WorldWideScience

Sample records for control treaty verification

  1. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations

  2. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  3. EXAMINING THE ROLE AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL TREATY VERIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael J.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2014-05-13

    Traditional arms control treaty verification activities typically involve a combination of technical measurements via physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, political agreements, and on-site inspections involving international subject matter experts. However, the ubiquity of the internet, and the electronic sharing of data that it enables, has made available a wealth of open source information with the potential to benefit verification efforts. Open source information is already being used by organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the verification of state-declared information, prepare inspectors for in-field activities, and to maintain situational awareness . The recent explosion in social media use has opened new doors to exploring the attitudes, moods, and activities around a given topic. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, offer an opportunity for individuals, as well as institutions, to participate in a global conversation at minimal cost. Social media data can also provide a more data-rich environment, with text data being augmented with images, videos, and location data. The research described in this paper investigates the utility of applying social media signatures as potential arms control and nonproliferation treaty verification tools and technologies, as determined through a series of case studies. The treaty relevant events that these case studies touch upon include detection of undeclared facilities or activities, determination of unknown events recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), and the global media response to the occurrence of an Indian missile launch. The case studies examine how social media can be used to fill an information gap and provide additional confidence to a verification activity. The case studies represent, either directly or through a proxy, instances where social media information may be available that could potentially augment the evaluation

  4. The Role of science in treaty verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavron, A. I. (Avigdor I.)

    2004-01-01

    Technologically advanced nations are currently applying more science to treaty verification than ever before. Satellites gather a multitude of information relating to proliferation concerns using thermal imaging analysis, nuclear radiation measurements, and optical and radio frequency signals detection. Ground stations gather complementary signals such as seismic events and radioactive emissions. Export controls in many countries attempt to intercept materials and technical means that could be used for nuclear proliferation. Never the less, we have witnessed a plethora of nuclear proliferation episodes, that were undetected (or were belatedly detected) by these technologies - the Indian nuclear tests in 1998, the Libyan nuclear buildup, the Iranian enrichment program and the North Korea nuclear weapons program are some prime examples. In this talk we will discuss some of the technologies used for proliferation detection. In particular, we will note some of the issues relating to nuclear materials control agreements that epitomize political difficulties as they impact the implementation of science and technology.

  5. 75 FR 34439 - Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification... Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification will meet in closed session on...

  6. 75 FR 43943 - Defense Science Board; Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board; Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification... Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification will meet in closed...

  7. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  8. Optimal imaging for treaty verification FY2014 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, Nathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brubaker, Erik M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kupinski, Matthew Alan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); MacGahan, Christopher Jonathan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-10-01

    FY2014 technical report of our project funded by DNN R&D that leverages advanced inference methods developed for medical and adaptive imaging to address arms control applications. We seek a method to acquire and analyze imaging data of declared treaty-accountable items without creating an image of those objects or otherwise storing or revealing any classified information. Such a method would avoid the use of classified-information barriers. We present our progress on FY2014 tasks defined in our life-cycle plan. We also describe some future work that is part of the continuation of this project in FY2015 and beyond as part of a venture that joins ours with a related PNNL project.

  9. Linear models to perform treaty verification tasks for enhanced information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGahan, Christopher J.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Brubaker, Erik M.; Hilton, Nathan R.; Marleau, Peter A.

    2017-02-01

    Linear mathematical models were applied to binary-discrimination tasks relevant to arms control verification measurements in which a host party wishes to convince a monitoring party that an item is or is not treaty accountable. These models process data in list-mode format and can compensate for the presence of variability in the source, such as uncertain object orientation and location. The Hotelling observer applies an optimal set of weights to binned detector data, yielding a test statistic that is thresholded to make a decision. The channelized Hotelling observer applies a channelizing matrix to the vectorized data, resulting in a lower dimensional vector available to the monitor to make decisions. We demonstrate how incorporating additional terms in this channelizing-matrix optimization offers benefits for treaty verification. We present two methods to increase shared information and trust between the host and monitor. The first method penalizes individual channel performance in order to maximize the information available to the monitor while maintaining optimal performance. Second, we present a method that penalizes predefined sensitive information while maintaining the capability to discriminate between binary choices. Data used in this study was generated using Monte Carlo simulations for fission neutrons, accomplished with the GEANT4 toolkit. Custom models for plutonium inspection objects were measured in simulation by a radiation imaging system. Model performance was evaluated and presented using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

  10. Arms control verification: The technologies that make it possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipis, K.; Hafemeister, D.W.; Janeway, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on arms control verification. Topics considered include the politics of treaty verification and compliance, national security, remote sensing, image processing, image enhancement by digital computer, charge-coupled device image sensors, radar imaging, infrared surveillance, monitoring, seismological aspects, satellite verifications, seismic verification, and verifying a fissile material production freeze.

  11. Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators : Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon...

  12. The Global Diffusion of Societal Verification Tools: A Quantitative Assessment of the Public’s Ability to Engage Nonproliferation Treaty Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Amanda M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2015-07-11

    The spread of nuclear and dual-use technologies and the need for more robust, effective and efficient nonproliferation and arms control treaties has led to an increasing need for innovative verification approaches and technologies. This need, paired with advancements in online computing, mobile devices, commercially available satellite imagery and the evolution of online social networks, has led to a resurgence of the concept of societal verification for arms control and nonproliferation treaties. In the event a country accepts its citizens’ assistance in supporting transparency, confidence-building and societal verification, the host government will need a population that is willing and able to participate. While scholarly interest in societal verification continues to grow, social scientific research on the topic is lacking. The aim of this paper is to begin the process of understanding public societal verification capabilities, extend the availability of quantitative research on societal verification and set in motion complementary research to increase the breadth and depth of knowledge on this topic. This paper presents a potential framework and outlines a research roadmap for the development of such a societal verification capability index.

  13. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  14. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  15. Inverse transport for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources of passive tracers after positive measurements. When several measurements are available the ambiguity about possible sources is reduced significantly. The approach is validated against ETEX data. A distinction is made between adjoint and inverse transport shown to be, indeed, different though equivalent ideas. As an interesting side result it is shown that, in the passive tracer dispersion equation, the diffusion stemming from a time symmetric turbulence is necessarily a self-adjoint operator, a result easily verified for the usual gradient closure, but more general.

  16. Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-21

    adopted a number of agreements that address non-nuclear weapons. The CFE Treaty and Open Skies Treaty sought to stabilize the conventional balance in...38 Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty ( CFE ) ....................................................... 38...Armed Forces in Europe Treaty ( CFE ) and the Open Skies Treaty were a part of the late-Cold War effort to enhance stability and predictability in

  17. Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    Biological Research and Production Centers (BRPCs) that have the capability to produce biological weapons. Through the Biosecurity and Biosafety program, the...nuclear materials began in 1994. In a parallel effort that sought to reduce delays in these projects, experts from the U.S. nuclear laboratories ...near universality —only India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea are now outside the treaty. In signing the NPT, non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS

  18. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  19. Tags and seals to strengthen arms control verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-10-03

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags are intended as single-point markers, seals for two-point couplings, and nets for volume containment. Seals usually bind two separate components, such as a hatch or flange that provides access to a secure compartment or a valve that controls fluid flow. A tamper-revealing net might be comprised of a coupled fiberoptic bundle wrapped around an object. Sometimes the term ``seal`` is used to denote the tamper-revealing feature of a tag that is attached to a surface, but in this paper the tamper-indicating connection is considered to be part of the tag concept itself.

  20. Diffusion of innovations theory applied to global tobacco control treaty ratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Dyal, Stephanie R; Chu, Kar-Hai; Wipfli, Heather; Fujimoto, Kayo

    2015-11-01

    This study applies diffusion of innovations theory to understand network influences on country ratification of an international health treaty, the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). From 2003 to 2014 approximately 90% of United Nations member countries ratified the FCTC. We hypothesized that communication between tobacco control advocates on GLOBALink, a 7000-member online communication forum in existence from 1992 to 2012, would be associated with the timing of treaty ratification. We further hypothesized dynamic network influences such that external influence decreased over time, internal influence increased over time, and the role of opinion leader countries varied over time. In addition we develop two concepts: Susceptibility and influence that uncover the micro-level dynamics of network influence. Statistical analyses lend support to the influence of co-subscriptions on GLOBALink providing a conduit for inter-country influences on treaty ratification and some support for the dynamic hypotheses. Analyses of susceptibility and infection indicated particularly influential countries. These results have implications for the study of policy diffusion as well as dynamic models of behavior change.

  1. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that

  2. Verification made under the terms of article 35 of the Euratom treaty. The region of Barsebaeck, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, A.; Herzeele, M.; Hall, I.; Markkanen, M. [European Commission (Luxembourg). Directorate-General XI Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection

    1998-05-01

    The verifications at Barsebaeck pertained both to the monitoring of liquid and airborne effluents and to the monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the environment in the vicinity of the plant. The team verified the operation and efficiency of the monitoring installations. It was noted that the statutory programme for environmental sample-taking did not entirely match the actual programme. The verification team took the view that there were good reasons for not requiring certain samples to be taken, but felt that the statutory programme should have been updated accordingly. Procedures and documentation at BKAB were found to be in good order. The team felt there was still room for improvement at the bottom line of the QA structure also with regard to the formal allocation of responsibilities for monitoring and reporting. It was also noted that the collection and measurement of environmental samples is entrusted to contractors which are not subject to the plant`s QA programme. The verification team concludes that the objectives of the review have been met and that it has been able to verify the satisfactory and efficient operation of the facilities for continuous monitoring of the level of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the area around the Barsebaeck nuclear plant 30 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

    2000-09-15

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  4. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that

  5. Technical safety requirements control level verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEWART, J.L.

    1999-05-21

    A Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) control level verification process was developed for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) TSRs at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA, at the direction of the US. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The objective of the effort was to develop a process to ensure that the TWRS TSR controls are designated and managed at the appropriate levels as Safety Limits (SLs), Limiting Control Settings (LCSs), Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), Administrative Controls (ACs), or Design Features. The TSR control level verification process was developed and implemented by a team of contractor personnel with the participation of Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) integrating contractor, and RL representatives. The team was composed of individuals with the following experience base: nuclear safety analysis; licensing; nuclear industry and DOE-complex TSR preparation/review experience; tank farm operations; FDH policy and compliance; and RL-TWRS oversight. Each TSR control level designation was completed utilizing TSR control logic diagrams and TSR criteria checklists based on DOE Orders, Standards, Contractor TSR policy, and other guidance. The control logic diagrams and criteria checklists were reviewed and modified by team members during team meetings. The TSR control level verification process was used to systematically evaluate 12 LCOs, 22 AC programs, and approximately 100 program key elements identified in the TWRS TSR document. The verification of each TSR control required a team consensus. Based on the results of the process, refinements were identified and the TWRS TSRs were modified as appropriate. A final report documenting key assumptions and the control level designation for each TSR control was prepared and is maintained on file for future reference. The results of the process were used as a reference in the RL review of the final TWRS TSRs and control suite. RL

  6. Nuclear disarmament verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  7. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  8. Formal verification of industrial control systems

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. For many kinds of problems, testing is not an efficient method. Formal methods, such as model checking appears to be an appropriate complementary method. However, it is not common to use model checking in industry yet, as this method needs typically formal methods expertise and huge computing power. In the EN-ICE-PLC section, we are working on a [methodology][1] and a tool ([PLCverif][2]) to overcome these challenges and to integrate formal verification in the development process of our PLC-based control systems. [1]: http://cern.ch/project-plc-formalmethods [2]: http://cern.ch/plcverif

  9. Verification and optimization of a PLC control schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Ed; Mader, Angelika; Fehnker, Ansgar

    2002-01-01

    We report on the use of model checking techniques for both the verification of a process control program and the derivation of optimal control schedules. Most of this work has been carried out as part of a case study for the EU VHS project (Verification of Hybrid Systems), in which the program for a

  10. Treaty Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Lingenfelder, I.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg;

    2009-01-01

    This volume provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the-art Earth Observation (EO) related research that deals with national and international security. An interdisciplinary approach was adopted in this book in order to provide the reader with a broad understanding on the uses...... of remote sensing technologies. The book therefore comprises management aspects (issues and priorities of security research, crisis response), applied methodologies and process chains (treaty monitoring, estimation of population densities and characteristics, border permeability models, damage assessment......, as well as project managers and decision makers working in the field of security having an interest in technical solutions. The integrative use of many figures and sample images are ideal in enabling the non-technical reader to grasp quickly the modern technologies that are being researched in the area...

  11. Formal development and verification of a distributed railway control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...... specifications which are transformed into directly implementable distributed control processes by applying a series of refinement and verification steps. Concrete safety requirements are derived from an abstract version that can be easily validated with respect to soundness and completeness. Complexity...... is further reduced by separating the system model into a domain model and a controller model. The domain model describes the physical system in absence of control and the controller model introduces the safety-related control mechanisms as a separate entity monitoring observables of the physical system...

  12. A Treaty for Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The European Union will return to center stage with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty As the Lisbon Treaty entered into force on December 1, the world is waiting to see the changes it will bring to the European Union (EU). The Lisbon Treaty came into being based on the treaty establishing a constitution for Europe-more commonly referred to as the European Constitution.

  13. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...... specifications which are transformed into directly implementable distributed control processes by applying a series of refinement and verification steps. Concrete safety requirements are derived from an abstract version that can be easily validated with respect to soundness and completeness. Complexity...... is further reduced by separating the system model into a domain model describing the physical system in absence of control and a controller model introducing the safety-related control mechanisms as a separate entity monitoring observables of the physical system to decide whether it is safe for a train...

  14. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1998-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...... specifications which are transformed into directly implementable distributed control processes by applying a series of refinement and verification steps. Concrete safety requirements are derived from an abstract version that can be easily validated with respect to soundness and completeness. Complexity...... is further reduced by separating the system model into a domain model describing the physical system in absence of control and a controller model introducing the safety-related control mechanisms as a separate entity monitoring observables of the physical system to decide whether it is safe for a train...

  15. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1998-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...... is further reduced by separating the system model into a domain model describing the physical system in absence of control and a controller model introducing the safety-related control mechanisms as a separate entity monitoring observables of the physical system to decide whether it is safe for a train...... specifications which are transformed into directly implementable distributed control processes by applying a series of refinement and verification steps. Concrete safety requirements are derived from an abstract version that can be easily validated with respect to soundness and completeness. Complexity...

  16. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...... is further reduced by separating the system model into a domain model describing the physical system in absence of control and a controller model introducing the safety-related control mechanisms as a separate entity monitoring observables of the physical system to decide whether it is safe for a train...... specifications which are transformed into directly implementable distributed control processes by applying a series of refinement and verification steps. Concrete safety requirements are derived from an abstract version that can be easily validated with respect to soundness and completeness. Complexity...

  17. Computation and Analysis of the Global Distribution of the Radioxenon Isotope 133Xe based on Emissions from Nuclear Power Plants and Radioisotope Production Facilities and its Relevance for the Verification of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Kalinowski, Martin; Saey, Paul; Tuma, Matthias; Zähringer, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, is a crucial element of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The capability of the noble gas network, which is currently under construction, to detect signals from a nuclear explosion critically depends on the background created by other sources. Therefore, the global distribution of these isotopes based on emissions and transport patterns needs to be understood. A significant xenon background exists in the reactor regions of North America, Europe and Asia. An emission inventory of the four relevant xenon isotopes has recently been created, which specifies source terms for each power plant. As the major emitters of xenon isotopes worldwide, a few medical radioisotope production facilities have been recently identified, in particular the facilities in Chalk River (Canada), Fleurus (Belgium), Pelindaba (South Africa) and Petten (Netherlands). Emissions from these sites are expected to exceed those of the other sources by orders of magnitude. In this study, emphasis is put on 133Xe, which is the most prevalent xenon isotope. First, based on the emissions known, the resulting 133Xe concentration levels at all noble gas stations of the final CTBT verification network were calculated and found to be consistent with observations. Second, it turned out that emissions from the radioisotope facilities can explain a number of observed peaks, meaning that atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool for the categorization of measurements. Third, it became evident that Nuclear Power Plant emissions are more difficult to treat in the models, since their temporal variation is high and not generally reported. Fourth, there are indications that the assumed annual emissions may be underestimated by factors of two to ten, while the general emission patterns seem to be well understood. Finally, it became evident that 133Xe sources mainly influence the sensitivity of the

  18. Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylber Sela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  19. Export Controls: Observations on Selected Countries’ Systems and Proposed Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Export Controls Abbreviations BAFA Federal Office of Economics and Export Control BIS Bureau of Industry...Federal Office of Economics and Export Contro ( BAFA )11 and the United Kingdom’s Export Control Organisation (ECO)12 manage export controls within single...departmen ent s and t l-use l ts. Germany’s BAFA receives arms and dual-use export license applications and also uses a

  20. A Formal Verification Methodology for DDD Mode Pacemaker Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Shuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacemakers are safety-critical devices whose faulty behaviors can cause harm or even death. Often these faulty behaviors are caused due to bugs in programs used for digital control of pacemakers. We present a formal verification methodology that can be used to check the correctness of object code programs that implement the safety-critical control functions of DDD mode pacemakers. Our methodology is based on the theory of Well-Founded Equivalence Bisimulation (WEB refinement, where both formal specifications and implementation are treated as transition systems. We develop a simple and general formal specification for DDD mode pacemakers. We also develop correctness proof obligations that can be applied to validate object code programs used for pacemaker control. Using our methodology, we were able to verify a control program with millions of transitions against the simple specification with only 10 transitions. Our method also found several bugs during the verification process.

  1. Description and verification of switched control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺风华; 姚郁; 赵霞; 张猛

    2003-01-01

    A modeling framework has been constructed using the theory of hybrid control systems for the switched control systems (SCS) and it can be more effectively used to describe the behavior of the systems and to more easily realize the simulation of the closed loop SCS under the MATLAB environment. On the other hand, a hybrid automaton model is established to analyze and verify the switched control systems. The proposed method is illustrated by an example of switched inverted pendulum control system.

  2. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 3: Verification Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the verification documents from the GCS project. Volume 3 contains four appendices: A. Software Verification Cases and Procedures for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Verification Results for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; C. Review Records for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and D. Test Results Logs for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software.

  3. The INF Treaty Compliance Disputes and Its Future Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Yimin; Wu; Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Treaty on Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces(simplified as the INF Treaty)was signed by the United States and the former Soviet Union on December 8,1987 and formally entered into force as of June 1,1988 in the wake of exchanging the instruments of ratification.By comprehensively banning the ground-launched missiles range from 500-5500km possessed by both countries,the INF Treaty for the first time in history achieved the substantial reduction of both countries’nuclear arsenals and introduced the on-site inspection,on which the verification regime in future nuclear disarmament treaties like START I,START II as well as New START are built.Those features of the treaty provide historic implications for its contribution to both strategic stability and international security.

  4. Compendium of Arms Control Verification Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    ICBM launchers and not being able to see them at all times, witness the counting of SLBM launchers. The proposed MX basing scheme will probably be...national control agency* conducting on-site inspection of the destruc- tion process. It would witness and confirm both the completeness of the destruction...34NPT Safeguards: The Limits of Credibility". Arms Control 1, no. 2 (September 1980): 177-198. B17 (A80) India. CD/PV.47, 2 August 1979. (CTB). 135(179

  5. Verification hybrid control of a wheeled mobile robot and manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszynska, Magdalena; Burghardt, Andrzej; Kurc, Krzysztof; Szybicki, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    In this article, innovative approaches to realization of the wheeled mobile robots and manipulator tracking are presented. Conceptions include application of the neural-fuzzy systems to compensation of the controlled system's nonlinearities in the tracking control task. Proposed control algorithms work on-line, contain structure, that adapt to the changeable work conditions of the controlled systems, and do not require the preliminary learning. The algorithm was verification on the real object which was a Scorbot - ER 4pc robotic manipulator and a Pioneer - 2DX mobile robot.

  6. Methods of Verification, Accountability and Control of Special Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.E.

    1999-05-03

    This session demonstrates nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement, surveillance and analysis technology required to protect, control and account (MPC and A) for special nuclear materials (SNM) in sealed containers. These measurements, observations and analyses comprise state-of-the art, strengthened, SNM safeguards systems. Staff member specialists, actively involved in research, development, training and implementation worldwide, will present six NDA verification systems and two software tools for integration and analysis of facility MPC and A data.

  7. Statistical process control for IMRT dosimetric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Stephen L; Moseley, Douglas J; Zhang, Beibei; Sharpe, Michael B

    2008-10-01

    Patient-specific measurements are typically used to validate the dosimetry of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). To evaluate the dosimetric performance over time of our IMRT process, we have used statistical process control (SPC) concepts to analyze the measurements from 330 head and neck (H&N) treatment plans. The objectives of the present work are to: (i) Review the dosimetric measurements of a large series of consecutive head and neck treatment plans to better understand appropriate dosimetric tolerances; (ii) analyze the results with SPC to develop action levels for measured discrepancies; (iii) develop estimates for the number of measurements that are required to describe IMRT dosimetry in the clinical setting; and (iv) evaluate with SPC a new beam model in our planning system. H&N IMRT cases were planned with the PINNACLE treatment planning system versions 6.2b or 7.6c (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) and treated on Varian (Palo Alto, CA) or Elekta (Crawley, UK) linacs. As part of regular quality assurance, plans were recalculated on a 20-cm-diam cylindrical phantom, and ion chamber measurements were made in high-dose volumes (the PTV with highest dose) and in low-dose volumes (spinal cord organ-at-risk, OR). Differences between the planned and measured doses were recorded as a percentage of the planned dose. Differences were stable over time. Measurements with PINNACLE3 6.2b and Varian linacs showed a mean difference of 0.6% for PTVs (n=149, range, -4.3% to 6.6%), while OR measurements showed a larger systematic discrepancy (mean 4.5%, range -4.5% to 16.3%) that was due to well-known limitations of the MLC model in the earlier version of the planning system. Measurements with PINNACLE3 7.6c and Varian linacs demonstrated a mean difference of 0.2% for PTVs (n=160, range, -3.0%, to 5.0%) and -1.0% for ORs (range -5.8% to 4.4%). The capability index (ratio of specification range to range of the data) was 1.3 for the PTV data, indicating that almost

  8. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  9. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meek, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs

  10. The Use of Remote Sensing Satellites for Verification in International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettling, J. K.

    The contribution is a very sensitive topic which is currently about to gain significance and importance in the international community. It implies questions of international law as well as the contemplation of new developments and decisions in international politics. The paper will begin with the meaning and current status of verification in international law as well as the legal basis of satellite remote sensing in international treaties and resolutions. For the verification part, this implies giving a definition of verification and naming its fields of application and the different means of verification. For the remote sensing part, it involves the identification of relevant provisions in the Outer Space Treaty and the United Nations General Assembly Principles on Remote Sensing. Furthermore it shall be looked at practical examples: in how far have remote sensing satellites been used to verify international obligations? Are there treaties which would considerably profit from the use of remote sensing satellites? In this respect, there are various examples which can be contemplated, such as the ABM Treaty (even though out of force now), the SALT and START Agreements, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Conventional Test Ban Treaty. It will be mentioned also that NGOs have started to verify international conventions, e.g. Landmine Monitor is verifying the Mine-Ban Convention. Apart from verifying arms control and disarmament treaties, satellites can also strengthen the negotiation of peace agreements (such as the Dayton Peace Talks) and the prevention of international conflicts from arising. Verification has played an increasingly prominent role in high-profile UN operations. Verification and monitoring can be applied to the whole range of elements that constitute a peace implementation process, ranging from the military aspects through electoral monitoring and human rights monitoring, from negotiating an accord to finally monitoring it. Last but not least the

  11. Active Thermal Control Experiments for LISA Ground Verification Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Sei; DeBra, Daniel B.

    2006-11-01

    The primary mission goal of LISA is detecting gravitational waves. LISA uses laser metrology to measure the distance between proof masses in three identical spacecrafts. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 × 10-15 m/s2√Hz . Optical path length variations on each optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/√Hz over 1 Hz to 0.1 mHz. Thermal variations due to, for example, solar radiation or temperature gradients across the proof mass housing will distort the spacecraft causing changes in the mass attraction and sensor location. We have developed a thermal control system developed for the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability better than 1 mK/√Hz to f control for the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiation. Thermally stable environment is very demanded for LISA performance verification. In a lab environment specifications can be met with considerable amount of insulation and thermal mass. For spacecraft, the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements simultaneously in the presence of long time delay. A simple proportional plus integral control law presently provides approximately 1 mK/√Hz of thermal stability for over 80 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feed-forward algorithm will extend performance to below 1 mK/√Hz at f < 1 mHz and lower.

  12. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Benz, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  13. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve...... the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...... of the Portuguese broad gauge railway network (1948-2012)....

  14. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity......In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve...

  15. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu Hong, Linh; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    , are avoided. Central parts of these new systems consist of safety-critical software the functional correctness of which is one of the key requisites for a reliable operation of the traffics and in particular for the safety of passengers. Until now the development of railway control software has typically been......This paper presents work package WP4.1 of the RobustRails research project. The work package aims at suggesting a methodology for efficient development and verification of safe and robust railway control systems. 1 Project background and state of the art Over the next 10 years all Danish railway...... signalling systems are going to be completely replaced with modern, computer based railway control systems based on the European standard ERTMS/ETCS [3, 4] by the Danish Signaling Programme [1]. The purpose of these systems is to control the railway traffic such that unsafe situations, like train collisions...

  16. Process and quality verification controls for solid propellant manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in-process tests to verify quality and detect discrepant propellant which could compromise motor performance are essential elements of the solid composite propellant manufacturing process. The successful performance of the 260SL-1 and 260SL-2 motors aptly verified the controls used for manufacturing the propellant. The present investigation is concerned with the selected control parameters, and their relationships to composition and final propellant properties. Control performance is evaluated by comparison with processing data experienced in the manufacture of the propellant for the 260SL-1 motor. It is found that the in-process quality verification controls utilized in the propellant manufacturing process for the 260-in. diameter motor contributed significantly to the confidence of successful and predictable motor performance.

  17. Process and quality verification controls for solid propellant manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in-process tests to verify quality and detect discrepant propellant which could compromise motor performance are essential elements of the solid composite propellant manufacturing process. The successful performance of the 260SL-1 and 260SL-2 motors aptly verified the controls used for manufacturing the propellant. The present investigation is concerned with the selected control parameters, and their relationships to composition and final propellant properties. Control performance is evaluated by comparison with processing data experienced in the manufacture of the propellant for the 260SL-1 motor. It is found that the in-process quality verification controls utilized in the propellant manufacturing process for the 260-in. diameter motor contributed significantly to the confidence of successful and predictable motor performance.

  18. The rejection of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty by the US Senate: a reverse for the nuclear arms control?; Le rejet du traite d'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires par le Senat Americain: un revers pour l'arms control nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitt, B. [Universite de Marne la Vallee, 77 (France)

    2000-07-01

    On October 13, 1999, after a hasty debate, the US Senate rejected the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) signed 3 years ago. This article analyses this event with respect to the US domestic context (discussions at the Senate, reaction of the Presidency) and with respect to the international context (international reactions, future of the treaty, consequences on arms control policy). (J.S.)

  19. Implementing nuclear non-proliferation in Finland. Regulatory control, international cooperation and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okko, O. (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The regulatory control of nuclear materials (i.e. nuclear safeguards) is a prerequisite for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Finland. Safeguards are required for Finland to comply with international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation - mainly the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This regulatory control is exercised by the Nuclear Materials Section of the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The results of STUK's nuclear safeguards inspection activities in 2011 continued to demonstrate that the Finnish licence holders take good care of their nuclear materials. There were no indications of undeclared nuclear materials or activities and the inspected materials and activities were in accordance with the licence holders' declarations.

  20. Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan; Hettler, Eric; Yedavalli, Rama; Mitra, Sayan

    2013-01-01

    NASA's vision for an intelligent engine will be realized with the development of a truly distributed control system featuring highly reliable, modular, and dependable components capable of both surviving the harsh engine operating environment and decentralized functionality. A set of control system verification tools was developed and applied to a C-MAPSS40K engine model, and metrics were established to assess the stability and performance of these control systems on the same platform. A software tool was developed that allows designers to assemble easily a distributed control system in software and immediately assess the overall impacts of the system on the target (simulated) platform, allowing control system designers to converge rapidly on acceptable architectures with consideration to all required hardware elements. The software developed in this program will be installed on a distributed hardware-in-the-loop (DHIL) simulation tool to assist NASA and the Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) in integrating DCS (distributed engine control systems) components onto existing and next-generation engines.The distributed engine control simulator blockset for MATLAB/Simulink and hardware simulator provides the capability to simulate virtual subcomponents, as well as swap actual subcomponents for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) analysis. Subcomponents can be the communication network, smart sensor or actuator nodes, or a centralized control system. The distributed engine control blockset for MATLAB/Simulink is a software development tool. The software includes an engine simulation, a communication network simulation, control algorithms, and analysis algorithms set up in a modular environment for rapid simulation of different network architectures; the hardware consists of an embedded device running parts of the CMAPSS engine simulator and controlled through Simulink. The distributed engine control simulation, evaluation, and analysis technology provides unique

  1. Verification and Validation of Digitally Upgraded Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lau, Nathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As nuclear power plants undertake main control room modernization, a challenge is the lack of a clearly defined human factors process to follow. Verification and validation (V&V) as applied in the nuclear power community has tended to involve efforts such as integrated system validation, which comes at the tail end of the design stage. To fill in guidance gaps and create a step-by-step process for control room modernization, we have developed the Guideline for Operational Nuclear Usability and Knowledge Elicitation (GONUKE). This approach builds on best practices in the software industry, which prescribe an iterative user-centered approach featuring multiple cycles of design and evaluation. Nuclear regulatory guidance for control room design emphasizes summative evaluation—which occurs after the design is complete. In the GONUKE approach, evaluation is also performed at the formative stage of design—early in the design cycle using mockups and prototypes for evaluation. The evaluation may involve expert review (e.g., software heuristic evaluation at the formative stage and design verification against human factors standards like NUREG-0700 at the summative stage). The evaluation may also involve user testing (e.g., usability testing at the formative stage and integrated system validation at the summative stage). An additional, often overlooked component of evaluation is knowledge elicitation, which captures operator insights into the system. In this report we outline these evaluation types across design phases that support the overall modernization process. The objective is to provide industry-suitable guidance for steps to be taken in support of the design and evaluation of a new human-machine interface (HMI) in the control room. We suggest the value of early-stage V&V and highlight how this early-stage V&V can help improve the design process for control room modernization. We argue that there is a need to overcome two shortcomings of V&V in current practice

  2. Why START. [Strategic Arms Reduction Talks treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1991-04-01

    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles.

  3. Control and verification of industrial hybrid systems using models specified with the formalism $ chi $

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.H. Fey

    1996-01-01

    textabstractControl and verification of hybrid systems is studied using two industrial examples. The hybrid models of a conveyor-belt and of a biochemical plant for the production of ethanol are specified in the formalism $chi .$ A verification of the closed-loop systems for those examples,

  4. Design and Realization of Controllable Ultrasonic Fault Detector Automatic Verification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Feng; Liu, Hui-Ying; Guo, Hui-Juan; Shu, Rong; Wei, Kai-Li

    The ultrasonic flaw detection equipment with remote control interface is researched and the automatic verification system is developed. According to use extensible markup language, the building of agreement instruction set and data analysis method database in the system software realizes the controllable designing and solves the diversification of unreleased device interfaces and agreements. By using the signal generator and a fixed attenuator cascading together, a dynamic error compensation method is proposed, completes what the fixed attenuator does in traditional verification and improves the accuracy of verification results. The automatic verification system operating results confirms that the feasibility of the system hardware and software architecture design and the correctness of the analysis method, while changes the status of traditional verification process cumbersome operations, and reduces labor intensity test personnel.

  5. Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I project, Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Prof. R.K. Yedavalli, propose a novel verification environment for eventual rapid certification...

  6. Stochastic Verification Theorem of Forward-Backward Controlled System for Viscosity Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Liangquan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the controlled system described by forward-backward stochastic differential equations with the control contained in drift, diffusion and generater of BSDE. A new verification theorem is derived within the framework of viscosity solutions without involving any derivatives of the value functions. It is worth to pointing out that this theorem has wider applicability than the restrictive classical verification theorems. As a relevant problem, the optimal stochastic feedback controls for forward-backward system are discussed as well.

  7. Comments for A Conference on Verification in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-12

    The author offers 5 points for the discussion of Verification and Technology: (1) Experience with the implementation of arms limitation and arms reduction agreements confirms that technology alone has never been relied upon to provide effective verification. (2) The historical practice of verification of arms control treaties between Cold War rivals may constrain the cooperative and innovative use of technology for transparency, veification and confidence building in the future. (3) An area that has been identified by many, including the US State Department and NNSA as being rich for exploration for potential uses of technology for transparency and verification is information and communications technology (ICT). This includes social media, crowd-sourcing, the internet of things, and the concept of societal verification, but there are issues. (4) On the issue of the extent to which verification technologies are keeping pace with the demands of future protocols and agrements I think the more direct question is ''are they effective in supporting the objectives of the treaty or agreement?'' In this regard it is important to acknowledge that there is a verification grand challenge at our doorstep. That is ''how does one verify limitations on nuclear warheads in national stockpiles?'' (5) Finally, while recognizing the daunting political and security challenges of such an approach, multilateral engagement and cooperation at the conceptual and technical levels provides benefits for addressing future verification challenges.

  8. The CFE Treaty and changed conditions in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed in November 1990 by sixteen nations, members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and six nations, members of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO). It was resigned to prevent a major surprise attack in Europe by the conventional forces of one Treaty Organization against those of the other and was the first major arms control treaty to address conventional weapons. This paper focuses on how CFE adapted to changes in the military-political situation in Europe which occurred after 1990 and failed to adapt to others. Suggestions are offered on how it might be changed to make it more relevant under these changed conditions.

  9. Development of requirements tracking and verification system for the software design of distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kim, Jung Tack; Lee, Jang Soo; Ham, Chang Shik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper a prototype of Requirement Tracking and Verification System(RTVS) for a Distributed Control System was implemented and tested. The RTVS is a software design and verification tool. The main functions required by the RTVS are managing, tracking and verification of the software requirements listed in the documentation of the DCS. The analysis of DCS software design procedures and interfaces with documents were performed to define the user of the RTVS, and the design requirements for RTVS were developed. 4 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  10. Verification of the karst flow model under laboratory controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Andric, Ivo; Malenica, Luka; Srzic, Veljko

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very important groundwater resources around the world as well as in coastal part of Croatia. They consist of extremely complex structure defining by slow and laminar porous medium and small fissures and usually fast turbulent conduits/karst channels. Except simple lumped hydrological models that ignore high karst heterogeneity, full hydraulic (distributive) models have been developed exclusively by conventional finite element and finite volume elements considering complete karst heterogeneity structure that improves our understanding of complex processes in karst. Groundwater flow modeling in complex karst aquifers are faced by many difficulties such as a lack of heterogeneity knowledge (especially conduits), resolution of different spatial/temporal scales, connectivity between matrix and conduits, setting of appropriate boundary conditions and many others. Particular problem of karst flow modeling is verification of distributive models under real aquifer conditions due to lack of above-mentioned information. Therefore, we will show here possibility to verify karst flow models under the laboratory controlled conditions. Special 3-D karst flow model (5.6*2.6*2 m) consists of concrete construction, rainfall platform, 74 piezometers, 2 reservoirs and other supply equipment. Model is filled by fine sand (3-D porous matrix) and drainage plastic pipes (1-D conduits). This model enables knowledge of full heterogeneity structure including position of different sand layers as well as conduits location and geometry. Moreover, we know geometry of conduits perforation that enable analysis of interaction between matrix and conduits. In addition, pressure and precipitation distribution and discharge flow rates from both phases can be measured very accurately. These possibilities are not present in real sites what this model makes much more useful for karst flow modeling. Many experiments were performed under different controlled conditions such as different

  11. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Vyatkin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  12. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzon Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  13. A Formal Approach for the Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Kinder, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a complete model-based development and verification approach for railway control systems. For each control system to be generated, the user makes a description of the application-specific parameters in a domain-specific language. This description is automatically transformed ...

  14. Thoughts on Verification of Nuclear Disarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, W H

    2007-09-26

    It is my pleasure to be here to day to participate in this Conference. My thanks to the organizers for preparing such an interesting agenda on a very difficult topic. My effort in preparing my presentation was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48. And as many of you know Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is now, as of Oct 1st, under contract to the Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC. There has been a long history of how to view verification of arms control agreements. The basis for verification during the days of SALT was that verification would be based on each country's national technical means. For treaties dealing with strategic missiles this worked well as the individual items subject to verification were of such a size that they were visible by the National Technical Means available at the time. And it was felt that the counting of missiles and launchers could be verified by our National Technical Means. For nuclear testing treaties the use of seismic measurements developed into a capability that was reasonably robust for all but the smallest of nuclear tests. However, once we had the Threshold Test Ban Treaty, there was a significant problem in that the fidelity of the measurements were not sufficient to determine if a test was slightly above the 150 kt limit or slightly below the 150 kt limit. This led some in the US to believe that the Soviet Union was not living up to the TTBT agreement. An on-site verification protocol was negotiated in 1988 and 1989 that allowed the US to make hydrodynamic yield measurements on Soviet tests above 50 kt yield and regional seismic measurements on all tests above 35 kt of yield; and the Soviets to make the same type of measurements on US tests to ensure that they were not over 150 kt. These on-site measurements were considered reasonably intrusive. Again the measurement capability was

  15. Online Verification of Control Parameter Calculations in Communication Based Train Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Lei; Wang, Linzhang; Li, Xuandong

    2011-01-01

    Communication Based Train Control (CBTC) system is the state-of-the-art train control system. In a CBTC system, to guarantee the safety of train operation, trains communicate with each other intensively and adjust their control modes autonomously by computing critical control parameters, e.g. velocity range, according to the information they get. As the correctness of the control parameters generated are critical to the safety of the system, a method to verify these parameters is a strong desire in the area of train control system. In this paper, we present our ideas of how to model and verify the control parameter calculations in a CBTC system efficiently. - As the behavior of the system is highly nondeterministic, it is difficult to build and verify the complete behavior space model of the system online in advance. Thus, we propose to model the system according to the ongoing behavior model induced by the control parameters. - As the parameters are generated online and updated very quickly, the verification...

  16. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  17. Columbia River Treaty 2014/2024 Review • Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty or CRT) of 1964, Canada and the United States (U.S.) jointly regulate and manage the Columbia River as it flows from British Columbia into the U.S. The Treaty has provided substantial flood control and power generation benefits to both nations. The Treaty established Canadian and U.S. Entities as implementing agents for each government. British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) was designated as the Canadian Entity. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) Division Engineer, Northwestern Division, were designated as the U.S. Entity. The Canadian and U.S. Entities are empowered by their respective governments with broad discretion to implement the existing Columbia River Treaty. They are not, however, authorized to terminate, renegotiate, or otherwise modify the Treaty. In the U.S., authority over international treaties rests with the President, assisted in foreign relations and international negotiations by the Department of State and subject in certain cases to the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. In Canada, international treaties are within the prerogative of the executive branch of the federal government. Under current policy, treaties are tabled in the House of Commons, and are subject to a waiting period before the executive branch brings the treaty into effect. In the case of the Columbia River Treaty, Canada has assigned certain rights and obligations relating to the Treaty to British Columbia pursuant to the Canada-B.C. Agreement. The Phase 1 report is provided to those respective governmental bodies to support possible independent and/or joint decisions that may be made with respect to the future of the Treaty. The Treaty contains two important provisions that take effect on and after September 16, 2024, that could impact the current power and flood control benefits: 1. Canadian flood control obligations automatically change from a pre

  18. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amponsah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.5402

  19. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Amponsah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others.

  20. Principles of the Antarctic Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, M.

    The operation of any base or expedition to Antarctica is regulated by the mutual agreement among nations in the “Antarctic Treaty”. This treaty deals with the major aspects of life in Antarctica and its main principles and provisions are described in what follows.

  1. Specialized Rules of Treaty Interpretation: International Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.; Hollis, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses treaty interpretation in the context of international organizations, with particular attention to interpreting the founding or constitutive treaties of organizations. That not all interpretive rules are the same for all treaties is a well-tried proposition (see e.g. Arnold McNai

  2. Nonlinear region of attraction analysis for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The stability analysis method based on region of attraction is proposed for the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification in this article. Current practice for hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight control verification is largely dependent on linear theoretical analysis and nonlinear simulation research. This problem can be improved by the nonlinear stability analysis of flight control system. Firstly, the hypersonic flight vehicles’ flight dynamic model is simplified and fitted by polynomial equation. And then the region of attraction estimation method based on V–s iteration is presented to complete the stability analysis. Finally, with the controller law, the closed-loop system stability is analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Fuzzy Controllers for a Gantry Crane System with Experimental Verifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif B. Almutairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The control problem of gantry cranes has attracted the attention of many researchers because of the various applications of these cranes in the industry. In this paper we propose two fuzzy controllers to control the position of the cart of a gantry crane while suppressing the swing angle of the payload. Firstly, we propose a dual PD fuzzy controller where the parameters of each PD controller change as the cart moves toward its desired position, while maintaining a small swing angle of the payload. This controller uses two fuzzy subsystems. Then, we propose a fuzzy controller which is based on heuristics. The rules of this controller are obtained taking into account the knowledge of an experienced crane operator. This controller is unique in that it uses only one fuzzy system to achieve the control objective. The validity of the designed controllers is tested through extensive MATLAB simulations as well as experimental results on a laboratory gantry crane apparatus. The simulation results as well as the experimental results indicate that the proposed fuzzy controllers work well. Moreover, the simulation and the experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control schemes against output disturbances as well as against uncertainty in some of the parameters of the crane.

  4. Hybrid Control and Verification of a Pulsed Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    Currently systems, which are desired to control, are becoming more and more complex and classical control theory objectives, such as stability or sensitivity, are often not sufficient to cover the control objectives of the systems. In this paper it is shown how the dynamics of a pulsed welding...

  5. Design and verification of distributed logic controllers with application of Petri nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał; Wiśniewska, Monika [University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2015-12-31

    The paper deals with the designing and verification of distributed logic controllers. The control system is initially modelled with Petri nets and formally verified against structural and behavioral properties with the application of the temporal logic and model checking technique. After that it is decomposed into separate sequential automata that are working concurrently. Each of them is re-verified and if the validation is successful, the system can be finally implemented.

  6. 22 CFR 41.51 - Treaty trader, treaty investor, or treaty alien in a specialty occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purpose of earning a living; and (ii) Is seeking entry solely to develop and direct the enterprise; and... generate more than enough income to provide a minimal living for the treaty investor and his or her family... prevailing wage referred to in INA 212(t)(1); (v) Has a visa number allocated under INA 214(g)(11)(B); and...

  7. Effective Development and Verification of Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a method for effective development of software for a product line of similar railway control systems. The software is constructed in three steps: first a specifications in a domain-specific language is created, then a formal behavioural controller model is automatically...

  8. Formal Verification of Congestion Control Algorithm in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yusof Darus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs is the technology that uses moving cars as nodes in a network to create a mobile network. VANETs turn every participating car into a wireless router, allowing cars of each other to connect and create a network with a wide range. VANETs are developed for enhancing the driving safety and comfort of automotive users. The VANETs can provide wide variety of service such as Intelligent Transportation System (ITS e.g. safety applications. Many of safety applications built in VANETs are required real-time communication with high reliability. One of the main challenges is to avoid degradation of communication channels in dense traffic network. Many of studies suggested that appropriate congestion control algorithms are essential to provide efficient operation of the network. However, most of congestion control algorithms are not really applicable to event-driven safety messages. In this paper we propose congestion control algorithm as solution to prevent congestion in VANETs environment. We propose a complete validation method and analyse the performance of our congestion control algorithms for event-driven safety messages in difference congested scenarios. The effectiveness of the proposed congestion control algorithm is evaluated through the simulation using Veins simulator.

  9. Safety Verification of a Fault Tolerant Reconfigurable Autonomous Goal-Based Robotic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Julia M. B.; Murray, Richard M; Wagner, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Fault tolerance and safety verification of control systems are essential for the success of autonomous robotic systems. A control architecture called Mission Data System (MDS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, takes a goal-based control approach. In this paper, a method for converting goal network control programs into linear hybrid systems is developed. The linear hybrid system can then be verified for safety in the presence of failures using existing symbolic model checkers. An example task is simulated in MDS and successfully verified using HyTech, a symbolic model checking software for linear hybrid systems.

  10. Tighten The Treaty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Accusations of nuclear weapon developments in Iran and North Korea have refocused world attention on the simmering issue. In an analysis of the situation, Zhang Liangui, a professor with the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, comments that the international community should intensify the current anti-nuclear proliferation system to control the development of nuclear weapons before it is too late.

  11. External Verification of SCADA System Embedded Controller Firmware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    2 HMI human machine interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 RTU remote terminal unit... ISA International Society for Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 DOE Department of Energy...interface (HMI). Field devices, such as are either PLCs or remote terminal units ( RTUs ), automate physical system operation by implementing digital control

  12. The IXV guidance, navigation and control subsystem: Development, verification and performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Victor; Contreras, Rafael; Sanchez, Raul; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Serrano, Daniel; Kerr, Murray; Fernandez, Vicente; Haya-Ramos, Rodrigo; Peñin, Luis F.; Ospina, Jose A.; De Zaiacomo, Gabriale; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Yague, Ricardo; Zaccagnino, Elio; Preaud, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) [1] is an ESA re-entry lifting body demonstrator built to verify in-flight the performance of critical re-entry technologies. The IXV was launched on February the 11th, 2015, aboard Europe's Vega launcher. The IXV´s flight and successful recovery represents a major step forward with respect to previous European re-entry experience with the Atmospheric Re-entry Demonstrator (ARD) [2], flown in October 1998. The increased in-flight manoeuvrability achieved from the lifting body solution permitted the verification of technologies over a wider re-entry corridor. Among other objectives, which included the characterisation of the re-entry environment through a variety of sensors, special attention was paid to Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) aspects, including the guidance algorithms for the lifting body, the use of the inertial measurement unit measurements with GPS updates for navigation, and the flight control by means of aerodynamic flaps and reaction control thrusters. This paper presents the overall Design, Development and Verification logic that has been successfully followed by the GNC and Flight Management (FM) subsystem of the IXV. It also focuses on the interactions between the GNC and the System, Avionics and OBSW development lifecycles and how an integrated and incremental verification process has been implemented by ensuring the maximum representativeness and reuse through all stages.

  13. Design And Verification of Controllers for Coupled Bunch Instabilities Using Optimal Control Theory And Numerical Simulation: Predictions for PEP II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindi, Haitham; Prabhakar, Shyam; Fox, John D.; Linscott, Ivan; Teytelman, Dmitri; /SLAC

    2011-08-31

    We present a technique for the design and verification of efficient bunch-by-bunch controllers for damping longitudinal multibunch instabilities. The controllers attempt to optimize the use of available feedback amplifier power - one of the most expensive components of a feedback system - and define the limits of the closed loop system performance. Our design technique alternates between analytic computation of single bunch optimal controllers and verification on a multibunch numerical simulator. The simulator uses PEP-II parameters and identifies unstable coupled bunch modes, their growth rates and their damping rates with feedback. The results from the simulator are shown to be in reasonable agreement with analytical calculations based on the single bunch model. The technique is then used to evaluate the performance of a variety of controllers proposed for PEP-II.

  14. Design and verification of controllers for longitudinal oscillations using optimal control theory and numerical simulation: Predictions for PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindi, H.; Prabhakar, S.; Fox, J.; Teytelman, D.

    1997-12-01

    The authors present a technique for the design and verification of efficient bunch-by-bunch controllers for damping longitudinal multibunch instabilities. The controllers attempt to optimize the use of available feedback amplifier power--one of the most expensive components of a feedback system--and define the limits of closed loop system performance. The design technique alternates between analytic computation of single bunch optimal controllers and verification on a multibunch numerical simulator. The simulator identifies unstable coupled bunch modes and predicts their growth and damping rates. The results from the simulator are shown to be in reasonable agreement with analytical calculations based on the single bunch model. The technique is then used to evaluate the performance of a variety of controllers proposed for PEP-II.

  15. Spaceport Command and Control System Automated Verification Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    For as long as we have walked the Earth, humans have always been explorers. We have visited our nearest celestial body and sent Voyager 1 beyond our solar system1 out into interstellar space. Now it is finally time for us to step beyond our home and onto another planet. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is being developed along with the Space Launch System (SLS) to take us on a journey further than ever attempted. Within SCCS are separate subsystems and system level software, each of which have to be tested and verified. Testing is a long and tedious process, so automating it will be much more efficient and also helps to remove the possibility of human error from mission operations. I was part of a team of interns and full-time engineers who automated tests for the requirements on SCCS, and with that was able to help verify that the software systems are performing as expected.

  16. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.

  17. Comparative evaluation of Map-Check and Arc-Check for dosimetric verification in patients treaties with IMRT; Evaluacion comparativa de MapCHECK y ArcCHECK para verificacion dosimetrica en pacientes tratados con IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.; Marquina, J.; Ramirez, J.; Gonzales, A., E-mail: bertha.garcia@aliada.com.pe [ALIADA, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima 27 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The dosimetric controls that are realized to the patients in the Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) techniques; are indispensable since allows in real time to verify the quantity of imparted dose to the patient, these controls should be carried out every time that will begin a treatment, because these techniques impart dose dynamically modulating the dose intensity and movements of the Multi leaf Collimator (MLC), for they exist different diodes devices prepared in spiral (3-D) and planar form (2-D); that allows to estimate the dose fluence in a certain area. Treatment studies for head and neck with IMRT were compared regarding the reading average carried out by the diodes in the corresponding areas, using the criteria of the gamma index like dose difference 3% or 3m m of distance for both diode arrangements, in the IMRT case was found in Arc-Check a minor difference of 3/3 for an average of 99.37% of read diodes in a correct way contrary to the reading obtained with the Map-Check 3/3 an average of difference of 96.19%; in IMRT the difference was lower due to different factors like sensibility of the diodes reading, resolution, diodes disposition, as well as the average reading of entrance and exit of the radiation beams. Within the parameters delivered by the diodes arrangement is considered the positioning correction for both acceptance indexes like the gamma factor and the Distance-to-agreement (Dta), the existent difference of reading in factor gamma and Dta fundamentally is the way in like they compare the dose distribution; the Gamma uses dose averages of high and low gradients and Dta use only averages of areas of high gradients between the nearest points giving the distance as a result among the distribution point and the nearest point what makes stricter. (Author)

  18. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Offer Tools for Nuclear Testing—and Solving Nuclear Mysteries ,” Washington Post, November 1, 2011, p. 1. Horovitz, Liviu, “A Detour Strategy for the...Today, October 2009, pp. 46-52. Kimball, Daryl, “Reconsidering the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: Sorting Fact from Fiction ,” Arms Control Association

  19. A rule-based verification and control framework in ATLAS Trigger-DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Sloper, J E; Ryabov, Yu; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ATLAS data taking, the ATLAS Trigger-DAQ system is composed of O(1000) of applications running on more than 2600 computers in a network. With such system size, s/w and h/w failures are quite often. To minimize system downtime, the Trigger-DAQ control system shall include advanced verification and diagnostics facilities. The operator should use tests and expertise of the TDAQ and detectors developers in order to diagnose and recover from errors, if possible automatically. The TDAQ control system is built as a distributed tree of controllers, where behavior of each controller is defined in a rule-based language allowing easy customization. The control system also includes verification framework which allow users to develop and configure tests for any component in the system with different levels of complexity. It can be used as a stand-alone test facility for a small detector installation, as part of the general TDAQ initialization procedure, and for diagnosing the problems ...

  20. Automatic generation and verification of railway interlocking control tables using FSM and NuSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. YAZDI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their important role in providing safe conditions for train movements, railway interlocking systems are considered as safety critical systems. The reliability, safety and integrity of these systems, relies on reliability and integrity of all stages in their lifecycle including the design, verification, manufacture, test, operation and maintenance.In this paper, the Automatic generation and verification of interlocking control tables, as one of the most important stages in the interlocking design process has been focused on, by the safety critical research group in the School of Railway Engineering, SRE. Three different subsystems including a graphical signalling layout planner, a Control table generator and a Control table verifier, have been introduced. Using NuSMV model checker, the control table verifier analyses the contents of control table besides the safe train movement conditions and checks for any conflicting settings in the table. This includes settings for conflicting routes, signals, points and also settings for route isolation and single and multiple overlap situations. The latest two settings, as route isolation and multiple overlap situations are from new outcomes of the work comparing to works represented on the subject recently.

  1. Experimental Verifications of Vibration Suppression for a Smart Cantilever Beam with a Modified Velocity Feedback Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents various experimental verifications for the theoretical analysis results of vibration suppression to a smart flexible beam bonded with a piezoelectric actuator by a velocity feedback controller and an extended state observer (ESO. During the state feedback control (SFC design process for the smart flexible beam with the pole placement theory, in the state feedback gain matrix, the velocity feedback gain is much more than the displacement feedback gain. For the difference between the velocity feedback gain and the displacement feedback gain, a modified velocity feedback controller is applied based on a dynamical model with the Hamilton principle to the smart beam. In addition, the feedback velocity is attained with the extended state observer and the displacement is acquired by the foil gauge on the root of the smart flexible beam. The control voltage is calculated by the designed velocity feedback gain multiplied by the feedback velocity. Through some experiment verifications for simulation results, it is indicated that the suppressed amplitude of free vibration is up to 62.13% while the attenuated magnitude of its velocity is up to 61.31%. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the modified velocity feedback control with the extended state observer is feasible to reduce free vibration.

  2. Neutron spectrometric methods for core inventory verification in research reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ellinger, A; Hansen, W; Knorr, J; Schneider, R

    2002-01-01

    In consequence of the Non-Proliferation Treaty safeguards, inspections are periodically made in nuclear facilities by the IAEA and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate. The inspection methods are permanently improved. Therefore, the Core Inventory Verification method is being developed as an indirect method for the verification of the core inventory and to check the declared operation of research reactors.

  3. High-stability temperature control for ST-7/LISA Pathfinder gravitational reference sensor ground verification testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, S.; Allen, G.; Bencze, W.; Byer, R.; Dang, A.; DeBra, D. B.; Lauben, D.; Dorlybounxou, S.; Hanson, J.; Ho, L.; Huffman, G.; Sabur, F.; Sun, K.; Tavernetti, R.; Rolih, L.; Van Patten, R.; Wallace, J.; Williams, S.

    2006-03-01

    This article demonstrates experimental results of a thermal control system developed for ST-7 gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability δT control of the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiate 1/f fluctuations. Although for ground testing these specifications can be met fairly readily with sufficient insulation and thermal mass, in contrast, for spacecraft the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can simultaneously meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements in the presence of long time delay; a considerable design challenge. Simple control laws presently provide ~ 1mK/surdHz for >24 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feedforward control algorithm will extend performance to <1 mK/surdHz at f < 0.01 mHz and possibly lower, extending LISA coverage of super massive black hole mergers.

  4. Simulator verification of thyristor controlled series capacitor SVR (Synchronous Voltage Reversal) scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickmander, D.L. [ABB Power T and D Company Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States). Transmission Technology Inst.; Rudin, S. [ABB Power Systems AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden). Reactive Power Compensation Div.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a simulator small-signal verification study conducted for a new Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) control scheme referred to as the Synchronous Voltage Reversal (SVR) scheme. The goal of the SVR scheme is to achieve an inherently inductive sub-synchronous impedance characteristic for the TCSC, while preserving the capability to add higher level control loops. A detailed TCSC control model using field-proven digital control hardware, and programmed with the SVR scheme, was incorporated into a simulator representation of the IEEE First Benchmark system. Detailed measurements are presented in the paper to demonstrate that the SVR scheme successfully mitigates SSR (sub-synchronous resonance) conditions for the studied system. 8 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Mining explosion identification as an application to treaty verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrowsmith, Marie

    With the contribution of data from an increasing number of high-quality seismic stations and networks throughout the globe, the event detection threshold is reduced to smaller and smaller magnitudes. At M4 and below, delay-fired explosions are often commonly observed along with natural seismicity. The addition of this class within an event catalog leads to several questions which much be addressed: (1) can delay-fired mining explosions be discriminated from earthquakes; (2) can the understanding of mining discriminants illuminate the explosion discrimination process in regions where there are no known nuclear explosions; and (3) are mining discriminants regionally dependent, and are there corrections to account for this dependence? A broader question is in understanding the ability to separate source and propagation path effects from regional data. Addressing this question utilizing growing regional dataset has direct application to the problems noted above but more generally to our ability to interpret regional seismic records from all types of events including earthquakes. To address these types of questions, we have assembled a database of ˜2500 mining explosions and ˜1300 earthquakes recorded at a number of regional stations, comprising a total of ˜150,000 waveforms. The database is focused on two regions, the Western US and the Altai-Sayan region of Russia, which are both areas of prolific mining activity. As part of an extensive collaboration with the largest coal mine in Wyoming and the nation, we have detailed shot information for ˜1000 mining events, classified into six distinct blast types. We have limited information for events in the Altai-Sayan based upon contacts with the ASSE. We have applied three discriminants to data from 11 stations and one array in the WUS. The first discriminant, amplitude ratios, exploits differences between regional phases due to source type. Results are highly station centric, although the largest mining events separate from earthquakes that are <250 km from the mine; as the earthquake dataset expands spatially, discrimination performance degrades. One-dimensional path corrections provide improvement, but additional calibrations are necessary to optimize this discriminant. The second discriminant, time-frequency, capitalizes on the unique spectral signature of delay-fired mining events as a function of time. This discriminant separates the larger types of blasts with the longest source duration at all stations. Smaller blasts do not discriminate because of the shorter shot durations. The third discriminant, time-of-day, assesses the event origin time. Strictly speaking, this type of analysis may have a secondary role in the discrimination of an individual event but may be quite useful in assessing man-made seismic activity in a regional context. Mining events occur between 9 am and 6 pm, while earthquakes are randomly distributed in time. We have utilized waveform correlation techniques to better understand how factors such as mining blast type and location within the mine are manifested in the waveforms. Initial results show good correlation between blast types within two main pits; as the correlation threshold is increased, we are able to resolve spatial location within individual pits for the simplest types of mining blasts. In the Altai-Sayan region, we calculated these same discriminants for ˜260 earthquakes and ˜850 mining events. The amplitude ratio discriminant shows significant overlap of the earthquake and mining populations. Certain events do separate, but the lack of ground-truth makes is what makes these events difficult to identify. Similar results are seen for the time-frequency discriminant. We do not know if the discriminant itself fails, or if the majority of our data points are from smaller shots that have shorter time durations. Time-of-day results are similar to the WUS in that presumed mining events fall within working hours and indicate the assessment utility of this tool. These unanswered questions illustrate the need for detailed ground-truth informa

  6. Open and Crowd-Sourced Data for Treaty Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    offered prize money of $575,000 to geologists who could help identify promising locations using the company’s geological data. The data were posted online ...large data set on user movie ratings online and promised $1 million if someone could 3http://www.fastcompany.com/44917/he-struck-gold-net-really... shoppers will become repeat buyers (financial reward) to estimating fire insurance losses (financial reward), and to separating Higgs Boson de- cay

  7. A metastable xenon isotope detector for treaty verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, J A M; Conde, C A N

    2003-01-01

    A system to selectively detect and quantify the xenon metastable isotopes sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 sup m Xe, sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 sup m Xe, sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 Xe, and sup 1 sup 3 sup 5 Xe has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The system combines high-resolution electron and gamma-ray spectrometry with coincidence/anti-coincidence timing for signal selectivity and background rejection. By utilizing X-ray-fluorescence gating, backgrounds from other sources are expected to be reduced to the sub-becquerel level. Coincidence and anti-coincidence triggers are formed from the several individual detectors that comprise the system and used to identify K-shell conversion electrons and fluorescence X-rays from a sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd test source with good efficiencies and energy resolutions (20 keV for the low-energy electrons, approx 1.2 keV for the fluorescence X-rays, respectively).

  8. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty covers the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and the Regulations under the PCT. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind the book is to add cross-references to the articles and rules,

  9. Concurrent combined verification: reducing false positives in automated NMR structure verification through the evaluation of multiple challenge control structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golotvin, Sergey S; Pol, Rostislav; Sasaki, Ryan R; Nikitina, Asya; Keyes, Philip

    2012-06-01

    Automated structure verification using (1)H NMR data or a combination of (1)H and heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) data is gaining more interest as a routine application for qualitative evaluation of large compound libraries produced by synthetic chemistry. The goal of this automated software method is to identify a manageable subset of compounds and data that require human review. In practice, the automated method will flag structure and data combinations that exhibit some inconsistency (i.e. strange chemical shifts, conflicts in multiplicity, or overestimated and underestimated integration values) and validate those that appear consistent. One drawback of this approach is that no automated system can guarantee that all passing structures are indeed correct structures. The major reason for this is that approaches using only (1)H or even (1)H and HSQC spectra often do not provide sufficient information to properly distinguish between similar structures. Therefore, current implementations of automated structure verification systems allow, in principle, false positive results. Presented in this work is a method that greatly reduces the probability of an automated validation system passing incorrect structures (i.e. false positives). This novel method was applied to automatically validate 127 non-proprietary compounds from several commercial sources. Presented also is the impact of this approach on false positive and false negative results.

  10. Introduction of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and preparatory activities for its entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu Establishment, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a very important treaty, not only for Japan but also for the world, because it prohibits any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion anywhere in the world. The treaty however will not enter into force until it has been signed and ratified by all the 44 states listed in Annex 2 to the treaty. Many efforts to facilitate the treaty's early entry into force are being done by many countries and many international organizations. As one of result of these efforts, a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization had be established at a meeting of State Signatories on 19 November 1996, and the Commission started activities to establish global verification regime of the treaty and to prepare for its entry into force. Under the CTBT activities, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is expected to play an important role as supporter for the Japanese Government, especially in a field of an International Monitoring System (IMS). However, there is no appropriate guide book on the CTBT for JAERI staff at present. This report provides some introduction of the CTBT regime and preparatory activities for its entry into force. Only open source information is used for making the report. If anyone need more detail information, it should be asked to contact competent authorities. (author)

  11. Electric Machine Analysis, Control and Verification for Mechatronics Motion Control Applications, Using New MATLAB Built-in Function and Simulink Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan A. Salem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new, simple and user–friendly MATLAB built-in function, mathematical and Simulink models, to be used to early identify system level problems, to ensure that all design requirements are met, and, generally, to simplify Mechatronics motion control design process including; performance analysis and verification of a given electric DC machine, proper controller selection and verification for desired output speed or angle.

  12. Verification of FPGA-Signal using the test board which is applied to Safety-related controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Youn-Hu; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [SOOSAN ENS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This article aims to provide the verification method for BGA-type FPGA of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) developed as Safety Class. The logic of FPGA in the control device with Safety Class is the circuit to control overall logic of PLC. Saftety-related PLC must meet the international standard specifications. With this reason, we use V and V according to an international standard in order to secure high reliability and safety. By using this, we are supposed to proceed to a variety of verification courses for extra reliability and safety analysis. In order to have efficient verification of test results, we propose the test using the newly changed BGA socket which can resolve the problems of the conventional socket on this paper. The Verification of processes is divided into verification of Hardware and firmware. That processes are carried out in the unit testing and integration testing. The proposed test method is simple, the effect of cost reductions by batch process. In addition, it is advantageous to measure the signal from the Hi-speed-IC due to its short length of the pins and it was plated with the copper around it. Further, it also to prevent abrasion on the IC ball because it has no direct contact with the PCB. Therefore, it can be actually applied is to the BGA package test and we can easily verify logic as well as easily checking the operation of the designed data.

  13. Automated Generation of Formal Models from ST Control Programs for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Blech, J-O; Gonzalez Suarez, V

    2014-01-01

    In large industrial control systems such as the ones installed at CERN, one of the main issues is the ability to verify the correct behaviour of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) programs. While manual and automated testing can achieve good results, some obvious problems remain unsolved such as the difficulty to check safety or liveness properties. This paper proposes a general methodology and a tool to verify PLC programs by automatically generating formal models for different model checkers out of ST code. The proposed methodology defines an automata-based formalism used as intermediate model (IM) to transform PLC programs written in ST language into different formal models for verification purposes. A tool based on Xtext has been implemented that automatically generates models for the NuSMV and UPPAAL model checkers and the BIP framework.

  14. Amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty 1990-1992: a demonstration of international collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vez, L.; Anaya, R. [Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty made between 1990-1992, had a major impact on its full enforcement. The paper will analyze the different process for its achievement and their consequences. The first and second amendments were made with the intention of including the Caribbean Countries within the geographical scope of the Treaty; and the third and most important one dealt with the adaptation of the control system foreseen in the Tlatelolco Treaty, to permit the integration of Argentina, Brazil and Chile to it. This work also quotes some facts that implied international collaboration in achieving the complete military denuclearization of Latin America and the Caribbean. (author). 25 refs.

  15. Human factors engineering suitability verification of APR1400 soft control and safety console

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. G.; Kim, Y. K.; Shin, Y. C.; Jeo, S. J. [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    At first, standard design of APR1400 is designed to support the operation of the EOP using soft control of safety and non-safety like the control room of N4 and AP600. However, KINS required that the design of the soft control for the operation of the EOP is safety grade. According to the comment of the KINS, the concept of the soft control is changed into the concept of the separation of the safety and non-safety for the design of the soft control. KINS required that the result of the HFE suitability verification for changed design is submitted to obtain the approval of the design certification. It was assessed that channelized soft controller is advantageous at the side of operator's mistake prevention and convenience. But non-channelized soft control was assessed that it was the most advantageous considering human factor. Safety console operation strategy is assessed that it is properly without problem during experiment period.

  16. Analysis of the Interactions between Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    arrangements governing 15 Tabla . Key v#rlflcadoi provisions - CWC. PROVISIONS CWC Initial inspection ON-SITE INSPECTION Routine irispection REGIME Challenge...Article XII ). In addition, the Treaty can be amended through the provisions stated in 44 Table 6. Key verificaden provisions - BWC. PROVISIONS CWC...TLI. Article XII of the Treaty outlines the use of NTM in very general terms. No restrictions are placed on the allowed equipment, except that

  17. National treatment in emerging market investment treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, D A

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the national treatment standard in international investment agreements as implemented by emerging market countries. It briefly explains the nature and purpose of the standard and how it has been examined by international investment tribunals. Specific examples of national treatment provisions in emerging market international investment treaties as well as WTO instruments are discussed, focusing the scope and limitations to this standard commonly provided in treaty pract...

  18. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S J

    2011-12-20

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the

  19. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems - In the context of ERTMS/ETCS Level 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong

    This dissertation presents a holistic, formal method for efficient modelling and verification of safety-critical railway control systems that have product line characteristics, i.e., each individual system is constructed by instantiating common generic applications with concrete configuration data....... The proposed method is based on a combination of formal methods and domain-specific approaches. While formal methods offer mathematically rigorous specification, verification and validation, domain-specific approaches encapsulate the use of formal methods with familiar concepts and notions of the domain, hence...... making the method easy for the railway engineers to use. Furthermore, the method features a 4-step verification and validation approach that can be integrated naturally into different phases of the software development process. This 4-step approach identifies possible errors in generic applications...

  20. International Space Station Atmosphere Control and Supply, Atmosphere Revitalization, and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem - Verification for Node 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 ACS, AR, and WRM design and detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for Node 1.

  1. Real-Time Reliability Verification for UAV Flight Control System Supporting Airworthiness Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyang; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify the real-time reliability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight control system and comply with the airworthiness certification standard, we proposed a model-based integration framework for modeling and verification of time property. Combining with the advantages of MARTE, this framework uses class diagram to create the static model of software system, and utilizes state chart to create the dynamic model. In term of the defined transformation rules, the MARTE model could be transformed to formal integrated model, and the different part of the model could also be verified by using existing formal tools. For the real-time specifications of software system, we also proposed a generating algorithm for temporal logic formula, which could automatically extract real-time property from time-sensitive live sequence chart (TLSC). Finally, we modeled the simplified flight control system of UAV to check its real-time property. The results showed that the framework could be used to create the system model, as well as precisely analyze and verify the real-time reliability of UAV flight control system.

  2. Displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liangen; Wang, Xuanze; Lv, Wei

    2011-05-01

    A displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification are discussed in this paper. The displacement sensor consists of an electric induction transducer with high resolution and a voice coil motor (VCM). The measuring principles, structure, method enlarging measuring range, signal process of the sensor are discussed. The main error sources such as parallelism error and incline of framework by unequal length of leaf springs, rigidity of measuring rods, shape error of stylus, friction between iron core and other parts, damping of leaf springs, variation of voltage, linearity of induction transducer, resolution and stability are analyzed. A measuring system for surface topography with large measuring range is constructed based on the displacement sensor and 2D moving platform. Measuring precision and stability of the measuring system is verified. Measuring force of the sensor in measurement process of surface topography can be controlled at μN level and hardly changes. It has been used in measurement of bearing ball, bullet mark, etc. It has measuring range up to 2mm and precision of nm level.

  3. Assessing Proposals for New Global Health Treaties: An Analytic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2015-08-01

    We have presented an analytic framework and 4 criteria for assessing when global health treaties have reasonable prospects of yielding net positive effects. First, there must be a significant transnational dimension to the problem being addressed. Second, the goals should justify the coercive nature of treaties. Third, proposed global health treaties should have a reasonable chance of achieving benefits. Fourth, treaties should be the best commitment mechanism among the many competing alternatives. Applying this analytic framework to 9 recent calls for new global health treaties revealed that none fully meet the 4 criteria. Efforts aiming to better use or revise existing international instruments may be more productive than is advocating new treaties.

  4. Analysis of recordings from underwater controlled sources in the Pacific Ocean received by the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoaki; Zampolli, Mario; Haralabus, Georgios; Heaney, Kevin; Prior, Mark; Isse, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Controlled impulsive scientific underwater sound sources in the Northwestern Pacific were observed at two IMS hydroacoustic stations in the Pacific Ocean. Although these experiments were conducted with the aim of studying the physical properties of the plate boundaries inside the Earth, they are also suitable for the investigation of long range underwater acoustic detections. In spite of the fact that the energy of these controlled impulsive scientific sources is significantly smaller than that of nuclear explosions, the signals were obtained by IMS hydrophone stations thousands of kilometres away and also by distant ocean bottom instruments operated by various Institutes, such as the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. These experiments provide calibrated (yield, time, location) long-range acoustic transmissions, which enable one to examine the physics of long-range acoustic propagation and to verify the capabilities of the CTBTO IMS network to detect even small explosions.The two IMS stations used are H03 (Juan Fernandez Island, Chile) off the coast of Chile in the Southeastern Pacific and H11 (Wake Island, USA) in the Western Pacific. Both stations consist of two triplets of hydrophones in the SOFAR channel, which monitor the oceans for signs of nuclear explosions. H03 detected low-yield explosions above flat terrain at distances of 15,000 km across the Pacific as well as explosions above the landward slope off the coast of Japan at distances above 16,000 km across the Pacific. These records showed that source signatures, such as short duration and bubble pulses, were preserved over the long propagation distances. It was found that the observed maximum amplitudes from each source exhibit order of magnitude variations even when the yield and detonation depth are the same. The experimental data and transmission loss simulations suggest that bathymetric features around the sources and between the sources and the receivers are the main causes for

  5. Preliminary report for using X-rays as verification and authentication tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Ernst Ingo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-06

    We examined x-rays for the use as authentication and verification tool in treaty verification. Several x-ray pictures were taken to determine the quality and feasibility of x-rays for these tasks. This document describes the capability of the used x-ray system and outlines its parameters and possible use.

  6. Control strategies and experimental verifications of the electromagnetic mass damper system for structural vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chunwei; Ou Jinping

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic mass damper (EMD) control system, as an innovative active control system to reducestructural vibration, offers many advantages over traditional active mass driver/damper (AMD) control systems. In this paper,studies of several EMD control strategies and bench-scale shaking table tests of a two-story model structure are described.First, two structural models corresponding to uncontrolled and Zeroed cases are developed, and parameters of these modelsare validated through sinusoidal sweep tests to provide a basis for establishing an accurate mathematical model for furtherstudies. Then, a simplified control strategy for the EMD system based on the pole assignment control algorithm is proposed.Moreover, ideal pole locations are derived and validated through a series of shaking table tests. Finally, three benchmarkearthquake ground motions and sinusoidal sweep waves are imposed onto the structure to investigate the effectiveness andfeasibility of using this type of innovative active control system for structural vibration control. In addition, the robustnessof the EMD system is examined. The test results show that the EMD system is an effective and robust system for the controlof structural vibrations.

  7. Verification of Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System using air-bearing-based attitude control simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousaloo, H. S.; Nodeh, M. T.; Mehrabian, R.

    2016-09-01

    This paper accomplishes one goal and it was to verify and to validate a Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System (SMACS) program and to perform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) air-bearing experiments. A study of a closed-loop magnetic spin controller is presented using only magnetic rods as actuators. The magnetic spin rate control approach is able to perform spin rate control and it is verified with an Attitude Control System (ACS) air-bearing MATLAB® SIMULINK® model and a hardware-embedded LABVIEW® algorithm that controls the spin rate of the test platform on a spherical air bearing table. The SIMULINK® model includes dynamic model of air-bearing, its disturbances, actuator emulation and the time delays caused by on-board calculations. The air-bearing simulator is employed to develop, improve, and carry out objective tests of magnetic torque rods and spin rate control algorithm in the experimental framework and to provide a more realistic demonstration of expected performance of attitude control as compared with software-based architectures. Six sets of two torque rods are used as actuators for the SMACS. It is implemented and simulated to fulfill mission requirement including spin the satellite up to 12 degs-1 around the z-axis. These techniques are documented for the full nonlinear equations of motion of the system and the performances of these techniques are compared in several simulations.

  8. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    The 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) is the cornerstone of multilateral efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and promote efforts toward complete disarmament. In the grand bargain of the NPT, states foreswore pursuit of nuclear weapons in exchange for access to nuclear technology and limited nuclear arsenals to the five states (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) that tested such weapons before the NPT's conception. Now in its seventh decade, the NPT regime is embraced by the vast majority of the world's nations and is viewed as a critical element of international security. However, despite past successes in halting efforts in several states to pursue nuclear weapons, near universal adherence, and only one withdrawal (North Korea), the NPT regime is at a critical crossroads. The treaty has proven unable to adapt to new challenges, such as emerging technologies that threaten operational strategic realities, the devolution of state authority to non-state actors and institutions, and growing dissatisfaction with slow pace of nuclear disarmament. Additionally, the treaty leaves open critical questions, including whether or not state parties have the `right' to pursue technologies that allow for domestic production of fuels for nuclear reactors and if modernization programs for nuclear warheads are inconsistent with the treaty. If these questions remain unresolved, the international community will find itself ill prepared to confront emerging proliferation challenges and the NPT, the linchpin of international nonproliferation and disarmament efforts, may begin to erode.

  9. THE LISBON TREATY: A SINUOUS RATIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Gabriel Corpădean

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the intricate ratification process of the Lisbon Treaty, while focusing on the thorny issues of Euroscepticism and democratic deficit within the European Union in the current institutional context. The study is based on a wide research endeavour, whose purpose has been to encompass multiple points of view on the future of the European Union, seen from the perspective of the Treaty of Lisbon and its reception in all member states. These viewpoints include the ones found in the speciality literature, as well as in the press that published representative articles during the debates on the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. Useful attempts are made in order to classify the member states of the EU according to various relevant criteria in their attitude germane to the ratification of the Treaty, so as to outline new waves of Euroscepticism, opt-outs and criticism. Apart from an institutional and a legal perspective, this study presents a large number of political, national and even cultural aspects encountered in attitudes and courses of action pertaining to the future of European Construction, seen through the eyes of the reform process carried out by the latest EU major legal document.

  10. Incomplete Contracting Theory and EU Treaty Provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    This paper investigates interpretational ambiguity with reference to the ECC Treaty, and analyses its consequences. Theoretically, it suggests that incomplete contracts generate interpretational ambiguity, due to transaction costs but also to the inherent variability of language. Methodologically...... for studies arguing that supranational actors including the Commission and Court of Justice will utilize ambiguity to further their institutional and political agendas....

  11. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  12. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No... and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty.... SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends the patent laws to...

  13. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  14. Low-Intrusion Techniques and Sensitive Information Management for Warhead Counting and Verification: FY2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Gilbert, Andrew J.; Misner, Alex C.; Pitts, W. Karl; White, Timothy A.; Seifert, Allen; Miller, Erin A.

    2011-09-01

    Future arms control treaties may push nuclear weapons limits to unprecedented low levels and may entail precise counting of warheads as well as distinguishing between strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Such advances will require assessment of form and function to confidently verify the presence or absence of nuclear warheads and/or their components. Imaging with penetrating radiation can provide such an assessment and could thus play a unique role in inspection scenarios. Yet many imaging capabilities have been viewed as too intrusive from the perspective of revealing weapon design details, and the potential for the release of sensitive information poses challenges in verification settings. A widely held perception is that verification through radiography requires images of sufficient quality that an expert (e.g., a trained inspector or an image-matching algorithm) can verify the presence or absence of components of a device. The concept of information barriers (IBs) has been established to prevent access to relevant weapon-design information by inspectors (or algorithms), and has, to date, limited the usefulness of radiographic inspection. The challenge of this project is to demonstrate that radiographic information can be used behind an IB to improve the capabilities of treaty-verification weapons-inspection systems.

  15. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Spector Lawrence N.

    2010-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node I was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node I nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit for Node 1, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, AIRFLOW PRODUCTS AFP30

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AFP30 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Airflow Products. The pressure drop across the filter was 62 Pa clean and 247 Pa dust loaded. The filtration effici...

  17. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  18. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  19. Towards A Business and Human Rights Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Si

    2015-01-01

    Business enterprises can contribute to the realization of human rights in many instances. However, they may also cause adverse effect on the enjoyment of human rights. The increasing disclosure of business involvement in human rights abuses can be dated back to decades ago. Despite the failed attempts to regulate business enterprises with respect to human rights via a binding approach, a proposal on a business and human rights treaty by some states, typically represented by Ecuador, has reope...

  20. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  1. Verification of BGA type FPGA logic applied to a control equipment with Safety Class using the special socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, YounHu; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [PONUTech Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This article aims to provide the verification method for BGA-type FPGA of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) developed as Safety Class. The logic of FPGA in the control device with Safety Class is the circuit to control overall logic of PLC. This device converts to the different module from the input signals for both digital and analogue of the equipment in the field and outputs their data. In addition, it should perform the logical controls such as backplane communication control and data communication. We suggest acquiring method of the data signal with efficient logic using the socket in this article. Proposed test socket is made by simpler process than former one, and the process is done in batches by which cost can be reduces, and the test socket can be quickly produced in response to any request. Also, it is possible to reduce the wear by reducing the contact force of the ball phenomenon. The structure on the basis of silicon can be reduced the modification, and it has excellent linearity. At the logic verification, the operation that state data block is designed in the FPGA could be easily confirmed by using a socket.

  2. Antarctic Treaty Summit: Washington, DC (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, P. A.; Young, O. R.

    2005-12-01

    Advancement in Earth system science and international cooperation have been intertwined with the International Polar Years since 1882. In particular, the 3rd International Polar Year (which was convened as the International Geophysical Year from 1 July 1957 through 31 December 1958) specifically demonstrates the role of science in international policy: Acknowledging the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica; Convinced that the establishment of a firm foundation for the continuation and development of such cooperation on the basis of freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica as applied during the International Geophysical Year accords with the interests of science and the progress of all mankind; Preamble, 1959 Antarctic Treaty To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and to explore the complexities of the science-policy relationship through the lens of a well-constrained case study, an international and interdisciplinary Antarctic Treaty Summit is being planned for 2009 in Washington, DC in conjunction with the International Polar Year 2007-08 (http://www.ipy.org).

  3. Results of verifications of the control automatic exposure in equipment of RX with CR systems; Resultados de las verificaciones del control automatico de exposicion en equipos de RX con sistemas CR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Manzano, P.; Rivas Ballarin, M. A.; Ortega Pardina, P.; Villa Gazulla, D.; Calvo Carrillo, S.; Canellas Anoz, M.; Millan Cebrian, E.

    2013-07-01

    After the entry into force in 2012, the new Spanish Radiology quality control protocol lists and discusses the results obtained after verification of the automatic control of exposure in computed radiography systems. (Author)

  4. Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PNNL

    2016-02-21

    This document provides a framework for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings, performance, and user satisfaction from lighting retrofit projects involving occupancy-sensor-based, daylighting, and/or other types of automatic lighting. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for retrofit projects and to assist in developing specific project M&V plans.

  5. Verification of a level-3 diesel emissions control strategy for transport refrigeration units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewalla, Umesh

    Transport Refrigeration Units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems used to control the environment of temperature sensitive products while they are being transported from one place to another in trucks, trailers or shipping containers. The TRUs typically use an internal combustion engine to power the compressor of the refrigeration unit. In the United States TRUs are most commonly powered by diesel engines which vary from 9 to 40 horsepower. TRUs are capable of both heating and cooling. The TRU engines are relatively small, inexpensive and do not use emissions reduction techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A significant number of these engines operate in highly populated areas like distribution centers, truck stops, and other facilities which make them one of the potential causes for health risks to the people who live and work nearby. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is known for its adverse effects on both human beings and the environment. Considering these effects, regulatory bodies have imposed limitations on the PM emissions from a TRU engine. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the regulated emissions from a TRU engine under both engine out and particulate filter system out conditions during pre-durability (when the filter system was new) and post-durability test (after the filter system was subjected to 1000 hours in-field trial). The verification program was performed by the Center for Alternative Fuel, Engines and Emissions (CAFEE) at West Virginia University (WVU). In this program, a catalyzed silicon carbide (SiC) diesel particulate filter (DPF) was evaluated and verified as a Level-3 Verified Diesel Emissions Control Strategy (VDECS) (. 85% PM reduction) under California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations 2702 [1]. The emissions result showed that the filter system reduced diesel PM by a percentage of 96 +/- 1 over ISO 8178-C1 [2] cycle and 92 +/- 5 over EPA TRU [3] cycle, qualifying as a Level 3 VDECS. The percentage

  6. DIMENSIONAL VERIFICATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF IMPLANTS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Toth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Development of computer technology and alternative manufacturing methods in form of additive manufacturing leads to the manufacture of products with complex shapes. In the field of medicine they include, inter alia, custom-made implants manufactured for a particular patient, such as cranial implants, maxillofacial implants, etc. With regard to the fact that such implants are inserted into a patient’s body, it is necessary to perform the verification, including the shape and dimensional verification. The article deals with the application of the industrial computer tomography within the process of inspection and verification of selected custom-made implant types.Methodology/Approach: The Department of Biomedical Engineering and Measurement performs the verification of medicinal products manufactured by the additive manufacturing technologies from the Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5 titanium alloy, using the coordinate measuring machine Carl Zeiss Contura G2 and the industrial computed tomography machine Carl Zeiss Metrotom 1500. These equipment fulfil the requirements for the identification and evaluation of dimensions of both, the external and the internal structures. Findings: The article presents the possibilities of the computed tomography utilisation in the inspection of individual implant manufacture using the additive manufacturing technologies. The results indicate that with the adjustment of appropriate input parameters (alignment, this technology is appropriate for the analysis of shape deviations, when compared with the CAD model.Research Limitation/implication: With the increasing distance of measured object from X-ray source, the machine’s resolution function decreases. Decreasing of resolution has a minor impact on the measured dimensions (relatively high tolerances, but has a significant impact on the evaluation of porosity and inclusions. Originality/Value of paper: Currently, the verification of a manufactured implant  can be

  7. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversity verification in Danish greening subsidy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferré, Ty Paul Andrew; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-07-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers' declarations to warrant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers' subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014-2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach (proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring and early summer) WorldView-2 imagery (WV2) and includes the following steps: (1) automatic computation of pixel-based prediction probabilities using multiple neural networks; (2) quantification of the classification uncertainty using Endorsement Theory (ET); (3) discrimination of crop pixels and validation of the crop diversification rules at farm level; and (4) identification of farmers who are violating the requirements for greening subsidies. The prediction probabilities are computed by a neural network ensemble supplied with training samples selected automatically using farmers declared parcels (field vectors containing crop information and the field boundary of each crop). Crop discrimination is performed by considering a set of conclusions derived from individual neural networks based on ET. Verification of the diversification rules is performed by incorporating pixel-based classification uncertainty or confidence intervals with the class labels at the farmer level. The proposed approach was tested with WV2 imagery acquired in 2011 for a study area in Vennebjerg

  8. Delegation, Agency and Agenda Setting in the Treaty of Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Pollack

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a principal-agent model of delegation, agency and agenda setting to the 1996 intergovernmental conference and the Treaty of Amsterdam, in order to understand both the delegation of powers to supranational organizations in the new Treaty, and the efforts of such organizations to set the agenda for the conference. At Amsterdam, the member governments of the European Union delegated new powers to the Commission, the Court of Justice, and especially the European Parliament; these new powers, however, are carefully hedged with elaborate mechanisms to control, if not eliminate, supranational autonomy in the future. In the intergovernmental conference, moreover, the EUs supranational organizations attempted to influence the outcome of the negotiations as informal agenda setters, but they were limited in their ability to do so by the information-rich content of the IGC. However, while the influence of the Commission, Court and Parliament was indeed limited in the intergovernmental conference and at Amsterdam, we should beware of generalizing from IGCs to the day-to-day workings of EU politics, where the powers of the supranational organizations are far greater than in any intergovernmental conference.

  9. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  10. Does Investment Treaty Affect the Improvement on FDI?

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsook Seo

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes how investment treaty affects investment creation. Analysis results show that investment treaty could not directly affect the increase in investment with the form of investment agreement contradicting and the opening of investment treaty countries have increased a great deal of investment. Contracting the investment agreement means to ultimately improve the investment environment such as policy transparency, simplification of administration, and the simplification or the cl...

  11. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Laurids Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  12. Innovation in Justice and Security by Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myzafer ELEZI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty is a legal package which includes previous treaties, starting from the year 1957, following the Treaty of Rome and the Treaty of Nice in 2001, summarized in a single text that introduces a number of changes of the way how the European Union works, in order to make it more efficient for its citizens. This Treaty converts the European Union for the first time in a single entity, unifying pillars of its activities which are as follows: the European Communities, Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters, which so far only the European Communities had the status of judicial person. It modifies the Treaty of European Union, created by the European Union and the Treaty created by the European Community, which is in power, but do not replace them. The new Treaty gives the EU the legal framework, and necessary tools to face the future challenges and to respond to its citizen’s perspectives. The Conference will introduce all the innovations that the Treaty of Lisbon brings not only in the field of security and foreign policy of the EU, but also in those related to police and judicial cooperation regarding criminal matters.

  13. Antarctic Treaty Summit to Focus on Global Science Policy Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Walton, David W. H.; Weiler, C. Susan

    2008-10-01

    The Antarctic Treaty Summit, which will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the treaty's signing, will be held at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, D. C., from 30 November to 3 December 2009. The summit will provide an open international forum for scientists, legislators, lawyers, administrators, educators, students, corporate executives, historians, and other members of global civil society to explore science policy achievements from the first 50 years of the Antarctic Treaty. In addition, the summit will complement official government celebrations of the Antarctic Treaty anniversary that do not include public participation.

  14. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-Site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-BanTreaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Haas, D. A.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; Orrell, J. L.; Seifert, A.; Woods, V. T.

    2011-10-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced by neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca( n, α) 37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45 mBq/SCM in wholeair.

  15. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Haas, D A; Hoppe, E W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; Orrell, J L; Seifert, A; Woods, V T

    2010-01-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

  16. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien who...

  17. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treaty Indian fisheries. 300.95 Section 300.95 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Any...

  18. Why we should let the Lisbon treaty rest in peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Should the Irish be forced to vote again on the recently rejected Lisbon Treaty in a second referendum? The diplomatic signals coming from Brussels suggest that the Irish will be asked to solve the problem themselves using the Danish/Irish model of sending the same treaty with some clarifications...

  19. Tax treaties in sub-Saharan Africa: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Hearson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing attention on the question of tax treaties signed by developing countries. To investigate this apparent shift in opinion among policymakers, and to see what lessons can be drawn by other developing countries, Tax Justice Network Africa (TJN-A) commissioned this study of current policy towards tax treaties in Uganda and Zambia, two countries that appear to be questioning past decisions.

  20. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system.

  1. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  2. A survey on the high reliability software verification and validation technology for instrumentation and control in NPP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Chang Soo; Dong, In Sook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the technical status of the software verification and validation (V and V) efforts to support developing and licensing digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. We have reviewed codes and standards to be concensus criteria among vendor, licensee and licenser. Then we have described the software licensing procedures under 10 CFR 50 and 10 CFR 52 of the United States cope with the licensing barrier. At last, we have surveyed the technical issues related to developing and licensing the high integrity software for digital I and C systems. These technical issues let us know the development direction of our own software V and V methodology. (Author) 13 refs., 2 figs.,.

  3. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, A. [Peace Research Inst., Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    international controls of any of the military categories beyond national legislations. Some variations of a potential FMCT scope with different degrees of obligations are: 1. The original approach which bans just future production without measures on existing materials. 2. The good-will-approach which strives for reductions of the amount of military material. It would also ban the transfer of material back to military uses, once it has become civilian, and it would register upper limits that are allowed for undeclared material. 3. The one--way-approach which would make sure that the amount of military material is not increased. 4. The disarmament approach which would create mechanisms for reduction. It would oblige the members to adjust the upper limits of undeclared material to future nuclear disarmament treaties, e.g. a START-III treaty and others that might come. 5. The Indian approach which would be a time-bound framework for comprehensive nuclear disarmament. This demand is the reason for the current deadlock in the CD. As there are many variations of scope, also many verification scenarios are possible. Even in case of an FMCT with the most limited scope, the verification must cover not only non production but also non-diversion at least of civilian materials produced later. This is identical to what is already being verified in NNWS under full scope safeguards, with the only exception that NNWS are not allowed the possession of unsafe guarded materials from earlier production. For the NPT, the trust into the NNWS is not high enough to renounce full scope safeguards. Why should NWS be more trusted not to divert fissile materials for nuclear explosive purposes than NWS? But so far, full scope safeguards are still difficult to accept for NWS. Safeguards must be designed in a way that they are capable of detecting any of the procurement strategies with sufficient probability. The total verification costs of a comprehensive verification system are estimated in the range of

  4. The Efficacy of Water Treaties in the Eastern Nile Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuhibegezer Ferede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyse the efficacy of the water treaties of the Nile in light of the principles of international law. The following critical examination of the treaties brings to light numerous legal defects associated with fraud, coercion, exclusivity and the deficiency of many of the precepts of the international law. Moreover, the lower riparian states’ advocacy for the succession of colonial treaties, which is branded as the re-affirmation of colonialism, is found to be incompatible with the principles of the clean-slate theory adopted by the upper riparian states. Therefore, the region lacks an efficacious regime that could address the interests of all riparian states.

  5. Bounded Rationality and the Diffusion of Modern Investment Treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    Given the considerable sovereignty costs involved, the adoption of modern investment treaties by practically all developing countries presents somewhat of a puzzle. Based on a review of leading explanations of investment treaty diffusion, the article advances a new theory using behavioral economics...... insights on cognitive heuristics. In line with recent work on policy diffusion, it suggests that a bounded rationality framework has considerable potential to explain why, and how, developing countries have adopted modern investment treaties. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the case of South...... Africa is studied in depth...

  6. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  7. Control analysis and experimental verification of a practical dc–dc boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Swapna Dash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents detailed open loop and closed loop analysis on boost dc–dc converter for both voltage mode control and current mode control. Here the boost dc–dc converter is a practical converter considering all possible parasitic elements like ESR and on state voltage drops. The open loop control, closed loop current mode control and voltage mode control are verified. The comparative study of all control techniques is presented. The PI compensator for closed loop current mode control is designed using these classical techniques like root locus technique and bode diagram. The simulation results are validated with the experimental results of voltage mode control for both open loop and closed loop control.

  8. Case Study: Test Results of a Tool and Method for In-Flight, Adaptive Control System Verification on a NASA F-15 Flight Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Schumann, Johann; Guenther, Kurt; Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable autonomous flight control and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments [1-2]. At the present time, however, it is unknown how adaptive algorithms can be routinely verified, validated, and certified for use in safety-critical applications. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification end validation must be developed to ensure that. the control software functions as required and is highly safe and reliable. A large gap appears to exist between the point at which control system designers feel the verification process is complete, and when FAA certification officials agree it is complete. Certification of adaptive flight control software verification is complicated by the use of learning algorithms (e.g., neural networks) and degrees of system non-determinism. Of course, analytical efforts must be made in the verification process to place guarantees on learning algorithm stability, rate of convergence, and convergence accuracy. However, to satisfy FAA certification requirements, it must be demonstrated that the adaptive flight control system is also able to fail and still allow the aircraft to be flown safely or to land, while at the same time providing a means of crew notification of the (impending) failure. It was for this purpose that the NASA Ames Confidence Tool was developed [3]. This paper presents the Confidence Tool as a means of providing in-flight software assurance monitoring of an adaptive flight control system. The paper will present the data obtained from flight testing the tool on a specially modified F-15 aircraft designed to simulate loss of flight control faces.

  9. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  10. Impediments to enforcement of environmental treaties against oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impediments to enforcement of environmental treaties against oil pollution. ... condition of the global environment vis-à-vis the linkage of environmental degradation with growth ... 'Safe water is increasingly limited, hindering economic activity.

  11. Myths and Realities in 'Self-Executing Treaties'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enabulele & Okojie

    process, not only to reject treaties, but also to circumscribe the domestic ..... International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) testify to the shaky ... 51 In this case, Mexico brought an Application instituting proceedings.

  12. Design and Verification of a Digital Controller for a 2-Piece Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungshin Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG is the Coriolis Vibratory Gyro (CVG that measures rotation angle or angular velocity using Coriolis force acting the vibrating mass. A HRG can be used as a rate gyro or integrating gyro without structural modification by simply changing the control scheme. In this paper, differential control algorithms are designed for a 2-piece HRG. To design a precision controller, the electromechanical modelling and signal processing must be pre-performed accurately. Therefore, the equations of motion for the HRG resonator with switched harmonic excitations are derived with the Duhamel Integral method. Electromechanical modeling of the resonator, electric module and charge amplifier is performed by considering the mode shape of a thin hemispherical shell. Further, signal processing and control algorithms are designed. The multi-flexing scheme of sensing, driving cycles and x, y-axis switching cycles is appropriate for high precision and low maneuverability systems. The differential control scheme is easily capable of rejecting the common mode errors of x, y-axis signals and changing the rate integrating mode on basis of these studies. In the rate gyro mode the controller is composed of Phase-Locked Loop (PLL, amplitude, quadrature and rate control loop. All controllers are designed on basis of a digital PI controller. The signal processing and control algorithms are verified through Matlab/Simulink simulations. Finally, a FPGA and DSP board with these algorithms is verified through experiments.

  13. Design and Verification of a Digital Controller for a 2-Piece Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungshin; Yun, Sung Wook; Rhim, Jaewook

    2016-04-20

    A Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG) is the Coriolis Vibratory Gyro (CVG) that measures rotation angle or angular velocity using Coriolis force acting the vibrating mass. A HRG can be used as a rate gyro or integrating gyro without structural modification by simply changing the control scheme. In this paper, differential control algorithms are designed for a 2-piece HRG. To design a precision controller, the electromechanical modelling and signal processing must be pre-performed accurately. Therefore, the equations of motion for the HRG resonator with switched harmonic excitations are derived with the Duhamel Integral method. Electromechanical modeling of the resonator, electric module and charge amplifier is performed by considering the mode shape of a thin hemispherical shell. Further, signal processing and control algorithms are designed. The multi-flexing scheme of sensing, driving cycles and x, y-axis switching cycles is appropriate for high precision and low maneuverability systems. The differential control scheme is easily capable of rejecting the common mode errors of x, y-axis signals and changing the rate integrating mode on basis of these studies. In the rate gyro mode the controller is composed of Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), amplitude, quadrature and rate control loop. All controllers are designed on basis of a digital PI controller. The signal processing and control algorithms are verified through Matlab/Simulink simulations. Finally, a FPGA and DSP board with these algorithms is verified through experiments.

  14. Treaties and individuals: of beneficiaries, duty-bearers, users, and participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plakokefalos, I.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution explores the role of individuals in the law of treaties. Individuals besides being beneficiaries or duty bearers under treaty regimes (something evident in human rights treaties and international criminal law treaties) have slowly started to play other roles as well. In some instan

  15. Energy shaping non-linear acceleration control for a pendulum-type mobility and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kazuto; Takahashi, Masaki

    2015-02-01

    A dynamics-based non-linear controller with energy shaping to accelerate a pendulum-type mobility is proposed. The concept of this study is to control translational acceleration of the vehicle in a dynamically reasonable manner. The body angle is controlled to maintain a reference state where the vehicle is statically unstable but dynamically stable, which leads to a constant translational acceleration due to instability of the system. The accelerating motion is like a sprinter moving from crouch start and it fully exploits dynamics of the vehicle. To achieve it, the total energy of the system is shaped to have the minimum at a given reference state and the system is controlled to converge to it. The controller can achieve various properties through the energy shaping procedure. Especially, an energy function that will lead to safe operation of the vehicle is proposed. The effectiveness of the controller is verified in simulations and experiments.

  16. A Cooperative Congestion Control Approach within VANETs: Formal Verification and Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bouassida MohamedSalah; Shawky M

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of congestion control is to best exploit the available network resources while preventing sustained overloads of network nodes and links. Appropriate congestion control mechanisms are essential to provide effcient operation of a network. Ensuring congestion control within vehicular ad hoc networks faces special challenges, due to the specificities of such environment (High mobility of nodes, high rate of topology changes, high variability in nodes density and neighborhood ...

  17. Impact of Lisbon Treaty on European Union's Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Siwei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction The"Lisbon Treaty"was approved and signed by the European Union's heads of state on December13th,2007 and then handed over to the various E.U.members for ratification.In January 2009,the"Lisbon Treaty"entered into force,despite the many political and economic difficulties in the ratification process that all member countries were experiencing.

  18. The European Union’s Reform Process: The Libson Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    uncertainty that followed the rejection of the constitutional treaty. German Chancellor Angela Merkel made reviving the stalled reform process one of her...actor. The Convention began work in March 2002 under the leadership of former French President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing and finalized a 240-page...key priorities, seeking a new treaty deal that would institute crucial reforms. Analysts say that Merkel received a key assist with the May 2007

  19. Initial ideas for automatic design and verification of control logic in reversible HDLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Robert; Keszocze, Oliver; Othmer, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    not obvious. Moreover, implementations exist which may not be realized with a reversible control flow at all. In this work, we propose automatic methods for descriptions in the reversible HDL SyReC that can generate the required fi-conditions and check whether a reversible control flow indeed can be realized...

  20. Committees and groups related to the EURATOM treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.R. [comp.] [Nordic Nuclear Safety Research, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-09-01

    The EURATOM Treaty has not been modified since its creation (Rome, 25 March 1957) but has simply been adapted to take account of the fusion of the executive bodies of the three original European Treaties and the enlargement with new Member States. The EURATOM Treaty is in existence simultaneously with the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. No changes in the EURATOM Treaty that influence the practical working conditions were brought about in the 1997 intergovernmental conference. This edition of the survey of groups related to the EURATOM Treaty is an update of earlier versions issued in Danish language. It is sponsored by the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) in conjunction with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The main purpose is to informally provide those circles in the Nordic countries who want to get acquainted with the groups involved in work related to EURATOM with a simplified overview. The present edition is not different from earlier issues in that it contains an outline without the intent to go into details, and without the ambition to be complete. It thus does not represent an official picture of the committees and groups. Nor should it be seen as an organisation chart of related Commission services. The information is mostly based on personal contacts with persons having knowledge from work with the groups in question. The author would be grateful for corrections and suggestions in order to improve the picture given. 15 figs.

  1. Availability verification of information for human system interface in automatic SG level control using activity diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljugun (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Steam Generator (SG) level control system in OPR 1000 is one of representative automatic systems that falls under the Supervisory Control level in Endsley's taxonomy. Supervisory control of automated systems is classified as a form of out of the loop (OOTL) performance due to passive involvement in the systems operation, which could lead to loss of situation awareness (SA). There was a reported event, which was caused by inadequate human automation communication that contributed to an unexpected reactor trip in July 2005. A high SG level trip occurred in Yeonggwang (YGN) Unit 6 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) due to human operator failure to recognize the need to change the control mode of the economizer valve controller (EVC) to manual mode during swap over (the transition from low power mode to high power mode) after the loss of offsite power (LOOP) event was recovered. This paper models the human system interaction in NPP SG level control system using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity Diagram. Then, it identifies the missing information for operators in the OPR1000 Main Control Room (MCR) and suggests some means of improving the human system interaction.

  2. Handling performance control for hybrid 8-wheel-drive vehicle and simulation verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Hu, Jibin

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve handling performance of a hybrid 8-Wheel-Drive vehicle, the handling performance control strategy was proposed. For armoured vehicle, besides handling stability in high speed, the minimum steer radius in low speed is also a key tactical and technical index. Based on that, the proposed handling performance control strategy includes 'Handling Stability' and 'Radius Minimization' control modes. In 'Handling Stability' control mode, 'Neutralsteer Radio' is defined to adjust the steering characteristics to satisfy different demand in different speed range. In 'Radius Minimization' control mode, the independent motors are controlled to provide an additional yaw moment to decrease the minimum steer radius. In order to verify the strategy, a simulation platform was built including engine and continuously variable transmission systems, generator and battery systems, independent motors and controllers systems, vehicle dynamic and tyre mechanical systems. The simulation results show that the handling performance of the vehicle can be enhanced significantly, and the minimum steer radius can be decreased by 20% which is significant improvement compared to the common level of main battle armoured vehicle around the world.

  3. Study and experimental verification of control tuning strategies in a variable speed wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaragoza, Jordi; Pou, Josep; Arias, Antoni [Electronic Engineering Dept., Technical University of Catalonia, Campus Terrassa, C. Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Spiteri, Cyril [Department of Industrial Electrical Power Conversion, University of Malta, Faculty of Engineering, Msida (Malta); Robles, Eider; Ceballos, Salvador [Energy Unit, Robotiker-Tecnalia Technology Corporation, Zamudio, Basque Country (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    This paper analyzes and compares different control tuning strategies for a variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The aerodynamics of the wind turbine (WT) and a PMSG have been modeled. The control strategy used in this research is composed of three regulators, which may be based on either linear or nonlinear controllers. In this analysis, proportional-integral (PI) linear controllers have been used. Two different tuning strategies are analyzed and compared. The main goal is to enhance the overall performance by achieving a low sensitivity to disturbances and minimal overshoot under variable operating conditions. Finally, the results have been verified by an experimental WECS laboratory prototype. (author)

  4. ACHIEVING HIGH INTEGRITY OF PROCESS-CONTROL SOFTWARE BY GRAPHICAL DESIGN AND FORMAL VERIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALANG, WA; Kramer, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission is currently standardising four compatible languages for designing and implementing programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The language family includes a diagrammatic notation that supports the idea of software ICs to encourage graphical design technique

  5. Trace Contaminant Control for the International Space Station's Node 1- Analysis, Design, and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminant generation inside crewed spacecraft cabins is a technical and medical problem that must be continuously evaluated. Although passive control through materials selection and active control by adsorption and catalytic oxidation devices is employed during normal operations of a spacecraft, contaminant buildup can still become a problem. Buildup is particularly troublesome during the stages between the final closure of a spacecraft during ground processing and the time that a crewmember enters for the first time during the mission. Typically, the elapsed time between preflight closure and first entry on orbit for spacecraft such as Spacelab modules was 30 days. During that time, the active contamination control systems are not activated and contaminants can potentially build up to levels which exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) specified by NASA toxicology experts. To prevent excessively high contamination levels at crew entry, the Spacelab active contamination control system was operated for 53 hours just before launch.

  6. Experimental verification of chaotic control of an underactuated tethered satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhaojun; Jin, Dongping

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies chaotic control of a tethered satellite system (TSS) driven only by a momentum-exchange device during its attitude adjustment. In dealing with such the underactuated system, an extended time-delay autosynchronization (ETDAS) is employed to stabilize the chaotic motion to a periodic motion. To obtain the control domains of the ETDAS method, a stability analysis of the controlled tethered satellite system in elliptical orbit is implemented. According to the principle of dynamic similarity, then, ground-based experiment setups are proposed and designed to emulate the in-plane motions of the TSS. Representative experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ETDAS scheme in controlling the chaotic motion of the underactuated TSS.

  7. ACHIEVING HIGH INTEGRITY OF PROCESS-CONTROL SOFTWARE BY GRAPHICAL DESIGN AND FORMAL VERIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALANG, WA; Kramer, B.J.

    The International Electrotechnical Commission is currently standardising four compatible languages for designing and implementing programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The language family includes a diagrammatic notation that supports the idea of software ICs to encourage graphical design

  8. Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data

  9. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities: 1 October 1992--30 September 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-11-01

    This annual Columbia River Treaty Entity Report is for the 1993 Water Year, 1 October 1992 through 30 September 1993. It includes information on the operation of Mica, Arrow, Duncan, and Libby reservoirs during that period with additional information covering the reservoir system operating year, 1 August 1992 through 31 July 1993. The power and flood control effects downstream in Canada and the United States are described. This report is the twenty-seventh of a series of annual reports covering the period since the ratification of the Columbia River Treaty in September 1964.

  10. The European Union Court of Justice after the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2016-01-01

    the Union, given that the action for annulment is the basic means to exercise judicial review of the institutions' activities. The last set of changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty refers to faster proceedings in deciding on preliminary rulings in certain areas when the interested person, whose position depends on the interpretation of EU law, is in custody. In addition, it allows for more effective judicial control in cases of default judgment or failure to fulfill commitments by Member States through the acceleration and simplification of the procedure for imposing financial sanctions.

  11. Experimental Verification of Fully Decentralized Control Inspired by Plasmodium of True Slime Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Takeda, Koichi; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio

    This paper presents a fully decentralized control inspired by plasmodium of true slime mold and its validity using a soft-bodied amoeboid robot. The notable features of this paper are twofold: (1) the robot has truly soft and deformable body stemming from real-time tunable springs and a balloon, the former is utilized as an outer skin of the body and the latter serves as protoplasm; and (2) a fully decentralized control using coupled oscillators with completely local sensory feedback mechanism is realized by exploiting the long-distance physical interaction between the body parts induced by the law of conservation of protoplasmic mass. Experimental results show that this robot exhibits truly supple locomotion without relying on any hierarchical structure. The results obtained are expected to shed new light on design scheme for autonomous decentralized control system.

  12. Verification of heat flux and temperature calculation on the control rod outer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Jan; Cebula, Artur

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents heat transfer calculation results concerning a control rod of Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The part of the control rod, which is the object of interest, is surrounded by a mixing region of hot and cold flows and, as a consequence, is subjected to thermal fluctuations. The paper describes a numerical test which validates the method based on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). The comparison of the results achieved by two methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and IHCP, including a description of the IHCP method used in the calculation process, shows a very good agreement between the methods.

  13. A Domain-specific Framework for Automated Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The development of modern railway and tramway control systems represents a considerable challenge to both systems and software engineers: The goal to increase the traffic throughput while at the same time increasing the availability and reliability of railway operations leads to a demand for more...

  14. Analog Video Authentication and Seal Verification Equipment Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Lancaster

    2012-09-01

    Under contract to the US Department of Energy in support of arms control treaty verification activities, the Savannah River National Laboratory in conjunction with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Idaho National Laboratory and Milagro Consulting, LLC developed equipment for use within a chain of custody regime. This paper discussed two specific devices, the Authentication Through the Lens (ATL) analog video authentication system and a photographic multi-seal reader. Both of these devices have been demonstrated in a field trial, and the experience gained throughout will also be discussed. Typically, cryptographic methods are used to prove the authenticity of digital images and video used in arms control chain of custody applications. However, in some applications analog cameras are used. Since cryptographic authentication methods will not work on analog video streams, a simple method of authenticating analog video was developed and tested. A photographic multi-seal reader was developed to image different types of visual unique identifiers for use in chain of custody and authentication activities. This seal reader is unique in its ability to image various types of seals including the Cobra Seal, Reflective Particle Tags, and adhesive seals. Flicker comparison is used to compare before and after images collected with the seal reader in order to detect tampering and verify the integrity of the seal.

  15. Stability Verification for Energy-Aware Hydraulic Pressure Control via Simplicial Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming-based method for finding Lyapunov functions of dynamical systems with polynomial vector fields. We propose to utilize a certificate of positivity in the Bernstein basis based on subdivisioning to find a Lyapunov function. The subdivision-based method...... is proposed since it has better degree bounds than similar methods based on degree elevation. The proposed method is successfully applied to find a Lyapunov function for a pressure controlled water distribution system....

  16. Design and verification of a hybrid nonlinear MRE vibration absorber for controllable broadband performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S. S.; Yildirim, T.; Wu, Jichu; Yang, J.; Du, H.; Zhang, S. W.; Li, W. H.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a hybrid nonlinear magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) vibration absorber has been designed, theoretically investigated and experimentally verified. The proposed nonlinear MRE absorber has the dual advantages of a nonlinear force-displacement relationship and variable stiffness technology; the purpose for coupling these two technologies is to achieve a large broadband vibration absorber with controllable capability. To achieve a nonlinear stiffness in the device, two pairs of magnets move at a rotary angle against each other, and the theoretical nonlinear force-displacement relationship has been theoretically calculated. For the experimental investigation, the effects of base excitation, variable currents applied to the device (i.e. variable stiffness of the MRE) and semi-active control have been conducted to determine the enhanced broadband performance of the designed device. It was observed the device was able to change resonance frequency with the applied current; moreover, the hybrid nonlinear MRE absorber displayed a softening-type nonlinear response with clear discontinuous bifurcations observed. Furthermore, the performance of the device under a semi-active control algorithm displayed the optimal performance in attenuating the vibration from a primary system to the absorber over a large frequency bandwidth from 4 to 12 Hz. By coupling nonlinear stiffness attributes with variable stiffness MRE technology, the performance of a vibration absorber is substantially improved.

  17. Verification of operation of the actuator control system using the integration the B&R Automation Studio software with a virtual model of the actuator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2017-08-01

    In the work is analysed a sequential control system of a machine for separating and grouping work pieces for processing. Whereas, the area of the considered problem is related with verification of operation of an actuator system of an electro-pneumatic control system equipped with a PLC controller. Wherein to verification is subjected the way of operation of actuators in view of logic relationships assumed in the control system. The actuators of the considered control system were three drives of linear motion (pneumatic cylinders). And the logical structure of the system of operation of the control system is based on the signals flow graph. The tested logical structure of operation of the electro-pneumatic control system was implemented in the Automation Studio software of B&R company. This software is used to create programs for the PLC controllers. Next, in the FluidSIM software was created the model of the actuator system of the control system of a machine. To verify the created program for the PLC controller, simulating the operation of the created model, it was utilized the approach of integration these two programs using the tool for data exchange in the form of the OPC server.

  18. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  19. Gas Bearing Control for Safe Operation in Critical Speed Regions - Experimental Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Gas bearings are popular for their high speed capabilities, low friction and clean operation, but require low clearances and suffer from poor damping properties. The poor damping properties cause high disturbance amplification near the natural frequencies. These become critical when the rotation...... supported by gas bearings to extend their operating range. Using H∞-design methods, active lubrication techniques are proposed to enhance the damping, which in turn reduces the vibrations to a desired safe level. The control design is validated experimentally on a laboratory test rig, and shown to allow...

  20. Affect of Arab News: Post-treaty Portrayal of Egypt and Israel in the Mass Media of Three Arab Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anne Messerly

    A study of 4,692 news stories from Egyptian, Algerian, and Tunisian electronic and print news media was conducted to see how state-controlled media reflected government policy changes following the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and the subsequent diplomatic break between Egypt and Arab League nations. The study found that the three controlled…

  1. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities, 1 October 1993--30 September 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1994-11-01

    The report describes the operation of Mica, Arrow, Duncan, and Libby reservoirs for the 1994 Water Year, 1 Oct 1993 through 30 Sept 1994, with additional information covering the reservoir system operating year, 1 August 1993 through 31 July 1994. The report is divided into: introduction, treaty organization, operating arrangements, weather and streamflow, reservoir operation, and power and flood control accomplishments.

  2. Preparation for the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Extension Conference in 1995. Workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1993-05-07

    About 30 specialists in non-proliferation participated in a workshop to explore ideas for US Government preparatory steps leading to the 1995 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. To that end, workshop sessions were devoted to reviewing the lessons learned from previous Review Conferences, discussing the threats to the non-proliferation regime together with ways of preserving and strengthening it, and examining the management of international nuclear commerce. A fundamental premise shared by workshop participants was that extension of the NPT is immensely important to international security. The importance of stemming proliferation and, more specifically, extending the Treaty, is growing as a result of the significant changes in the world. If the conferees of the Extension Conference decide on no extension or extension for a short limited duration, some technically advanced states that have foregone development of nuclear weapons may begin to rethink their options. Also, other arms control measures, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, could start to unravel. The US must provide strong international leadership to ensure that the Extension Conference is a success, resulting in Treaty extension, perhaps through successive terms, into the indefinite future. Workshop participants were struck by the urgent need for the US to take organizational steps so that it is highly effective in its advance preparations for the Extension Conference. Moreover, the Extension Conference provides both a challenge and an opportunity to mold a cohesive set of US policy actions to define the future role of nuclear weapons and combat their proliferation.

  3. Analytical derivation and verification of zero-gyro control for the IUE satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Tiffany; Croft, John

    1989-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite was launched January 26, 1978 into a geosynchronous orbit over South America. From its stationary position, the telescope maintains continuous communication with the control centers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and at the European Space Agency's (ESA's) Villagranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station in Spain. Since its launch in 1978, the satellite has gradually lost four of the original six gyroscopes in the Inertial Reference Assembly (IRA). In August 1985, the fourth of the original six gyros failed and a two-gyro system developed by NASA-GSFC was uplinked to the satellite and is currently in use. A one-gyro system also developed by NASA-GSFC is ready for use in case of another gyro failure. In the event that the sixth gyro should also fail, a zero-gyro system is being developed. The goal of this system is to provide interial target pointing without the use of gyroscopes. The satellite has sun sensors to provide attitude information about two of the three axes. It relies upon the exchange of reaction wheel momenta to determine angular position and rate of the third axis.

  4. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, COLUMBUS INDUSTRIES SL-3 RING PANEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the High Efficiency Mini Pleat air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Columbus Industries. The pressure drop across the filter was 142 Pa clean and 283 Pa dust load...

  6. Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Gough, R; Hawkins, W; Knowles, S; Kreek, S; MacLeod, G; Rockett, P; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Wohletz, K

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises.

  7. 78 FR 6852 - Agency Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity Under OMB Review....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Student Verification of Enrollment, VA Form 22-8979. OMB Control Number: 2900... a student's certification of actual attendance and verification of the student's...

  8. Development and laboratory verification of control algorithms for formation flying configuration with a single-input control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, M.; Bindel, D.; Ivanov, D.; Smirnov, G.; Theil, S.; Zaramenskikh, I.

    2010-11-01

    Once been orbited, the technological nanosatellite TNS-0 no. 1 is supposed to be used in one of the next missions for the demonstration of orbital maneuvering capability to eliminate a secular relative motion of two satellites due to the J2 harmonic of the Earth gravitational field. It is assumed that the longitudinal axis of the satellite is stabilized along the induction vector of the geomagnetic field and a thruster engine is installed along this axis. Continuous and impulsive thruster control algorithms eliminating the secular relative motion have been developed. Special equipment was developed in ZARM for demonstration and laboratory testing of the satellite motion identification and control algorithms. The facility consists of a horizontal smooth table and mobile mock-up that enables to glide over the table surface due to compressed air stored in on-board pressure tanks. Compressed air is used to control the translation and attitude motion of the mock-up equipped with a number of pulse thrusters. In this work a dynamic model for mock-up controlled motion over the table is developed. This allows us to simulate a relative motion of a pair of TNS-0 type nanosatellites in the plane of the orbit.

  9. Conceptualising Commom Commercial Policy Treaty revision: explaining stagnancy and dynamics from the Amsterdam IGC to the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Niemann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explain the varying, and sometimes intriguing, outcomes of the past three revisions of the Treaty concerning the Community’s Common Commercial Policy (CCP. The analysis particularly focuses on the development of competence and decision rules, i.e. the process of (further supranationalisation, of the CCP. Subjecting the external trade policy outcomes of the Treaties of Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon to causal analysis, the paper argues that stagnancy and change across cases can be explained by four factors: (i functional pressures; (ii the role of supranational institutions; (iii socialisation, deliberation and learning processes; and (iv countervailing forces.

  10. Swarm Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.; Joshi, Rajeev; Groce, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Reportedly, supercomputer designer Seymour Cray once said that he would sooner use two strong oxen to plow a field than a thousand chickens. Although this is undoubtedly wise when it comes to plowing a field, it is not so clear for other types of tasks. Model checking problems are of the proverbial "search the needle in a haystack" type. Such problems can often be parallelized easily. Alas, none of the usual divide and conquer methods can be used to parallelize the working of a model checker. Given that it has become easier than ever to gain access to large numbers of computers to perform even routine tasks it is becoming more and more attractive to find alternate ways to use these resources to speed up model checking tasks. This paper describes one such method, called swarm verification.

  11. Micro-Analysis of Actinide Minerals for Nuclear Forensics and Treaty Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Morey, M. Manard, R. Russo, G. Havrilla

    2012-03-22

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a viable tool for nondestructive determination of the crystal phase of relevant minerals. Collecting spectra on particles down to 5 microns in size was completed. Some minerals studied were weak scatterers and were better studied with the other techniques. A decent graphical software package should easily be able to compare collected spectra to a spectral library as well as subtract out matrix vibration peaks. Due to the success and unequivocal determination of the most common mineral false positive (zircon), it is clear that Raman has a future for complementary, rapid determination of unknown particulate samples containing actinides.

  12. Active neutron and gamma-ray imaging of highly enriched uranium for treaty verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Michael C; Polack, J Kyle; Ruch, Marc L; Marcath, Matthew J; Clarke, Shaun D; Pozzi, Sara A

    2017-08-11

    The detection and characterization of highly enriched uranium (HEU) presents a large challenge in the non-proliferation field. HEU has a low neutron emission rate and most gamma rays are low energy and easily shielded. To address this challenge, an instrument known as the dual-particle imager (DPI) was used with a portable deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator to detect neutrons and gamma rays from induced fission in HEU. We evaluated system response using a 13.7-kg HEU sphere in several configurations with no moderation, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) moderation, and tungsten moderation. A hollow tungsten sphere was interrogated to evaluate the response to a possible hoax item. First, localization capabilities were demonstrated by reconstructing neutron and gamma-ray images. Once localized, additional properties such as fast neutron energy spectra and time-dependent neutron count rates were attributed to the items. For the interrogated configurations containing HEU, the reconstructed neutron spectra resembled Watt spectra, which gave confidence that the interrogated items were undergoing induced fission. The time-dependent neutron count rate was also compared for each configuration and shown to be dependent on the neutron multiplication of the item. This result showed that the DPI is a viable tool for localizing and confirming fissile mass and multiplication.

  13. ERDEC Contribution to the 1993 International Treaty Verification Round Robin Exercise 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    sample SB, and SNB is the blank for SN. The last character in the number is the laboratory number. The laboratory number for the R&TD laboratory is number...of the authentic compound indicated the concentration of 3-quinuclidinol is ca. 18 ug/ml in the original WI5 solution. APPF, DrX P P-8 Nuclear Magnetic...i) no tio (1>cap + Parafilm 5-mm i) through piece of cotlon wi ol means. descnbe Wilmad 507-PP Wad 6) 1irough a sintered glass iv) ohr. describe

  14. The Arms Trade Treaty Opens New Possibilities at the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On 2 April, 2013, the Arms Trade Treaty, which had been blocked for ten years in the consensus-bound Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, was put directly before the United Nations General Assembly, and was passed by a massive majority. This historic victory opens new possibilities for progress on other seemingly intractable issues. In particular, it gives hope that a Nuclear Weapons Convention might be adopted by a direct vote on the floor of the General Assembly. The adoption of the NWC, even if achieved against the bitter opposition of the nuclear weapon states, would make it clear that the world’s peoples consider the threat of an all-destroying thermonuclear war to be completely unacceptable.Other precedents can be found in the International Criminal Court and the Ottawa Land Mine Treaty, both of which were adopted despite the vehement opposition of militarily powerful states. The Arms Trade Treaty, the ICC and the Land Mine Treaty all represent great steps forward. Although they may function imperfectly because of powerful opposition, they make the question of legality clear. In time, world public opinion will force aggressor states to follow international law.

  15. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.324 Section 660.324 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  16. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  17. Tracing the Origins of the Netherlands’ Tax Treaty Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Evers (Maikel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis contribution identifies the main determinants and key persons that constituted the tax treaty policy of the Netherlands. This policy is rooted in the political chess games in 19th century mainland Europe. In this century, European states gained experience in negotiating trade and ta

  18. Leadership in politics and science within the Antarctic Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dudeney

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For over 50 years the Antarctic has been governed through the Antarctic Treaty, an international agreement now between 49 nations of whom 28 Consultative Parties (CPs undertake the management role. Ostensibly, these Parties have qualified for their position on scientific grounds, though diplomacy also plays a major role. This paper uses counts of policy papers and science publications to assess the political and scientific outputs of all CPs over the last 18 years. We show that a subset of the original 12 Treaty signatories, consisting of the seven claimant nations, the USA and Russia, not only set the political agenda for the continent but also provide most of the science, with those CPs producing the most science generally having the greatest political influence. None of the later signatories to the Treaty appear to play a major role in managing Antarctica compared with this group, with half of all CPs collectively producing only 7% of the policy papers. Although acceptance as a CP requires demonstration of a substantial scientific programme, the Treaty has no formal mechanism to review whether a CP continues to meet this criterion. As a first step to addressing this deficiency, we encourage the CPs collectively to resolve to hold regular international peer reviews of their individual science programmes and to make the results available to the other CPs.

  19. Indian Policy of John Adams Administration: Treaties with the Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the treaties that were concluded with the Native Americans in the period of John Adams presidency. Treaties with the Natives can be a good source for the study of the US Indian policy. They help to understand the character of Indian-white relations, the attitudes of Federal authorities towards certain Indian nation, the actual problems of the Frontier and so on. Unfortunately the policy of the second President of the USA toward the Native Americans is investigated not so good as the policy of other Presidents of Early American Republic. The study of the treaties helps to know more about John Adams Indian policy. In the years of his presidency only few agreements were signed with the Native American tribes. These were the Mohawk, the Seneca, the Oneida of the Iroquois Nation and the Cherokee. The procedure of Indian-white agreements was well developed until 1797 year. And John Adams administration did not explore something new in this question. The second President of the United States adopted the George Washington’s principals of dealing with the Natives. But in fact he had to consider the internal and external situation in the country. The treaties with the Indians, concluded by the administration of John Adams did not become a bright episode of American history. However they helped to reduce tensions in US-Indian relations.

  20. Rethinking Ethiopia's Bilateral Investment Treaties in light of Recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martha_&_Tilahun

    provisions contained in another comparator treaty is paving new grounds of ... risks. One risk is the danger that Host countries may easily change the law after .... 23 Ethiopian Business Review, Top ten FDI Sources in Ethiopia in 2011/2012, ...... settled, it still entails some level of uncertainty on the part of the host state.

  1. North-South FDI and Bilateral Investment Treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falvey, R.; Foster-McGregor, N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) have become increasingly popular as a means of encouraging FDI from developed to developing countries. We adopt a matched difference-in-difference estimation to deal with the problem of endogeneity when estimating the effects of BITs on inward FDI. Our results in

  2. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK. Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilateral and bilateral legal framework has been made with mistakes, slow and with delays. Following its declaration of independence, Kosovo has paid greater attention to tax treaties. Although double taxation relief in Kosovo may be obtained either unilaterally or under a tax treaty, there remains a lot of work to be done for the completion of the necessary framework for elimination of double taxation. The double taxation relief provided by a tax treaty prevails over the domestic relief. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc

  3. Maliseet and Micmac Rights and Treaties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Gregory

    Written for purposes of furthering aid to the Association of Aroostook Indian (AAI) in procuring Maliseet and Micmac American Indian rights, this essay provides historical documentation of U.S. treaties verifying Native American rights. This essay asserts that although about 4,000 Micmacs and Maliseets live in New England (1,000 in Maine), they…

  4. 28 CFR 2.68 - Prisoners transferred pursuant to treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS Transfer Treaty Prisoners and Parolees § 2... a release date determination by the Commission after considering the applicable sentencing... required to serve a period of supervised release pursuant to section 5D1.2 of the sentencing...

  5. Maliseet and Micmac Rights and Treaties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Gregory

    Written for purposes of furthering aid to the Association of Aroostook Indian (AAI) in procuring Maliseet and Micmac American Indian rights, this essay provides historical documentation of U.S. treaties verifying Native American rights. This essay asserts that although about 4,000 Micmacs and Maliseets live in New England (1,000 in Maine), they…

  6. Mainstreaming Investment Treaty Jurisprudence: The Contribution of Investment Treaty Tribunals to the Consolidation and Development of General International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.B.; Tvede, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of internal and external precedent has been studied in relation to numerous international courts and tribunals. The participation of investment treaty tribunals in judicial dialogues or judicial cross-fertilization, by contrast, has remained underexplored. The present article closes this gap

  7. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: MOBILE SOURCE RETROFIT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES: CLEAN CLEAR FUEL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.’S, UNIVERSAL FUEL CELL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development operates the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. Congress funds ETV in response to the belief ...

  9. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.

    2014-05-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  10. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either

  11. THE TREATY BETWEEN SHADLASH (SUMU-NUMHIM) AND NERIBTUM (HAMMI-DUSHUR)~1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Following the recent publication and critical discussion of several treaties of the Old Babylonian period, the attention of Old Babylonian studies has been drawn to treaty texts. The earliest published treaty document from Mesopotamia, to my knowledge, is a treaty between the city of Shadlash and the city of Neribtum, dated to the beginning of the Old Babylonian dynasty, published and translated by S. Greengus in Old Babylonian Tablets from Ischchali and Vicinity, 1979 (hereafter, Greengus). In what follows I present a further reading of the tablet with critical notes and a detailed discussion of its contents, in order to attract more attention to this laconic, difficult (because of its incomplete context), and interesting text. Unlike later treaties between two kings, this treaty was made between two cities, although the rulers of the cities are also mentioned in the treaty.

  12. Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S; Vaidya, S

    2009-07-30

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

  13. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    09/205_119828.html; and Foster Klug and Matthew Pennington, “Photos Show NKorea Nuclear Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http...the CTBT, lack of Chinese ratification, U.S. efforts to seek renegotiation of the ABM Treaty, and efforts to ban nuclear weapons in the Middle East led...Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/ap- exclusive-photos-show-nkorea-nuclear

  14. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    concerned with choking off avenues for potential evasion schemes than they were with fostering continued cooperation and openness between the two sides...Congress, House Armed Services, Strategic Forces, President Obama’s Fiscal 2011 Budget Request for the (continued...) The New START Treaty...states that “the Secretary of Defense may only use funds authorized to be appropriated by this Act or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2014 to

  15. Analyses on the Possible Brexit through the Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Teodora Andronic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe is facing a social crisis like never before, and this comes just after an economical one. The huge flow of migrants that started crossing into Europe at the end of 2015 was just the straw that broke the camel for Great Britain, because the Brits were threatening to leave the EU for some time. Prime Minister David Cameron has warned his European counterparts that his country might leave if his demands are not met. He clearly affirmed that he wants to stay in the EU, but under different rules. He negotiated a package of reforms, demanding concessions from a frightened Brussels, that has seen almost inevitable the change in some EU treaty terms. The PM used the 2011 European Union Act at the negotiations, document which requires any EU treaty that passes new powers to Brussels to be put to an internal British referendum. On June 23rd there is set a referendum on the country’s membership to the EU. But this amount of uncertainty led to the fall of the pound (reaching its lowest level since 2009, to fear for the investors and furious debates between the political parties. We shall further analyze the Lisbon Treaty, in order to better understand the legislation behind this European-wide tension, and to explain the implications of such an event.

  16. EU Enlargement Law: History and Recent Developments: Treaty Custom Concubinage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Kochenov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This note provides a detailed account of the development of the EU enlargement law. Based on the material provided by the latest enlargement round, it outlines the main set of enlargement principles, criteria and procedural tools employed by the Union in the process, also making a sketch of the actual chronology of enlargement events. Based on the analysis of the legal regulation of five rounds of enlargement and making parallels with the notion of customary law as understood in public international law, it argues that the Union enlargements have always enjoyed a dual regulation: by written (mostly Treaty based and also by customary enlargement law. The existence of customary law explains the consistency of enlargement regulation throughout all the rounds of this process, notwithstanding the stage of the Treaty reform in force at the time of every particular accession. The minimal amendments introduced into the enlargement article by the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe (Art. I-58 suggest that the future enlargements are likely to be building on the body of customary law in force to date. The process of gradual incorporation of customary law into the written law of the EU is also likely to continue.

  17. A hybrid Bayesian hierarchical model combining cohort and case-control studies for meta-analysis of diagnostic tests: Accounting for partial verification bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoye; Chen, Yong; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao

    2014-05-26

    To account for between-study heterogeneity in meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies, bivariate random effects models have been recommended to jointly model the sensitivities and specificities. As study design and population vary, the definition of disease status or severity could differ across studies. Consequently, sensitivity and specificity may be correlated with disease prevalence. To account for this dependence, a trivariate random effects model had been proposed. However, the proposed approach can only include cohort studies with information estimating study-specific disease prevalence. In addition, some diagnostic accuracy studies only select a subset of samples to be verified by the reference test. It is known that ignoring unverified subjects may lead to partial verification bias in the estimation of prevalence, sensitivities, and specificities in a single study. However, the impact of this bias on a meta-analysis has not been investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid Bayesian hierarchical model combining cohort and case-control studies and correcting partial verification bias at the same time. We investigate the performance of the proposed methods through a set of simulation studies. Two case studies on assessing the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in detecting lymph node metastases and of adrenal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in characterizing adrenal masses are presented.

  18. Much Ado About Nothing? National Legislatures in the EU Constitutional Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raunio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of the EU's new Constitutional Treaty on the parliaments of its member states, with specific focus on access to information and on monitoring compliance with the subsidiarity principle. The main argument of the article is that while the Constitutional Treaty will strengthen the position of the national legislatures in the EU policy process, this empowerment does not constitute a major departure from the present situation. National parliaments will have better access to EU documents, and these information rights improve the capacity of national parliaments to control their governments. National parliaments will also gain a collective role in overseeing the implementation of the subsidiarity principle, but the effects of this mechanism will probably remain modest. While national MPs have thus stronger constitutional rights to control their governments, the increased use of the open method of coordination and other forms of intergovernmental policy coordination at least partially undermine these positive developments. The article concludes by proposing a set of reforms that would enable national legislatures to make a stronger impact on EU politics.

  19. Experimental Verification of the Use of Metal Filled Via Hole Fences for Crosstalk Control of Microstrip Lines in LTCC Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Chun, Donghoon; Yook, Jong-Gwan; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling between microstrip lines in dense RF packages is a common problem that degrades circuit performance. Prior three-dimensional-finite element method (3-D-FEM) electromagnetic simulations have shown that metal filled via hole fences between two adjacent microstrip lines actually Increases coupling between the lines: however, if the top of the via posts are connected by a metal strip, coupling is reduced. In this paper, experimental verification of the 3-D-FEM simulations is demonstrated for commercially fabricated low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) packages. In addition, measured attenuation of microstrip lines surrounded by the shielding structures is presented and shows that shielding structures do not change the attenuation characteristics of the line.

  20. Warhead verification as inverse problem: Applications of neutron spectrum unfolding from organic-scintillator measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Chris C.; Febbraro, Michael; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Becchetti, F. D.

    2016-08-01

    Verification of future warhead-dismantlement treaties will require detection of certain warhead attributes without the disclosure of sensitive design information, and this presents an unusual measurement challenge. Neutron spectroscopy—commonly eschewed as an ill-posed inverse problem—may hold special advantages for warhead verification by virtue of its insensitivity to certain neutron-source parameters like plutonium isotopics. In this article, we investigate the usefulness of unfolded neutron spectra obtained from organic-scintillator data for verifying a particular treaty-relevant warhead attribute: the presence of high-explosive and neutron-reflecting materials. Toward this end, several improvements on current unfolding capabilities are demonstrated: deuterated detectors are shown to have superior response-matrix condition to that of standard hydrogen-base scintintillators; a novel data-discretization scheme is proposed which removes important detector nonlinearities; and a technique is described for re-parameterizing the unfolding problem in order to constrain the parameter space of solutions sought, sidestepping the inverse problem altogether. These improvements are demonstrated with trial measurements and verified using accelerator-based time-of-flight calculation of reference spectra. Then, a demonstration is presented in which the elemental compositions of low-Z neutron-attenuating materials are estimated to within 10%. These techniques could have direct application in verifying the presence of high-explosive materials in a neutron-emitting test item, as well as other for treaty verification challenges.

  1. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of verification and validation technology for instrumentation and control in NPPs-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Ham, Chang Sik; Lee, Byung Sun; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jang Soo; Um, Heung Sub; Kim, Jang Yul; Ryoo, Chan Hoh; Joo, Jae Yoon; Song, Soon Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    We collected and analyzed the domestic/international codes, standards and guidelines to develop high reliable software verification and validation methodology which is satisfied to our real situation. The three major parts of work are performed that is the construction of the frame for high reliable software development environment, establishment of high reliable software development methodology and study for the basic technology related to safety-critical software. These three parts are tightly coupled each other to achieve self-reliable software verification and validation technology for digital I and C in NPPs. The configuration of hardware and software are partly performed using requirements which is developed in first stage for the development of I and C test facility. In hardware part, expanded interface using VXI bus and driving software is completed. The main program for math, modelling and supervisor program for instructions are developed. 27 figs, 22 tabs, 69 refs. (Author).

  2. International challenge to predict the impact of radioxenon releases from medical isotope production on a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty sampling station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Ted W; Achim, Pascal; Chai, Tianfeng; Deconninck, Benoit; Freeman, Katie; Generoso, Sylvia; Hayes, Philip; Heidmann, Verena; Hoffman, Ian; Kijima, Yuichi; Krysta, Monika; Malo, Alain; Maurer, Christian; Ngan, Fantine; Robins, Peter; Ross, J Ole; Saunier, Olivier; Schlosser, Clemens; Schöppner, Michael; Schrom, Brian T; Seibert, Petra; Stein, Ariel F; Ungar, Kurt; Yi, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). At entry-into-force, half of the 80 radionuclide stations will be able to measure concentrations of several radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear explosions, and then the full network may be populated with xenon monitoring afterward. An understanding of natural and man-made radionuclide backgrounds can be used in accordance with the provisions of the treaty (such as event screening criteria in Annex 2 to the Protocol of the Treaty) for the effective implementation of the verification regime. Fission-based production of (99)Mo for medical purposes also generates nuisance radioxenon isotopes that are usually vented to the atmosphere. One of the ways to account for the effect emissions from medical isotope production has on radionuclide samples from the IMS is to use stack monitoring data, if they are available, and atmospheric transport modeling. Recently, individuals from seven nations participated in a challenge exercise that used atmospheric transport modeling to predict the time-history of (133)Xe concentration measurements at the IMS radionuclide station in Germany using stack monitoring data from a medical isotope production facility in Belgium. Participants received only stack monitoring data and used the atmospheric transport model and meteorological data of their choice. Some of the models predicted the highest measured concentrations quite well. A model comparison rank and ensemble analysis suggests that combining multiple models may provide more accurate predicted concentrations than any single model. None of the submissions based only on the stack monitoring data predicted the small measured concentrations very well. Modeling of sources by other nuclear facilities with smaller releases than medical isotope production facilities may be important in understanding how to discriminate those releases from

  3. The Hidden World of Multilateralism? Treaty Commitments of Newly Democratized States in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Milewicz, Karolina; Elsig, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Why do new EU democracies engage in multilateralism? The dominant explanation proposes that new democracies use international treaties to lock in domestic reforms. This article offers a novel explanation as to why new EU democracies participate in multilateral treaties. We argue that ratifying a treaty serves three external signaling purposes (addressing recognition concerns; increasing strategic autonomy, and pleasing the EU). We test our argument through a mix of quantitative and qualitativ...

  4. The Colombian-United States Free Trade Treaty: A Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian A Yepes

    2014-01-01

    "Free trade treaties are generally centered on defining some game rules to achieve commercial exchange. In this article, the contents of the text of the free trade treaty between Colombia and the United States are discussed using a critical discourse analysis, which will help to identify the power relationships in this discourse in the context of Colombian company management. The particularities of the free trade treaty are also analyzed from a linguistic point of view, and taking into accoun...

  5. Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-27

    Forces (INF) Treaty Congressional Research Service 16 2012—flew from Plesetsk to Kura, a distance of approximately 5,800 kilometers (3,600 miles...Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress Amy F. Woolf Specialist in...Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty Congressional Research Service Summary The United States and Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces

  6. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  7. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  8. Citizen participation and the Lisbon Treaty : A legal perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    How to "bring the [European] Union closer to its citizens" is a vexed and vital problem of European integration. Article 11 TEU on participatory democracy, recently introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, is meant to be part of the solution. The EU Economic and Social Committee has gone so far as to define this provision "a milestone on the road to a people's Europe that is real and feasible". This appears to be an overly optimistic assessment - partly because art. 11 relies heavily on the involv...

  9. Verification Games: Crowd-Sourced Formal Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this document for any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way...information exchange, and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. REPORT DOCUMENTATION ...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2012 – SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VERIFICATION GAMES: CROWD-SOURCED FORMAL VERIFICATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750

  10. Mapping and Imaging Methodologies within the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's On-Site Inspection Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, W.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    On-site inspection (OSI) is the final verification measure of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs rely heavily on geologic and geophysical investigations. The objective is to apply methods that are effective, efficient and minimally intrusive. We present a general overview of the OSI as provisioned in the CTBT, specifying the allowed techniques and the timeline for their application. A CTBT OSI relies on many geological, geophysical and radiological methods. The search area for an OSI is mostly defined by uncertainty in the location of a suspect event detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) and reported through the International Data Center and can be as large as 1000 km2. Thus OSI methods are fundamentally divided into general survey methods that narrow the search area and more focused, detailed survey methods to look for evidence of a potential underground explosion and try to find its location within an area of several km2. The purpose and goal of a CTBT OSI, as specified in the Article IV of the Treaty, is 'to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty' and to 'gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator.' Through the use of visual, geophysical, and radiological techniques, OSIs can detect and characterize anomalies and artifacts related to the event that triggered the inspection. In the context of an OSI, an 'observable' is a physical property that is important to recognize and document because of its relevance to the purpose of the inspection. Potential observables include: (1) visual observables such as ground/environmental disturbances and manmade features, (2) geophysical techniques that provide measurements of altered and damaged ground and buried artifacts, and (3) radiological measurements on samples. Information provided in this presentation comes from observations associated with historical testing activities that were not intended to go undetected

  11. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    and the verification procedures should be algorithmically synthesizable. Autonomous control plays an important role in many safety-critical systems. This implies that a malfunction in the control system can have catastrophic consequences, e.g., in space applications where a design flaw can result in large economic...... losses. Furthermore, a malfunction in the control system of a surgical robot may cause death of patients. The previous examples involve complex systems that are required to operate according to complex specifications. The systems cannot be formally verified by modern verification techniques, due......The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method for verifying timed temporal properties of continuous dynamical systems, and to develop a method for verifying the safety of an interconnection of continuous systems. The methods must be scalable in the number of continuous variables...

  12. The Amsterdam Process: A Structurationist Perspective on EU Treaty Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christiansen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergovernmental Conferences are generally seen as key events in the design of the European Union. This paper challenges this traditional view. Arguing that treaty reform should be regarded as a continuous process rather than a series of events, the paper develops a procedural understanding of constitutional change based on structuration theory. In such a perspective, analytical attention is re-directed from the political limelight of largely ceremonial events to the more obscure 'valleys' the periods between the IGC summits in which the more momentous developments of European integration occur. The study of past instances of constitutional change as well as an analysis of the IGC leading to the Amsterdam Treaty demonstrate the significance of a wider set of actors and of the structural environment: the trajectory of past decisions, the multilateral generation of reform agendas, the institutionalised patterns of negotiation and decision-making and the constitutionalisation of the EU order. This severely limits the ability of national governments to negotiate on the basis of 'national interests' and thus dissolves one of the cornerstones of intergovernmentalism the over-arching significance of IGCs.

  13. Design, Fabrication and Test Report on a Verification Capsule (05M-06K) for the Control of a Neutron Irradiation Fluence of Specimens in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Choi, M. H.; Lee, D. S.

    2007-02-15

    As a part of a project for a capsule development and utilization for an irradiation test, a verification capsule (05M-06K) was designed, fabricated and tested for the development of new instrumented capsule technology for a more precise control of the irradiation fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation condition. The basic structure of the 05M-06K capsule was based on the 04M-22K mock-up capsule which was successfully designed and out-pile tested to confirm the various key technologies necessary for the fluence control of a specimen. 21 square and round shaped specimens made of STS 304 were inserted into the capsule. The capsule was constructed in 5 stages with specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. Each of the five specimens which were accommodated in the 1st stage (top) of the capsule can be taken out of the HANARO core during a normal reactor operation. The specimen is extracted by a specimen extraction mechanism using a steel wire. During the out-pile test, the temperatures of the specimens were measured by 12 thermocouples installed in the capsule. The capsule was successfully out-pile tested in a single channel test loop. The obtained results will be used for a safety evaluation of the new irradiation capsule for controlling the irradiation fluence of specimens in HANARO.

  14. The modernization of the Russian strategic forces and the future of the US-Russian arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miasnikov, Eugene [The Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    The bilateral U.S.-Russian strategic arms control di alog was at its peak at the end of the Cold War, when the very successful Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) and Strategic Arms Reduction (START) Treaties were succeeded. Unfortunately, it is almost non-existent these days. With the end of START in 2009, an important verification mechanism, that currently provides transparency of U.S. and Russian strategic forces and their activities, might be lost, if the sides fail to work out a replacement for it. At the same time the role of transparent nuclear arms reductions by nuclear states is growing for the future of the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) regime, and this factor should stimulate U.S. and Russia to renew the strategic arms control dialog. The talk focuses on modern trends in the evolution of U.S. and Russian nuclear forces and doctrines of their implementation as well as on the impact of these tendencies on attitudes toward arms control. A framework of a new bilateral strategic arms reduction agreement that might replace START and enforce Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT) is proposed.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: NORTH AMERICAN SALT COMPANY'S DUSTGARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  16. Report on the 2016 conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, Mart; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2016-01-01

    Each year the international conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe provides a forum to discuss with outstanding experts of the relevant jurisdictions the most important and interesting tax treaty cases which recently have been decided all over the world. This article provides a report on

  17. 77 FR 30584 - Notice of Termination of United States-Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Notice of Termination of United States--Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty AGENCY: Department of State and Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... the bilateral investment treaty between the two countries, a termination that will take effect on June...

  18. Role of sustainable development in Bilateral Investment Treaties : Recent trends and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, international investment law has undergone an explosive growth, which is characterized by the proliferation of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and a growing number of investment-treaty arbitrations. The effect of BITs on developing countries (host states) can be far-reaching

  19. Negotiating History: Crown Apologies in New Zealand’s Historical Treaty of Waitangi Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Hickey

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand has been undertaking a process of negotiating and settling the historical Treaty of Waitangi grievances of the indigenous Maori population since the 1990s. This article outlines the development of the Treaty settlement process and the role of the Crown’s apology to Maori claimant groups in the reconciliation process.

  20. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  1. "We Will Talk of Nothing Else": Dakota Interpretations of the Treaty of 1837

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    During treaty negotiations with federal Indian agents in 1851, Taoyateduta (Little Crow), a Dakota representative, warned that the council members would "talk of nothing else" until conflicts related to the previous Treaty of 1837 had been resolved. His statement is surprising, given that government officials at the time, as well as subsequent…

  2. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  3. The Paradoxes of Colonial Reparation: Foreclosing memory and the 2008 Italy-Libya Friendship Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Cesari, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a paradox relating to the highly contested project of compensating for mass crimes perpetrated during the colonial period. It analyses the only postcolonial reparation treaty to be signed to date: the Italy-Libya Friendship Treaty of 2008. While all other former colonial powers

  4. China's Case Against the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Rationality and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey

    1986-01-01

    China and other major Third World nations have refused to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). While this position appears morally unjustified and even irrational, their claim that the treaty is discriminatory merits serious attention. Only if certain aspects of this claim are accepted by the nuclear weapons signatories, does a moral…

  5. 50 CFR 300.102 - Relationship to other treaties, conventions, laws, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... implements the Antarctic Treaty Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (12 U.S.T... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to other treaties... RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources §...

  6. Report on the 2016 conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, Mart; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2016-01-01

    Each year the international conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe provides a forum to discuss with outstanding experts of the relevant jurisdictions the most important and interesting tax treaty cases which recently have been decided all over the world. This article provides a report on th

  7. The Irish 'no' to the Lisbon Treaty: Ireland's voice and Europe's exit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "no" of the Irish electorate against the Treaty of Lisbon has hit the European elite hard. However, it was not directed against support for the EU as such but rather against a deliberately unintelligible Treaty. Lack of knowledge seems to have played a pivotal role in the voting behaviour, as

  8. 77 FR 22221 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO... NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held in Chicago from May 16, 2012, through May 24... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Security Zones; G8/North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  9. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  10. Rough Journal Page Documenting Ratification and Final Page of the Treaty of Paris, 1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    The 1783 Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolution and established the United States as an independent and sovereign nation. In words reminiscent of those in the resolution presented by Richard Henry Lee to Congress in June 1776, and later included in the Declaration of Independence, Article I of the treaty stated that the king now…

  11. Impacts of international trade, services and investment treaties on alcohol regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber-Otto, J; Sinclair, S; Schacter, N

    2000-12-01

    There is an underlying incompatibility between government efforts to minimize the harm associated with alcohol, particularly by regulating its supply, and international commercial treaties that promote the freer flow of goods, services and investment. These treaties have already forced changes to many government measures affecting alcohol availability and control, primarily by constraining the activities of government alcohol monopolies and by altering taxation regimes. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization agreements open new avenues for challenges against alcohol control measures. Some of these agreements extend beyond trade, border measures and differential taxation and allow challenges that intrude into areas of non-discriminatory domestic regulation affecting market access, intellectual property, investment and services. Effective protection from these agreements for vital public health measures has rarely been obtained, although it is increasingly essential. The WTO "services" agreement, basically unknown to the public, is currently being re-negotiated and poses the gravest new challenge to policies designed to influence patterns of alcohol use and minimize alcohol-related harm. In future, these international agreements will probably affect adversely those alcohol approaches considered to be the most effective or promising. These include: maintaining effective state monopolies, restricting the number and locations of retail outlets, taxing and regulating beverages according to alcohol strength, restricting commercial advertising, and maintaining and enhancing public alcohol education and treatment programs. These effects can, in turn, be expected to increase the availability and access to alcohol, to lower alcohol taxes, and to increase advertising and promotion, resulting in increased alcohol consumption and associated health problems. Until more balanced international rules are developed, the challenge facing alcohol

  12. Assessing the Expected Impact of Global Health Treaties: Evidence From 90 Quantitative Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-01

    We assessed what impact can be expected from global health treaties on the basis of 90 quantitative evaluations of existing treaties on trade, finance, human rights, conflict, and the environment. It appears treaties consistently succeed in shaping economic matters and consistently fail in achieving social progress. There are at least 3 differences between these domains that point to design characteristics that new global health treaties can incorporate to achieve positive impact: (1) incentives for those with power to act on them; (2) institutions designed to bring edicts into effect; and (3) interests advocating their negotiation, adoption, ratification, and domestic implementation. Experimental and quasiexperimental evaluations of treaties would provide more information about what can be expected from this type of global intervention.

  13. Verification Account Management System (VAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Verification Account Management System (VAMS) is the centralized location for maintaining SSA's verification and data exchange accounts. VAMS account management...

  14. Numerical verification of geometry control method of the construction for super-span cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Can; Zhao Lei; Bu Yizhi

    2012-01-01

    Taking Sutong Bridge as the object investigated, the correctness of the geometry control method is verified by numerical simulation analysis. Taking the impact of geometric nonlinearity into account, the impacts of structural geo- metric profile induced by temporary loads and temperature field during the construction procedure are investigated. The simulation results indicate that only the stage state of the structure during construction is affected. Satisfied outcome of construction control can be achieved based on ~eometrv control method.

  15. Verification of ceramic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behar-Lafenetre, S.; Cornillon, L.; Rancurel, M.; Graaf, D. de; Hartmann, P.; Coe, G.; Laine, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the "Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures" contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instr

  16. Insolvency probability in reinsurance treaty: a case study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar Asnawi Ahmad Anuar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries such as Malaysia, the availability of reinsurance arrangements provides several advantages to the primary insurers such as keeping their risk exposures at prudent levels by having their large risk exposures reinsured by another company, meeting client requests for larger insurance coverage by having their limited financial sources supported by another company, and acquiring underwriting skills, experience and ability of handling complex claims by depending on another company for such services. This paper aims to model insurance claims and assess the insolvency probability of reinsurance treaties. Claims data was obtained from one of the leading insurers in Malaysia and R programming with actuar package is used to compute the probability of insolvency.

  17. Analysis and experimental verification of new power flow control for grid-connected inverter with LCL filter in microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Herong; Guan, Yajuan; Wang, Huaibao; Wei, Baoze; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Microgrid is an effective way to integrate the distributed energy resources into the utility networks. One of the most important issues is the power flow control of grid-connected voltage-source inverter in microgrid. In this paper, the small-signal model of the power flow control for the grid-connected inverter is established, from which it can be observed that the conventional power flow control may suffer from the poor damping and slow transient response. While the new power flow control can mitigate these problems without affecting the steady-state power flow regulation. Results of continuous-domain simulations in MATLAB and digital control experiments based on a 32-bit fixed-point TMS320F2812 DSP are in good agreement, which verify the small signal model analysis and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Analysis, Design, and Experimental Verification of A Synchronous Reference Frame Voltage Control for Single-Phase Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monfared, Mohammad; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    damping and improve both transient and steady-state performances, a voltage decoupling feedforward to improve the system robustness, and a multi-resonant harmonic compensator to prevent low-order load current harmonics to distort the inverter output voltage. Since, the voltage loop works......Control of three-phase power converters in the synchronous reference frame is now a mature and well developed research topic. However, for single-phase converters, it is not as well-established as three-phase applications. This paper deals with the design of a synchronous reference frame multi......-loop control strategy for single phase inverter-based islanded distributed generation (DG) systems. The proposed controller uses a synchronous reference frame PI (SRFPI) controller to regulate the instantaneous output voltage, a capacitor current shaping loop in the stationary reference frame to provide active...

  19. Development of digital device based work verification system for cooperation between main control room operators and field workers in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min, E-mail: jewellee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Chul, E-mail: leehc@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun Su, E-mail: junsu.ha@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 127788 (United Arab Emirates); Seong, Poong Hyun, E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A digital device-based work verification and cooperation support system was developed. • Requirements were derived by interviewing field operators having experiences with mobile-based work support systems. • The usability of the proposed system was validated by conducting questionnaire surveys. • The proposed system will be useful if the manual or the set of guidelines is well constructed. - Abstract: Digital technologies have been applied in the nuclear field to check task results, monitor events and accidents, and transmit/receive data. The results of using digital devices have proven that these devices can provide high accuracy and convenience for workers, allowing them to obtain obvious positive effects by reducing their workloads. In this study, as one step forward, a digital device-based cooperation support system, the nuclear cooperation support and mobile documentation system (Nu-COSMOS), is proposed to support communication between main control room (MCR) operators and field workers by verifying field workers’ work results in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The proposed system consists of a mobile based information storage system to support field workers by providing various functions to make workers more trusted by MCR operators; also to improve the efficiency of meeting, and a large screen based information sharing system supports meetings by allowing both sides to share one medium. The usability of this system was estimated by interviewing field operators working in nuclear power plants and experts who have experience working as operators. A survey to estimate the usability of the suggested system and the suitability of the functions of the system for field working was conducted for 35 subjects who have experience in field works or with support system development-related research. The usability test was conducted using the system usability scale (SUS), which is widely used in industrial usability evaluation. Using questionnaires

  20. Extension of a chaos control method to unstable trajectories on infinite- or finite-time intervals: Experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagasaki, Kazuyuki [Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: yagasaki@gifu-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-20

    In experiments for single and coupled pendula, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a new control method based on dynamical systems theory for stabilizing unstable aperiodic trajectories defined on infinite- or finite-time intervals. The basic idea of the method is similar to that of the OGY method, which is a well-known, chaos control method. Extended concepts of the stable and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic trajectories are used here.

  1. The development of verification and validation technology for instrumentation and control in NPPs - A study on the software development methodology of a highly reliable software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Rae; Cha, Sung Deok; Lee, Woo Jin; Chae, Hong Seok; Yoon, Kwang Sik; Jeong, Ki Suk [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,= Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Nuclear industries have tried to use the digital I and C technology in developing advanced nuclear power plants. However, because the industries did= not establish the highly reliable software development methodologies and standards applied to developing the highly reliable and safe software for digital I and C systems, they were confronted with the difficulties to avoid software common mode failures. To mitigate the difficulties, the highly reliable software development environments and methodologies and validation and verification techniques should be the cornerstone of all digital implementation in nuclear power plants. The objectives of this project is to establish the highly reliable software development methodology to support developing digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. In this project, we have investigated the business-oriented and the real-time software development methods and techniques for ensuring safety and reliability of the software. Also we have studied standards related to licensing the software for digital I and C systems. 50 refs., 51 figs. (author)

  2. Tolerance Verification of Micro and Nano Structures on Polycarbonate Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    Micro and nano structures are an increasing challenge in terms of tolerance verification and process quality control: smaller dimensions led to a smaller tolerance zone to be evaluated. This paper focuses on the verification of CD, DVD and HD-DVD nanoscale features. CD tolerance features are defi......Micro and nano structures are an increasing challenge in terms of tolerance verification and process quality control: smaller dimensions led to a smaller tolerance zone to be evaluated. This paper focuses on the verification of CD, DVD and HD-DVD nanoscale features. CD tolerance features...

  3. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  4. Handling qualities airworthiness verification for electronic flight control aircraft%电子飞控飞机的飞行品质适航验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅妮; 李岩; 金镭

    2012-01-01

    FAA AC25-7A中的飞行品质评定方法(HQRM)能够对使用电子飞控系统的民用运输机进行飞行品质评估.分析了HQRM评估程序以及相关适航要求,根据某民用飞机飞控系统功能危险分析,针对单侧升降舵卡阻这一典型故障,提出了在该失效状态下的模拟器飞行品质评估试验程序,分别给出了HQRM和相应军用标准评估方法,对军民评估方法的差异性和一致性进行了分析.研究结果对采用电子飞控系统的现代飞机的飞行品质适航验证具有工程参考意义.%Handling quality rating method (HQRM) in FAA AC25-7A provide a means by which one may evaluate flight characteristics for fly-by-wire flight control transport aircraft. This paper explains the HQRM procedure, and analyses airworthiness requirements which are related to HQRM. According to flight control system functional hazard assessment of a commercial airplane, simulator experiment procedure for a elevator jam is proposed, and experiment analysis methods using the FAA method and military standard are offered. The consistency and differences between civil and military standards are analyzed. This study can supply references for flying qualities and airworthiness verification of a modern airplane with electrical flight control system.

  5. Advanced verification topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  6. Multi-Axis Independent Electromechanical Load Control for Docking System Actuation Development and Verification Using dSPACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Christopher; Dick, Brandon; Rupp, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The development of highly complex and advanced actuation systems to meet customer demands has accelerated as the use of real-time testing technology expands into multiple markets at Moog. Systems developed for the autonomous docking of human rated spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS), envelope multi-operational characteristics which place unique constraints on an actuation system. Real-time testing hardware has been used as a platform for incremental testing and development for the linear actuation system which controls initial capture and docking for vehicles visiting the ISS. This presentation will outline the role of dSPACE hardware as a platform for rapid control-algorithm prototyping as well as an Electromechanical Actuator (EMA) system dynamic loading simulator, both conducted at Moog to develop the safety critical Linear Actuator System (LAS) of the NASA Docking System (NDS).

  7. Characterization of and sensor-model verification and control of the properties of PMR-13 during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Prettyman, T.; Robillard, K.; Smith, J.; Nicoletti, A.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Koury, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This study presents an in situ sensor and a process-simulation model developed for monitoring and controlling the cure process of PMR-15. The time-temperature dependence of the buildup in the molecular network structure, extent of reaction, viscosity, flow, and consolidation during the cure of PMR-15 are discussed. The relationship of the time-temperature cycle used during imidization to the length of the endcapped chains formed is examined. The relationship of the time-temperature cure-processing cycle to the reaction kinetics, viscosity, flow, and consolidation during crosslinking is analyzed using frequency-dependent electromagnetic sensors and the Loos processing model. Application of the FDEMS sensing technique and the process-simulation model for quality assurance processing and automated on-line control of cure is discussed.

  8. The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, seeks to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) that will extend from the US-Mexican border to Antarctica`s territorial boundaries, including large areas of open ocean. Under the treaty, signatory states pledge not to test, use, produce, manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons; to use nuclear materials and facilities {open_quotes}exclusively for peaceful purposes;{close_quotes} and not to permit the stationing or development of nuclear weapons on their territories.

  9. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, Marvin D

    1994-01-01

    To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

  10. SSN Verification Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The SSN Verification Service is used by Java applications to execute the GUVERF02 service using the WebSphere/CICS Interface. It accepts several input data fields...

  11. Integrated Java Bytecode Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Existing Java verifiers perform an iterative data-flow analysis to discover the unambiguous type of values stored on the stack or in registers. Our novel verification algorithm uses abstract interpretation to obtain definition/use information for each register and stack location in the program......, which in turn is used to transform the program into Static Single Assignment form. In SSA, verification is reduced to simple type compatibility checking between the definition type of each SSA variable and the type of each of its uses. Inter-adjacent transitions of a value through stack and registers...... are no longer verified explicitly. This integrated approach is more efficient than traditional bytecode verification but still as safe as strict verification, as overall program correctness can be induced once the data flow from each definition to all associated uses is known to be type-safe....

  12. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  13. Feature-Aware Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, Sven; Wendler, Philipp; von Rhein, Alexander; Beyer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    A software product line is a set of software products that are distinguished in terms of features (i.e., end-user--visible units of behavior). Feature interactions ---situations in which the combination of features leads to emergent and possibly critical behavior--- are a major source of failures in software product lines. We explore how feature-aware verification can improve the automatic detection of feature interactions in software product lines. Feature-aware verification uses product-line verification techniques and supports the specification of feature properties along with the features in separate and composable units. It integrates the technique of variability encoding to verify a product line without generating and checking a possibly exponential number of feature combinations. We developed the tool suite SPLverifier for feature-aware verification, which is based on standard model-checking technology. We applied it to an e-mail system that incorporates domain knowledge of AT&T. We found that feat...

  14. Standard Verification System (SVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SVS is a mainframe program that accesses the NUMIDENT to perform SSN verifications. This program is called by SSA Internal applications to verify SSNs. There is also...

  15. An orbital angular momentum radio communication system optimized by intensity controlled masks effectively: Theoretical design and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinlu; Huang, Shanguo; Wei, Yongfeng; Zhai, Wensheng; Xu, Wenjing; Yin, Shan; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Wanyi

    2014-12-01

    A system of generating and receiving orbital angular momentum (OAM) radio beams, which are collectively formed by two circular array antennas (CAAs) and effectively optimized by two intensity controlled masks, is proposed and experimentally investigated. The scheme is effective in blocking of the unwanted OAM modes and enhancing the power of received radio signals, which results in the capacity gain of system and extended transmission distance of the OAM radio beams. The operation principle of the intensity controlled masks, which can be regarded as both collimator and filter, is feasible and simple to realize. Numerical simulations of intensity and phase distributions at each key cross-sectional plane of the radio beams demonstrate the collimated results. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis and the receive distance of the OAM radio beam at radio frequency (RF) 20 GHz is extended up to 200 times of the wavelength of the RF signals, the measured distance is 5 times of the original measured distance. The presented proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  16. Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

  17. Projection on Proper elements for code control: Verification, numerical convergence, and reduced models. Application to plasma turbulence simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier-Michaud, T.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bufferand, H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Norscini, C.; Passeron, C.; Tamain, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Projection on Proper elements (PoPe) is a novel method of code control dedicated to (1) checking the correct implementation of models, (2) determining the convergence of numerical methods, and (3) characterizing the residual errors of any given solution at very low cost. The basic idea is to establish a bijection between a simulation and a set of equations that generate it. Recovering equations is direct and relies on a statistical measure of the weight of the various operators. This method can be used in any number of dimensions and any regime, including chaotic ones. This method also provides a procedure to design reduced models and quantify its ratio of cost to benefit. PoPe is applied to a kinetic and a fluid code of plasma turbulence.

  18. Media scanning and verification system as a supplemental tool to disease outbreak detection & reporting at National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Karad, A B; Dash, B; Dhariwal, A C; Chauhan, L S; Lal, S

    2012-03-01

    Media scanning for unusual health events can efficiently supplement conventional communicable disease surveillance systems for early detection and response to outbreaks. There is a need to rapidly process and appropriately disseminate the media reports on unusual health events for timely action. Hence to address this need in India a Media Scanning & Verification Cell (MSVC) was established in July 2008 at the National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi. MSVC is supervised by Epidemiologists working in Central Surveillance Unit of IDSP. This unique system monitors Global and National Media sources such as National and Regional print media, news on internet, news wires and websites, news channels and news shared by partners like Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), Canada, WHO and other International and national agencies. The information is shared to the districts affected and District Surveillance Officer (DSO) and his team is expected to investigate and revert through the internet about the correctness and action taken. A mean number of 4 Media Alert reports are generated each day. A total of 1685 alerts were reported in a period between July 2008 to December 2011. Of these 1241 (73.7%) were verified as real events and 183 (10.9%) were considered outbreaks by local health officials. Most events were captured through internet (57%) followed by the print media (24%). The most common disease events identified were food-borne and diarrhea (29.1%), dengue (10.68%), influenza & respiratory disease (8.1%) and malaria (7.4%). The sensitivity of MSVC to detect outbreaks was 14.8% with more than half of outbreaks detected before they were identified by the conventional surveillance system. It has proven to be a highly effective supplemental tool to official surveillance system in the detection of early warning signals and hence timely detection and management of public health threats in India.

  19. CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

  20. Implementation of treaty as basis for regional cooperation vis-à-vis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... In this process of cooperation and integration, States voluntarily limit their sovereignty ... with a focus on treaty as the basis for regional and international relations.

  1. Will the Constitutional Treaty Contribute to the Legitimacy of the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wolf

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The article explores whether the Constitutional Treaty may provide more legitimacy for governance in the European Union. After presenting a list of normative criteria, relevant parts of the Constitutional Treaty are summarised and evaluated. It is concluded that the Constitutional Treaty's 'added value' is rather small: the document does not make the complicated nature of Union powers and Union decision-making visible and understandable to the public; the vertical and horizontal checks on the use of Union power are suboptimal; the EU's weak 'input legitimacy' is not strengthened. On the other side, the Constitutional Treaty might provide for a better protection of fundamental rights at the supranational level. Hence, as regards enhanced legitimacy, the overall picture, albeit somewhat daunting, is not altogether bleak.

  2. Embedded software verification and debugging

    CERN Document Server

    Winterholer, Markus

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of verification and debugging techniques for embedded software, which is frequently used in safety critical applications (e.g., automotive), where failures are unacceptable. Since the verification of complex systems needs to encompass the verification of both hardware and embedded software modules, this book focuses on verification and debugging approaches for embedded software with hardware dependencies. Coverage includes the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software and all key approaches to debugging, dynamic, static, and hybrid verification. This book discusses the current, industrial embedded software verification flow, as well as emerging trends with focus on formal and hybrid verification and debugging approaches. Includes in a single source the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software; Addresses the main techniques that are currently being used in the industry for assuring the quality of embedded softw...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.920 - PEMS Calibrations and verifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by laboratory equipment as follows: (1) Mount an engine on a dynamometer for laboratory testing... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065... verification. The verification consists of operating an engine over a duty cycle in the laboratory...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HLVAC SYSTEMS: AEOLUS CORPORATION SYNTHETIC MINIPLEAT V-CELL, SMV-M13-2424

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Synthetic Minipleat V-Cell, SMV-M13-2424 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Aeolus Corporation. The pressure drop across the filter was 77 Pa clean and 348 ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS: TRI-DIM FILTER CORP. PREDATOR II MODEL 8VADTP123C23

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Predator II, Model 8VADTP123C23CC000 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Tri-Dim Filter Corporation. The pressure drop across the filter was 138 Pa clean and...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS: AEOLUS CORPORATION SYNTHETIC MINIPLEAT V-CELL, SMV-M14-2424

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Synthetic Minipleat V-Cell, SMV-M14-2424 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Aeolus Corporation. The pressure drop across the filter was 104 Pa clean and 348...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS:AAF INTERNATIONAL, PERFECTPLEAT ULTRA, 175-102-863

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the PerfectPleat Ultra 175-102-863 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by AAF International. The pressure drop across the filter was 112 Pa clean and 229 Pa dust lo...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

  10. Regression Verification Using Impact Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, John; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha; Thachuk, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    versions [19]. These techniques compare two programs with a large degree of syntactic similarity to prove that portions of one program version are equivalent to the other. Regression verification can be used for guaranteeing backward compatibility, and for showing behavioral equivalence in programs with syntactic differences, e.g., when a program is refactored to improve its performance, maintainability, or readability. Existing regression verification techniques leverage similarities between program versions by using abstraction and decomposition techniques to improve scalability of the analysis [10, 12, 19]. The abstractions and decomposition in the these techniques, e.g., summaries of unchanged code [12] or semantically equivalent methods [19], compute an over-approximation of the program behaviors. The equivalence checking results of these techniques are sound but not complete-they may characterize programs as not functionally equivalent when, in fact, they are equivalent. In this work we describe a novel approach that leverages the impact of the differences between two programs for scaling regression verification. We partition program behaviors of each version into (a) behaviors impacted by the changes and (b) behaviors not impacted (unimpacted) by the changes. Only the impacted program behaviors are used during equivalence checking. We then prove that checking equivalence of the impacted program behaviors is equivalent to checking equivalence of all program behaviors for a given depth bound. In this work we use symbolic execution to generate the program behaviors and leverage control- and data-dependence information to facilitate the partitioning of program behaviors. The impacted program behaviors are termed as impact summaries. The dependence analyses that facilitate the generation of the impact summaries, we believe, could be used in conjunction with other abstraction and decomposition based approaches, [10, 12], as a complementary reduction technique. An

  11. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  12. Monitoring and verification R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fearey, Bryan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) report outlined the Administration's approach to promoting the agenda put forward by President Obama in Prague on April 5, 2009. The NPR calls for a national monitoring and verification R&D program to meet future challenges arising from the Administration's nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament agenda. Verification of a follow-on to New START could have to address warheads and possibly components along with delivery capabilities. Deeper cuts and disarmament would need to address all of these elements along with nuclear weapon testing, nuclear material and weapon production facilities, virtual capabilities from old weapon and existing energy programs and undeclared capabilities. We only know how to address some elements of these challenges today, and the requirements may be more rigorous in the context of deeper cuts as well as disarmament. Moreover, there is a critical need for multiple options to sensitive problems and to address other challenges. There will be other verification challenges in a world of deeper cuts and disarmament, some of which we are already facing. At some point, if the reductions process is progressing, uncertainties about past nuclear materials and weapons production will have to be addressed. IAEA safeguards will need to continue to evolve to meet current and future challenges, and to take advantage of new technologies and approaches. Transparency/verification of nuclear and dual-use exports will also have to be addressed, and there will be a need to make nonproliferation measures more watertight and transparent. In this context, and recognizing we will face all of these challenges even if disarmament is not achieved, this paper will explore possible agreements and arrangements; verification challenges; gaps in monitoring and verification technologies and approaches; and the R&D required to address these gaps and other monitoring and verification challenges.

  13. About the treaty of complete nuclear test ban: the USA between unilateralism and multilateralism; A propos du traite sur l'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires: les Etats-Unis entre l'unilateralisme et le multilateralisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, S. [Universite Pantheon-Assas, 75 - Paris (France); Centre Thucydide, Analyse et Recherche en Relations Internationales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This article analyses the possible reasons that have led the US Senate to reject the treaty of comprehensive nuclear test ban. Even if this decision did not retained the attention of the international public opinion, it appears as surprising because the USA have worked a lot for the elaboration of this treaty and were considered as the main beneficiaries of it. Three interpretations are proposed by the author: some purely internal disputes inside Clinton's administration, a real will of the USA to abandon the arms control policy, or an intermediate attitude which allows the USA to act on different levels and to get rid of common rules. (J.S.)

  14. Evaluation of the Deployable Seismic Verification System at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.

    1993-08-01

    The intent of this report is to examine the performance of the Deployable Seismic Verification System (DSVS) developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) through its national laboratories to support monitoring of underground nuclear test treaties. A DSVS was installed at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility (PSRF) near Boulder, Wyoming during 1991 and 1992. This includes a description of the system and the deployment site. System performance was studied by looking at four areas: system noise, seismic response, state of health (SOH) and operational capabilities.

  15. 77 FR 67737 - Proposed Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity: Comment Request...: Student Verification of Enrollment, VA Form 22-8979. OMB Control Number: 2900-0465. Type of Review... of actual attendance and verification of the student's continued enrollment in courses leading to...

  16. Wind gust warning verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Operational meteorological centres around the world increasingly include warnings as one of their regular forecast products. Warnings are issued to warn the public about extreme weather situations that might occur leading to damages and losses. In forecasting these extreme events, meteorological centres help their potential users in preventing the damage or losses they might suffer. However, verifying these warnings requires specific methods. This is due not only to the fact that they happen rarely, but also because a new temporal dimension is added when defining a warning, namely the time window of the forecasted event. This paper analyses the issues that might appear when dealing with warning verification. It also proposes some new verification approaches that can be applied to wind warnings. These new techniques are later applied to a real life example, the verification of wind gust warnings at the German Meteorological Centre ("Deutscher Wetterdienst"). Finally, the results obtained from the latter are discussed.

  17. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  18. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  19. Demonstration and Verification System for Artificial Intelligent Swarm Control%人工智能集群控制演示验证系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安梅岩; 王兆魁; 张育林

    2016-01-01

    为了对人工智能集群的自组织控制方法进行验证,提出了一种在实验室环境下低成本建立人工智能集群控制演示验证系统的方法。系统由演示场、多个移动个体、合作标识及识别单元、控制及信息分配单元共同组成。合作标识及识别单元能准确获取多个个体的身份信息和高精度的位姿信息。控制及信息分配单元对智能集群中个体间的信息交换和个体控制策略进行模拟。最后,以机动自组织探测集群为验证对象,在人工智能集群控制演示验证系统中对基于人工势场法的自组织控制策略进行演示验证。验证结果表明,该智能集群控制演示验证系统能够在实验室环境下对智能集群的运行过程进行演示和验证,可以更真实地体现智能集群的实际表现。%A low-cost demonstration and verification system is developed and established in laboratory condition to demon-strate and verify the self-organizing control strategy of an intelligent swarm. The system consists of an arena, multiple mobile individuals, the cooperative identification logo and the identification unit, and the control and information allocating unit. The cooperative identification and the identification unit provides the accurate identification and the high-precision position and direction data of the multiple mobile individuals. The control and information allocating unit simulates the rules of the infor-mation exchanging and control among the individuals of an intelligent swarm. Finally, the mobile self-organized detecting swarm is taken as a demonstration case, and the self-organizing control strategy based on artificial potential field is demon-strated and verified in the system. The demonstration results show that the proposed system can demonstrate and verify the operation process of an intelligent swarm in laboratory condition, and the demonstration can provide the actual performance of an intelligent

  20. Open verification methodology cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Glasser, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Functional verification is an art as much as a science. It requires not only creativity and cunning, but also a clear methodology to approach the problem. The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) is a leading-edge methodology for verifying designs at multiple levels of abstraction. It brings together ideas from electrical, systems, and software engineering to provide a complete methodology for verifying large scale System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. OVM defines an approach for developing testbench architectures so they are modular, configurable, and reusable. This book is designed to help both novic

  1. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare these appro......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  2. The MODUS approach to formal verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Soler, José; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2014-01-01

    in the process of providing competitive products Objectives: In relation to this, MODUS (Method and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide small and medium-sized businesses ways to improve their position in the embedded market through a pragmatic and viable solution...... Methods/Approach: This paper will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that can assist formal verification and formal model checking. Results: Based on automated analysis of the characteristics of the system and by controlling the choice of the existing opensource model...... verification engines, model verification producing inputs to be fed into these engines. Conclusions: The MODUS approach is aligned with present market needs; the familiarity with tools, the ease of use and compatibility/interoperability remain among the most important criteria when selecting the development...

  3. 9 CFR 417.8 - Agency verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.8 Agency verification. FSIS will verify the adequacy of the HACCP plan(s) by determining that each HACCP plan meets the requirements of this part...

  4. Visualization tools for comprehensive test ban treaty research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.L.; Harris, J.M.; Simons, R.W. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on tools used in Data Visualization efforts at Sandia National Laboratories under the Department of Energy CTBT R&D program. These tools provide interactive techniques for the examination and interpretation of scientific data, and can be used for many types of CTBT research and development projects. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using the tools to display and analyze CTBT scientific data. While the tools may be used for everyday applications, our discussion will focus on the use of these tools for visualization of data used in research and verification of new theories. Our examples focus on uses with seismic data, but the tools may also be used for other types of data sets. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  6. Quantitative Verification in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Larsen, Kim G.

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the birth of model checking, the first theoretical achievements have been reported on the automated verification of quanti- tative system aspects such as discrete probabilities and continuous time. These theories have been extended in various dimensions, such as con- tinuous probabilities

  7. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied through the selection of six independent variables, in order to verify the behavior of the double taxation treaties in view of the investments. Through the estimated model, it was verified that these treaties had a positive and statistically significant impact – when compared to earlier studies – on the direct foreign investment volume. When dividing the sample between the investments received and made in Brazil, a greater increase was identified in the direct foreign investments received (130.1% than in the investments made (76.9%, although this was the variable with the second largest positive impact in the model. In conclusion, exclusively in the Brazilian context, the international double income taxation is a relevant factor in the investment decision, as the presence of treaties to guarantee the investors in the receipt of revenues without double taxation substantially increases the investment flow. This study differs from earlier research by the sample that only contains treaties in force in Brazil.

  8. The Non-Proliferation Treaty increases security; Pysyvae ydinsulkusopimus lisaeae kansainvaelistae vakautta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahiluoto, K.

    1995-12-31

    Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty indefinitely was a historic decision. The Treaty is the most extensive international agreement on security policy to date; now its obligations have become a permanent part of international justice. Moreover, the NPT represents a political and moral obligation. Through the NPT, the international community has made a permanent commitment to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Increasing pressures will be applied to the few countries still outside the NPT, making it more likely that these countries will eventually change their views. The likelihood of regional bans on nuclear weapons in the Middle East and in Asia, too, will increase. The Treaty promotes the establishment of new nuclear-free zones. The nuclear-free zone in Latin America - the countries covered by the Tlatelolco Treaty - is already very close to its full implementation. Finland is firmly committed to the obligations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The NPT Conference of 1995 was among the first international meetings in which Finland participated, and took an active role, as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.).

  9. Verification of the algorithm of sum of fluences for quality control in IMRT; Verificacion del algoritmo de suma de fluencias para control de calidad en IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela Rodriguez, F.; Camara Turbi, A.; Melchor Iniguez, M.; Martinez Rodriguez, D.

    2013-07-01

    In prior to each IMRT treatment quality control measures face are made to verify the match between the Royal treatment and details of the Planner. verified values of absolute dose at different points of a mannequin, the distribution of doses of all the fields (individual fluences), and the distribution of dose in the treatment full (global creep). This paper compares the distribution of doses for the full treatment measurement with that obtained by combining data from the fluences of the individual fields. (Author)

  10. Automatic Verification of Parametric Specifications with Complex Topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Faber, Johannes; Jacobs, Swen; Sofronie-Stokkermans, Viorica

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on reducing the complexity in verification by exploiting modularity at various levels: in specification, in verification, and structurally. For specifications, we use the modular language CSP-OZ-DC, which allows us to decouple verification tasks concerning data from those concerning durations. At the verification level, we exploit modularity in theorem proving for rich data structures and use this for invariant checking. At the structural level, we analyze possibilities for modular verification of systems consisting of various components which interact.We illustrate these ideas by automatically verifying safety properties of a case study from the European Train Control System standard, which extends previous examples by comprising a complex track topology with lists of track segments and trains with different routes.

  11. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology. The development of verification and validation technology for instrumentation and control in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Ham, Chang Shik; Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jang Yeol; Song, Soon Ja; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Lee, Dong Young; Eom, Heung Seop; Park, Kee Yong

    1997-07-01

    We found essential problems followed by digitalizing of instrumentation and control. A scheme is divided into hardware and software to resolve these problems. We have analyzed the hardware V and V methodologies about common mode failure, commercial grade dedication process and electromagnetic compatibility. We have developed several guidelines, the software classification guideline, the quality assurance handbook for the software in digital I and C, the software V and V planning guideline, and the software safety guideline. And then, we have established the integrated environment for the safety-critical software based on the Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. We have also surveyed a trend and application case of test facility for establishment of functional requirements. Input/output interface which connects among the host computer and developed target and panel are designed and manufactured using UXI bus. The developed functional test facility is used for test and validate the automatic start-up intelligent control system, the dynamic alarm system, the accident identification system using hidden Markov model, and the intelligent logic tracking system. The result of evaluation of the above systems shows the functional test facility performance is sufficient in normal operating and transient conditions. (author). 24 tabs., 59 figs.

  12. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  13. Research on the Design Verification and Test Scheme of AP1000 Instrument Control Protective System%AP1000仪控保护系统的设计验证与测试方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊威; 武维康

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the design verification and test scheme of AP1000 power station instrument control protective system from its laws and regulations system, design verification method, testing scope, integration strategy, test classification, and implementation process and other aspects, thus the complete frame structure from development to application orienting at the third generation non active nuclear station instrument control protective system is formed. It has very important referential significance for the subsequent project development, and also provides a reference standard for system localization propulsion later.%本文对AP1000电站仪控保护系统的设计验证与测试方案进行了深入研究,从其遵循的法规体系,设计验证方法,测试范围,集成策略,测试分级,实施过程等多个方面进行了分析,从而形成了一套针对于第三代非能动核电站仪控保护系统,自开发至应用的完整框架结构,对后续项目的开展有着十分重要的借鉴意义,也为后期系统国产化推进提供了参照标准。

  14. Tax Treaty Treatment of Dividend Related Payments under Share Loan Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses some of the qualification and allocation challenges that dividend related payments under share loan agreements give rise to for tax treaty purposes. The analysis is based on constructed scenarios illustrating how inconsistent domestic allocation of the dividend related payments...... give rise to qualification and allocation conflicts for tax treaty purposes in cross-border situations. The main challenges concern to what extent dividend related payments may be covered by the term “dividends” in article 10 of the OECD double tax convention and to what extent the lender in a share...

  15. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook the Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5 – 2 kT underground explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research evaluates two of the OSI techniques, including laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in situ gamma-spectrometry for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapon tests. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and OSI timeframes.

  16. Lisbon Treaty – EU Sustainable Reform? The “Against” Arguments…

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Through this paper, I intend to analyze the European Union in the post adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon era, from a realistic perspective, which would put in the foreground concrete problems faced these days by this “unidentified political object1″, with the hope that the recognition of these weaknesses will lead to solutions for the Union to emerge stronger. Regarding this, I will argue that the Lisbon Treaty was not able to provide the long awaited reform of the enlarged Union. In the first...

  17. Spherical coverage verification

    CERN Document Server

    Petkovic, Marko D; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of covering hypersphere by a set of spherical hypercaps. This sort of problem has numerous practical applications such as error correcting codes and reverse k-nearest neighbor problem. Using the reduction of non degenerated concave quadratic programming (QP) problem, we demonstrate that spherical coverage verification is NP hard. We propose a recursive algorithm based on reducing the problem to several lower dimension subproblems. We test the performance of the proposed algorithm on a number of generated constellations. We demonstrate that the proposed algorithm, in spite of its exponential worst-case complexity, is applicable in practice. In contrast, our results indicate that spherical coverage verification using QP solvers that utilize heuristics, due to numerical instability, may produce false positives.

  18. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  19. Robust verification analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, William, E-mail: wjrider@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Center for Computing Research, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Witkowski, Walt [Sandia National Laboratories, Verification and Validation, Uncertainty Quantification, Credibility Processes Department, Engineering Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Kamm, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Methods and Algorithms Group, Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wildey, Tim [Sandia National Laboratories, Center for Computing Research, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We introduce a new methodology for inferring the accuracy of computational simulations through the practice of solution verification. We demonstrate this methodology on examples from computational heat transfer, fluid dynamics and radiation transport. Our methodology is suited to both well- and ill-behaved sequences of simulations. Our approach to the analysis of these sequences of simulations incorporates expert judgment into the process directly via a flexible optimization framework, and the application of robust statistics. The expert judgment is systematically applied as constraints to the analysis, and together with the robust statistics guards against over-emphasis on anomalous analysis results. We have named our methodology Robust Verification. Our methodology is based on utilizing multiple constrained optimization problems to solve the verification model in a manner that varies the analysis' underlying assumptions. Constraints applied in the analysis can include expert judgment regarding convergence rates (bounds and expectations) as well as bounding values for physical quantities (e.g., positivity of energy or density). This approach then produces a number of error models, which are then analyzed through robust statistical techniques (median instead of mean statistics). This provides self-contained, data and expert informed error estimation including uncertainties for both the solution itself and order of convergence. Our method produces high quality results for the well-behaved cases relatively consistent with existing practice. The methodology can also produce reliable results for ill-behaved circumstances predicated on appropriate expert judgment. We demonstrate the method and compare the results with standard approaches used for both code and solution verification on well-behaved and ill-behaved simulations.

  20. Methods of Software Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Gurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and

  1. Rapid deployment drilling system for on-site inspections under a comprehensive test ban treaty vol. 1: description, acquisition, deployment, and operation vol. 2: appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F; Cohen, J; Pittard, G; Deskius, G; Vorkinn, P; Rock, D

    1999-11-01

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been signed by many countries, including the US. The US Senate will start discussions of CTBT ratification in the near future. The Treaty aims to prevent any nuclear explosion from being conducted. A verification system is being implemented. It includes the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI) in a country where a suspicious seismic signal has been identified, which could come from a clandestine nuclear test. As part of an OSI, the use of drilling is allowed by the CTBT so as to obtain irrefutable proof of a Treaty violation. Such proof could be in the form of diagnostics of very high gamma radiation levels and high temperatures underground, which could not be explained by a natural source. A typical situation is shown in Figure 1, where the OSI team must find a nuclear cavity underground when only an approximate location is inferred. This calls for the ability to do directional drilling. Because there is no need for large borings and to minimize the cost and size of the equipment, slim-hole drilling is adequate. On that basis, an initial study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [1] concluded that coiled-tubing (C-T) was the most attractive option for OSI drilling (Figure 2). Then, a preliminary design of a C-T Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) was performed by Maurer Engineering of Houston, TX [2]. Although a drilling mud system is also included in the RDDS definition, the preferred mode of operation of the RDDS would be drilling with air and foam. This minimizes water requirements in cases when water may be scarce at the OSI site. It makes the required equipment smaller than when a mud system is included. And it may increase the drilling rates, by eliminating the ''chip hold-down'' effect of a mud column. Following this preliminary design study, it was determined that the preferred bottom-hole assembly for such a system would be the Viper system of Schlumberger Anadrill, with one

  2. 基于抽象和搜索空间划分的安全性判定方法%Security Analysis of Access Control Policy Based on Predicate Abstract and Verification Space Division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌达; 华明辉; 周从华; 宋香梅; 鞠时光

    2011-01-01

    In order to implement security analysis of access control policy rapidly, predicate abstract with verification space division was presented, I. E. Transfer pristine state machine model analysis to abstract state machine model which contains fewer states. Furthermore, verification space division was introduced to decrease the dimensions of model checking. Endorsed by both theoretic analysis and experiment,time and space requirement are effectively reduced. Compared with the known methods,our methodology is more efficiency and less human interacted.%为满足访问控制策略安全性快速判定的要求,提出一种基于谓词抽象和验证空间划分的访问控制策略状态空间约减方法,将在访问控制策略原始状态机模型上的安全性分析工作转移到包含较少状态的抽象模型上,并进一步划分抽象模型的验证空间,以提高效率.理论分析和实验数据均表明,其安全性分析所需的时间和空间都得到有效约减.与传统方法相比,它具有速度更快、自动化程度更高等优点.

  3. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  4. 78 FR 32362 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... United States and Australia; Announcement of Effective Date for Regulations ACTION: Final rule... of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation (referred to herein as ``the Treaty''). DATES... and Australia,'' published on April 11, 2013 (Public Notice 8270, 78 FR 21523) is effective May 16...

  5. Woodrow Wilson and the U.S. Ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson plan on the struggle over ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and U.S. participation in the League of Nations. Includes a timeline of events, four primary source documents, and biographical portraits of two opposing senators. Provides student objectives and step-by-step instructional procedures. (CFR)

  6. The Reichwehr, the Rocket and the Versailles Treaty - A Popular Myth Reexamined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, M. J.

    This article seeks to demonstrate that, contrary to a well-entrenched myth, the failure of the Versailles Treaty to ban military uses of the rocket had little or no importance to the decision of the German Reichswehr to start work in the technology in 1929/30.

  7. The Colombian-United States Free Trade Treaty: A Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian A. Yepes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available "Free trade treaties are generally centered on defining some game rules to achieve commercial exchange. In this article, the contents of the text of the free trade treaty between Colombia and the United States are discussed using a critical discourse analysis, which will help to identify the power relationships in this discourse in the context of Colombian company management. The particularities of the free trade treaty are also analyzed from a linguistic point of view, and taking into account the variables such as access of goods into the market, customs procedures, business defense, public contracting, intellectual property rights, job-related and environmental issues. The results are associated with an analysis process of the discursive content of free trade treaties at three levels: grammar of the text, pragmatics of the text, and at a psychosocial level to understand the role that the discourse plays in the interpretation and reproduction of the social domination, with the aim that it may serve as an orientation for the management of Colombian export companies."

  8. Harming asylum seekers’ chances through poor use of human rights treaties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Meili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, UK courts and administrative tribunals havebecome increasingly comfortable relying on international human rightstreaties in cases where non-citizens claim asylum or other means ofprotection from persecution. However, this trend does not mean thatthese treaties have always been deployed by refugee lawyers in wayswhich benefit their clients.

  9. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  10. The Black Box of the Nice Treaty Negotiations: The influence of the Dutch cabinet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Luitwieler (Sander)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study applies a relational influence approach to analyse the European Union (EU) Nice Treaty negotiation process (2000) and explain its outcome, focusing on the influence of the Dutch cabinet in the context of the other participating actors (14 member states, the European Commissio

  11. European Union representation at the United Nations : towards more coherence after the Treaty of Lisbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Xi

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of the Treaty of Lisbon (ToL) on the coherence of the external representation of the European Union (EU) in the field of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) at two main UN bodies, i.e., the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and the Security Council (UNSC). It th

  12. Fisher Ames and Political Judgment: Reason, Passion, and Vehement Style in the Jay Treaty Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes Fisher Ames' fiery speech of 1796 on the Jay Treaty. Demonstrates the influence of Scottish enlightenment thinkers (particularly in moral sense philosophy and faculty psychology) on Ames and his rhetoric. Demonstrates how Ames made a compelling case to shift the standard of political judgment from reason to passion. (SR)

  13. "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the three-volume reference set, "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty" published by ABC-CLIO. This reference work is edited by Donald Fixico, Arizona State University, and dedicated to the people of his tribes: (1) Shawnee; (2) Sac and Fox; (3) Seminole; and (4)…

  14. The European Courts and the Law of Treaties: The Continuing Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, P.J.; Cannizzaro, E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a critical analysis of the case law of the European Court of Justice and of the General Court relating to the application of the international law of treaties. It covers the some forty cases in which the Courts have referred explicitly to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Tre

  15. The Possibilities for Reconciliation through Difficult Dialogues: Treaty Education as Peacebuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Jennifer Anne

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the ongoing effects of colonialism on Aboriginal peoples in Canada and how these might be revealed and disrupted through particular curricular initiatives, informed by understandings of critical peacebuilding education. One such initiative, treaty education, has the potential to disturb dominant national narratives in…

  16. Protocols, treaties, and action: the 'climate change process' viewed through gender spectacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret M.; Masika, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    This paper starts by assessing the extent to which gender considerations have been taken into account in the international processes concerning the development of climate change policy. Finding that there has been very little attention to gender issues, neither in the protocols and treaties nor in t

  17. From Paris to Dublin: Domestic Politics and the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carbone

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the domestic politics of treaty reform in the European Union, from the failed referendum on the Constitutional Treaty held in France in May 2005 to the failed referendum on the Treaty of Lisbon held in Ireland in June 2008. A meticulous examination of the national level, it is argued here, helps us to better understand the European level and why some Member States manage to influence outcomes more than it would be expected. In particular, this article looks at the role played by actors beyond national governments, the impact of the political system and the general context on preference formation and inter-state bargaining, and the use that national negotiators made of ratification hurdles to receive extra concessions. More generally, by looking at the preparatory, negotiation and ratification process of the Treaty of Lisbon, this article aims to make a contribution to an emerging literature, which argues that we can no longer explain the evolution of the European Union without understanding the increased politicisation of the European project.

  18. Mark Twain, “The Treaty with China,” and the Chinese Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zehr

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For today’s reader of Twain, the chronological appearance of “The Treaty with China” in August of 1868 may seem an anomalous entry in his bibliography, published at a time when his growing reputation is still primarily dependent on his ability to elicit a laugh or, for the more sophisticated reader, a knowing snicker. However, issues of race, class, and politics are not absent from his journalistic work prior to August 1868. Nothing in Twain’s writing prior to 1868, however, which had limited circulation, would have prepared the contemporary reader for the strong, unequivocal sympathies expressed toward the Chinese immigrants in “The Treaty with China.” For this reason alone, a closer analysis of “The Treaty” is warranted, providing prescient evidence regarding the political basis of Twain’s oeuvre at this embryonic stage of his career as a public figure. Many Twain scholars, largely through the brilliant analysis in Philip Foner’s 1958 work, Mark Twain: Social Critic, are already aware of the existence of “The Treaty with China,” even if they have never seen the text, but it has otherwise suffered from undeserved neglect, primarily because it has not been widely available to scholars since its 1868 publication, except for those with access to adequate microfilm resource libraries. This lacuna in Twain studies, at least, is now remedied with this reappearance of the entire text of “The Treaty with China.”

  19. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... No. USCG-2012-0052] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit... River during the NATO Summit. This statement is incorrect. The Coast Guard received one comment. DATES... explained that it expects the NATO conference to have [[Page 25893

  20. Intrinsic TLI surface tag directly authenticated by a SEM (closeout report). [Treaty Limited Item (TLI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N.J.; Philippedes, A.; Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.; Holland, J.W.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this task was to develop a unique identifier (tag) for Treaty-Limited Items (TLIs) in arms control applications. This tag is authenticated by the direct attachment of a portable Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to the TLI. It is an intrinsic tag with two distinct TLI surface-authentication signatures, consisting of topography and atomic composition. Authentication is accomplished by comparing the field-inspection signature with the baseline signature. Because this tag has two unique signatures, it is considered extremely resistant to counterfeit attempts. Since commercial SEMs are large instruments intended to observe small samples introduced into a vacuum chamber integral to the instrument, it was initially necessary to demonstrate that interfacing an SEM to a large TLI was feasible. The first phase demonstrated that an SEM could obtain high- resolution images of a large, curved, simulated TLI surface. A used commercial SEM was modified to accomplish the first phase. The second phase began with a systematic evaluation of the design alternatives necessary to produce a portable SEM suitable for TLI tag authentication. Since the electron column design of the SEM was the central component that drove the selection of the rest of the system, this phase continued with a preliminary design of the column. A novel design of the column's electromagnetic lenses combined both permanent magnets and magnetic coils, significantly reducing the required lens power and weight. Prototype condenser and objective lenses were built and tested to prove that this approach was viable. Based upon the results of the second phase, a 0.1-micrometer (4-micro-inch) resolution SEM is feasible. The total system would weigh 52-Kg including a 7-Kg electron column.

  1. Survey on Offline Finger Print Verification System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suman, R.; Kaur, R.

    2012-01-01

    The fingerprint verification, means where "verification" implies a user matching a fingerprint against a single fingerprint associated with the identity that the user claims. Biometrics can be classified into two types Behavioral (signature verification, keystroke dynamics, etc.) And Physiological (

  2. THE ROLE AND RATIONALE OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom COPPEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about perceived weaknesses of the NPT and the challenges it has been facing over the last decades. Analysing the most important provisions of the NPT, this article demonstrates how the treaty has managed to maintain its central role in the non-proliferation regime since its conclusion, and how it retains enough flexibility within its review mechanism and its managerial approach to supervision to keep this position for the decades to come. The theoretical framework of the article is formed by theory of arms control law, relevant features of which are: a large influence of politics and national interests of states on the rule of law; its flexible yet treaty-based nature; and the distinctive role of supervision in order to ensure compliance with primary rules. The article analyses key NPT provisions. Based on Article VIII, the NPT Review Conferences have both an important political and legal function. They are the NPT’s mechanism for review, implementation and supervision; in legal terms, they enable the evolution of the NPT based on subsequent agreement and practice. The NPT articles on non-proliferation and disarmament illustrate how the NPT has evolved to close off loopholes (Articles I and II and retains its flexibility whilst providing a global platform for negotiations on nuclear disarmament (Article VI. Article III evolved and must be understood to oblige NPT states to sign an Additional Protocol (AP with the IAEA. Article IV sets the parameters for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, but leaves room for negotiation and conflict. The supervision of the NPT, illustrated by the case of Iran, is a complicated process involving international organisations such as the IAEA and the UNSC; while these may play important roles, however, the enforcement of the NPT is ultimately left to the NPT states themselves.

  3. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  4. Verification of LHS distributions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton

    2006-04-01

    This document provides verification test results for normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions that are used in Sandia's Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) software. The purpose of this testing is to verify that the sample values being generated in LHS are distributed according to the desired distribution types. The testing of distribution correctness is done by examining summary statistics, graphical comparisons using quantile-quantile plots, and format statistical tests such as the Chisquare test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Anderson-Darling test. The overall results from the testing indicate that the generation of normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions in LHS is acceptable.

  5. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  6. Verification of a timed multitask system with UPPAAL

    OpenAIRE

    Bel Mokadem, Houda; Berard, Béatrice; Gourcuff, Vincent; De Smet, Olivier; Roussel, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    International audience; System and program verification has been a large area of research since the introduction of computers in industrial systems. It is an especially important issue for critical systems, where errors can cause human and financial damages. Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are now widely used in many industrial systems and verification of the corresponding programs has already been studied in various contexts for a few years, for the benefit of users and system designer...

  7. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point...... of classical hybrid systems we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  8. Design of micro-turbine disturbance rejection controller design and verification method%一种微型燃气轮机抗扰控制器设计及验证方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段建东; 孙力; 赵克; 吴凤江; 王要强

    2012-01-01

    为了缩短微型燃气轮机(微燃机)控制器的设计周期以及验证试车前控制器性能,提出了一种新颖的微燃机控制器设计和验证方法.考虑微燃机控制系统主要惯性环节得到了稳态工作点处小扰动传函模型,利用微燃机模型与感应电机调速系统动态模型的相似性,得到微燃机模拟系统,基于模拟系统模型设计了两种控制器并进行了性能对比.针对实际系统中负载扰动引起的转速波动大、控制器动态调节时间长的问题,提出负载前馈控制.仿真和实验结果验证了所提微燃机控制器设计和验证方法的正确性和有效性,负载前馈控制明显提高了转速控制器抗负载扰动的性能.%In order to shorten the design cycle of the micro-turbine controller and verify the performances before actual test, micro-turbine controller design and verification methodology were proposed. Considering the main inertia of the micro-turbine control system gets the small perturbation transfer function model of the steady-state operating point, dynamic model similarity between micro-turbine control system was used and induction motor speed control system the simulation system of micro-turbine was given. Two controllers were designed and the performances were compared based on the simulation system. For resolving problems of high speed volatility and long dynamic adjustment time in the actual system, the load feedforward control was proposed. Simulated and experimental results prove that the new micro-turbine controller design and verification method are feasible and effective, and the load feedforward control is validated to enhance the performance of resisting disturbance greatly.

  9. 基于动态仿真激励模型的飞控计算机测试系统设计%The design of the test verification system for flight control computer based on dynamic simulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞健飞; 钟季龙; 邵帅

    2016-01-01

    飞行控制计算机作为飞行控制系统的核心组成单元,其性能的好坏很大程度上决定了整个飞行控制系统的性能指标,并最终影响飞机飞行安全。针对全时全权数字电传系统结构和功能复杂的特点,以自动飞行控制计算机测试验证为目的,设计开发了一套面向自动飞行控制计算机性能测试的测试验证系统,包括信号表决、余度管理、控制律软件测试等功能。双余度飞控计算机有故障信号注入试验测试表明,本文设计的测试验证系统测试结果准确,可有效验证飞控计算机功能和性能,达到设计要求。%As the core composition of flight control system ,the performance of flight control computer decides the whole performance index of flight control system ,which ultimately affects the flight safety .As for the complicated structure and function of full‐time and full‐authority digital fly‐by‐wire flight control system ,this paper designs a set of test verification system for the automatic flight control computer function and performance test ,taking automatic flight control computer test as the purpose ,including the signal vote ,redundancy management and control law software testing and so on .Through the dual‐redundant flight control computer test ,the test verification system can effectively test the function and performance of flight control computer ,reaching the design requirement .

  10. HDL to verification logic translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  11. HDL to verification logic translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  12. The justification of discriminating environmental control instruments. An investigation of the range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective using the German energy promoting laws EEG and KWKModG as an example; Die Rechtfertigung von diskriminierenden umweltpolitischen Steuerungsinstrumenten. Eine Untersuchung der Reichweite der Warenverkehrsfreiheit und ihrer Begrenzung durch den Umweltschutz als Vertragsziel am Beispiel der deutschen Energiefoerdergesetze EEG und KWKModG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Lydia

    2012-07-01

    The range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (AEUV) are the objective of this study. The investigation is performed in light of the German energy promoting laws EEG (Renewable Energy Law) and KWKModG (Act for the Retention, Modernisation and Expansion of Combined Heat and Power) whose incentive effect is combined with a discriminating interference of the free merchandise traffic. Based on the PreussenElektra legislation of the European Court of Justice (Luxembourg, Luxembourg) and the succession jurisdiction, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on whether the European Court of Justice has opened the Cassis formula as a basis for justification for discriminations. This can be negotiated. After all, the analysis of the Supreme Court decision comes to the result that the European Court of Justice has applied the known method of practical concordance in the PreussenElektra decision. In case of a collision of treaty objectives of equal rank - merchandise traffic and environmental traffic - one only has to perform an appreciation of values which may involve a justification of discriminating impacts in the free movement of goods and labour. The fundamentals of the minimis notice from the European Competition Act can be decisive for the justification and for the conformity of the domestic market of a discriminating national law if an intervention is connected with a partial market fore closure. These fundamentals have some influence on the consideration as part of the testing of concordance.

  13. Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology Based Reusable Verification Environment for Efficient Verification of Image Signal Processing IPS/SOCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology based Reusable Verification Environment for efficient verification of Image Signal Processing IP’s/SoC’s. With the tight schedules on all projects it is important to have a strong verification methodology which contributes to First Silicon Success. Deploy methodologies which enforce full functional coverage and verification of corner cases through pseudo random test scenarios is required. Also, standardization of verification flow is needed. Previously, inside imaging group of ST, Specman (e/Verilog based Verification Environment forIP/Subsystem level verification and C/C++/Verilog based Directed Verification Environment for SoC Level Verification was used for Functional Verification. Different Verification Environments were used at IP level and SoC level. Different Verification/Validation Methodologies were used for SoC Verification across multiple sites. Verification teams were also looking for the ways how to catch bugs early in the design cycle? Thus, Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology (UVM based Reusable Verification Environment is required to avoid the problem of having so many methodologies and provides a standard unified solution which compiles on all tools.

  14. Clinical Verification of Homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Van Wassenhoven

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is changing! This is certainly true regarding the homeopathic practice and access to homeopathic medicine. Therefore our first priority at the ECH-LMHI [1] has been to produce a yearly report on the scientific framework of homeopathy. In the 2010 version a new chapter about epidemic diseases has been added including the Leptospirosis survey on the Cuban population. A second priority has been to review the definition of the homeopathic medicines respecting the new framework generated by the official registration procedure and the WHO report. We are working now on a documented (Materia Medica and provings list of homeopathic remedies to facilitate the registration of our remedies. The new challenges are: first of all more good research proposals and as such more funding (possible through ISCHI + Blackie Foundation as examples [2]; international acceptance of new guidelines for proving and clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms (Proposals are ready for discussion; total reconsideration of the homeopathic repertories including results of the clinical verification of the symptoms. The world is changing, we are part of the world and changes are needed also for homeopathy!

  15. The Key-point Analysis of Comparison Testing, Quality Control and Data Verification of CEMS%烟气CEMS比对监测及质量控制、数据审核要点解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫兴; 胡敏; 刘启贞

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the problems during the operation of CEMS of stationary source, the comparison tes-ting, quality control and data verification of CEMS are analyzed. The data of CEMS, validated by these three methods, can be used by the ministry of environmental protection.%针对目前烟气CEMS在实际运行过程中遇到的问题,本文从比对监测、质量控制以及数据审核三个方面作了详细分析,通过验收比对监测、日常的监督比对监测、有效数据的审核、烟气CEMS的质量保证和质量控制措施,烟气CEMS产生的数据可作为各地环保管理部门环境监督管理的依据.

  16. Independent Validation and Verification of Process Design and Optimization Technology Diagnostic and Control of Natural Gas Fired Furnaces via Flame Image Analysis Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program has invested in emerging Process Design and Optimizations Technologies (PDOT) to encourage the development of new initiatives that might result in energy savings in industrial processes. Gas fired furnaces present a harsh environment, often making accurate determination of correct air/fuel ratios a challenge. Operation with the correct air/fuel ratio and especially with balanced burners in multi-burner combustion equipment can result in improved system efficiency, yielding lower operating costs and reduced emissions. Flame Image Analysis offers a way to improve individual burner performance by identifying and correcting fuel-rich burners. The anticipated benefit of this technology is improved furnace thermal efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Independent validation and verification (V&V) testing of the FIA technology was performed at Missouri Forge, Inc., in Doniphan, Missouri by Environ International Corporation (V&V contractor) and Enterprise Energy and Research (EE&R), the developer of the technology. The test site was selected by the technology developer and accepted by Environ after a meeting held at Missouri Forge. As stated in the solicitation for the V&V contractor, 'The objective of this activity is to provide independent verification and validation of the performance of this new technology when demonstrated in industrial applications. A primary goal for the V&V process will be to independently evaluate if this technology, when demonstrated in an industrial application, can be utilized to save a significant amount of the operating energy cost. The Seller will also independently evaluate the other benefits of the demonstrated technology that were previously identified by the developer, including those related to product quality, productivity, environmental impact, etc'. A test plan was provided by the technology developer and is included as an appendix to the summary report

  17. Hardware/software co-verification platform for EOS design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ethernet over SDH/SONET (EOS) is a hotspot in today's data transmission technology for it combines the merits of both Ethernet and SDH/SONET. However, implementing an EOS system on a chip is complex and needs full verifications. This paper introduces our design of Hardware/Software co-verification platform for EOS design. The hardware platform contains a microprocessor board and an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)-based verification board, and the corresponding software includes test benches running in FPGAs, controlling programs for the microprocessor and a console program with GUI (Graphical User Interface) interface for configuration, management and supervision. The design is cost-effective and has been successfully employed to verify several IP (Intellectual Property) blocks of our EOS chip. Moreover, it is flexible and can be applied as a general-purpose verification platform.

  18. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  19. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous dynamics deserves increased attention, especially in the context of wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variants of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems. Moreover, being based...... of classical hybrid systems, we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT--BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS, W.L. GORE ASSOC., INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center evaluates the performance of baghouse filtration products used primarily to control PM2.5 emissions. This verification statement summarizes the test results for W.L. Gore & Assoc....

  1. Online fingerprint verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K

    2007-01-01

    As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications.

  2. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  3. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LightWater Reactors (CASL). Fivemain types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  4. The Lisbon Treaty and the New Dimensions of the Principles of Proportionality and Subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUT

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the paper was constituted on an extremely present subject of real interest. Using the content analysis thorough a descriptive documentary research this study aims atidentifying the new dimensions of the principles of proportionality and subsidiarity after the Lisbon Treaty. For this end, an analysis of the specific objectives was performed: the concept ofproportionality, the evolution of subsidiarity and the new valences of the two principles in the framework of the modifications introduces by the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. We assert thus thatin virtue of these modifications, the application of the principles of proportionality and subsidiarity has the purpose of maintaining the institutional balance, as the subsidiarity establishes which of the competencies belongs to the state or community institutions and the proportionality indicates the dimensions of applying the legislative measures.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.307 - Linearity verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... linearity verification generally consists of introducing a series of at least 10 reference values to a... reference values of the linearity verification. For pressure, temperature, dewpoint, and GC-ECD linearity verifications, we recommend at least three reference values. For all other linearity verifications select...

  6. Reconfigurable system design and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Huang, Chun-Hsian

    2009-01-01

    Reconfigurable systems have pervaded nearly all fields of computation and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Reconfigurable System Design and Verification provides a compendium of design and verification techniques for reconfigurable systems, allowing you to quickly search for a technique and determine if it is appropriate to the task at hand. It bridges the gap between the need for reconfigurable computing education and the burgeoning development of numerous different techniques in the design and verification of reconfigurable systems in various application domains. The text e

  7. U.S. Accession to ASEAN’s Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-05

    of deforestation . U.S. relations with Malaysia , another core majority-Muslim ASEAN member, also have global and regional importance because of...Darussalam, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. 2 Treaty of Amity and Cooperation...or to what extent U.S. participation would be resisted by EAS members, particularly China and Malaysia , which in the past have voiced reservations

  8. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  9. Mark Twain, “The Treaty with China,” and the Chinese Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zehr

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    For today’s reader of Twain, the chronological appearance of “The Treaty with China” in August of 1868 may seem an anomalous entry in his bibliography, published at a time when his growing reputation is still primarily dependent on his ability to elicit a laugh or, for the more sophisticated reader, a knowing snicker. However, issues of race, class, and politics are not absent from his journalistic work prior to August 1868. Nothing in Twain’s writing prior to 1868, however, which had limited circulation, would have prepared the contemporary reader for the strong, unequivocal sympathies expressed toward the Chinese immigrants in “The Treaty with China.” For this reason alone, a closer analysis of “The Treaty” is warranted, providing prescient evidence regarding the political basis of Twain’s oeuvre at this embryonic stage of his career as a public figure. Many Twain scholars, largely through the brilliant analysis in Philip Foner’s 1958 work, Mark Twain: Social Critic, are already aware of the existence of “The Treaty with China,” even if they have never seen the text, but it has otherwise suffered from undeserved neglect, primarily because it has not been widely available to scholars since its 1868 publication, except for those with access to adequate microfilm resource libraries. This lacuna in Twain studies, at least, is now remedied with this reappearance of the entire text of “The Treaty with China.”

  10. Standardizacija materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu / Materiel standardization in North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Glišić

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan proces standardizacije materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu kroz sagledavanje njegovog mesta i uloge u okviru zajedničke standardizacije, koja se realizuje radi dostizanja interoperabilnosti između vojnih snaga zemalja uključenih u evroatlantske integracije. / This paper presents a process of materiel standardization in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization through analysis of its place and role in common standardization process that should achieve interoperability between allied forces.

  11. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations.

  12. EU Enlargement Law: History and Recent Developments: Treaty – Custom Concubinage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochenov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This note provides a detailed account of the development of the EU enlargement law. Based on the material provided by the latest enlargement round, it outlines the main set of enlargement principles, criteria and procedural tools employed by the Union in the process, also making a sketch of the actual chronology of enlargement events. Based on the analysis of the legal regulation of five rounds of enlargement and making parallels with the notion of customary law as understood in public international law, it argues that the Union enlargements have always enjoyed a dual regulation: by written (mostly Treaty based and also by customary enlargement law. The existence of customary law explains the consistency of enlargement regulation throughout all the rounds of this process, notwithstanding the stage of the Treaty reform in force at the time of every particular accession. The minimal amendments introduced into the enlargement article by the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe (Art. I-58 suggest that the future enlargements are likely to be building on the body of customary law in force to date. The process of gradual incorporation of customary law into the written law of the EU is also likely to continue.

  13. Reconnaissance Mapu-Che of Chile: Treaty versus Constitution, History versus Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé CLAVERO SALVADOR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The compromise acquired since 1991 by successive Chilean governments to recognise indigenous presence in the organization of the State at a constitutional level has revealed the mutual academic and legal ignorance in relation to the evidence for Mapu-Che recognition. This work revisits the historical and legal relationship between the Chilean and the Mapu State, which until the Chilean conquest of the Mapu in the 1880s was carried out through Treaties and Parliaments that implied a mutual recognition of both identities in an international sphere. Study commissions official reports and pleas for truth for a new treaty, first by the United Nations, and later by the Republic of Chile noted the evidence of the constitutional and international significance of the Treaties, but Chile has since transformed its peculiar form of constitutional recognition of the indigenous presence into a display of national unity. This cover-up stems both from the desire to maintain an exclusive Constitution, and the certainty that any other form of recognition would lead to a reconsideration of the roots of the constitutional foundations of the Republic of Chile.

  14. Treaty-Port English in Nineteenth-Century Shanghai: Speakers, Voices, and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Si

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the introduction of English to the treaty port of Shanghai and the speech communities that developed there as a result. English became a sociocultural phenomenon rather than an academic subject when it entered Shanghai in the 1840s, gradually generating various social activities of local Chinese people who lived in the treaty port. Ordinary people picked up a rudimentary knowledge of English along trading streets and through glossary references, and went to private schools to improve their linguistic skills. They used English to communicate with foreigners and as a means to explore a foreign presence dominated by Western material culture. Although those who learned English gained small-scale social mobility in the late nineteenth century, the images of English-speaking Chinese were repeatedly criticized by the literati and official scholars. This paper explores Westerners’ travel accounts, as well as various sources written by the new elite Chinese, including official records and vernacular poems, to demonstrate how English language acquisition brought changes to local people’s daily lives. I argue that treaty-port English in nineteenth-century Shanghai was not only a linguistic medium but, more importantly, a cultural agent of urban transformation. It gradually molded a new linguistic landscape, which at the same time contributed to the shaping of modern Shanghai culture.

  15. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  16. Implementation of unified power flow controller and verification for transmission capability improvement; UPFC shukusho model kaihatsu to soden kino kojo koka no kensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Morioka, Y.; Nakahigashi, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Mishima, Y. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Nakachi, Y. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Asada, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Tokuhara, K.; Akamatsu, M.; Furuta, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes a control method and system configuration of UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller). UPFC is one of the promising power electronics equipments because it is an extremely flexible power controller capable of controlling all of the transmission line valiables (voltage, impedance and voltage phase angle). Due to the control flexibility, however, it is important to select a proper control scheme corresponding to the purpose. Under the research project for the reinforcement technology of electric power interconnection, a miniature model of UPFC for the real time analog simulator was developed. Series side of UPFC has three control modes(perpendicular voltage control, impedance control and voltage angle control). It is used for power flow control and/or power system stabilizing control. Shunt side is used for voltage control or reactive power control in addition to compensating the power required from series side. Various tests were performed to compare control modes and the perpendicular voltage control is proposed as the simplest and most practical method because the capacity of the shunt compensator is minimized and power flow control sensitivity is maintained over a wide range of angle. 7 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The Lisbon Treaty and the Police and Justice Cooperation: Special Emphasis to the European Public Prosecutor's Office

    OpenAIRE

    Josifovic, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    Criminal law at the European Union level has traditionally been dealt through the concept of intergovernmental cooperation and gains its legal designation in the Maastricht Treaty, as part of the Justice and Home Affairs. The Amsterdam Treaty created the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, but the Tampere Council and the Hague Programme took the notion of European criminal law through the process of mutual recognition. This paper is two-fold. First, the purpose of this paper is to prese...

  18. The International Data Centre of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty: vision and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratt, S.R. [Vienna International Centre, Vienna (Austria). Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    2001-05-01

    The mission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Data Centre (IDC) is to: (a) acquire data over a Global Communications Infrastructure from a global network of 337 facilities of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS), (b) to process and analyze these data, and (c) to provide the IMS data, IDC products and services to Member States. In effect, the IDC symbolizes a new brand of arms control for the information age, leveraging Internet communications, knowledge-based data fusion, graphical decision support systems and Web-based user interfaces to achieve its mission. During 2000, the IDC was disseminating products based on data from about 90 seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations of the future network. The number of events in the reviewed seismo-acoustic bulletins ranged from 40 to 360 each day. On average, some 200 radionuclide spectra were processed and analysed each month. Users from 45 Member States received an average of close to 18,000 data and product deliveries per month from the IDC. As the IDC continues to prepare for entry-into-force of the CTBT, it will continue to integrate the state-of-the-art in science and technology in order to meet the demands of the increasing volume of new types of IMS data, expanded IDC services, and a growing base of users. (orig.) [German] Die Aufgaben des Internationalen Datenzentrums (IDC) fuer das Umfassende Verbot fuer Nuklearversuche (UVNV) sind die folgenden : (a) Sammeln der Daten vom globalen Netzwerk mit 337 Einrichtungen des Internationalen Ueberwachungssystems (IMS) ueber eine globale Kommunikationsinfrastruktur, (b) Verarbeitung und Analyse dieser Daten, und (c) Versorgung der Mitgliedsstaaten mit diesen IMS Daten sowie mit IDC Produkten und Diensten. Das IDC symbolisiert damit eine neuen Typ der Ruestungskontrolle im Informationszeitalter und stuetzt sich dabei auf Internet Kommunikation, wissensbasierte Datenfusion, graphische Systeme zur Entscheidungshilfe sowie Web

  19. The China-Canada Bilateral Investment Treaty after Its Signatures:A Comment Based on International Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Qingjiang

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the long-haul efforts, a bilateral invest-ment treaty was signed by China and Canada. Due to the inability to com-plete its domestic ratification procedure on the Canadian part, the treaty, which is supposed to facilitate the investment relationship between the two countries, is pending for its due effect. Contrary to the general expectation of Chinese scholars, prospective investors and possibly Chinese officials in-volved, there emerged arguments in Canada that the treaty warrants closer scrutiny . A brief legal analysis of the article shows that the investment trea-ty not only is not so distinguishable from other bilateral investment agree-ments but lags behind the investment chapter of the NAFTA to which Cana-da is a party for years. A further look at the critiques pinpoints that the ar-guments are unwarranted and many of them are either derivative from mis-understanding of the treaty or due to political bias. The article further ar-gues that, in accordance with both the customary rules of international law on signed but unratified treaties’ legal effect, as evidenced by Article 18 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, and the discourses of the publicists in this regard, Canada shall refrain from taking measures against Chinese investors which contravene the aims and purpose of the BIT as the Chinese signatory is waiting for the BIT being given its due force.

  20. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  1. Numident Online Verification Utility (NOVU)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — NOVU is a mainframe application that accesses the NUMIDENT to perform real-time SSN verifications. This program is called by other SSA online programs that serve as...

  2. Biometric verification with correlation filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2004-01-01

    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification.

  3. The MODUS Approach to Formal Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewka Lukasz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Software reliability is of great importance for the development of embedded systems that are often used in applications that have requirements for safety. Since the life cycle of embedded products is becoming shorter, productivity and quality simultaneously required and closely in the process of providing competitive products Objectives: In relation to this, MODUS (Method and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality project aims to provide small and medium-sized businesses ways to improve their position in the embedded market through a pragmatic and viable solution Methods/Approach: This paper will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that can assist formal verification and formal model checking. Results: Based on automated analysis of the characteristics of the system and by controlling the choice of the existing opensource model verification engines, model verification producing inputs to be fed into these engines. Conclusions: The MODUS approach is aligned with present market needs; the familiarity with tools, the ease of use and compatibility/interoperability remain among the most important criteria when selecting the development environment for a project

  4. Shaking table test and verification of development of an accumulated semi-active hydraulic damper as an active interaction control device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MING-HSIANG SHIH; WEN-PEI SUNG

    2016-12-01

    Semi-active control is based on the use of the emerging concept of active control and passive control. The developed accumulator semi-active hydraulic damper (ASHD) is converted to interaction element (IE) of active interaction control (AIC). Systemic equations of motion, control law and control rulers of this proposed new AIC are studied in this research. A full-scale multiple degrees of freedom shaking table is tested toverify the energy dissipation of this proposed AIC, including test building without control, with passive control added involving various stiffness ratios and also with synchronic control added involving various stiffness ratios. Shock absorption of displacement can be up to 74–81% of that of the test structure with stiffness ratio = 2.3387 and 1.790 at 1st and 2nd floor under control of synchronous switch of this proposed AIC, respectively. No matter what the test structure added with various stiffeners at 1st and 2nd floor under synchronous control, test results of shock absorption ratio of acceleration show good seismic proof capability. In addition, base shear control effects of this proposed AIC method are higher than those of the test structure with various stiffeners added underpassive control. These results show that AIC with stiffeners for structural control provides the characteristics of a stabilized structure under excitation of near-fault earthquake with velocity impulse action

  5. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  6. Academe defends its role in Test Ban Treaty monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J.

    Recent jockeying for control of congressional seismic research funds has left the U.S. scientific research community uneasy about future cooperation with the federal government in the development of comprehensive nuclear test ban monitoring systems.Even though the language in a Defense authorization bill for fiscal year 1995, which cleared the Senate June 30, will likely be toned down in the House and Senate conference, the “aggressive” maneuvering that ensued to tentatively dispose the bulk of power over the interagency seismic network to the Defense Department, critics say, raises new questions about how science policy decisions are made in the United States and how committed the Congress and some federal agencies are to “reinventing” government under the Clinton-Gore plan. And for now, a hefty chunk of funding for academic seismic research is no longer a sure thing.

  7. 9 CFR 417.4 - Validation, Verification, Reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.4 Validation, Verification, Reassessment. (a) Every establishment shall validate the HACCP plan's adequacy in controlling the food...

  8. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Paul

    2004-02-01

    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  9. Completing and sustaining IMS network for the CTBT Verification Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, N.

    2015-12-01

    The CTBT International Monitoring System is to be comprised of 337 facilities located all over the world for the purpose of detecting and locating nuclear test explosions. Major challenges remain, namely the completion of the network where most of the remaining stations have either environmental, logistical and/or political issues to surmont (89% of the stations have already been built) and the sustainment of a reliable and state-of the-art network covering 4 technologies - seismic, infrasound , hydroacoustic and radionuclide. To have a credible and trustworthy verification system ready for entry into force of the Treaty, the CTBTO is protecting and enhancing its investment of its global network of stations and is providing effective data to the International Data Centre (IDC) and Member States. Regarding the protection of the CTBTO's investment and enhanced sustainment of IMS station operations, the IMS Division is enhancing the capabilities of the monitoring system by applying advances in instrumentation and introducing new software applications that are fit for purpose. Some examples are the development of noble gas laboratory systems to process and analyse subsoil samples, development of a mobile noble gas system for onsite inspection purposes, optimization of Beta Gamma detectors for Xenon detection, assessing and improving the efficiency of wind noise reduction systems for infrasound stations, development and testing of infrasound stations with a self-calibrating capability, and research into the use of modular designs for the hydroacoustic network.

  10. Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2006-09-28

    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the

  11. Atoms for peace and the nonproliferation treaty: unintended consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streeper, Charles Blamires [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, President Obama revived nonproliferation and arms control efforts with a speech calling for the worldwide abolition of nuclear weapons. His speech correctly acknowledged the threat of nuclear terrorism and the vulnerabilities of the related unsecure nuclear materials. Unfortunately, the president did not mention and has not mentioned in any speech the threat posed by at-risk radiological materials. Nonproliferation efforts have a well documented history of focus on special nuclear materials (fissionable weapons usable materials or SNM), and other key materials (chemical and biological) and technologies for a Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD). Such intense focus on WMD related materials/technologies is essential for international safety and security and merit continued attention and funding. However, the perception that radioactive sealed sources (sources) are of less concern than WMD is unfortunate. These perceptions are based solely on the potentially enormous and tragic consequences associated with their deliberate or accidental misuse and proliferation concerns. However, there is a documented history of overemphasis on the nuclear threat at the expense of ignoring the far more likely and also devastating chemical and biological threats. The radiological threat should not be minimized or excluded from policy discussions and decisions on these far ranging scopes of threat to the international community. Sources have a long history of use; and a wider distribution worldwide than fissile materials. Pair this with their broad ranges in isotopes/activities along with scant national and international attention and mechanisms for their safe and secure management and it is not difficult to envision a deadly threat. Arguments that minimize or divert attention away from sources may have the effect of distracting necessary policy attention on preventing/mitigating a radiological dispersal event. The terrorist attacks on 9/11 should be a clear reminder of the

  12. The use of depleted uranium ammunition under contemporary international law: is there a need for a treaty-based ban on DU weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines whether the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions can be considered illegal under current public international law. The analysis covers the law of arms control and focuses in particular on international humanitarian law. The article argues that DU ammunition cannot be addressed adequately under existing treaty based weapon bans, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, due to the fact that DU does not meet the criteria required to trigger the applicability of those treaties. Furthermore, it is argued that continuing uncertainties regarding the effects of DU munitions impedes a reliable review of the legality of their use under various principles of international law, including the prohibition on employing indiscriminate weapons; the prohibition on weapons that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment; and the prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. All of these principles require complete knowledge of the effects of the weapon in question. Nevertheless, the author argues that the same uncertainty places restrictions on the use of DU under the precautionary principle. The paper concludes with an examination of whether or not there is a need for--and if so whether there is a possibility of achieving--a Convention that comprehensively outlaws the use, transfer and stockpiling of DU weapons, as proposed by some non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  13. 40 CFR 1065.372 - NDUV analyzer HC and H2O interference verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this part. Use the FID response as the reference hydrocarbon value. (3) Upstream of any sample dryer... verification. 1065.372 Section 1065.372 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and...

  14. A Zero Knowledge Protocol For Nuclear Warhead Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Alexander [Princeton, Univ., NJ (United States). Program on Science and Global Security; Goldston, Robert J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-03-14

    The verification of nuclear warheads for arms control faces a paradox: International inspectors must gain high confidence in the authenticity of submitted items while learning nothing about them. Conventional inspection systems featuring ''information barriers'', designed to hide measurments stored in electronic systems, are at risk of tampering and snooping. Here we show the viability of fundamentally new approach to nuclear warhead verification that incorporates a zero-knowledge protocol, designed such that sensitive information is never measured so does not need to be hidden. We interrogate submitted items with energetic neutrons, making in effect, differential measurements of neutron transmission and emission. Calculations of diversion scenarios show that a high degree of discrimination can be achieved while revealing zero information. Timely demonstration of the viability of such an approach could be critical for the nexxt round of arms-control negotiations, which will likely require verification of individual warheads, rather than whole delivery systems.

  15. Using SysML for verification and validation planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Angeli, George

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the tool, language, and methodology used for Verification and Validation Planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project. LSST has implemented a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach as a means of defining all systems engineering planning and definition activities that have historically been captured in paper documents. Specifically, LSST has adopted the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) standard and is utilizing a software tool called Enterprise Architect, developed by Sparx Systems. Much of the historical use of SysML has focused on the early phases of the project life cycle. Our approach is to extend the advantages of MBSE into later stages of the construction project. This paper details the methodology employed to use the tool to document the verification planning phases, including the extension of the language to accommodate the project's needs. The process includes defining the Verification Plan for each requirement, which in turn consists of a Verification Requirement, Success Criteria, Verification Method(s), Verification Level, and Verification Owner. Each Verification Method for each Requirement is defined as a Verification Activity and mapped into Verification Events, which are collections of activities that can be executed concurrently in an efficient and complementary way. Verification Event dependency and sequences are modeled using Activity Diagrams. The methodology employed also ties in to the Project Management Control System (PMCS), which utilizes Primavera P6 software, mapping each Verification Activity as a step in a planned activity. This approach leads to full traceability from initial Requirement to scheduled, costed, and resource loaded PMCS task-based activities, ensuring all requirements will be verified.

  16. On-machine dimensional verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendulic, W.

    1993-08-01

    General technology for automating in-process verification of machined products has been studied and implemented on a variety of machines and products at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Tests have been performed to establish system accuracy and probe reliability on two numerically controlled machining centers. Commercial software has been revised, and new cycles such as skew check and skew machining, have been developed to enhance and expand probing capabilities. Probe benefits have been demonstrated in the area of setup, cycle time, part quality, tooling cost, and product sampling.

  17. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana; Jorge Antonio Villagra Cayamana

    2013-01-01

    Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention ...

  18. Demonstration of “substantial research activity” to acquire consultative status under the Antarctic Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Gray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties are entitled to participate in consensus-based governance of the continent through the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. To acquire consultative status, an interested Party must demonstrate “substantial research activity,” but no agreed mechanism exists to determine whether a Party has fulfilled this criterion. Parties have generally demonstrated substantial research activity with the construction of a research station, as suggested within the Treaty itself. However, this largely demonstrates logistical capacity, rather than research activity, and often results in major and persistent impacts on Antarctic terrestrial environments. Our study found that national investment in Antarctic infrastructure, estimated by the number of bed spaces at stations, was not a reliable indicator of scientific output. Therefore, we investigated metrics to evaluate research activity directly, and identified both the overall number of Antarctic papers and the proportion of national scientific output these represented as meaningful metrics. Such metrics could (1 demonstrate a nation's level of research activity in Antarctica or (2 help Consultative Parties assess the level of research activity undertaken by a Party seeking to acquire consultative status. Our data showed that, even without land-based Antarctic infrastructure, Canada, Denmark and Switzerland may have reasonable grounds to demonstrate “substantial research activity” on a level comparable with existing Consultative Parties. The use of these metrics may help dispel any perceived requirement for the establishment of a research station to reach consultative status, by putting a greater emphasis on generation of scientific research outputs rather than construction of Antarctic infrastructure.

  19. The Energy Charter Treaty and settlement of disputes – current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Gabriela Iacob

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Charter Treaty (the “ECT” is a multilateral agreement aiming to promote energy cooperation and security. This paper focuses on the provisions of the ECT governing the protection of foreign investments and the settlement of disputes between investors and host states. In particular, this paper analyses the recent developments and challenges in the field of dispute settlement under the ECT, such as the increase in arbitrations, the withdrawal of Italy from the ECT, as well as the interplay between EU law and the ECT.

  20. Education as a right in international treatie: A reading from inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Montanchez Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical review of education as a right, in international treaties and the evolution of the concept of inclusive education from a diverse multi and intercultural perspective. This article is part of a doctoral thesis from Valencia, Spain, researched in Ecuador. Inclusive education proposes quality education for everyone, demanding a response from competent institutions to develop a tolerant culture to difference in defense of human rights and equal opportunity. This essay facilitates guidelines that develop and support the construction of inclusive classrooms by education professionals at a primary school level as well as at a university level.

  1. Extradition To and From the United States: Overview of the Law and Recent Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    UNITED STATES LAW AND PRACTICE (BASSIOUNI) 1-7 (5th ed. 2007); ABBELL & RISTAU, supra footnote 3, at 3-11. 5 Ramses II of Egypt and the Hittite...Ramesses II , §§11-14, transliteration and translation in, S. Langdon & Alan H. Gardiner, The Treaty of Alliance Between Hattusili, King of the...Hittites, and the Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt, 6 JOURNAL OF EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 179, 192-94 (1920). Until fairly recently, nations seem have been happily

  2. Analysis and models of bilateral investment treaties using a social networks approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Daniela; Bonomo, Flavia; Stier-Moses, Nicolás E.

    2010-09-01

    Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) are agreements between two countries for the reciprocal encouragement, promotion and protection of investments in each other’s territories by companies based in either country. Germany and Pakistan signed the first BIT in 1959 and since then, BITs are one of the most popular and widespread form of international agreement. In this work we study the proliferation of BITs using a social networks approach. We propose a network growth model that dynamically replicates the empirical topological characteristics of the BIT network.

  3. Transit of Oil. Monitoring Report on the Implementation of the Transit Provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    The present study aims at monitoring the implementation of the Energy Charter Treaty provisions for energy transit. The importance of compliance with the Treaty provisions on uninterrupted cross border energy flows were highlighted by recent interruptions of energy transit. The Energy Charter Treaty provides a set of binding rules that cover the entire energy chain, including terms to transport energy across a number of jurisdictions. The transit provisions of the Treaty support the reliability of established flows and the creation of a new transport capacity as core factors for reliable transit flows. The study focuses on the transportation of crude oil by fixed infrastructure within the Energy Charter Constituency. Although the bulk of international crude oil trade is by tanker shipping crude oil via pipelines it is common in landlocked countries. The crude oil transportation systems within Energy Charter Constituency vary from newly developed transit pipelines like the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline with a more straightforward structure to more complex systems like Druzhba, which now crosses multiple national borders and whose once uniform ownership and operation structure has been split after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The present report distinguishes between different types of fixed infrastructure ownership across the Energy Charter Constituency, analyses legislative and practical features of such systems in selected member states and suggests ways for improving compliance with the provisions of the Treaty. It is published alongside a corresponding study on natural gas transportation systems.

  4. Functional verification coverage measurement and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Piziali, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a means of quantitatively assessing functional verification progress. Without this process, design and verification engineers, and management, are left guessing whether or not they have completed verifying the device they are designing.

  5. 10 CFR 300.11 - Independent verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... skills required for verification are often cross-disciplinary. For example, an individual verifier...) Companies that provide verification services must use professionals that possess the necessary skills and...: American Institute of Certified Public Accountants; American National Standards Institute's...

  6. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2007-01-01

    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  7. Formal verification of complex properties on PLC programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Voros, A; Bartha, T; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Formal verification has become a recommended practice in the safety-critical application areas. However, due to the complexity of practical control and safety systems, the state space explosion often prevents the use of formal analysis. In this paper we extend our former verification methodology with effective property preserving reduction techniques. For this purpose we developed general rule-based reductions and a customized version of the Cone of Influence (COI) reduction. Using these methods, the verification of complex requirements formalised with temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) can be orders of magnitude faster. We use the NuSMV model checker on a real-life PLC program from CERN to demonstrate the performance of our reduction techniques.

  8. Verification of the Space Shuttle entry GN&C system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoften, J. D. A.; Moyles, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The certification procedures for the initial Shuttle flight are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the entry guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) verification, comprising tests, analysis, demonstration, inspection, and simulation. Flow diagrams for the verification and operational flight sequences are provided, along with a block diagram of the GNC circuitry interfaces. The development of the test matrix software for the GNC is outlined, noting the constant interplay between software verification and spacecraft reconfiguration to meet simulated performance requirements. Comparison of GNC performance predictions with actual entry flight data showed a good match in all performance areas except for sideslip excursions, bank overshoots, an area of transonic buffet, and an increased lift/drag ratio in the preflare to landing flight phase.

  9. Verification and Diagnostics Framework in ATLAS Trigger/DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, M; Caprini, M; Da Silva-Conceicao, J; Dobson, M; Flammer, J; Jones, R; Kazarov, A; Kolos, S; Liko, D; Lucio, L; Mapelli, L; Soloviev, I; Hart, R; Amorim, A; Klose, D; Lima, J; Pedro, L; Wolters, H; Badescu, E; Alexandrov, I; Kotov, V; Mineev, M A; Ryabov, Yu; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics

    2003-01-01

    Trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) systems for modern HEP experiments are composed of thousands of hardware and software components depending on each other in a very complex manner. Typically, such systems are operated by non-expert shift operators, which are not aware of system functionality details. It is therefore necessary to help the operator to control the system and to minimize system down-time by providing knowledge-based facilities for automatic testing and verification of system components and also for error diagnostics and recovery. For this purpose, a verification and diagnostic framework was developed in the scope of ATLAS TDAQ. The verification functionality of the framework allows developers to configure simple low-level tests for any component in a TDAQ configuration. The test can be configured as one or more processes running on different hosts. The framework organizes tests in sequences, using knowledge about components hierarchy and dependencies, and allowing the operator to verify the fun...

  10. Toward Automatic Verification of Goal-Oriented Flow Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the power of adaptive mesh refinement with adjoint-based error estimates in verification of simulations governed by the steady Euler equations. The flow equations are discretized using a finite volume scheme on a Cartesian mesh with cut cells at the wall boundaries. The discretization error in selected simulation outputs is estimated using the method of adjoint-weighted residuals. Practical aspects of the implementation are emphasized, particularly in the formulation of the refinement criterion and the mesh adaptation strategy. Following a thorough code verification example, we demonstrate simulation verification of two- and three-dimensional problems. These involve an airfoil performance database, a pressure signature of a body in supersonic flow and a launch abort with strong jet interactions. The results show reliable estimates and automatic control of discretization error in all simulations at an affordable computational cost. Moreover, the approach remains effective even when theoretical assumptions, e.g., steady-state and solution smoothness, are relaxed.

  11. Verification of Embedded Memory Systems using Efficient Memory Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ganai, Malay K; Ashar, Pranav

    2011-01-01

    We describe verification techniques for embedded memory systems using efficient memory modeling (EMM), without explicitly modeling each memory bit. We extend our previously proposed approach of EMM in Bounded Model Checking (BMC) for a single read/write port single memory system, to more commonly occurring systems with multiple memories, having multiple read and write ports. More importantly, we augment such EMM to providing correctness proofs, in addition to finding real bugs as before. The novelties of our verification approach are in a) combining EMM with proof-based abstraction that preserves the correctness of a property up to a certain analysis depth of SAT-based BMC, and b) modeling arbitrary initial memory state precisely and thereby, providing inductive proofs using SAT-based BMC for embedded memory systems. Similar to the previous approach, we construct a verification model by eliminating memory arrays, but retaining the memory interface signals with their control logic and adding constraints on tho...

  12. Modeling Noble Gas Transport and Detection for The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2014-03-01

    Detonation gases released by an underground nuclear test include trace amounts of 133Xe and 37Ar. In the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, On Site Inspection Protocol, such gases released from or sampled at the soil surface could be used to indicate the occurrence of an explosion in violation of the treaty. To better estimate the levels of detectability from an underground nuclear test (UNE), we developed mathematical models to evaluate the processes of 133Xe and 37Ar transport in fractured rock. Two models are developed respectively for representing thermal and isothermal transport. When the thermal process becomes minor under the condition of low temperature and low liquid saturation, the subsurface system is described using an isothermal and single-gas-phase transport model and barometric pumping becomes the major driving force to deliver 133Xe and 37Ar to the ground surface. A thermal test is simulated using a nonisothermal and two-phase transport model. In the model, steam production and bubble expansion are the major processes driving noble gas components to ground surface. After the temperature in the chimney drops below boiling, barometric pumping takes over the role as the major transport process.

  13. 1944 Water Treaty Between Mexico and the United States: Present Situation and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically and culturally, water has always been considered to be a critical issue in Mexico- USA agenda. Along the 3 140-km border between Mexico and the United States, there is intense competition over the adequate availability of water. Water uses in urban border areas have continued to increase exponentially due to steadily increasing levels of population growth. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in more intensive patterns of water consumption and use. Agricultural water demands continue to be high. Mexico and the United States have established institutions and agreements to manage and protect rivers in the border region. The Treaty between Mexico and the United States for the Utilisation of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande was signed in 1944. With the turn of the century, the growing urban centers along the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo, where the river becomes the international boundary, started increasingly to depend on groundwater. This situation was not specifically addressed in the 1944 Treaty, especially as groundwater use at that time was not so significant.

  14. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

  15. 12 CFR 950.9 - Pledged collateral; verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pledged collateral; verification. 950.9 Section 950.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE... benefit and subject to the Bank's control and direction. (2) A Bank shall take any steps necessary...

  16. SRS Software Verification Pre Operational and Startup Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILL, L.F.

    2000-10-18

    This document defines testing for the software used to control the Sodium Removal System (SRS). The testing is conducted off-line from the. physical plant by using a simulator built-in to the software. This provides verification of proper software operation prior to performing the operational acceptance tests with the actual plant hardware.

  17. The European Union’s external trade policy after the Treaty of Lisbon: a neo-gramscian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Ihor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies neo-Gramscian theory to analyze the European Union’s external trade policy after the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009. It argues that despite the claim that procedural and institutional changes which took place as a result of the ratification of the Treaty serve the general interest of the EU citizens, they were in fact orchestrated by the European transnational capitalist class and serve primarily interests of this group. Paper starts by outlining key institutional and procedural changes introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, briefly outlining their implications for the EU. Further on, rationale for these changes is explained by focusing on socio-economic developments that took place in the EU during the past couple of decades. After outlining how the current hegemonic bloc was established, paper proceeds with explaining why the implemented changes were so important for the dominant in the EU social forces.

  18. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1996-11-01

    Agreements approved by the Entities during the period of this report include: (1) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1995 through 31 July 1996, signed 31 January 1996. (2) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1996 through 31 July 1997, signed 29 August 1996. (3) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on Resolving the Dispute on Critical Period Determination, the Capacity Entitlement for the 1998/99, 1999/00, and 2000/01 AOP/DDPB`s, and Operating Procedures for the 2001/02 and Future AOP`s, signed 29 August 1996.

  19. Verification at the protein level of the PIF4-mediated external coincidence model for the temperature-adaptive photoperiodic control of plant growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashino, Takafumi; Nomoto, Yuji; Lorrain, Séverine; Miyachi, Miki; Ito, Shogo; Nakamichi, Norihito; Fankhauser, Christian; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2013-03-01

    Plant circadian clock controls a wide variety of physiological and developmental events, which include the short-days (SDs)-specific promotion of the elongation of hypocotyls during de-etiolation and also the elongation of petioles during vegetative growth. In A. thaliana, the PIF4 gene encoding a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor plays crucial roles in this photoperiodic control of plant growth. According to the proposed external coincidence model, the PIF4 gene is transcribed precociously at the end of night specifically in SDs, under which conditions the protein product is stably accumulated, while PIF4 is expressed exclusively during the daytime in long days (LDs), under which conditions the protein product is degraded by the light-activated phyB and also the residual proteins are inactivated by the DELLA family of proteins. A number of previous reports provided solid evidence to support this coincidence model mainly at the transcriptional level of the PIF 4 and PIF4-traget genes. Nevertheless, the diurnal oscillation profiles of PIF4 proteins, which were postulated to be dependent on photoperiod and ambient temperature, have not yet been demonstrated. Here we present such crucial evidence on PIF4 protein level to further support the external coincidence model underlying the temperature-adaptive photoperiodic control of plant growth in A. thaliana.

  20. 核电站数字化仪控系统开发过程及其验证与确认%Development Process,Verification & Validation of the Digitized Instrument & Control System for Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠芳

    2012-01-01

    分析了三代非能动型压水堆核电站AP1000的数字化仪控系统的开发过程模型,研究了与其开发过程紧密结合的验证与确认技术(V&V),特别是其审查、分析以及测试方法的使用,并提出了设计、测试及V&V过程的文档要求.该开发过程模型和V&V技术具有广泛的工业规范和标准认可度,对于我国自主化的核安全级数字化仪控系统的开发和取证具有重要的借鉴和指导意义.%The models of development process of digitized instrument and control systems for three generations of AP1000 passive pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants are analyzed, and their closely related verification and validation (V&V) technology, especially the methods of review, analysis and test are researched. In addition, the requirements of the documentations in design, test and V&V processes are proposed. The development processing model and V&V technology are widely acceptable to industrial specifications and standards, they provide significant reference and guidance for developing and certificating of domestic digitized instrument and control systems conforming nuclear safety grade.

  1. Automated Verification of Virtualized Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Gross, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Virtualized infrastructures and clouds present new challenges for security analysis and formal verification: they are complex environments that continuously change their shape, and that give rise to non-trivial security goals such as isolation and failure resilience requirements. We present a pla...

  2. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and size

  3. 10th Signing Anniversary of Sino-Russian Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation Celebrated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>July 15, 2011 marked the 10th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Russian Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, an epoch-making document in bilateral relations. The Treaty focuses on the concept of peace and development and creates a legal framework the common aspiration of "always treating each other as friends and never as enemies". It decides the policy that the two countries should resolutely support each other and unswervingly expand pragmatic cooperation in all fields for long-term development of the relationship in the 21st century.

  4. PoPe (Projection on Proper elements) for code control: verification, numerical convergence and reduced models. Application to plasma turbulence simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cartier-Michaud, T; Sarazin, Y; Abiteboul, J; Bufferand, H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Garbet, X; Grandgirard, V; Latu, G; Norscini, C; Passeron, C; Tamain, P

    2015-01-01

    The Projection on Proper elements (PoPe) is a novel method of code control dedicated to 1) checking the correct implementation of models, 2) determining the convergence of numerical methods and 3) characterizing the residual errors of any given solution at very low cost. The basic idea is to establish a bijection between a simulation and a set of equations that generate it. Recovering equations is direct and relies on a statistical measure of the weight of the various operators. This method can be used in any dimensions and any regime, including chaotic ones. This method also provides a procedure to design reduced models and quantify the ratio costs to benefits. PoPe is applied to a kinetic and a fluid code of plasma turbulence.

  5. Application of Integrated Verification Approach to FPGA-based Safety-Critical I and C System of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jaecheon [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Safety-critical instrumentation and control (I and C) system in nuclear power plant (NPP) implemented on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. The challenges such as fast obsolescence, the vulnerability to cyber-attack, and other related issues of software systems have currently led to the consideration of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as an alternative to PLCs because of their advantages and hardware related benefits. Generally in FPGA design verification, the designers make use of verification techniques by writing the test benches which involved various stages of verification activities of register-transfer level (RTL), gate-level, and place and route. Writing the test benches is considerably time consuming and require a lot of efforts to achieve a satisfied desire results. Furthermore, performing the verification at each stage is a major bottleneck and demanded much activities and time. In addition, verification is conceivably, the most difficult and complicated aspect of any design. Therefore, in view of these, this work applied an integrated verification approach to the verification of FPGA-based I and C system in NPP that simultaneously verified the whole design modules using MATLAB/Simulink HDL Co-simulation models. Verification is conceivably, the most difficult and complicated aspect of any design, and an FPGA design is not an exception. Therefore, in this work, we introduced and discussed how an application of integrated verification technique to the verification and testing of FPGA-based I and C system design in NPP can facilitate the verification processes, and verify the entire design modules of the system simultaneously using MATLAB/Simulink HDL co-simulation models. In conclusion, the results showed that, the integrated verification approach through MATLAB/Simulink models, if applied to any design to be verified, could speed up the design verification and reduce the V and V tasks.

  6. ‘Company’ and ‘Shares’ Under the 2016 India-Mauritius Protocol and The U.N. Model Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the meaning of ‘‘company’’ and ‘‘shares’’ in the new protocol to the India-Mauritius tax treaty and the U.N. model treaty and how the interpretation of those terms could affect the taxation of capital gains.

  7. The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959): Genesis, Transformation and Dissemination of a Treaty (Re)Constituting a Transnational Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, the social and legal status of the child evolved considerably. One remarkable illustration of this process can be seen by tracing the evolution of specific international treaties on the rights of the child. Although developments in national legislation inspired the authors of these treaties, it was through…

  8. 2种中药制剂微生物限度与控制菌方法验证%Method verification of microbial limit and control bacteria for two kinds of Chinese patent drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵红; 唐娜; 尹良君

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立六味地黄胶囊与杞菊地黄胶囊微生物限度与控制菌的检查方法.方法 采用常规法与培养基稀释法对2种中药制剂进行微生物限度方法验证,采用直接接种法进行控制菌方法验证.结果 建立了2种中药制剂的微生物限度与控制菌检查方法.结论 六味地黄胶囊采用培养基稀释法(0.5 mL/皿)测定细菌数,常规法测定霉菌及酵母菌数;杞菊地黄胶囊采用培养基稀释法(0.2 mL/皿)测定细菌数,培养基稀释法(0.5 mL/皿)测定霉菌及酵母菌数.采用直接接种法对2种中药制剂进行控制菌(大肠埃希菌与大肠菌群)检测.%Objective To estabilish methods of the microbial limit and control bacteria tests for Liuweidihuang Capsules and Qijudi-huang Capsules. Methods Routine method and medium diluting method were adopted for the verification of microbial methodology, direct inoculation method for control bacteria. Results The methods of the microbial limit and control bacteria tests for two kinds of Chinese patent drugs were estabilished. Conclusion Bacterial count of Liuweidihuang Capsules could adopt the medium diluting method (0. 5 mL/plant) , while yeast and mold count could adopt the routine method. Bacterial count of Qijudihuang Capsules could adopt the medium diluting method (0. 2 mL/plant) , while yeast and mold count could adopt the medium diluting method (0. 5 mL/plant). Direct inoculation method could be adopted for detecting the control bacteria for the two kinds of Chinese patent preparations.

  9. Verification for the control of kappa-casein gene on milk protein yield of friesian-holstein in dairy central region of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anggraeni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Genotipe of BB kappa kasein (ĸ-kasein gene positively influences high milk protein yield. The aim of this research was to verify the use of the к-casein gene as marker of assisted selecion (MAS of high protein yield in domestic Holstein-Friesian (HF cattle. Genotyping blood samples was conducted for lactating cows from BPPT-SP Cikole (82 head and a number of small holders in KPSBU Lembang (190 head. Genotyping the к-casein gene was also conducted for active and non active AI bulls (HF from BIB Lembang (25 head and BBIB Singosari (32 head. Varian genotipes were identified trough DNA migration, whereas frequencies of alleles were calculated by Nei Method (1987. The effects of variant genotypes on protein yield and other milk component yields were studied in lactating cows (56 head in BPPT-SP Cikole and 111 head in KPSBU Lembang by applying Least Square Means (LSM method of the General Linear Model (GLM. Genotyping the ĸ-kasein gene resulted in three genotypes, namely AA, AB and BB, with two alleles, namely A and B. It was identified that a very limited number of lactating cows with BB genotype (0-9%. These cows produced higher protein yield around 3.37-3.84% than that of AA cows, while AB cows produced protein yield in between, though these differences were not statistically significant (P>0,05. In contrast, AA cows tended to produced higher milk fat yield than BB cows. Cows BB and AB seemingly produced higher dry matter, while both specific density and pH were not affected by variant genotypes of the к-casein gene. The results showed that BB genotype of the к-casein gene tended to be quitely consistent in controlling high protein yield, so it would be a good oppurtinity to be used as MAS of milk protein yield in HF domestic.

  10. Cost-Effective CNC Part Program Verification Development for Laboratory Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph C.; Chang, Ted C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a computer numerical control program verification system that checks a part program before its execution. The system includes character recognition, word recognition, a fuzzy-nets system, and a tool path viewer. (SK)

  11. [Health risk control for organophosphate pesticides in Mexico: challenges under the Free Trade Treaty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ceseña, J; Espinosa-Torres, F; López-Carrillo, L

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses recent trends concerning the commercialization of pesticides in Mexico and focuses on organophosphates and their potential health risk impact. It points out the existing lack of knowledge on health effects associated to chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides. A need for both toxicological and epidemiologic studies of chronic exposure is identified. Regulatory programs for pesticides in Mexico and the United States are also compared. The paper also addresses the possibility of effective enforcement of environmental and health regulations in Mexico as a result of more rigorous surveillance under NAFTA.

  12. Compositional Verification of Multi-Station Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    pose a big challenge to current verification methodologies, due to the explosion of state space size as soon as large, if not medium sized, multi-station systems have to be controlled. For these reasons, verification techniques that exploit locality principles related to the topological layout...... of the controlled system to split in different ways the state space have been investigated. In particular, compositional approaches divide the controlled track network in regions that can be verified separately, once proper assumptions are considered on the way the pieces are glued together. Basing on a successful...... method to verify the size of rather large networks, we propose a compositional approach that is particularly suitable to address multi-station interlocking systems which control a whole line composed of stations linked by mainline tracks. Indeed, it turns out that for such networks, and for the adopted...

  13. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  14. Automated granularity to integrate digital information: the "Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database" case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to information is necessary, but not sufficient in our digital era. The challenge is to objectively integrate digital resources based on user-defined objectives for the purpose of discovering information relationships that facilitate interpretations and decision making. The Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database (http://aspire.nvi.net, which is in its sixth edition, provides an example of digital integration based on the automated generation of information granules that can be dynamically combined to reveal objective relationships within and between digital information resources. This case study further demonstrates that automated granularity and dynamic integration can be accomplished simply by utilizing the inherent structure of the digital information resources. Such information integration is relevant to library and archival programs that require long-term preservation of authentic digital resources.

  15. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF THE REINSURANCE COVERAGE FOR EXCESS OF LOSS TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veretnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal reinsurance coverage, selected by the cedent, influenced by a number of internal, external, objective and subjective factors. Their accounting or ignoring depends on the individual conditions of the insurer, knowledge of the specific risk profiles of professional experience and decision-makers about the forms and methods of reinsurance coverage. Justified the selection criteria of reinsurance protection for the treaty excess of loss. Using these criteria makes it possible not only to optimize the reinsurance protection, but also to ensure a balance of interests in the long-term relationship of the cedent company and the reinsurer. The article also provides examples of how classes of insurance is advisable to use the obligatory contract portfolio sexcess of loss.

  16. (Inter)Temporal Considerations in the Interpretative Process of the VCLT : Do Treaties Endure, Perdure or Exdure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos

    2014-01-01

    When interpreted, sometimes treaties have to go through a trial by fire and are found either to be ‘living instruments’ evolving alongside the relevant changes both in law and in facts or to have a ‘fixed’ meaning. The aim of the present article is to examine how temporal considerations find their w

  17. Civil society under the Treaty of Lisbon: relationship between national public benefit organizations and European Union policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, L.C.R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The active involvement of European citizens became a new form of democracy in the Treaty of Lisbon of 2009 by the introduction of a whole new chapter dedicated to this purpose. There is an article that obligates the Commission to give serious consideration to the demands of one million citizens from

  18. Civil society under the Treaty of Lisbon: relationship between national public benefit organizations and European Union policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, L.C.R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The active involvement of European citizens became a new form of democracy in the Treaty of Lisbon of 2009 by the introduction of a whole new chapter dedicated to this purpose. There is an article that obligates the Commission to give serious consideration to the demands of one million citizens from

  19. Hydrological assessment of the 1973 treaty on the transboundary Helmand River, using the SWAT model and a global climate database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajihosseini, H.; Hajihosseini, M.; Morid, S.; Delavar, M.; Booij, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Exploitation of the water resources of the Helmand River has been challenging for Iran and Afghanistan. Debates on this issue finally led to a treaty in 1973 between the two countries, in which a total amount of 26 m3/s water from the Helmand River should be delivered to Iran in a normal (or an abov

  20. 8 CFR 319.5 - Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public international organizations in which... UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.5 Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute. Organizations designated by the President as international organizations pursuant...

  1. Treaties over Time and Human Rights: A Case Law Analysis of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Arévalo Narváez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the issue of treaties over time and the interpretations of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in this context. Parts 1 and 2 introduce the elements of treaty interpretation in general international law, providing criteria for the application of the evolutionary approach to treaty interpretation, the debate between the application of evolutive interpretation and the use of subsequent conduct. Part 3 addresses the issue of fragmentation in international human rights law, and through the case law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, provides  evidence for the application of the rules of general international law to interpret the American Convention on Human Rights. Finally, conclusions are extracted on the basis of the case law analyzed, contrasting the Court’s application of the American Convention over time, the conclusions of the International Law Commission Reports on the Fragmentation of International Law in 2008, and the preliminary conclusions of the Study Group on Subsequent Agreements and Subsequent Practice concerning treaty interpretation and the issue of the passage of time.

  2. Legal protectionism of the commercial agency in Colombia versus economic integration treaties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. García Velasco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The business world tends to establish a set of uniform norms for international trade. It works on forms of contracting that produce local and international benefits for commercialization (products, goods, and services; this has been understood by commerce and the law. Nonetheless, there are many obstacles (fiscal, taxes, legal protection of some contractual practices, and limiting clauses, among others and it is sought for these to disappear, especially those that imply exaggerated protection of national commerce. The States seek mechanisms that help them regulate their relations among the different players and treaties are the main source from which emerge mandates that affect national and world economies, facilitating the creation of companies to explore new market places. It is thus that in the trade treaties or agreements, the objective is for trade to flow freely and for the nations to benefit from commercial exchange. In the private laws of the different nations, there are legal institutions that due to their national protection hinder their application at the international level, as is the case of the commercial agency, a controversial contract since its beginnings, recognizing that it has been an alternative for doing business in Colombia. This article critically analyzes the legal framework of the contract of commercial agency versus the integrationist objectives in free trade agreement (FTA negotiations that tend to seek flexibility in this contractual form, according to the conditions imposed by the United States of modifying some contract benefits in the Colombian legislation. The aforementioned leads to ponder if with the modifications the Colombian State agreed to, within the framework of the Free Trade Agreement negotiations, the figure of this contract will continue being attractive, as a way of creating commercial representation companies in Colombia

  3. Rethinking & Recasting Bilateral Investment Treaties as Integrative Tools for Sustainable Development: The Kenyan Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Simiyu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a fundamental principle of International Law. It is closely related to and [should be] a core objective of any international treaty seeking to addressdevelopmental concerns. Curiously, however, a critical review of [legal] literature reveals seemingly little attention given to the actual assessment of ‘how and to what extent’ existing Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs have integrated sustainable developmental concerns. This is particularly in relation to BITs involving developing countries in Africa such as Kenya. Accordingly, taking Kenya as an illustrative case, this study makes a critical assessment of the BITs concluded between Kenya, the Netherlands, Britain, and Germany; with a view to establishing how and to what extent the said BITs haveintegrated sustainable development.  The study argues that most (if not all BITs remain silent on sustainable development. Further, the methods of integrating sustainable development are premised on placing host state obligations to protect investors and their investments. In doing so, the implied assumption is that protection will attract foreign investment necessary for financing sustainable development. Nevertheless, as the paperhighlights, difficulties have arisen in measuring how revenue generated from foreign investment has contributed to the sustainable development due to the unpredictablepatterns of revenue inflow from foreign. This in turn creates difficulties in using the said revenue when planning for long-term sustainable yields in development. Accordingly, the paper urges a collectively rethinking of the usage of BITs as a tool for sustainable development involving, states taking deliberate steps to recast BITs to ensure that the process of negotiation of BITs, the structure that emanates from the negotiation and theimplementation of the BITs; explicitly seek to integrate sustainable development. This necessarily involves placing obligations on both state and

  4. Design verification of SIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise; Melliar-Smith, Michael; Schwartz, Richard

    1987-01-01

    A SIFT reliable aircraft control computer system, designed to meet the ultrahigh reliability required for safety critical flight control applications by use of processor replications and voting, was constructed for SRI, and delivered to NASA Langley for evaluation in the AIRLAB. To increase confidence in the reliability projections for SIFT, produced by a Markov reliability model, SRI constructed a formal specification, defining the meaning of reliability in the context of flight control. A further series of specifications defined, in increasing detail, the design of SIFT down to pre- and post-conditions on Pascal code procedures. Mechanically checked mathematical proofs were constructed to demonstrate that the more detailed design specifications for SIFT do indeed imply the formal reliability requirement. An additional specification defined some of the assumptions made about SIFT by the Markov model, and further proofs were constructed to show that these assumptions, as expressed by that specification, did indeed follow from the more detailed design specifications for SIFT. This report provides an outline of the methodology used for this hierarchical specification and proof, and describes the various specifications and proofs performed.

  5. Program Verification of Numerical Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelis, Garry

    2014-01-01

    These notes outline a formal method for program verification of numerical computation. It forms the basis of the software package VPC in its initial phase of development. Much of the style of presentation is in the form of notes that outline the definitions and rules upon which VPC is based. The initial motivation of this project was to address some practical issues of computation, especially of numerically intensive programs that are commonplace in computer models. The project evolved into a...

  6. Kleene Algebra and Bytecode Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    Bytecode 2005 Preliminary Version Kleene Algebra and Bytecode Verification Lucja Kot 1 Dexter Kozen 2 Department of Computer Science Cornell...first-order methods that inductively annotate program points with abstract values. In [6] we introduced a second-order approach based on Kleene algebra ...form a left-handed Kleene algebra . The dataflow labeling is not achieved by inductively labeling the program with abstract values, but rather by

  7. The effect of mystery shopper reports on age verification for tobacco purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, Brad S; Ponicki, William R; Grube, Joel W; DeJong, William

    2011-09-01

    Mystery shops involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been implemented in order to monitor retail stores' performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that mystery shop visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the effect of monthly and twice-monthly mystery shop reports on age verification. Mystery shoppers visited 45 Walgreens stores 20 times. The stores were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions. Control group stores received no feedback, whereas 2 treatment groups received feedback communications on every visit (twice monthly) or on every second visit (monthly) after baseline. Logit regression models tested whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Postbaseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, but only the stores receiving monthly communications had a significantly greater improvement compared with the control group stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all 3 groups, with delayed improvement among control group stores. Communication between managers regarding the mystery shop program may account for the delayed age-verification improvements observed in the control group stores. Encouraging interstore communication might extend the benefits of mystery shop programs beyond those stores that receive this intervention. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. Fingerprint verification based on wavelet subbands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Aviyente, Selin

    2004-08-01

    Fingerprint verification has been deployed in a variety of security applications. Traditional minutiae detection based verification algorithms do not utilize the rich discriminatory texture structure of fingerprint images. Furthermore, minutiae detection requires substantial improvement of image quality and is thus error-prone. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for fingerprint verification using the statistics of subbands from wavelet analysis. One important feature for each frequency subband is the distribution of the wavelet coefficients, which can be modeled with a Generalized Gaussian Density (GGD) function. A fingerprint verification algorithm that combines the GGD parameters from different subbands is proposed to match two fingerprints. The verification algorithm in this paper is tested on a set of 1,200 fingerprint images. Experimental results indicate that wavelet analysis provides useful features for the task of fingerprint verification.

  9. Fuzzy-logic-based safety verification framework for nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Achint; Gabbar, Hossam A

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a practical implementation of a safety verification framework for nuclear power plants (NPPs) based on fuzzy logic where hazard scenarios are identified in view of safety and control limits in different plant process values. Risk is estimated quantitatively and compared with safety limits in real time so that safety verification can be achieved. Fuzzy logic is used to define safety rules that map hazard condition with required safety protection in view of risk estimate. Case studies are analyzed from NPP to realize the proposed real-time safety verification framework. An automated system is developed to demonstrate the safety limit for different hazard scenarios.

  10. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe......Cap and the DITTO research projects granted by EPSRC and RSSB. The authors would like to thank Linh Hong Vu for providing the benchmark of scheme plans and the drawings of the track plans....

  11. Consortium for Verification Technology Fellowship Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Lorraine E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    As one recipient of the Consortium for Verification Technology (CVT) Fellowship, I spent eight days as a visiting scientist at the University of Michigan, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS). During this time, I participated in multiple department and research group meetings and presentations, met with individual faculty and students, toured multiple laboratories, and taught one-half of a one-unit class on Risk Analysis in Nuclear Arms control (six 1.5 hour lectures). The following report describes some of the interactions that I had during my time as well as a brief discussion of the impact of this fellowship on members of the consortium and on me/my laboratory’s technical knowledge and network.

  12. Accuracy verification methods theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Mali, Olli; Repin, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    The importance of accuracy verification methods was understood at the very beginning of the development of numerical analysis. Recent decades have seen a rapid growth of results related to adaptive numerical methods and a posteriori estimates. However, in this important area there often exists a noticeable gap between mathematicians creating the theory and researchers developing applied algorithms that could be used in engineering and scientific computations for guaranteed and efficient error control.   The goals of the book are to (1) give a transparent explanation of the underlying mathematical theory in a style accessible not only to advanced numerical analysts but also to engineers and students; (2) present detailed step-by-step algorithms that follow from a theory; (3) discuss their advantages and drawbacks, areas of applicability, give recommendations and examples.

  13. Design and Verification of Critical Pressurised Windows for Manned Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoure, Richard; Busto, Lara; Novo, Francisco; Sinnema, Gerben; Leal, Mendes M.

    2014-06-01

    The Window Design for Manned Spaceflight (WDMS) project was tasked with establishing the state-of-art and explore possible improvements to the current structural integrity verification and fracture control methodologies for manned spacecraft windows.A critical review of the state-of-art in spacecraft window design, materials and verification practice was conducted. Shortcomings of the methodology in terms of analysis, inspection and testing were identified. Schemes for improving verification practices and reducing conservatism whilst maintaining the required safety levels were then proposed.An experimental materials characterisation programme was defined and carried out with the support of the 'Glass and Façade Technology Research Group', at the University of Cambridge. Results of the sample testing campaign were analysed, post-processed and subsequently applied to the design of a breadboard window demonstrator.Two Fused Silica glass window panes were procured and subjected to dedicated analyses, inspection and testing comprising both qualification and acceptance programmes specifically tailored to the objectives of the activity.Finally, main outcomes have been compiled into a Structural Verification Guide for Pressurised Windows in manned spacecraft, incorporating best practices and lessons learned throughout this project.

  14. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  15. Automated verification of flight software. User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saib, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    (Automated Verification of Flight Software), a collection of tools for analyzing source programs written in FORTRAN and AED is documented. The quality and the reliability of flight software are improved by: (1) indented listings of source programs, (2) static analysis to detect inconsistencies in the use of variables and parameters, (3) automated documentation, (4) instrumentation of source code, (5) retesting guidance, (6) analysis of assertions, (7) symbolic execution, (8) generation of verification conditions, and (9) simplification of verification conditions. Use of AVFS in the verification of flight software is described.

  16. Wind-farm power performance verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutilleux, P. [DEWI German Wind Energy Institute, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Details of wind farm power performance verification procedures were presented. Verifications were performed at the DEWI test site at Wilhelmhaven, Germany. Types of power performance guarantees included power performance of individual turbines with IEC verification measurement, and Nacelle anemometer verification. In addition, availability guarantees were examined, as well as issues concerning energy production guarantees of complete wind farms in relation to nearby meteorology masts. An evaluation of power curve verification measurements was presented as well as measurement procedures relating to IEC standards. Methods for Nacelle anemometry verification included calibration of the anemometer; documentation of its exact position and chain signal; and end-to-end calibration from sensor to SCADA data base. Classification of anemometers included impact of dynamical effects; and influence on annual energy production. An example of a project for performance verification of a wind farm with 9 identical wind turbines was presented. The significance of status signals was discussed, as well as alternative methods for power-curve measurements. Evaluation procedures for energy yield and power curve verifications were presented. The upcoming set of IEC standards concerning power curve measurements was discussed. Various alternative verification procedures for wind farm power performance were reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. The SeaHorn Verification Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Arie; Kahsai, Temesghen; Komuravelli, Anvesh; Navas, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present SeaHorn, a software verification framework. The key distinguishing feature of SeaHorn is its modular design that separates the concerns of the syntax of the programming language, its operational semantics, and the verification semantics. SeaHorn encompasses several novelties: it (a) encodes verification conditions using an efficient yet precise inter-procedural technique, (b) provides flexibility in the verification semantics to allow different levels of precision, (c) leverages the state-of-the-art in software model checking and abstract interpretation for verification, and (d) uses Horn-clauses as an intermediate language to represent verification conditions which simplifies interfacing with multiple verification tools based on Horn-clauses. SeaHorn provides users with a powerful verification tool and researchers with an extensible and customizable framework for experimenting with new software verification techniques. The effectiveness and scalability of SeaHorn are demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation using benchmarks from SV-COMP 2015 and real avionics code.

  18. 条约保留程序问题研究%Research on the problems in the process of rule of law program Chinese reservations to treaties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萃芸

    2015-01-01

    条约保留是条约法理论和实践中最为复杂的问题. 条约保留的 《实践指南》 对于条约保留制度的发展意义重大, 并且仍在不断地发扬光大. 在国际法中, 条约保留有其存在的法理基础, 条约保留的提出程序在条约法公约和 《实践指南》 中有严格规定, 并不断顺应形势要求发展壮大. 中国在大力推进法治进程中, 应主动消除条约保留实践中的不足, 积极践行条约保留制度的新发展.%Reservations to treaties is a complex problem to the theory and practice of the law of treaties . The practice of reservations to treaties "guide" for the system of reservations to treaties and the development of great significance , and still continue to carry forward .In international law , Reservations to treaties is a legal basis for its existence the proposed treaty reservation procedures in the Convention on the law of treaties and the"guide"in the practice of strict requirements , and constantly adapt to the situation requirement develop-ment.China should take the initiative to eliminate the problems in practice of reservations to treaties in vigor-ously promoting the rule of law in the process ,, the new development of practicing the system of reservations to treaties.

  19. The Conclusion of the Roman-Gothic Peace Treaty in 382

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to call attention to the possibilities raised by the available sources but so far left unexamined, the author indicates some possible interpretations, which, however, can be proved with no more certainty than the prevailing view. Assuming that they might be correct, the course of events which led to the peace treaty of 382 may be summarised as follows. After the crushing defeat suffered by the Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9th, 378, Emperor Gratian attempted to stem the hostile rampages of the Goths, Huns, and Alans by offering them a truce in the same year. Since he was unsuccessful, the appointment of Theodosius as the new Emperor in the eastern part of the Roman Empire implied that the latter, at the head of a reorganised eastern army, would bear the main burden and responsibility in the Gothic war. In keeping with this plan, Illyricum, previously annexed to the West in its entirety, was divided into the western and eastern parts. The eastern part with the dioceses of Dacia and Macedonia, perceived as more prone to invasions by the Goths and their associates, the Huns and Alans, was annexed to Theodosius’ East, while the western part remained subject to the western administrative structures. If the campaigns of Theodosius’ army proved successful, the West was presumably no longer expected to come under attack, so the troops stationed there were, in the unlikely event of an attack, meant to stop the enemy’s progress only if Theodosius’ army should fail to carry out its basic plan. Since the year 379 was marked by Roman successes, owing to the disorganised warfare of the enemy troops, the attack of Alatheus and Saphrax’ group on Pannonia in the spring of 380 came as a surprise, probably no longer seriously contemplated. The surprise may have been still enhanced if the members of the triethnic group did not invade Pannonia from the south, across the Sava River, as might have been expected from their sojourn

  20. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle; Nukleare Abruestung. Optionen fuer den kommenden Ueberpruefungszyklus des NVV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  1. 浅谈南极条约体系中的国际条约在中国的适用%On the Domestic Application of International Treaties of Antarctic Treaty System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭鹏

    2016-01-01

    南极由于其独特的地理位置和重要的战略地位,已经成为各国间综合国力比拼、政治博弈、进行国家战略扩张、展现科研能力的重要"舞台".以《南极条约》为核心的南极条约体系,经过 50多年的发展和完善,形成了重要的国际法体系,受到缔约国的尊重和认可.各缔约国政府主要通过制定国内法来执行与南极有关的条约的规定.中国作为《南极条约》的缔约国以及南极条约体系下各类条约的重要成员国,在南极条约地区积极开展各项科研活动,发挥了重要的作用.文章简要概述了国际条约在我国国内适用的方式,结合我国对加入的相关南极条约的国内立法现状,分析目前南极条约适用的法律法规存在的问题,并给出完善国际条约适用体系的建议.%Due to its unique geographical location and important strategical status,the Antarctica has be-come a significant "stage",on which various countries compete for their overall national strength,to show scientific research abilities,and to expand their political influences.The Antarctic Treaty and relat-ed agreements,collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS),regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica.ATS has been developed more than 50 years and its main objective is to en-sure the interests of all humankind that Antarctica shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and be-come the scene or object of international discord.China has played an important role as a party member under the ATS.How to make the Antarctic Treaties effective in domestic legal system,it requires to es-tablish a perfect treaty -application system.The paper summarized the theory of the treaty application, combined with the practice status of treaties application in China,particularly focused on the Antarctic Treaties.It also introduced the administrative litigation of the ATS application system in China and ana-lyzed the problems of the

  2. Formal Verification of UML Profil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutto, Arifa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2011-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is based on the Model Driven Development (MDD) approach which capturing the system functionality using the platform-independent model (PMI) and appropriate domain-specific languages. In UML base system notations, structural view is model by the class, components...... and object diagrams and behavioral view model by the activity, use case, state, and sequence diagram. However, UML does not provide the formal syntax, therefore its semantics is not formally definable, so for assure of correctness, we need to incorporate semantic reasoning through verification, specification...

  3. Formal Verification of NTRUEncrypt Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Moghissi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore a mechanized verification of the NTRUEncrypt scheme, with the formal proof system Isabelle/HOL. More precisely, the functional correctness of this algorithm, in its reduced form, is formally verified with computer support. We show that this scheme is correct what is a necessary condition for the usefulness of any cryptographic encryption scheme. Besides, we present a convenient and application specific formalization of the NTRUEncrypt scheme in the Isabelle/HOL system that can be used in further study around the functional and security analysis of NTRUEncrypt family.

  4. An Effective Fingerprint Verification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoi, Minakshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method for fingerprint verification based on a data mining technique called minutiae clustering and a graph-theoretic approach to analyze the process of fingerprint comparison to give a feature space representation of minutiae and to produce a lower bound on the number of detectably distinct fingerprints. The method also proving the invariance of each individual fingerprint by using both the topological behavior of the minutiae graph and also using a distance measure called Hausdorff distance.The method provides a graph based index generation mechanism of fingerprint biometric data. The self-organizing map neural network is also used for classifying the fingerprints.

  5. A verification environment for bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present the BigMC tool for bigraphical reactive systems that may be instantiated as a verification tool for any formalism or domain-specific modelling language encoded as a bigraphical reactive system. We introduce the syntax and use of BigMC, and exemplify its use with two small examples......: a textbook “philosophers” example, and an example motivated by a ubiquitous computing application. We give a tractable heuristic with which to approximate interference between reaction rules, and prove this analysis to be safe. We provide a mechanism for state reachability checking of bigraphical reactive...

  6. The Implications of International Treaty Arbitration for International Commercial Arbitration and the Reform of International Treaty Arbitration%投资条约仲裁对“国际商事仲裁”之借鉴与改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁杜娟

    2012-01-01

    Investment treaty arbitration has been established based on international commercial arbitration, reflecting not only the basic features of international commercial arbitration in provisions, but also the value orientation of international commercial arbitration in practice. Investment treaty arbitration differs from international commercial arbitration inparticipants in a dispute, dispute issues and the basis of the jurisdiction of arbitral tribunal. In order to avoid the conflict between investment treaty arbitration and international commercial arbitration, some international organizations and countries begin the efforts to reform investment treaty arbitration, which could be regarded as the development of international commercial arbitration.%投资条约仲裁是以国际商事仲裁为模板建立的,其不仅在具体规则中体现了“国际商事仲裁”的基本特性,同时其实践中无不体现“国际商事仲裁”的价值取向。投资条约仲裁在争端主体、争议事项、仲裁庭管辖权之基础等多方面存在特殊性。为避免投资条约仲裁与国际商事仲裁“秘密性”等原则相冲突,一些国际组织和国家开始了改革投资条约仲裁的努力,这些努力可以视为对国际商事仲裁的发展起来。

  7. Sensor Fusion and Model Verification for a Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Bisgaard, Morten; Vinther, Dennis; Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of modeling, sensor fusion and model verification for a four-wheel driven, four-wheel steered mobile robot moving in outdoor terrain. The model derived for the robot describes the actuator and wheel dynamics and the vehicle kinematics, and includes friction terms as well as slip. An Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) based on the dynamic model is used for sensor fusion, feeding sensor measurements back to the robot controller in an intelligent manner. Through practi...

  8. A hardware-software system for the automation of verification and calibration of oil metering units secondary equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarnikov, A. V.; Boyarnikova, L. V.; Kozhushko, A. A.; Sekachev, A. F.

    2017-08-01

    In the article the process of verification (calibration) of oil metering units secondary equipment is considered. The purpose of the work is to increase the reliability and reduce the complexity of this process by developing a software and hardware system that provides automated verification and calibration. The hardware part of this complex carries out the commutation of the measuring channels of the verified controller and the reference channels of the calibrator in accordance with the introduced algorithm. The developed software allows controlling the commutation of channels, setting values on the calibrator, reading the measured data from the controller, calculating errors and compiling protocols. This system can be used for checking the controllers of the secondary equipment of the oil metering units in the automatic verification mode (with the open communication protocol) or in the semi-automatic verification mode (without it). The peculiar feature of the approach used is the development of a universal signal switch operating under software control, which can be configured for various verification methods (calibration), which allows to cover the entire range of controllers of metering units secondary equipment. The use of automatic verification with the help of a hardware and software system allows to shorten the verification time by 5-10 times and to increase the reliability of measurements, excluding the influence of the human factor.

  9. Verification Support for Object Database Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, David

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis we have developed a verification theory and a tool for the automated analysis of assertions about object-oriented database schemas. The approach is inspired by the work of [SS89] in which a theorem prover is used to automate the verification of invariants for transactions on a relatio

  10. DATA VERIFICATION IN ISSUE SUPERVISING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Katerinenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method of data verification in issues tracking systems by means of production rules. This model makes it possible to formulate declaratively conditions that the information containment should comply with and apply reasoning procedures. Practical application of proposed verification system in a real software development project is described.

  11. On Verification Modelling of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Ed; Mader, Angelika

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided verification of embedded systems hinges on the availability of good verification models of the systems at hand. Such models must be much simpler than full design models or specifications to be of practical value, because of the unavoidable combinatorial complexities in the verificatio

  12. Face verification for mobile personal devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Qian

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we presented a detailed study of the face verification problem on the mobile device, covering every component of the system. The study includes face detection, registration, normalization, and verification. Furthermore, the information fusion problem is studied to verify face sequenc

  13. A Correlation-Based Fingerprint Verification System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, Asker M.; Verwaaijen, Gerben T.B.; Gerez, Sabih H.; Veelenturf, Leo P.J.; Zwaag, van der Berend Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a correlation-based fingerprint verification system is presented. Unlike the traditional minutiae-based systems, this system directly uses the richer gray-scale information of the fingerprints. The correlation-based fingerprint verification system first selects appropriate templates i

  14. A Model for Collaborative Runtime Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, Bas; Bulling, Nils; Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Runtime verification concerns checking whether a system execution satisfies a given property. In this paper we propose a model for collaborative runtime verification where a network of local monitors collaborates in order to verify properties of the system. A local monitor has only a local view on

  15. A Model for Collaborative Runtime Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, Bas; Bulling, Nils; Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Runtime verification concerns checking whether a system execution satisfies a given property. In this paper we propose a model for collaborative runtime verification where a network of local monitors collaborates in order to verify properties of the system. A local monitor has only a local view on t

  16. Verification and Performance Analysis for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    This talk provides a thorough tutorial of the UPPAAL tool suite for, modeling, simulation, verification, optimal scheduling, synthesis, testing and performance analysis of embedded and real-time systems.......This talk provides a thorough tutorial of the UPPAAL tool suite for, modeling, simulation, verification, optimal scheduling, synthesis, testing and performance analysis of embedded and real-time systems....

  17. Provisions on waiting periods in international investment protection treaties and their impact on the jurisdiction of arbitral tribunals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Provisions on so-called waiting periods in international investment protection treaties give an investor from one contracting state an opportunity to initiate arbitration against the host state provided that the time designated by the treaty from the date on which the dispute arose has elapsed. The aim of those provisions is to enable parties to the dispute to use this time for consultations and attempt to reach a negotiated settlement. The paper analyzes the attitude of contemporary arbitral practice towards the legal nature and effect of those provisions on tribunals' jurisdiction in investment disputes. The analysis shows gradual and clear shift of position taken by the tribunals in cases in which claimants did not comply with waiting periods. Because arbitral tribunals today are more resolved to penalize premature submission of the dispute to arbitration than they were one decade ago, in the future one can expect much more cautious conduct of potential claimants in this regard.

  18. China, Japan, and the United States in World War II: The Relinquishment of Unequal Treaties in 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how the United States transformed its foreign policy to promote China as an “equal state” in international politics during World War II, with focus on the process of the American relinquishment of its unequal treaties with China in 1943. In particular, it concentrates on analyzing the conflicts between the United States and Japan in the process of relinquishment. By examining the rivalry between the United States and Japan in the social warfare – propaganda – we can see that the relinquishment of the unequal treaties in 1943 not only marked a historical turning point in America’s China policy, but also had a great impact on the transformation of East Asian politics in World War II and its influence in the world politics.

  19. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

  20. Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.