad de exposición y la asociación de ésta con otros factores de riesgo de la accidentalidad. Muchos cuestionarios poseen un elevado número de ítems y complejas escalas de valoración. Además, en España son escasos los cuestionarios validados sobre la exposición y la accidentalidad por tráfico. Por todo ello, es necesario trabajar en el diseño y la validación de cuestionarios que recojan de forma sencilla información integral sobre la epidemiología de las lesiones por tráfico de cara a su mayor conocimiento y prevención.Given the diversity of questionnaires currently being used in the study of the analytic epidemiology of traffic injuries, we made a review of studies on this question published between 1989 and 2011 in order to identify their advantages and disadvantages. We were able to observe that most of the questionnaires were focused on the human factor regarding the risk of road crashes, but very few of them included intensity of exposure and its association with other risk factors in road crashes. Many questionnaires have a high number of items and complex rating scales. Furthermore, in Spain there are few validated questionnaires which contain complete information about exposure and road crashes. In Spain we should work on the design and validation of questionnaires containing questions aimed at obtaining complete and easy information about the epidemiology of traffic injuries. In this way we would be able to increase our awareness of traffic injuries and how to prevent them.

  19. Efeito de fatores ambientais sobre a seletividade do alachlor ao algodoeiro Effect of environmental factors on the selectivity of alachlor to cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Guimarães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotonicultores do cerrado, receosos da ocorrência de fitotoxicidade, têm utilizado o herbicida alachlor em dosagens inferiores à mínima recomendada na bula, com baixo efeito residual. Com o objetivo de estudar fatores relacionados à seletividade do alachlor ao algodoeiro, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, em caixas de germinação com substrato areia, foi estudado o herbicida alachlor em dois níveis (sem alachlor e na dose de 96 µg kg-1 de substrato, em ambientes compostos pela combinação das temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC com três níveis de umidade no substrato (40, 60 e 80% da capacidade de retenção de água. A avaliação foi realizada aos 10 dias. As condições do ambiente influenciaram o crescimento das plântulas, mas essa resposta foi reduzida ou anulada na presença do alachlor; quanto mais favoráveis as condições, proporcionalmente maiores foram as reduções. O herbicida reduziu características da parte aérea e, em maior intensidade, o comprimento das raízes. No segundo ensaio, em vasos com solo, foram estudados três tratamentos de irrigação (23, 34 e 45 mm após aplicação de dois níveis de alachlor (0 e 2,88 kg ha-1. A avaliação foi realizada aos 21 dias. Maiores níveis de irrigação causaram redução na matéria fresca e seca das raízes. O alachlor reduziu todas as variáveis medidas na parte aérea das plantas, mas, de modo geral, esse efeito foi de baixa intensidade e ocorreu de maneira semelhante nos níveis de irrigação. A independência dos efeitos entre alachlor e irrigação não corroboraram a premissa de que maiores níveis de água aumentariam a lixiviação do herbicida e a fitotoxicidade ao algodoeiro.Brazilian savanna cotton growers in fear of phytotoxicity have been using the herbicide alachlor below the minimum dosage recommended by the manufacturer, with low residual activity. Two experiments were carried out to study factors related to alachlor selectivity to

  20. Biossegurança e odontologia: crenças e atitudes de graduandos sobre o controle da infecção cruzada Biosecurity and dentistry: beliefs and attitudes among dental students regarding infection control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pinelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de investigar as percepções de graduandos de Odontologia sobre a fidelidade às diretrizes de biossegurança e acerca do preservar-se. Nove questões abertas, que abordaram aspectos de interesse para o tema, foram aplicadas em entrevista com 14 acadêmicos, que realizavam atendimento odontológico de pacientes da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara da Unesp. Utilizou-se a metodologia de pesquisa qualitativa e a estratégia metodológica para análise das entrevistas foi a Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC. Três figuras metodológicas foram obtidas, sendo ideias-centrais, expressões-chave e o DSC propriamente dito. A análise dos discursos permitiu avaliar a fala natural da coletividade. Verificou-se a adesão dos entrevistados aos protocolos de biossegurança, embora houvesse a queixa de que, na rotina diária, as precauções fossem negligenciadas por não serem muito práticas. Entre as medidas de proteção individual e coletiva, rotineiramente utilizadas, foram apontados o uso de Equipamento de Proteção Individual (EPI e as barreiras protetoras, bem como as atividades de desinfecção e esterilização. O risco de contágio foi visto por alguns com pavor e por outros com total indiferença porque acreditavam ser algo do qual é possível de se ter controle por meio da adesão às precauções padrão. Entre as doenças de maior preocupação, a aids e as hepatites B e C foram as mais temidas. Diante do discurso obtido, salienta-se a necessidade de se aperfeiçoar as estratégias educacionais, com intuito de motivar a fiel adesão às normas de biossegurança, essenciais no trato de pacientes odontológicos.The aim of the present study was to investigate dental students' perceptions in relation to adherence to Biosecurity guidelines and self-preservation. Nine open questions that approached aspects regarding the issue were asked in interview to 14 dental students who assisted dental patients at the

  1. Efeito de períodos de controle de plantas daninhas sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de eucalipto Effects of weed control periods on initial growth and development of eucalypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.B. Toledo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos dos períodos de convivência e de controle de Brachiaria decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Para isso, um ensaio foi conduzido, no município de Três Lagoas-MS, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 1997. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram de diferentes épocas e períodos de convivência das plantas daninhas na cultura do eucalipto. As épocas foram divididas em dois grupos. No primeiro, a convivência se iniciava no transplante das mudas e era estendida até 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 224, 252 e 364 dias após. No segundo grupo, a convivência se iniciava aos 0, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 224 e 252 dias após o transplante e era estendida até o final de um ano. As principais plantas daninhas que ocorreram na área experimental foram Brachiaria decumbens e Spermacocea latifola. As plantas jovens de eucalipto foram bastante suscetíveis à interferência das plantas daninhas, apresentando um período anterior à interferência inferior a 14-28 dias. Para assegurar o desenvolvimento da cultura, o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 140 dias, e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência, de 14-28 a 140 dias após o transplante, considerando o índice de 5% de redução em diâmetro.A field trial was carried out in Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil, from January to December of 1997, to study the effects of control and coexistence period of Brachiaria decumbens on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones. The experimental design was a complete randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of different periods of weed-eucalypt association. The periods were divided in two groups. In the first one, the weed-eucalypt coexistence initiated during the eucalypt transplanting, continuing up to 28, 56, 112, 140, 168, 224, 252 and 364 days after it. In the second group, the

  2. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited numb...

  3. Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the cervix: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Parazzini, F; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E; FASOLI, M.; Cecchetti, G.

    1988-01-01

    To assess risk factors for cervical adenocarcinoma data were collected in a case-control study of 39 cases and 409 controls conducted in the greater Milan area. Questions were asked about personal characteristics and habits, gynaecologic and obstetric data, history of lifetime use of oral contraceptives and other female hormones, and general indicators of sexual habits (age at first intercourse and total number of sexual partners). The relative risk of cervical adenocarcinoma increased with n...

  4. Experimental design of a fuzzy controller for improving power factor of boost rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessal, Abdelhalim; Rahmani, Lazhar; Gaubert, Jean-Paul; Mostefai, Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    This article presents the design and the implementation of dSPACE DS1104 controller board-based PI and fuzzy logic peak current-mode controllers in the voltage loop and two controllers in the current loop based first on a standard fixed hysteresis band control, followed by a variable hysteresis band control to achieve constant switching frequency for a single-phase active power factor corrector in the continuous conduction mode. All these controllers have been verified via simulation in Simulink and a real-time implementation is performed on an experimental test bench utilising a rapid prototyping tool. The controllers are experimentally compared for steady-state performance and transient response. It is shown that the PI and fuzzy logic controllers give a superior steady-state performance, whereas the fuzzy logic inference based controller can achieve better dynamic response than its PI counterpart under large load disturbance and plant uncertainties. Furthermore, the variable hysteresis band control in the current loop gives a low total harmonic distortion of the input current compared to a standard fixed hysteresis band control.

  5. Erroneous gambling-related beliefs as illusions of primary and secondary control: a confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H; Navarro, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Different classification systems for erroneous beliefs about gambling have been proposed, consistently alluding to 'illusion of control' and 'gambler's fallacy' categories. None of these classification systems have, however, considered the how the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy might be interrelated. In this paper, we report the findings of a confirmatory factor analysis that examines the proposal that most erroneous gambling-related beliefs can be defined in terms of Rothbaum et al.'s (J Pers Soc Psychol, doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.5 , 1982) distinction between 'primary' and 'secondary' illusory control, with the former being driven to a large extent by the well-known gambler's fallacy and the latter being driven by a complex of beliefs about supernatural forces such as God and luck. A survey consisting of 100 items derived from existing instruments was administered to 329 participants. The analysis confirmed the existence of two latent structures (beliefs in primary and secondary control), while also offering support to the idea that gambler's fallacy-style reasoning may underlie both perceived primary control and beliefs about the cyclical nature of luck, a form of perceived secondary control. The results suggest the need for a greater focus on the role of underlying processes or belief structures as factors that foster susceptibility to specific beliefs in gambling situations. Addressing and recognising the importance of these underlying factors may also have implications for cognitive therapy treatments for problem gambling.

  6. Risk factors for invasive Cryptococcus neoformans diseases: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Lin

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous environmental fungus that can cause life-threatening meningitis and fungemia, often in the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, or other medical conditions. To distinguish risk factors from comorbidities, we performed a hospital-based, density-sampled, matched case-control study.All new-onset cryptococcal meningitis cases and cryptococcemia cases at a university hospital in Taiwan from 2002-2010 were retrospectively identified from the computerized inpatient registry and were included in this study. Controls were selected from those hospitalized patients not experiencing cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia. Controls and cases were matched by admission date, age, and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors.A total of 101 patients with cryptococcal meningitis (266 controls and 47 patients with cryptococcemia (188 controls, of whom 32 patients had both cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcemia, were included in this study. Multivariate regression analysis showed that AIDS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 181.4; p < 0.001, decompensated liver cirrhosis (aOR = 8.5; p = 0.008, and cell-mediated immunity (CMI-suppressive regimens without calcineurin inhibitors (CAs (aOR = 15.9; p < 0.001 were independent risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis. Moreover, AIDS (aOR = 216.3, p < 0.001, decompensated liver cirrhosis (aOR = 23.8; p < 0.001, CMI-suppressive regimens without CAs (aOR = 7.3; p = 0.034, and autoimmune diseases (aOR = 9.3; p = 0.038 were independent risk factors for developing cryptococcemia. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus and other medical conditions were not found to be risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia.The findings confirm AIDS, decompensated liver cirrhosis, CMI-suppressive regimens without CAs, and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for invasive C. neoformans diseases.

  7. Factores asociados al control de la hipertension arterial en personas mayores de 60 años en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tuesca-Molina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: En la última década se ha observado una mejora en el control de la hipertensión arterial en España. Dicho control repercute en la disminución de la morbimortalidad cardiovascular. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar los factores asociados al control de la hipertensión arterial en varones y mujeres hipertensos diagnosticados que reciben tratamiento farmacológico. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado a partir de los datos del estudio: «Hipertensión arterial y otros factores de riesgo en la población de 60 años y más de España». La muestra, incluyó a 1.461 hipertensos diagnosticados tratados farmacológicamente, seleccionados por muestreo probabilístico y polietápico. La información se obtuvo por entrevista en el domicilio sobre el control de la hipertensión arterial, variables sociodemográficas, estilo de vida, uso de servicios de salud y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias de genero en el control de la hipertensión (p=0,09. El control en varones se relaciona con residir en área rural (OR=1,83; IC al 95%: 1,06-3,14; ser soltero (OR=3,40; IC al 95%: 1,32-8,74 y realizar actividad física (OR=1,69; IC al 95%:1,06-2,69. Las mujeres que consumen alcohol de forma moderada controlan mejor la hipertensión (OR=1,63; IC al 95% 1,14-2,33. Conclusiones: Esta investigación determina según el género algunos factores relacionados con el control de la hipertensión en hipertensos diagnosticados y tratados farmacológicamente. En varones, el control se asoció significativamente con: residir en área rural, ser soltero y realizar alguna actividad física. Mientras, que en las mujeres el control se asoció con consumir alcohol de forma moderada.

  8. Escenarios sobre el orden internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Dallanegra Pedraza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Luego de las grandes cambios que se dieron con la caída del Muro de Berlín y la desintegración en la URSS, se analizan, desde una perspectiva realista-sistémicaestructural, los componentes que intervienen en la generación del orden mundial, qué factores intervienen y cuáles son las diferentes aspiraciones respecto de las características que debería tener. Se tiene en especial consideración la creciente heterogeneización del sistema y la manera en que actores transnacionales operan como motores del futuro orden, predominando por sobre las posibilidades del actor históricamente dominante: el Estado-Nación. Se estudian las características principales del funcionamiento del sistema internacional y el significado de su marco institucional.

  9. Inferencias sobre Grafos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira M. Allende

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de un juego puede ser modelado asumiendo que solo algunas partidas son observadas. Entonces el árbol del juego debe ser estimado utilizando información muestral. Similarmente ocurre al obtener información sobre el comportamiento de las decisiones tomadas por individuos muestreados sobre un árbol de decisión teórico. Al considerar una medida de probabilidad que caracterice el comportamiento de redes aleatorias se puede obtener un estimado del árbol asociado. Este problema es el analizado en este trabajo. Algunos resultados experimentales obtenidos usando Recocido Simulado ilustran el procedimiento. Su papel en el estudio de modelos económicos y de mercadeo es discutido.

  10. Tesis sobre municipalismo libertario

    OpenAIRE

    Bookchin, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Históricamente, la teoría y la práctica social radical se han centrado sobre dos campos de la actividad social humana: el lugar de trabajo y la comunidad. A partir de la creación del Estado-nación y de la Revolución Industrial, la economía ha ido adquiriendo una posición predominante sobre la comunidad; y no sólo en la ideología capitalista, sino también en los diferentes socialismos, libertarios y autoritarios, que han ido apareciendo en el último siglo. Este cambio de posición del socialism...

  11. Escrito sobre el cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Malalana Ureña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El catálogo, en una edición bilingüe español-inglés, es una pequeña guía de la exposición Shirin Neshat. Escrito sobre el cuerpo, muestra que se integra dentro de los actos de PHOTOESPAÑA13, el festival internacional de fotografía y artes visuales. El esquema del libro es sencillo y los textos son extremadamente divulgativos. El primero de ellos, Escrito sobre el cuerpo (pp. 10-15, cuyo autor es Octavio Zaya, comisario de la exposición, resume la trayectoria de esta intelectual, que "interactúa" con la fotografía y los formatos audiovisuales, y nos presenta la argumentación narrativa de los documentos expuestos, contextualizando la obra recopilada.

  12. Género y dirección frontera en relaciones interorganizativas: estudio exploratorio de su influencia sobre los sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araujo Pinzon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación contribuye al conocimiento sobre los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en las relaciones inter-organizativas introduciendo la diversidad de género de la persona responsable de la dirección frontera. A través de un análisis cuantitativo exploratorio desarrollado en el contexto de la gestión de los canales de exportación externalizados, se investiga el efecto de las diferencias de género en el nivel de implantación de los diversos tipos de control (de resultados, de comportamiento y social y en el modo de uso (diagnóstico e interactivo de los SCG. Los resultados no evidencian diferencias significativas asociadas al género en cuanto al grado de implantación de los tipos de control ni a la utilidad e importancia conferida a los modos de uso de la información de los SCG. No obstante, los resultados sí indican una cierta preferencia de las mujeres por el uso interactivo, acorde con las habilidades y características socialmente atribuidas a su género.This research is intended to contribute to knowledge about the role of management control systems (MCS in interorganisational relationships analysing gender diversity of boundary managers. By means of an exploratory quantitative analysis in the setting of externalized export channels, we research the effect of gender differences on implementation level of MCS control types (output, behaviour and social controls and on MCS use mode (diagnostic and interactive uses. Results do not show significant differences related to gender regarding level of implementation of control types, or utility and importance conferred to use modes of MCS information. Notwithstanding, results suggest a slight preference of women for interactive use, according to skills and characteristics socially attributed to this gender.

  13. Risk factors for buruli ulcer: a case control study in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pouillot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. However, the exact mechanism of transmission of the bacillus and the development of the disease through human activities is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control study to identify Buruli ulcer risk factors in Cameroon compared case-patients with community-matched controls on one hand and family-matched controls on the other hand. Risk factors identified by the community-matched study (including 163 pairs were: having a low level of education, swamp wading, wearing short, lower-body clothing while farming, living near a cocoa plantation or woods, using adhesive bandages when hurt, and using mosquito coils. Protective factors were: using bed nets, washing clothes, and using leaves as traditional treatment or rubbing alcohol when hurt. The family-matched study (including 118 pairs corroborated the significance of education level, use of bed nets, and treatment with leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Covering limbs during farming activities is confirmed as a protective factor guarding against Buruli ulcer disease, but newly identified factors including wound treatment and use of bed nets may provide new insight into the unknown mode of transmission of M. ulcerans or the development of the disease.

  14. CONTROLLING FACTORS OF POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ABOVE GRASSLAND IN HUMID AND ARID AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Yanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is an importance process in water balance studies controlled by a number of meteorological factors such as temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, vapor pressure gradient, relative humidity and biological factors such as vegetation type, canopy height and plant density that varied in time-scale and in spatial scale. Of all those variables, determining the most controlling factors of evapotranspiration in humid and arid area is of interest of this paper. Two sites representing humid and arid area i.e. Fermi Prairie site in Illinois and Audubon Research Ranch in Arizona respectively were investigated in this study.  The flux data employed in this study was acquired from Ameriflux Netwotk. Penmann-Monteith formula is employed in to estimate evapotranspiration rate in both sites. The result shows that the PET is in dependence on the considered meteorological factor such as shortwave radiation, vapor pressure, air temperature, wind speed, net radiation and vapor pressure deficit. It is also can be inferred from the analysis that PET is also strongly controlled by vegetation factors represented as stomatal resistance. Keywords: Potential evapotranspiration, Penmann-Monteith, humid, arid.

  15. Factors influencing helium measurements for detection of control rod failures in BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L. [Div. of Nuclear Engineering, Dept. of Applied Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Loner, H.; Ledergerber, G. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Schnurr, B. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, D-84049 Essenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Much effort has been made to minimize the number and consequences of fuel failures at nuclear power plants. The consequences of control rod failures have also gained an increased attention. In this paper we introduce a system for on-line surveillance of control rod integrity which has several advantages comparing to the surveillance methods available today in boiling water reactors (BWRs). This system measures the helium released from failed control rods containing boron carbide (B4C). However, there are a number of factors that might influence measurements, which have to be taken into consideration when evaluating the measured data. These factors can be separated into two groups: 1) local adjustments, made on the sampling line connecting the detector to the off-gas system, and 2) plant operational parameters. The adjustments of the sample line conditions include variation of gas flow rate and gas pressure in the line. Plant operational factors that may influence helium measurements can vary from plant to plant. The factors studied at Leibstadt nuclear power plant (KKL) were helium impurities in injected hydrogen gas, variation of the total off-gas flow and regular water refill. In this paper we discuss these factors and their significance and present experimental results of measurements at KKL. (authors)

  16. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  17. Possible factors that control calcite dissolution in the western tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.; Naidu, P.D.

    CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 95, NO. 1, 10 JULY 2008 22 Possible factors that control calcite dissolution in the western tropical Indian Ocean The oceans act as a major controlling de- vice of atmospheric CO 2 through the chemistry of the oceans... and preservation of calcium carbonate in deep-sea sedi- ments 1 . Carbon dioxide dissolved in sea water is present as CO 2 gas, H 2 CO 3 , HCO – 3 and CO = 3 . All these species together con- stitute the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) 2 which controls...

  18. Factors Influencing Hand Washing Behaviour in Primary Schools: Process Evaluation within a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57).…

  19. The DNA-binding factor Ctcf critically controls gene expression in macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Nikolic (Tatjana); D. Movita (Dowty); M.E.H. Lambers (Margaretha); C. Ribeiro de Almeida (Claudia); P.J. Biesta (Paula); K. Kreefft (Kim); M.J.W. de Bruijn (Marjolein); I.M. Bergen (Ingrid); N.J. Galjart (Niels); P.A. Boonstra (André); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMacrophages play an important role in immunity and homeostasis. Upon pathogen recognition via specific receptors, they rapidly induce inflammatory responses. This process is tightly controlled at the transcriptional level. The DNA binding zinc-finger protein CCCTC-binding factor (Ctcf) i

  20. The transcription factor relish controls anaplasma marginale infection in the bovine tick rhipicephalus microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale, the etiological agent of bovine anaplasmosis. The knowledge of tick immune responses to control bacterial infections remains limited. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription factor Relish from the Imd signalin...

  1. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.;

    2013-01-01

    a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...

  2. Prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension by sociodemographic factors among the Dutch elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T.M. van Rossum (Caroline); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe study objective was to assess the prevalence, level of treatment, and control of hypertension in a general elderly population according to age and sociodemographic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7983 participants of the Rotterdam Stu

  3. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoxu; Zheng, Rongshou; He, Yutong; Sun, Xibin; Wang, Ning; Chen, Tianhui; Chen, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs). Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11-3.70), obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22-2.57), diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48-5.92) and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02-3.10) were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.84) was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  4. Influence of Parenting Factors on Childhood Social Anxiety: Direct Observation of Parental Warmth and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rork, Kristine E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the association of parenting behaviors and social anxiety in children. Three parental factors--including parental socialization, control, and warmth--were investigated in a sample of 31 two-parent families. Rather than solely relying upon retrospective questionnaires, this study incorporated direct…

  5. The ETS-5 transcription factor regulates activity states in Caenorhabditis elegans by controlling satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juozaityte, Vaida; Pladevall-Morera, David; Podolska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Animal behavior is shaped through interplay among genes, the environment, and previous experience. As in mammals, satiety signals induce quiescence in Caenorhabditis elegans Here we report that the C. elegans transcription factor ETS-5, an ortholog of mammalian FEV/Pet1, controls satiety-induced ...

  6. Shared control of gene expression in bacteria by transcription factors and global physiology of the cell.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berthoumieux, S.; Jong, H. de; Baptist, G.; Pinel, C.; Ranquet, C.; Ropers, D.; Geiselmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by the joint effect of (i) the global physiological state of the cell, in particular the activity of the gene expression machinery, and (ii) DNA-binding transcription factors and other specific regulators. We present a model-based approach to distinguish between these t

  7. Robustly stabilizing controllers with respect to left coprime factor perturbations for irrational transfer functions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, RF

    2004-01-01

    We solve the problem of robust stabilization with respect to left coprime factor perturbations for a class of irrational transfer functions with a state space realization. We obtain a parameterization of the robustly stabilizing controllers in terms of the generating operators and an arbitrary

  8. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and hypertension control status among hypertensive patients in the outpatient setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and hypertension control among hypertensive patients in the outpatient setting in China.Methods This multi-center cross-sectional study was carried out from June to December 2009.Study patients were consecutively recruited from 46

  9. Tuberculosis risk factors among tuberculosis patients in Kampala, Uganda: implications for tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirenga, B.J.; Ssengooba, W.; Muwonge, C.; Nakiyingi, L.; Kyaligonza, S.; Kasozi, S.; Mugabe, F.; Boeree, M.J.; Joloba, M.; Okwera, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the ot

  10. Risk Factors of Streptococcus suis Infection in Vietnam. A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.N.H.; Thi, P.T.L.; Wolbers, M.; Quang, T.C.; van, M.H.N.; Vu, T.N.T.; Hoan, P.N.; Thi, H.C.T.; Xuan, S.D.; Song, D.T.; Thi, T.H.H.; Truong, H.; Campbell, J.; van, V.C.N.; Tran, C.N.; van, D.N.; Thi, H.N.; Spratt, B.G.; Tinh, H.T.; Farrar, J.; Schultsz, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus suis infection, an emerging zoonosis, is an increasing public health problem across South East Asia and the most common cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Little is known of the risk factors underlying the disease. Methods and Findings: A case-control

  11. Infecção hospitalar nos hospitais escola: uma análise sobre seu controle Infección hospitalaria en los hospitales de enseñanza: análisis crítico sobre su control Hospital infection at school hospitals: an analysis of its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milca Severino Pereira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as metodologias de vigilância e controle da Infecção Hospitalar (IH e analisar a atuação do enfermeiro no contexto do controle da I.H. MÉTODO: Estudo analítico, realizado em 81 Comissões de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH de Hospitais Escola, de 21 Estados do Brasil, mediante questionário. As variáveis estudadas foram: características e funcionamento da CCIH, critérios para diagnosticar IH: métodos de coleta de dados, tipos de vigilância epidemiológica, medidas de prevenção e controle e participação do enfermeiro no processo. Os dados foram analisados quanti-qualitativamente. RESULTADOS: prevalece, para a coleta de dados, a vigilância geral (66,6% e a associação dos métodos passivo e ativo (48,4%. Medidas preventivas e controle foram mencionadas por 67 CCIH; relacionadas ao trato urinário (54 CCIH; respiratório (48CCIH; ferida cirúrgica (36 CCIH e sistema vascular (21 CCIH. Vários obstáculos foram mencionados destacando-se a falta de ressonância existente entre as CCIH e as equipes das unidades de internação. CONCLUSÃO: os problemas para a operacionalização do controle de IH são, em sua essência, de caráter filosófico, educacional ou administrativo. Evidencia-se a importância de implantar-se metodologias que facilitem o controle de IH, indicando que a adoção do Processo de Enfermagem, como instrumento, poderá resultar em grande benefício, tanto para a CCIH como para o paciente.OBJETIVO: las metodologías de vigilancia y control de infección hospitalaria (IH; Analizar la actuación del enfermero en el contexto del control de IH. Asociar la actuación del enfermero en el control de IH con la ejecución del Proceso de Enfermería. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo analítico realizado en 81 Comisiones de Control de IH (CCIH de hospitales utilizados para la enseñanza, de 21 Estados del Brasil, mediante cuestionario. Variables de estudio: características y funcionamiento de la

  12. Reacciones hormonales e inmunológicas agudas en situaciones de estrés. Estudio experimental sobre el papel moderador de la experiencia de control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviola Gómez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo central de este estudio fue determinar experimentalmente las diferencias en los patrones de respuesta hormonal e inmunológica, como también en los estados emocionales de los participantes, al ser confrontados con situaciones de exigencia en condiciones de evidente control y de no-control. Uno de los grupos recibió feedback positivo durante la realización de la tarea ("control" y el segundo grupo recibió feedback negativo en iguales condiciones ("no control". Al confrontar las condiciones experimentales "control" y "sin control", únicamente los datos en las variables psicológicas mostraron diferencias significativas. Sin embargo, la experiencia de control correlacionó negativamente con varios de los parámetros inmunológicos con tendencia a aumentar bajo condiciones de exigencia y positivamente con aquellos que mostraron disminución bajo las mismas condiciones. Estos datos nos indican que en la medida en que disminuyó la percepción de control en la tarea, hubo incrementos y decrementos de mayor magnitud en algunas de las variables inmunológicas.

  13. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90......% of population-attributable risk. However, traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, cholesterol) appear to exert contrasting risks for stroke compared with coronary heart disease, and the etiology of stroke is far more heterogeneous. In addition, our knowledge of risk factors for stroke in low......-income countries is inadequate, where a very large burden of stroke occurs. Accordingly, a similar epidemiological study is required for stroke, to inform effective population-based strategies to reduce the risk of stroke. Methods: INTERSTROKE is an international, multicenter case-control study. Cases are patients...

  14. Risk factors in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, A G; Fakis, A; Tambe, A A; Smith, C; Hubbard, R B; Clark, D I

    2013-02-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common condition, but relatively little is known about its aetiology and associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for lateral epicondylitis in the community. Our dataset included 4998 patients with lateral epicondylitis who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice. The median age at diagnosis was 49 (interquartile range 42-56) years . Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with lateral epicondylitis were rotator cuff pathology (OR 4.95), De Quervain's disease (OR 2.48), carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 1.50), oral corticosteroid therapy (OR 1.68), and previous smoking history (OR 1.20). Diabetes mellitus, current smoking, trigger finger, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol intake, and obesity were not found to be associated with lateral epicondylitis.

  15. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  16. Environmental factors in the development of narcolepsy with cataplexy. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraita-Adrados, R; del Rio-Villegas, R; Vela-Bueno, A

    2015-06-16

    Introduccion. Los estudios epidemiologicos subrayan la importancia de los factores ambientales en la etiologia de la narcolepsia con cataplejia en pacientes geneticamente predispuestos. Objetivo. Evaluar el papel de los factores ambientales en la etiologia de la narcolepsia-cataplejia utilizando un diseño de casos y controles comparados por edad y etnia. Pacientes y metodos. Todos los pacientes fueron diagnosticados en nuestras unidades de sueño, segun los criterios de la Clasificacion Internacional de los Trastornos del Sueño de 2005. Utilizamos un cuestionario consistente en 54 preguntas relacionadas con acontecimientos psicologicos estresantes y 42 enfermedades infecciosas en 54 pacientes. Evaluamos especificamente la presencia de factores estresantes y/o infecciosos en el año previo al comienzo del primer sintoma de narcolepsia-cataplejia (somnolencia excesiva diurna y/o cataplejia). El mismo cuestionario se administro a 84 controles, miembros de la misma comunidad, sin relacion de parentesco. Resultados. Respondieron el cuestionario 54 pacientes (55,6%, hombres) (edad media del primer sintoma: 21,6 ± 9,3 años; edad media del diagnostico: 36,5 ± 12,4 años) y 84 controles. El principal hallazgo fue un cambio importante en el 'numero de discusiones con la pareja, la familia o los amigos' (odds ratio: 5,2; intervalo de confianza al 95%: 1,8-14,5) en los narcolepticos, lo que sugiere que los mecanismos psicologicos estan presentes desde el comienzo de la enfermedad con una funcion protectora. La varicela fue el factor infeccioso mas frecuente. No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas en el numero de factores psicologicos estresantes e infecciosos entre los pacientes narcolepticos y los controles. Conclusion. Estudios prospectivos epidemiologicos en series de individuos susceptibles geneticamente estan justificados para aclarar la implicacion de los factores ambientales en la etiopatogenia de la narcolepsia-cataplejia.

  17. [Cardiovascular risk factor control in a population with longstanding diabetes attending endocrinology departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi-Diaz, Cristina; Miralles-García, José M; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Pérez, María; Masramon, Xavier; De Pablos-Velasco, Pedro

    2010-12-01

    To determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a sample of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) attending Endocrinology and Nutrition Departments in Spain. An epidemiological, cross-sectional, multicenter and observational study involving 41 Departments of Endocrinology and Nutrition in Spain. Each department selected patients with DM with over 10 years of evolution, which were treated in outpatient settings. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical data, including medication, were collected for each participant. 1159 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. 52% of the participants were patients with type 2 DM. The mean duration of DM was 19.6 years. A proportion of 37%, 44%, 27.6% and 25.5% had good control of their blood pressure (BP), low density cholesterol (LDLc), lipids and glucose, respectively, and only 4.3% did well in all factors evaluated. The percentage of poorly controlled BP was four times higher in type 2 than in type 1 DM. Obesity, low cultural level and aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors were associated with poorer control. The degree of control of CVRF in diabetic patients with long disease duration is insufficient. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Digitally Controlled Integrated Electronic Ballast with Dimming and Power Factor Correction Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar-Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a digitally controlled integrated electronic ballast with dimming and power factor correctionfeatures. The control circuit is based on a low-cost PIC16C71 microcontroller where the different strategies for energysaving have been implemented. The ballast is operating in closed loop achieving tight lamp current regulation througha digital Proportional-Integral algorithm. The integrated power stage is based on a frequency-controlled single-switchboost rectifier plus a half-bridge series resonant parallel loaded inverter sharing one power switch. The single-switchboost rectifier works in discontinuous inductor current mode with automatic power factor correction. Detailed analysisof the power stages and experimental results using 42-watt electronic ballast are presented.

  19. Género y dirección frontera en relaciones interorganizativas: estudio exploratorio de su influencia sobre los sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araújo Pinzón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación contribuye al conocimiento sobre los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en las relaciones inter-organizativas introduciendo la diversidad de género de la persona responsable de la dirección frontera. A través de un análisis cuantitativo exploratorio desarrollado en el contexto de la gestión de los canales de exportación externalizados, se investiga el efecto de las diferencias de género en el nivel de implantación de los diversos tipos de control (de resultados, de comportamiento y social y en el modo de uso (diagnóstico e interactivo de los SCG. Los resultados no evidencian diferencias significativas asociadas al género en cuanto al grado de implantación de los tipos de control ni a la utilidad e importancia conferida a los modos de uso de la información de los SCG. No obstante, los resultados sí indican una cierta preferencia de las mujeres por el uso interactivo, acorde con las habilidades y características socialmente atribuidas a su género.

  20. Risk Factors for Preeclampsia in Women from Colombia: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura M.; García, Ronald G.; Ruiz, Silvia L.; Camacho, Paul A.; Ospina, Maria B.; Aroca, Gustavo; Accini, Jose L.; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a multi-causal disease characterized by the development of hypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of PE. Moreover, it is known that these risk factors vary between populations from developed and developing countries. The aim of this study is to identify which risk factors are associated with the development of preeclampsia (PE) among Colombian women. Methods A multi-centre case-control study was conducted between September 2006 and July 2009 in six Colombian cities. Cases included women with PE (n = 201); controls were aged-matched pregnant women (n = 201) without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases for a case-control ratio of 1∶1. A complete medical chart, physical examination and biochemical analysis were completed before delivery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of potential risk factors associated with PE. Results The presence of factors present in the metabolic syndrome cluster such as body mass index >31 Kg/m2 (OR = 2.18; 1.14–4.14 95% CI), high-density lipoprotein 3.24 mmol/L (OR = 1.60; 1.04–2.48 95% CI) and glycemia >4.9 mmol/L (OR = 2.66; 1.47–4.81 95%CI) as well as being primigravidae (OR = 1.71; 1.07–2.73 95% CI) were associated with the development of PE, after adjusting for other variables. Conclusion Factors present in the cluster of metabolic syndrome and primigravidity were associated with a greater risk of PE among Colombian women. Understanding the role of this cluster of risk factors in the development of PE is of crucial importance to prevent PE and remains to be determined. PMID:22911827

  1. La pobreza, el crecimiento demográfico y el control de la natalidad: Una crítica a la perspectiva ética de Peter Singer sobre la relación entre ricos y pobres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Elena Romero

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una reflexión sobre la relación entre el crecimiento demográfico y la ética frente a la pobreza, a partir de una crítica a los argumentos presentados por Peter Singer en su libro "Ética Práctica". En primer lugar, se colocan en pocas palabras los propios argumentos del autor. A continuación, se analizan los "pilares" que sustentan su argumentación, intentando responder a las siguientes cuestiones: 1 ¿Es el "exceso de población" la principal causa de la pobreza? ¿podemos encontrar una relación entre pobreza y velocidad del crecimiento de la población? 2 ¿Está vigente la perspectiva demográfica que Singer asume? 3 ¿Se puede ignorar o restarle importancia al problema de la distribución de los recursos y los ingresos cuando estamos tratando el problema de la pobreza desde una perspectiva ética? 4 ¿Qué tan cierto es ese argumento del éxito en los casos de México, Colombia y Brasil en cuanto a la implantación de una política de control de la natalidad? 5 ¿Esa postura del autor sobre el crecimiento de la población tiene consecuencias negativas en el "imaginario colectivo"? Por último, a manera de conclusión, se presentan algunas cuestiones que deben ser consideradas en una ética frente a la pobreza.

  2. La pobreza, el crecimiento demográfico y el control de la natalidad: Una crítica a la perspectiva ética de Peter Singer sobre la relación entre ricos y pobres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Dalia Elena

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una reflexión sobre la relación entre el crecimiento demográfico y la ética frente a la pobreza, a partir de una crítica a los argumentos presentados por Peter Singer en su libro "Ética Práctica". En primer lugar, se colocan en pocas palabras los propios argumentos del autor. A continuación, se analizan los "pilares" que sustentan su argumentación, intentando responder a las siguientes cuestiones: 1 ¿Es el "exceso de población" la principal causa de la pobreza? ¿podemos encontrar una relación entre pobreza y velocidad del crecimiento de la población? 2 ¿Está vigente la perspectiva demográfica que Singer asume? 3 ¿Se puede ignorar o restarle importancia al problema de la distribución de los recursos y los ingresos cuando estamos tratando el problema de la pobreza desde una perspectiva ética? 4 ¿Qué tan cierto es ese argumento del éxito en los casos de México, Colombia y Brasil en cuanto a la implantación de una política de control de la natalidad? 5 ¿Esa postura del autor sobre el crecimiento de la población tiene consecuencias negativas en el "imaginario colectivo"? Por último, a manera de conclusión, se presentan algunas cuestiones que deben ser consideradas en una ética frente a la pobreza.

  3. Diseño de un sistema de control, automatización y monitoreo remoto para viviendas o negocios utilizando multimedia sobre ip

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Maria Belen; Montesdeoca, Daniel J.; Leyton, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    El aumento constante en la demanda de mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas ha exigido un desarrollo tecnológico continuo. Se han diseñado diferentes artefactos que día a día pasan de ser lujos a necesidades. Dos de estos adelantos tecnológicos fueron las ideas del control automático y del control automático. Ambos se usan en diversos sistemas en la actualidad como son los acondicionadores de aire (control automático para establecer temperaturas en un ambiente, y ya la mayoría tienen...

  4. Risk factors for recurrent falls among Brazilian women and men: the Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS Fatores de risco para quedas recorrentes entre mulheres e homens brasileiros: o Estudo Brasileiro sobre Osteoporose (BRAZOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Medeiros Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to estimate the frequency of recurrent falls and identify the main associated risk factors. The BRAZOS is the first epidemiological study performed on a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Anthropometric data, living habits, previous fractures, falls, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life were evaluated in 2,420 individuals aged 40 and older. Recurrent falls were reported by 15.5% of men and 25.6% of women. Among women, the risk factors significantly associated to recurrent falls were age, previous fracture, sedentary lifestyle, poor quality of life, diabetes mellitus and current use of benzodiazepine. In men, the risk factors were age, poor quality of life, intake of alcoholic beverages, diabetes mellitus, previous fracture and use of benzodiazepine. A greater intake of vitamin D had a protector effect on the risk of recurrent falls. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of recurrent falls and emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to minimize recurrent falls and their consequences, including osteoporotic fractures.Estimar a freqüência de quedas recorrentes e identificar os principais fatores de risco associados. O BRAZOS é o primeiro estudo epidemiológico realizado em amostragem representativa da população brasileira. Dados antropométricos, hábitos de vida, fratura prévia, quedas, dieta, atividade física e qualidade de vida foram avaliados em 2.420 indivíduos adultos. Quedas recorrentes foram referidas por 15,5% dos homens e 25,6% das mulheres. Nas mulheres, os fatores de risco associados com quedas recorrentes foram idade, fratura prévia, sedentarismo, pior qualidade de vida, diabete mellitus e uso atual de benzodiazepínicos. Nos homens, foram idade, pior qualidade de vida, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, diabete mellitus, fratura prévia e uso atual de benzodiazepínicos. Maior ingestão de vitamina D desempenhou efeito protetor sobre o

  5. Sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes: un análisis exploratorio sobre su diseño y uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Velez Elorza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de canales de exportación independientes es la forma más extendida de exportación, si bien la ausencia de propiedad dificulta su gestión y afecta al rendimiento exportador. Dado el creciente interés académico y profesional por mejorar la gestión de los procesos de exportación de las empresas y la laguna existente en el estudio de las relaciones inter-organizativas orientadas al mercado (down-stream, se plantea como objetivo del presente estudio la exploración de los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en el contexto de los canales de exportación, desde la perspectiva de la empresa exportadora. Mediante la realización de un estudio cualitativo exploratorio, se pretende contribuir a la literatura sobre los SCG inter-organizativos ampliando su ámbito de interés a las relaciones down-stream de la cadena de suministros, esenciales para la competitividad de muchas empresas. Frente a estudios previos sobre SCG enfocados en relaciones proveedor-comprador, los resultados muestran que las empresas exportadoras analizadas (1 emplean múltiples mecanismos de control, principalmente cualitativos, que (2 se caracterizan por su ámbito amplio y la oportunidad en el tiempo, así como por sus bajos niveles de integración y agregación, y (3 usan algunos mecanismos -p.e., reuniones con los intermediarios- de modo interactivo, mientras que otras herramientas -p.e., contratos y acuerdos- son usadas de modo diagnóstico. Asimismo, la evidencia sugiere que la definición de sistemas formales en este contexto puede diferir de la tradicional, con amplias repercusiones sobre los marcos de análisis de los sistemas de control de gestión.Independent export channels are the most common exporting entry mode, although the lack of ownership hinders their management and affects export performance. Given the growing academic and professional interest to improve export processes’ management and the existent gap in the study of down-stream inter

  6. Efeito de tipos de leite sobre oídio em abóbora plantadas a campo Effect of types of cow milk on the powdery mildew control of pumpkin under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Zatarim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado a campo para avaliar a eficiência de diversos tipos de leite de vaca sobre o oídio da abóbora cultivar Piramoita, causado por Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos, cinco repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram: leite cru, leite pasteurizado do tipo C, leite integral do tipo longa vida, leite pasteurizado tipo C + Yakult®, leite integral do tipo longa vida + Yakult® e água como controle. Os melhores resultados no controle da doença foram obtidos com leite de vaca cru, com leite do tipo C e leite do tipo C + Yakult®. Concluiu-se que leite é uma alternativa viável no controle do oídio, mesmo após o início da infecção, no campo. Sua utilização na forma de leite cru mais eficiente e na forma de longa vida o menos eficiente.In the present work we evaluated, under field conditions, the efficiency of several types of cow milk on the control of powdery mildew of pumpkin cv. Piramoita, caused by Sphaerotheca fuliginea. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with six treatments, five replications and five plants per plot. The treatments were: raw cow milk, pasteurized type C milk, integral long life milk and the association of the last two with Yakult® and a control with water. Milk is a viable alternative to control powdery mildew, even after infections have started under field conditions. Raw cow milk, type C milk and type C + Yakult® were the most efficient and integral long life was the least efficient.

  7. EFECTO DE BORDE SOBRE EL PROCESO DE DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE HOJARASCA EN BOSQUE NUBLADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO ROMERO-TORRES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los fragmentos de bosque están delimitados por bordes y rodeados de matriz circun- dante. La interacción entre estas comunidades disímiles en estructura y composición, se define como efecto de borde. Este fenómeno genera localmente cambios abióticos y bióticos alterando procesos ecosistémicos del suelo. Para determinar la existencia de este efecto sobre la descomposición de hojarasca y sus factores de control, se seleccionaron dos fragmentos de bosque nublado en la Sabana de Bogotá. En cada fragmento se trazaron transectos con longitud de 64 m en dirección oriente-interior y occidente-interior, donde se dispusieron en siete distancias desde el borde experimentos de descomposición de hojarasca con duración de 90 y 180 días. En cada transecto y distancias se estimaron el porcentaje de descomposición y humedad de hojarasca, densidad de vegetación, densidad de hongos anamorfos y relación carbono:nitrógeno. Se determinaron la distancia máxima del efecto de borde sobre la descomposición y su interacción con la orientación, distancia y factores reguladores. Se evidenció un efecto de la orientación cardinal del borde sobre la descomposición y sobre sus factores reguladores. En las zonas de borde oriental se presentó un efecto de borde marcado sobre la humedad de hojarasca hasta los 7 m y sobre la densidad de vegetación hasta los 30 m. En los fragmentos de bos- que la descomposición fue regulada por la humedad y la relación C:N de la hojarasca. La poca penetración del borde sugiere efectos menores sobre el ciclaje de nutrientes, proporcionando un valor adicional a la conservación de fragmentos pequeños.

  8. Risk factors for ventilator-associated events: a case-control multivariable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah C; Li, Lingling; Murphy, Michael V; Klompas, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released new surveillance definitions for ventilator-associated events, including the new entities of ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated complications. Both ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated complications are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital death, but little is known about their risk factors and how best to prevent them. We sought to identify risk factors for ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated complications. Retrospective case-control study. Medical, surgical, cardiac, and neuroscience units of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Hundred ten patients with ventilator-associated conditions matched to 110 controls without ventilator-associated conditions on the basis of age, sex, ICU type, comorbidities, and duration of mechanical ventilation prior to ventilator-associated conditions. None. We compared cases with controls with regard to demographics, comorbidities, ventilator bundle adherence rates, sedative exposures, routes of nutrition, blood products, fluid balance, and modes of ventilatory support. We repeated the analysis for the subset of patients with infection-related ventilator-associated complications and their controls. Case and control patients were well matched on baseline characteristics. On multivariable logistic regression, significant risk factors for ventilator-associated conditions were mandatory modes of ventilation (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.6-8.0) and positive fluid balances (odds ratio, 1.2 per L positive; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4). Possible risk factors for infection-related ventilator-associated complications were starting benzodiazepines prior to intubation (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.3-29), total opioid exposures (odds ratio, 3.3 per 100 μg fentanyl equivalent/kg; 95% CI, 0.90-16), and paralytic medications (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 0

  9. Utilización de los servicios de salud: una revisión sistemática sobre los factores relacionados Health services utilization: a systematic review of related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Mendoza-Sassi

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de los servicios de salud está determinada por diversos factores. Con la finalidad de estudiar cuales son los factores más importantes y consistentes, fue realizada una revisión sistemática entre los años 1970 y 1999. Se encontró que la media de consultas, la proporción de personas que consultan y la proporción que concentra el mayor número de consultas fueron similares. Entre los factores demográficos, niños, mujeres en edad fértil y ancianos utilizan más los servicios. Entre los socioeconómicos, la clase social baja y el grupo con menos educación se asociaron con la utilización. El mayor uso está mediado por una mayor necesidad en salud. Pero, según del tipo de sistema, estos grupos menos favorecidos pueden recibir una insuficiente atención. La necesidad en salud es uno de los factores más importantes y, si se desea analizar la equidad del sistema, es necesario tener en cuenta el padrón de utilización entre los grupos sociales para el nivel de mayor necesidad en salud. Entre los factores relacionados a los servicios de salud, tener un médico definido determina una utilización más adecuada. Esto puede servir para atenuar las diferencias en la atención médica entre los diferentes grupos sociales. Finalmente, se propone una jerarquía para los factores relacionados.Health services utilization is determined by various factors. In order to study which factors are most important in different countries, a systematic review was conducted from 1970 to 1999. The mean number of visits, proportion of persons who see a doctor, and proportion that concentrate the most visits were similar. Children, childbearing-age women, and the elderly use health care services the most. Lower-income and less educated groups are also significantly associated with more frequent utilization. Increased health needs mediate more frequent utilization by these groups. However, the poorest groups may not receive adequate care, depending

  10. A HUMAN FACTORS META MODEL FOR U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several years, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored human factors research and development (R&D) and human factors engineering (HFE) activities through its Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to modernize the main control rooms (MCR) of commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with numerous commercial nuclear utilities, has conducted some of this R&D to enable the life extension of NPPs (i.e., provide the technical basis for the long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security of U.S. NPPs). From these activities performed to date, a human factors meta model for U.S. NPP control room modernization can now be formulated. This paper discusses this emergent HFE meta model for NPP control room modernization, with the goal of providing an integrated high level roadmap and guidance on how to perform human factors R&D and HFE for those in the U.S. nuclear industry that are engaging in the process of upgrading their MCRs.

  11. Physical factors of primary jet vectoring control using synthetic jet actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhi-xun; LUO Zhen-bing

    2007-01-01

    A primary jet vectoring using synthetic jet actuators with different exit configurations was investigated, and the main physical factors influencing jet vectoring were analyzed and summarized. The physical factors of the pressure difference, the location and area of the lower pressure region, the component of the synthetic jet momentum and the entrainment ratio of the synthetic jet flow to primary jet flow directly control the vectoring force and the vectoring angle. Three characteristic parameters of the synthetic jet contribute to the pressure difference and the area of the lower pressure region Both the extension step and slope angle of the actuator exit have functions of regulating the location of the lower pressure region, the area of the lower pressure region, and the entrainment ratio of the synthetic jet flow to primary jet flow. The slope angle of the actuator exit has additional functions of regulating the component of the synthetic jet momentum. Based upon analyzing the physical factors of jet vectoring control with synthetic jets, the source variables of the physical factors were established. A preparatory control model of jet vectoring using synthetic jet actuator was presented, and it has the benefit of explaining the efficiency of jet vectoring using synthetic jet actuator with source variables at different values, and it indicates the optimal actuator is taking full advantage of the regulating function.

  12. Efficiency and hardware comparison of analog control-based and digital control-based 70 W two-stage power factor corrector and DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of an analog and a digital controller driven 70 W two-stage power factor corrector converter is presented. Both controllers are operated in average current-mode-control for the PFC and peak current control for the DC-DC converter. Digital controller design and converter modeling...... is described. Results show that digital control can compete with the analog one in efficiency, PFC and THD....

  13. Effect of pelvic floor muscle training on labour and newborn outcomes: a randomized controlled trial Efeitos do treinamento da musculatura do assoalho pélvico sobre o parto e recém-nascido: estudo controlado randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia A. R. Dias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of the pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence treatment is well established but little is known about its effects in labor and newborn outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antenatal pelvic floor muscle training and strength in labor and newborn outcomes in low-income pregnant women. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial that recruited forty-two nulliparous healthy pregnant women aged between 18-36 years old and able to contract the pelvic floor muscles. The participants were included in the study with 20 weeks of gestational age and had their pelvic floor muscles measured by vaginal squeeze pressure. They were randomly allocated into two groups: training group and a non-intervention control group. Then, all participants had their labor and newborn outcomes evaluated through consultation of medical records by a blinded researcher. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding gestational age at birth, type of labor, duration of the second stage of labor, total time of labor, prevalence of laceration, weight and size of the baby, and Apgar score. No correlation was observed between pelvic floor muscle strength and the second stage or the total length of labor. CONCLUSIONS: This randomized controlled trial did not find any effect of pelvic floor muscle training or pelvic floor muscle strength on labor and newborn outcomes.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O treinamento da musculatura do assoalho pélvico para tratamento da incontinência urinária é bem estabelecida, mas pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos sobre o parto e o recém-nascido. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar se os desfechos do parto e os resultados dos recém-nascidos são influenciados pelo treinamento e força da musculatura do assoalho pélvico realizados por gestantes de baixa renda. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico randomizado que incluiu 42 gestantes nulíparas de baixo risco, com idade entre 18 e 36

  14. Certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil M. Sagare, S. S. Rajderkar B. S. Girigosavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension accounts for 90% of all cases of hypertension. Though it is a one of major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, it is a condition with its own risk factors. Overall prevalence of hypertension is increasing over the years in India (from 3.57% in 1977 to 20-30% after 1995. Considering the public health importance of ‘Essential Hypertension’ the present study was conducted. The objective was to study role of certain risk factors in essential hypertension. A case control study was conducted in rural township of Tasgaon; in Sangli district of Maharashtra during 2001-2002, to study role of certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension in 21-60 years age group. 165 cases of essential hypertension were selected by systematic random sampling from two private hospitals & O.P.D. of RHTC, Tasgaon and 330, age & sex matched controls were selected in the ratio of 1:2. A significant association was found between essential hypertension and various risk factors including smoking, its frequency and duration, alcoholic status, leisure time physical inactivity, restless sleep, BMI, mental stress, mixed diet and salt intake. Smoking of more than 10 cigarettes or bidi had 3.23 times risk of developing hypertension than smoking up to 10 cigarettes or bidi.

  15. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  16. Case-control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María

    2014-06-06

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. We conducted a case-control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition.

  17. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  18. [Risk factors for contact lens-related microbial keratitis: A multicenter case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becmeur, P H; Abry, F; Bourcier, T; Meyer, N; Sauer, A

    2017-03-01

    Currently, the most feared complication by ophthalmologists of contact lens (CL) wear is microbial keratitis (MK), even though its incidence remains low. It is also a significant financial burden for society. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for CL-related MK especially with regard to hygiene and pattern of use, in a large, prospective, multicenter, case-control study. A multicenter retrospective case-control study was designed. The CL-related MK subpopulation (case) was compared with healthy CL wearers (control) using a 52-item anonymous questionnaire designed to determine subject demographics, lens wear history, lens type and disinfection solution, fitting, patient education, hygiene and maintenance of contact lenses, and patient history. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare both groups. The study included 497 cases and 364 controls. The risk factors associated with the greatest increased odds of CL-related MK were as follows: extended wear (OR=2.96 [1.65-5.33], Pcase replacement (OR=3.95 [2.28-6.82] Pcase maintenance. The knowledge of these risks factors incentivizes action at all levels to reduce the incidence of MK, from the prescriber to the patient, including the type of CL, case and contact lens solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation Therapy without Surgery for Spinal Metastases: Clinical Outcome and Prognostic Factors Analysis for Pain Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Akira; Hoshi, Manabu; Takami, Masatsugu; Tashiro, Takahiko; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of radiation therapy (RT) for patients with spinal metastases is pain relief and control of paralysis. The aim of the present study was to assess pain relief using RT and to evaluate prognostic factors for pain control. We evaluated 97 consecutive patients, of mean age 62.7 years (range 28 to 86), with spinal metastases that had been treated by RT. We evaluated the effects of RT using pain level assessed using a drug grading scale based on the World Health Organization standards. The following potential prognostic factors for pain control of RT were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis: age, gender, tumor type, performance status (PS), number of spinal metastases, and a history of chemotherapy. Among the 97 patients who underwent RT for pain relief, 68 patients (70.1%) presented with pain reduction. PS (odds ratio: 1.931; 95% confidence interval: 1.244 to 2.980) was revealed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to be the most important prognostic factor for pain control using RT. In conclusion, we found that RT was more effective for patients with spinal metastases while they maintained their PS.

  20. Risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A case- control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ming Zhou; Zheng-Feng Yin; Jia-Mei Yang; Bin Li; Wen-Yu Shao; Feng Xu; Yu-Lan Wang; Dian-Qi Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To carry out a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in China.METHODS: A total of 312 ICC cases and 438 matched controls were included in the study. The presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertention, hepatolithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infection (Clonorchis sinensis), was investigated through clinical records. Blood from all participants was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression.RESULTS: Compared with controls, ICC patients had a higher prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity (48.4% vs 9.6%, P < 0.000), and hepatolithiasis (5.4% vs 1.1%, P = 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for development of ICC were HBsAg seropositivity (adjusted OR, 8.876, 95% CI, 5.973-13.192), and hepatolithiasis (adjusted OR, 5.765, 95% CI, 1.972-16.851). The prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity, diabetes mellitus, hypertention, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly different between cases and controls.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HBV infection and hepatolithiasis are strong risk factors for development of ICC in China.

  1. Homocysteine status and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A-M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative, cutaneous disorder with the potential to lower levels of folate. This may result in raised levels of homocysteine, an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to compare levels of red-cell folate (RCF) and homocysteine in patients with psoriasis and in healthy controls. Levels of homocysteine were also examined in the context of other major cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In total, 20 patients with psoriasis and 20 controls had their RCF, homo-cysteine and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors assessed. RESULTS: Patients with psoriasis had a trend towards lower levels of RCF. Significantly raised levels of homocysteine were found in patients with psoriasis compared with controls (P = 0.007). There was no correlation between homocysteine levels, RCF levels or disease activity as measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with psoriasis had higher body mass index (P < 0.004) and higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) than controls. This may contribute to the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in patients with psoriasis.

  2. Factors Influencing Non-albicans Candidemia: A Case-Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Valachis, Antonis; Dimopoulou, Dimitra; Andrianaki, Angeliki M; Christidou, Athanasia; Maraki, Sofia; Spernovasilis, Nikolaos A; Samonis, George

    2017-08-01

    The study identified factors predisposing to non-albicans candidemia with special interest to prior antimicrobial treatment. A retrospective, case-case-control study was performed at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Greece, from November 2007 through September 2011 including adult patients. The study had three groups. The first included 58 patients with non-albicans candidemia, the second 48 with C. albicans candidemia, while the third (control) 104 without candidemia. Each of the two candidemia groups was compared with the control using multivariate logistic regression model. The mean (SD) age of the non-albicans, the albicans and the control patients was 67 (12), 67 (18) and 59 (19) years, respectively. The most common non-albicans Candida spp. isolated were C. parapsilosis in 19 patients (33%), C. glabrata in 17 (29%) and C. tropicalis in 15 (26%). Independent risk factors for non-albicans candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p candidemia groups. The study reveals the role of antimicrobial exposure as a risk factor for candidemia caused by different species. Prior treatment with b-lactam-b-lactamase inhibitors was associated with non-albicans, while with carbapenems with C. albicans candidemia. Prior use of quinolones was associated with candidemia in general.

  3. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Kuwait: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Afasy, Hanan H; Al-Obaidan, Mohammed A; Al-Ansari, Yousef A; Al-Yatama, Sarah A; Al-Rukaibi, Mohammed S; Makki, Nourah I; Suresh, Anita; Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressively disabling inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. MS has a multifactorial etiology and is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic risk profiles. The epidemiology of MS changes with the spatial and temporal distribution of these genetic and nongenetic risk factors. This population-based matched case-control study aimed to determine the risk factors for MS in Kuwait. From May 2 to 9, 2010, we enrolled 101 confirmed MS cases using the list frame maintained by the Multiple Sclerosis Association of Kuwait. For each case, two population controls individually matched for age (±2 years), gender and nationality were selected. Data on demographic, socioeconomic variables, potential genetic and environmental factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. For a case, the questions were directed to the period that preceded the recognition of the disease, while for each of the two matched controls, a date of 'pseudodiagnosis' of MS was established, i.e. the date on which the control subject was of the same age as his/her matched case was at MS diagnosis and accordingly questions were directed to the preceding period. The multivariable conditional logistic regression model showed that compared with controls, the cases were significantly more likely to have a family history of MS [matched odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 6.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.5-18.0; p Kuwait during the Iraqi invasion of 1990 (matched OR(adj) = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5; p = 0.022). This study showed that a family history of MS, a history of head injury, and presence in Kuwait at the time of the Iraqi invasion of 1990 were associated with a significantly increased MS risk. Future retrospective cohort studies by using existing biological and epidemiological databases may provide a clue to MS etiology.

  4. Association of comorbid and metabolic factors with optimal control of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajeet Roy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a poorly controlled epidemic worldwide that demands active research into mitigation of the factors that are associated with poor control. Aims: The study was to determine the factors associated with suboptimal glycemic control. Materials and Methods: Electronic medical records of 263 adult patients with T2DM in our suburban internal medicine office were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 [optimal diabetes control with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of 7% or less] and Group 2 (suboptimal diabetes control with HbA1c greater than 7%. The influence of factors such as age, gender, race, social history, comorbid conditions, gestational diabetes, family history of diabetes, diabetes management, statin use, aspirin use, angiotensin convertase enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB use, body mass index (BMI, blood pressures, lipid profile, and urine microalbumin level were analyzed in the two groups. Results: In the suboptimal diabetes control group (N = 119, the majority (86.6% of the patients were 41-80 years old. Factors associated with the suboptimal control were male gender [odds ratio (OR 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.579-4.321], Asian ethnicity (OR 1.4, 95% CI, 0.683-3.008, history of peripheral arterial disease (PAD; OR 3.9, 95% CI, 1.017-14.543, history of congestive heart failure (CHF; OR 3.9, 95% CI, 1.017-14.543, elevated triglycerides (OR 1.004, 95% CI, 1.000-1.007, and elevated urine microalbumin level of 30 mg/24 h or above (OR 4.5, 95% CI, 2.446-8.380. Patients with suboptimal diabetes control had a 3.8 times greater odds (95% CI, 1.493-6.885 of receiving the insulin and oral hypoglycemic agent together. Conclusions: In adult patients with T2DM, male gender, Asian ethnicity, CHF, PAD, management with insulin along with oral hypoglycemic agents, hypertriglyceridemia, and microalbuminuria were associated with suboptimal control.

  5. Range of Risk Factor Levels: Control, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawshani, Aidin; Rawshani, Araz; Franzén, Stefan; Eliasson, Björn; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Miftaraj, Mervete; McGuire, Darren K; Sattar, Naveed; Rosengren, Annika; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia

    2017-04-18

    Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have a high risk of cardiovascular complications, but it is unknown to what extent fulfilling all cardiovascular treatment goals is associated with residual risk of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in those with T1DM compared with the general population. We included all patients ≥18 years of age with T1DM who were registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2014, a total of 33 333 patients, each matched for age and sex with 5 controls without diabetes mellitus randomly selected from the population. Patients with T1DM were categorized according to number of risk factors not at target: glycohemoglobin, blood pressure, albuminuria, smoking, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Risk of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure hospitalization, and stroke was examined in relation to the number of risk factors at target. The mean follow-up was 10.4 years in the diabetes group. Overall, 2074 of 33 333 patients with diabetes mellitus and 4141 of 166 529 controls died. Risk for all outcomes increased stepwise for each additional risk factor not at target. Adjusted hazard ratios for patients achieving all risk factor targets compared with controls were 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.85) for all-cause mortality, 1.82 (95% CI, 1.15-2.88) for acute myocardial infarction, 1.97 (95% CI, 1.04-3.73) for heart failure hospitalization, and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.51-2.68) for stroke. The hazard ratio for patients versus controls with none of the risk factors meeting target was 7.33 (95% CI, 5.08-10.57) for all-cause mortality, 12.34 (95% CI, 7.91-19.48) for acute myocardial infarction, 15.09 (95% CI, 9.87-23.09) for heart failure hospitalization, and 12.02 (95% CI, 7.66-18.85) for stroke. A steep-graded association exists between decreasing number of cardiovascular risk factors at target and major adverse cardiovascular outcomes among

  6. Conocimientos y prácticas sobre prevención y control del Aedes aegypti en una zona de riesgo Knowledges and practice on prevention and control of Aedes aegypti in a risk zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hernández Quiñones

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el principal cambio, en relación con el dengue, que se desea con la población es la incorporación a su estilo de vida de conductas protectoras para disminuir el riesgo de que el mosquito Aedes aegypti se desarrolle, aparezca la enfermedad, y como consecuencia se generen epidemias. OBJETIVOS:caracterizar, según los factores de riesgo sociales y ambientales que influyen en la aparición de criaderos de Aedes aegypti, la zona de riesgo Terminal de Ferrocarriles, perteneciente al Consejo Popular Colón, del municipio Sancti Spíritus, así como identificar los conocimientos y prácticas de la población con relación a la prevención y control del vector. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra por conglomerados estratificados, cuya variable de estratificación fueron los Consultorios del Médico de la Familia 7, 13 y 25 del Área de Salud Sur; se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 305 encuestados. Para estudiar la situación ambiental, identificar los conocimientos en niños y niñas de la zona de riesgo, y comprobar el saneamiento básico ambiental intra y peri domiciliario, se utilizaron técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas de recolección de información: encuesta, grupo focal y observación participante. RESULTADOS: existen conocimientos insuficientes con relación a la prevención y control del Aedes aegypti, específicamente en la identificación del término autofocal y las enfermedades transmitidas por el vector. Persisten prácticas inadecuadas en los encuestados para el control del mosquito, particularmente en la realización de acciones para prevenir los criaderos. CONCLUSIONES: en la zona de riesgo estudiada existen condiciones ambientales y sociales que posibilitan la proliferación del vector, lo que denota una baja percepción del riesgo de la población.INTRODUCTION: main change related to dengue desired to population is incorporation of protective behaviors to its lifestyle to decrease risk

  7. Efectos del foco de control sobre la fijación de metas y la ejecución en tareas de habilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Escovar

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual relationshíp between Seligman´s learned help1essness and Rotter´s locus of control constructs is postulated. An external locus of control is conceived as a general personality trait which emerges from prolongued past experíences with uncontrollab1e situations. The effects of locus of control on goal setting and performance of askíll task are ascertaíned, The results show that ínternals do tend to set more ambitious goals than externals and that, over time, their level of performance Increases while that of externals increases more slowly. Their is no difference between internals andexternals in their ability to estima te their performance. However, ínternals do show a tendency to both over and underestimate more than externals.

  8. Clusters Regarding Key Factors Affecting Changes in Accounting, Finance, Administration and Management Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Gabriela Blidisel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, important changes have occurred in public governance, which has evolved in this time from hierarchical bureaucracy to participatory governance, where the role of citizens in public decision-making process is more direct. There were performed reforms in finance, management administration and finances of public sector. Starting from the factors that influenced during the history the accounting, finances, administration and management control, we want to test the factors that affect the changes of these elements in Romanian environment.

  9. A nanoelectromechanical systems actuator driven and controlled by Q-factor attenuation of ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B.; Cai, H.; Ng, G. I.; Kropelnicki, P.; Tsai, J. M.; Randles, A. B.; Tang, M.; Gu, Y. D.; Suo, Z. G.; Liu, A. Q.

    2013-10-01

    In this Letter, an optical gradient force driven Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) actuator, which is controlled by the Q-factor attenuation of micro-ring resonator, is demonstrated. The actuator consists of a tunable actuation ring resonator, a sensing ring resonator, and a mechanical actuation arc. The actuation displacement can reach up to 14 nm with a measured resolution of 0.8 nm, when the Q-factor of the ring resonator is tuned from 15 × 103 to 6 × 103. The potential applications of the NEMS actuator include single molecule manipulation, nano-manipulation, and high sensitivity sensors.

  10. Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención Eating disorders in sports: risk factors, halth consequences, treatment and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    S. Márquez

    2008-01-01

    Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria se presentan con relativa frecuencia en deportes en los que es importante el control del peso corporal, tales como gimnasia rítmica, patinaje artístico o deportes de resistencia. La incidencia es mayor en mujeres, manifestándose con frecuencia una baja autoestima, una imagen corporal distorsionada en la que el cuerpo es percibido con un exceso de peso, ineficiencia, perfeccionismo y un sentido de pérdida de control, con un mecanismo compensatorio ejer...

  11. Analysis and design of sliding mode controller gains for boost power factor corrector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessal, Abdelhalim; Rahmani, Lazhar

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure to compute the gains of sliding mode controller based on an optimization scheme. This controller is oriented to drive an AC-DC converter operating in continuous mode with power factor near unity, and in order to improve static and dynamic performances with large variations of reference voltage and load. This study shows the great influence of the controller gains on the global performances of the system. Hence, a methodology for choosing the gains is detailed. The sliding surface used in this study contains two state variables, input current and output voltage; the advantage of this surface is getting reactions against various disturbances-at the power source, the reference of the output, or the value of the load. The controller is experimentally confirmed for steady-state performance and transient response.

  12. Efficiency and hardware comparison of analog control-based and digital control-based 70 W two-stage power factor corrector and DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of an analog and a digital controller driven 70 W two-stage power factor corrector converter is presented. Both controllers are operated in average current-mode-control for the PFC and peak current control for the DC-DC converter. Digital controller design and converter modeling is d...... is described. Results show that digital control can compete with the analog one in efficiency, PFC and THD.......A comparison of an analog and a digital controller driven 70 W two-stage power factor corrector converter is presented. Both controllers are operated in average current-mode-control for the PFC and peak current control for the DC-DC converter. Digital controller design and converter modeling...

  13. Risk factors of Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Le, Thi Phuong Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Thai, Cao Quang; Cao, Quang Thai; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Nguyen, Van Minh Hoang; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tran, Vu Thieu Nga; Thao, Le Thi Phuong; Le, Thi Phuong Thao; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nguyen, Hoan Phu; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Tran, Thi Hong Chau; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Dinh, Xuan Sinh; Diep, To Song; To, Song Diep; Hang, Hoang Thi Thanh; Hoang, Thi Thanh Hang; Truong, Hoang; Campbell, James; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Nguyen, Tran Chinh; Dung, Nguyen Van; Nguyen, Van Dung; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Ngo, Thi Hoa; Spratt, Brian G; Hien, Tran Tinh; Tran, Tinh Hien; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-03-08

    Streptococcus suis infection, an emerging zoonosis, is an increasing public health problem across South East Asia and the most common cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Little is known of the risk factors underlying the disease. A case-control study with appropriate hospital and matched community controls for each patient was conducted between May 2006 and June 2009. Potential risk factors were assessed using a standardized questionnaire and investigation of throat and rectal S. suis carriage in cases, controls and their pigs, using real-time PCR and culture of swab samples. We recruited 101 cases of S. suis meningitis, 303 hospital controls and 300 community controls. By multivariate analysis, risk factors identified for S. suis infection as compared to either control group included eating "high risk" dishes, including such dishes as undercooked pig blood and pig intestine (OR(1) = 2.22; 95%CI = [1.15-4.28] and OR(2) = 4.44; 95%CI = [2.15-9.15]), occupations related to pigs (OR(1) = 3.84; 95%CI = [1.32-11.11] and OR(2) = 5.52; 95%CI = [1.49-20.39]), and exposures to pigs or pork in the presence of skin injuries (OR(1) = 7.48; 95%CI = [1.97-28.44] and OR(2) = 15.96; 95%CI = [2.97-85.72]). S. suis specific DNA was detected in rectal and throat swabs of 6 patients and was cultured from 2 rectal samples, but was not detected in such samples of 1522 healthy individuals or patients without S. suis infection. This case control study, the largest prospective epidemiological assessment of this disease, has identified the most important risk factors associated with S. suis bacterial meningitis to be eating 'high risk' dishes popular in parts of Asia, occupational exposure to pigs and pig products, and preparation of pork in the presence of skin lesions. These risk factors can be addressed in public health campaigns aimed at preventing S. suis infection.

  14. Risk factors for obstetric fistula in Western Uganda: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Kafunjo Barageine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Two million women worldwide are living with genital fistula with an annual incidence of 50,000-100,000 women. Risk factors for obstetric fistula are context bound. Studies from other countries show variation in the risk factors for obstetric fistula. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for obstetric fistula in western Ugandan context. METHODS: A case control study comparing background factors of women with obstetric fistula (cases and women without fistula (controls was conducted in western Uganda. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stata 12. RESULTS: Altogether, 420 respondents (140 cases and 280 controls participated in the study. Duration of labour was used to form the product terms when assessing for interaction and confounding since it was one the most significant factors at bivariate level with a narrow confidence interval and was hence considered the main predictor. After adjusting for interaction and confounding, significant risk factors associated with development of obstetric fistula in western Uganda were: Caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 13.30, 95% CI = 6.74-26.39, respondent height of 150 cm or less (AOR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.35-5.26, baby weight of 3.5 kg or more (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.15-1.99, prolonged labour (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.08. A quarter of the fistulas had resulted from iatrogenic complication during caesarean section. Compared to no education, post primary level of education was protective against obstetric fistula (AOR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13-0.72 and there was no difference between respondents without education and those with primary level education. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons contribute to a big proportion (25% of fistula cases hence caesarean section being a risk factor in this region. Other risk factors include; prolonged labour, weight of the baby of 3.5 kg or more, respondent height of 150 cm

  15. Risk Factors for Obstetric Fistula in Western Uganda: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barageine, Justus Kafunjo; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Byamugisha, Josaphat K.; Almroth, Lars; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Two million women worldwide are living with genital fistula with an annual incidence of 50,000–100,000 women. Risk factors for obstetric fistula are context bound. Studies from other countries show variation in the risk factors for obstetric fistula. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for obstetric fistula in western Ugandan context. Methods A case control study comparing background factors of women with obstetric fistula (cases) and women without fistula (controls) was conducted in western Uganda. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stata 12. Results Altogether, 420 respondents (140 cases and 280 controls) participated in the study. Duration of labour was used to form the product terms when assessing for interaction and confounding since it was one the most significant factors at bivariate level with a narrow confidence interval and was hence considered the main predictor. After adjusting for interaction and confounding, significant risk factors associated with development of obstetric fistula in western Uganda were: Caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 13.30, 95% CI  = 6.74–26.39), respondent height of 150 cm or less (AOR  = 2.63, 95% CI  = 1.35–5.26), baby weight of 3.5 kg or more (AOR  = 1.52, 95% CI  = 1.15–1.99), prolonged labour (AOR  = 1.06, 95% CI  = 1.04–1.08. A quarter of the fistulas had resulted from iatrogenic complication during caesarean section. Compared to no education, post primary level of education was protective against obstetric fistula (AOR  = 0.31, 95% CI  = 0.13–0.72) and there was no difference between respondents without education and those with primary level education. Conclusions Surgeons contribute to a big proportion (25%) of fistula cases hence caesarean section being a risk factor in this region. Other risk factors include; prolonged labour, weight of the baby

  16. A community study of factors related to poorly controlled asthma among Brazilian urban children.

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    Silvia de Magalhães Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma constitutes a serious public health problem in many regions of the world, including the city of Salvador, State of Bahia-Brazil. The purpose of this study was to analyse the factors associated with poor asthma control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two definitions were used for asthma: 1 wheezing in the last 12 months; 2 wheezing in the last 12 months plus other asthma symptoms or asthma diagnosis ever. The definition of poorly controlled asthma was: at least one reported hospitalisation due to asthma and/or high frequency of symptoms, in the last year. Children with poorly controlled asthma (N = 187/374 were compared with wheezing children with controlled asthma regarding age, gender, atopy, parental asthma, rhinitis, eczema, exposure to second hand tobacco smoke, presence of moulds, pets and pests in the house, helminth infections and body mass index. Crude and logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. There was a higher proportion of poorly controlled asthma among children with eczema (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.02; 2.37. The strength of the association was greater among children with eczema and rhinitis (42.6%, 53.4% and 57.7%, respectively, in children who had no rhinitis nor eczema, had only one of those, and had both (p = 0.02 for trend test. The presence of mould in the houses was inversely associated with poorly controlled asthma (OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.34; 0.87. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate an association between eczema and poor asthma control in this environment, but emphasize the role of various other individual and environmental factors as determinants of poor control.

  17. Importance of calving diseases and risk factors on milk production of Holsteins cowsImportância das desordens do periparto e seus fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite de vacas Holandesas

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    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This correlational study investigated the effects of the peripartum health disorders and your respective risk factors about the milk production, in the peak and to the 305 days in lactation. Holsteins cows (n = 522 of a commercial herd of the State of São Paulo, had your health and nutritional status accompanied since the beginning of the period pre-calving to the end of the lactation. Occurrence of diseases, score of body condition (at the dry off and calving, daily milk productions and milk compositions, were recorded. For statistical analysis of the data, the logistics regression and the analysis of multiple regression were used. The obtained results demonstrated that the diseases of the peripartum and your risk factors affected the milk production with different effects in function of the lactation numbers, demanding this way, larger care with the prophylactic measures to avoid the diseases, and to maximize the production of milk and the reproduction of the animals.Este estudo correlacional investigou os efeitos das ocorrências sanitárias do periparto e seus respectivos fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite, no pico e aos 305 dias em lactação. Vacas Holandesas (n = 522 de um rebanho comercial do Estado de São Paulo tiveram seu desempenho sanitário e nutricional acompanhados desde o início do período pré-parto até o final da lactação. A ocorrência de doenças, os escores de condição corporal (no pré-parto e parto, as produções de