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Sample records for control strategies danish

  1. A cost-benefit analysis of Salmonella-control strategies in Danish pork production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Stine Gissel; Alban, Lis

    2006-11-17

    In Denmark, it was agreed to lower the Salmonella prevalence in pork to 1.2% before the end of 2006. The current control did not seem to be sufficient to attain this goal. Therefore, four alternatives to the existing Danish control strategy for Salmonella in pork were compared in a cost-benefit analysis: (1) hot-water decontamination of all pigs at slaughter, (2) sanitary slaughter of pigs from herds with high levels of Salmonella, (3) use of home-mixed feed in herds with slaughter pigs and (4) use of acidified feed for slaughter pigs. The data originated from official statistics, published papers as well as expert opinion. The partial cost-benefit analysis was restricted to slaughterhouses affiliated with the Danish Meat Association and Danish human cases ascribable to pork from these slaughterhouses. Only hot-water decontamination was socio-economically profitable. Hot-water decontamination had a net present value over 15 years of 3.5 million euros. For sanitary slaughter the net present value was - 43.6 million euros, for home-mixed feed it was - 262.3 million euros and for acidified feed it was - 79.9 million euros. For all alternatives the costs were born solely by the pig sector, whereas primarily the consumers and public authorities received the benefits. The conclusions were robust in sensitivity analyses.

  2. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore......, the number of registered human Campylobacter cases decreased by 12%; from 4379 cases in 2002 to 3865 cases in 2007. We believe that the observed decrease in the occurrence of Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat and the coincidental fall in the number of registered human cases is, in part, a result...

  3. Predicting the structural development in Danish livestock and how it affects control strategies against FMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    2012-01-01

    their location, size, and production type. The main challenge was to predict the demographic data. Based on data for all herds with animals susceptible to FMD in the Central Husbandry Registry from 1999 to 2010 and supplementary data for swine herds from Danish Agriculture & Food Council (2002 to 2009), all...... significantly different TPMs. These TPMs were used in a Markov chain to predict the distribution of farms in year 2030. However, the predictions were unrealistic as far too many farms opened – since all closed farms were allowed to reopen. It was decided to make the closed state a terminal state and make...

  4. IEA SHC Task 18 A2A3. Modeling and Control Strategies. Danish report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Duer, Karsten

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the energy performance of advanced glazing in typical Danish commercial and residential buildings. We used the tsbi3 hour-by-hour building energy simulation program to analyze the demand for heating and/or cooling and peak load of the heating/cooling system as a function o...... climate as the inside surface-temperature of the glazing increases due to the lower U-value. The increase in glazing-temperature reduces radiation-asymmetry during winter-time....

  5. IEA SHC Task 18 A2A3. Modeling and Control Strategies. Danish summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Duer, Karsten

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the energy performance of advanced glazing in typical Danish commercial and residential buildings. We used the tsbi3 hour-by-hour building energy simulation program to analyze the demand for heating and/or cooling and peak load of the heating/cooling system as a function o...... climate as the inside surface-temperature of the glazing increases due to the lower U-value. The increase in glazing-temperature reduces radiation-asymmetry during winter-time....

  6. Simple decision tools to help optimize the control strategy 2 weeks into a Danish FMD epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The choice of whether or not to apply emergency vaccination is one of the most difficult decisions facing the authorities when foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) breaks out in a free country (Barnett et al. 2002). A simple quantitative tool has been proposed using the first 14-days incidence (FFI......, and how to apply vaccine, but also its economic consequences. Computer modelling may be a useful aid to cost benefit and decision support systems in this context (Barnett et al. 2002). We used a modified FFI procedure to analyze data from a series of 5,000 FMD simulations with current Danish population...

  7. Danish preventive measures and deradicalization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish anti- and de-radicalization strategy involves three interwoven elements: (a) an early prevention and exit programme, (b) prosecution of radicalized persons who have committed violent crimes (in Denmark or in a foreign country), including measures such as confiscation of passport, and (c...

  8. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  9. Contemporary Danish strategies of internationalisation through student mobility with China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngdorf, Niels Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines current Danish strategies of developing internationalisation through student mobility programs with China in higher education. By interrogating Danish policies of internationalisation, the paper brings attention to contemporary conditions for Danish higher education to facilit......This paper examines current Danish strategies of developing internationalisation through student mobility programs with China in higher education. By interrogating Danish policies of internationalisation, the paper brings attention to contemporary conditions for Danish higher education...... to facilitate student mobility with its Chinese counterpart at a structural political level. By analysing motivations, assumptions and expectations for internationalisation initiatives, it is argued that policies developed and formulated at a national political level presuppose and favour certain meanings...... and the international global market space transforms and reduces the concepts of internationalisation and culture to tools for economic growth, and subtly leads to essentialist discourses of the past. The paper further examines how this relates to the general tendencies of the current educational system in Denmark...

  10. Danish Downtown Redevelopment and Transformation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo

    A long view of how Danish town centres have been planned and redeveloped from the time when spaces of capital and consumption established themselves in Danish towns after the Second World War, and when the former market and tradings centres had to adapt to a new reality characterized by economic...... growth, increased mobility and a 'rolling out' of the welfare society....

  11. Strategy for Danish wind energy research; Startegi for dansk vindenergiforskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the strategy for Danish wind energy research is to support future prioritizations - primarily as regards publicly funded programs. Most recent energy political objectives formulated in 2004 by the Danish Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs state: 'The objective of the governmental energy policy is to create efficient energy markets within a framework that secures cost efficiency, security of supplies, environmental considerations and efficient use of energy. The markets must be transparent and the competition must be fair. This will secure the energy consumers the lowest possible energy prices.' The wind energy strategy mirrors user needs and is, among other things, based upon a number of interviews with interested parties and a hearing on the strategy draft. (BA)

  12. Economy Controls Energy Retrofits of Danish Single-family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    883 Danish single-family house owners completed a questionnaire about energy retrofit. The objective of this paper is, based on the survey results, to determine how Danish homeowners can be motivated to conduct energy retrofits. The conclusion is that the financial aspect of an energy retrofit...... situation and consumption is concluded as the optimal motivation strategy for the homeowners to conduct energy retrofits....

  13. Servitization in Danish Manufacturing Firms: A Strategy for Survival?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2010-01-01

    ) and by many traditional manufacturers is perceived as a strategy for survival. On the basis of multiple cases of Danish companies, this paper discusses the main reasons and strategic implications of servitization. Furthermore, it outlines the strategies of how traditional manufacturers can recoup the desired......This paper focuses on servitization, i.e. re-focusing of firms from running fabrication and assembly processes to developing integrated product solutions with a large service component. The phenomenon has been recognised in the literature (e.g. Neely, 2008; Baines et al., 2009; Schmenner, 2009...

  14. Strategy and business development practices in Danish constrution industry SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian; Nielsen, Jesper Salling

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a qualitative study of strategy and business development practices in Small and Medium Sizes Enterprises (SME) in the Danish construction industry. Theoretically the paper draws upon theories on how strategy is developed and practiced as in integrated part of everyday management...... development is characterized by being unstructured, undocumented and nonreflexive. This is interpreted as a sign of unprofessional management practices in the businesses, which reproduces the existing institutionalized division of labour in the construction industry. The paper concludes that business...... development represents an important but unacknowledged practice for innovation of the building industry and suggests that strategy processes should be facilitated and subject to more detailed research in order to escape the present unhealthy market practices in the construction industry....

  15. Portfolio as a learning strategy and a tool for assessment - a Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    A short presentation of some Danish expereriences using portfolio in maths teaching in primary and lower secondary schools as a learning strategy AND a tool for assessment.......A short presentation of some Danish expereriences using portfolio in maths teaching in primary and lower secondary schools as a learning strategy AND a tool for assessment....

  16. Robust Fallback Scheme for the Danish Automatic Voltage Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Dmitrova, Evgenia; Lund, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a fallback scheme for the Danish automatic voltage control system. It will be activated in case of the local station loses telecommunication to the control center and/or the local station voltage violates the acceptable operational limits. It cuts in/out switchable and tap...

  17. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) of Danish Transmission System - Concept design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Lund, P.

    2014-01-01

    . Another consequence is the public way of generally thinking green which have led to a national decision of undergrounding not only all of the Danish distribution system but also the future transmission system. These issues initiate the infrastructure constructions of the transmission system i.e. a large......, objectives, constraints, algorithms for optimal power flow and some special functions in particular systems, which inspires the concept design of a Danish AVC system to address the future challenges of voltage control. In the concept, the Danish AVC design is based on a centralized control scheme. All...... the buses are monitored where the voltage magnitudes are maintained continually. The loss minimization including switching cost is the objectives of the AVC system. The reactive power reserves as constraints are taken into account to limit the regulation capabilities of generators. The Day ahead and short...

  18. Strategies for subtyping influenza viruses circulating in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are endemic in the Danish pig population and the dominant circulating subtypes are H1N1, a Danish H1N2 reassortant, and H3N2. Here we present our current and future strategies for influenza virus subtyping. For diagnostic and surveillance of influenza subtypes circulating...... in the Danish pig population functional and rapid subtyping assays are required. The conventional RT-PCR influenza subtyping assays developed by Chiapponi et al. (2003) have been implemented and used for typing of influenza viruses found positive in a pan influenza A real time RT-PCR assay. The H1 and N1 assays...... assays based on RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing were implemented for the four subtypes H1, H3, N1, and N2. The assays were based on primer sets published by the WHO, but slightly modified for improved detection of Danish subtype variants. Sequencing of circulating influenza viruses is beneficial since...

  19. Flexible and Inflexible Energy Engagements – a Study of the Danish Smart Grid Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea; Gad, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    According to many visions for smart grids, consumers will come to play a more ‘active’ role in the energy systems of tomorrow. In this paper, we examine how the future ‘flexible electricity consumer’ is imagined in the Danish National Smart Grid Strategy. Our analysis of reports produced by the n......According to many visions for smart grids, consumers will come to play a more ‘active’ role in the energy systems of tomorrow. In this paper, we examine how the future ‘flexible electricity consumer’ is imagined in the Danish National Smart Grid Strategy. Our analysis of reports produced...

  20. Character Learning Strategies Among Danish and Swedish Beginners of Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Chen, Yi-ting

    This study was conducted at three universities (i.e., Aarhus University, Copenhagen University, and Stockholm University) at two Nordic countries (i.e., Denmark and Sweden). 39 beginner Danish and Swedish of Chinese (L2) university students participated in the study. Drawing from the strategy...... Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford (1990), we adapted Shen’ (2005) questionnaire into two online surveys. The first survey was done in February 2016 aiming to discover some Chinese character learning strategies employed by Danish and Swedish learners. Based on the 1st survey, the second survey...... was developed and thereafter conducted in March 2016. A preliminary analysis revealed that the students used primarily three types of strategies (1) compensation strategies (i.e., application-assisted tools), (2) cognitive strategies (i.e., orthographic knowledge) and (3) memory strategies (i.e., repeated...

  1. Human Resource Management (HRM) strategies and the impact on well-being of employees in Danish private and public firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The management in Danish firms mainly takes voluntaristic decisions in their HRM practice i.e. following pragmatically, both economic and social oriented goals and strategies. Being voluntaristic, the decisions about HRM-related issues are based on a mix of control and commitment strategies...... that management give employees discretion in the work organization (human resources are seen as an investment), that motivate and involve employees and create well-being among employees. So, management practices commitment strategies shape well-being among employees. This idea of management challenges the ability...... of the organization to persist, especially when organizational and technical changes have to be implemented by employees. So, the question is: How do HRM strategies connect to the employee’s well-being? The analytical results presented shortly in the paper build on data from project Meadow (Employee and Employer...

  2. Control strategies for demand controlled ventilation in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation of Danish and many other European dwellings has in the past mainly been achieved by natural ventilation or mechanical exhaust systems. Requirements for energy efficiency is changing this picture and mechanical ventilation with balanced exhaust and supply, efficient heat recovery...... high. Too low ventilation rate results in poor air quality for the occupants and moisture risk. Too high ventilation rate results in unnecessary energy consumption. This paper presents results from a study where demand controlled ventilation was installed in an existing single family house....... In the studied house two control strategies were tested. A simple strategy where all sensors and controls were located in the air handling unit and only the speed of the fans can be controlled, and a complex strategy where sensors were placed in each room and where individual control of air flow in each room...

  3. A Danish national strategy for treatment and rehabilitation after acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase W

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the establishment of a Danish national strategy for treatment and rehabilitation of acquired brain injury, particularly traumatic brain injury, in 1997. The vision was to create a system of tax-financed continuous treatment, restoration of function, and outpatient......, and the creation of a basis for method development and interdisciplinary research. Results for the first 3 years also indicate that outcome is improved after centralization....

  4. A new Salmonella surveillance and control programme in Danish pig herds and slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.; Alban, L.; Stege, H.

    2001-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance and Control Programme for pigs operates at all stages of the production chain and has been applied nationally since 1995. Due to the program the level of Salmonella in Danish pork has declined from 3.5 % in 1993 to 0.7 % in the year 2000. Simultaneously, the num...

  5. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...

  6. Comparing the epidemiological and economic effects of control strategies against classical swine fever in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Toft, Nils; Alban, Lis

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, total Danish pork exports were valued at (sic)3.8 billion, corresponding to approximately 5% of the total Danish exports, and an outbreak of a notifiable disease would have dramatic consequences for the agricultural sector in Denmark. Several outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) have...... occurred in Europe within the last decade, and different control strategies have been suggested. The objective of this study was to simulate the epidemiological and economic consequences of such control strategies in a CSF epidemic under Danish conditions with respect to herd demographics and geography...

  7. Vaginal Radical Trachelectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Results of the Danish National Single Center Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerberg, L; Høgdall, C; Loft, A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present and evaluate an unselected national single center strategy with fertility preserving trachelectomy in cervical cancer. In 2003 nationwide single-center referral of women for trachelectomies was agreed upon between all Danish departments performing cervical cancer surgery...... a total of 77 pregnancies. Of the 72 women 40 were referred to fertility treatment. First and second trimester miscarriage rates were 21.6% and 2.7%, respectively. A total of 53 children were born of which 41 were delivered after gestational week 34. CONCLUSION: This unselected national single center...

  8. Experience with voltage control from large offshore windfarms: The Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    and frequency control carried out at central, conventional power plants. Moreover, the control of some larger decentralized combined heat and power units is activated for voltage control and system balancing, which is specific for the Danish system. In the years to come, according to the government's goal...

  9. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level......We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts...

  10. Major Differences in Advanced Life Support Training Strategies Among Danish Hospitals - A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Mygind-Klausen, Troels; Stærk, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    %), but only 56% evaluated non-technical skills during or after team training. Overall, 2% reported to practice specific team leadership skills.Conclusion: There are major differences in duration, retraining interval, and methods for ALS training in Danish hospitals. These differences call for research......Introduction: Advanced life support (ALS) training may increase survival from in-hospital cardiac arrest. Efficient ALS training includes practice of both technical and non-technical skills in a realistic setting with frequent retraining to avoid decay in ALS skills. ALS training strategies among...... inquired information on: A) Course duration and retraining interval, B) Training methods and setting, C) Scenario training and practicing non-technical skills.Results: In total, 44 hospitals replied (response rate: 96%). ALS training was conducted in 43 hospitals (98%). Median (range) ALS course duration...

  11. Digitalizing the welfare state: citizenship discourses in Danish digitalization strategies from 2002 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jannick; Hjelholt, Morten

    2017-01-01

    on a very particular image of the digital citizen. More specifically, we showcase how this figure has reproduced neoliberal conceptions of subjectivity, concerned with efficiency, productivity, individualization and collective responsibilization. By shedding light on these novel links between neoliberal......As governments worldwide become increasingly reliant on digital technologies and e-government, ‘digital citizenship’ has become an important topic for research and policy-makers alike. While often described as the contemporary ‘ideal’ of citizenship, research has tended to downplay the normative...... dimensions of digital citizenship. Counter to such depoliticized approaches, this article argues that the digital citizen is a deeply political figure. Through a discourse-theoretical analysis of Danish governmental digitalization strategies from 2002 to 2015, the article shows how these have relied...

  12. Danish farmers' perception of water quality, nutrient reduction measures and their implementation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of voluntary nutrient reduction technologies among Danish farms is relatively low despite the introduction of a number of incentives on such technologies. With data from 267 farmers, this study analyzed the level of uptake of these technologies and the farmers’ perception of water...... quality, existing regulatory measures and their implementation strategies. In general, farmers perceived; the water quality to be above average and indicated a strong nonsupport for penalties on non-compliance. Results of two ordered probit models on adoption and perception showed a significant importance...... and procedures of financial, technical and institutional support for the existing and future incentives. Ultimately, tailor-made incentives could be designed based on farm structure and physical characteristics so as to improve the pace of adoption of the technologies thereby reducing water pollution from farms...

  13. The Educational Strategies of Danish University Students from Professional and Working-Class Backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Munk, Martin D.; Eiberg, Misja

    2013-01-01

    to their university, and some identify culturally with their working-class heritage. We investigate these differences in Denmark through qualitative interviews with 60 students from six different programs. Comparatively, Denmark is an interesting case because higher education students universally receive government......This paper deals with the various educational strategies, attitudes and behaviors adopted and displayed by Danish university students from professional class and working-class backgrounds. While access to universities in Denmark remains unequal, certain types of universities and fields of study...... have wider participation among working-class students than others. At the same time a range of qualitative studies show that working-class students tend to be more risk aversive when it comes to job security and to the economic costs of studying. They tend to lack a sense of belonging...

  14. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts...... are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level...

  15. STRATEGIES TO CONTROL BLOWFLY STRIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA MORARIU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike is a common illness of sheep flocks worldwide. In Northern hemisphere is due to Lucilia sericata, and in Southern hemisphere L. cuprina is involved. This paper presents some aspects concerning current and future strategies to control flystrikes. Current control strategies refer to general management practices, selection of naturally resistant sheep, insecticide use and the use of baits and traps, respectively. The future strategies comprise vaccination strategies against blowfly larvae and fleece rot, sterile male release, use of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins, use of new insecticides, and biological control, respectively.

  16. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  17. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...

  18. The Philosophy behind a (Danish) Voice-controlled Interface to Internet Browsing for motor-handicapped

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system underlies a number of a priori defined design...

  19. Large-scale integration of off-shore wind power and regulation strategies of cogeneration plants in the Danish electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply......The article analyses how the amount of a small-scale CHP plants and heat pumps and the regulation strategies of these affect the quantity of off-shore wind power that may be integrated into Danish electricity supply...

  20. Rationalities in Trade Union Practices: A Discourse Analytic Perspective on The Strategies of Three Danish Trade Unions for Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Buch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this paper is to analyze the discursive practices of three Danish trade unions for professional and managerial staff as found in their strategy and position papers. Using discourse analytic methods, the paper analyzes, discusses, and compares the strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation clarifies the discursive premises of the unions and it shows how these premises restrain and afford their agendas. The overall purpose of the paper is to investigate and describe the dominant logics and rationalities that shape the documents and to point to their limits and bounds. Through an archaeological investigation, the paper critically examines the implicit and tacit naturalizations made in the documents and reveals the ideological presuppositions of the discursive practices of the authors. The paper documents how “strategic management” has become an integral part of Danish trade unions practices and the paper sets out to discuss this trend in relation to the general neo-liberal decentering of the “social” and promotion of “community” as the locus of governance. Through examples from the practices of the Danish trade unions for professionals, the paper substantiates how new technologies of governance and the subjectification of union members as “customers” tend to transform the role of the trade unions from the position of “political actors” to “service providers” in the advanced liberal societies.

  1. Temporal characterisation of the network of Danish cattle movements and its implication for disease control: 2000–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Fournié, Guillaume; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Social network analysis provides a valuable framework for understanding the dynamics of diseases on networks as well as a means for defining effective control measures. An understanding of the underlying contact pattern for a susceptible population is advisable before embarking on any strategy...... for disease control. The objective of this study was to characterise the network of Danish cattle movements over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 with a view to understanding: (1) cohesiveness of the network, (2) influential holdings and (3) structural vulnerability of the network.Network analyses of data...... involving all cattle movements in Denmark registered during the period of interest were performed. A total of 50,494 premises participated in 4,204,895 individual movements during the 10-year period. The results pointed to a predominantly scale-free structure of the network; though marked by small...

  2. New strategies for the use of microbiological examinations in food control in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Kirk; Hald, Tine; Nielsen, Niels L.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the use of microbiological examinations in Danish food control is described. At the end of the millennium an increased number of cases of food-borne disease caused by zoonotic microorganisms necessitated a new strategy. The developments of international concepts and risk analyses...

  3. Product development strategy in the Danish agricultural complex: Global interaction with clusters of marketing excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    1992-01-01

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently, the Danish agro-industrial complex been singled out in other studies as a paradigmat...... is that a company in search of partners for joint development in global agro-industra networks can realize a competitive advantage by applying a market view that is euclidean upstream and equidstant downstream....... produce and utilize sticky and fastchanging information about production and markets respectively. It is precisely by not interacting wi market business-to-business demand from changing end-user market that the Danish agro-industrial complex has avoided being insulated. The managerial implication...

  4. Strategies for Industrial Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.

    dynamics and gains strongly depend upon one or more physical parameters characterizing the operating point. This class covers many industrial systems such as airplanes, ships, robots and process control systems. Power plant boilers are representatives for process control systems in general. The dynamics...... and gains of power plant boilers strongly depend upon the load (instantaneous power production). This non-linear behavior suggests the use of gain-scheduling. For parameter-varying systems the multivariable control strategies can hence be divided into the following subsequent steps: choice of architecture......, choice of model type and parameter estimation algorithm, choice of LTI controller synthesis framework and choice of gain-scheduling approach. State-of-the-art methods are considered and new results are derived. A specific strategy is chosen for the solution of a power plant control problem....

  5. Changing Value Chain Strategies of Danish Clothing and Fashion Companies, 1970-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer; Taudal Poulsen, René

    2013-01-01

    and profitable companies within this industry. Both the trade itself and industry observers see the present success of Danish fashion as the result of Danish pioneering in international outsourcing. The article challenges the commonly told story, arguing that the present success should be seen as the result......Over the last four decades, the clothing industry has seen one of the most radical, global transformations of any industry, and Western European clothing companies have been put under strain. To the surprise of industry observers and academics, however, Denmark continues to hold expansive...

  6. Spatial differences in occurrence of paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds and in control programme participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of economic importance to the cattle industry and a voluntary control programme is offered to Danish dairy farmers. Our objective was to evaluate spatial differences in both control programme participation and paratuberculosis prevalence in Denmark. The study...... included 4414 dairy herds: 1249 were participating in the control programme, and 1503 were tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Spatial differences were evaluated by kernel smoothing, kriging, and cluster analysis. Participation was lowest among herds on the island...

  7. Strategies in Danish film culture – and the Case of Susanne Bier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2015-01-01

    Dialogues between national and transnational film cultures take place incessantly. The question is: which kinds of dialogue? The principal lines in the history of encounters and exchanges between Danish and international cinematic cultures since the mid-1980s display different attitudes and exper...... of international/Scandinavian cooperation and transnational transformation....

  8. Local transition strategies for low carbon construction and housing – studies of innovative Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Søndergård, Bent; Stauning, Inger

    The paper sets out to discuss and characterize the innovative local practices among Danish municipalities, when it comes to clean-tech related CO2 reductions from the housing sector. This paper is part of our general aim to identify and develop planning concepts of transition for low carbon...

  9. Glycemic control in diabetes in three Danish counties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lone G M; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Heickendorff, Lene

    2005-01-01

    monitoring of diabetes using HbA1c-DCCT aligned was initiated in 2001. We estimated the incidence of monitored patients in the population. The progress in patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels was investigated by cumulative probability plots, and the individual trend in clinical outcome...... percentage above the treatment target (>or=6.62% HbA1c) was 51% in 2003 compared to 59% in 2001, and the percentage with poor glycemic control (>or=10.0% HbA1c) was reduced from 19% to 4%. Of patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels, 15% showed progress in glycemic control, and 28% reached treatment...... targets. In patients with originally normal HbA1c, 75% showed an upward trend in HbA1c levels, which reached diabetic concentrations in 17%. CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetic first HbA1c concentrations (>or=6.62% HbA1c) showed on average 15% improved glycemic control in the first year. Further...

  10. Policy integration in the shaping of organic food as strategy in the Danish food sector: what happened to the environmental concern as driving force?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    The paper discusses the mechanisms in the shaping of organic food as strategy in the Danish food sector based on an analysis of the development since the 1980’ies as a contribution to the discussion of strategies for sustainable transition. The background of the paper is the major achievements si...

  11. Review of toxic episodes and management strategies in the Danish mussel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per; Thorbjørnsen, Bjarne Ring

    Denmark has in many years been one of the world’s main producers of blue mussels caught from natural banks. The Danish mussel aquaculture sector is now growing. The Danish production areas have been regarded as “low risk” areas with respect to toxic algae and occurrence of marine biotoxins....... The change to more production of cultured mussel results in higher risk for occurrence of marine biotoxins because of the closer interaction between toxic algae and mussels. Results showing the difference between content of marine biotoxins in bottom mussel and cultured mussel from the same production areas...... cell toxicity of potential toxic algae in combination with algae cell number and mussel toxicity for opening or closing of production areas....

  12. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil...

  13. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  14. Major Differences in Implementation Strategies of the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2015 in Danish Hospitals - A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Mathilde; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Mygind-Klausen, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of guidelines into clinical practice is important to provide quality of care. Implementation of clinical guidelines is known to be poor. This study aimed to investigate awareness, expected time frame and strategy for implementation of the European Resuscitation Council...... (ERC) Guidelines 2015 in Danish hospitals.Methods: All public, somatic hospitals with a cardiac arrest team in Denmark were included. A questionnaire was sent to hospital resuscitation committees one week after guideline publication. The questionnaire included questions on awareness of ERC Guidelines...... 2015 and time frame and strategy for implementation.Results: In total, 41 hospitals replied (response rate: 87%) between October 22nd and December 22nd 2015. Overall, 37% of hospital resuscitation committees were unaware of the content of the guidelines. The majority of hospitals (80%) expected...

  15. Dynamic model of frequency control in Danish power system with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the impact of large scale integration of wind power in future power systems when 50% of load demand can be met from wind power. The focus is on active power balance control, where the main source of power imbalance is an inaccurate wind speed forecast. In this study, a Danish...... power system model with large scale of wind power is developed and a case study for an inaccurate wind power forecast is investigated. The goal of this work is to develop an adequate power system model that depicts relevant dynamic features of the power plants and compensates for load generation...

  16. NOD2/CARD15 Gene Polymorphisms in Crohn's Disease: A Genotype-Phenotype Analysis in Danish and Portuguese Patients and Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Vieira, A; Hougs, L

    2005-01-01

    to a healthy background population and to compare genotype-phenotype relations in the two countries. METHODS: 58 Danish patients and 29 Portuguese patients with CD were matched for age, sex and disease behaviour at time of diagnosis and compared with 200 healthy Danish and Portuguese controls. Phenotypes were...... recorded at year of diagnosis, 3 years after diagnosis and at end of follow-up. Patients were genotyped for Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg and Leu1007InsC. RESULTS: 22% of the Danish patients vs. 9% of Danish controls compared to 21% of the Portuguese patients vs. 16% had at least one mutation. Mutation rates...... in Danish patients were significantly different (p=0.02) compared with Danish controls, no difference (p=0.51) was found between Portuguese patients and controls. However, a possible relationship between CD and presence of genetic mutations was found when comparing the two countries (p=0.03) using...

  17. Benchmarking Danish Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Bentzen, Eric; Aagaard Andreassen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    compatible survey. The International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) doesbring up the question of supply chain management, but unfortunately, we did not have access to thedatabase. Data from the members of the SCOR-model, in the form of benchmarked performance data,may exist, but are nonetheless...... not public. The survey is a cooperative project "Benchmarking DanishIndustries" with CIP/Aalborg University, the Danish Technological University, the DanishTechnological Institute and Copenhagen Business School as consortia partners. The project has beenfunded by the Danish Agency for Trade and Industry...

  18. Review of toxic episodes and management strategies in the Danish mussel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per; Thorbjørnsen, Bjarne Ring

    . The change to more production of cultured mussel results in higher risk for occurrence of marine biotoxins because of the closer interaction between toxic algae and mussels. Results showing the difference between content of marine biotoxins in bottom mussel and cultured mussel from the same production areas...... will be presented. The presentation will be based on results from toxic episodes in recent years and will cover different aspects and changes made in the Danish mussel monitoring system in the last years to improve both the food safety and the commercial conditions for the mussel producers. This includes use...

  19. Green supply chain management strategies - experiences from the Danish textile sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This paper focuses on Danish textile industry experiences with setting environmental requirements throughout the supply chain. Based on a qualitative study, three models were formulated for the development of environmental competency in the product chain. The models centre on the environmental...... to their potential contribution to a long-term environmental effort, including how the models contribute to the spread of environmental competency etc. to other textile companies, as well as how certain model aspects ensure/hinder stabilisation of the product chain, including the interaction between social, economic...

  20. The impact of globalisation on SME-subcontractors'supply chain strategies: a Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation and competition have impacted on not only large firms but also Small and Medium sizes Enterprises (SME) and these enterprises often act as subcontractors to larger firms operating in international markets. The impact of globalisation is severe on the SME-subcontractors due to supply...... chain linkages between large and SMEs through growing base of international customers. The new conditions impact on SME-subcontractors owing to supply chain connections and this paper using Danish case studies explores these conditions. The results of the study show that the SME-subcontractors are met...

  1. Psychosocial consequences in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer screening trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Rasmussen, Jakob; Siersma, V.; H. Pedersen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the psychosocial consequences in the Danish lung cancer screening trial (DLCST)and compare those between the computed tomography (CT) group and the control group. Materials and methods: This study was a single centre randomised controlled trial with five annual screening...... rounds. Healthy current or former heavy smokers aged 50–70 years (men and women) were randomised 1:1 to a CT group and a control group. Heavy smokers were defined by having smoked ≥20pack years and former smokers by being abstinent ≤10 years. Both groups were invited annually to the screening clinic...... to complete the validated lung-cancer-specific questionnaire consequences of screening lung cancer (COS-LC). The CT group was also offered a low dose CT scan of the lungs. The COS-LC measures nine scales with psychosocial properties: Anxiety, Behaviour, Dejection, Negative impact on sleep, Self-blame, Focus...

  2. Healthcare costs in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer CT-screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.F.; Siersma, V.; Pedersen, Jesper H.

    2014-01-01

    with the control group. CONCLUSION: Low dose lung cancer CT screening increases healthcare costs compared with no screening; this difference was attributable to the costs of the CT-screening programme. Overall healthcare costs were higher for the true-positive and false-positive groups than for the control group......OBJECTIVES: Low dose computerised tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer can reduce lung-cancer-specific mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation of participants in the Danish lung cancer CT-screening trial (DLCST). MATERIALS AND METHODS......: This registry study was nested in a randomised controlled trial (DLCST). 4104 participants, current or former heavy smokers, aged 50-70 years were randomised to five annual low dose CT scans or usual care during 2004-2010. Total healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation data for both the primary...

  3. Mechanisms in the shaping of organic food as strategy in the Danish food sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    views in an analysis of the development of organic agriculture and organic food in Denmark. On the one hand a new product niche and maybe even a new development path has developed and on the other hand the conventional agriculture is still dominating with more than 90% of the agricultural area......Whether one is pessimist or optimist one can either phrase the development of organic agriculture and organic food in Denmark either as ‘only 7% of the agricultural area has been converted’ or ‘even 7% of the agricultural area has been converted’. The point of this paper is that one has to use both....... The paper analyses some of the changes that have taken place in the Danish food sector during the last 10-15 years with respect to organic food. The paper looks for how changes in the systems of production, consumption, knowledge and regulation have interacted and what kind of coherence and dissonance among...

  4. Strategies for assessment of inquiry learning in science in a Danish context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rask; Albrechtsen, Thomas R. S.; Michelsen, Claus

    Commission (Ed.). (2006). Science education now: A renewed pedagogy for the future of Europe. Brussels: European Commission Directorate-General for Research. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/research/sciencesociety/document_library/pdf_06/report-rocard-on-science-education_en.pdf Flyvbjerg, B. (2010). Fem...... level and one on natural selection for upper secondary level. This aim is to answer the question: How do teachers in Danish secondary schools approach the challenge of assessing student skills and competencies obtained through inquiry? Method To inform us on our research question we use a case study...... misforståelser om casestudiet (Five Misunderstandings about Case-Study Research). Kvalitative metoder, København: Hans Reitzels Forlag, 463-487. Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research, 15(9), 1277-1288. Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2009...

  5. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations with...

  6. Use of dairy products, lactose, and calcium and risk of ovarian cancer - results from a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan; Søgaard, Marie

    2012-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have examined the association between use of dairy products and risk of ovarian cancer, but results are conflicting. Using data from a large Danish population-based case-control study we here further examined the association between dairy consumption, lactose...

  7. The new classification system for slaughter-pig herds in the Danish Salmonella surveillance-and-control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Stege, Helle; Dahl, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish surveillance-and-control program for Salmonella in slaughter pigs was introduced in 1995. The key element of the program is a quick and correct identification of herds with high seroprevalence. After 5 years, the classification scheme was evaluated-and a revision was made. Data from two...

  8. Survey of occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    Repeated surveys of occupant control of the indoor environment were carried out in Danish dwellings from September to October 2006 and again from February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were carried out by sending out ...... analyses form a basis for a definition of standard behaviour patterns which can be used to make calculation of energy consumption of buildings more accurate........ The proportion of dwellings with the heating turned on was strongly related to the outdoor temperature and the presence of a wood burning stove. The solar radiation, dwelling ownership conditions and the perception of the indoor environment also affected the use of heating. The results of the statistical...

  9. Evaluation of test-strategies for estimating probability of low prevalence of paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergeant, E.S.G.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Toft, Nils

    2008-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection affecting cattle and other ruminants. In the dairy industry, losses due to paratuberculosis can be substantial in infected herds and several countries have implemented national programmes based on herd-classification to manage the disease. The aim of this s......Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection affecting cattle and other ruminants. In the dairy industry, losses due to paratuberculosis can be substantial in infected herds and several countries have implemented national programmes based on herd-classification to manage the disease. The aim...... of this study was to develop a method to estimate the probability of low within-herd prevalence of paratuberculosis for Danish dairy herds. A stochastic simulation model was developed using the R(R) programming environment. Features of this model included: use of age-specific estimates of test....... Using this model, five herd-testing strategies were evaluated: (1) milk-ELISA on all lactating cows; (2) milk-ELISA on lactating cows 4 years old; (4) faecal culture on all lactating cows; and (5) milk-ELISA plus faecal culture in series on all lactating cows. The five testing strategies were evaluated...

  10. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  11. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  12. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette; Bech Jørgensen, Katrine; Madsen, Mia; Nielsen, Bent; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Søgaard Nielsen, Anette; Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study investigated the role of pretreatment coping strategies in outcome of outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. The pretreatment coping strategies of 136 clients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse were examined as a predictor of drinking pattern after treatment. The pretreatment coping strategies were assessed by the COPE questionnaire. Drinking pattern after treatment was assessed at follow-up one year after treatment was entered. Results indicated that some pretreatment coping strategies are identifiable as adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, respectively, regarding successful treatment for alcohol abuse. Restraint coping was found predictive of a positive drinking pattern at follow-up while the use of alcohol to cope was found predictive of a negative drinking pattern. Furthermore, the results showed tendencies towards the possibility that some coping strategies co-operated differently with types of treatment methods. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Dealing with Alternatively Organized Workers: Recruitment and Retention Strategies among Danish Shop Stewards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ilsøe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Membership rates of alternative unions that offer individual juridical guidance and assistance but rarely contribute to collective bargaining are increasing in Denmark. Conversely, the overall membership rates of traditional unions that negotiate collective agreements are decreasing. This means that local shop stewards often face a mixed environment of workers in traditional unions and workers in alternative unions at the individual workplace. Surveys have indicated that shop stewards split into two groups when dealing with non-members at the workplace. Half of them choose to represent non-members (pull strategy, whereas the other half choose not to (push strategy. This article presents an explorative case study of the recruitment and retention strategies used by two shop stewards in two different companies with significant groups of alternatively organized workers. A case with sector-level wage setting and a case with local-level wage setting within the manufacturing sector are compared. Results suggest that shop stewards in both types of settings tend to combine push and pull strategies, because they serve different purposes. Push strategies help retain existing members of the traditional unions, whereas pull strategies are necessary to recruit new members. Local-level wage setting seems to offer more opportunities for shop stewards to make use of push and pull strategies than sector-level wage setting. Local negotiators can be efficient organizers, because they are able to demonstrate visible advantages of union membership on a regular and individual basis. However, it is also a high-risk project that among others depends on the support from the local union office.

  14. Spatially differentiated strategies for reducing nitrate loads from agriculture in two Danish catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Fatemeh; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hansen, Anne L; Børgesen, Christen D; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2018-02-15

    Nutrient loss from agriculture is the largest source of diffuse water pollution in Denmark. To reduce nutrient loads a number of solutions have been implemented, but this has been insufficient to achieve the environmental objectives without unacceptable repercussions for agricultural production. This has substantiated the need to develop a new approach to achieve nitrogen (N) load reduction to the aquatic environments with lower costs to farmers. The new approach imply targeting N leaching mitigation to those parts of the landscape which contribute most to the N-loadings. This would involve either reducing the source loading or enhancing the natural reduction (denitrification) of N after it is leached from the root zone of agricultural crops. In this study, a new method of spatially differentiated analysis for two Danish catchments (Odense and Norsminde) was conducted that reach across the individual farms to achieve selected N-load reduction targets. It includes application of cover crops within current crop rotations, set-a-side application on high N-load areas, and changes in agricultural management based on maps of N-reduction available for two different spatial scales, considering soil type and farm boundaries as spatial constraints. In summary, the results revealed that considering spatial constraints for changes in agricultural management will affect the effectiveness of N-load reduction, and the highest N-load reduction was achieved where less constraints were considered. The results also showed that the range of variation in land use, soil types, and N-reduction potential influence the reduction of N-loadings that can originate from critical source areas. The greater the spatial variation the greater the potential for N load reduction through targeting of measures. Therefore, the effectiveness of spatially differentiated measures in term of set-a-side area in Odense catchment were relatively greater compared to Norsminde catchment. The results also showed

  15. Effect of passive cooling strategies on overheating in low energy residential buildings for Danish climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Avantaggiato, Marta; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    creating not negligible thermal discomfort. In the present work the effect of passive strategies, such as solar shading and natural night-time ventilation, are evaluated through computer simulations. The analyses are performed for 1½-storey single-family house in Copenhagen’s climate. The main result......Climate changes have progressively produced an increase of outdoors temperature resulting in tangible warmer summers even in cold climate regions. An increased interest for passive cooling strategies is rising in order to overcome the newly low energy buildings’ overheating issue. The growing level...

  16. 2011 National Drug Control Strategy. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy", a comprehensive approach to combat the public health and safety consequences posed by drug use. Now, a year later, the Administration is releasing its update building upon that initial "Strategy". The "Strategy" establishes ambitious goals to…

  17. A differentiated approach to referrals from general practice to support early cancer diagnosis – the Danish three-legged strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedsted, P; Olesen, F

    2015-01-01

    When aiming to provide more expedited cancer diagnosis and treatment of cancer at an earlier stage, it is important to take into account the symptom epidemiology throughout the pathway, from first bodily sensation until the start of cancer treatment. This has implications for how primary-care providers interpret the presentation and decisions around patient management and investigation. Symptom epidemiology has consequences for how the health-care system might best be organised. This paper argues for and describes the organisation of the Danish three-legged strategy in diagnosing cancer, which includes urgent referral pathways for symptoms suspicious of a specific cancer, urgent referral to diagnostic centres when we need quick and profound evaluation of patients with nonspecific, serious symptoms and finally easy and fast access to ‘No-Yes-Clinics' for cancer investigations for those patients with common symptoms in whom the diagnosis of cancer should not be missed. The organisation of the health-care system must reflect the reality of symptoms presented in primary care. The organisational change is evaluated and monitored with a comprehensive research agenda, data infrastructure and education. PMID:25734387

  18. A differentiated approach to referrals from general practice to support early cancer diagnosis - the Danish three-legged strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedsted, P; Olesen, F

    2015-03-31

    When aiming to provide more expedited cancer diagnosis and treatment of cancer at an earlier stage, it is important to take into account the symptom epidemiology throughout the pathway, from first bodily sensation until the start of cancer treatment. This has implications for how primary-care providers interpret the presentation and decisions around patient management and investigation. Symptom epidemiology has consequences for how the health-care system might best be organised. This paper argues for and describes the organisation of the Danish three-legged strategy in diagnosing cancer, which includes urgent referral pathways for symptoms suspicious of a specific cancer, urgent referral to diagnostic centres when we need quick and profound evaluation of patients with nonspecific, serious symptoms and finally easy and fast access to 'No-Yes-Clinics' for cancer investigations for those patients with common symptoms in whom the diagnosis of cancer should not be missed. The organisation of the health-care system must reflect the reality of symptoms presented in primary care. The organisational change is evaluated and monitored with a comprehensive research agenda, data infrastructure and education.

  19. The Educational Strategies of Danish University Students from Professional and Working-Class Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Munk, Martin D.; Eiberg-Madsen, Misja; Hansen, Gro Inge

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the educational strategies adopted by university students from different class backgrounds in a Scandinavian welfare regime. Studies show distinct differences among classes relating to economic considerations, risk-averse behavior, and patterns of socialization among university students. We investigate these differences…

  20. The effects, costs and benefits of Salmonella control in the Danish table-egg sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, H; Madsen, M; Feld, N C; Mygind, J; Hald, T

    2009-06-01

    A public plan for eradicating Salmonella in Danish table-egg production was implemented in 1996. During 2002, the poultry industry took over the responsibility of the programme. The proportion of infected layer flocks was reduced from 13.4% in 1998 to 0.4% in 2006. The public-health impact of the plan has been quite marked. In 1997, 55-65% of the 5015 cases of human salmonellosis were estimated to be associated with eggs. In 2006, these figures were reduced to 1658 and 5-7%, respectively. Based on an assessment of the number of human cases attributable to table eggs, we used probabilistic modelling to estimate the avoided societal costs (health care and lost labour), and compared these with the public costs of control. The probable avoided societal costs during 1998-2002 were estimated to be 23.3 million euros (95% CI 16.3-34.9), and the results showed a continuous decreasing cost-benefit ratio reaching well below 1 in 2002. Further reductions in the primary production based on effective surveillance and control are required to ensure continued success.

  1. Control Strategy Tool (CoST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Strategy Tool (CoST) is a software tool for projecting potential future control scenarios, their effects on emissions and estimated costs. This tool...

  2. A Danish Heat Atlas for Supply Strategies and Demand Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The expansion of district heating, the assessment of the impact of heat supply strategies, as well as the analysis of significant heat demand savings require sound decision support at high detail. Data is needed to continuously quantify potentials and costs of measures in the end-use and supply...... sectors. To improve scientific and practical knowledge regarding heat planning and the economics of future district heating, a heat atlas for Denmark has been developed at Aalborg University. The heat atlas employs a building-sharp database of physical building characteristics, which is used to calculate...... heat demand and possible savings. The location of each building relative to heat supply technologies is mapped and used for the assessment of supply strategies by potentials, costs and environmental impact. Both elements can furthermore be used to balance investments in supply with investments...

  3. National Drug Control Strategy. 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 National Drug Control Strategy of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The overarching goal of the President's Strategy is to reduce drug use in America through a balanced approach that focuses on stopping use before it starts, healing America's drug users, and disrupting the market for illegal…

  4. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish......:HDL-cholesterol ratio between intervention and placebo groups. The effect of long-term supplementation with Se on plasma cholesterol concentrations or its sub-fractions did not differ significantly from placebo in this elderly population....

  5. Control Strategies for School Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Presents a model that administrators can use to control the teaching-learning process. Definitions are provided for the model's six elements: budgeting, reports, policies, organizational structures, professionalism, and staff selection and training. Notes that involvement of teachers and students in the control process minimizes communication…

  6. Percutaneous blood exposure among Danish doctors: exposure mechanisms and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the mechanisms of percutaneous blood exposure (PCE) among doctors and discuss rational strategies for prevention. Data were obtained as part of a nation-wide questionnaire survey of occupational blood exposure among hospital employed doctors in Denmark...... argued that instruments were not practical to use or might harm the tissue. Of 689 PCE in surgical specialties, 17.4% were inflicted by colleagues. Up to 53.3% of PCE on hollow-bore needles could be attributed to unsafe routines like recapping only, but other mechanisms like sudden patient movements...... and 'acute situation' were common, especially in the case of PCE on i.v.-catheter-stylets. It is concluded that the exposure mechanisms of PCE reflect both unsafe routines, difficult working conditions and unsafe devices. Education in safer working routines are needed in all specialties. Introduction...

  7. Danish strategy for developing SOFC fuel cells 2010-2020; Dansk strategi for udvikling af SOFC-braendselsceller 2010-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.; Linderoth, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Themsen, J. (Dantherm Power A/S, Hobro (Denmark)); Richter, A.B.; Hansen, Hakon J.; Holm-Larsen, H.; Andersen, Claus V. (Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Lyngby (Denmark))

    2010-09-15

    SOFC fuel cells are a promising technology for efficient production of electricity. The technology is expected to contribute very significantly to climate and environmental goals, security of supply of energy, increased employment and exports. Denmark has a very strong technology position within the SOFC area based on years of cooperation between Topsoe Fuel Cell and Risoe DTU as well as a later developed relationship with Dantherm Power. The Danish players have received more than DKK 250 million in public funding. With this support and the players' own funding (approx. two times higher than public support), the players managed over the past 10 years to bring development of SOFC technology significantly closer to the market. This strategy has been prepared by the Danish players in the field and gives a picture of the required overall development needs in the coming years. Technology development has reached the stage where in the coming years demonstrations on a larger scale have to be launched. The focus is basically on three valuable market segments: micro power and heat, auxiliary power for mobile applications, and decentralized power and CHP, which all have a great potential for market penetration internationally. When the market is established in one or more of these segments, other business opportunities must be explored for other applications based on the established technological platform. The road to commercialization is a long process that begins with demonstrations and later introduction of commercial products. The primary actors are currently the largest companies and institutions but as the number of produced fuel cell units increases, job creation with subcontractors and other directly related businesses and research centres will increase. A conservative estimate of market size worldwide is 2-4 GW of installed capacity per. year representing an annual turnover of 15-30 billion DKK and 10.000-20.000 more jobs. The export ratio is expected to exceed

  8. Energy strategy 2050. From coal, oil and gas to green energy; Danish Government's energy policy; Energistrategi 2050 - fra kul, olie og gas til groen energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Danish Government's ''Energy strategy 2050'' describes how the country can achieve its independence from coal, oil and gas by the year 2050 and significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The strategy contains a raft of initiatives that will reduce the energy industry's use of fossil fuels by 33 % in 2020, compared with 2009. The reduction will put Denmark well on its way to complete independence of fossil fuels by 2050. The strategy calls for a significant increase in renewable energy obtained from wind, biomass and biogas which over the next decade will increase the share of renewable to 33 % of energy consumption, if the initiatives in the strategy are implemented. The strategy offers an economically responsible path to the conversion of the Danish energy supply, and includes specific initiatives, that are all fully financed and which will not damage the nation's competitiveness. Homeowners will experience moderate increases in the costs of heat and electricity, but will also be given opportunities to lower their energy expenses through greater efficiency. Companies can expect added expenses amounting to 0.1 % of the rise in their gross revenue growth by 2020. (ln)

  9. Control strategies for bovine dermatophilosis with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... treatment to this disease in Nigeria. The various control strategies for Dermatophilosis are discussed in this paper. Recommendations for control of Dermatophilosis in Nigeria on short term include ecto-parasite control by regular use of insecticide/acaricide in dips with added 0.03% copper sulphate or 1% solution of alum ...

  10. The effects of rhythm control strategies versus rate control strategies for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, Naqash J; Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil E

    2017-01-01

    strategies versus rate control strategies for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, Web of Science, BIOSIS, Google Scholar, clinicaltrials.gov, TRIP, EU-CTR, Chi-CTR, and ICTRP for eligible trials comparing any rhythm control strategy with any rate...

  11. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-09-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  12. Danish Multinational Corporations in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    2017-01-01

    looks into how Danish MNCs have evolved into the Chinese economy, investigating the trajectories of how and when four Danish MNCs entered the Chinese economy and how the strategy patterns have emerged from cost reduction, to market access, and recently to innovation. Over 30 years, China has developed...

  13. Validity of the Type D personality construct in Danish post-MI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2004-01-01

    was developed in Belgian cardiac patients, but little is known about its applicability in other nationalities. The objectives of the present article were to cross-validate the Type D Personality Scale-16 (DS16) in a Danish sample of patients with a first myocardial infarction and a random sample of healthy...

  14. Danish Telecommunications: Keeping the Policy Options Open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Wulff, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    In recent years Danish telecommunications policy has gone through a marked change in emphasis, Tele Danmark, formed only 6 years ago as the national operator in order to strengthen the Danish telecom industry, has come under pressure in the present liberalization. This article discusses Tele...... Danmark's situation and future possibilities and presents background information on the new Danish telecommunications legislation, the present Danish telecommunications market, and Tele Danmark's strategies. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  15. Wind farm models and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulationmodels are described, including wind turbine...... models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described.The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC...

  16. Analysis and Comparison of Voltage Dependent Charging Strategies for Single-Phase Electric Vehicles in an Unbalanced Danish Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, Jorge Nájera; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies four voltage dependent solutions for modulating the charging of multiple Electric Vehicles (EVs) in a real Danish network. Uncontrolled EV charging, especially in grid with high EV penetration, can result in overloaded lines and transformers, low-voltages and other performance ...

  17. Challenge of Primary Voltage Control in Large Scale Wind Integrated Power System: A Danish Power System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Grid integration of Renewable Energy (RE) at large scale poses vast majority of challenges to secure and stable operation of Power System. This paper presents the challenge of short circuit power and primary voltage control of wind integrated power system where majority of conventional generators...... of operational and future model of western Danish power system has been presented to support the effectiveness of demonstrated alternatives....... are replaced by wind generators. The impact of large scale wind integration on fast reactive power support is studied in this paper. Considering both technical and economic aspects, alternatives to address the challenge of dynamic voltage support have also been demonstrated in this paper. A case study...

  18. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  19. The Danish Euro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    campaign strategy stems from the Danish conceptualisation of nation and state and from the close connection between national currencies and feelings of community and citizenship more general. The analysis confirms the suggestion made by Gilbert that new monetary organisation, such as European Monetary...

  20. Case-by-case risk assessment of broiler meat batches: An effective control strategy for Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others...... broiler meat. Still this initiative has been successful in significantly reducing the occurrence of Campylobacter in fresh meat available on the Danish retail market....

  1. Study of DFIG Wind Turbine Fault Ride-Through According to The Danish Grid Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new decentralized control strategy to enable a Doubly-fed Induction generator wind turbine, DFIG WT, to fulfill the Danish grid code requirements during different perturbations. A nonlinear controller is adopted for the grid side converter, GSC, to ensure decoupled control...... of the DC link voltage and the reactive power, and counteract the DC link voltage runaway. Moreover, the GSC is dedicated to inject more reactive power during voltage dips to satisfy the grid code reactive power support obligation. A conventional PI controller is devoted to control the rotor side converter....... The obtained results assure the capability of the proposed control strategy to satisfy the Danish grid code requirements....

  2. The Danish Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. STUDY POPULATION: All adult (≥15 years) patients...... undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. MAIN VARIABLES: The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR...

  3. On Control Strategies for Responsive Architectural Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers control of responsive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scope...... of the paper is to discuss control strategies for responsive architectural structures, particularly reconfigurable architectural structures which can transform body shape, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two different shape alternatives....

  4. Malaria vector control: current and future strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of

  5. Some thoughts on separation control strategies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some thoughts on separation control strategies. 91 flow through cavity from downstream to upstream of the shock wave: this is equivalent to a combination of suction downstream and blowing upstream of the shock, in turn increasing the communication across the shock wave. In addition to providing wave-drag reduction, ...

  6. Integrated strategies for control of devastating transmissible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-29

    Jul 29, 2017 ... Research Article. Integrated strategies for control of devastating transmissible diseases in. Cameroonian urban areas: The case of malaria, tuberculosis and waterborne diseases. Vincent P.K. Titanji1* and Denis Zofou2. 1.TWAS Research Professor of Biotechnology, Vice-Chancellor, Cameroon Christian ...

  7. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun....... To investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...... recorded according to size and body region and the skin phototype was assessed. There was no correlation between self-reported skin type and the number of naevi. Females with basal cell carcinoma had more naevi than did female controls (median number of naevi: 65 and 32, respectively) while males...

  8. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun....... To investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...... higher number of naevi on the arms and the legs than did female controls, but also had more naevi on the trunk. For females, the risk for basal cell carcinoma increased with increasing number of naevi. Naevi were not a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in males....

  9. Situational Strategies for Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J

    2016-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies-which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud-may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective-namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Modelling a national programme for the control of foodborne pathogens in livestock: the case of Salmonella Dublin in the Danish cattle industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, D.; Nielsen, L.R.; Warnick, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    objects is an infection-recovery cycle, a control programme, and surveillance based on test results and animal movement. The model was applied to predicting progress in the control of Salmonella Dublin in the Danish dairy cattle industry over a 10-year period. More frequent testing of bulk tank milk...

  11. Fundamentally Danish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    A closer look at the Muhammad cartoon crisis illuminates some of the key issues that were, and continue to be, at stake for the various actors in the public contestations over the legitimate place of Muslims (and the Islamic tradition) in Danish society. Using a conceptual framework developed...... by Axel Honneth, I suggest in this article that the cartoon crisis is part of an ongoing struggle for recognition in Denmark, through which the terms by which Muslims residing in Denmark are recognized as legitimate citizens/residents of Danish society are negotiated—and on which Muslims may recognize...... the demands of Danish majority society as legitimate. As much as the cartoon affair was an event that, as Palle Weis (2006) writes, “suddenly” ruptured Danish society in 2005, it was therefore also part of a process that continues to shape social actors and their relationships....

  12. New pheromones and insect control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Guerrero, Angel

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the new environmentally safe strategies used for insect control is presented. The survey includes mating disruption, pheromone antagonists as chemical communication inhibitors, pheromones and plant-based volatiles, attractant-and-kill, and push-pull strategies. Important successes have been obtained, particularly in mating disruption with significant reduction in pesticide use in low to moderate pest infestations. One important factor of concern is the high cost of semiochemicals and formulations containing them in comparison to the conventional insecticide treatments, and a combined effort by scientists, producers, and farmers should be made to reduce the cost of application of these semiochemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hierarchical MAS Based Control Strategy for Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids have become a hot topic driven by the dual pressures of environmental protection concerns and the energy crisis. In this paper, a challenge for the distributed control of a modern electric grid incorporating clusters of residential microgrids is elaborated and a hierarchical multi-agent system (MAS is proposed as a solution. The issues of how to realize the hierarchical MAS and how to improve coordination and control strategies are discussed. Based on MATLAB and ZEUS platforms, bilateral switching between grid-connected mode and island mode is performed under control of the proposed MAS to enhance and support its effectiveness.

  14. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  15. HEALTH CARE MODELS AND SOCIAL CONTROL STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira Simões

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the context of health care models and the social control strategies. It is a bibliographic review of critical and reflexive nature based of the references by technical texts, scientific publications and official documents related to public health policies, assisting in the preparation of candidates in the exam for knowledge. It has been selected eleven books and five articles. The material was categorized into three approaches: Historical Context of Public Health Policies, Health Care Models and Social Control Strategies. The results analysis and discussion subsidized the understanding of public health policies, since the implementation of SUS, and regulates health care; however a large country like Brazil, a single model of health care would not be able to meet the demands of health services, which justifies the implementation of various proposals. And, for social control it was possible to understand its influence on public policy changes, where we have identified the health councils and conferences as social control strategies, involving social actors in a critical and constructive role in the process of changing models of care.

  16. Drug exposure and risk of microscopic colitis: a nationwide Danish case-control study with 5751 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderup, Ole K; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Wigh, Tatjana; Pedersen, Lars; Nielsen, Gunnar L

    2014-10-01

    Previous small studies have indicated that commonly prescribed drugs may be associated with microscopic colitis (MC). With an increasing incidence of MC, it is important to explore the association between exposure to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and MC in a larger setting. Case-control study based on nationwide Danish registries. The study included all patients with MC diagnosis during the period 2005 to 2011. One hundred sex- and age-matched controls per case were randomly selected among the Danish population. Prescriptions were recorded in a Prescription Register in the year before the first recorded MC diagnosis. Effect measure is the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC) according to prescriptions of PPIs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Within the control group, we identified a subgroup with MC-free colonic biopsies. We identified 3474 patients with CC and 2277 with LC and found a positive association between redemption of prescriptions for PPIs and both CC (OR = 7.04; 95% confidence interval, 6.55-7.56) and LC (OR = 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 3.08-3.69). Among patients with MC-free colon biopsies in the control group, the association between PPIs and CC was strongly positive (OR = 3.47; 95% confidence interval, 3.08-3.89). Adding this parameter to the model attenuated all of the associations, but they remained positive for PPIs versus CC and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus LC. We found positive associations between exposure to all 4 medication classes and MC. Variations in endoscopic frequency by drug category indicate a potential impact of bias.

  17. Danish Society for Photogrammetry and Surveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the strategies applied to developed a Danish standard for exchange of digital map information and gives the main structure for the standard.......The paper describes the strategies applied to developed a Danish standard for exchange of digital map information and gives the main structure for the standard....

  18. Situational Strategies for Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control isn’t always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies—which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud— may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective, namely that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.—Sun Tzu, The Art of War PMID:26817725

  19. Smart Grid Operation and Control – Challenges for Danish Distribution Systems Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin

    2016-01-01

    high in the distribution grids and more units are expected to be installed. Thus, new challenges for daily operation of distribution grids will arise. This paper deals with operational challenges related to this high penetration of renewable generation and smart grid devices into distribution grids......The modern society is focussing more and more on reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing the use of sustainable energy technologies. The official European Union objectives are captured in the "20/20/20 plans". For Denmark, the objectives are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 by 20% compared......, to be produced from sustainable technologies. As part of the total objective, the Danish government aims to 50% of the electricity consumption to be produced by wind power in 2020. In comparison, in 2014, 39% of the electricity consumption was produced by wind power in 2012 this was 30.1%, which indicates...

  20. Survey of Occupant behavour and control of the indoor environment in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    : Outdoor temperature, wind speed and solar radiation, the outdoor temperature had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with windows open and heating on. The solar radiation had a small effect on the proportion of dwellings with lights on, while none of the parameters seemed to affect...... the proportion of dwellings with solar shading in use. The most significant reason listed for opening the windows in summer and winter was to obtain more air movement. Danish dwellings and European offices were affected in the same way by the outdoor temperature, when it comes to the proportion of dwellings....../offices with windows open or heating on. The outdoor temperature did not seem to affect the proportion of dwellings with solar shading in use....

  1. Case-control study of shift-work and breast cancer risk in Danish nurses: impact of shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Johnni; Stevens, Richard G

    2012-07-01

    Working outside normal daytime hours is increasing worldwide and is now one of the most widespread potential carcinogenic occupational exposures. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals that light exposure during the biologic night increases tumour growth and limited epidemiologic evidence that night shift-work cause breast cancer. Existing studies had crude definitions of shift-work and did not discriminate between shift-work systems (e.g. permanent versus rotating or evening versus night). We performed an interview based nested case-control study within a nationwide cohort of Danish nurses, including detailed information on lifetime shift-work and potential confounders. Cases of primary breast cancer (n=310) were identified from the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry. Four control nurses were selected for each case by incidence density sampling. Odds rations (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Overall, nurses who worked rotating shifts after midnight had a significantly increased OR (1.8; CI 1.2-2.8) for breast cancer compared to nurses with permanent day work. No association was found in a small group of nurses with evening work and no night work (OR=0.9; 0.4-1.9). The subgroup of nurses with periods of permanent night shift in addition to rotating night and day shifts experienced an OR of 2.9 (1.1-8.0). For nurses working after midnight compared to nurses never ending work before midnight, OR in the third tertile of cumulative number of shifts was 2.2 (1.5-3.2). In an analysis of different rotating shift systems, the highest OR (2.6; 1.8-3.8) was observed for long-term day-night rotating shifts. The results provide further evidence that night shift-work may increase the risk for breast cancer and suggest that the largest impact on risk is associated with the most disruptive shifts. Danish Cancer Society and National Programme of Environmental Health

  2. Control Strategy in Movements with Transmission Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Karri, Shilpa

    2017-09-14

    The strategy used by participants was studied when making movements in a Fitts movement paradigm with transmission delay between control input and display output. Fitts' law in the modified form developed by E. R. Hoffmann (1992) gave an excellent description of the data. Movement time could also be expressed as a function of the total delay time (number of submovements × transmission delay) and Fitts' index of difficulty (ID). Two types of submovement were identified, being step and drag forms. The number of step submovements was the most important in determining movement time. These were related to a move-and-wait strategy used by participants. Number of submovements increased with the level of ID and transmission delay and was linearly related to the ID and product of ID by transmission delay.

  3. Advanced Control Strategies of Induction Machine: Field Oriented Control, Direct Torque Control and Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxiang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Field oriented control (FOC, direct torque control (DTC and finite set model predictive control (FS-MPC are different strategies for high performance electrical drive systems. FOC uses linear controllers and pulse width modulation (PWM to control the fundamental components of the load voltages. On the other hand, DTC and FS-MPC are nonlinear strategies that generate directly the voltage vectors in the absence of a modulator. This paper presents all three methods starting from theoretic operating principles, control structures and implementation. Experimental assessment is performed to discuss their advantages and limitations in detail. As main conclusions of this work, it is affirmed that different strategies have their own merits and all meet the requirements of modern high performance drives.

  4. The effects of rhythm control strategies versus rate control strategies for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, Naqash; Safi, Sanam; Nielsen, Emil E

    2017-01-01

    by Jakobsen and colleagues. We plan to include all relevant randomised clinical trials assessing the effects of any rhythm control strategy versus any rate control strategy. We plan to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded...... and Trial Sequential Analysis. For both our primary and secondary outcomes, we will create a 'Summary of Findings' table and use GRADE assessment to assess the quality of the evidence. DISCUSSION: The results of this systematic review have the potential to benefit thousands of patients worldwide as well...

  5. MSM actuators: design rules and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, Benedikt; Janocha, Hartmut [Laboratory of Process Automation (LPA), Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany); Riccardi, Leonardo; Naso, David [Department of Electronics and Electrical Science (DEE), Politecnico di Bari (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys are comparatively new active materials which can be used for several industrial applications, ranging from precise positioning systems to advanced robotics. Beyond the material research, which deals with the basic thermo-magneto-mechanical properties of the crystals, the design as well as the control of the actuators displacement is an essential challenge. This paper addresses those two topics, trying to give to the reader a useful overview of existing results, but also presents new ideas. First, it introduces and discusses in details some possible designs, with a special emphasis on innovative actuator design concepts which are able to exploit the particular potentialities of MSM elements. The second focus of the paper is on the problem of designing a controller, i.e., an algorithm that allows to obtain a required performance from the actuator. The proposed control strategies try to take into account two main characteristics of MSM elements: the hysteresis and the temperature dependence. The effectiveness of the strategies is emphasized by experimental results performed on a commercially available MSM actuator demonstrator. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. A Vehicle Control Strategy in AGV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Cao; Yamada, Jun; Suzuki, Yuuki; Hamamatsu, Yoshio

    It is important to discuss the behavior of traffic at merging sections in the design of the overall Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS) and in the realization of the system. In this paper, we deal with a merging section of the AGVS under time limit for merging. Near the merging section, one flow of traffic must form a queue to avoid collision of vehicles. We propose an improved control strategy and clarify the fundamental features comparing with previous model. It is analyzed that the vehicle behavior at the merging section of the AGVS using the recurrence relation. The analytical solutions have been obtained.

  7. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  8. Improved Droop Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abusara, Mohammad; Sharkh, Suleiman; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    An improved control strategy for grid-connected inverters within microgrids is presented in this paper. The strategy is based on the classical P-ω and Q-V droop method. The improvement in the proposed control strategy is twofold: Firstly, the transient response of the droop controller is improved...... are presented to validate the model and demonstrate the controller capabilities....

  9. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa

    to highly optimised industrial host strains. The focus of this project is instead on en-gineering of the process. The question to be answered in this thesis is, given a highly optimised industrial host strain, how can we operate the fermentation process in order to maximise the productivity of the system...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive....... This provides a prediction of the future trajectory of the process, so that it is possible to guide the system to the desired target mass. The control strategy is applied on-line at 550L scale in the Novozymes A/S fermentation pilot plant, and the method is challenged with four different sets of process...

  10. Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxes are widely regarded as a highly effective strategy for reducing tobacco use and its consequences. The voluminous literature on tobacco taxes is assessed, drawing heavily from seminal and recent publications reviewing the evidence on the impact of tobacco taxes on tobacco use and related outcomes, as well as that on tobacco tax administration. Well over 100 studies, including a growing number from low-income and middle-income countries, clearly demonstrate that tobacco excise taxes are a powerful tool for reducing tobacco use while at the same time providing a reliable source of government revenues. Significant increases in tobacco taxes that increase tobacco product prices encourage current tobacco users to stop using, prevent potential users from taking up tobacco use, and reduce consumption among those that continue to use, with the greatest impact on the young and the poor. Global experiences with tobacco taxation and tax administration have been used by WHO to develop a set of 'best practices' for maximising the effectiveness of tobacco taxation. Significant increases in tobacco taxes are a highly effective tobacco control strategy and lead to significant improvements in public health. The positive health impact is even greater when some of the revenues generated by tobacco tax increases are used to support tobacco control, health promotion and/or other health-related activities and programmes. In general, oppositional arguments that higher taxes will have harmful economic effects are false or overstated.

  11. Neural PID Control Strategy for Networked Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method with a two-layer hierarchy is presented based on a neural proportional-integral-derivative (PID iterative learning method over the communication network for the closed-loop automatic tuning of a PID controller. It can enhance the performance of the well-known simple PID feedback control loop in the local field when real networked process control applied to systems with uncertain factors, such as external disturbance or randomly delayed measurements. The proposed PID iterative learning method is implemented by backpropagation neural networks whose weights are updated via minimizing tracking error entropy of closed-loop systems. The convergence in the mean square sense is analysed for closed-loop networked control systems. To demonstrate the potential applications of the proposed strategies, a pressure-tank experiment is provided to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design method in network process control systems.

  12. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. ...

  13. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual control strategies. 123.46... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Transfer of Information and Permit Review § 123.46 Individual control strategies. (a..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the State...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program.... Investigate source-receptor relationship June 1, 1980. Analysis and control strategy development: 1. Analyze...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy are disapproved since they do not provide the degree of control needed to attain and maintain the...; Table 4.2, Emissions Inventory Summary for Particulates and Table 5.2, Summary of Control Strategy...

  18. 40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.725... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.725 Control strategy... Agency and National Steel Corporation are parties and a draft Alternative Control Strategy Permit. This...

  19. Turbulent wedge spreading dynamics and control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Goldstein, David; Brown, Garry

    2017-11-01

    Turbulent wedges are encountered in some routes to transition in wall bounded flows, particularly those involving surface roughness. They are characterized by strongly turbulent regions that are formed downstream of large disturbances, and spread into the non-turbulent flow. Altering the wedge spreading mechanism is a possible drag reduction strategy. Following recent studies of Goldstein, Chu and Brown (Flow Turbul. Combust. 98(1), 2017) and Kuester and White (Exp. Fluids 57(4), 2016), we explore the relation between the base flow vorticity field and turbulent wedge spreading using immersed boundary direct numerical simulations. The lateral spreading rate of the wedges are similar for high Reynolds number boundary layers and Couette flow, but differences emerge in wall normal propagation of turbulence. We also attempt to utilize the surface texture based strategy suggested by Strand and Goldstein (J. Fluid Mech. 668, 2011) to reduce the spreading of isolated turbulent spots, for turbulent wedge control. The effects of height, spacing and orientation of fins on the dynamics of wedge evolution are studied. The results are interpreted from a vorticity dynamics point of view. Supported by AFOSR # FA9550-15-1-0345.

  20. Designing a sustainable strategy for malaria control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mharakurwa Sungano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in the 21st century is showing signs of declining over much of its distribution, including several countries in Africa where previously this was not thought to be feasible. Yet for the most part the strategies to attack the infection are similar to those of the 1950s. Three major Journals have recently drawn attention to the situation, stressing the importance of research, describing the successes and defining semantics related to control. But there is a need to stress the importance of local sustainability, and consider somewhat urgently how individual endemic countries can plan and implement the programmes that are currently financed, for the most part, by donor institutions. On an immediate basis research should be more focused on a data driven approach to control. This will entail new thinking on the role of local infrastructure and in training of local scientists in local universities in epidemiology and field malariology so that expanded control programmes can become operational. Donor agencies should encourage and facilitate development of career opportunities for such personnel so that local expertise is available to contribute appropriately.

  1. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    scale was steered by the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and greatly supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Perhaps the most important contribution of this period was the development of malaria epidemiology, including the study of the genesis of epidemics and their possible forecasting and prevention. Although the great effectiveness of DDT was perhaps the main determinant for proposing the global eradication of the disease in the 1950s, it was the confidence in the epidemiological knowledge and the prestige of malariology, which gave credibility to the proposal at the political level. The second part deals with the global malaria eradication campaign of the 1950s and 1960s. It recognises the enormous impact of the eradication effort in the consolidation of the control successes of the first half of the century, as well as its influence in the development of planning of health programmes. Nevertheless, it also stresses the negative influence that the failure to achieve its utopian expectations had on the general disappointment and slow progress of malaria control, which characterised the last third of the century. The paper then analyses the evolution of malaria control funding, which often appears out of tune with political statements. The fourth part is devoted to the search for realistic approaches to malaria control, leading to the adoption of the global malaria control strategy in Amsterdam in 1992, and the challenge, at the end of the century, to rally forces commensurate with the magnitude of the problem, while aiming at realistic objectives. After discussing the conflicting views on the relations between malaria and socio-economic development and the desirable integration of malaria control into sustainable development, the paper ends with some considerations on the perspectives of malaria control, as seen by the author in early 1998, just before the launching of the current Roll Back Malaria initiative by WHO.

  2. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    .Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow?

  3. Danish Vernacular

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyams, Inger Louise Berling

    2014-01-01

    of influential teachers in the Danish school, particularly Nyrop, this development is tracked. This descriptive and analytic work concludes in a perspective on the backdrop of Martin Heidegger’s differentiation between Historie and Geschichte – how history was used in the curriculum and what sort of impact...... the teachers had on their students. Such a perspective does not just inform us of past practices but could inspire to new ones....

  4. The Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders

    The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations...... and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse...... (Latour), e.g. civil service and municipal practices and texts, into the organizational practices of two local schools. On the basis of these analyses, we will establish a participatory process in which local actors are involved in the co-creation of new plurivocal and egalitarian dialogue designs...

  5. Causes of death among Danish HIV patients compared with population controls in the period 1995-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, C S

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the mortality and causes of death in human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) patients with the background population. METHODS: All adult HIV patients treated in Danish HIV centers from 1995 to 2008 and 14 controls for each HIV patient were included. Age-adjusted mortality rates...... (MR) and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using direct standardization and Poisson regression analyses. Up to four contributory causes of death for each person were included in analyses of cause-specific MR. RESULTS: A total of 5,137 HIV patients and 71,918 controls were followed for 37......,838 and 671,339 person-years (PY), respectively. Among non-injection drug use (IDU) HIV patients, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related MR/1,000 PY declined dramatically from 122.9 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 106.8-141.4] in 1995 to 5.0 (95 % CI 3.1-8.1) in 2008. The non-AIDS-related MR...

  6. Primary Frequency Regulation with Li-Ion Battery Energy Storage System - Evaluation and Comparison of Different Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbergsson, Egill; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2013-01-01

    devices is becoming more attractive, the aim of this paper is to analyse the viability of providing primary frequency regulation with Lithium-ion based energy storage systems. Three control strategies of the energy storage system are analysed and compared in terms of economic benefits on the Danish energy...... market. The revenues and degradation of the Lithium-ion batteries are obtained by simulations. Furthermore, an energy management strategy based on variable state-of-charge (SOC) set-point is evaluated. Preliminary, the influence of different state-of-charge levels on the cycle lifetime is estimated....... Finally, the economic analysis is based on simulations performed with different bidding ratios, i.e. different SOC set-points, for primary upward and primary downward frequency regulation. The results showed that all three control strategies were associated with considerable economic benefits even though...

  7. On the Optimal Dynamic Control Strategy of Disruptive Computer Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Bi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive computer viruses have inflicted huge economic losses. This paper addresses the development of a cost-effective dynamic control strategy of disruptive viruses. First, the development problem is modeled as an optimal control problem. Second, a criterion for the existence of an optimal control is given. Third, the optimality system is derived. Next, some examples of the optimal dynamic control strategy are presented. Finally, the performance of actual dynamic control strategies is evaluated.

  8. Towards a Danish power system with 50% wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Gordon, Mark; Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The new Danish Energy Strategy implies 50% wind power penetration for the Danish electric power system by 2025. Accordingly, it is the vision to develop the Danish electric power system into world's best renewable based electricity system, and many research and development activities have taken...

  9. Control strategies for endemic childhood scabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Gilmore

    Full Text Available Human scabies is a major global public health issue, with an estimated 300 million cases per year worldwide. Prevalence rates are particularly high in many third-world regions and within various indigenous communities in developed countries. Infestation with Sarcoptes Scabiei is associated with group-A streptococcal pyoderma which in turn predisposes to rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and their respective long-term sequelae: rheumatic heart disease and chronic renal insufficiency. The documented difficulties inherent in achieving scabies control within affected communities have motivated us to develop a network-dependent Monte-Carlo model of the scabies contagion, with the dual aims of gaining insight into its dynamics, and in determining the effects of various treatment strategies. Here we show that scabies burden is adversely affected by increases in average network degree, prominent network clustering, and by a person-to-person transmissibility of greater magnitude. We demonstrate that creating a community-specific model allows for the determination of an effective treatment protocol that can satisfy any pre-defined target prevalence. We find frequent low-density treatment protocols are inherently advantageous in comparison with infrequent mass screening and treatment regimes: prevalence rates are lower when compared with protocols that administer the same number of treatments over a given time interval less frequently, and frequent low-density treatment protocols have economic, practical and public acceptance advantages that may facilitate their long-term implementation. This work demonstrates the importance of stochasticity, community structure and the heterogeneity of individuals in influencing the dynamics of the human scabies contagion, and provides a practical method for investigating the outcomes of various intervention strategies.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Danish versions of headache-specific locus of control scale and headache management self-efficacy scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob Sander; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to test the cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of a Danish version of the Headache-Specific Locus of Control Scale (HSLC) and the Headache Management Self-Efficacy Scale (HMSE) in a tertiary headache centre. HSLC and HMSE are headache-specific measures...... of locus of control (LOC) and SE. The Danish versions of the HSLC and the HMSE were created according to the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The HSLC and HMSE were administered to 135 consecutively referred headache patients in a tertiary headache centre together....... The results are consistent with the earlier findings of the original American versions of HMSE and HSLC. These scales seem to be valid and valuable tools for testing of psychological aspects related to level of functioning and quality of life for headache patients across different cultures of Western society...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.1173... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy... (Fugitive dust control programs other than areas listed in table 36.), 336.1372 (Fugitive dust control...

  12. The National Drug Control Strategy: 2000 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This annual report documents the National Drug Control Strategy's progress and plans for the future, and summarizes the implementation of the Nation's 10-year counter-drug strategy. The National Drug Control Strategy takes a long-term, holistic view of the nation's drug problem and recognizes the devastating effect drug abuse has on the nation's…

  13. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to the...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1126 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1126 Section 52.1126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to the...

  15. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function? Results from a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial in a Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik; Debrabant, Birgit; Nybo, Mads; Cold, Søren; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake. The Danish PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with SElenium pilot study (DK-PRECISE) is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 491 males and females aged 60-74 years were randomized to 100 μg (n=124), 200 μg (n=122), or 300 μg (n=119) selenium-enriched yeast or matching yeast-based placebo tablets (n=126). A total of 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, completed the 5-year intervention period. Plasma samples were analyzed for selenium and serum samples for TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) at baseline, and after 6 months, and 5 years of supplementation. Plasma selenium concentrations increased significantly and dose-dependently in treatment groups receiving selenium (Pselenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when compared with placebo, by decreasing serum TSH and FT4 concentrations. Based on these findings, selenium supplementation is not warranted under conditions of marginal selenium deficiency. However, a role for selenium supplementation in the treatment of autoimmune thyroid diseases is still unresolved. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Migraine and risk of stroke and acute coronary syndrome in two case-control studies in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Migraine has consistently been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, while the evidence for a relation with other types of stroke or coronary outcomes is limited. We examined the association between migraine and stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtypes and the ......INTRODUCTION: Migraine has consistently been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, while the evidence for a relation with other types of stroke or coronary outcomes is limited. We examined the association between migraine and stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtypes...... and the influence of potential confounding factors. METHODS: All first-time hospital contacts for stroke (n=155,216) or ACS (n=97,799) were identified in Danish National Patient Registers and matched with 2 control groups of the background population. A hospital diagnosis of migraine and use of migraine medication...... stroke (ORcrude, age ACS (ORcrude:1.88 [95% CI: 1.53-2.32]), while the ORs for the associations between migraine medication and stroke and ACS were lower. Patients with a diagnosis of migraine or redeemed migraine...

  17. Physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy: A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Juhl, Mette

    2015-12-01

    Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16. The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per week spent on exercise (p exercise, swimming was associated with a decreased risk of pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58-0.91, p = 0.005). The findings suggest a possible protective effect of physical exercise on pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Scripting, control, and privacy in domestic smart grid technologies: insights from a Danish pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Meiken; Hauge, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Smart grid research in Denmark has increasingly turned its focus on aggregator trading flexibility achieved by remotely controlling appliances, studying the technologies involved rather than the control. This paper investigates how different types of control were envisioned and designed for a two......-year smart grid trial in Denmark with 20 private households. Using the notion of script, processes of in- and de-scription were used to gain insights into perceived and enacted control. Based on empirical data from 26 interviews and three workshops, we show how the in-scription process of control can...... a reference for ‘passive consumers’ within a smart grid. This design prompts questions about how the users in smart grid development are envisioned and configured using different ideas about control. With current development and the need for additional energy reductions, consumers who invest in photovoltaic...

  19. Comparison of different stepwise screening strategies for type 2 diabetes: Finding from Danish general practice, Addition-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Christensen, Jesper O; Skriver, Mette Vinter

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To examine attendance, number of people with T2DM and costs of three different stepwise screening strategies for T2DM in general practice (GP). METHODS: Diabetes risk questionnaires were mailed to individuals aged 40-69 years from 45 general practices in 2001-2002 and individuals at high risk...

  20. Analysis of the effect of passive strategies on a nearly zero Danish residential building by means of dynamic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avantaggiato, Marta; Simone, Angela; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    .The main result is that a crossed use of both strategies leads to a cooling demand reduction (21 kWh/m2year) that varies between 98%-100% depending on the building’s tightness. Behavioural actions of the occupants were also considered in the calculation of the cooling energy demand and their impact...

  1. Strategy to Ensure Institutional Control Implementation at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document sets forth EPA’s strategy (Strategy) for ensuring that institutional controls (ICs) are successfully implemented at Superfund sites, with an emphasis on evaluating ICs at sites where all construction of all remedies is complete (construction complete sites).

  2. Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røseth Karlsen, Line; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated.......Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated....

  3. Compound control strategy used in Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongling; Yan, Meng

    2017-01-01

    This article briefly describes the overall structure of the loading test rig; establish mathematical model of loading EMA, analyze its stability, surplus force and other properties in MATLAB; propose a compound control strategy combined speed feedback, PID and feed-forward compensation based on structure invariance principle. To verify the effectiveness of the control strategy, do a co-simulation by designing a controller based on the control strategy above in MATLAB and building the EMA model in AMESim. The results show that the compound control strategy can significantly improve dynamic tracking accuracy and reduce surplus force.

  4. Quality in career guidance: The Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance systems are introduced in career guidance to monitor, control and develop guidance interventions. The Danish case represents at centrally driven, top-down approach......Quality assurance systems are introduced in career guidance to monitor, control and develop guidance interventions. The Danish case represents at centrally driven, top-down approach...

  5. A differentiated approach to referrals from general practice to support early cancer diagnosis - the Danish three-legged strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, P; Olesen, F

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel slår til lyd for en trebenet diagnostisk strategi på kræftområdet i Danmark, som har til hensigt at sikre diagnosticering af kræft på tidligere sygdomsstadier. Artiklen diskuterer det kontinuum af symptomer, som patienterne præsenterer i almen praksis, og ser nærmere på de praktiser......Denne artikel slår til lyd for en trebenet diagnostisk strategi på kræftområdet i Danmark, som har til hensigt at sikre diagnosticering af kræft på tidligere sygdomsstadier. Artiklen diskuterer det kontinuum af symptomer, som patienterne præsenterer i almen praksis, og ser nærmere på de...

  6. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.

  7. Causes of death among Danish HIV patients compared with population controls in the period 1995-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleberg, M; Kronborg, G; Larsen, C S; Pedersen, G; Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Obel, N

    2012-12-01

    To compare the mortality and causes of death in human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) patients with the background population. All adult HIV patients treated in Danish HIV centers from 1995 to 2008 and 14 controls for each HIV patient were included. Age-adjusted mortality rates (MR) and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using direct standardization and Poisson regression analyses. Up to four contributory causes of death for each person were included in analyses of cause-specific MR. A total of 5,137 HIV patients and 71,918 controls were followed for 37,838 and 671,339 person-years (PY), respectively. Among non-injection drug use (IDU) HIV patients, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related MR/1,000 PY declined dramatically from 122.9 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 106.8-141.4] in 1995 to 5.0 (95 % CI 3.1-8.1) in 2008. The non-AIDS-related MR did not change substantially from 6.9 (95 % CI 3.8-12.5) to 5.6 (95 % CI 3.6-8.8). The MR of unnatural causes declined from 6.9 (95 % CI 3.8-12.5) to 2.7 (95 % CI 1.4-5.1). The MRR of infections declined from 46.6 (95 % CI 19.6-110.9) to 3.3 (95 % CI 1.6-6.6). The MRR of other natural causes of death remained constant. After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the AIDS-related mortality has decreased substantially, but the long-term exposure to HIV and HAART has not translated into increasing mortality from malignancy, cardiovascular, and hepatic diseases.

  8. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rayman, Margaret P; Guallar, Eliseo; Nybo, Mads; Griffin, Bruce A; Stranges, Saverio; Cold, Søren

    2015-12-14

    Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish PRECISE (PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium) pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01819649) was a 5-year randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with four groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1:1). Men and women aged 60-74 years (n 491) were randomised to 100 (n 124), 200 (n 122) or 300 (n 119) μg Se-enriched yeast or matching placebo-yeast tablets (n 126) daily for 5 years. A total of 468 participants continued the study for 6 months and 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, continued for 5 years. Plasma samples were analysed for total and HDL-cholesterol and for total Se concentrations at baseline, 6 months and 5 years. The effect of different doses of Se supplementation on plasma lipid and Se concentrations was estimated by using linear mixed models. Plasma Se concentration increased significantly and dose-dependently in the intervention groups after 6 months and 5 years. Total cholesterol decreased significantly both in the intervention groups and in the placebo group after 6 months and 5 years, with small and nonsignificant differences in changes in plasma concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and total:HDL-cholesterol ratio between intervention and placebo groups. The effect of long-term supplementation with Se on plasma cholesterol concentrations or its sub-fractions did not differ significantly from placebo in this elderly population.

  9. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12... available control measures, a reasonable further progress plan, contingency measures, and other planning...

  10. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December 5, 1974 submission) of Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations...

  11. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy..., the State must repromulgate Regulation No. 1 to satisfy reasonably available control technology...

  12. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.332 Control strategy..., 2000 letter from Margie Perkins, Director, Colorado Air Pollution Control Division, to Richard Long...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January... reasonably available control measures, a reasonable further progress plan, contingency measures, and other...

  14. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12... associated reasonably available control measures, a reasonable further progress plan, contingency measures...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal for... areas to submit an attainment demonstration, associated reasonably available control measures, a...

  16. The Danish Retail Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...

  17. [Oral contraceptives and cerebral thromboembolism. A Danish case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidegaard, O

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective case control study was carried out in order to assess the risk of developing cerebral thromboembolism by use of low dose oral contraceptives (OC). The subjects were all the 794 women in Denmark aged 15-44 who had suffered a cerebral thromboembolic attack (CTA) during the period 1985-1989, and an age-matched randomly selected control population of 1588 women. CTA included occlusion of precerebral arteria (ICD 432), cerebral thrombosis (ICD 433), cerebral embolism (ICD 434), transitory cerebral ischaemia (TCI; ICD 435) and the unspecified group apoplexia cerebri (ICD 436). Of 692/1584 case/control questionnaires sent out, 590/1396 (85.1/88.1%) were returned. Among the cases, 15 refused to participate, 69 had a revised or unreliable diagnosis, 40 had previously had thromboembolic disease, 13 were pregnant, and 152 had a disease predisposing them for CTA, leaving 323 without known predisposition, of whom 320 reported use/non-use of OC. Among 1396 controls, eight either refused to participate, were mentally retarded or resident in foreign countries; 18 returned an uncompleted questionnaire, 17 had previously had thromboembolic disease, 31 were pregnant, and 130 had a disease predisposing them to CTA. Thus, 1198 non-predisposed controls were provided, among whom 1197 reported use/non-use of OC. Among 320 cases, 116 (36.3%) were OC users at the time of the CTA, vs. 191 users (16.0%) among 1197 controls, corresponding to a crude odds ratio (OR) of 3.00.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Annoying Danish Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI...... task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency...

  19. Role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in infection control - a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J

    2001-01-01

    Clinical microbiology laboratories in Denmark are located in hospitals and staffed by clinical microbiologists who are clinically trained medical doctors. Each county has its own clinical microbiology unit, serving a population of 0.3-0.6 million. The responsibilities of clinical microbiology unit...... for standardization and documentation of quality. Currently a national standard for infection control is being prepared. It consists of a main standard defining requirements for the management system and 12 subsidiary standards defining requirements for specific areas of infection control. Adoption of the standard...

  20. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic...

  1. An inventory control project in a major Danish company using compound renewal demand models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Seiding, Claus Hoe; Teller, Christian

    2008-01-01

    procedures for determining suitable inventory control variables based on the fitted demand distributions and a service-level requirement stated in terms of an order fill rate. Finally, we validated the results of our models against the procedures that had been in use in the company. It was concluded...

  2. Multimorbidity and blood pressure control in 37 651 hypertensive patients from Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Maja Skov; Andersen, Morten; Thomsen, Janus L

    2013-01-01

    Patients with hypertension are primarily treated in general practice. However, major studies of patients with hypertension are rarely based on populations from primary care. Knowledge of blood pressure (BP) control rates in patients with diabetes and/or cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), who have...

  3. An inventory control project in a major Danish company using compound renewal demand models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Seiding, Claus Hoe; Teller, Christian

    operation is highly automated. However, the procedures for estimating demands and the policies for the inventory control system that were in use at the beginning of the project did not fully match the sophisticated technological standard of the physical system. During the initial phase of the project...... inventory control variables based on the fitted demand distributions and a service level requirement stated in terms of an order fill rate. Finally, we validated the results of our models against the procedures that had been in use in the company. It was concluded that the new procedures were considerably...... We describe the development of a framework to compute the optimal inventory policy for a large spare-parts' distribution centre operation in the RA division of the Danfoss Group in Denmark. The RA division distributes spare parts worldwide for cooling and A/C systems. The warehouse logistics...

  4. Application of a controllable degron strategy for metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuf, Christoph; Maury, Jerome; Jacobsen, Simo Abdessamad

    2014-01-01

    terpenoids, can be produced from intermediates of this pathway. Different strategies have been applied in order to down-regulate the expression of enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway. All these strategies work on the transcriptional level. This leads to a delay of the actual regulation......, as the existing enzyme will still be active. We present a strategy for down-regulation that acts on the protein level and which can therefore be controlled in a more precise manner than the hitherto reported strategies. As a case study we show the action of the degron strategy for controlling the pools...

  5. Strategy for research development and demonstration regarding hydrogen technology in Denmark. Hydrogen production. An account of production technologies against planning of a optimal danish effort within hydrogen; Strategi for forskning, udvikling og demonstration vedroerende brintteknologi i Danmark. Brintproduktion - Gennemgang af produktionsteknologier med henblik pae planlaegning af en optimal dansk indsats pae brintomraedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    This report has been prepared as part of the Danish Energy Authorities' formulation of a Danish strategy for hydrogen as an energy carrier, especially within production of hydrogen and hydrogen-containing fuels. The working-group has defined hydrogen production as the chain of processes necessary to convert a specific energy into enough clean hydrogen or hydrogen-containing fuels. The work has focused on energy sources that can be converted to hydrogen directly, i.e. biomass, solar energy, electricity, and fossil sources. (BA)

  6. Screening and brief intervention targeting risky drinkers in Danish general practice - a pragmatic controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beich, A.; Gannik, D.; Saelan, H.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for routine alcohol screening and brief counselling intervention in primary health care rest on results from intervention efficacy studies. By conducting a pragmatic controlled trial (PCT), we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the WHO recommendations for screening......-14 months. Outcome measures focused on patients' acceptance of screening and intervention and their self-reported alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Patient acceptance of screening and intervention -10.3% (N = 794) of the target population (N = 7, 691) explicitly refused screening. All intervention group...

  7. Female Sexual Victimization Predicts Psychosis: A Case-Control Study Based on the Danish Registry System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: An increasing research literature has identified a statistical association between trauma exposure and psychosis. Methodological limitations, primarily relating to failures to establish the temporal ordering of events and relying on retrospective self-reports, have made the argument...... variable was a postindex year diagnosis of psychosis. The OR associated with sexual victimization (OR = 10.04; 95% CI 2.50-40.33) indicted an increased likelihood of psychosis while controlling for the other predictors in the model. Conclusions: This study found that sexual victimization significantly...

  8. Danish Ultras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that knowledge of supporter culture is crucial when assessing the risk of disorder at football matches and thereby ensuring a balanced approach by police and stewards (Stott & Pearson 2007). Both within Denmark and internationally, there is a weak understanding of risk...... supporters, often resulting in inappropriate assessments on the part of the police. This has led to conflicts that presumably could have been avoided had the police possessed a deeper awareness of supporter culture (Stott & Pearson 2007; Rasmussen, Havelund & Tranegaard Andersen 2009). This article...... is the result of a qualitative study of the self-declared nonviolent segment of the Danish risk supporters, i.e. the ultra culture. The study’s empirical data stems from qualitative interviews and participant observation primarily focusing at matches involving Brøndby IF, the club supported by the interviewees...

  9. The Danish Inguinal Hernia database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Andersen, Hans; Bisgaard, Thue

    2016-01-01

    the medical management of the database. RESULTS: The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database comprises intraoperative data from >130,000 repairs (May 2015). A total of 49 peer-reviewed national and international publications have been published from the database (June 2015). CONCLUSION: The Danish Inguinal Hernia......AIM OF DATABASE: To monitor and improve nation-wide surgical outcome after groin hernia repair based on scientific evidence-based surgical strategies for the national and international surgical community. STUDY POPULATION: Patients ≥18 years operated for groin hernia. MAIN VARIABLES: Type and size...... of hernia, primary or recurrent, type of surgical repair procedure, mesh and mesh fixation methods. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: According to the Danish National Health Act, surgeons are obliged to register all hernia repairs immediately after surgery (3 minute registration time). All institutions have continuous...

  10. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1996-01-01

    Three control strategies allowing improved operational flexibility of an alternating type activated sludge process are presented in a unified model based framework. The control handles employed are the addition rate of an external carbon source to denitrification, the cycle length...

  11. Replication of Prostate Cancer Risk Variants in a Danish Case-Control Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the main causes for cancer morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies and multiple variant models have been...... developed to predict prostate cancer risk. The association between genetic markers and clinico-pathological tumor variables has, however, been inconsistent. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 previously identified prostate cancer-associated risk SNPs were genotyped in 648 prostate cancer cases and 526 age...... assays and associations between SNPs, prostate cancer risk, and clinico-pathological variables were assessed. Results: Seventeen SNPs were successfully replicated in our case-control study and the association estimates were consistent with previous reports. Four markers were excluded from further...

  12. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversityverification in Danish greening subsidy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    farmers for greening subsidy claims, with no instances of suggesting a greening subsidy for a holding that the farmer did not report as meeting the required conditions. These results suggest that the proposed RS based method shows great promise for validating the new greening subsidies in Denmark.......’ declarations to war-rant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers’ subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing...... compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014–2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach(proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring...

  13. Controls on upper Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk deposition in the eastern Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2017-01-01

    % of the sediment. Sedimentation took place in deep water, below the photic zone and storm-wave base, and is characterized by decimetre to metre-scale variations in facies and trace fossil assemblages indicating repeated shifts in depositional environment. Integration of facies with published data on sea-surface...... temperature and accumulation rates suggests that sea-surface temperature is the most important parameter in controlling stratification of the water column and thereby, indirectly, the observed variations in depositional facies. However, bioturbated mudstone chalk occurs in all stratigraphic levels independent...... of accumulation rates and sea temperatures and is interpreted to represent a very broad set of deep water environmental conditions with an ample supply of calcareous nannofossil debris and intense bioturbation. Longer term shifts in deposition are best expressed by distribution of clay, flint and bioturbated...

  14. Assessment of heterogeneity between European Populations: a Baltic and Danish replication case-control study of SNPs from a recent European ulcerative colitis genome wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Kupcinskas, Limas; Jacobsen, Bent A; Krarup, Henrik B; Vogel, Ulla; Jonaitis, Laimas; Denapiene, Goda; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre

    2011-10-13

    Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10) or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs.Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively).No SNP reached genome

  15. New control strategies for neuroprosthetic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crago, Patrick E.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Lan, Ning; Abbas, James J.; Kantor, Carole

    1996-01-01

    The availability of techniques to artificially excite paralyzed muscles opens enormous potential for restoring both upper and lower extremity movements with neuroprostheses. Neuroprostheses must stimulate muscle, and control and regulate the artificial movements produced. Control methods to

  16. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  17. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  18. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and Maintenance...

  19. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal ozone...

  20. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone. (a... requirements of sections 172(c)(9) and 182(c)(9) of the Clean Air Act, for the Greater Hartford serious ozone...

  1. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the ozone...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1582 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... Control strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Subchapter 16 of the New Jersey Administrative Code, entitled... of the 1990 Clean Air Act. (d)(1) The base year ozone precursor emission inventory requirement of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582 Section 52.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.582 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Approval...

  4. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a... of Progress Plan for the District of Columbia's portion of the Metropolitan Washington, D.C. ozone...

  5. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a) Approval...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all sources...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead nonattainment...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead national...

  9. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985, and...

  10. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon...

  11. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for nitrogen...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1880 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March 30...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did not...

  15. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.573 Section 52.573 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.573 Control strategy: General...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide...

  18. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527 Section 52.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General. (a...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1680 - Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting. 52.1680 Section 52.1680 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting. (a) Section 227.6 (a) and (f) are disapproved because they are...

  20. National Drug Control Strategy. FY 2009 Budget Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White House, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Drug Control Budget Summary identifies resources and performance indicators for programs within the Executive Branch that are integral to the President's National Drug Control Strategy. The Strategy, which is the Administration's plan for reducing drug use and availability, is based on three pillars: (1) Stopping Use Before It Starts,…

  1. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of the...

  2. Comparison of different stepwise screening strategies for type 2 diabetes: Finding from Danish general practice, Addition-DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Christensen, Jesper O; Skriver, Mette Vinter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbaek, Annelli

    2010-12-01

    To examine attendance, number of people with T2DM and costs of three different stepwise screening strategies for T2DM in general practice (GP). Diabetes risk questionnaires were mailed to individuals aged 40-69 years from 45 general practices in 2001-2002 and individuals at high risk for T2DM, were asked to contact their GP to arrange a screening test. In 2005-2006, 26 general practices were randomised into two different opportunistic screening programmes (OP-direct and OP-subsequent) and risk questionnaires were distributed to individuals aged 40-69 years during GP consultations. In the OP-direct approach, high-risk individuals were offered to start the screening during the actual consultation while high-risk individuals in the OP-subsequent approach, were invited to a screening test at a later date. We report attendance, number of people with T2DM and costs of each screening approach. The mail-distributed approach identified 0.8% of the target population with T2DM, the OP-direct approach and the OP-subsequent approach, 0.9% and 0.5% respectively. Cost per person with T2DM was in the mail-distributed approach: € 1058, OP-direct approach: € 707 and the OP-subsequent approach: € 727. This study indicates that opportunistic screening identifies the same level of unknown diabetes as a mail-distributed approach but with lower costs. Copyright © 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Backstepping Strategy for Induction Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2000-01-01

    Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping with a s......Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping...... with a simple flux observer is used in the design. Assuming known motor parameters the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. It is also shown how a conventional field oriented controller may be obtained by omitting parts of the nonlinear controller....

  4. Backstepping Strategy for Induction Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2000-01-01

    Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping...... with a simple flux observer is used in the design. Assuming known motor parameters the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. It is also shown how a conventional field oriented controller may be obtained by omitting parts of the nonlinear controller....

  5. Danish Women in the Trades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    1997-01-01

    A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry.......A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry....

  6. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  7. Control Plane Strategies for Elastic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan

    Networks (EONs) concept is proposed as a solution to enable a more flexible handling of the optical capacity and allows an increase of available capacity over the existing optical infrastructure. One main requirement for enabling EONs is to have a flexible spectrum structure (i.e.Flex-Grid) which allows...... consumption. EONs offer the opportunity of deploying energy efficiency strategies, which benefit from the flexible nature of elastic optoelectronic devices. This thesis proposes and investigates different approaches for reducing power consumption based on EONs in realistic dynamic traffic scenarios....

  8. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Sundström; Helene Wahlström; Sofie Ivarsson; Susanna Sternberg Lewerin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes i...

  9. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Mikułowski; Łukasz Jankowski

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG) capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~va...

  10. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  11. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  12. Adaptive bridge control strategy for opinion evolution on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Cao, Jinde; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient opinion control strategy for complex networks, in particular, for social networks. The proposed adaptive bridge control (ABC) strategy calls for controlling a special kind of nodes named bridge and requires no knowledge of the node degrees or any other global or local knowledge, which are necessary for some other immunization strategies including targeted immunization and acquaintance immunization. We study the efficiency of the proposed ABC strategy on random networks, small-world networks, scale-free networks, and the random networks adjusted by the edge exchanging method. Our results show that the proposed ABC strategy is efficient for all of these four kinds of networks. Through an adjusting clustering coefficient by the edge exchanging method, it is found out that the efficiency of our ABC strategy is closely related with the clustering coefficient. The main contributions of this paper can be listed as follows: (1) A new high-order social network is proposed to describe opinion dynamic. (2) An algorithm, which does not require the knowledge of the nodes' degree and other global∕local network structure information, is proposed to control the "bridges" more accurately and further control the opinion dynamics of the social networks. The efficiency of our ABC strategy is illustrated by numerical examples. (3) The numerical results indicate that our ABC strategy is more efficient for networks with higher clustering coefficient.

  13. Control strategies for friction dampers: numerical assessment and experimental investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho H.T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of friction dampers has been proposed in a wide variety of mechanical systems for which it is not possible to apply viscoelastic materials, fluid based dampers or others viscous dampers. An important example is the application of friction dampers in aircraft engines to reduce the blades vibration amplitudes. In most cases, friction dampers have been studied in a passive way, however, a significant improvement can be achieved by controlling the normal force in the dampers. The aim of this paper is to study three control strategies for friction dampers based on the hysteresis cycle. The first control strategy maximizes the energy removal in each harmonic oscillation cycle, by calculating the optimum normal force based on the last displacement peak. The second control strategy combines the first one with the maximum energy removal strategy used in the smart spring devices. Finally, is presented the strategy which homogenously modulates the friction force. Numerical studies were performed with these three strategies defining the performance metrics. The best control strategy was applied experimentally. The experimental test rig was fully identified and its parameters were used for the numerical simulations. The obtained results show the good performance for the friction damper and the selected strategy.

  14. Ready for a goodbye to tobacco? - Assessment of support for endgame strategies on smoking among adults in a Danish regional health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Maja; Pisinger, Charlotta; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-02-01

    To assess support for a future ban on smoking and for increasing tobacco taxes in Denmark, and to explore if support differed across sex, age, educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit. Data from a 2013 health survey representative of the population aged ≥16years in the Capital Region of Denmark (N=41,356, response rate=43.5) was linked with data on sex, age and education from central registers. Participants were asked if they supported: 1) a future ban on smoking in Denmark, and 2) increased taxes on tobacco products. Subgroup differences were explored using logistic regression. 30.6% supported a future ban on smoking, while 59.0% supported increased taxes. Women were less supportive of a future ban (OR=0.83 (0.78-0.88)) and more supportive of increasing taxes (OR=1.11 (1.06-1.18)) than men. Support for both measures was higher among the youngest. Only small differences were found in ban support across educational attainment, while support for taxes increased with increasing education. Support for both measures were greatest among never smokers (OR=2.66 (2.40-2.93) and OR=9.69 (8.83-10.63)) compared to daily smokers. Smokers intending to quit were two to three times as likely to support a future ban or increased taxes compared to smokers with no quit intensions. One third supported a future ban on smoking, while six out of ten supported increasing taxes. This first Danish study of support for more radical tobacco control adds to the growing literature on tobacco endgame and sets a baseline for future assessments of public support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Danish Capitalism in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    One of the most peculiar characteristics of the Danish economy is the many world leading, specialized corporations. With only approximately 5.5 million inhabitants the country hosts some of the world largest companies within several industries. These companies grew out of a capitalist economy...... marked by large-scale redistribution and a very active public sector. The purpose of this book project is to analyze development of Danish capitalism in the 20th century. The first of our hypothesis state that the phases of Danish capitalism and the general corporate strategies reflected each other...

  16. Discrete Current Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, which is different from the traditional vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC, is proposed. Firstly, the circular rotating magnetic field is analyzed on the simplified model and discredited into stepping magnetic field. The stepping magnetomotive force will drive the rotor to run as the stepping motor. Secondly, the stator current orientation is used to build the control model instead of rotor flux orientation. Then, the discrete current control strategy is set and adopted in positioning control. Three methods of the strategy are simulated in computer and tested on the experiment platform of PMSM. The control precision is also verified through the experiment.

  17. Recruited into Danishness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This article critically examines emergence of Danishness via an autoethnography of passing as Danish. Drawing on feminist scholarship, the author conceptualizes passing as an embodied, affective and discursive relation; simultaneously spontaneous and laboured, fleeting and solid, emergent and con...

  18. Preschool Power Play: Resource Control Strategies Associated with Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber R. Massey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This exploratory study uses a multimethod approach to examine the relationship between social strategy usage and overall health in preschool children. Methods. Children's temperament, social strategies, and health assessments were obtained via reported behavior from parents and teachers. In addition, children's use of prosocial and coercive strategies was observed and recorded via one-way windows in the preschool facility. Results. Results revealed that the temperament characteristic of effortful control was related to the observed use of coercive strategies and that coercive strategies were not observed by teachers, who viewed these children as primarily prosocial. The reported use of both coercive and prosocial strategies was also related to decrease in illness. Conclusion. These findings in relation to previous work suggest that using both prosocial and coercive strategies can elevate status as well as maintain health even in young children.

  19. Sexual dysfunction is more than twice as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Lotte; Eidemak, Inge; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2014-01-01

    diagnosed depression and 54 randomly assigned healthy female controls completed the questionnaires Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the Major Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Predialysis patients reported lower Female Sexual Function Index scores compared to the controls (14.......2 ± 2.1 vs. 20.1 ± 1.7, respectively, p = 0.048), more frequent sexual distress (44 vs. 22 %, respectively, p = 0.044), and more frequent sexual dysfunction (41 vs. 17 %, respectively, p = 0.041). There was no difference between the patients' and the controls' depression scores (12.2 ± 2.2 vs. 8.6 ± 1.......1, respectively, p = 0.180). CONCLUSION: Sexual dysfunction was found to be more than two times as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients with CKD stage 4-5 compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls, and this result emphasizes the need for attention towards sexual function in the treatment...

  20. Danish dental education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2088... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Rhode Island Department of...) of the Clean Air Act, for the Providence serious ozone nonattainment area. (b) Approval—Revisions to...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1534... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the New Hampshire Department... revisions are for the purpose of satisfying the one-hour ozone attainment demonstration requirements of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the..., concerning the Victoria County 1-hour ozone maintenance plan. This SIP revision was adopted by TCEQ on...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard and that the reasonable further progress and attainment...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...) and 182(c)(2)(B) of the Clean Air Act for the Springfield, Massachusetts serious ozone nonattainment...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1576 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52... strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16346), are not met since the plan does not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission reduction...

  8. Locus of control and learning strategies as predictors of academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the research was to determine the relationships which exist between academic success, learning strategies and locus of control. In order to achieve this aim a small-scale quantitative study, utilising two inventories, was done. The first measuring instrument is the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, which is ...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide emission...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide periodic...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental... Island has committed to year round carbon monoxide monitoring at the East Providence Photochemical...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua Inspection/Maintenance...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix. (b...

  15. Strategies for glucose control in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Finan, Daniel Aaron; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply a robust feedforward-feedback control strategy to people with type 1 diabetes. The feedforward controller consists of a bolus calculator which compensates the disturbance coming from meals. The feedback controller is based on a linearized description of the model describing...

  16. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis results to USEPA, the proposal of any additional regulations to the Illinois Pollution Control... and submit any necessary, additional regulations to the Illinois Pollution Control Board by September... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  17. Decentralized Coordinated Control Strategy of Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan

    as grid voltage/frequency regulation. In order to enhance the reliability of overall islanded Microgrid operation, basic functions of coordinated control which taking into account the state of charge (SoC) limitation and power availability of renewable energy sources is implemented in a distributed level......Facing the challenges brought by the traditional large power system concerning the environmental and economic issues, along recent years distributed generation is considered as an alternative solution to provide clean energy in a local manner. In this context, Microgrid which performing as a local......-connected mode and islanded mode. In the islanded mode operation, since there is no energy back-up from the main grid, the coordinated control of power balance between generation and consumption encounters more challenges and this thesis is mainly focused on this scope. Hierarchical structure can be applied...

  18. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Han; Changhong Wang; Guoxing Yi

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiagent system (MAS) has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coo...

  19. Mobile Robots Control and Path Planning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Furci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots gained lots of attention in the last decades. Because of its flexibility and increased capabilities of automation, mobile robots are used in many applications: from domotic, to search and rescue missions, to agriculture, environment protection and many more. The main capability of mobile robots to accomplish a mission is the mobility in the work environment. To move in a certain environment the robots should achieve: guidance, navigation and control. This thesis focuses on...

  20. Evaluation of control strategies in forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmano Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of forming processes are subject to quality fluctuations due to uncertainty in semi-finished part properties as well as process conditions and environment. An approach to cope with these uncertainties is the implementation of a closed-loop control taking into account the actual product properties measured by sensors or estimated by a mathematical process model. Both methods of uncertainty control trade off with a financial effort. In case of sensor integration the effort is the cost of the sensor including signal processing as well as the design and manufacturing effort for integration. In case of an estimation model the effort is mainly determined by the time and knowledge needed to derive the model, identify the parameters and implement the model into the PLC. The risk of mismatch between model and reality as well as the risk of wrong parameter identification can be assumed as additional uncertainty (model uncertainty. This paper evaluates controlled and additional uncertainty by taking into account process boundary conditions like the degree of fluctuations in semi-finished part properties. The proposed evaluation is demonstrated by the analysis of exemplary processes.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati interstate...

  2. Implementation strategy for the ITER plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A., E-mail: axel.winter@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Ambrosino, G. [CREATE/Università di Napoli Federico II, Dip. Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell’Informazione (Italy); Bauvir, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); De Tommasi, G. [CREATE/Università di Napoli Federico II, Dip. Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell’Informazione (Italy); Humphreys, D.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Mattei, M. [CREATE/Seconda Università di Napoli, Dip. Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione (Italy); Neto, A. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Raupp, G. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Snipes, J.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Stephen, A.V. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Treutterer, W. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Walker, M.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    This paper gives an overview of the scope and context of the CODAC high-level real-time applications (Supervision and Plasma Control) and presents the strategy and current state of design of the tools to support the implementation. A real-time framework, which is currently under development with strong support of the worldwide fusion community will not only support the implementation of plasma control strategies with the extensive exception handling and forecasting functionality foreseen for ITER, but also integrated commissioning, orchestration and supervision as well as the real-time needs of ITER plant system developers. A second cornerstone in the implementation strategy is the development of a powerful simulation environment (Plasma Control System Simulation Platform – PCSSP) to design and verify control strategies, event handling and orchestration and automation. The development of PCSSP is currently under contract and this paper will also give an overview of its current state of development.

  3. Capacity value of energy storage considering control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nian; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    In power systems, energy storage effectively improves the reliability of the system and smooths out the fluctuations of intermittent energy. However, the installed capacity value of energy storage cannot effectively measure the contribution of energy storage to the generator adequacy of power systems. To achieve a variety of purposes, several control strategies may be utilized in energy storage systems. The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of different energy storage control strategies on the generation adequacy. This paper presents the capacity value of energy storage to quantitatively estimate the contribution of energy storage on the generation adequacy. Four different control strategies are considered in the experimental method to study the capacity value of energy storage. Finally, the analysis of the influence factors on the capacity value under different control strategies is given.

  4. A Novel Hybrid Safety-Control Strategy for a Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As robots tend to work cooperatively with humans in shared workplaces, safety as regards robot-human interactions has caused a great deal of concern in the robot community, and control strategies have become a hot topic in robotics research. In order to guarantee the robot's safety and continuous motions, this paper proposes a novel safety-control strategy, which is strictly conservative and which consists of a pre-contact and post-contact safety strategy. We adopt an optimal motion trajectory-planning method, by use of which the jerk, acceleration and velocity of the robot's motion can be limited and a time-optimal motion can be obtained as a post-contact safety strategy for a position-controlled manipulator. The optimal motion trajectory planning not only reduces the impact forces during the collision period, but also maintains the efficiency of the manipulator and preserves continuous motions. Next, we describe a novel collision detection method as a pre-contact safety strategy to avoid collisions. The method proposed here can compute security warning region to handle the effect of robot motion on collision detection and detect collisions between non-convex polygon soups. Finally, the control strategy is implemented for a 7-DOF humanoid manipulator and the experimental results demonstrate the validity of this novel hybrid safety-control strategy.

  5. Aerodynamic load control strategy of wind turbine in microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangming; Liu, Heshun; Chen, Yanfei

    2017-12-01

    A control strategy is proposed in the paper to optimize the aerodynamic load of the wind turbine in micro-grid. In grid-connection mode, the wind turbine adopts a new individual variable pitch control strategy. The pitch angle of the blade is rapidly given by the controller, and the pitch angle of each blade is fine tuned by the weight coefficient distributor. In islanding mode, according to the requirements of energy storage system, a given power tracking control method based on fuzzy PID control is proposed. Simulation result shows that this control strategy can effectively improve the axial aerodynamic load of the blade under rated wind speed in grid-connection mode, and ensure the smooth operation of the micro-grid in islanding mode.

  6. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonvetera...

  7. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan

    Bioprocesses are inherently sensitive to fluctuations in processing conditions and must be tightly regulated to maintain cellular productivity. Industrial fermentations are often difficult to replicate across production sites or between facilities as the small operating differences in the equipment...... of a fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes are typically operated in fed batch mode, which also poses specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This is due to many reasons including non-linear behaviour, and a relatively poor understanding of the system dynamics. It is therefore challenging...

  8. A Comparative Study between Two Control Strategies for Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDIABDELLAH, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare two control strategies for direct AC-AC matrix converters; namely the Venturini method and the scalar strategy control method. The performance comparison of the two strategies is made under unbalanced distorted torque, rotor speed and stator current operation. The simulation of the three-phase matrix converter feeding an induction motor was accomplished by means of the Matlab/Simulink software. This package makes it possible to simulate the dynamic systems in a simple way and in graphic environment.

  9. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa

    to highly optimised industrial host strains. The focus of this project is instead on en-gineering of the process. The question to be answered in this thesis is, given a highly optimised industrial host strain, how can we operate the fermentation process in order to maximise the productivity of the system...... from Novozymes A/S in order to predict the product concentration which is measured at the end of the batch. This is achieved with an average prediction error of 7.4%. The purpose of developing the model, is mainly in order to identify key process parameters which show variance relevant to the product...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive...

  10. A structured approach to control of Salmonella Dublin in 10 Danish dairy herds based on risk scoring and test-and-manage procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a structured approach to effectively reduce Salmonella Dublin prevalence in infected dairy herds based on a step-wise procedure. Furthermore, the aim was to describe tools for management and monitoring, and to report on development in prevalence among young...... routes of infection; 4) interpretation of repeated testing of individual animals to detect high-risk animals for special hygienic management or culling; and 5) diagnostic testing of different age groups and bulk tank milk to evaluate progress of control over time. Serology, true prevalence estimates...... and changes in herd classification in the Danish surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin were used to assess the progress in the herds during and after the control period. Effective control of Salmonella Dublin was achieved in all participating herds through management that focused on closing infection...

  11. Atopy and new-onset asthma in young Danish farmers and CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 genetic polymorphisms: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, L A M; Bongers, S I M; Ruven, H J T

    2007-01-01

    genotyped 100 new-onset asthma cases and 88 control subjects for three CD14 SNPs, three TLR2 SNPs, and two TLR4 SNPs. Atopy at baseline (defined as a positive skin prick test to one or more common inhalant allergens) was found in 17 asthma cases (17.0%) and in 17 controls (19.3%). RESULTS: The CD14/-260T...... and atopy. OBJECTIVE: To study potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 genes, and atopy and new-onset asthma in young farmers. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 1901 young Danish farmers. We...

  12. The Danish ventral hernia database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD) provides national surveillance of current surgical practice and clinical postoperative outcomes. The intention is to reduce postoperative morbidity and hernia recurrence, evaluate new treatment strategies, and facilitate nationwide implementation...... of operations and is an excellent tool for observing changes over time, including adjustment of several confounders. This national database registry has impacted on clinical practice in Denmark and led to a high number of scientific publications in recent years....

  13. Intelligent Control Strategy of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Hajizadeh

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals a control strategy developed for optimizing the power flow in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV) structure. This method implements an on-line power management based on the neuro-fuzzy controller between dual power sources that consist of a battery bank and a fuel cell (FC). This structure included battery and fuel cell and its power train system include an Electric Motor (EM) and vehicle dynamics. The proposed control method involves an intelligent controller which captures al...

  14. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiagent system (MAS has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coordinated flight and cooperative operation. The MAS uses BDI model to support its logical perception and to classify the different missions; then the missions will be allocated by utilizing auction mechanism after analyzing dynamic parameters. Prim potential algorithm, particle swarm algorithm, and reallocation mechanism are proposed to realize the rational decomposing and optimal allocation in order to reach the maximum profit. After simulation, the MAS has been proved to be able to promote the success ratio and raise the robustness, while realizing feasibility of coordinated flight and optimality of cooperative mission.

  15. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe - A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina

    2018-01-01

    programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe could improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children. METHODS: The pilot study used an 11-week cluster-randomised intervention study design. School classes were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) (n = 93 children, age = 11.8, s = 0.......2 years), which performed the obligatory daily school-based physical activity (5 × 45 minutes per week); or an intervention group (IG) (n = 838 children, age = 11.9, s = 0.4 years), which substituted 2 × 45 minutes per week of the daily school physical activity with the "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe......, p = .012) and working memory (79, sx- = 35 ms, p = .020). CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides evidence that the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1876 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The condition to EPA's approval of the oxides of nitrogen State Implementation Plan... change to the flow control date in the oxides of nitrogen budget trading SIP. (b) ...

  17. Strategies for Control of Man-Made Eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    The key concerns for both long- and short-term control strategies for cultural eutrophication are: (1) controls which reflect the regional character of the problem, and (2) concern for the potential public health and environmental implications of the nonphosphate detergent formulations. (Author/CP)

  18. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission pollution in Beijing, and discusses the following mitigation strategies: improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through, e.g., Inspection/Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles, and road infrastructure and traffic policies.

  19. Smart — STATCOM control strategy implementation in wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Christian; Cantarellas, Antoni Mir; Miranda, H.

    2012-01-01

    converters is increasing. This paper deals with an advanced control strategy design of a three-level converter performing STATCOM and Active Filter functionalities. The proposed system is called Smart-STATCOM since it has the capability of self-controlling reactive power and harmonic voltages at the same...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation Plan...

  1. Novel deadbeat power control strategy for grid connected systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry Atia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach for power control of three phase voltage source inverter (VSI in grid connected distribution generation system. In this approach, the control of active and reactive power is based on deadbeat control strategy. First, the difference between the reference and actual currents are introduced in different approach. Then current to power substitutions are carried out to obtain direct relationship between the required inverter voltage and instantaneous power errors. There is no need for coordinate transformation or PLL, where the required inverter voltage vector calculations carried out in α–β stationary reference frame. The proposed technique introduces two cross coupling components in the control function. Including these two components, the controller can achieve nearly zero steady-state tracking error of the controlled variables. To obtain fixed switching frequency operations, space vector modulation (SVM is used to synthesize the required inverter voltage vector and to generate the switching pulses for the VSI. The proposed strategy has the simplicity of the direct power control (DPC technique and doesn’t require any current control loops. The proposed strategy is experimentally implemented using fixed-point microcontroller. Simulation and experimental results are presented to confirm the superiority of the proposed strategy.

  2. Optimized Control Strategy For Over Loaded Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Knudsen, Torben; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    controller tuning for a given wind turbine. It also enables a very safe and robust comparison between a new control strategy and the present one. Main body of abstract Is it true that power de-rating indeed the best way to reduce loads? The power de-rating approach has the drawback of only indirectly......Abstract Optimized control strategy for overloaded offshore wind turbines Introduction Operation and maintenance cost are an important part of cost of energy especially for offshore wind farms. Typically unplanned service is called for due to detection off excessive loads on components, e...... as results of ensuring the load reduction to the given level. A MPC controller is configured and tuned using this novel approach including Pareto fronts. It is compared to the existing de-rating strategy using high fidelity aero-servo-elastic simulation code and the possibilities for reduction of cost...

  3. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  4. The Danish Nephrology Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaf, James

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Nephrology Registry's (DNR) primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities' quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964. DNR registers patient data (eg, age, sex, renal diagnosis, and comorbidity), predialysis specialist treatment, details of eight dialysis modalities (three hemodialysis and five peritoneal dialysis), all transplantation courses, dialysis access at first dialysis, treatment complications, and biochemical variables. The database is complete (nutritional and uremia status. Date and cause of death are also included. Six quality indicators are published annually, and have been associated with improvements in patient results, eg, a reduction in dialysis patient mortality, improved graft survival, and earlier referral to specialist care. Approximately, ten articles, mainly epidemiological, are published each year. DNR contains a complete description of end-stage renal disease patients in Denmark, their treatment, and prognosis. The stated aims are fulfilled.

  5. Reading comprehension metacognitive strategies as a means for controlling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Aladina Caballero López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Textual comprehension implies the use of various metacognitive strategies by the students when they have to face a text to be competent readers. That is why the objective of this article is to illustrate the application of metacognitive strategies in order to achieve an efficient textual comprehension, taking into account the self – regulation the student exerts over his own learning process. It is applied as the main method historical-logical studies based on a professional-researching systematic practice; at the same time observation is largely used. The main result is the introduction of metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension, which subsequently favor the self-control of personal behavior. The article is the result of a research project sponsored by the department of Special Education. Key words: reading comprehension, metacognitive strategies, behavior self-control.

  6. Optimal Control Strategy for Abnormal Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune response plays an important role in control and clearance of pathogens following viral infection. However, in the majority of virus-infected individuals, the response is insufficient because viruses are known to use different evasion strategies to escape immune response. In this study, we use optimal control theory to investigate how to control the innate immune response. We present an optimal control model based on an ordinary-differential-equation system from a previous study, which investigated the dynamics and regulation of virus-triggered innate immune signaling pathways, and we prove the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem involving antiviral treatment or/and interferon therapy. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate the treatment effects of different control strategies through varying the cost function and control efficiency. The results show that a separate treatment, that is, only inhibiting viral replication (u1(t or enhancing interferon activity (u2(t, has more advantages for controlling viral infection than a mixed treatment, that is, controlling both (u1(t and (u2(t simultaneously, including the smallest cost and operability. These findings would provide new insight for developing effective strategies for treatment of viral infectious diseases.

  7. Mothers' teaching strategies and children's effortful control: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal teaching strategies were assessed while the mother and child worked on a task together. Children's general vocabulary also was measured. In a structural panel model taking into account prior levels of constructs and correlations within time, as well as the relations of EC and teaching strategies to children's vocabulary, socioeconomic status, age, and sex of the child, 18-month EC positively predicted mothers' 30-month cognitive assistance and questioning strategies and negatively predicted 30-month maternal directive strategies. In addition, high 30-month EC predicted greater 42-month maternal cognitive assistance and fewer directive strategies. Thus, mothers' teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers' teaching strategies.

  8. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  9. Innovation in Active Vibration Control Strategy of Intelligent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moutsopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amplitudes and attenuating vibration periods result in fatigue, instability, and poor structural performance. In light of past approaches in this field, this paper intends to discuss some innovative approaches in vibration control of intelligent structures, particularly in the case of structures with embedded piezoelectric materials. Control strategies are presented, such as the linear quadratic control theory, as well as more advanced theories, such as robust control theory. The paper presents sufficiently a recognizable advance in knowledge of active vibration control in intelligent structures.

  10. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-08-27

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  11. Turbine Control Strategies for Wind Farm Power Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been increasing interest in green energies, of which wind energy is the most important one. In order to improve the competitiveness of the wind power plants, there are ongoing researches to decrease cost per energy unit and increase the efficiency of wind turbines...... and wind farms. One way of achieving these goals is to optimize the power generated by a wind farm. One optimization method is to choose appropriate operating points for the individual wind turbines in the farm. We have made three models of a wind farm based on three difference control strategies....... Basically, the control strategies determine the steady state operating points of the wind turbines. Except the control strategies of the individual wind turbines, the wind farm models are similar. Each model consists of a row of 5MW reference wind turbines. In the models we are able to optimize...

  12. [Integrated prevention and control strategy for dengue in Mesoamerica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; San Martín, José Luis; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Dengue in the Americas is a public health problem in ascent. The control strategies have not been effective when sustained in the intensive use of insecticides and poor community participation. The Mesoamerican Initiative for the Prevention and the Integrated Control of Dengue synthesizes the works generated by the Integrated Strategy of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the risks stratification strategy designed by the countries of the Mesoamerican region. The objective is to progressively reduce the incidence of dengue cases until a 50% reduction is reached over a five years period. This document describes the elements for the risk stratification, the activities for prevention and control organized by levels of intensity and frequency and the indicators used to pursuit the objectives. To face the dispersion of the problem a concentration of efforts for control in the areas of greater risk is presented; the opportunity in the detection of cases is highlighted to tackle the fast dissemination of the infection; focus on the most productive breeding sites is proposed to battle against the vast dissemination of the breeding sites; and the severity of the infection must be addressed by capable clinical human resources. This strategy was designed along with the national representatives of the control programs to create master plans that provided the basis for the integrated prevention and control of dengue in the Mesoamerican region.

  13. Estimating costs of sea lice control strategy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajie; Bjelland, Hans Vanhauwaer

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the costs of sea lice control strategies associated with salmon aquaculture at a farm level in Norway. Diseases can cause reduction in growth, low feed efficiency and market prices, increasing mortality rates, and expenditures on prevention and treatment measures. Aquaculture farms suffer the most direct and immediate economic losses from diseases. The goal of a control strategy is to minimize the total disease costs, including biological losses, and treatment costs while to maximize overall profit. Prevention and control strategies are required to eliminate or minimize the disease, while cost-effective disease control strategies at the fish farm level are designed to reduce the losses, and to enhance productivity and profitability. Thus, the goal can be achieved by integrating models of fish growth, sea lice dynamics and economic factors. A production function is first constructed to incorporate the effects of sea lice on production at a farm level, followed by a detailed cost analysis of several prevention and treatment strategies associated with sea lice in Norway. The results reveal that treatments are costly and treatment costs are very sensitive to treatment types used and timing of the treatment conducted. Applying treatment at an early growth stage is more economical than at a later stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... compared to non-family firms. Furthermore, the Danish exporters regarded China as being the most established of the four BRIC markets which could be seen in their willingness to use high control entry modes in China. Finally, non-family firms are more concerned about higher flexibility and lower control...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  15. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...... by focusing on the upstream well-pipeline-riser systems; (ii) optimization of controlling topside separation processes, which includes both the three-phase separator and de-oiling hydrocyclone facilities. A new PWT control strategy, named direct efficiency control, has been proposed for guarantee of the PWT...... quality in a continuous and real-time manner. However, this new solution relies on the availability of reliable Oilin-Water (OiW) real-time measuring technologies, which apparently are still quite challenging and un-matured....

  16. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  17. Control strategies for underactuated neural ensembles driven by optogenetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShiNung eChing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by experiments employing optogenetic stimulation of cortical regions, we consider spike control strategies for ensembles of uncoupled integrate and fire neurons with a common conductance input. We construct strategies for control of spike patterns, that is, multineuron trains of action potentials, up to some maximal spike rate determined by the neural biophysics. We emphasize a constructive role for parameter heterogeneity, and find a simple rule for controllability in pairs of neurons. In particular, we determine parameters for which common drive is not limited to inducing synchronous spiking. For large ensembles, we determine how the number of controllable neurons varies with the number of observed (recorded neurons, and what collateral spiking occurs in the full ensemble during control of the subensemble. While complete control of spiking in every neuron is not possible with a single input, we find that a degree of subensemble control is made possible by exploiting dynamical heterogeneity. As most available technologies for neural stimulation are underactuated, in the sense that the number of target neurons far exceeds the number of independent channels of stimulation, these results suggest partial control strategies that may be important in the development of sensory neuroprosthetics and other neurocontrol applications.

  18. Control strategies for underactuated neural ensembles driven by optogenetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, ShiNung; Ritt, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by experiments employing optogenetic stimulation of cortical regions, we consider spike control strategies for ensembles of uncoupled integrate and fire neurons with a common conductance input. We construct strategies for control of spike patterns, that is, multineuron trains of action potentials, up to some maximal spike rate determined by the neural biophysics. We emphasize a constructive role for parameter heterogeneity, and find a simple rule for controllability in pairs of neurons. In particular, we determine parameters for which common drive is not limited to inducing synchronous spiking. For large ensembles, we determine how the number of controllable neurons varies with the number of observed (recorded) neurons, and what collateral spiking occurs in the full ensemble during control of the subensemble. While complete control of spiking in every neuron is not possible with a single input, we find that a degree of subensemble control is made possible by exploiting dynamical heterogeneity. As most available technologies for neural stimulation are underactuated, in the sense that the number of target neurons far exceeds the number of independent channels of stimulation, these results suggest partial control strategies that may be important in the development of sensory neuroprosthetics and other neurocontrol applications.

  19. A Five Level NPC Inverter Controlled by Using SHEPWM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ould Cherchali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to analyse the behavior and the performances of a three-phase induction machine supplied with a five level neutral-point-clamped (NPC inverter controlled by Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse-Width Modulation Technique (SHEPWM. First, the modeling of the inverter and the machine is presented. Thereafter, a theoretical study of the harmonics elimination strategy is detailed; where the genetic algorithm (GA for elimination purposes is used. After that, this strategy is validated by simulation. Finally, a behavior of the induction machine controlled with this inverter is presented.

  20. Social Shaping in Danish Technology Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Grethe; Clausen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    and political action for technology change. The authors of this article suggest that the social shaping perspective draws on lessons from technology assessments of earlier decades, lessons about the role of technology debate, participation and democratic control. We suggest that these are important...... for technology policy initiatives at the beginning of the new millennium, as prerequisites for socially feasible and desirable technology development and innovation. On the basis of the Danish technology assessments of the 1980s, it is argued that technology assessments and the social shaping perspectives...... in these projects contributed to new insights into the processes of technological change and thus to policy formulation. The social shaping perspective and technology assessment experiences are suggested as important guides to future technology strategies....

  1. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  2. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  3. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A; Parray, Hilal A; Lone, Jameel B; Paek, Woon K; Lim, Jeongheui; Bajpai, Vivek K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  4. Energy control/energy management. Limitation of energy consumption and reduction of CO{sub 2} emission; Energistyring/energimanagement; Begraensning af energiforbruget og reduktion af CO{sub 2}-udledningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    A collection of papers and photocopies of overheads presented at a conference held under the auspices of the Danish Automation Society held on October 21st, 1992 at ``Amagervaerket`` in Denmark. The subjects dealt with in relation to limitation of energy consumption and reduction of carbon dioxide emission were related Danish legislation, marketing strategies, the reaction of the Danish industrial sector to governmental policy, the consultancy services of Danish electricity companies, electricity saving, tariffs, and the results of experiments carried out at a larger Danish company with regard to energy control and efficiency. (AB)

  5. The Smart Grid Impact on the Danish DSOs’ Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Sommer, Simon; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    Fyn and TREFOR. The main findings indicate that the Danish smart grid transformation process influences the Danish DSOs' business models via four smart grid related factors: (1) smart meters, (2) Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), (3) Bidirectional electricity flow, and (4) R&D. Therefore, the results show......The transformation progress of the smart grid challenges the market players' business models. One of those market players is the Distribution System Operators (DSOs). This paper aims to elaborate how smart grid influences the DSOs' business models with case studies of two Danish DSOs — Energi...... that the smart grid incrementally not revolutionary influences the Danish DSOs' business models, and the smart grid transformation of the Danish electricity grid is slower than the agenda of the official Danish smart grid development strategy....

  6. Self-control of epileptic seizures by nonpharmacological strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwas, Iliana; McGonigal, Aileen; Trebuchon, Agnès; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille; Nagai, Yoko; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur

    2016-02-01

    Despite the unpredictability of epileptic seizures, many patients report that they can anticipate seizure occurrence. Using certain alert symptoms (i.e., auras, prodromes, precipitant factors), patients can adopt behaviors to avoid injury during and after the seizure or may implement spontaneous cognitive and emotional strategies to try to control the seizure itself. From the patient's view point, potential means of enhancing seizure prediction and developing seizure control supports are seen as very important issues, especially when the epilepsy is drug-resistant. In this review, we first describe how some patients anticipate their seizures and whether this is effective in terms of seizure prediction. Secondly, we examine how these anticipatory elements might help patients to prevent or control their seizures and how the patient's neuropsychological profile, specifically parameters of perceived self-control (PSC) and locus of control (LOC), might impact these strategies and quality of life (QOL). Thirdly, we review the external supports that can help patients to better predict seizures. Finally, we look at nonpharmacological means of increasing perceived self-control and achieving potential reduction of seizure frequency (i.e., stress-based and arousal-based strategies). In the past few years, various approaches for detection and control of seizures have gained greater interest, but more research is needed to confirm a positive effect on seizure frequency as well as on QOL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Control Strategy for Microgrid Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wenzhao; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the inherent reason of current harmonic and power oscillation phenomena in case of operating the microgrid inverter under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. In order to flexibly control the current harmonic and power oscillation, a new stationary...... frame control strategy is proposed. It has a simple control structure due to no need of a phase-locked loop and voltage/current positive/negative sequence extraction calculation. The coordinate control of power and current quality is achieved, which enhances the operation performance of microgrid...

  8. Sensor-Based Model Driven Control Strategy for Precision Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Lozoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the efficiency of the agricultural irrigation systems substantially contributes to sustainable water management. This improvement can be achieved through an automated irrigation system that includes a real-time control strategy based on the water, soil, and crop relationship. This paper presents a model driven control strategy applied to an irrigation system, in order to make an efficient use of water for large crop fields, that is, applying the correct amount of water in the correct place at the right moment. The proposed model uses a predictive algorithm that senses soil moisture and weather variables, to determine optimal amount of water required by the crop. This proposed approach is evaluated against a traditional irrigation system based on the empirical definition of time periods and against a basic soil moisture control system. Results indicate that the use of a model predictive control in an irrigation system achieves a higher efficiency and significantly reduce the water consumption.

  9. Comparison of Power Control Strategies for DFIG Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Luna, A.; Rodríguez, P.

    2008-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame......, attached to the magnetic flux vector, became very popular. In spite of the good behaviour of such algorithms their performance depends highly on an accurate detection of the stator flux position, something that can be critical under unbalanced or distorted grid voltage conditions. This paper presents a new...... VOC strategy able to control the operation of a DFIG in the αβ reference frame, with no need of flux position estimation, something that conducts to a more simple and robust algorithm. In order to evaluate the advantages of this new control proposal, namely VOC-RRF, their performance will be compared...

  10. Control Strategies for DFIG Wind Turbines Under Grid Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Alvara; Rolan, A.; Medeiros, G.

    2009-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame......, attached to the magnetic flux vector, became very popular. In spite of the good behaviour of such algorithms their performance depends highly on an accurate detection of the stator flux position, something that can be critical under unbalanced or distorted grid voltage conditions. This paper presents a new...... VOC strategy able to control the operation of a DFIG in the αβ reference frame, with no need of flux position estimation, something that conducts to a more simple and robust algorithm. In order to evaluate the advantages of this new control proposal, namely VOC-RRF, their performance will be compared...

  11. A Simplified Voltage Vector Selection Strategy for Direct Torque Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct torque control (DTC for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM under the control of switching table suffers from high torque ripple and variable switching frequency. For PMSM DTC system, voltage vector selection strategy as the hysteresis control principle determines the systems performance. The angle (a between stator flux vector and the applying voltage vector determines effect of the voltage vector on the amplitude of stator flux and torque angle. The effect of the voltage vector on toque is dependent on a, torque angle and parameters of PMSM. A voltage vector selection strategy based on the technology of space vector modulation (SVM is proposed to control stator flux, torque angle and torque. Experimental results for a 15-kW interior PMSM show it can decrease stator current and torque ripples and fix the switching frequency.

  12. A Delayed Impulse Control Strategy for Spacecraft Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Yoonhyuk; Bang, Hyochoong; Leeghim, Henzeh

    2013-12-01

    An impulsive control strategy for spacecraft formation flying is suggested considering secular drift between satellites. The drift motion caused by orbital period difference affects impulsive correction. Preventing the drift has been treated as a natural effort in most of formation flying researches. However, this study proposes preserving the drift behavior by delaying the period-matching maneuver. The paper shows that the impulse delay could be effective under some conditions by reducing the required delta-v. Two impulsive control methods are designed by harnessing the drift in pure Keplerian orbits. By using a linear approximation, the proposed methods avoid iterative steps for obtaining the required impulse, so the new strategy can be implemented with less computational burden compared to numerical optimal solutions. Impulse magnitudes between an existing method and the proposed strategy are compared mathematically and the numerical simulation verifies that the impulse reduction could be achieved with the suggested methods.

  13. Control strategies used in the control software for the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Wang, Yan-Yu; Pan, Liang-Ming; Tu, Sheng-Pan

    2016-07-01

    Automation control systems are important for the operation of an accelerator. To ensure the reliable, stable and flexible operation of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), several control systems are developed. The developed control systems are the SECRAL control system, the LECR3 control system, the LAPECR1 control system and the Electro-Static septum control system. The corresponding control software systems are developed using Visual C++. To ensure the accuracy, stability and flexibility of the control systems, some special control strategies are developed in the control software systems. This paper provides a detailed description of the main control strategies used in the control software systems. The main control strategies are composed of a reliable communication mechanism, a correct data/command transmission mechanism, an efficient data storage mechanism and an interlock protection mechanism. To guarantee a reliable communication between the devices for the commercially purchased devices and the built in-house ones, a modified heartbeat method is developed. To provide flexible reconstitution function for the control systems, the command queue and the state machine are combined. The message mechanism and the multiple windows mechanism are also used for the module mechanism. The relevant control systems are introduced as examples of these control strategies. These systems have been running stably for several years.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982 Section 52.1982 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. (1) The Salem/ Portland and Medford/Ashland area attainment plans are...

  15. 40 CFR 52.282 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. (a) Attainment determination. EPA has determined that the Ventura County severe 1-hour ozone nonattainment area attained the 1-hour ozone NAAQS by the applicable attainment date...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from 1992...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1023 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1023...: Ozone. (a) Determination. EPA is determining that, as of July 21, 1995, the Lewiston-Auburn ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard and that the reasonable further progress and attainment...

  18. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has determined the Baton Rouge 1-hour ozone nonattainment area has attained the 1-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1174 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1174...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Conditional Approval—Michigan Rules 336.1603 and 336.1606 are approved provided that... Resources submitted a revision to the ozone State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the 1990 base year inventory...

  20. 40 CFR 52.777 - Control strategy: photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.777 Section 52.777 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy: photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter... for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Region by May 31...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16347...: Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide. ...

  2. A Control Strategy for High-Performance Macromolecular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-04

    Chapel Hill. Mullins has taken our earlier temperature-dependent parametrizations of liquid crystal polymer fiber flows and adapted them to the Doi...None as of this date. Potential transitions with Moldflow Corporation, Boston, MA. New Discoveries None as of this date. Contract FA9550-06-C-0017, Final Technical Report, Submitted by Nonlinear Control Strategies, Inc.

  3. development of a control strategy for monitoring the delaminating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This control strategy is effective in limit- ing the area of ... mechanism of generation of the acoustic emis- sion signals is not .... Table 1 presents the levels of the variable used in this work. The cutting speed and the feed rate are selected to correspond to the typical range of values used in the drilling of composite lami- nates.

  4. Between architecture and model: Strategies for cognitive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels

    One major limitation of current cognitive architectures is that models are typically constructed in an “empty” architecture, and that the knowledge specifications (typically production rules) are specific to the particular task. This means that general cognitive control strategies have to be

  5. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  6. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan. The submittal pertained to a plan for...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995. This...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003. (b...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality...

  10. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the Metropolitan... Environmental Management submitted carbon monoxide maintenance plans for those portions of Lake and Marion...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri, area...

  12. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... monoxide. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, Carbon Monoxide Redesignation Request... of the carbon monoxide (CO) portion of the Colorado State Implementation Plan (SIP). The revision to...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following urban...

  14. Assessment of waste management and control strategies in Katsina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste management and control strategies as practiced in Nigeria urban centres have been a source of great concern due to their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. This paper focuses on Katsina metropolis, Katsina state. Data for the study was gathered through interview and field work, which was subjected to ...

  15. Strategies for the control of desertification in northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for the control of desertification in northern Nigeria. ... Kebbi which lie roughly North of latitude 120N face serious threats of desertification occasioned by over exposure of the fragile environment mostly through improper farming techniques, overgrazing by livestock and occurrence of frequent fires and drought.

  16. Developing a Scale on the Usage of Learner Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, M. Oguz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert-like scale in order to measure teachers' usage level of learner control strategy. This study was carried out with 219 State primary school teachers who were class teachers, Turkish teachers, English teachers, Mathematics teachers, Science teachers, Social Sciences teachers, Religion and Moral teachers…

  17. Managing Work and Family: Do Control Strategies Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2015-01-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping…

  18. RIVM Centre for Infectious Disease Control : Strategy 2016-2021

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riesmeijer RM; van Dissel JT; I&V

    2017-01-01

    This strategy describes the ambitions of the Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb) for the coming years. It concerns the changes that the CIb considers to be necessary, rather than a summary of activities.

    Thanks to the efforts made by prevention and vaccination programmes, in the

  19. [Strategies for diagnosis and biochemical control of porphyrias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Axel; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2014-02-17

    Porphyrias are rare, distinct and well characterized diseases due to impairment of one of the eight steps in the biosynthesis of haem, which is the functional group of haemoglobin, myoglobin and cytochromes, including the cytochrome P-450 family. The actual strategies for diagnosis and biochemical control of the five most common porphyrias are described.

  20. A fault tolerant superheat control strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    in a plug & play fashion. The strategy is outlined by means of procedural steps as well as a flow chart that also illustrates the process of automatic tuning of the maximum slope-seeking controller. Test results are furthermore presented for a display case in a full scale CO2 supermarket refrigeration...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1117 Section 52.1117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) The requirements of § 51.112(a) of this chapter are not met because the State did...

  2. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... oxides. The revised SO2 emission limit for large coal-fired boilers in Bell, Clark, and Woodford Counties...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for the...

  4. The Danish Nephrology Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaf J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James Heaf Department of Medicine, Roskilde Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Nephrology Registry's (DNR primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities' quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. Study population: The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964. Main variables: DNR registers patient data (eg, age, sex, renal diagnosis, and comorbidity, predialysis specialist treatment, details of eight dialysis modalities (three hemodialysis and five peritoneal dialysis, all transplantation courses, dialysis access at first dialysis, treatment complications, and biochemical variables. The database is complete (<1% missing data. Patients are followed until death or emigration. Descriptive data: DNR now contains 18,120 patients, and an average of 678 is added annually. Data for each transplantation course include donor details, tissue type, time to onset of graft function, and cause of graft loss. Registered complications include peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, causes of peritoneal dialysis technique failure, and transplant rejections. Fifteen biochemical variables are registered, mainly describing anemia control, mineral and bone disease, nutritional and uremia status. Date and cause of death are also included. Six quality indicators are published annually, and have been associated with improvements in patient results, eg, a reduction in dialysis patient mortality, improved graft survival, and earlier referral to specialist care. Approximately, ten articles, mainly epidemiological, are published each year. Conclusion: DNR contains a complete description of end

  5. DANWEC - Empirical Analysis of the Wave Climate at the Danish Wave Energy Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetu, Amelie; Nielsen, Kim; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The wave energy sector is at a development stage where real-sea testing is imperative. Dedicated test sites for wave energy converters (WECs) [1-6] are being established around Europe to facilitate sea trials. The Danish Wave Energy Centre (DanWEC) test site at Hanstholm has been the preferred test......, as for example scatter diagram (Hm0, Tz) will be analysed and wave power distribution given. Based on the data gathered so far a preliminary analysis of extreme events at the DanWEC test site will be presented. Deployment, control strategies and O&M strategies of wave energy converters are sensitive to the wave...... site for several Danish WECs. In 2013 DanWEC has received Greenlab funding from the EUDP programme to establish the site including more detailed information on its wave climate and bathymetry and seabed conditions. The project “Resource Assessment, Forecasts and WECs O&M strategies at DanWEC and beyond...

  6. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Optimal Malaria Control Strategies in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Otieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain for the value for money and producing health improvements in the most cost effective way. The purpose of the value for money drive is to develop a better understanding (and better articulation of costs and results so that more informed, evidence-based choices could be made. Cost effectiveness analysis is carried out to inform decision makers on how to determine where to allocate resources for malaria interventions. This study carries out cost effective analysis of one or all possible combinations of the optimal malaria control strategies (Insecticide Treated Bednets—ITNs, Treatment, Indoor Residual Spray—IRS and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Pregnant Women—IPTp for the four different transmission settings in order to assess the extent to which the intervention strategies are beneficial and cost effective. For the four different transmission settings in Kenya the optimal solution for the 15 strategies and their associated effectiveness are computed. Cost-effective analysis using Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER was done after ranking the strategies in order of the increasing effectiveness (total infections averted. The findings shows that for the endemic regions the combination of ITNs, IRS, and IPTp was the most cost-effective of all the combined strategies developed in this study for malaria disease control and prevention; for the epidemic prone areas is the combination of the treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of ITNs plus treatment; and for the low risk areas is the use of treatment only. Malaria transmission in Kenya can be minimized through tailor-made intervention strategies for malaria control

  7. Emerging trends in vibration control of wind turbines: a focus on a dual control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-02-28

    The paper discusses some of the recent developments in vibration control strategies for wind turbines, and in this context proposes a new dual control strategy based on the combination and modification of two recently proposed control schemes. Emerging trends in the vibration control of both onshore and offshore wind turbines are presented. Passive, active and semi-active structural vibration control algorithms have been reviewed. Of the existing controllers, two control schemes, active pitch control and active tendon control, have been discussed in detail. The proposed new control scheme is a merger of active tendon control with passive pitch control, and is designed using a Pareto-optimal problem formulation. This combination of controllers is the cornerstone of a dual strategy with the feature of decoupling vibration control from optimal power control as one of its main advantages, in addition to reducing the burden on the pitch demand. This dual control strategy will bring in major benefits to the design of modern wind turbines and is expected to play a significant role in the advancement of offshore wind turbine technologies. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe - A cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina; Madsen, Mads; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dvorak, Jiri; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have shown promising effects of physical activity on cognitive function, but there is a need to investigate this link in real-life settings such as schools. Hence, the objective of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe could improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children. The pilot study used an 11-week cluster-randomised intervention study design. School classes were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) (n = 93 children, age = 11.8, s = 0.2 years), which performed the obligatory daily school-based physical activity (5 × 45 minutes per week); or an intervention group (IG) (n = 838 children, age = 11.9, s = 0.4 years), which substituted 2 × 45 minutes per week of the daily school physical activity with the "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, s x -  = 22 ms, p FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt to disentangle the effects of "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe on cognitive performance by investigating the characteristics of the programme's physical activity.

  9. Controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Lígia de Albuquerque; Silva, Pedro Leme; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-06-01

    The obesity prevalence is increasing in surgical population. As the number of obese surgical patients increases, so does the demand for mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, ventilatory strategies in this population are challenging, since obesity results in pathophysiological changes in respiratory function. Areas covered: We reviewed the impact of obesity on respiratory system and the effects of controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery. To date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal invasive mechanical ventilation strategy for obese surgical patients, and no evidence that possible intraoperative beneficial effects on oxygenation and mechanics translate into better postoperative pulmonary function or improved outcomes. Expert commentary: Before determining the ideal intraoperative ventilation strategy, it is important to analyze the pathophysiology and comorbidities of each obese patient. Protective ventilation with low tidal volume, driving pressure, energy, and mechanical power should be employed during surgery; however, further studies are required to clarify the most effective ventilation strategies, such as the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure and whether recruitment maneuvers minimize lung injury. In this context, an ongoing trial of intraoperative ventilation in obese patients (PROBESE) should help determine the mechanical ventilation strategy that best improves clinical outcome in patients with body mass index≥35kg/m2.

  10. Control strategies for crane systems: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Liyana; Mohamed, Z.; Abdullahi, Auwalu M.; Jaafar, H. I.; Lazim, Izzuddin M.

    2017-10-01

    Crane systems are tremendously utilised in numerous heavy load transportation industries, and therefore, the control of crane systems is a well-established research field. As the last review paper was published more than a decade ago, there is a lack of collected and organised information regarding the latest and the newest updates on control strategies for crane control systems. Hence, this paper presents a comprehensive review of crane control strategies discussing the latest research works during the years from 2000 to 2016. Various crane types and control issues are highlighted, followed by the main focus of this paper, an extensive review of the control schemes for diverse types of crane systems that have been carried out in the 21st century. A brief review on modelling of single-pendulum and double-pendulum crane systems is also given. In addition, anti-sway control systems for industrial cranes that are available on the market is described. This paper summarises most of the related work and also pays a special focus on research trends regarding the control of crane systems that have been previously published in the literature. It is envisaged that this review paper will be helpful to new researchers when identifying research directions for this particular area of interest.

  11. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Kristian; Wahlström, Helene; Ivarsson, Sofie; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs) were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million), implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year), with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million) and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million). Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  12. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Sundström

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae, for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million, implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year, with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million. Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  13. Feedback stimulation strategy: control of retinal ganglion cells activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B; Meffin, Hamish; Burkitt, Anthony N

    2014-01-01

    It is possible to cause a sensation of light in patients who have lost photoreceptors due to degenerative eye diseases by targeting surviving neurons with electrical stimulation by means of visual prosthetic devices. All stimulation strategies in currently used visual prostheses are open-loop, that is, the stimulation parameters do not depend on the level of activation of neurons surrounding stimulating electrodes. In this paper, we investigate a closed-loop stimulation strategy using computer simulations of previously constrained models of ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells. Using a proportional-integral-type controller we show that it is possible to control activation level of both types of retinal ganglion cells. We also demonstrate that the controller tuned for a particular combination of synaptic currents continues to work during retina degeneration when excitatory currents are reduced by 20%.

  14. Electric-utility emissions: control strategies and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horn, A.; Arpi, D.; Bowen, C.; Chapman, R.; Cooper, R.; Greenfield, S.; Moffett, M.; Wells, M.

    1981-04-01

    The Utility Simulation Model has been used to project the emissions, costs, and operating decisions of the electric utilities for each year between 1980 and 2000. For each steam generating unit in the United States, the model simulates the compliance decision, including choice of fuels and pollution controls, as well as emissions and pollution control costs. Results are aggregated to state, regional, and national levels. The results presented here, summarized by strategy for selected years, include SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions, annual revenue requirements, the average price of electricity, dollars per ton of SO/sub 2/ reduced, coal capacity with FGD, utility fuel consumption, and regional production of coal for utility consumption. Because the strategies analyzed were aimed at SO/sub 2/ reduction, the results focus on the emissions and costs of controlling SO/sub 2/. This report is not intended to provide complete analysis and interpretation of the numerical results given in Section 3.

  15. The Danish Adoption Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia.......The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia....

  16. The Danish Melanoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive m...

  17. Greening of Danish Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry.......The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry....

  18. Danish Technology Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Jørgensen, Tom Rydahl

    This report investigates the occurrence of foundation failures within the context of the Danish construction technology framework. The report comprises a definition/typology section on the basis of which Danish regulatory and administrative procedures in relation to foundation failures are reviewed....

  19. Danish television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....

  20. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  1. Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind-Klavsen, Bjarne; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten; Maagaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry (DHAR) was initiated in 2012 as a web-based prospective registry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and report the epidemiologic and perioperative data of the first 2000 procedures in a Danish hip arthroscopy population and to describe the development of DH...

  2. The Danish Inguinal Hernia database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis-Andersen, Hans; Bisgaard, Thue

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database To monitor and improve nation-wide surgical outcome after groin hernia repair based on scientific evidence-based surgical strategies for the national and international surgical community. Study population Patients ≥18 years operated for groin hernia. Main variables Type and size of hernia, primary or recurrent, type of surgical repair procedure, mesh and mesh fixation methods. Descriptive data According to the Danish National Health Act, surgeons are obliged to register all hernia repairs immediately after surgery (3 minute registration time). All institutions have continuous access to their own data stratified on individual surgeons. Registrations are based on a closed, protected Internet system requiring personal codes also identifying the operating institution. A national steering committee consisting of 13 voluntary and dedicated surgeons, 11 of whom are unpaid, handles the medical management of the database. Results The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database comprises intraoperative data from >130,000 repairs (May 2015). A total of 49 peer-reviewed national and international publications have been published from the database (June 2015). Conclusion The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database is fully active monitoring surgical quality and contributes to the national and international surgical society to improve outcome after groin hernia repair. PMID:27822094

  3. Quality reforms in Danish home care - balancing between standardisation and individualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-05-01

    Despite relatively generous coverage of the over-65 population, Danish home help services receive regular criticism in the media and public opinion polls. Perhaps as a consequence, reforms of Danish home care policy for senior citizens have placed a strong emphasis on quality since the 1990s. This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation programme of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management principles, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted to increase the overall quality of care by increasing the transparency at the political, administrative and user levels. However, reforms have revolved around the conflicting principles of standardisation and the individualisation of care provision. This approach has succeeded in increasing the political and administrative control over home help at the expense of the control by users, care workers and case managers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both......, a study made by the Danish think tank CEPOS claimed the opposite, i.e. that most of the Danish wind power has been exported in recent years. However, this claim is based on an incorrect interpretation of statistics and a lack of understanding of how the international electricity markets operate...

  5. More Danish, More English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chopin, Kimberly Renée

    the Danish language may play in higher education in Denmark. This study investigates both trends through a focus on recently implemented language policies at one Danish university faculty which mandate that graduate instruction becarried out only in English, and undergraduate instruction only in Danish......-up approachto determining language use. This research has implications for other institutions which are affected by similar language issues. It adds to existing work on English-medium instruction in higher education, and adds to discussions on domain loss and the language of education inuniversities.......Universities in Denmark are becoming increasingly internationalized, and areincreasingly using English as a language of research, teaching, and administration. At the same time, the Danish language is seen by some as being under threat, and Danish public discourse has focused on what role...

  6. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hongwen He; Wei Liu; Hongqiang Guo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  7. Evaluating paratransgenesis as a potential control strategy for African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Medlock

    Full Text Available Genetic-modification strategies are currently being developed to reduce the transmission of vector-borne diseases, including African trypanosomiasis. For tsetse, the vector of African trypanosomiasis, a paratransgenic strategy is being considered: this approach involves modification of the commensal symbiotic bacteria Sodalis to express trypanosome-resistance-conferring products. Modified Sodalis can then be driven into the tsetse population by cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI from Wolbachia bacteria. To evaluate the effectiveness of this paratransgenic strategy in controlling African trypanosomiasis, we developed a three-species mathematical model of trypanosomiasis transmission among tsetse, humans, and animal reservoir hosts. Using empirical estimates of CI parameters, we found that paratransgenic tsetse have the potential to eliminate trypanosomiasis, provided that any extra mortality caused by Wolbachia colonization is low, that the paratransgene is effective at protecting against trypanosome transmission, and that the target tsetse species comprises a large majority of the tsetse population in the release location.

  8. Model predictive control power management strategies for HEVs: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanjun; Wang, Hong; Khajepour, Amir; He, Hongwen; Ji, Jie

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of power management strategy (PMS) utilized in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with an emphasis on model predictive control (MPC) based strategies for the first time. Research on MPC-based power management systems for HEVs has intensified recently due to its many inherent merits. The categories of the existing PMSs are identified from the latest literature, and a brief study of each type is conducted. Then, the MPC approach is introduced and its advantages are discussed. Based on the acquisition method of driver behavior used for state prediction and the dynamic model used, the MPC is classified and elaborated. Factors that affect the performance of the MPC are put forward, including prediction accuracy, design parameters, and solvers. Finally, several important issues in the application of MPC-based power management strategies and latest developing trends are discussed. This paper not only provides a comprehensive analysis of MPC-based power management strategies for HEVs but also puts forward the future and emphasis of future study, which will promote the development of energy management controller with high performance and low cost for HEVs.

  9. Overcoming Residents Opportunity Apathy in Danish Social Housing Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss how various technologies can support democratic collaboration in the social housing sector in Denmark, and help overcome opportunity apathy. I exemplify the discussion with an ongoing process of strategy development, in a Danish housing organization....

  10. The Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design By Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form. By...... of one space robot arm system subjected to failures....

  11. Contact switching as a control strategy for epidemic outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risau-Gusman, Sebastián; Zanette, Damián H

    2009-03-07

    We study the effects of switching social contacts as a strategy to control epidemic outbreaks. Connections between susceptible and infective individuals can be broken by either individual, and then reconnected to a randomly chosen member of the population. It is assumed that the reconnecting individual has no previous information on the epidemiological condition of the new contact. We show that reconnection can completely suppress the disease, both by continuous and discontinuous transitions between the endemic and the infection-free states. For diseases with an asymptomatic phase, we analyze the conditions for the suppression of the disease, and show that-even when these conditions are not met-the increase of the endemic infection level is usually rather small. We conclude that, within some simple epidemiological models, contact switching is a quite robust and effective control strategy. This suggests that it may also be an efficient method in more complex situations.

  12. Results of a control quality strategy in cervical cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Gullo, Caio Eduardo; Dami, Anna Luiza Tannús; Barbosa, Amanda Pires; Marques, Aline Maria de Vita; Palmejani, Marianna Angelo; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de; Bonilha, Jane Lopes

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of a quality control strategy in cervical cytology in the detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: Forty-two patients were selected who underwent a Pap smear and cervical uterine biopsy between April 2008 and December 2009, with evidence of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in one or both tests. The statistical parameters of the smear test were calculated before and after systematic meetings for review of the archived t...

  13. Model-control PROMC-a new control strategy with microcomputer for drive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, D.F.; Kennel, R.

    1985-09-01

    The new control strategy ''model control'' PROMC will be presented. The model control strategy can be used favorably in systems with switching amplifiers such as converters and inverters. The principle idea is to find an electrical model which is supplied with voltage or current sections from the switching amplifier. By this model it is possible to precalculate the desired signals for the next switching state. The precalculated signals are compared with the real signals of the existing switching state. With this procedure the optimal switching moment is determined. The advantages of this strategy are shortest response time possible, no overshoot, no sensitivity against saturation, and no influence of continuous or discontinuous current. Therefore, the strategy features ''precalculation of a reference signal for optimal model control'' (PROMC).

  14. The dietary effect of serving school meals based on the new Nordic diet – A randomised controlled trial in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Christensen, Tue

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The OPUS study is a school-based intervention study testing selected health effects of New Nordic Diet (NND). Children are served lunch and snacks based on NND. The hypothesis is that Danish school children eat a healthier diet when receiving NND school meals as compared...... and household education. Conclusions: Danish school children’s dietary intake of total and saturated fat decreased, fat E% decreased and protein E% increased when eating NND lunch and snacks compared to packed lunch brought from home. The OPUS project (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  15. Novel imaging closed loop control strategy for heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Gregor; Schöttl, Peter; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Central Receiver Systems use up to thousands of heliostats to concentrate solar radiation. The precise control of heliostat aiming points is crucial not only for efficiency but also for reliable plant operation. Besides the calibration of open loop control systems, closed loop tracking strategies are developed to address a precise and efficient aiming strategy. The need for cost reductions in the heliostat field intensifies the motivation for economic closed loop control systems. This work introduces an approach for a closed loop heliostat tracking strategy using image analysis and signal modulation. The approach aims at the extraction of heliostat focal spot position within the receiver domain by means of a centralized remote vision system decoupled from the rough conditions close to the focal area. Taking an image sequence of the receiver while modulating a signal on different heliostats, their aiming points are retrieved. The work describes the methodology and shows first results from simulations and practical tests performed in small scale, motivating further investigation and deployment.

  16. Coordination Control Strategy for Compound Fault of MMC-HVDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ming Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-line to ground fault of DC side and sub-module fault are typical faults of MMC-HVDC. When each of the above faults occurs, the system will give a signal for circuit-breaker releasing, this will result in interruption of power delivery, the stability of the system is greatly reduced. When these two faults occur simultaneously, research on control strategy for compound fault will help to improve the reliability of the system. While single-line to ground fault of DC side happens, only the electric potential auxiliary point of DC side is changed, system’s power transport normally. When sub-module is fault, redundancy fault-tolerated control strategy is presented, which replace the failed sub-modules with equal number of redundant sub-modules, it can restrain the fluctuation of direct current. A double terminals and 21 voltage-level MMC-HVDC system simulation model is set up in PSCAD/EMTDC. From the computation and simulation results, it is concluded that the proposed control strategy is correct for above compound fault, it can achieve rapid recovery after faults, effectively improve fault tolerance of the system, develop the stability and reliability of the system.

  17. Plant-wide control strategy for improving produced water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Durdevic, Petar

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...... quality in a continuous and real-time manner. However, this new solution relies on the availability of reliable Oilin-Water (OiW) real-time measuring technologies, which apparently are still quite challenging and un-matured....

  18. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Fabro

    2007-10-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  19. From Danish Yugoslavs to Danish Serbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible. This inv...

  20. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    Danish bilateral development assistance is aimed at reducing poverty in the partner countries. Even so, bilateral assistance may have secondary, or knock-on, effects, which are beneficial for Denmark. An important secondary effect is the prospect of increased export from Denmark to the partner co...

  1. Chaos control in an economic model via minimum entropy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salarieh, Hassan [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: salarieh@mech.sharif.edu; Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Research Institute for Science Policy (NRISP), Soheil Street, Shirazi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: aalasti@sharif.edu

    2009-04-30

    In this paper, minimum entropy algorithm for controlling chaos, is applied to a Cournot duopoly with different constant marginal costs, as a discrete-time dynamical system which shows chaotic behavior. The ME control is implemented through delayed feedback. It is assumed that the equations of the dynamical system are not known, so the feedback gain cannot be obtained analytically from the system equations. In the ME method the feedback gain is obtained adaptively in such a way that the entropy of the system converges to zero, hence a fixed point of the system will be stabilized. Application of the proposed method with different economic control strategies is numerically investigated. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the ME method for controlling chaos in economic systems with unknown equations.

  2. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Oliveira, João Blasques; Tavares, António; Domingos, Clarinha; Santos, Lucio Lara

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important health problem in Africa. The number of cancer cases in this region could double, ranging between 700 000 and 1 600 000 new cases in 2030. The mortality rate is higher than 80% and is explained, mainly, by a lack of early detection, diagnostics and treatment resources. In Angola, about 7,000 patients die of cancer every year. Data were derived from open-ended interviews conducted in 2010-11 with health authorities, clinicians, nurses and Administration of Hospitals. According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the development of Angola cancer control strategies. Malaria remains the leading cause of illness and death in Angola, and other communicable diseases remain a public health problem. However, 9 000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year.The most common types of cancer are: cancer of the cervix, breast, prostate, esophagus, stomach and head and neck, as well as cancers with infectious origin, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and liver and bladder cancer. The foundation for developing national cancer control strategies includes: oncological data; investment and training; identifying and removing barriers; guidance and protection of the patient. Angolan National Cancer Centre, Sagrada Esperança Clinic and Girassol Clinic are now developing a cancer program. Improving the economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which in itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. On the other hand, infectious diseases, associated with the risk of malignant tumors, are endemic. Thus, an increase in patients with malignant disease is expected. A plan is therefore necessary to organize the response to this old

  3. Monitoring strategies in children with asthma: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorend-van Bergen, Sandra; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja A; Brackel, Hein J; Landstra, Anneke M; van den Berg, Norbert J; Hop, Wim C; de Jongste, Johan C; Merkus, Peter J; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W

    2015-06-01

    Asthma guidelines recommend monitoring of asthma control. However, in a substantial proportion of children, asthma is poorly controlled and the best monitoring strategy is not known. We studied two monitoring strategies for their ability to improve asthma outcomes in comparison with standard care (SC): web-based monthly monitoring with the (Childhood) Asthma Control Test (ACT or C-ACT) and 4-monthly monitoring of FENO. In this randomised controlled, partly blinded, parallel group multicentre trial with a 1-year follow-up, children aged 4-18 with a doctor's diagnosis of asthma treated in seven hospitals were randomised to one of the three groups. In the web group, treatment was adapted according to ACT obtained via a website at 1-month intervals; in the FENO group according to ACT and FENO, and in the SC group according to the ACT at 4-monthly visits. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in the proportion of symptom-free days (SFD). Two-hundred and eighty children (mean age 10.4 years, 66% boys) were included; 268 completed the study. Mean changes from baseline in SFD were similar between the groups: -2.1% (web group, n=90), +8.9% (FENO group, n=91) versus 0.15% (SC, n=87), p=0.15 and p=0.78. Daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) decreased more in the web-based group compared with both other groups (-200 μg/day, p<0.01), while ACT and SFD remained similar. The change from baseline in SFD did not differ between monitoring strategies. With web-based ACT monitoring, ICS could be reduced substantially while control was maintained. NTR 1995. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. The polymorphism rs3024505 proximal to IL-10 is associated with risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease in a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Ernst, A.; Christensen, J.

    2010-01-01

    the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta/IL1B) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10/IL10) are key modulators for the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1 beta, IL-10, and HO-1 genes, together with smoking......, were associated with risk of CD and UC. Methods: Allele frequencies of the IL-1 beta T-31C (rs1143627), and IL-10 rs3024505, G-1082A (rs1800896), C-819T (rs1800871), and C-592A (rs1800872) and HO-1 A-413T (rs2071746) SNPs were assessed using a case-control design in a Danish cohort of 336 CD and 498 UC...... patients and 779 healthy controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by logistic regression models. Results: Carriers of rs3024505, a marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene, were at increased risk of CD (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06-1.85, P = 0.02) and UC (OR = 1.43, 95...

  5. Dark, but Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    conceptualization of “blackness” differs from that of l’humour noir, a category of French surrealism, and English black humour with its off-limit topics such as death and handicap. In Danish discourse, sort humor has come to stand for a practice of collaborative jocular non-sense making. Sort humor creates......This paper explores sort humor ‘black humour’, a key concept in Danish conversational humour. Sort forms part of larger class of Danish synaesthetic humour metaphors that includes other categories such as tør ‘dry’, syg ‘sick’, and fed ‘fat’. Taking an ethnopragmatic perspective on humour discourse...

  6. Contemporary Danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Brandt, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring o...... of the countryside. The values of the Danish landscape pertain mainly to the coastal landscapes. The threats include the industrilization of the agricultural landsclaes and,in places urban sprawl.......Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  7. Does macrolide use confer risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest compared with penicillin V? A Danish national case-crossover and case-time-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Jensen, Aksel; Knudsen, Jenny D; Arpi, Magnus; Andersson, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Lippert, Freddy; Weeke, Peter E

    2018-02-23

    Macrolides have been associated with proarrhythmic properties, but the evidence is conflicting. We evaluated the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with specific macrolides in a retrospective study. Associations between specific macrolides and OHCA were examined by conditional logistic regression analyses in case-crossover and case-time-control models, using penicillin-V treatment as the comparative reference. From nationwide registries, we identified all OHCAs in Denmark from 2001 to 2010 and use of antibiotics. The present study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (Danish Data Protection Agency (ref.no. 2007-58-0015, local ref.no. GEH-2014-017, (I-Suite.nr. 02 735)). We identified 29 111 patients with an OHCA. Of these, 514 were in macrolide treatment ≤7 days before OHCA and 1237 in penicillin-V treatment. In the case-crossover analyses, overall macrolide use was not associated with OHCA with penicillin V as negative comparative reference (OR=0.90; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.10). Compared with penicillin-V treatment, specific macrolides were not associated with increased risk of OHCA: roxithromycin (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.26), erythromycin (OR=0.68; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.06), clarithromycin (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.48) and azithromycin (OR=0.85; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.27).Similar results were obtained using case-time-control models: overall macrolide use (OR=0.81; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.06) and specific macrolides (roxithromycin ( OR=0.70; 95% CI 0.49 to 1.00), erythromycin ( OR=0.67; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.18), clarithromycin ( OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.39) or azithromycin ( OR=1.17; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.95)). The risk of OHCA during treatment with macrolides was similar to that of penicillin V, suggesting no additional risk of OHCA associated with macrolides. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. A Paratransgenic Strategy for the Control of Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Hurwitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease results from infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in central and south America. Chagas disease now exists and is detected worldwide because of human migration. Control of Chagas disease has relied mainly on vector eradication however, the development of insect resistance to pesticides, coupled with cost and adverse health effects of insecticide treatments, has prompted our group to investigate novel methods of transmission control. Our laboratory has been instrumental in the development of the paratransgenic strategy to control vectorial transmission of T. cruzi. In this paper, we discuss various components of the paratransgenic approach. Specifically, we describe classes of molecules that can serve as effectors, including antimicrobial peptides, endoglucanases, and highly specific single chain antibodies that target surface glycoprotein tags on the surface of T. cruzi. Furthermore, we address evolving concepts related to field dispersal of engineered bacteria as part of the paratransgenic control strategy and attendant risk assessment evaluation.

  9. Energy Optimal Control Strategy of PHEV Based on PMP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiezhou Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the global voice of “energy saving” and the current boom in the development of energy storage technology at home and abroad, energy optimal control of the whole hybrid electric vehicle power system, as one of the core technologies of electric vehicles, is bound to become a hot target of “clean energy” vehicle development and research. This paper considers the constraints to the performance of energy storage system in Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV, from which lithium-ion battery frequently charges/discharges, PHEV largely consumes energy of fuel, and their are difficulty in energy recovery and other issues in a single cycle; the research uses lithium-ion battery combined with super-capacitor (SC, which is hybrid energy storage system (Li-SC HESS, working together with internal combustion engine (ICE to drive PHEV. Combined with PSO-PI controller and Li-SC HESS internal power limited management approach, the research proposes the PHEV energy optimal control strategy. It is based on revised Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP algorithm, which establishes the PHEV vehicle simulation model through ADVISOR software and verifies the effectiveness and feasibility. Finally, the results show that the energy optimization control strategy can improve the instantaneity of tracking PHEV minimum fuel consumption track, implement energy saving, and prolong the life of lithium-ion batteries and thereby can improve hybrid energy storage system performance.

  10. Plurilingual internationalization in Danish Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Kirilova, Marta

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, Danish universities – like universities worldwide – have gradually become more internationalized. From a predominantly national, monolingual educational system, universities have increasingly advanced to a post-national paradigm with Danish and English as so-called parallel...... been implemented in Danish higher education: the Language Profiles at Roskilde University and More Languages for More Students at the University of Copenhagen. The article focuses on signs of plurilingualism, how they can be conceptualized and why the promotion of plurilingualism is central...... languages. However, the present reality is even more multifaceted, raising the question as to whether universities’ internationalization efforts can be limited to the use of only English and the national language. The article discusses the results of two plurilingual language strategies that have recently...

  11. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Two-strain Tuberculosis Transmission Model under Three Control Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayhan, S. N.; Bakhtiar, T.; Jaharuddin

    2017-03-01

    In 1997, Castillo-Chavez and Feng developed a two-strain tuberculosis (TB) model, which is typical TB and resistant TB. Castillo-Chavez and Feng’s model was then subsequently developed by Jung et al. (2002) by adding two control variables. In this work, Jung et al.’s model was modified by introducing a new control variable so that there are three controls, namely chemoprophylaxis and two treatment strategies, with the application of three different scenarios related to the objective functional form and control application. Pontryagin maximum principle was applied to derive the differential equations system as a condition that must be satisfied by the optimal control variables. Furthermore, the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method was exploited to determine the numerical solution of the optimal control problem. In this numerical solution, it is shown that the controls treated on TB transmission model provide a good effect because latent and infected individuals are decreasing, and the number of individuals that is treated effectively is increasing.

  13. The Professional Project among Danish Kindergarten Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Jakob Ditlev

    2016-01-01

    This article describes ways in which the professionalization strategy among Danish kindergarten teachers is realised in practice by newly educated members of the occupation. It focusses on relations between gender and professionalisation and concludes that the professionalisation strategy...... educated kindergarten teachers employed in three different pedagogic institutions: day-care (0-6 years), after-school institutions (6-10 years) and club facilities (10-18 years)....

  14. [Bibliometric analysis of literature regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Li; Wang, Wei; Hong, Qing-Biao; Liang, You-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of implementation of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control using a bibliometric method. The literature pertaining to integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control was retrieved from CNKI, Wanfangdata, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS and Google Scholar, and a bibliometric analysis of literature captured was performed. During the period from January 1, 2004 through September 30, 2014, a total of 94 publications regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control were captured, including 78 Chinese articles (82.98%) and 16 English papers (17.02%). The Chinese literature was published in 21 national journals, and Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control had the largest number of publications, consisting of 37.23% of total publications; 16 English papers were published in 12 international journals, and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases had the largest number of publications (3 publications). There were 37 affiliations publishing these 94 articles, and National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (16 publications), Anhui Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (12 publications) and Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (9 publications) ranked top three affiliations in number of publications. A total of 157 persons were co-authored in these 94 publications, and Wang, Zhou and Zhang ranked top 3 authors in number of publications. The integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control has been widely implemented in China, and the achievements obtained from the implementation of this strategy should be summarized and transmitted internationally.

  15. FINANCIAL CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR COLLECTING BODY OF A MUNICIPAL TAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article's main purpose is to propose fiscal control strategies for tax collection in a Hall of Carabobo state, taking into account the responsibility of municipal governments within its governance process to provide optimal services to citizens the municipality, in order to improve their quality of life. This research focused on the modality of feasible project and descriptive. The population under study consisted of 10 staff of the institution, applying a survey as a tool for information gathering, allowing coding, tabulating and analyzing the results. The findings established that the institution is presenting negatives in tax revenue of the municipality, which generates large arrears and tax evasion by citizens, hence leading to the importance of design strategies that lead to minimize this situation.

  16. Optimization of wind farm power production using innovative control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duc, Thomas

    Wind energy has experienced a very significant growth and cost reduction over the past decade, and is now able to compete with conventional power generation sources. New concepts are currently investigated to decrease costs of production of electricity even further. Wind farm coordinated control...... is one of them; it is aimed at increasing the efficiency of a wind farm and decreasing the fatigue loads faced by wind turbines by reducing aerodynamic interactions between them. These objectives are achieved considering two different strategies: curtailing an upwind turbine to reduce the wind speed...... conditions. It is therefore not known to what extent these gains can be reproduced in a real wind farm where wind conditions are very fluctuating. The French national project SMARTEOLE constitutes one of the first attempts of implementing these strategies on a full scale wind farm. A ten month measurement...

  17. Effective Fragmentation and Flyrock Control Strategies at Quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effective fragmentation and flyrock control strategies that could be applied at quarries to improve the productivity and safety. Fragmentation measurement and modelling as well as a comprehensive drill and blast audit are essential for improving the fragmentation. Face profiling and bore tracking are good tools to manage the ―as-designed‖ and ―as-drilled‖ conditions to get reasonable fragmentation from face burden zone and minimise the flyrock risk. In general, a large scatter in fragmentation data was observed at sites and the causes should be analysed by a detailed root-cause analysis technique. Two case studies were presented in this paper showing some of the effective fragmentation strategies. Finally, a flyrock model was shown to determine the safe blast exclusion zone for the mining equipment and personnel. Some key guidelines were suggested to minimise the occurrence of the flyrock.

  18. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  19. Instrumentation and control strategies for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several vendors have recently been actively pursuing the development of integral pressurized water reactors (iPWRs that range in power levels from small to large reactors. Integral reactors have the features of minimum vessel penetrations, passive heat removal after reactor shutdown, and modular construction that allow fast plant integration and a secure fuel cycle. The features of an integral reactor limit the options for placing control and safety system instruments. The development of instrumentation and control (I&C strategies for a large 1,000 MWe iPWR is described. Reactor system modeling—which includes reactor core dynamics, primary heat exchanger, and the steam flashing drum—is an important part of I&C development and validation, and thereby consolidates the overall implementation for a large iPWR. The results of simulation models, control development, and instrumentation features illustrate the systematic approach that is applicable to integral light water reactors.

  20. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures...... for gynecological cancer. STUDY POPULATION: DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. MAIN VARIABLES: DGCD data are organized within separate...... Danish personal identification number (CPR number). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation...

  1. Danish Towns during Absolutism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    crisis for the Danish urban community, mainly caused by the devastating effects of the seventeenth century warfare. Some few towns, however, stood out with positive development, first and foremost Copenhagen which flourished in its function as the centre of the Absolutist regime. The book traces both...... the roots of the urban crisis as well as the regional and temporal variations. Many articles provide an overview of urbanisation in both the Kingdom of Denmark and the Duchy of Schleswig, while other articles focus on the economic, social, and cultural urban functions. The Danish Urban Studies Series......This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...

  2. Innovation Insights in the Danish Facility Management Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    Purpose: This paper investigates innovation in the Danish facilities management sector and addresses the following research question: “Do Danish FM organizations innovate and if so what are the major types of innovations in the Danish FM sector?” Background: In the last three decades, Facilities...... the starting point in the literature on facilities management, services and service innovation, and adopts a qualitative research approach to investigate the research question. Specifically twelve interviews were conducted with key managers in twelve Danish companies in the Danish facilities management sector...... innovation strategies while other FM departments do innovate without being aware that innovation is taking place. The “ICT Supplier/Consultants” are found to be innovative and their innovations are both driven by the user needs and by the desire to improve their competitiveness. Practical Implications...

  3. Danish national guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Anne Petas Swane; Engsbro, Anne Line Østergaard; Fassov, Janne

    2017-01-01

    National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adult patients in secondary and tertiary care have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology. IBS can be a positive diagnosis in patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria...... for IBS with no alarm signals, a normal physical examination and a normal CRP and hemoglobin. In patients bowel disease with a high probability. Patients with IBS and diarrhea should be tested for celiac disease. Endoscopy...

  4. Comparing control strategies against foot-and-mouth disease: will vaccination be cost-effective in Denmark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boklund, A; Halasa, T; Christiansen, L E; Enøe, C

    2013-09-01

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe have highlighted the need for assessment of control strategies to optimise control of the spread of FMD. Our objectives were to assess the epidemiological and financial impact of simulated FMD outbreaks in Denmark and the effect of using ring depopulation or emergency vaccination to control these outbreaks. Two stochastic simulation models (InterSpreadPlus (ISP) and the modified Davis Animal Disease Simulation model (DTU-DADS)) were used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark using different control strategies. Each epidemic was initiated in one herd (index herd), and a total of 5000 index herds were used. Four types of control measures were investigated: (1) a basic scenario including depopulation of detected herds, 3 km protection and 10 km surveillance zones, movement tracing and a three-day national standstill, (2) the basic scenario plus depopulation in ring zones around detected herds (Depop), (3) the basic scenario plus protective vaccination within ring zones around detected herds, and (4) the basic scenario plus protective vaccination within ring zones around detected herds. Disease spread was simulated through direct animal movements, medium-risk contacts (veterinarians, artificial inseminators or milk controllers), low-risk contacts (animal feed and rendering trucks, technicians or visitors), market contacts, abattoir trucks, milk tanks, or local spread. The two simulation models showed different results in terms of the estimated numbers. However, the tendencies in terms of recommendations of strategies were similar for both models. Comparison of the different control strategies showed that, from an epidemiological point of view, protective vaccination would be preferable if the epidemic started in a cattle herd in an area with a high density of cattle, whereas if the epidemic started in an area with a low density of cattle or in other species, protective vaccination or depopulation would have

  5. Web malware spread modelling and optimal control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanping; Zhong, Shouming

    2017-02-01

    The popularity of the Web improves the growth of web threats. Formulating mathematical models for accurate prediction of malicious propagation over networks is of great importance. The aim of this paper is to understand the propagation mechanisms of web malware and the impact of human intervention on the spread of malicious hyperlinks. Considering the characteristics of web malware, a new differential epidemic model which extends the traditional SIR model by adding another delitescent compartment is proposed to address the spreading behavior of malicious links over networks. The spreading threshold of the model system is calculated, and the dynamics of the model is theoretically analyzed. Moreover, the optimal control theory is employed to study malware immunization strategies, aiming to keep the total economic loss of security investment and infection loss as low as possible. The existence and uniqueness of the results concerning the optimality system are confirmed. Finally, numerical simulations show that the spread of malware links can be controlled effectively with proper control strategy of specific parameter choice.

  6. Enhancing Schistosomiasis Control Strategy for Zimbabwe: Building on Past Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses J. Chimbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized.

  7. Control Strategy on Worms Spread in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianmei, Fang

    First, a preliminary understanding of what is meant by complex network and its features, and network worm virus that understanding and analysis of the emergence and development of the worm, the worm to understand the current situation, focus on the worm propagation model (simple propagation model, Kermack-Mckendrick model, SIS model, two-factor model, BCM model - network worms against the model). Contact the characteristics of complex networks and the worm theory, detection and prevention of worms and an important node in the network-based control strategy (target immunity, virus containment) for a simple discussion.

  8. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...... for improved and more efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants. Unfortunately, their evaluation and comparison – either practical or based on simulation – is difficult. This is partly due to the variability of the influent, to the complexity of the biological and biochemical phenomena...

  10. PMSM sensorless control with separate control strategies and smooth switch from low speed to high speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, SiYi; Luo, Ying; Pi, YouGuo

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a smooth switching scheme with separate control strategies on low speed mode and high speed mode for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) sensorless control to improve the overall performance in full speed range. Constant voltage/frequency tuning method is used on low speed mode because the rotor position can hardly be estimated precisely at low speed. Along with the increasing speed, the control strategy can be switched to high speed mode smoothly when current and speed meet the given requirements. In this high speed mode, the current tracking with a sliding mode observer (SMO) and speed tracking with a sliding mode controller (SMC) are handled, respectively. Experimental demonstration is presented to show the desired performance in full speed range of the PMSM sensorless control using the proposed control scheme in this paper. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subjective well-being in times of social change: congruence of control strategies and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grümer, Sebastian; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between perceptions of broader changes in the social-ecological context and individuals' subjective well-being (SWB). Macro-level societal changes such as globalization or demographic change give rise to new demands for individual functioning at work and/or in the family. Such new demands associated with social change are stressful and likely to be related to lower levels of SWB. Being active agents, individuals attempt to deal with social change and its increasing demands to protect their SWB. The present study investigates which kinds of control strategies are most effective in protecting one's SWB. Specifically, we predicted that control strategies of goal engagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived high control, and control strategies of goal disengagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived low control. In a large sample of 2537 German adults, work- and family-related demands associated with social change were found to be negatively linked to SWB. Moreover and in line with the motivational theory of lifespan development, control strategies of goal engagement and disengagement were beneficial for SWB to the extent that they matched the perceived control of the demands associated with social change.

  12. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence: a Danish clinical registry-based case-control study, and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880 may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast cancer recurrence (BCR among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo. We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of BCR. We used random-effects meta-analytic models to evaluate the association of SOD2 polymorphisms and BCR. RESULTS: The frequency of the SOD2-Ala allele was 70% in cases versus 71% in controls; 40% versus 44% were heterozygotes, and 30% versus 25% were homozygotes, respectively. Heterozygote and homozygote carriers of the Ala allele had no increased rate of BCR (OR = 1.1, 95%CI = 0.65, 2.0, and OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.47, 1.6, respectively. Five studies informed the meta-analytic models; summary estimates associating BCR for homozygote, or any inheritance of the variant Ala allele were 1.18 (95%CI = 0.74, 1.88, and 1.18, (95%CI = 0.91, 1.54, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not suggest that MnSOD enzymatic activity, as measured by SOD2 genotype, affects rates of BCR among patients treated with Cyclo.

  13. Young people's risk of suicide attempts after contact with a psychiatric department - a nested case-control design using Danish register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. A complete extraction of Danish register data for every individual born in the period 1983-1989 was made. Of these 403,431 individuals, 3,465 had attempted suicide. In order to control for confounder effects from gender, age and calendar-time, a nested case-control study was designed. A total population of 72,765 individuals was used to analyze the risk of suicide attempts after contact with a psychiatric department. The case-control data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. This study shows that a child/adolescent's risk of suicide attempt peaks immediately after discharge from last contact with a psychiatric department. The risk of suicide attempt is highest for children and adolescents suffering from personality disorders, depression and substance use disorders. Children and adolescents with previous contact with a psychiatric department and parental income in the lowest third have a significantly higher risk of suicide attempt. Suicide attempters were more likely to have been given several different diagnoses and several different psychopharmacological drugs prior to their attempted suicide. The findings in this study highlight the need for psychopathology assessment in every case of attempted suicide. This study also shows that well-known risk factors such as contact with a psychiatric department do not affect all individuals in the same way. Individuals from families with low SES had the highest risk. This suggests that the presence of factors influencing both vulnerability and resiliency, e.g., family level of SES, needs to be included in the assessment. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental

  14. Strategies for increasing recruitment to randomised controlled trials: systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrina H Y Caldwell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recruitment of participants into randomised controlled trials (RCTs is critical for successful trial conduct. Although there have been two previous systematic reviews on related topics, the results (which identified specific interventions were inconclusive and not generalizable. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of recruitment strategies for participation in RCTs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review, using the PRISMA guideline for reporting of systematic reviews, that compared methods of recruiting individual study participants into an actual or mock RCT were included. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant studies. From over 16,000 titles or abstracts reviewed, 396 papers were retrieved and 37 studies were included, in which 18,812 of at least 59,354 people approached agreed to participate in a clinical RCT. Recruitment strategies were broadly divided into four groups: novel trial designs (eight studies, recruiter differences (eight studies, incentives (two studies, and provision of trial information (19 studies. Strategies that increased people's awareness of the health problem being studied (e.g., an interactive computer program [relative risk (RR 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00-2.18], attendance at an education session [RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28], addition of a health questionnaire [RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.14-1.66], or a video about the health condition (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11-2.74, and also monetary incentives (RR1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.64 to RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28-1.84 improved recruitment. Increasing patients' understanding of the trial process, recruiter differences, and various methods of randomisation and consent design did not show a difference in recruitment. Consent rates were also higher for nonblinded trial design, but differential loss to follow up between groups may jeopardise the study findings. The study's main limitation was the necessity of

  15. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  17. Improved Control Strategy for Microgrid Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Dou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultracapacitors (UCs, with their features of high power density and high current charge-discharge, have become the best choice for dynamic power compensation to improve the stability of microgrids and are increasingly being applied in microgrids. This paper presents the control of an energy storage system (ESS based on ultracapacitors in the context of grid-connected microgrids. The ESS is composed of DC/AC and DC/DC converters tied by a dc link. An improved dynamic model for the ESS is proposed. Based on the proposed model a Proportional-Integral-Resonant (PIR DC link voltage controller is proposed to maintain the DC link voltage through the charging-discharging control of ultracapacitors, capable of working properly under all operating conditions. An extra double frequency component is injected into the UC current by a R controller to dynamically compensate for DC instantaneous power and double frequency AC instantaneous power due to unbalanced grid conditions and disturbances. This feature maintains the DC link voltage constant under unbalanced conditions and increases the degrees of freedom of the DC/AC converter and thus facilitates the application of UCs in microgrids. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  18. Strategy and Management Control System in a Manufacturing Industry in Selected Cities in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Tubagus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between strategy formation process and strategy implementation process with the USAge of MCS. The focus of strategy formation process used in this study is intended strategy, emergent strategy, and implemented strategy. The focus of MCS used in this study, is interactive control system and diagnostic control system. This study uses structural equation modelling as multivariate analyses tool. AMOS software 16 program is used as the aid t...

  19. Operational controlling - a tool of translating strategy into action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available . Enterprises have a lot of problems with realization their strategic aims in the fast changing and competitive business arena from many years. Effective execution of strategic plan needs its translating into action, task results and indicators of everyday activities. The success on the market is attainable by communicating strategic and operating goals on the each level of organizational structure and their connecting with budget of units or employee motivation. The scorecards balancing in finance, customer, process and development perspectives is very useful for pointing - what do we control with? or - what do we have to achieve? But doesn't answer to question about ways of enterprise managing. Main aim of the article is proving that operational controlling system is a essential tool for translating strategy into action. The Balanced Scorecard methodology should to take into consideration system and process connection of enterprise with procurement, co-operation or distribution supply chain also.

  20. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh SeongJin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others.

  1. Strategy for ecologic control in fighting Varroa destructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ectoparasite Varroa destructor is one of the most wide-spread parasites of the honey bee, which is increasing its resistence to traditional synthetic acaricides more and more with each year. New regulations on quality of the European Union ban the presence of residue in bee products, which rules out the use of chemical means in the course of the honey harvest. The concept of ecologic control of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies implies the complementary use of adequate biotechnical and biophysical measures and treatments using preparations based on etheric oils and organic acids. The combination of these treatments according to the presented strategy makes it possible to keep varroasis under control.

  2. Equivalence of Primary Control Strategies for AC and DC Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Unamuno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid frequency and voltage regulation is a challenging task, as classical generators with rotational inertia are usually replaced by converter-interfaced systems that inherently do not provide any inertial response. The aim of this paper is to analyse and compare autonomous primary control techniques for alternating current (AC and direct current (DC microgrids that improve this transient behaviour. In this context, a virtual synchronous machine (VSM technique is investigated for AC microgrids, and its behaviour for different values of emulated inertia and droop slopes is tested. Regarding DC microgrids, a virtual-impedance-based algorithm inspired by the operation concept of VSMs is proposed. The results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can be configured to have an analogous behaviour to VSM techniques by varying the control parameters of the integrated virtual-impedances. This means that the steady-state and transient behaviour of converters employing these strategies can be configured independently. As shown in the simulations, this is an interesting feature that could be, for instance, employed for the integration of different dynamic generation or storage systems, such as batteries or supercapacitors.

  3. A Review of Microgrid Architectures and Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Krishnarajsinh A.; Karkar, Hitesh M.; Trivedi, I. N.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper microgrid architecture and various converters control strategies are reviewed. Microgrid is defined as interconnected network of distributed energy resources, loads and energy storage systems. This emerging concept realizes the potential of distributed generators. AC microgrid interconnects various AC distributed generators like wind turbine and DC distributed generators like PV, fuel cell using inverter. While in DC microgrid output of an AC distributed generator must be converted to DC using rectifiers and DC distributed generator can be directly interconnected. Hybrid microgrid is the solution to avoid this multiple reverse conversions AC-DC-AC and DC-AC-DC that occur in the individual AC-DC microgrid. In hybrid microgrid all AC distributed generators will be connected in AC microgrid and DC distributed generators will be connected in DC microgrid. Interlinking converter is used for power balance in both microgrids, which transfer power from one microgrid to other if any microgrid is overloaded. At the end, review of interlinking converter control strategies is presented.

  4. Switched Control Strategies of Aggregated Commercial HVAC Systems for Demand Response in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes three switched control strategies for aggregated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems in commercial buildings to track the automatic generation control (AGC signal in smart grid. The existing control strategies include the direct load control strategy and the setpoint regulation strategy. The direct load control strategy cannot track the AGC signal when the state of charge (SOC of the aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs exceeds their regulation capacity, while the setpoint regulation strategy provides flexible regulation capacity, but causes larger tracking errors. To improve the tracking performance, we took the advantages of the two control modes and developed three switched control strategies. The control strategies switch between the direct load control mode and the setpoint regulation mode according to different switching indices. Specifically, we design a discrete-time controller and optimize the controller parameter for the setpoint regulation strategy using the Fibonacci optimization algorithm, enabling us to propose two switched control strategies across multiple time steps. Furthermore, we extend the switched control strategies by introducing a two-stage regulation in a single time step. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed switched control strategies can reduce the tracking errors for frequency regulation.

  5. A unified control strategy for the active reduction of sound and vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The generalized minimum variance (GMV) control strategy is proposed as an effective strategy for active sound and vibration control systems. The GMV strategy is shown to unify well-known adaptive filtering approaches based on LMS-type algorithms and purely feedback strategies as used in other types

  6. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors: Results from a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakær, Jan; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Jensen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and ovarian cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, only few studies have examined the role of coffee and tea consumption separately for borderline ovarian tumors. By use of data from a large Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the risk of ovarian tumors associated with coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with a particular focus on characterizing risks by tumor behavior and histology. From 1995 through 1999, we included 267 women with ovarian cancer, 115 women with borderline ovarian tumors and 911 randomly selected control women. All women completed a beverage frequency questionnaire with detailed information on coffee and tea consumption. Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression models. Both coffee (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84-0.97 per cup/day) and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98 per 100 mg/day) decreased the risk of ovarian cancer. These associations were significant only for the serous and "other" subtypes of ovarian cancer. No relation between tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk was observed. The risk estimates for borderline ovarian tumors resembled those observed for ovarian cancer, but did not reach statistical significance. Our results indicate that coffee consumption and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined is associated with a modest decreased risk of ovarian cancer. However, more biological studies are needed to identify bioactive chemical compounds in coffee that potentially could affect ovarian cancer development.

  7. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  8. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  9. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup Nordsborg, Rikke; Meliker, Jaymie R; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette

    2013-01-01

    space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across...... System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify...... the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio...

  10. Neuroinspired control strategies with applications to flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorothy, Michael Ray

    This dissertation is centered on a theoretical, simulation, and experimental study of control strategies which are inspired by biological systems. Biological systems, along with sufficiently complicated engineered systems, often have many interacting degrees of freedom and need to excite large-displacement oscillations in order to locomote. Combining these factors can make high-level control design difficult. This thesis revolves around three different levels of abstraction, providing tools for analysis and design. First, we consider central pattern generators (CPGs) to control flapping-flight dynamics. The key idea here is dimensional reduction - we want to convert complicated interactions of many degrees of freedom into a handful of parameters which have intuitive connections to the overall system behavior, leaving the control designer unconcerned with the details of particular motions. A rigorous mathematical and control theoretic framework to design complex three-dimensional wing motions is presented based on phase synchronization of nonlinear oscillators. In particular, we show that flapping-flying dynamics without a tail or traditional aerodynamic control surfaces can be effectively controlled by a reduced set of central pattern generator parameters that generate phase-synchronized or symmetry-breaking oscillatory motions of two main wings. Furthermore, by using a Hopf bifurcation, we show that tailless aircraft (inspired by bats) alternating between flapping and gliding can be effectively stabilized by smooth wing motions driven by the central pattern generator network. Results of numerical simulation with a full six-degree-of-freedom flight dynamic model validate the effectiveness of the proposed neurobiologically inspired control approach. Further, we present experimental micro aerial vehicle (MAV) research with low-frequency flapping and articulated wing gliding. The importance of phase difference control via an abstract mathematical model of central

  11. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish "Pathology Registry", the "National Patient Registry", and the "Cause of Death Registry" using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications.

  12. Importance Sampling Based Decision Trees for Security Assessment and the Corresponding Preventive Control Schemes: the Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Decision Trees (DT) based security assessment helps Power System Operators (PSO) by providing them with the most significant system attributes and guiding them in implementing the corresponding emergency control actions to prevent system insecurity and blackouts. DT is obtained offline from time......-domain simulation and the process of data mining, which is then implemented online as guidelines for preventive control schemes. An algorithm named Classification and Regression Trees (CART) is used to train the DT and key to this approach lies on the accuracy of DT. This paper proposes contingency oriented DT...

  13. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  14. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    PRECISE (PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium) pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01819649) was a 5-year randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with four groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1:1). Men and women aged 60-74 years (n 491) were randomised to 100 (n 124), 200 (n 122...

  15. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O&M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O&M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R&D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment).

  16. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  17. A Harmonic Current Suppression Control Strategy for Droop-Controlled Inverter Connected to the Distorted Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Feng; Sun, Kai; Guan, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    voltage component at the point of common coupling. As a result, the difference of harmonic voltage between PCC and GF-VCI is reduced and the THDi of grid feeding-currents is decreased. Finally, the proposed control strategy is verified through simulations and experimental results.......The grid-feeding voltage controlled inverter (GF-VCI) based on droop control is vulnerable to the harmonic voltages of the utility grid. Because of the equivalent impedance of system is small, the slight distorted grid voltage will result in the harmonic component increasing of GF-VCI output...... currents. Therefore, the reason of generation of distorted grid-feeding current of GF-VCI under the distorted grid voltage is investigated firstly in this paper. Then, a harmonic grid-feeding current suppression control strategy for GF-VCI is proposed. Two different filters are compared and analysed before...

  18. Real-time Performance and Safety Validation of an Integrated Vehicle Dynamic Control Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Rachman, Arya Senna; Idriz, Adem Ferad; Li, Shiqian; Baldi, S.; Dochain, Denis; Henrion, Didier; Peaucelle, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    The state of the art in automotive control has proposed several analytical, simulation and experimental studies of longitudinal adaptive cruise control strategies, and of lateral control strategies. However, methodical integration of these two strategies is to a large extent missing, as well as

  19. 40 CFR 93.120 - Consequences of control strategy implementation plan failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of control strategy... Consequences of control strategy implementation plan failures. (a) Disapprovals. (1) If EPA disapproves any submitted control strategy implementation plan revision (with or without a protective finding), the...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.1781 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy...

  1. Targeted treatment strategies for sustainable worm control in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B

    2008-02-01

    Sustainable worm control strategies are based largely on ensuring that a source of worms not exposed to anthelmintics ("in refugia") remains after treatments are given, so that resistant worms do not become a dominant part of the total population. In environments with seasonally poor survival of worm larvae on pasture, this may require withholding treatments from a proportion of animals when the whole group would normally be treated. The "targeted treatment" approach involves using anthelmintics on an individual animal basis according to indications of parasitic effects, regardless of parasite burdens. For Haemonchus contortus, the FAMACHA system, based on the easily-visualised index of anaemia, has proved effective provided that labour is available for frequent inspections. For non-haematophagous nematodes, recent research indicates the potential of production parameters such as body weight change (sheep) and milk yield (dairy goats), providing that parasitic effects can be differentiated from nutritional and other factors. Continuing investigations are necessary to indicate the most appropriate indices for different situations, so that the refugia effect is maximized for the least risk of disease and production loss. Of prime importance, targeted treatment strategies must be practical to implement if they are to achieve widespread adoption.

  2. Molecular Strategies for Morphology Control in Semiconducting Polymers for Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanudin, Aiman; Sivula, Kevin

    2017-06-28

    Solution-processable semiconducting polymers have been explored over the last decades for their potential applications in inexpensively fabricated transistors, diodes and photovoltaic cells. However, a remaining challenge in the field is to control the solid-state self-assembly of polymer chains in thin films devices, as the aspects of (semi)crystallinity, grain boundaries, and chain entanglement can drastically affect intra-and inter-molecular charge transport/transfer and thus device performance. In this short review we examine how the aspects of molecular weight and chain rigidity affect solid-state self-assembly and highlight molecular engineering strategies to tune thin film morphology. Side chain engineering, flexibly linking conjugation segments, and block co-polymer strategies are specifically discussed with respect to their effect on field effect charge carrier mobility in transistors and power conversion efficiency in solar cells. Example systems are taken from recent literature including work from our laboratories to illustrate the potential of molecular engineering semiconducting polymers.

  3. Migration control: a distance compensation strategy in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-08-01

    Migratory behaviour forms an intrinsic part of the life histories of many organisms but is often a high-risk process. Consequently, varied strategies have evolved to negate such risks, but empirical data relating to their functioning are limited. In this study, we use the model system of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis to demonstrate a key strategy that can shorten migration exposure times in a group of social insects. Colonies of these ants frequently migrate to new nest sites, and due to the nature of their habitat, the distances over which they do so are variable, leading to fluctuating potential costs dependent on migration parameters. We show that colonies of this species facultatively alter the dynamics of a migration and so compensate for the distance over which a given migration occurs. Specifically, they achieve this by modulating the rate of 'tandem running', in which workers teach each other the route to a new nest site. Using this method, colonies are able to engage a larger number of individuals in the migration process when the distance to be traversed is greater, and furthermore, the system appears to be based on perceived encounter rate at the individual level. This form of decentralised control highlights the adaptive nature of a behaviour of ecological importance, and indicates that the key to its robustness lies in the use of simple rules. Additionally, our results suggest that such coordinated group reactions are central to achieving the high levels of ecological success seen in many eusocial organisms.

  4. Prevention and control strategies for ticks and pathogen transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Contreras, M

    2015-04-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens have evolved together, resulting in a complex relationship in which the pathogen's life cycle is perfectly coordinated with the tick's feeding cycle, and the tick can harbour high pathogen levels without affecting its biology. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) continue to emerge and/or spread, and pose an increasing threatto human and animal health. The disruptive impacts of global change have resulted in ecosystem instability and the future outcomes of management and control programmes for ticks and TBDs are difficult to predict. In particular, the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks has reduced the value of acaricides as a sole means of tick control. Vaccines provide an alternative control method, but the use of tick vaccines has not advanced since the first vaccines were registered in the early 1990s. An understanding of the complex molecular relationship between hosts, ticks and pathogens and the use of systems biology and vaccinomics approaches are needed to discover proteins with the relevant biological function in tick feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, the subversion of host immunity and pathogen transmission, all of which mediate tick and pathogen success. The same approaches will also be required to characterise candidate protective antigens and to validate vaccine formulations. Tick vaccines with a dual effect on tick infestations and pathogen transmission could reduce both tick infestations and their vector capacity for humans, animals and reservoir hosts. The development of integrated tick control strategies, including vaccines and synthetic and botanical acaricides, in combination with managing drug resistance and educating producers, should lead to the sustainable control of ticks and TBDs.

  5. External stimuli mediate collective rhythms: artificial control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshou Zhou

    Full Text Available The artificial intervention of biological rhythms remains an exciting challenge. Here, we proposed artificial control strategies that were developed to mediate the collective rhythms emerging in multicellular structures. Based on noisy repressilators and by injecting a periodic control amount to the extracellular medium, we introduced two typical kinds of control models. In one, there are information exchanges among cells, where signaling molecules receive the injected stimulus that freely diffuses toward/from the intercellular medium. In the other, there is no information exchange among cells, but signaling molecules also receive the stimulus that directionally diffuses into each cell from the common environment. We uncovered physical mechanisms for how the stimulus induces, enhances or ruins collective rhythms. We found that only when the extrinsic period is close to an integer multiplicity of the averaged intrinsic period can the collective behaviors be induced/enhanced; otherwise, the stimulus possibly ruins the achieved collective behaviors. Such entrainment properties of these oscillators to external signals would be exploited by realistic living cells to sense external signals. Our results not only provide a new perspective to the understanding of the interplays between extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic physiological rhythms, but also would lead to the development of medical therapies or devices.

  6. Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleniuk, P.; Di Cosmo, M.; Kasampalis, V.; Nisbet, D.; Todd, B.; Uznański, S.

    2017-04-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary scan test platform and the first results from exploitation of the test system. This paper reports on the test software, hardware design and test strategy applied for a number of devices that has resulted in maximizing test coverage and minimizing test design effort.

  7. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of PRRSV from Danish Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    by phylogenetic analysis, in order to asses the applicability of vaccines currently used to control PRRSV infection in Danish pig herds. Materials and methods Lung tissue from samples submitted to the National Veterinary Institute during 2003-2008 for PRRSV diagnosis were screened for PRRSV by real-time RT......-PCR, essentially as described by Egli et al. 2001, on RNA extracted with RNeasy Mini Kit (QIAGEN). Complete open reading frames (ORF) ORF5 and ORF7 were PCR amplified as described (Oleksiewicz et al. 1998) and sequenced. Sequences were aligned and Neighbour-Joining trees were constructed with ClustalX. Trees were...... visualized with NJ-plot software. Genbank entries of Danish PRRSV sequences from the 1990’ties were included in the phylogenetic analysis. Translated sequences were aligned with current vaccine isolates. Results Both PRRSV EU and US type viruses were isolated from material submitted from Danish pigs...

  9. Toward rational design of electrical stimulation strategies for epilepsy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Gluckman, Bruce; Reato, Davide; Bikson, Marom

    2009-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is emerging as a viable alternative for epilepsy patients whose seizures are not alleviated by drugs or surgery. Its attractions are temporal and spatial specificity of action, flexibility of waveform parameters and timing, and the perception that its effects are reversible unlike resective surgery. However, despite significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of neural electrical stimulation, clinical electrotherapy for seizures relies heavily on empirical tuning of parameters and protocols. We highlight concurrent treatment goals with potentially conflicting design constraints that must be resolved when formulating rational strategies for epilepsy electrotherapy: namely seizure reduction versus cognitive impairment, stimulation efficacy versus tissue safety, and mechanistic insight versus clinical pragmatism. First, treatment markers, objectives, and metrics relevant to electrical stimulation for epilepsy are discussed from a clinical perspective. Then the experimental perspective is presented, with the biophysical mechanisms and modalities of open-loop electrical stimulation, and the potential benefits of closed-loop control for epilepsy. PMID:19926525

  10. Mycotoxins in Mexico: epidemiology, management, and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2006-09-01

    Mycotoxin-producing molds species are extremely common. Many of them provoke serious diseases in humans and animals. These toxins occur, with varying severity, in agricultural products. Since Mexico is a big crops producer, the importance of the presence of these toxins is high. Currently, the Mexican regulation establishes limits only for aflatoxins in cereals and cereal products. No limits are set for other mycotoxins. Epidemiological data although limited, has shown that an important number of samples contain mycotoxin limits above those established abroad. Several strategies for reducing contamination have been conducted in the country such as development of hybrid corn, control of insect population, use of natural products, and modification of nixtamalization and extraction procedures. Although significant research on this field has been conducted, there is still a great need for information to determine the incidence of mycotoxins in Mexican products.

  11. Bovine cryptosporidiosis: impact, host-parasite interaction and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Sarah; Hamilton, Carly A; Hope, Jayne C; Katzer, Frank; Mabbott, Neil A; Morrison, Liam J; Innes, Elisabeth A

    2017-08-11

    Gastrointestinal disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important diseases of young ruminant livestock, particularly neonatal calves. Infected animals may suffer from profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration and in severe cases death can occur. At present, effective therapeutic and preventative measures are not available and a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions is required. Cryptosporidium parvum is also an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe disease in people, with young children being particularly vulnerable. Our knowledge of the immune responses induced by Cryptosporidium parasites in clinically relevant hosts is very limited. This review discusses the impact of bovine cryptosporidiosis and describes how a thorough understanding of the host-pathogen interactions may help to identify novel prevention and control strategies.

  12. The Danish Stroke Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. STUDY POPULATION: All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated...... at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. MAIN VARIABLES: The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes...... of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients...

  13. The Danish Twin Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population based twin registers represent a valuable tool for genetic epidemiological research, since twin studies aim at separating the effect of genes and environment for complex traits. The Danish Twin Register's history, size, ascertainment and completeness of data, as well as data...... accessibility and availability are described. RESULTS: The Danish Twin Register comprises 14,051 twin pairs born 1870-1930, representing all twins surviving to age six years, and 20,888 twin pairs born 1953-1982, representing 75% of those born 1953-1967 and 95% of those born 1968-1982. The birth cohorts 1931......-1952 og 1983-1993 are being ascertained at the moment. The register is available for research given certain conditions are fulfilled. CONCLUSION: This register will in a few years be the most comprehensive twin register in the world. It is a very valuable Danish research resource....

  14. Drug Control: Observations on Elements of the Federal Drug Control Strategy. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    Although the United States government invests vast sums of money in the war on drugs, the availability of drugs and the number of persons using illegal drugs are still serious problems. Information that Congress can use in improving drug control strategies is provided here. Some of the report's highlights include current research on promising…

  15. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part...

  16. Control Law Design for Twin Rotor MIMO System with Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of complex air vehicles is a challenging task due to high nonlinear behavior and significant coupling effect between rotors. Twin rotor multi-input multioutput system (TRMS is a laboratory setup designed for control experiments, which resembles a helicopter with unstable, nonlinear, and coupled dynamics. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of sliding mode control (SMC and backstepping controller for pitch and yaw angle control of main and tail rotor of the TRMS under parametric uncertainty. The proposed control strategy with SMC and backstepping achieves all mentioned limitations of TRMS. Result analysis of SMC and backstepping control schemes elucidates that backstepping provides efficient behavior with the parametric uncertainty for twin rotor system. Chattering and oscillating behaviors of SMC are removed with the backstepping control scheme considering the pitch and yaw angle for TRMS.

  17. Formulation of a strategy for monitoring control integrity in critical digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1991-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will require flight critical computer systems for stability augmentation as well as guidance and control that must perform reliably in adverse, as well as nominal, operating environments. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that can occur in electromagnetically harsh environments, involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. A strategy is presented for dynamic upset detection to be used in the evaluation of critical digital controllers during the design and/or validation phases of development. Critical controllers must be able to be used in adverse environments that result from disturbances caused by an electromagnetic source such as lightning, high intensity radiated field (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The upset detection strategy presented provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity that can result from redundancy management errors and control command calculation error that could occur in an electromagnetically harsh operating environment. The use is discussed of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors, redundancy management errors, and control effectiveness.

  18. Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristrup, Claus; Detlefsen, Sönke; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Ladekarl, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database aims to prospectively register the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer in Denmark at an institutional and national level. Since May 1, 2011, all patients with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas have been registered in the database. As of June 30, 2014, the total number of patients registered was 2,217. All data are cross-referenced with the Danish Pathology Registry and the Danish Patient Registry to ensure the completeness of registrations. The main registered variables are patient demographics, performance status, diagnostic workup, histological and/or cytological diagnosis, and clinical tumor stage. The following data on treatment are registered: type of operation, date of first adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and first palliative chemo- or chemoradiation therapy, and dates for milestones in referrals, diagnostic workup, treatment decisions, and treatment. For patients undergoing resection, data on operative evaluation of tumor stage, histological diagnosis, and duration of hospital stay are registered. Death is monitored using data from the Danish Civil Registry. This registry monitors the survival status of the Danish population, and the registration is virtually complete. All data in the database are audited by all participating institutions, with respect to baseline characteristics, key indicators, and survival. The results are published annually. The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database has registered data on 2,217 patients with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The data have been obtained nationwide over a period of 4 years and 2 months. The completeness of registration was 82%. The observed overall 3-year survival after diagnosis was 6%.

  19. The Danish Melanoma Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow's tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research.

  20. From Danish Yugoslavs to Danish Serbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible. This inv......-traditionalisation of society. Meanwhile, the growing attention given to religion and origins has changed the room for manoeuvre of immigrant families in Denmark, challenging the tight networks hitherto maintained with the home village....

  1. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    open space when following another character, and the free-floating ring of the letter Å/å, which in 1948 was introduced in Denmark as a replacement of AA/aa, will in some cases interrupt the horizontal movement of a typeface when set in running text. Through various examples of Danish type designers......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  2. Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Claus; Detlefsen, Sönke; Palnæs Hansen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database aims to prospectively register the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer in Denmark at an institutional and national level. STUDY POPULATION: Since May 1, 2011, all patients......, and survival. The results are published annually. CONCLUSION: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database has registered data on 2,217 patients with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The data have been obtained nationwide over a period of 4 years and 2 months. The completeness...

  3. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...

  4. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education's annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...

  5. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification...... of Diseases - tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. CONCLUSION: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring...

  6. The Danish Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are foundations that own companies. Typically, they combine charitable and business goals. This book is about industrial foundation ownership of business companies and what we can learn about it from the Danish evidence. It is about how foundation ownership is ruled, taxed...... and governed, what role it plays in the Danish economy, and how industrial foundation-owned companies perform. The book is the result of a large collaborative research project, led by the author, on industrial foundations. Some global companies such as IKEA, Robert Bosch or the Tata Group are foundation...

  7. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2011-01-01

    Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...

  8. OR in the Danish steel industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Thorsen, M.

    1991-01-01

    During the past five years several OR-projects (M.Sc. Thesis) were carried out at IMSOR. These OR-projects dealt with the development of decision support systems based upon heuristic principles, for various planning, production and control problems in the Danish steel industry. The purpose...

  9. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer: a Danish population-based case-control study, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Christina G; Nørgaard, Mette; Friis, Søren; Skriver, Charlotte; Borre, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Conflicting evidence has suggested that statins possess chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, we examined the association between statin use and risk of PCa in a Denmark-based case-control study. We identified 42,480 patients diagnosed with incident PCa during 1997-2010 from a national cancer registry. Five age-matched population controls (n=212,400) were selected for each case using risk-set sampling. Statin use from 1996 to the index date was obtained from the National Prescription Registry. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, comorbidity, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and educational level for PCa associated with statin use, were computed using conditional logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by duration of statin use (0-1, 2-4, 5-9, or ≥10 years), stage of PCa (localized or advanced), and type of statin used (lipophilic or hydrophilic). In total, 7915 patients (19%) and 39,384 controls (19%) redeemed statin prescriptions prior to the index date. Overall, statin users had a 6% lower risk of PCa compared with non-users [adjusted OR (ORa), 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-0.97]. Risk estimates did not differ substantially by duration or type of statin used. Slightly larger statin use-associated risk reductions were observed for advanced PCa (ORa, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96) and with statin use ≥10 years (ORa, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.95). Statin use was associated with a risk reduction overall (6%) and, specifically with advanced PCa (10%). Differences in diagnostic measures and residual confounding by socioeconomic parameters may have influenced our results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality control using a multilevel logistic model for the Danish pig Salmonella surveillance antibody-ELISA programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Hanne; Ekeroth, Lars; Houe, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, the level of Salmonella infection in pig herds is monitored with a surveillance programme using an indirect antibody ELISA. Our purpose with the present study was to determine whether sample results from the programme were useful in the quality control of this ELISA. Test results from...... the year 2003, in which the laboratory experienced a technical problem with an automatic microtitre-plate washing machine, were examined statistically. We chose 3 months for the analysis: January, where the problem was moderate, June with the problem more serious, and November, where the problem had been...

  11. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ailsa J; Patel, Raju K K; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco control needs in India are large and complex. Evaluation of outcomes to date has been limited. To review the extent of tobacco control measures, and the outcomes of associated trialled interventions, in India. Information was identified via database searches, journal hand-searches, reference and citation searching, and contact with experts. Studies of any population resident in India were included. Studies where outcomes were not yet available, not directly related to tobacco use, or not specific to India, were excluded. Pre-tested proformas were used for data extraction and quality assessment. Studies with reliability concerns were excluded from some aspects of analysis. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was use as a framework for synthesis. Heterogeneity limited meta-analysis options. Synthesis was therefore predominantly narrative. Additional to the Global Tobacco Surveillance System data, 80 studies were identified, 45 without reliability concerns. Most related to education (FCTC Article 12) and tobacco-use cessation (Article 14). They indicated widespread understanding of tobacco-related harm, but less knowledge about specific consequences of use. Healthcare professionals reported low confidence in cessation assistance, in keeping with low levels of training. Training for schoolteachers also appeared suboptimal. Educational and cessation assistance interventions demonstrated positive impact on tobacco use. Studies relating to smoke-free policies (Article 8), tobacco advertisements and availability (Articles 13 and 16) indicated increasingly widespread smoke-free policies, but persistence of high levels of SHS exposure, tobacco promotions and availability-including to minors. Data relating to taxation/pricing and packaging (Articles 6 and 11) were limited. We did not identify any studies of product regulation, alternative employment strategies, or illicit trade (Articles 9, 10, 15 and 17). Tobacco-use outcomes could be improved by

  12. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa J McKay

    Full Text Available Tobacco control needs in India are large and complex. Evaluation of outcomes to date has been limited.To review the extent of tobacco control measures, and the outcomes of associated trialled interventions, in India.Information was identified via database searches, journal hand-searches, reference and citation searching, and contact with experts. Studies of any population resident in India were included. Studies where outcomes were not yet available, not directly related to tobacco use, or not specific to India, were excluded. Pre-tested proformas were used for data extraction and quality assessment. Studies with reliability concerns were excluded from some aspects of analysis. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC was use as a framework for synthesis. Heterogeneity limited meta-analysis options. Synthesis was therefore predominantly narrative.Additional to the Global Tobacco Surveillance System data, 80 studies were identified, 45 without reliability concerns. Most related to education (FCTC Article 12 and tobacco-use cessation (Article 14. They indicated widespread understanding of tobacco-related harm, but less knowledge about specific consequences of use. Healthcare professionals reported low confidence in cessation assistance, in keeping with low levels of training. Training for schoolteachers also appeared suboptimal. Educational and cessation assistance interventions demonstrated positive impact on tobacco use. Studies relating to smoke-free policies (Article 8, tobacco advertisements and availability (Articles 13 and 16 indicated increasingly widespread smoke-free policies, but persistence of high levels of SHS exposure, tobacco promotions and availability-including to minors. Data relating to taxation/pricing and packaging (Articles 6 and 11 were limited. We did not identify any studies of product regulation, alternative employment strategies, or illicit trade (Articles 9, 10, 15 and 17.Tobacco-use outcomes could be improved

  13. Quality Reforms in Danish Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Despite relatively generous coverage of the over-65 population, Danish home help services receive regular criticism in the media and public opinion polls. Perhaps as a consequence, reforms of Danish home care policy for senior citizens have placed strong emphasis on quality since the 1990s....... This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation program of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management (NPM) princi-ples, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted...... to increase the overall quality of care by increasing the transparency at the political, administrative and user levels. However, reforms have revolved around conflicting principles of standardisation and the individualisation of care provision and primarily succeeded in increasing the political and ad...

  14. Successful and cost neutral strategies to increase organic food used in public kitchens: results from the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Brorson, B.; Lassen, Anne Dahl

    of practical strategies being effective in increasing the organic food used in the public kitchens.MethodsStudy design included baseline data collection, training sessions for all kitchens employees, goal setting, strategy development and implementation for each kitchen, and end point data collection.......Setting174 public kitchens from 10 municipalities participated in an organic conversion project performed by a consultant corporation. Three types of public kitchen were included: childcare (n=52), worksite canteens (N=14) and elderly care (n=108).ResultsSignificant increases in organic food percentage from...... baseline to end point were 29 percentage points (Pemployees were trained in the principles of organic food production. The organic price premium was covered within...

  15. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts after Contact with a Psychiatric Department--A Nested Case-Control Design Using Danish Register Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background: There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Methods: A complete extraction of Danish register data…

  16. Assessment of heterogeneity between European Populations: a Baltic and Danish replication case-control study of SNPs from a recent European ulcerative colitis genome wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita

    2011-01-01

    with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's chi(2), Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. Results: The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish...

  17. Nested case-control study of night shift work and breast cancer risk among women in the Danish military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina F

    2012-08-01

    Growing but limited evidence suggests that night shift work is associated with breast cancer. The authors conducted a nationwide case-control study nested within a cohort of 18,551 female military employees born in 1929-1968 to investigate the risk for breast cancer after night shift work and to explore the role of leisure time sun exposure and diurnal preference. The authors documented 218 cases of breast cancer (1990-2003) and selected 899 age-matched controls from the cohort by incidence density sampling. Information on shift work, sun exposure habits, diurnal preference and other potential confounders was obtained from a structured questionnaire. ORs were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Overall, the authors observed an adjusted OR of 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.1) among women with ever compared with never night shifts. The RR for breast cancer tended to increase with increasing number of years of night shift work (p=0.03) and with cumulative number of shifts (p=0.02),with a neutral risk for fewer than three night shifts per week. The OR for the group with the highest tertile of cumulative exposure was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.6). The most pronounced effect of night shift work on breast cancer risk was observed in women with morning chronotype preference and intense night shifts (OR=3.9, 95% CI 1.6 to 9.5). Night shift workers tended to sunbathe more frequently than day workers. The results indicate that frequent night shift work increases the risk for breast cancer and suggest a higher risk with longer duration of intense night shifts. Women with morning preference who worked on night shifts tended to have a higher risk than those with evening preference.

  18. Comparison of control strategies for DFIG under symmetrical grid voltage dips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wenjie; Xu, Dehong; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a series of current control strategies for the DFIG under symmetrical grid voltage dips. The controllable range, the damping time constant of the stator natural flux and the torque fluctuations of six control strategies are analyzed and compared. The control strategies which...... have the largest controllable range, the smallest damping time constant of the stator flux and the smallest torque fluctuation are listed, respectively. The comparison is verified by simulations....

  19. Working strategy for bacterial contamination control on sugarcane micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelenys Alvarado-Capó

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The most important losses in labs are caused by microbial contamination. Though several methods have been assayed and put into practice to eliminate or to diminish bacterial contamination of in vitro culture in cells and plant tissues, none has been completely effective. In the present research the aim was to find effective methods to prevent and to control the bacterial contamination of in vitro culture of sugarcane. The culture media for the in vitro plant multiplication was modified by adding nutritive substances in order to evaluate its effect on bacterial contamination percent and its phytotoxicity on in vitro plants. It was also evaluated the effect of modification of the initial pH of the in vitro plant culture medium and bacterial contaminants. It was proved that it is possible, without damaging the in vitro plant, to increase the growing of bacterial contaminants by adding coconut water (100.0 ml.l-1 or yeast extract (250.0 mg.l-1 to the culture medium of multiplication of the sugarcane. The use of the initial pH 6.5 favors the early appearance of bacterial contaminants detecting them since the first 24 hours without a negative effect to the in vitro plant. Evaluating these results a working strategy was set for the prevention and control of bacterial contamination in sugarcane micropropagation by applying early detection methods. Key words: bacteria, coconut water, Saccharum spp. hybrid, yeast extract

  20. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  1. Microgrids: Hierarchical Control and an Overview of the Control and Reserve Management Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandoorn, T.L.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; de Kooning, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    in the network, allowing the DG units to actively contribute in the frequency and voltage regulation. Microgrids can provide such coordination by aggregating DG, (controllable) loads and storage in small-scale networks, that can operate both in grid-connected and islanded mode. Here, the islanded operating...... condition is considered. Analogous as in the conventional networks, a hierarchical control structure can be implemented in islanded microgrids. In recent years, many different concepts for primary, secondary and tertiary control of microgrids have been investigated. These controllers can be classified...... as either local or centralized. In this article, the hierarchical control for application in microgrids is discussed and an overview of the control strategies is given with respect to the reserve provision by the DG units, loads and storage equipment....

  2. Athletes who train on unstable compared to stable surfaces exhibit unique postural control strategies in response to balance perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Blaise Williams, III

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: USA exhibit unique postural strategies compared to SSA. These unique strategies seemingly exhibit a direction-specific attribute and may be associated with divergent motor control strategies.

  3. Economic Analysis of Immunization Strategies for PRRS Control [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C L Linhares

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 1 year and 9 months [corrected]. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  4. Danish directional adverbs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Danish directional adverbs (DDA) (for instance op ’up’, ned ’down’, and ud ’out’) are characterized by an important special feature as satellites – they have different forms: a zero-form (ud-Ø), a form with a derivative e-suffix (ud-e), and a third form with a prepositional ad-suffix (‘ wards...

  5. The Danish heart register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Heart Register (DHR) is a clinical database of invasive procedures within cardiology. Content: All providers of these procedures have been obliged to report to DHR since 2000. DHR is used to monitor the activity and quality of the procedures and serves as a data source...

  6. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...

  7. Danish foreign fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Chris Holmsted

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is, through a comparative historical perspective, to analyse the particular phenomenon of foreign fighters, which in recent years, as a consequence of the proliferation of conflicts in Syria, Iraq and Ukraine, have emerged in Danish society as a major security concern...

  8. The Danish Stroke Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research.

  9. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2012-01-01

    , energy savings, type of collaboration etc. Background: Since 2008, several Danish municipalities have started energy retrofitting of municipal buildings, based on contracts with Energy Service Companies. In spite of the strong growth of ESCOs, there is also widespread scepticism about ESCO, as many...

  10. A Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten; Larsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    , and this paper presents the main findings and the subsequent impact on Danish policy. A key lesson learned is the importance of including all energy efficiency policies in the evaluation. Examining the entire portfolio of policies (as opposed to only selected policies) gave way to findings that would otherwise...

  11. Danish mutual fund performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity and market timing abilities for 71 mutual funds that have been in operation from 2001 to 2010. The results show great fund performance diversity. Half the funds have performed neutrally...

  12. The Danish HD Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, M.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.; Boonen, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Huntington's Disease Registry (DHR) is a nationwide family registry comprising 14 245 individuals from 445 Huntington's disease (HD) families of which the largest family includes 845 individuals in 8 generations. 1136 DNA and/or blood samples and 18 fibroblast cultures are stored...

  13. The Danish Anaesthesia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Kristian; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. STUDY POPULATION: The DAD was founded in 2004...

  14. The Danish System Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, John S.

    The paper is a supplement to an earlier paper in the same series which reviews Danish higher education until 1977. Expansion in higher education in the last 20 years, approaching the scale of mass higher education, culminated in a crisis in 1977. At that time, a trend toward self-government and participatory governing boards was seen as the end of…

  15. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  16. The Danish Youth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Riegels, Mette; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2010-01-01

    significantly more likely to be girls, to be of Danish ethnicity, and to live in one-family houses. Furthermore, participants more often came from families with two or three children, were more likely to have parents with a high occupational status, parents who were married and parents with a higher total...

  17. Danish Regulation of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet; Vinding, Niels-Valdemar

    Presentation and analysis of current and upcoming conflicts in relations between religion and family; labour market; religion in the public sphere and state support to religion. Part of a comparative European analysis in the context of www.religareproject.eu. based on 18 Danish elite interviews...

  18. Peace, welfare, culture. Muslims as a security problem in Danish integration discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik Pram Gad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surpris-ing new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural difference implied in a recent strategy to counter radicalization, however, does not amount to a de-securitization of Muslims – rather it installs a need for surveillance and control of the Muslim difference.

  19. A comparative study on the control strategies in vehicle active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Zheng, Ling; Li, Yi-nong

    2005-12-01

    The object of this research was to compare the performances of the active suspension system with three different control strategies. At first, a two degree-of-freedom vehicle model was established in order to study the basis feature of the active suspension system. Then three different control strategies including fuzzy control, optimal control and fuzzy-PID control were designed for the model. Each control strategy has its own characteristics. Therefore, their advantages and disadvantages were discussed in details. The simulation results show that the performances of the active suspension with three different control strategies are improved in riding comfort obviously and the fuzzy-PID control takes the advantages of both fuzzy control and PID control. It can be concluded that the fuzzy-PID control is a useful strategy for the active suspension system.

  20. Control of proton exchange membrane fuel cell system breathing based on maximum net power control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Zhixiang; Guo, Ai; Liu, Shukui

    2013-11-01

    In order to achieve the maximum net power, the analysis for the maximum net power characterization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is carried out. A maximum net power control (MNPC) strategy based on an implicit generalized predictive control (IGPC) and a reference governor is proposed to keep optimal oxygen excess ratio (OER) trajectory. The IGPC based on an effective informed adaptive particle swarm optimization (EIA-PSO) algorithm is developed to solve the predictive control law and reduce the computational complexity in the rolling optimization process. The simulations of three conditional tests are implemented and the results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can track the optimal OER trajectory, reduce the parasitic power and maximize the output net power. The comprehensive comparisons based on three conditional tests verify that the MNPC-IGPC has better robust performance in the presence of large disturbances, time delay and various noises. The experimental comparison with internal control system of Ballard 1.2 kW Nexa Power Module testifies the validity of the MNPC-IGPC for increasing the net power. Hence, this proposed strategy can provide better behavior to guarantee optimal OER trajectory and the maximum net power even though the disturbances and uncertainties occur.