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Sample records for control semidwarfism tillering

  1. A novel class of gibberellin 2-oxidases control semidwarfism, tillering, and root development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Yang, Show-Ya; Chen, Ku-Ting; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Zeevaart, Jan A D; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Su-May

    2008-10-01

    Gibberellin 2-oxidases (GA2oxs) regulate plant growth by inactivating endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GAs). Two classes of GA2oxs inactivate GAs through 2beta-hydroxylation: a larger class of C(19) GA2oxs and a smaller class of C(20) GA2oxs. In this study, we show that members of the rice (Oryza sativa) GA2ox family are differentially regulated and act in concert or individually to control GA levels during flowering, tillering, and seed germination. Using mutant and transgenic analysis, C(20) GA2oxs were shown to play pleiotropic roles regulating rice growth and architecture. In particular, rice overexpressing these GA2oxs exhibited early and increased tillering and adventitious root growth. GA negatively regulated expression of two transcription factors, O. sativa homeobox 1 and TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, which control meristem initiation and axillary bud outgrowth, respectively, and that in turn inhibited tillering. One of three conserved motifs unique to the C(20) GA2oxs (motif III) was found to be important for activity of these GA2oxs. Moreover, C(20) GA2oxs were found to cause less severe GA-defective phenotypes than C(19) GA2oxs. Our studies demonstrate that improvements in plant architecture, such as semidwarfism, increased root systems and higher tiller numbers, could be induced by overexpression of wild-type or modified C(20) GA2oxs.

  2. A Single Recessive Mutated Gene (Sd237-1) Controlling Semi-Dwarf Plant Stature of Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal

    2009-01-01

    Dwarfism is a valuable trait in crop breeding, because it increases lodging resistance and decreases damages due to wind and rain. During the course of this study, a semi-dwarf mutant was successfully induced through 200 Gy gamma ray irradiated KI 237 seeds. KI 237 is a pure line with high yield potency, developed through an Indica-Japonica cross of IR36 / Koshihikari. The selected semi-dwarf plant reached 60 - 62 % of plant height of original plant KI 237 at the mature stage. The length of inter nodes, panicle, and seed were also compared between these two plants. The retardation of the 1 st (uppermost) inter nodes was 24 %, moreover, the retardation of panicle and seed length were only 10 % and 2 %, respectively. The elongation pattern of the inter nodes in this mutant was almost the same as sd1 (Dee-geo-woo-gen), the original parent of the first release modern rice variety, but their performances were different. Based on the segregation analysis in M 2 and M 3 generation it was concluded that this mutant was controlled by a single recessive mutated gene. This gene was designated as sd 237-1 . This mutant should be useful as a genetic resource for the improvement of KI 237 line through back-cross breeding as well as be developed further in breeding program directly to be a new high yielding mutant variety. (author)

  3. Screening and identification of tillering dwarf mutant of rice induced by space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianlong; Li Chunshou; Wang Junmin; Luo Rongting; Zhang Mingxian

    2003-01-01

    Major agronomic traits and dwarfism of the tiller dwarf mutant, R955, induced by space environment from rice variety Bing 95-503 were identified. The results indicated that the traits including days from sowing to heading, 1000-grain weight, grain volume, plant type and awn-growing character were obviously different from those of the 5 tiller dwarfs such as ID-3, which were known for their dwarfing genes. R955 was insensitive to response of GA3, and its dwarfing gene was controlled by recessive gene(s), nonallelic to the tiller dwarfing genes d 3 , d 10 , d 14 , d 17 and d 27 . R955 had good plant type with the plant height near semidwarfism, normal grain size, and as many as 68 productive panicles per plant

  4. Promising semi-dwarf mutant in wheat variety K68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding

    1977-04-01

    A semi-dwarf mutant (HUW-SDf 1) was induced from common wheat Var. K68 through the exposure of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays at 15 kR. This mutant along with other induced mutants and control was assessed for yield components, yield and grain quality (M/sub 4/ generation); internode length reduction pattern and the yielding ability at three levels of nitrogen (M/sub 5/ generation). The mutant was significantly shorter in height and almost equal in tillers per plant and grains per spike to K68. However, it showed marked reduction in spike length and spikelets per spike. On the other hand, it possessed significantly higher (50.04 g) 1000-grain weight against control (41.15 g). The mutant gave 56.0% higher yield than the control. Grain quality studies indicated that the mutant possessed significantly higher (14.15%) total protein than K68. It was equally as good as K68 in lysine content. Pelshenke value (62.5 min) of the mutant indicated medium hard nature of gluten as compared to hard nature (198.0) of the control. The mutant showed 24.0% reduction in total culm length compared to K68. Reduction occurred due to maximum and almost equal reduction in 5th and 4th internodes (ca 34.0%) followed by 3rd, 2nd and 1st. The mutant showed similar yield and yield response to increasing nitrogen levels (80 to 160 kg per ha.) as for current commercial semi-dwarf varieties.

  5. Evaluation on selected dwarf and semidwarf mutants of upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyanti Sumanggono, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Seratus malam local upland rice variety was irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of O.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy. Observation of radiation effect was carried out on root and shoot length of M 1 seedlings; plant height, panicle length and number of tiller and seed sterility in M 1 plants. Selection for dwarf and semi-dwarf characteristics were done in M 2 plants, and selected again in M 3 . Observation on radiation effect indicated that 'Seratus Malam' seems to be more resistant than the lowland rice varieties. Increasing doses of radiation caused increasing frequency of chlorophyll mutations as well as chlorophyll mutants. Whereas, selection of dwarf or semi-dwarf in M 2 plants seems that mutant and mutation frequencies decreased as the dose increased. Dose of 0.2 kGy was suitable for selection of dwarf or semi-dwarf plants. Plant height could be influenced by environmental condition. Many of the selected M 2 plants were not really dwarf or semi-dwarf mutants. M 3 evaluation of the selected M 2 plants was really beneficial in the mutant selection. (author)

  6. Genetic analysis of rice semidwarf mutant Tad-M-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Yang Rencui

    1995-01-01

    This paper dealed with the inheritance of the rice semidwarf of Tad-M-,a mutant line bred from traditional indica rice Variety Tadukan by radiation. The results indicated that semidwarf of Tad-M-1 was controlled by one pair of recessive gene, which was nonallelic to sd-1 gene of variety Aijiaonante and sd-g gene of variety Xinguiai and allelic to the semidwarf gene of Yunnan japonica variety Xueheaizao and Sichuan indica variety Yizila.The possible uses of Tad-M-1 in rice breeding was also discussed

  7. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  8. Genes controlling plant growth habit in Leymus (Triticeae): maize barren stalk1 (ba1), rice lax panicle, and wheat tiller inhibition (tin3) genes as possible candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parminder Kaur; Steven R. Larson; B. Shaun Bushman; Richard R.-C. Wang; Ivan W. Mott; David Hole; Jyothi Thimmapuram; George Gong; Lei Liu

    2008-01-01

    Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides are large caespitose and rhizomatous perennial grasses, respectively. Previous studies detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling rhizome spreading near the viviparous1 (vp1) gene markers on linkage groups LG3a and LG3b in two families, TTC1 and TTC2, derived from Leymus triticoides x Leymus cinereus hybrids. The wheat tiller...

  9. Lists of semi-dwarf cereal stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The lists are prepared in relation to the Co-ordinated Research Programme. At the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on evaluation of cereal semi-dwarf mutants for cross breeding, March 1981, programme participants were requested to list semi-dwarf mutants available at their institutes including also non-induced semi-dwarf stocks being used in cross-breeding programme for short stature. List-I is prepared from such lists provided by programme participants. Further it was requested to name breeders and institutes providing characteristics of the listed semi-dwarf stocks. List-II gives that information. In the List-I: Parents of semi-dwarf stocks derived from cross breeding, are shown in brackets. In column ''Culm length'', figures are in cm and those of parent cultivars are shown in brackets

  10. Interrelationships between different generations of interconnected tillers of Cares bigelowii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsdottir, I.S.; Callaghan, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    (1) The interrelationships between tiller generations of Carex bigelowii Torr. ex Schwein were investigated at two subarctic sites by labelling young tiller modules with 14 C and detecting its translocation, and by severing modules at increasing distances from the youngest tiller generation. Tiller survival, regeneration and physiological continuity were all measured. All of the investigations were on systems produced by vegetative proliferation and subsequent fragmentation: recruitment from seedlings was not observed. (2) 14 C-assimilates were translocated through the rhizome system, from the one to two years old assimilating tillers into the roots and rhizomes of nine to eleven years old tillers with only below-ground organs remaining. This shows that the roots and rhizomers of the numerous interconnected old non-assimilating tillers were alive and that their roots were probably still functioning. (3) The severing-experiment showed that the few assimilating young tiller generations were to some extent dependent on the old below-ground, non-assimilating tiller generations for their survival, growth and reproduction. Water and nutrients are probably the forms of subsidy. (4) The minimum size of a succesful physiologically functional unit was around five interconnected tiller generations. The maximum size could not be determined. (5) Apical dominance effects were detected within the rhizome system. The rhizomes keep a reserve of dormant buds. When the connection between tiller generations was severed, buds on the old rhizomes, which had been dormant for several years, developed into new tillers. These tillers were characterized by having only short rhizomes and they produced green leaves in the first season of growth. (6) The integrated system of old and young tiller generations, together with a spatial network of modules controlled by apical dominance, provide Carex bigelowii with mechanisms for locating and exploiting favorable patches in a nutrient poor, but

  11. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne

    2013-01-01

    disease, the tillering, the number of panicles and the yield increase in rice were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. In vitro, the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited by the EO of C. citrinus and C. citratus at 4,520 mu g/ml and 452 mu g/ml, respectively. For solvent extracts...... in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus increased the emergence......, we concluded that the EO and solvent extracts of C. citrinus and C. citratus have potential as control agents against brown spot and other seed-borne fungal diseases in rice under both conventional and organic farming....

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of a high-tillering dwarf mutant induced by spaceflight at different tillering stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Wei Lijun; Wang Junmin; Xu Jianlong; Sun Yeqing

    2011-01-01

    To investigate changes of proteins during rice tiller development, a comparative proteomic analysis between a high-tillering dwarf mutant R955 induced by spaceflight and its ground control was performed at three developmental stages during the vegetative growth, i. e. at days 14 (no tiller appearance), 21 (initial tillering) and 55 (maximum tillering) after sowing. Analysis of the protein spots on two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis 2-D DIGE images revealed 97 proteins that were differentially expressed at the three stages. Among them, 59 unique proteins were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. Through functional and quantitative analysis of proteomic data, it was found that biological processes including energy pathway, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, nitrogen assimilation, amino acid metabolism and stimulus response were mainly involved in tiller development in mutant plant. K-means clustering revealed that proteins regulated at different stages tended to be involved in different biological processes. Two-way analysis of variance (Two-way ANOVA) showed that S-like was directly correlated RNase with the high-tillering ability. (authors)

  14. Comparison of the developmental response of diploid and tetraploid phalaris following irradiation on the dry seed - : Effect on tiller height, number of branches per tiller and number of tillers per plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.B.; Godward, M.B.E.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of 10 kR and 30 kR soft X-rays applied to dry and dormant seeds of Phalaris canariensis Linn (2n=12) and Phalaris minor Retz (4n - +2 = 28) was studied on tiller height, number of branches per tiller and number of tillers per plant at maturity and it was found that different characters responded differently to irradiation. Variation in response to irradiation in both species has been assigned to their differences in the genotypic constitution. An attempt has also been made to explain the role of inhibitor(s) in controlling the height of the tiller. (author)

  15. Semi-dwarf mutants in triticale and wheat breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The triticale lines Beagle and DR-IRA have been subjected to ionizing irradiation and chemical mutagenesis in order to produce semi-dwarf mutants. Beagle is 100 cm tall and DR-IRA 80 cm under average field conditions. A bulk then pedigree method is currently represented by 158 single plots of M 6 (or in some cases M 7 ) mutants that are from 5 to 35 cm shorter than the control variety. The shortest mutants are 65 cm in height. Forty of these mutants are also earlier flowering than the control varieties. Replicated yield testing will be conducted on confirmed mutants in 1983. Response to gibberellic acid of these mutants will also be determined. The Cornerstone male-sterility mutant (ms1c) on chromosome arm 4Aα has been combined with the GA-insensitive/reduced height gene Gai/Rht1 which is also on chromosome arm 4Aα. The ms1c mutant has also been combined with Gai/Rht2 on chromosome 4D and with both Gai/Rht1 and Gai/Rht2. The combination ms1c and Gai/Rht1 has been chosen as the basis of a composite cross. Thirteen varieties were tested with GA 3 and seven (Warigal, Aroona, Oxley, Banks, Avocet, Matipo and Toquifen) which contain Gai/Rht1 were crossed with ms1c Gai/Rht1 and entered into an interpollinating F 2 . The entire composite is homozygous for this semi-dwarf allele and selection will be practiced for increased height on a GA-insensitive background. (author)

  16. Linkage analysis for the gametic lethal gene of a rice variety 'Koshihikari' and the semi-dwarfing gene induced in 'Koshihikari'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, M.; Tanisaka, T.; Okumoto, Y.; Yamagata, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Koshihikari', a Japanese tall variety, is now most widely cultivated in Japan because of its good quality and taste, but is extremely poor in lodging resistance. In order to create a semi-dwarf 'Koshihikari', large scale mutation breeding was carried out at Hokuriku Agricultural Experiment Station, resulting in the production of an excellent semi-dwarf mutant strain 'Hokuriku 100'. It has extensively been used as cross parent. Genetic analyses revealed that the semi-dwarfness of 'Hokuriku 100' is controlled by two mutant genes, a recessive semi-dwarfness gene sd(t) and a non-gametic lethal gene lt m mutated from the genetic lethal gene of 'Koshihikari' lt, which would cause abortion of both male and female gametes when it occurs together with sd(t). Further analyses led to conclude that It is located on chromosome 9, sd(t) on chromosome 10. (author)

  17. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  18. Semi-dwarf rice varieties in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Semi-dwarf rice varieties are grown extensively in California and are beginning to be adopted in the northern United States. Their background is varied. Some derive their semi-dwarf status from Asian ancestors. Use has been made of TN-1, IR8, IR659-10-8-3 and IR1318 (containing TN1). Other semi-dwarfs in California derive their short stature from induced mutants. The principal parent is Calrose 76 derived from an induced mutation in Calrose (released in 1976). The first US semi-dwarf variety was LA 110, developed at the Rice Experiment Station at Crowley, Louisiana from a cross TN-I x M4 (from Sri Lanka) released in 1974. The next group of semidwarf varieties was developed in cooperation between the California Coop. Rice Research Foundation, The California Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA Agric. Research Service. These are listed. Semidwarf long grain varieties were developed in Texas: Bellemont (1981) and Lemont (1983), both using IR659-10-8-3 as source of semidwarf culm. Two other long grain varieties Leah (1982) and Toro-2 (1984) released by the Rice Research Station in Crowley, Louisiana, derive their short stature form C19902, a line developed at Crowley, but still reaching a height of 89-94 cm. There are other short statured varieties in the US which are not truly semidwarfs, such as Bond and Newbonnet in Arkansas, Skybonnet and Pecos in Texas. The general trend is towards shorter varieties. Calrose 76 and M7 are being replaced. M-201 and L-202 are the shortest and have excellent lodging resistance. Their background is IR8 or TN1. Too short varieties like Bellemont may have seedling emergence problems. The area of cultivated varieties can only be estimated based upon seed production. According to such estimates, total rice area in California 1984 was 184,100 ha, of which 178,100 (ca. 97%) were under semidwarf varieties. The total rice area in the US 1984 was 1.139,000 ha, of which 249,500 ha or 21,9% were under semidwarf varieties. The rice

  19. Dwarf Tiller1, a Wuschel-related homeobox transcription factor, is required for tiller growth in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many wild grasses, domesticated rice cultivars have uniform culm height and panicle size among tillers and the main shoot, which is an important trait for grain yield. However, the genetic basis of this trait remains unknown. Here, we report that Dwarf Tiller1 (DWT1 controls the developmental uniformity of the main shoot and tillers in rice (Oryza sativa. Most dwt1 mutant plants develop main shoots with normal height and larger panicles, but dwarf tillers bearing smaller panicles compared with those of the wild type. In addition, dwt1 tillers have shorter internodes with fewer and un-elongated cells compared with the wild type, indicating that DWT1 affects cell division and cell elongation. Map-based cloning revealed that DWT1 encodes a Wuschel-related homeobox (WOX transcription factor homologous to the Arabidopsis WOX8 and WOX9. The DWT1 gene is highly expressed in young panicles, but undetectable in the internodes, suggesting that DWT1 expression is spatially or temporally separated from its effect on the internode growth. Transcriptomic analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell division and cell elongation, cytokinin/gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in dwt1 shorter internodes. Moreover, the non-elongating internodes of dwt1 are insensitive to exogenous gibberellin (GA treatment, and some of the slender rice1 (slr1 dwt1 double mutant exhibits defective internodes similar to the dwt1 single mutant, suggesting that the DWT1 activity in the internode elongation is directly or indirectly associated with GA signaling. This study reveals a genetic pathway synchronizing the development of tillers and the main shoot, and a new function of WOX genes in balancing branch growth in rice.

  20. DWARF TILLER1, a WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Transcription Factor, Is Required for Tiller Growth in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfei; Li, Gang; Zhao, Jun; Chu, Huangwei; Lin, Wenhui; Zhang, Dabing; Wang, Zhiyong; Liang, Wanqi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike many wild grasses, domesticated rice cultivars have uniform culm height and panicle size among tillers and the main shoot, which is an important trait for grain yield. However, the genetic basis of this trait remains unknown. Here, we report that DWARF TILLER1 (DWT1) controls the developmental uniformity of the main shoot and tillers in rice (Oryza sativa). Most dwt1 mutant plants develop main shoots with normal height and larger panicles, but dwarf tillers bearing smaller panicles compared with those of the wild type. In addition, dwt1 tillers have shorter internodes with fewer and un-elongated cells compared with the wild type, indicating that DWT1 affects cell division and cell elongation. Map-based cloning revealed that DWT1 encodes a WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factor homologous to the Arabidopsis WOX8 and WOX9. The DWT1 gene is highly expressed in young panicles, but undetectable in the internodes, suggesting that DWT1 expression is spatially or temporally separated from its effect on the internode growth. Transcriptomic analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell division and cell elongation, cytokinin/gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in dwt1 shorter internodes. Moreover, the non-elongating internodes of dwt1 are insensitive to exogenous gibberellin (GA) treatment, and some of the slender rice1 (slr1) dwt1 double mutant exhibits defective internodes similar to the dwt1 single mutant, suggesting that the DWT1 activity in the internode elongation is directly or indirectly associated with GA signaling. This study reveals a genetic pathway synchronizing the development of tillers and the main shoot, and a new function of WOX genes in balancing branch growth in rice. PMID:24625559

  1. Genetic and agronomic evaluation of induced semi-dwarf mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Induced semi-dwarf mutants have played an important role in California's rapid shift from nearly all tall rice varieties in 1978 to nearly all semi-dwarf varieties at present. In 1981 over half of the California rice area was planted with semi-dwarf varieties carrying the induced mutant semi-dwarfing gene sd 1 , while much of the other half was planted to a variety deriving its semi-dwarfism from IR8. The sd 1 mutant is allelic to the major semi-dwarfing gene in DGWG and IR8. Current objectives are to determine the inheritance of new semi-dwarf mutants, including allelism tests with sd 1 , and to evaluate the agronomic potential of nonallelic sources and of double-dwarfs. To date semi-dwarf mutants from 10 varieties have been partially or completely evaluated. At least three nonallelic semi-dwarfing genes, sd 1 , sd 2 , and sd 4 , have been described. Rather than attempt to determine all possible allelic relationships of new mutants, crosses are being made only to the reference sd 1 source, since sd 1 , still seems to be the most productive semi-dwarfing gene source. However, nonallelic semi-dwarf mutants in the varieties M5 and Labelle may be useful if genetic vulnerability from widespread usage of the sd 1 source becomes a problem. (author)

  2. Variation of root system characters in collection of semi-dwarf spring barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrot, M.; Zbieszczyk, J.; Maluszynski, M.

    2000-01-01

    The collection of 371 semi-dwarf mutants, derived from 12 spring barley varieties has been used as material for analysis of root system. The mutants have been obtained after mutagenic treatment with N-methyl-N-nitroso urea (MNH), sodium azide (NaN3), gamma-rays and fast neutrons. The following analysis of root system were performed: seminal root growth of 8-day old seedlings, seminal and adventitious root growth of 6-week old plants and dynamics of root growth during first 6 weeks of plant growth. Seminal root length, root number and the length of the first leaf in barley mutants were investigated with the use of paper rollers. Root system analysis of 6-week old plants was performed on genotypes grown in PVC tubes filled with sand, supplemented with 1 mineral salts of MS medium. The following measurements were made: the length of the longest seminal root and the longest adventitious root, the number of adventitious roots and the number of tillers. Analysis of dynamics of root growth during the first six weeks of vegetation was performed at the end of each 7-day growth period in the PVC tubes filled with sand. Great variability in the seminal root length was found in analysed 8-day old seedling population. Almost half of the analysed mutants showed significant root length reduction, but about ten percent of semi-dwarf mutants developed roots with an increased length in comparison to parents. No significant differences were found between analysed mutants and corresponding parent varieties regarding the number of seminal roots. After six weeks of growth, the selected mutants showed differences in the reduction of root length in comparison to the 8-day old seedlings. The results of root growth dynamics indicated that analysed mutants had different patterns in comparison to the parent variety. Differences in the growth dynamics were also observed among the parent varieties. The observed differences in pattern of root growth between mutants and corresponding parents

  3. Effect of management factors on tiller dynamics in tall fescue: tiller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of plant density (row spacing/seeding rate), nitrogen (N) fertilization, cultivar choice and close-down date on tiller initiation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), managed for seed production, was examined over two years. In the first season, tiller studies were conducted on eight individual plants in each ...

  4. Hand-Arm vibration assessment among tiller operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    2013-08-01

    Result: Results of the present study indicated that in all measured situations, exposure to hand arm vibration was higher than the standard limit suggested by Iranian occupational health committee and there was risk of vibration-induced disorders. The maximum exposure to vibration is in plowing ground. Exposure to hand arm vibration in three modes of plowing, transmission and natural, were respectively 16.95, 14.16 and 8.65 meters per second squared. Additionally, in all situations, vibration exposure was highest in the X-axis in comparison with Z- and Y-axes. .Conclusion: This study emphasizes on the need to provide intervention and controlling and managing strategies in order to eliminate or reduce vibration transmitted from tiller to operators hand and arm and also prevent to serious problems including neurovascular disorders, discomfort and white finger syndrome. Meanwhile, more studies are necessary to identify the sources of vibration on different models of tiller.

  5. Progress in the evaluation, use in breeding, and genetic analysis of semi-dwarf mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, S.E.; Muir, C.E.; Washington State Univ., Pullman

    1984-01-01

    Breeding for reduced height in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to primarily reduce lodging susceptibility is ongoing in the Washington State University barley breeding program. Two semi-dwarf winter and spring cultivars have been released and a number of advanced lines are being considered for release. Several semi-dwarf sources are utilized, including those from induced mutants in 'Jotun', 'Piroline' and 'Valticky'. In addition, over 200 putative mutants have been selected in the past four years from M 2 sodium azide-treated populations of local cultivars and advanced lines. These are evaluated in the pedigree breeding program and some have been incorporated into male sterile facilitated recurrent selection populations developed for reduced height. The inheritance of dwarfism in one mutant in the cultivar 'Advance' was determined to be controlled by a single recessive gene. (author)

  6. Tiller diversity on Brachiaria decumbens pasture managed under continuos stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out aiming to classify and quantify tiller categories of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk from different heights found on the same pasture. Four different plant heights (10; 20; 30 and 40 cm living at the same pasture were evaluated. Randomized block design with three replications was used. Tillers were classified according to their stage of development, growth origin, defoliation level and size. The number of vegetative tillers reduced linearly, while the number of reproductive tillers and dead tillers increased linearly according to the plant height. The number of aerial tillers showed a quadratic response in relation to the plant height. The pastures having grasses of 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm in height had respectively 292, 408, 496 and 344 aerial tillers/m2. The population density of defoliated tillers reduced linearly according to the plant height. The population density of tillers without the apical shoot showed quadratic response to the signal grass height, being the smallest values found for places having grasses of 10 cm (176 tillers/m2 and 40 cm (180 tillers/m2 in height. The number of tillers without defoliation quadratic responded to the plant height, being the highest values found for places having grasses extremely high. The areas with the highest grasses also showed the highest numbers of tallest tillers. There is indeed a spatial variability of the vegetation and a high morphological diversity of tillers on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures managed under the continuous stocking system.

  7. RFLP analysis of rice semi-dwarf mutation induced by high energy argon ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Chuxiong; Hu Weimin; Mei Mantong

    1997-01-01

    Two Indica rice varieties, Bianpizhan and Xiangzhan, and their semi-dwarf mutants induced by high energy argon ion radiation, Ar-10, and Xiang-Ar-1, were examined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis by using 97 rice single copy genomic clones mapped on 12 chromosomes of molecular genetic map, combined with 5 restriction enzymes. Among the markers screened, 9 detected polymorphism were between Bianpizhen and Ar-10, and 11 detected polymorphism were between Xiangzhan and Xiang-Ar-1. Moreover, two or more restriction enzymes could generate RFLP patterns when screened with a given marker for several polymorphic markers. Based on the polymorphic allelic loci, the mutation frequencies were estimated as 5.15% and 6.39% for Ar-10 and Xiang-Ar-1 respectively. These results suggested that the nature of mutation on the DNA level was probably large genetic changes rather than point mutation. Genetic analysis and gene tagging of semi-dwarf mutation in one of the mutant line, Ar-10, indicated that this mutation was controlled by a major recessive gene, which was preliminary located on chromosome 4

  8. Response of a semi-dwarf mutant of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to application of gibberelic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, Rafael; Navarro, Willy

    2000-01-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (AG 3 ) on the capacity of elongation of the nodes of a semi-dwarf mutant of rice 2B-95, was studied. This mutant, with a height between 65 to 90 cm, was obtained by Co-60 gamma irradiation from a material called WS tall with an average height of 165 cm. Variety semi-dwarf CR-1113 was used as an additional control. The work was carried out under conditions in vitro applying the AG 3 in concentrations of 0.20, 30 and 40 ppm. The answer of the mutant and of the other two genotypes to exogenous application of the hormone was assessed by measuring the length of the second leaf sheath emerged after germination of the seed according to a special modification of the methodology of Harada and Vergara (1971). The results have indicated that WS genotypes and CR-1113, the length of the sheath of the second leaf at 11 days old, increased by all concentrations of AG 3 evaluated, while in the semi-dwarf mutant 2B-95 the effect was only significant (P 3 . (author) [es

  9. Tiller density and tillering on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Pedreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to verify the population density and the dynamics of tillering in the Marandu palisade grass sward subjected to nitrogen (N fertilization strategies, characterized by the N supply via urea or bacterial inoculant (Azospirillum brasilense. The treatments comprised of four nitrogen fertilization strategies: (A Without fertilization, (B 80 kg N/ha, (C inoculant (A. brasilense, and (D 80 kg N/ha + inoculant, distributed in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. The nitrogen supply strategies were evaluated during six periods: October, November, and December (2012 as well as January, March, and April (2013. The nitrogen dose or inoculant had no effect on the tiller appearance rate (TAR, tiller mortality rate (TMR, tiller survival rate (TSR, or tiller population density (TPD. However, these variables were influenced by the season. The TAR and TSR were higher at the beginning of the experimental period (October and lower towards the end of the period (March-April, whereas, TMR and TPD exhibited the opposite behavior, with lower values in October and higher from January onward. Neither the nitrogen nor the inoculant influenced the population dynamics of the tillers in Marandu palisade grass.

  10. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  11. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  12. Linkage relationship between semi-dwarfing gene sd-1 and gene for grain shattering in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, S.; Kikuchi, F.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most semidwarf rice cultivars carry the same gene sd-1. We observed an association between semi-dwarfness and grain shattering in isogenic lines carrying sd-1 from different sources in the background of the Japanese tall cultivar 'Norin 28'. The shattering was found to be caused by a single recessive gene, sh-2, linked to the sd-1 locus. The shattering gene seems to have been transmitted to many semi-dwarf cultivars together with sd-1, not only from 'Dee-geo-woo-gen' but also from the indica-cultivar 'Ai-jio-nan-te' and the japonica cultivar 'Shiranui'. (author)

  13. Mapping of QTL for tiller number at different stages of growth in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a neighbouring marker interval at Xswes679.1 and Xcfa2129 on chromosome 6D was detected in MTS and ETH. These results provide a better understanding of the genetic factors for selectively expressing the control of tiller number in different growth stages and facilitate marker-assisted selection strategy in breeding.

  14. Semi-dwarf mutant lines of hexaploid triticale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pidra, M.

    1989-01-01

    A spring form of hexaploid secondary triticale ADD 143/71, bred by MOGILEVA at the Plant Breeding Station at Uhretice was used for the mutagen treatment. The mutation experiment started in 1979. Seeds were treated with a 0.8 mM water solution of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNH) (CETL and RELICHOVA, unpublished). From 180 M 1 plants, one spike was harvested per plant. A random sample of these seeds was sown as M 2 in 1980 and several plants with shorter main culm were selected. Selfed progenies of eight mutant plants designated ADD 143-m1, ADD 143-m2, ADD 143-m3 etc. were further tested in M 3 and M 4 . There were significant differences in culm length and in some other characters between the original line and the mutant lines. Especially the line m8 looks like a promising source of semi-dwarfness for breeding programmes of hexaploid triticale. During 1985-1987 genetic analysis was performed on the ADD 143/71 and the mutant lines m2, m6, m7 and m8, which suggest that their mutant genes are allelic and recessive

  15. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  16. Evaluation and genetic analysis of semi-dwarf mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.A.; Cheema, A.A.; Tahir, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Four semi-dwarf mutants namely DM16-5-1, DM16-5-2, DM-2 and DM107-4 were derived from the local tall basmati cultivar. The mode of reduction of internode length was studied in DM107-4. The reduction in culm length was due to a corresponding but disproportionate reduction in all the internodes. It was inferred that reduction in internode length contributes more towards reduction in height as compared to the reduction in the total number of internodes. The effect of semi-dwarfism on some yield components (panicle characters) was studied in two semi-dwarf mutants viz. DM16-5-1 and DM107-4 compared to Basmati 370. A marginal reduction in the panicle axis, primary branches per panicle, secondary branches per primary branch per panicle, spikelets borne on secondary branches and total number of spikelets per panicle was observed in DM16-5-1, whereas, a significant reduction of these characters was observed in DM107-4. Evaluation of the semi-dwarf mutants with respect to grain yield and harvest index showed that all the mutants possess high yield potential with higher harvest index values compared to the parent cultivar. Genetic analysis for plant height in 4x4 diallel involving semi-dwarf mutants revealed that mutant DM107-4 carries mainly recessive alleles while mutant DM16-5-1 showed some dominance effects as assessed through the estimates of genetic components of variation and Vr,Wr graph analysis. The semi-dwarf mutants have good potential for use as parents in cross-breeding programmes. (author)

  17. Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme on the ''Evaluation of semi-dwarf mutants as cross-breeding material in cereals'' was initiated in 1980, with the main objective to provide cereal breeders with new, alternative sources of genes for semi-dwarf, lodging resistant plant types. The present publication includes papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting. Papers presented by participants in the Co-ordinated Research Programme demonstrate that these objectives were successfully achieved. As an additional result of this programme more improved genotypes of cereals with other desirable characters as earliness, better harvest index and improved plant architecture have become available for practical breeding. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN THE NUMBERS OF CATEGORIES TILLERS ON SIGNALGRASS PASTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of relationship between the numbers of tillers categories allows the identification of compensatory mechanisms that ensure plants adaptation to grazing. Thus, this work was conducted to evaluate the associations between densities of various tillers categories in same Brachiaria decumbens pasture under continuous stocking with cattle. The tillers were measured with different growth sources, developmental stages, and defoliation and sizes levels in sites of same pasture with plants of 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm. Pearson linear correlation between the different tillers categories were estimated. The vegetative tillers number (VTN correlated positively with percentage of tillers with up to 20 cm. The response pattern opposite occurred with reproductive (RTN and dead (DTN tillers numbers. The correlations of number of leafless tillers were positive with the percentage of tillers with less than 20 cm and negative with the percentage of tillers with more than 20 cm. The VTN correlated positively with numbers of tillers with and without defoliation, and negatively with the RNT and DNT. The number of aerial tiller was positively correlated with the number of tillers without apical meristem. In B. decumbens pasture there are tradeoffs between percentage of longer tillers and VNT, between numbers of vegetative and leafless tillers, and between VNT and RNT.

  19. Semi-dwarf tef lines for high seed yield and lodging tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The grain of tef is not only nutritious but also gluten-free, the cause for celiac disease, which affects humans world wide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morpho-agronomic performance of newly developed semi-dwarf tef genotypes for grain yield and yield related agronomic traits under diverse environmental ...

  20. Tiller size/density compensation in grazed Tifton 85 bermudagrass swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbrissia André Fischer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the tiller size/density compensation mechanism in Tifton 85 bermudagrass swards grazed by sheep under continuous stocking. Treatments corresponded to four sward steady state conditions (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm of sward surface height, maintained by sheep grazing. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Pasture responses evaluated include: tiller population density, tiller mass, leaf mass and leaf area per tiller, and herbage mass. Tiller volume, leaf area index, tiller leaf/stem ratio, and tiller leaf area/volume ratio were calculated and simple regression analyses between tiller population density and tiller mass were performed. Measurements were made in December, 1998, and January, April, and July, 1999. The swards showed a tiller size/density compensation mechanism in which high tiller population densities were associated with small tillers and vice-versa, except in July, 1999. Regression analyses revealed that linear coefficients were steeper than the theoretical expectation of -3/2. Increments in herbage mass were attributable to increases in tiller mass in December and January. Leaf area/volume ratio values of Tifton 85 tillers were much lower than those commonly found for temperate grass species.

  1. Short Communication: Response of Cymbopogon validus tillers to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of tagged Cymbopogon validus tillers to three clipping frequencies indicated that this species is intolerant of severe and frequent defoliation. This could account for its decreased abundance in heavily-grazed areas in and around Mkambati Game Reserve, Transkei.Language: English. Keywords: abundance ...

  2. The use of mutant stock for semi-dwarf plant type and early maturity as cross-breeding materials in rice (coordinated programme on semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement in Asia and the Pacific Region - RCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pookamana, P.

    1985-11-01

    Development of semi-dwarf type varieties has led to a substantial yield increase in Thailand, where rice is cultivated on areas of about 8 million hectars. Of 19 recommended Thai rice varieties, 10 possess the DGWG gene which determines semi-dwarf character. This situation can create some problems in terms of genetic vulnerability towards pests, diseases and other adverse stresses. The authors found that susceptibility to disease and insect pests as well as poor grain quality are major drawbacks associated with the DGWG gene. With this background, the major project goal was to obtain, by mutation techniques, a new genetic source of semi-dwarfness. For this purpose 3 tall local Thai varieties (Leaung Awn 29, Niaw Sanpah Tawng and Khao Dawk Mali) with very good grain quality, were chosen as parent material. Using radiation techniques 2 glutinous and 7 non-glutinous semi-dwarf mutants were obtained. Results of agronomic trials indicated that the mutants from local varieties were more promising and higher yielding in comparison to introduced varieties from IRRI, Taiwan, China, France and the USA. The preliminary genetics analysis of these mutants indicated an allelic relationship to the DGWG gene. This result is very important for the rice breeding programme because it made available the semi-dwarf gene in a new genetic background - with desirable characteristics for cultivation in Thailand. These positive results stimulated efforts to obtain new semi-dwarf mutants from other local, lowland rice varieties such as Leaung Tawang and Leb Mue Nahng 111. 49 and 35 semi-dwarf mutants were already selected after irradiation and are now under agronomic evaluation

  3. Tiller size/population density compensation in grazed Coastcross bermudagrass swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbrissia André Fischer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several compensatory mechanisms in pastures do not allow optimisation of responses from the processes of herbage production and utilisation. Compensation due to tiller size/density relationships is one of these mechanisms. This experiment evaluated this process for Coastcross bermudagrass and compared the responses to those reported for temperate forages. Treatments were "steady state" sward surface heights of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm that were maintained from August, 1998, through July, 1999 by sheep grazing. The experimental design was a randomised complete block, replicated four times. Pasture responses were evaluated on four separate dates (15/12/1998, 25/01/1999, 07/04/1999 and 04/07/1999 with respect to: tiller population density, tiller weight, leaf mass and leaf area per tiller and herbage mass (biomass. Tiller volume, leaf area index (LAI, tiller leaf:stem ratio and tiller leaf area:volume ratio (R were calculated. Simple regression analyses between tiller population density and tiller weight were also performed. Coastcross swards showed a tiller size/density compensation mechanism where high tiller population densities were associated with small tillers and vice-versa; except on the last evaluation. However, regression analysis revealed linear coefficients of -3.83 to -2.05, which are lower than the theoretical expectation of -3/2. The lower R values observed, when compared to those reported for perennial ryegrass, suggest that Coastcross swards optimised their LAI via clonal integration among tillers in contrast with tillers of cool-season grasses that respond more as individuals. However, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally verified.

  4. Unconditional and Conditional QTL Mapping for Tiller Numbers at Various Stages with Single Segment Substitution Lines in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fang-ming; LIU Gui-fu; ZHU Hai-tao; DING Xiao-hua; ZENG Rui-zhen; ZHANG Ze-min; LI Wen-tao; ZHANG Gui-quan

    2008-01-01

    Tiller is one of the most important agronomic traits which influences quantity and quality of effective panicles and finally influences yield in rice.It is important to understand "static" and "dynamic" information of the QTLs for tillers in rice.This work was the first time to simultaneously map unconditional and conditional QTLs for tiller numbers at various stages by using single segment substitution lines in rice.Fourteen QTLs for tiller number,distributing on the corresponding substitution segments of chromosomes 1,2,3,4,6,7 and 8 were detected.Both the number and the effect of the QTLs for tiller number were various at different stages,from 6 to 9 in the number and from 1.49 to 3.49 in the effect,respectively. Tiller number QTLs expressed in a time order,mainly detected at three stages of 0-7d,14-21d and 35-42d after transplanting with 6 positive,9 random and 6 negative expressing QTLs,respectively.Each of the QTLs expressed one time at least during the whole duration of rice.The tiller number at a specific stage was determined by sum of QTL effects estimated by the unconditional method,while the increasing or decreasing number in a given time interval was controlled by the total of QTL effects estimated by the conditional method.These results demonstrated that it is highly effective and accurate for mapping of the QTLs by using single segment substitution lines and the conditional analysis methodology.

  5. Tiller classes on signalgrass pasture according to the cattle droppings position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out aiming to investigate the influence of natural deposition of cattle droppings on population density of several classes of tillers on the Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. cv. Basilisk pasture managed under continuous stocking. Two places on the same pasture were evaluated: one near (immediately adjacent and one far, about 1.0 m, from the cattle droppings. Randomized block design with three repetitions was used. Tillers were classified according to the developmental stage, growth origin, defoliation rate and length. The number of vegetative tillers was higher (P<0.05 at the place that was far from the droppings (1.851 perfilhos/ m2 than at the one near them (848 perfilhos/m2. The number of reproductive tillers was higher (P<0.05 at the place near the droppings. Being near or far from the droppings showed no impact on the population density of dead tillers (584 perfilhos/m2 mean. The number of basal tiller and aerial tillers were higher (P<0.05 at the place far from the droppings, when collated to the place near the droppings. The population densities of both defoliated tillers and tillers without shoot meristem, far from the droppings, were higher (P<0.05, while the population density of nondefoliated tillers was higher (P<0.05 at the place found near the droppings. The shortest tillers were common (P<0.05 at the place far from the droppings, while the highest were frequently found (P<0.05 near the droppings. In the B. decumbens pasture under continuous stocking, deposition of droppings by cattle changes the spatial distribution of tillers categories and thus constitutes a factor causing spatial heterogeneity of vegetation.

  6. Effect of fast neutrons and gamma rays treatments on heading date, plant height and tiller number in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Homogeneous seeds of six varieties of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42) were treated with fast neutrons and gamma rays. The irradiated seeds along with respective controls were grown in field plots during 1973-74 and heating date, plant height and tiller number studied. Varieties used in the present study varied significantly (P >=0.01) for all the characters. Treatment mean squares were highly significant for plant height and tillers per plant; whereas, the varieties x treatments interaction mean squares were significant only for plant height (P >= 0.05). Irradiated treatments exhibited significant reductions in plant height and tiller number than respective controls. However, heading was delayed among the irradiated material when compared with respective controls. Reduction in plant height was more pronounced after the treatments of gamma rays than the fast neutrons. The maximum and minimum shifts in mean values of these characters were observed in 20 kR (gamma rays) and Nf 300 RADS (fast neutrons) treatments, respectively. (author)

  7. Yield and tillering response of super hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu to tillage and establishment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Badshah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tillering is an important agronomic trait for rice grain production. To evaluate yield and tillering response, Liangyoupeijiu (super hybrid rice was grown in Hunan, China during 2011–2012 under different methods of tillage (conventional and no-tillage system and crop establishment methods (transplanting at a spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm with one seedling per hill and direct seeding at a seeding rate of 22.5 kg ha− 1. Our results revealed that, at maximum tillering (Max. and at maturity (MA stages, direct seeding (DS resulted in 22% more tillers than transplanting (TP irrespective of tillage system. Tiller mortality reached a peak between panicle initiation (PI and booting (BT stages, and was 16% higher under conventional tillage (CT than under no-tillage (NT. Transplanting required 29% more time for the completion of tillering and less for DS. Tillering rate was 43% higher in DS than TP under either CT or NT. There was a positive correlation between panicle number per m2 and maximum tiller number per m2, but not panicle-bearing tiller rate. The panicle bearing tiller rate was higher under DS than TP and higher under NT than CT. Tiller dry weight gradually increased up to heading (HD stage, and was 14% higher under TP than DS. Leaf area (cm2 tiller− 1 gradually increased from Max. to HD stage and then decreased by 34% in conventional tillage transplanting (CTTP and 45% in no-tillage transplanting (NTTP from 12DAH–24DAH (days after heading, but was similar (35% under DS under either CT or NT. Grain yield was higher under CTTP owing to the larger sink size (heavier panicle, more spikelets in per cm length of panicle than under DS.

  8. A 3D virtual plant-modelling study : Tillering in spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.; Vos, J.

    2007-01-01

    Tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by both light intensity and the ratio between the intensities of red and far-red light. The relationships between canopy architecture, light properties within the canopy, and tillering in spring-wheat plants were studied using a 3D virtual

  9. Development of new semidwarf sources for rice with different cytoplasms (CV Basmati 370 and Gloria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, J E; Suarez, E [Instituto de Investigaciones del Arroz, Bauta, Havana (Cuba); Fuentes, J L; Alvarez, A; Padron, E [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, Miramar, Playa, Havana (Cuba)

    2001-05-01

    In Cuba semidwarf rice varieties grow on 98% of the area. Virtually all carry the same Dee-geo-won-gen dwarfing gene. Also, most if not all the cultivars have the same cytoplasm. The induced mutations approach was undertaken in order to generate alternative genetic sources of dwarfing with different cytoplasms and to improve the grain quality of Cuban rice. The seeds of two varieties, Basmati 370 and Gloria, were irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy of {sup 60}Co gamma rays. In several generations of selection, progeny testing and preliminary yield tests 10 mutants (6 from Basmati 370 and 4 from Gloria), whose yields exceeded the source cultivars, have been advanced to replicated yield trials. Some of the mutant lines are also resistant to lodging and to blast (Pyricularis grisea). It is concluded the induced mutations can be used successfully to improve plant type and other agronomic traits in rice. The induced mutants will be used also in hybridization programs. (author)

  10. Development of new semidwarf sources for rice with different cytoplasms (CV Basmati 370 and Gloria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, J.E.; Suarez, E.; Fuentes, J.L.; Alvarez, A.; Padron, E.

    2001-01-01

    In Cuba semidwarf rice varieties grow on 98% of the area. Virtually all carry the same Dee-geo-won-gen dwarfing gene. Also, most if not all the cultivars have the same cytoplasm. The induced mutations approach was undertaken in order to generate alternative genetic sources of dwarfing with different cytoplasms and to improve the grain quality of Cuban rice. The seeds of two varieties, Basmati 370 and Gloria, were irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays. In several generations of selection, progeny testing and preliminary yield tests 10 mutants (6 from Basmati 370 and 4 from Gloria), whose yields exceeded the source cultivars, have been advanced to replicated yield trials. Some of the mutant lines are also resistant to lodging and to blast (Pyricularis grisea). It is concluded the induced mutations can be used successfully to improve plant type and other agronomic traits in rice. The induced mutants will be used also in hybridization programs. (author)

  11. Plant height revertants of Dominant Semidwarf mutant rice created by low-energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Binmei [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)], E-mail: yjwu@ipp.ac.cn; Xu Xue; Song, M.; Zhao, M. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fu, X.D. [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2008-04-15

    Dominant Semidwarf mutant rice (Sdd) was obtained from its wild type (WT) by irradiation with a low-energy ion beam. Six tall revertants of Sdd were induced by irradiation. The revertants restored the plant height to that of WT plants. Investigation of the agronomic character and genetic analysis indicate that the revertants are similar to WT plants with putative different inherited mutations. The revertants were checked for DNA differences using the simple sequence repeat technique. Among 408 such primers used, only 2 primers detected mutation sites in the revertants, which provided the molecular evidence for the revertants induced from Sdd. This study indicates that ion irradiation may be used as a mutagen to create revertants for plant architecture studies and could be a new application.

  12. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jacqueline P; Hartnett, David C

    2015-09-01

    Tiller recruitment from the belowground bud bank of caespitose grasses influences their ability to monopolize local resources and, hence, their genet fitness. Differences in bud production and outgrowth among tiller types within a genet and among species may explain co-occurrence of caespitose grasses. This study aimed to characterize genet bud-bank and tiller production and dynamics in two co-occurring species and compare their vegetative reproductive strategies. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of Hesperostipa comata and Nassella viridula, dominant C3 caespitose grasses in the northern mixed-grass prairie of North America, were assessed throughout an annual cycle. The two species showed similar strategies, maintaining polycyclic tillers and thus creating mixed-age genet bud banks comprising multiple bud cohorts produced in different years. Vegetative tillers produced the majority of buds, whereas flowering tillers contributed little to the bud bank. Buds lived for at least 2 yr and were maintained in multiple developmental stages throughout the year. Because bud longevity rarely exceeded tiller longevity, tiller longevity drove turnover within the bud bank. Tiller population dynamics, more than bud production per tiller, determined the differential contribution of tiller types to the bud bank. Nassella viridula had higher bud production per tiller, a consistent annual tiller recruitment density, and greater longevity of buds on senesced and flowering tillers than H. comata. Co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses had similar bud-bank and tiller dynamics contributing to genet persistence but differed in bud characteristics that could affect genet longevity and species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Effects of salt stress on tillering nodes to the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiong, Y.; Yuan, G.; Zhixia, X.; Xiaojing, L.

    2016-01-01

    In monsoon climate regions, the tillering nodes of winter wheat can be stressed by high salt accumulation on the soil surface in spring, thereby leading to salt-induced damage. To understand whether tillering nodes could be stressed by salinity and to estimate its effects on the growth of winter wheat under salt stress, the tillering nodes of two wheat cultivars, H-4589 (salt-sensitive) and J-32 (salt-tolerant), were treated with salinity to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in seedling growth. The results indicated that salt stress on tillering nodes significantly reduced plant height and shoot dry weight; increased Na+ accumulation, soluble sugar and proline in both H-4589 and J-32; which demonstrated remarkable effects on the growth of winter wheat when the tillering nodes were under salt stress. Furthermore, equivalent Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress, while remarkably different Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when roots were under salt stress. Based on the results from anatomic analyses, we speculated that no anatomic differences in tillering nodes between two cultivars could give reason to the equivalent Na+ accumulations in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress; and more lignified endodermis in primary roots as well as larger reduction of lateral root number in salt-tolerant cultivars which contributed to preventing Na+ influx could explain the remarkably lower Na+ accumulation in salt-tolerant cultivar when roots were under salt stress. All of these results indicated that the tillering nodes could mediate Na+ influx from the environment leading to salt-induced damage to the growth of winter wheat. (author)

  14. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass tillers at different ages under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess morphogenetic and structural characteristics of tillers of guinea grass cv. Tanzania at different ages. The pastures of guinea grass were managed in six pasture conditions related to the combination of three frequencies (90, 95, and 99% light interception and two post-grazing heights (25 and 50 cm. In these six pastures conditions, three tiller ages were evaluated (young, mature, and old. The design was of completely randomized block with three replications. Young tillers exhibited higher leaf appearance rate and leaf elongation rate and, consequently, higher final leaf length and number of live leaves than mature and old tillers, regardless of the pasture condition. On pastures managed with 90 or 95% light interception associated with a post-grazing height of 25 cm, old tillers presented longer leaf lifespan than young and mature ones. There is a progressive reduction in the vigor of growth of pastures of guinea grass cv. Tanzania with advancing tiller age.

  15. Production and evaluation of dwarf and semi-dwarf winter wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Z.; Kertesz, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A special research programme for evolving and evaluating dwarf wheat forms resistant to lodging was carried out at the Cereal Research Institute, Wheat Division, Szeged, Hungary. Seed lots of the two tall winter wheat varieties Jubilejnaya 50 and Partizanka were exposed to gamma ray of 60 Co. With irradiation of 15000 rad 60 Co all of M 1 plants grown in the field were almost totally destroyed in 1980 and about 50% in 1982. In the greenhouse the number of lost M 1 plants was insignificant. Only a small number of plants died both in the greenhouse and in the field when they were irradiated with 5000 rad. A treatment with this lower dose of irradiation probably may help the breeders in selection for winter hardiness. 97 dwarf wheat lines already established were analysed for height character by a top cross method using the variety Jubilejnaya 50 as a tester. Height data of the simultaneously grown parental as well as the F 1 and F 2 offsprings indicated that the majority of them were recessive, except 3 cases where dominant or semi-dominant dwarfism was observed. Noteworthy is the Mx 158 a new semi-dwarf variety candidate, 60-65 cm in height at normal stand and resistant to all the main diseases here (powdery mildew and rusts). Its grain and protein production per unit area is also very good. Some genetically lesser-known dwarf sources were investigated in a complete crossing diallel test. (author)

  16. Total number of tillers of different accessions of Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Perez Granato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of forage grasses is due to continuous emission of leaves and tillers, ensuring the restoration of leaf área after cutting or grazing, thus ensuring the sustainability of forage. This study aimed to asses the total number tillers in different acessions of Panicum maximum Jacq. The experiment was carried in field belonging to the Instituto de Zootecnia located in Nova Odessa / SP. Evaluated two new accesses Panicum maximum, and two commercial cultivars. The cultivars tested were Aruana, Milenio, NO 2487, NO 78, and the two latter belonging to the Germoplasm Collection of the IZ. The experimental desing was in randomized complete block with four replications. The experimental area consisted of 16 plots of 10 m2 (5 x 2 m each. The experimental area was analyzed and according to the results, received dolomitic limestone corresponding 2t /ha, two months before the implementation of the experiment. Sowing was made by broad costing together with 80 kg/ha of P2O5 in the form of single superphosfate. After 60 days of implantation of the experiment it was a made a leveling of the plots to a height of about 15 cm. After this it was applied 250g of the 20-00-20 fertilizer/plot. Thirty days after the standardization it was evaluated the total number of tillers of the cultivars, using a metal frame of 0.5 x 0.5m which was thrown at random on each of the 16 plots, leaving one meter of each extremitly, and all tillers which were within the frame counted. After finished the counting of all tillers, the plots cut again at a height of approximately 15 cm. The second evaluation took place after thirty days, and it was again counted the total number of tillers following the same procedure. The results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% after transforming the data to log(x. For the first evaluation there was no statistical difference in the total number of tillers between cultivars. But, in the second evaluation, the total number of tillers of NO 78

  17. Tillering of Marandu palisadegrass maintained at fixed or variable heights throughout the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis D. Pessoa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Satisfactory tillering is the basic attribute to ensure stability and productivity of a grass population. We aimed to develop an understanding of tillering in Urochloa brizantha syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu (Marandu palisadegrass maintained at constant or variable heights during the various seasons of the year and to identify defoliation strategies that optimize tillering. In an experiment conducted in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 3 defoliation strategies were studied: sward kept at 30 cm during the whole year (constant height; kept at 15 cm in fall/winter, 30 cm in spring and 45 cm in summer (increasing height; and kept at 45 cm in fall/winter, 30 cm in spring and 15 cm in the summer (decreasing height. The experiment was completely randomized, with 4 replicates. The following variables were evaluated: tiller appearance (TAR, mortality (TMR and survival (TSR rates; the balance (BAL between TAR and TMR; tiller population stability (TPS; and number of tillers/m2 (NT. In winter and late spring, TAR and BAL were low, while in early spring, the sward with decreasing height showed high TAR, BAL and TPS. The NT was higher when managed with increasing height than with other height strategies. Lowering pasture height from 45 to 30 cm after the winter increased TAR in early spring. Grazing studies seem warranted to assess how these results can be reproduced under grazing and how pasture yield and quality plus animal performance compare with those under the fixed grazing height regimen. Keywords: Defoliation, grazing management, pasture height, tillers, Urochloa brizantha.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4101-111 Normal 0 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  18. Tillering dynamics in pastures of guinea grass subjected to grazing severities under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to analyze the tillering dynamics of the species Panicum maximum cv. Mombaca subjected to three post-grazing heights: residue of 30 cm (30; residue of 50 cm (50; and residue of 50 cm during spring and summer, lowered to 40 cm in the first fall season grazing and to 30 cm in the following grazing cycle, resuming to 50 cm after the first grazing of the following spring season (50-30. Grazings were initiated whenever the swards intercepted 95% of the incident light. The post-grazing heights were allocated in the experimental units in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The density of basal tillers did not vary between the residual heights evaluated. Swards managed with variable residual height (50-30 presented higher rates of appearance and mortality of basal tillers during the summer of 2007, indicating high tiller renovation. Regardless of the post-grazing height evaluated, lower rates of appearance of basal tillers were found in the spring of 2006. The stability index of guinea grass cv. Mombaca was close to 1.0 throughout the experimental period. Swards managed with variable post-grazing present structural changes able to improve the regrowth vigor, which may be important to maximize the use of the forage species in the production system.

  19. Canopy architectural and physiological characterisation of near-isogenic wheat lines differing in the tiller inhibition gene tin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eMoeller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tillering is a core constituent of plant architecture, and influences light interception to affect plant performance. Near-isogenic lines (NILs varying for a tiller inhibition (tin gene were investigated for tillering dynamics, organ size distribution, leaf area, light interception, red : far-red ratio, and chlorophyll content. Tillering ceased earlier in the tin lines to reduce the frequencies of later primary and secondary tillers, and demonstrated the genetically lower tillering plasticity of tin compared to free-tillering NILs. The distribution of organ sizes along shoots varied between NILs. In tin lines, internode elongation commenced at a lower phytomer, the peduncles were shorter, the flag leaves were larger, and the longest leaf blades were observed at higher phytomers. Total leaf area was reduced in tin lines. The tiller economy (ratio of seed-bearing shoots to numbers of shoots produced was 10% greater in the tin lines (0.73-0.76 compared to the free-tillering sisters (0.62-0.63. At maximum tiller number, the red: far-red ratio (light quality stimulus that is thought to induce the cessation of tillering at the plant-base was 0.18-0.22 in tin lines and 0.09-0.11 in free-tillering lines at levels of photosynthetic active radiation of 49-53% and 30-33%, respectively. The tin lines intercepted less radiation compared to their free-tillering sisters once genotypic differences in tiller numbers had established, and maintained green leaf area in the lower canopy later into the season. Greater light extinction coefficients (k in tin lines prior to, but reduced k after, spike emergence indicated that differences in light interception between NILs cannot be explained by leaf area alone but that geometric and optical canopy properties contributed. The characterisation of specifically-developed NILs is refining the development of a physiology-based model for tillering to enhance understanding of the value of architectural traits for use in cereal

  20. Infuences of Rice Husk Biochar (RHB on Rice Growth Performance and Fertilizer Nitrogen Recovery up to Maximum Tillering Stage

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    Deniel Anak Sang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A pot study was carried out to investigate the effects of rice husk biochar addition on rice growth performance and fertilizer nitrogen recovery. The biochar effect was studied by using 15N labelled fertilizer urea (10 atom% 15N, as isotopic tracer, until maximum tillering stage (75 days after sowing. Rice husk biochar (RHB was applied at rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 and laid in randomized complete block design with four replications. The result showed that biochar application significantly improved soil chemical properties (pH, total C, total N, and available P compared to control treatment. Biochar addition increased number of tiller and root dry matter weight up to 4% and 35%, respectively, compared to un-amended pot. Likewise, application of biochar significantly increased N, P and K uptake by 3%, 19% and 33%, respectively, as compared to the nutrient uptake from the control treatment. Biochar treatment had no significant impact on fertilizer nitrogen recovery in aboveground biomass, in the range of 41% and 42%, in comparison to the control. However, nitrogen fertilizer recovery in soil significantly increased by 47% over the control at application rate of 20 Mg ha-1 RHB.  Increased fertilizer N recovery in soil possibly reduced N losses to the environment from volatilization and denitrification processes. Total 15N fertilizer recovery also found increase at highest application of RHB biochar with an increment of 16%. In general, addition of biochar appeared to enhance crop growth performance but its effect on fertilizer N recovery in plant requires further study up to maturity of rice plant.

  1. Mapping of QTL for tiller number at different stages of growth in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    growth habit (SGH) varies from prostrate to semi-prostrate to erect. ... few studies have been carried out in wheat. Law (1967) ... In the present study, QTLs associated with tiller ..... Li H., Ye G. and Wang J. 2007 A modified algorithm for the im-.

  2. Influence of cutting frequency and fertilizer-N application on tiller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... highest tiller number when combined with the highest N rate of 450 kg N ha-1 in 2003 compared with six-. , nine- or ... production and herbage yield distribution over time in a .... Grass yield seemed to pick up early in 2001.

  3. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Wade; Lunn, Kristy; Lloyd-West, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection) while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline), produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline) produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’) infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers) as well as between plants. The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  4. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Jeffray Mace

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline, produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’ infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii. Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers as well as between plants.The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  5. High-throughput measurement of rice tillers using a conveyor equipped with x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanneng; Xu, Xiaochun; Duan, Lingfeng; Luo, Qingming; Chen, Shangbin; Zeng, Shaoqun; Liu, Qian

    2011-02-01

    Tillering is one of the most important agronomic traits because the number of shoots per plant determines panicle number, a key component of grain yield. The conventional method of counting tillers is still manual. Under the condition of mass measurement, the accuracy and efficiency could be gradually degraded along with fatigue of experienced staff. Thus, manual measurement, including counting and recording, is not only time consuming but also lack objectivity. To automate this process, we developed a high-throughput facility, dubbed high-throughput system for measuring automatically rice tillers (H-SMART), for measuring rice tillers based on a conventional x-ray computed tomography (CT) system and industrial conveyor. Each pot-grown rice plant was delivered into the CT system for scanning via the conveyor equipment. A filtered back-projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the transverse section image of the rice culms. The number of tillers was then automatically extracted by image segmentation. To evaluate the accuracy of this system, three batches of rice at different growth stages (tillering, heading, or filling) were tested, yielding absolute mean absolute errors of 0.22, 0.36, and 0.36, respectively. Subsequently, the complete machine was used under industry conditions to estimate its efficiency, which was 4320 pots per continuous 24 h workday. Thus, the H-SMART could determine the number of tillers of pot-grown rice plants, providing three advantages over the manual tillering method: absence of human disturbance, automation, and high throughput. This facility expands the application of agricultural photonics in plant phenomics.

  6. Response of wheat restricted-tillering and vigorous growth traits to variables of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias de Oliveira, Eduardo A; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Bramley, Helen; Stefanova, Katia; Palta, Jairo A

    2015-02-01

    The response of wheat to the variables of climate change includes elevated CO2, high temperature, and drought which vary according to the levels of each variable and genotype. Independently, elevated CO2, high temperature, and terminal drought affect wheat biomass and grain yield, but the interactive effects of these three variables are not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of elevated CO2 when combined with high temperature and terminal drought on the high-yielding traits of restricted-tillering and vigorous growth. It was hypothesized that elevated CO2 alone, rather than combined with high temperature, ameliorates the effects of terminal drought on wheat biomass and grain yield. It was also hypothesized that wheat genotypes with more sink capacity (e.g. high-tillering capacity and leaf area) have more grain yield under combined elevated CO2, high temperature, and terminal drought. Two pairs of sister lines with contrasting tillering and vigorous growth were grown in poly-tunnels in a four-factor completely randomized split-plot design with elevated CO2 (700 µL L(-1)), high day time temperature (3 °C above ambient), and drought (induced from anthesis) in all combinations to test whether elevated CO2 ameliorates the effects of high temperature and terminal drought on biomass accumulation and grain yield. For biomass and grain yield, only main effects for climate change variables were significant. Elevated CO2 significantly increased grain yield by 24-35% in all four lines and terminal drought significantly reduced grain yield by 16-17% in all four lines, while high temperature (3 °C above the ambient) had no significant effect. A trade-off between yield components limited grain yield in lines with greater sink capacity (free-tillering lines). This response suggests that any positive response to predicted changes in climate will not overcome the limitations imposed by the trade-off in yield components. © 2014 Commonwealth of

  7. Enhanced micropropagation and tiller formation in sugarcane through pretreatment of explants with thidiazuron (TDZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Kavita; Lal, Madan; Saxena, Sangeeta

    2017-10-01

    An efficient, simple and commercially applicable protocol for rapid micropropagation of sugarcane has been designed using variety Co 05011. Pretreatment of shoot tip explants with thidiazuron (TDZ) induced high frequency regeneration of shoot cultures with improved multiplication ratio. The highest frequency (80%) of shoot initiation in explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ was obtained during the study. Maximum 65% shoot cultures could be established from the explants pretreated with TDZ as compared to minimum 40% establishment in explants without pretreatment. The explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ required minimum 40 days for the establishment of shoot cultures as compared to untreated explants which required 60 days. The highest average number of shoots per culture (19.1) could be obtained from the explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ, indicating the highest multiplication ratio (1:6). Highest rooting (over 94%) was obtained in shoots regenerated from pretreated explants on ½ strength MS medium containing 5.0 mg/l of NAA and 50 g/l of sucrose within 15 days. Higher number of tillers/clump (15.3) could be counted in plants regenerated from pretreated explants than untreated ones (10.9 tillers/clump) in field condition, three months after transplantation. Molecular analysis using RAPD and DAMD markers suggested that the pretreatment of explants with TDZ did not adversely affect the genetic stability of regenerated plants and maintained high clonal purity.

  8. Tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass under nitrogen levels and plant densities - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i4.13382

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of nitrogen levels (N and plant density (D on the tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 12 treatments and two replicates in a factorial scheme (4 × 3 with four levels of N (0, 80, 160 or 320 kg ha-1 N and three plant densities (9, 25, and 49 plant m-². Higher number of tillers was observed in the treatment with 9 plants m-² and under higher levels of N, especially in the second and third generations. Still, the N influenced quadratically the appearance rate of basal and total tillers, which were also affected by plant density and interaction N × D. However, the appearance rate of aerial tiller was not influenced by factors evaluated. The mortality rate of total tiller was influenced quadratically by the nitrogen levels and plant densities. The mortality rate of basal tiller responded quadratically to plant density, whereas the mortality rate of aerial tiller increased linearly with fertilization. Pastures with low or intermediate densities fertilized with nitrogen, presented a more intense pattern of tiller renewal.

  9. Design and development of Hoeken's structural dynamic linkage based agro-tiller machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Saran, K.; Pavithran, V.

    2018-05-01

    India is one of biggest exporters of medicinal plants, spices and other many agro products in the world. Owing to the special needs, an agricultural machine is designed using Hoeken linkage with Pantograph mechanism and developed that ensures safety digging to uproot the plant. Thus, the focus is to cut the plant by machine with proper care and shoot system is cut properly avoiding any damage to the upper part of the plant and rather be cut in the root area to use it. This is done by the agricultural cutting machine by the name "agricultural tiller machine" that can perform the action same as the objective needed for the effective production of raw materials for manufacturing of the agro products.

  10. Evaluating Sheath Blight Resistance in Rice Using Detached Tiller and Field Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedanand Chaudhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study physical resistance test on 12 rice varieties against sheath blight (ShB caused by Rhizoctonia solani was examined. A detached tiller test was used to measure components of ShB physiological resistance at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS, Tarahara, Nepal. The varieties were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications in year 2010-12. A sclerotium was inserted below the leaf collar of individual tillers maintained in tubes filled with water. Only the 56-day old susceptible plants were inoculated. After 7 days of inoculation, number of lesions, dead leaves, vertical sheath colonization and disease severity were measured. In 2011, field experiments were conducted with three replications to address morphological resistance in 28 rice genotypes. Disease incidence was recorded on 14, 21 and 28 days after inoculation. The number of dead leaves differed only numerically while disease variables significantly (P=0.004 varied among varieties. The other variables were highly correlated with each other. Cluster analysis of variables formed three varietal groups; Sabitri with lowest, and Jasmine-85 and Betichikon having highest values. Rice genotypes differed significantly (P=0.05 for disease incidence and area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC. Tetep and IAC-165 had the lowest and highest terminal disease incidences and AUDPC, respectively. Sabitri, MTU-1010 and IR-26 recorded lower AUDPC values. Hence, Tetep and Sabitri could be used as donors in hybridization and their plant morphology could be considered as selection guide for improving ShB resistance in rice.

  11. Position of tillers in a clone determines their ontogeny:example of the clonal grass Phalaris arundinacea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2017), s. 317-325 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bud bank * tiller position * mowing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  12. Lazy gene (la) responsible for both an agravitropism of seedlings and lazy habit of tiller growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1996-12-01

    Using an isogenic line of rice having lazy gene (la), we studied the correlation between the agravitropic response at the young seedling stage and the lazy habit (prostrate growth of tillers) at the more advanced stage of growth. In this study, it was found that both agravitropism and lazy habit were controlled by the single recessive la gene. That is, F2 segregants of Kamenoo x lazy-Kamenoo, which had an agravitropic response at their young seedling stage, showed a lazy habit of growth in the more advanced stage of vegetative growth. On the other hand, seedlings that showed normal gravitropic curvature at their early stage of growth had an upright growth in the mature stage.

  13. Endogenous gibberellins in Arabidopsis thaliana and possible steps blocked in the biosynthetic pathways of the semidwarf ga4 and ga5 mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talon, M.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Koornneef, M.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty gibberellins (GAs) have been identified in extracts from shoots of the Landsberg erecta line of Arabidopsis thaliana by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Eight of them are members of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA 53 , GA 44 , GA 19 , GA 17 , GA 20 , GA 1 , GA 29 , and GA 8 ), six are members of the early-3-hydroxylation pathway (GA 37 , GA 27 , GA 36 , GA 13 , GA 4 , and GA 34 ), and the remaining six are members of the non-3,13-hydroxylation pathway (GA 12 , GA 15 , GA 24 , GA 25 , GA 9 , and GFA 51 ). Seven of these GAs were quantified in the Landsberg erecta line of Arabidopsis and in the semidwarf ga4 and ga5 mutants by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) using internal standards. The relative levels of the remaining 13 GAs were compared by the use of ion intensities only. The growth-response data, as well as the accumulation of GA 9 in the ga4 mutant, indicate that GA 9 is not active in Arabidopsis, but it must be 3β-hydroxytlated to GA 4 to become bioactive. It is concluded that the reduced levels of the 3β-hydroxy-GAs, GA 1 and GA 4 , are the cause of the semidwarf growth habit of both mutants

  14. [Phenotypic plasticity and its regulation of tillers prolonged reproductive growth of Puccinellia tenuiflora population on alkalized meadow in Songnen Plains of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ju; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2007-04-01

    Puccinellia tenuiflora is a salt-tolerant plant of grass family. By the method of random sampling, big samples of reproductive tillers of P. tenuiflora population on the alkalized meadow in the Songnen Plains of China were collected at early heading, heading, flowering, and milky stages, respectively, and the plasticity of their quantitative characters was analyzed. The results showed that except some fluctuations at flowering stage, the tiller height, tiller biomass, spike length and spike biomass of the reproductive tillers at other three growth stages increased significantly every five days with the increasing time of reproductive growth. At each growth stage, tiller height had a significant positive correlation with spike biomass, but a negative correlation with reproductive allocation. With the time of reproductive growth prolonged, the increasing rate of spike biomass at early heading, flowering and milky stages increased in power function with the increase of tiller height. The reproductive allocation decreased linearly by 43.2% and 44.31% at early heading and heading stages, respectively when the reproductive growth time increased ten days, and by 130% at milky stage when the time increased five days. The regulation of the tiller phenotypic plasticity of P. tenuiflora population at its reproductive growth stage followed definite patterns.

  15. Material Substitution For The Supporting Frame of Power Tiller With Finite Element Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midian Shite

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its advantageouse characteristic, aluminum is considered to substitute the existing steel as material of the supporting frame of power tiller to meet the strength and environment concerns. The investigation was emphasized on the comparison of both material in view of stress and deformation. In this study, both experimental test and finite element (FE analysis were employed to meet the research concem.comparison between the experimental test and numerical analysis result indicated acceptable differnces of about 7-33% wich is lower than the previouse research. Substitution with aluminum was confirmed using material index that aluminum has better performance in strength and stiffness than that of steel by prescibing minimum better performance in strength and stiffness than that of steel by prescibing minimum weight. FE analysis result revealed that aluminum model was capable of sustaining loads about equal to the steel model. It was based on its maximum von Mises stress wich was insignificatly lower than the steel model. In term of strength characteristic, strength ratio of the aluminum model was higher than the steel model. Furthemore, the substitution also resulted in redistrubuting stress into wider area and mass reduction for about 36%.

  16. New hybrid rice cultivar 'Zhefuliangyou 12' with improved grain quality produced by leaf color marker-labeled male sterile line and mutant with enhanced tillers and improved grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Shufang; Zhao Hua; Wang Yongqiang; Shu Xiaoli; Wu Dianxing

    2013-01-01

    In order to breed high yielding and good grain quality new variety with controllable seed purity, hybrid rice 'Zhefuliangyou 12' was produced by green-revertible albino leaf color marker-labeled two-line male sterile line 'NHR111S' and mutant 'ZF-2' with enhanced tillers and improved grain quality, which was characterized by improved grain quality, rice blast resistance and lodging resistance. Breeding protocol, characteristics, and high yielding cultivation techniques of 'Zhefuliangyou 12' were briefly introduced in the current paper. (authors)

  17. Analysis of power tiller noise using diesel-biodiesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Keramat Siavash

    2015-09-01

    , capacitor microphone with a unidirectional pattern whose size, sensitivity and frequency range are 1/2", 50 mV Pa-1 and 10 Hz to 20 kHz with a flat extrusion, respectively. Choosing the combination of fuel was carried out according to experiments that have been done before determining engine operation parameters. Results and Discussion: Fuel type has a direct effect on the quality of the IC engine's combustion phenomenon. One of the most important quality parameters that can be fluctuated by fuel type is engine noise. The fuel type has a direct effect on internal fuel ignition engines and affects the quality of fuel ignition. One of the effects of ignition quality is the sound of the engine that is very important in terms of both the health and evaluation of engine performance. Two-wheel tractors are of the most important tools used in agriculture. In addition to agricultural work, they have applications in rural areas as power generators. No research has been carried out so far in Iran on the sound of two-wheel tractors fuelled with diesel and biodiesel fuels. Therefore, the sound of the ignition of biodiesel and diesel mixtures in four stroke, single cylinder, two wheel diesel tractors manufactured by Ashtad Company was studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze the noise parameters of a diesel engine using B0, B5, B10, B15, B20, B25 and B30 biodiesel–diesel blends. Biodiesel was produced from waste oil and blended with net diesel fuel to evaluate the Power tiller's engine noise parameters. This study was carried out at a stationary position and at three positions such as driver's left ear position (DLEP, 1.5 meter (1.5 MAFE and 7.5 meters (7.5 MAFE away from the exhaust at 6 engine speeds (1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000 & 2200 rpm. Statistical analysis and frequency analysis were used to analyze sound of the engine. The results showed that the sound pressure levels of the engine for B10 fuel have the least amount of noise level of the sound pressure. However, this

  18. Post-harvest treatments in smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.) - effect on carbohydrates and tiller development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte

    2007-01-01

    Temperate grass species require a period of short days/low temperature to respond to flower induction stimuli. The same environmental conditions stimulate the increase in carbohydrate concentration in aboveground biomass and the accumulation of reserve carbohydrates in the basal plant parts....... The present investigation was initiated to investigate the effect of post-harvest treatments on dry matter production in autumn, carbohydrate content, the number of reproductive tillers and seed yield in a turf-type cultivar ‘Conni' of smooth-stalked meadow grass. The results show that post-harvest treatments...... harvest and all residues removed. The results from plant samples in autumn indicate that decreasing aboveground biomass production leads to a higher carbohydrate concentration which may stimulate the reproductive development in smooth-stalked meadow grass....

  19. Chemical modification of a phenoxyfuranone-type strigolactone mimic for selective effects on rice tillering or Striga hermonthica seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ikuo; Fukui, Kosuke; Asami, Tadao

    2016-11-01

    We previously reported that a series of phenoxyfuranone compounds, designated 'debranones', mimic strigolactone (SL) activity. 4-Bromodebranone (4BD) is a functionally selective SL mimic that reduces the number of shoot branches on rice more potently than GR24, a typical synthetic SL analogue, but does not induce seed germination in the root-parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. To enhance the selective activity of debranones in stimulating the seed germination of root-parasitic plants, we prepared several analogues of 4BD in which the chlorine atom was substituted with an H atom at the o-, m- or p-position on the phenyl ring (designated 2-, 3-, or 4-chlorodebranone, respectively) or had a bicyclic group instead of the phenyl ring. We evaluated the biological activities of the compounds with rice tillering assays and S. hermonthica seed germination assays. Both assays showed that the substituent position affected debranone efficiency, and among the monochlorodebranones, 2-chlorodebranone was more effective than the other two isomers in both assays. When the activities of the bicyclic debranones were compared in the same two assays, one was more active than GR24 in the rice tillering assay. This debranone also stimulated the germination of S. hermonthica seeds. Thus, some debranone derivatives induced the germination of S. hermonthica seeds, although their activities were still ∼1/20 that of GR24. These results strongly suggest that further and rigorous structure-activity relationship studies of the debranones will identify derivatives that more potently stimulate the suicidal germination of S. hermonthica seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijie Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi, which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering.

  1. Simulating the effects of localized red:far-red ratio on tillering in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) using a three-dimensional virtual plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.; Vos, J.; Chelle, M.; Andrieu, B.; Fournier, C.; Struik, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    The outgrowth of tiller buds in Poaceae is influenced by the ratio of red to far-red light irradiance (R:FR). At each point in the plant canopy, R:FR is affected by light scattered by surrounding plant tissues. This paper presents a three-dimensional virtual plant modelling approach to simulate

  2. The qTSN positive effect on panicle and flag leaf size of rice is associated with an early down-regulation of tillering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Erika eAdriani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The qTSN4 was identified as rice QTL (Quantitative Traits Locus increasing total spikelet number per panicle and flag leaf area but potentially reducing panicle number depending on the environment. So far, this trade-off was mainly observed at grain maturity and not specifically studied in details, limiting the apprehension of the agronomic interest of qTSN4. This study aimed to understand the effect of qTSN4 and of the environment on panicle sizing, its trade-off with panicle number and finally plant grain production. It compared two high yielding genotypes to their Near Isogenic Lines (NIL carrying either QTL qTSN4 or qTSN12, two distinct QTLs contributing to the enlarged panicle size, thereafter designated as qTSN. Traits describing C sink (organ appearance rate, size, biomass and source (leaf area, photosynthesis, sugar availability were dynamically characterized along plant and/or panicle development within two trials (greenhouse, field, each comparing two treatments contrasting for plant access to light (with or without shading, high or low planting densities. The positive effect of qTSN on panicle size and flag leaf area of the main tiller was confirmed. More precisely, it could be shown that qTSN increased leaf area and internode cross-section, and in some cases of the photosynthetic rate and starch reserves, of the top 3-4 phytomers of the main tiller. This was accompanied by an earlier tillering cessation, that coincided with the initiation of these phytomers, and an enhanced of panicle size on the main tiller. Plant leaf area at flowering was not affected by qTSN but fertile tiller number was reduced to an extent that depended on the environment. Accordingly, plant grain production was enhanced by qTSN only under shading in the greenhouse experiment, where panicle number was not affected and photosynthesis and starch storage in internodes was enhanced. The effect of qTSN on rice phenotype was thus expressed before panicle initiation

  3. The analysis of the distribution of unitary stresses for the universal plowshare in tiller seeder combos (UPTSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorescu, D.; Chiorescu, E.; Dodun, O.; Crăciun, V.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable development of agriculture is an important component of economic and social progress of the mankind aiming especially at promoting environmentally friendly systems and technologies. Thus, the implementation of sustainable agriculture also requires some high performance farming aggregates such as tiller seeder combos. Their most stressed active working part is the plowshare which has an important part in cutting the soil. For this reason, we consider that theoretical and experimental research is needed for the tear to which this working part is subjected to. This paper analyses the behavior of the universal plowshare, component part of UPTSC, using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Ansys software program. With the help of FEM, we analyzed the universal plowshare in the material structure during the soil cutting process, highlighting the deformation degree and the stress field in the working part. In the first stage, we identified a representative set of problems concerning the soil cutting process, for which we designed the solutions through numerical simulations. In the processing stage, we designed a 3D model which respects entirely the geometric shape of the active element in Cartesian coordinates. In order to simulate the soil cutting process in accordance with the real conditions, the compilations are done for various refinement degrees of the discretization network in finite elements. In the same stage we introduced the constraints represented by: the fixation of the plowshare support, direction, as well as the action of the cohesion and shear strength. Using the Explicit Dynamics module of the Ansys software, which allows studying the plowshare behavior, we analyzed in real conditions, the normal and the shear stresses as well as the deformation, for various soil types and various soil states. Considering the data on the existent stresses, following the FEM analysis of the working part, we determined the wear and suggested the safety

  4. Eficiência da aplicação de nitrogênio no perfilhamento do arroz em três manejos de irrigação Efficiency of nitrogen application on rice tillering under water management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Felipe Méndez Larrosa

    2001-10-01

    design with 4 replication in a split plot arrangement of treatments. Three forms of N application at tillering stage were placed in the main plots: 1 N + flushing where the N was topdressed and a flush of water was applied one day after and then flooding fourteen days later; 2 N + flooding where N was topdressed the day before the definitive flooding; 3 flooding + N, with the N applied in the water one day after flooding. Four rates of N were applied in the plots (0, 20, 40 and 60 Kg of N ha-1 and an absolute witness and control without N. In every treatment which received N, there was an application of 10 Kg ha-1 in the beginning of internode elongation. It was concluded that nitrogen application from tillering to the internode elongation increased tiller number and total N uptake. This increase is dependent on the nitrogen application system being greater in treatments of N + flush and N + flooding in relation to the flooding + N treatments. This increment of N doses provides an increase in grain production, while the forms of urea application at tillering stage don’t affect grain production when using N in the panicle initiation.

  5. Defoliation patterns in signal grass tillers with varying heights in the same pasture - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.14376

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pedro da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the patterns of defoliation in plants of various heights in the same pasture of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk under continuous stocking with cattle. Four plant heights were evaluated (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm in the same managed sward, with mean height equal to 25 cm. A randomized blocks design was used, with two replications. Defoliation frequency increased linearly along with plant height in the same pasture. Defoliation intensity, number of defoliations in leaf blade and percentage of leaf blade grazed per tiller also increased linearly along with plant height. The defoliation interval decreased linearly according to plant height. The quadratic model was adequately fitted into grazing efficiency data, reaching the highest value (98% at the sward site with 35 cm plants. The percentage variation in signal grass height showed a negative linear response with initial plant height. The structure of the pasture, characterized by the diversity in plant heights, is simultaneously the cause and consequence of the variability in defoliation patterns in individual tillers, which occur on the horizontal plane of the pasture.  

  6. Número e peso de perfilhos no pasto de capim-braquiária sob lotação contínua = Number and weight of tillers in signalgrass pasture under continuous stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a relação entre o número e o peso de categorias de perfilhos em pasto de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk sob lotação contínua com bovinos. O pasto foi manejado com altura média de aproximadamente 25 cm. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de plantas no mesmo pasto (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições. Os números de perfilhos vegetativos, vivos e totais reduziram linearmente com a altura da planta. O número de perfilho reprodutivo aumentou de forma linear com a altura da planta (de 8 para 84 perfilhos m-2 quando se comparam plantas de 10 a 40 cm. Os pesos dos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos incrementaram linearmente com a altura da planta. O peso do perfilho vegetativo (0,316 g, em média foi menor do que o peso do perfilho reprodutivo (0,401 g, em média. A relação entre o número e o peso do perfilho vegetativo foi linear e negativa, enquanto que essa relação, para o perfilho reprodutivo, foi linear e positiva. Em locais com plantas altas há menor número de perfilhos vegetativos, bem como maior número de perfilhos reprodutivos e mortos. Nos locais mais altos do pasto de B. decumbens os perfilhos são mais pesados.The experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the number and weight of tiller categories in Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture managed under continuous stocking with cattle. The pasture was managed with an average height of about 25 cm. Plants offour different heights (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm were evaluated by means of the randomized block design with two replications. The number of vegetative tillers, both live and total, reduced linearly according to the plant height. The number of reproductive tillers increased linearly according to pasture plant height (from 8 to 84 tillers m-2 when comparing plants 10 to 40 cm high. Vegetative and reproductive tiller weight increased linearly according to pasture plant height. Vegetative tiller

  7. Desenvolvimento de afilhos e componentes do rendimento em genótipos de trigo sob diferentes densidades de semeadura Tiller development and yield components in wheat genotypes under different seeding densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pirez Valério

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o padrão de desenvolvimento de afilhos em genótipos de trigo contrastantes para esse caráter, em diferentes densidades de semeadura, bem como seus efeitos sobre os componentes do rendimento de grãos. O experimento foi conduzido no Município de Capão do Leão, RS, em 2006. Dez cultivares de trigo, selecionadas com base na capacidade de afilhamento, foram utilizadas em delineamento de parcelas divididas, com a parcela composta pelo fator cultivar, e as subparcelas pelas densidades de semeadura, com 50, 200, 350, 500 e 650 sementes aptas por metro quadrado. Observou-se que a senescência de afilhos esteve diretamente relacionada ao potencial de afilhamento dos genótipos. Os genótipos com elevada capacidade de afilhamento apresentaram efeito mais pronunciado da senescência, com o aumento da densidade de semeadura. O melhor ajuste dos componentes do rendimento foi obtido por meio da adequada densidade de semeadura, que deve ser realizada com base no potencial de afilhamento dos genótipos. Além disto, o efeito compensatório de genótipos com reduzido potencial de afilhamento é resultante de maior massa de grãos por espiga, em detrimento do número de espigas por unidade de área.The objective of this work was to determine the developmental pattern of tillers in wheat genotypes showing contrasting number of tillers. The genotypes were tested under different seeding densities, in order to evaluate their effect on grain yield components. The experiment was performed in Capão do Leão County, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2006. Ten wheat cultivars, selected by their tillering ability, were tested in a split plot design, where plots were formed by the genotype (cultivar, and subplots by different seeding densities: 50, 200, 350, 500 and 650 seeds per square meter. Results indicated that tiller senescence is directly correlated to tillering potential of the genotypes, and genotypes with higher

  8. Caracterização de perfilhos de capim-braquiária em locais com três intensidades de pastejo Characterization of signalgrass tiller in sites of same pasture with three grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Portes Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar a densidade populacional e as características estruturais de perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos da Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk manejada sob lotação contínua com bovinos. Os tratamentos foram três locais do mesmo pasto, subpastejado, com pastejo adequado e sobrepastejado. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O número de perfilhos basais foi menor nos locais com subpastejo, e maior no local com pastejo adequado. O número de perfilho aéreo foi superior no local com pastejo adequado. No local com superpastejo, o número de perfilho reprodutivo foi inferior, enquanto que os números de perfilhos vegetativos e mortos foram superiores em relação ao local com pastejo adequado. O local subpastejado possuiu perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos mais pesados do que os demais locais avaliados. Em locais do mesmo pasto com distintas intensidades de pastejo, a relação entre número e peso de perfilho vegetativo foi negativa, enquanto que a mesma relação para o perfilho reprodutivo foi positiva. Em comparação aos outros locais, no local com superpastejo, os perfilhos possuíram menores comprimentos do pseudocolmo e da lâmina foliar, inferior número de folha morta, maior número de folha pastejada e menor massa de colmo vivo e lâmina foliar viva. Os perfilhos de B. decumbens têm seu número e suas características modificadas em função da intensidade de pastejo a que são submetidos em um mesmo pasto.It were characterized the population density and structural characteristics of vegetative and reproductive tillers of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk managed under continuous stocking with cattle. The treatments were three sites of the same pasture, undergrazed, with proper grazing and overgrazed. A randomized block design with three replications was used. The number of basal tillers was lower in undergrazed and overgrazed sites, and higher in site with appropriate grazing. The

  9. Tillering of two wheat genotypes as affected by phosphorus levels=Perfilhamento de dois genótipos de trigo em função de doses de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Theodoro Büll

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tillering plays an important role in wheat yield potential and it is affected by genotype and environmental conditions. This work aimed to study the effects of phosphorus levels on tiller emergence, survival and contribution to yield potential of two wheat cultivars. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. A 2 x 5 factorial randomized block design with four replications was applied. Two wheat cultivars (IAC 370 and IAC 375 and five phosphorus levels (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg dm-3 were evaluated in pots with 10 dm3 of a clayey Oxisol. Higher P levels increased tiller emergence, survival and yield, especially for secondary tillers. Tiller abortion levels were higher in IAC 370 cultivar whereas retention of formed tillers was higher in IAC 375. A participação de perfilhos na produção de grãos é de grande importância para a cultura do trigo, sendo influenciável pelas características do genótipo e condições do ambiente. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar o efeito de doses de fósforo (P na emissão, sobrevivência e contribuição produtiva de perfilhos de duas cultivares de trigo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo. Foi adotado um esquema fatorial 2 x 5 em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, sendo avaliadas duas cultivares de trigo (IAC 370 e IAC 375 e cinco doses de P (0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 mg dm-3. Quanto maior a dose de P, maior a emissão, a sobrevivência e a participação de perfilhos na produ��ão total de grãos, em especial para perfilhos secundários. A cultivar IAC 370 apresentou altas taxas de abortamento de perfilhos, enquanto a IAC 375 manteve grande parte dos perfilhos emitidos.

  10. Field Performance of the Disk Harrow, Power Harrow and Rotary Tiller at Different Soil Moisture Contents on a Clay Loam Soil in Mazandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rajabi Vandechali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available About 60% of the mechanical energy consumed in mechanized agriculture is used for tillage operations and seedbed preparation. On the other hand, unsuitable tillage system resulted in soil degradation, affecting soil physical properties and destroying soil structure. The objective of this research was to compare the effects of three types of secondary tillage machines on soil physical properties and their field performances. An experiment was conducted in a wheat farm in Jouybar area of Mazandaran as split plots based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main independent variable (plot was soil moisture with three levels (23.6-25, 22.2-23.6 and 20.8-22.2 percent based on dry weight and the subplot was three types of machine (two-disk perpendicular passing harrow, Power harrow and Rotary tiller. The measured parameters included: clod mean weight diameter, soil bulk density, specific fuel consumption, machine efficiency and machine capacity. The effects of treatments and their interactions on the specific fuel consumption, machine efficiency and machine capacity and also the effects of treatments on bulk density were significant (P

  11. Tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass under nitrogen levels and plant densities=Dinâmica de perfilhamento do capim-tanzânia sob doses de nitrogênio e densidades de plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of nitrogen levels (N and plant density (D on the tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 12 treatments and two replicates in a factorial scheme (4 × 3 with four levels of N (0, 80, 160 or 320 kg ha-1 N and three plant densities (9, 25, and 49 plant m-². Higher number of tillers was observed in the treatment with 9 plants m-² and under higher levels of N, especially in the second and third generations. Still, the N influenced quadratically the appearance rate of basal and total tillers, which were also affected by plant density and interaction N × D. However, the appearance rate of aerial tiller was not influenced by factors evaluated. The mortality rate of total tiller was influenced quadratically by the nitrogen levels and plant densities. The mortality rate of basal tiller responded quadratically to plant density, whereas the mortality rate of aerial tiller increased linearly with fertilization. Pastures with low or intermediate densities fertilized with nitrogen, presented a more intense pattern of tiller renewal. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio (N e densidades de plantas (D sobre a dinâmica de perfilhamento do capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq.. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com 12 tratamentos e duas repetições em esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro doses de N (0, 80, 160 ou 320 kg ha-1 ano-1 e três densidades de plantas (9, 25 ou 49 plantas m-². O número de perfilhos foi maior na densidade de 9 plantas m-² e nas maiores doses de N, principalmente na segunda e terceira gerações. O N influenciou quadraticamente as taxas de aparecimento de perfilhos basilares e totais, que também foram influenciadas pela densidade de plantas e pela interação N × D. A taxa de aparecimento de perfilhos aéreos, no entanto, não foi influenciada pelos fatores

  12. Caracterização dos perfilhos em pastos de capim-braquiária diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio Tiller characteristics in nitrogen fertilized and deferred signalgrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o perfilhamento e as características estruturais de perfilhos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk sob três períodos de diferimento da pastagem (73, 95 e 116 dias e quatro doses de nitrogênio (N (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. O número de perfilhos vegetativos (PV reduziu com o aumento do período de diferimento. Houve interação entre período de diferimento e dose de N para a densidade populacional de PV. O maior período de diferimento elevou o número de perfilhos reprodutivos (PR nos pastos de capim-braquiária, mas não houve efeito da dose de N sobre o número de perfilhos reprodutivos. O número de perfilhos mortos não foi influenciado pelos fatores estudados. Tanto o período de diferimento quanto a adubação nitrogenada aumentaram o peso de todas as categorias de perfilhos de capim-braquiária. As características estruturais dos perfilhos presentes nos pastos diferidos foram alteradas pelo período de diferimento e pela dose de nitrogênio. A redução do período de diferimento e a adubação nitrogenada são estratégias de manejo adequadas para aumentar o número de perfilhos vegetativos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk.This work aimed to evaluate the tilling and tiller structural characteristics on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture fertilized with nitrogen (N under different deferring periods. The treatments had 73, 95 and 116-day deferring periods, and 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha N doses. A randomized block design with three replicates and subdivided plots was used. The number of vegetative tillers (VT reduced as the deferring period increased. Interaction between the deferring period and N doses on the VT population density was verified. The longest deferring period increased the number of reproductive tillers (RT on the B. decumbens

  13. Determining the stages of tillering stage, initiation of primordia, flowering and maturity in the rice plant, with the system S, V and R correlated with the thermal sum at the time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Velázquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the major climatic factors that affect growth, development and yield of the rice crop, and also can reduce the time of change of phenological stages. The beginning stages of tillering, initiation of primordia, flowering and harvest maturity were determined with the S, V and R system recently proposed by Counce et ál. (2000; it consists on counting the number of fully developed leaves; in addition, a correlation was made with accumulated degree days that the plant had at that time, in order to estimate with how many degree days the plant began a phenological stage; this parameter is related to the average daily temperature and a base temperature of 10ºC. For the start of tillering the plant needed 140.9 degree days; for primordium start, 1268.9; for bloom 1746; and completed its cycle with a total of 2333.2 degree days. This allows to conclude that, for a variety of long cycle (130-135 days, when the accumulation of degree days is equal or similar to the previous data, the plant initiates one of the above-mentioned phenological stages; however, each one of the varieties in use by farmers must be calibrated, because there are differences in crop cycle length among them.

  14. Número e peso de perfilhos no pasto de capim-braquiária sob lotação contínua - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.10438 Number and weight of tillers in signalgrass pasture under continuous stocking - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.10438

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Mesquita Gomes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a relação entre o número e o peso de categorias de perfilhos em pasto de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk sob lotação contínua com bovinos. O pasto foi manejado com altura média de aproximadamente 25 cm. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de plantas no mesmo pasto (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições. Os números de perfilhos vegetativos, vivos e totais reduziram linearmente com a altura da planta. O número de perfilho reprodutivo aumentou de forma linear com a altura da planta (de 8 para 84 perfilhos m-2 quando se comparam plantas de 10 a 40 cm. Os pesos dos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos incrementaram linearmente com a altura da planta. O peso do perfilho vegetativo (0,316 g, em média foi menor do que o peso do perfilho reprodutivo (0,401 g, em média. A relação entre o número e o peso do perfilho vegetativo foi linear e negativa, enquanto que essa relação, para o perfilho reprodutivo, foi linear e positiva. Em locais com plantas altas há menor número de perfilhos vegetativos, bem como maior número de perfilhos reprodutivos e mortos. Nos locais mais altos do pasto de B. decumbens os perfilhos são mais pesados.The experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the number and weight of tiller categories in Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture managed under continuous stocking with cattle. The pasture was managed with an average height of about 25 cm. Plants of four different heights (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm were evaluated by means of the randomized block design with two replications. The number of vegetative tillers, both live and total, reduced linearly according to the plant height. The number of reproductive tillers increased linearly according to pasture plant height (from 8 to 84 tillers m-2 when comparing plants 10 to 40 cm high. Vegetative and reproductive tiller weight increased linearly according to pasture plant height. Vegetative tiller

  15. Número de perfilhos do capim-braquiária em regime de lotação contínua - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10440 Tiller number in signalgrass under continuous stocking systems - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i1.10440

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pedro da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar, pela avaliação do perfilhamento, as estratégias adequadas de manejo da Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk em lotação contínua com bovinos. Foram estudadas duas estratégias de manejo: pasto com 25 cm de altura durante todo período experimental, e pasto com 15 cm no inverno e 25 cm na primavera e verão. Foram adotados o esquema de parcelas subdivididas e o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. As estratégias de manejo foram o fator primário e as estações (inverno, primavera e verão, o fator secundário. O menor balanço entre taxas de aparecimento (TApP e de mortalidade de perfilhos (TMoP e o menor número de perfilho vegetativo ocorreram no inverno. Na primavera e verão, o balanço e o número de perfilhos vegetativos foram altos e similares. O rebaixamento do pasto no inverno incrementou o balanço entre TApP e TMoP e o número de perfilhos, em relação à sua manutenção em 25 cm. Houve maiores números de perfilhos reprodutivos e mortos no verão e no inverno, respectivamente. Os pastos com 25 cm possuíram maior número de perfilho morto. Em lotação contínua, o rebaixamento da B. decumbens para 15 cm no inverno e sua manutenção em 25 cm na primavera e verão otimiza sua renovação de perfilhos.The study was conducted to identify, through assessments of tillering, appropriate management strategies for Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk under continuous stocking with cattle. Two management strategies were studied: pasture with 25 cm throughout the experimental period, and pasture with 15 cm in winter and 25 cm in spring and summer. A split-plot and randomized block design with four replications were adopted. The management strategies represented the primary factor, and the seasons (winter, spring and summer were the secondary factor. The lowest balance between rates of appearance (TAR and mortality (TMR of tillers and the lowest number of vegetative tillers occurred in winter

  16. Valor nutritivo de perfilhos e componentes morfológicos em pastos de capim-braquiária diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio Nutritive value of tillers and morphological components on deferred and nitrogen fertilized pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo de perfilhos e componentes morfológicos em pastos diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Dois experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições e esquema de parcela subdivida. No primeiro experimento, foram realizadas combinações entre doses de nitrogênio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha com os componentes morfológicos (folha verde, colmo verde, folha morta e colmo morto ou com as categorias de perfilhos (vegetativo e reprodutivo do pasto. No segundo experimento, estudaram-se as combinações entre períodos de diferimento (73, 95 e 116 dias com categorias de perfilhos (vegetativo e reprodutivo. A adubação nitrogenada aumentou o percentual de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN nos colmos verdes e o teor de proteína bruta (PB nas folhas verdes e mortas e no colmo verde. Elevou também os percentuais de PB nos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos, assim como o teor de FDN do perfilhos vegetativos. Maior período de diferimento causou acréscimo no percentual de FDN e redução no percentual de proteína bruta nos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos. A dose de nitrogênio e o período de diferimento alteram o valor nutritivo dos componentes morfológicos e dos perfilhos dos pastos de B. decumbens cv. Basilisk. No diferimento da pastagem, ações de manejo que resultem em maiores percentuais de lâmina foliar verde e perfilho vegetativo no pasto contribuem para melhorar o valor nutritivo da forragem diferida.This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the nutritional value of tillers and the morphological components on deferred and nitrogen-fertilized pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Two experiments were performed in randomized block designs with three repetitions and subdivided plot scheme. In the first experiment, combinations among nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha were performed

  17. Effect of different forms of nitrogen fertlizers applied in the end of tillering on yield and quality of winter wheat grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Ducsay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1999 to 2001 in conditions of small-plot field experiments was carried out on loamy degraded chernozems at the Plant Breeding Station of Sládkovičovo-Nový Dvor to solve the problems of topdressing winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, L., variety Astella, with different forms of nitrogenous fertilizers. Nitrogenous fertilizers were applied at the growth phase of the 6th leaf (Zadoks = 29. Four various forms of fertilizers were exemined: urea solution, DAM-390, DAM-390 + Dumag, DASA. Different weather conditions statistically highly significantly influenced grain yield in respective experimental years. Topdressing with nitrogen (30 kg N.ha–1 caused statistically highly significant increase of grain yield in all fertilized variants ranging from +0.29 t.ha–1 (applied of DAM-390 to +0.69 t.ha–1 (applied of DASA according to respective treatments. Average grain yield in unfertilized control variant represented 7.23 t.ha–1. Nitrogen nutrition showed positive effect on the main macroelements offtake (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S by winter wheat grain in all fertilized variants. Nitrogen fertilizing positively influenced formation of wet gluten and crude protein with highest increment in variant with DASA and variant with DAM-390 + Dumag.

  18. Correlações entre características estruturais e valor nutritivo de perfilhos em pastos de capim-braquiária diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio Correlations among structural characteristics and nutritional value of tillers on deferred and nitrogen-fertilized signalgrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Mesquita Gomes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Perfilhos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk foram amostrados em pastos diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio (0, 40, 80 e 120kg/ha de N com o objetivo de avaliar correlações entre suas características estruturais, morfológicas e de valor nutritivo. Foi adotado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Não foi observada correlação entre número e peso de perfilhos. Porém, houve correlação positiva do peso do perfilho com comprimento do colmo, número de folha morta e percentual de colmo verde e negativa com número de folhas verdes e percentual de folha verde. As correlações entre número de perfilhos foram positivas com os percentuais de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro potencialmente digestível e matéria seca potencialmente digestível e negativa para fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente neutro indigestível. De outra forma, o peso dos perfilhos apresentou correlação positiva com os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente neutro indigestível e associação negativa com o percentual de matéria seca potencialmente digestível. O negativa com número de folhas verdes apresentou correlações positivas com os teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro potencialmente digestível e matéria seca potencialmente digestível, bem como correlações negativas com os percentuais de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente neutro indigestível. A composição morfológica e o valor nutritivo de perfilhos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk foram determinados por suas características estruturais. Em pastos diferidos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk ocorreu compensação entre tamanho e valor nutritivo de perfilhos.Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk tillers were sampled on deferred and nitrogen-fertilized pastures (0, 40, 80 and 120kg/ha of N, in order to evaluate correlations among its structural characteristics, morphological composition and nutritional

  19. Video Games as Tillers of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Video games are pervasive in today's culture, and the time kids spend playing them may seem, from a teacher's perspective, as time that is lost to education. Sometimes, sadly, this is true. But many good video games, although not explicitly educational in focus, provide powerful experiences that are rich fodder for subsequent instruction. Looking…

  20. Perfilhamento e algumas características morfológicas do capim-elefante cv. Roxo sob quatro alturas de corte em duas épocas do ano Tillering and some morphologic characteristics of elephant grass var. Roxo, cut at four heights in two periods of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Alves dos Santos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos cortes efetuados a 0, 15, 30 e 45 cm sobre algumas características morfofisiológicas do Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Roxo nas épocas seca e chuvosa no Brejo Paraibano. As amostras foram obtidas de uma área útil de 8,4 m² de cada parcela. Após o corte de uniformização, efetuaram-se dois cortes no período seco, em intervalos de 90 dias, e três no período chuvoso, em intervalos de 60 dias. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: perfilhamento, altura das plantas, porcentagens de folhas e colmos e relação folha/colmo (RF/C. Aos 25 dias após cada corte, foram feitas as contagens dos perfilhos existentes nas parcelas. De cada parcela tomou-se uma amostra de 3 a 5 perfilhos, seca em estufa, e separaram-se as frações de folhas e colmos. Houve interação dos fatores (altura x época do corte quanto ao número de perfilhos por m² e à RF/C. No período chuvoso, houve mais perfilhos basais que no período seco, e o número de perfilhos aéreo foi superior em todos os cortes acima do nível do solo. A RF/C foi superior na época chuvosa nas alturas de 30 e 45 cm do solo. Cortes mais altos apresentaram maior proporção de folhas e menor proporção de colmos. Os percentuais de folhas na época chuvosa foram maiores que os da época seca.This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of cutting at 0, 15, 30 and 45 cm height, on some morphological and physiological characteristics of the Pennisetum purpureum, Schum., var. Roxo in dry and rainy seasons in the Paraiba swamp region. The samples were obtained from a useful area of 8,4 m² from each parcel. After the uniformity cut, two cuts in dry season with 90 days interval and three cuts in the rainy season with 60 days interval were made. The number of tillers for m², plants heights, leaves and stems percentage (dry matter basis and the leaves/stem ratio (L/SR were evaluated. At the 25th day, the counting, after each cut, of the

  1. Capim-braquiária sob lotação contínua e com altura única ou variável durante as estações do ano: dinâmica do perfilhamento Signalgrass under continuous stocking with fixed or variable height during the seasons: tillering dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estabelecer estratégias de manejo do pastejo, sob lotação contínua, que otimizem o padrão natural de perfilhamento da Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Duas estratégias de manejo do pastejo foram estudadas: em uma, o pasto foi mantido com 25 cm de altura média durante todo o período experimental; e na outra foi mantido em 15 cm de altura média durante o inverno, com aumento para 25 cm a partir do início da primavera. Adotou-se o esquema de parcelas subdivididas em delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Consideraram-se como fator primário as estratégias de manejo do pastejo, caracterizadas pelas alturas médias em que os pastos foram mantidos durante as estações do ano (inverno, primavera e verão e, como fator secundário, as medidas ao longo do período experimental. A taxa de aparecimento de perfilho (4,7%, a taxa de mortalidade (4,7% e o índice de estabilidade (0,998 foram menores no inverno. Nesta estação, contudo, a taxa de sobrevivência de perfilho foi maior (95,3%. Em comparação aos pastos mantidos com 25 cm, aqueles manejados com 15 cm de altura média no inverno apresentaram maiores taxas de aparecimento de perfilho (34,2% e índice de estabilidade (1,065. O florescimento do capim-braquiária ocorreu apenas no verão e com pouca intensidade (0,5%. A otimização da renovação de perfilhos no pasto de B. decumbens cv. Basilisk sob lotação contínua ocorre com seu rebaixamento para 15 cm no início do inverno e seu posterior aumento para 25 cm no início da primavera.The experiment was conducted to establish management strategies of grazing under continuous stocking that optimize the natural pattern of tillering of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Two strategies of grazing management were studied: in one, the grass was maintained with 25-cm mean height throughout the experimental period, and in the other, 15-cm mean height during the winter, rising to 25 cm from beginning of

  2. Genetic improvement of drought tolerance in semi-dwarf wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, M.A.; Laghari, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress is one of the main environmental constraints for the wheat crop. Drought stress from anthesis to maturity, especially if accompanied by heat stress, affects every morphological and physiological aspect of wheat plant and significantly reduces final yield. Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in wheat could be possible through conventional and mutation breeding tools. There is a dire need to identify stress tolerant genotypes which can grow and flourish well under harsh environments (low water requirements). Twelve newly evolved bread wheat genotypes alongwith 3 drought-tolerant commercial check varieties, viz., Sarsabz, Khirman and Chakwal-86 were screened under three water stresses (zero, single and two irrigations). Different yield associated traits were studied. At severe water stress (zero irrigation), six genotypes (BWM-3, NIA-8/7, NIA-9/5, NIA-28/4, NIA-25/5, MSH-36) produced significantly higher grain yield (ranged from 1522 to 2022 kg/ha) than check varieties. These genotypes had higher seed index and less spike sterility at severe stress, which indicated that these genotypes were less responsive to water stress and possessed more tolerance to drought stress. (author)

  3. THE PERFORMANCE OF UPLAND RICE ESTABLISHED ON ALANG-ALANG DOMINATED AREA AFTER VARIOUS TECHNIQUES OF ALANG-ALANG CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment to investigate the performance of upland rice in a previously alang-alang dominated area was conducted under greenhouse condition at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from November 1986 to May 1989. The treatments were factorially combined, replicated 5 times and randomized completely. The first factor was alang-alang control consisting of 5 different techniques, i.e. (1 glyphosate applied at 2.2 kg a.e./ha; (2 imazapyr applied at 1.5 kg a.e./ha; (3 dalapon applied twice at 7.4 + 7.4 kg a.i./ha; (4 slashing followed by soil cultivation; (5 slashing of alang-alang only; while the second factor was nitrogen fertilizer at 4 different levels, i.e. (1 0 kg N/ha, (2 60 kg N/ha, (3 120 kg N/ha given twice, 60 kg N/ha at planting time and 60 kg N/ha at 38 dap, (4 180 kg N/ha given twice, 90 kg N/ha at planting and 90 kg N/ha at 38 dap. Plant height (cm, tiller number/pot, productive tiller (%, panicle length (cm, spikelets/panicle, empty spikelet (%, weight 1000 grains (g and grain yield (ton/ha were observed. Upland rice grown with zero tillage technique using glyphosate (2.2 kg a.i./ha or dalapon (14.8 kg a.i./ha performed as good as or even better than manual cultivation. Imazapyr at 1.5 kg a.e./ha was phytotoxic to rice planted 1 month after spraying. The application of N fertilizer lower than 60 kg N/ha was not sufficient, but more than 60 kg N/ha was too high; it stimulated the production of too many tillers, with high percentage of unproductive tillers and empty grains.

  4. Avaliação da folha e do colmo de topo e base de perfilhos de três gramíneas forrageiras: 2. Anatomia Evaluation of top and bottom leaf and stem fractions from tiller of three forage grasses: 2. Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Queiroz

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - A proporção de tecidos, o grau de correlação linear desta característica com a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e sua composição química foram determinadas em seções transversais das frações botânicas, lâmina e bainha foliares e colmo, amostrados no topo e na base de perfilhos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, cv. Mott, capim-setária (Setaria anceps, cv. kazungula e capim-jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa. O capim-jaraguá, com maior proporção de bainha parenquimática dos feixes (BPF na lâmina foliar e de tecido vascular lignificado (TVL e esclerênquima (ESC na lâmina e bainha foliares, apresentou proporção de tecidos menos compatível à de uma forrageira de alto valor nutritivo, em comparação ao capim-elefante e capim-setária. As lâminas foliares caracterizaram-se por apresentar alta proporção de epiderme e baixa proporção de ESC, TVL e células parenquimáticas (CPA em relação à bainha foliar e ao colmo. A proporção de ESC mostrou correlação negativa com a DIVMS da lâmina foliar de topo, do colmo e do total das frações do perfilho. A proporção de CPA correlacionou positivamente com a DIVMS da bainha foliar, r = 0,68, enquanto a proporção de TVL apresentou correlação positiva com a DIVMS, quando todas as frações do perfilho foram consideradas, r = 0,31. As proporções de BPF, TVL e ESC correlacionaram positivamente com os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido das forrageiras, enquanto as proporções de mesofilo e epiderme apresentaram correlação negativa.ABSTRACT - The tissue proportions, the degree of simple linear correlation of this characteristics with the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD and their chemical composition were determined in transversal sections of the botanical fractions, leaf blades and sheath and stem sampled from the top and bottom tillers of dwarf elefantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumach cv. Mott

  5. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  6. Características morfogênicas e estruturais de perfilhos de capim-braquiária em locais do pasto com alturas variáveis Morphogenic and structural characteristics of tillers on areas with signalgrass pasture varying on height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-03-01

    replications. Leaf appearance rate of signalgrass was linearly and negatively influenced by heights of the plants on the same pasture. The tillers on the same sites with the highest heights showed greater phyllochron (9.3 days. The higher plant heights on the same pasture promoted both higher leaf senescence and pseudoculm elongation rates for the tillers. Leaf lifespan (37.8 days and leaf elongation rate (1.3 cm/tillers.day were not influenced by the plant height. The number of green (4.36 and dead (2.15 leaves was not changed by the plants height either. However, the higher height of plants resulted in a linear increase of 69% on the number of leaves showing defoliation. Pseudoculm and leaf blade lengths responded linearly and positively to the increase in the plants height on the same pasture. The natural height variance of plants found on the same pasture changes the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of signalgrass. There is spatial variability of the vegetation on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures managed under continuous stocking with bovine.

  7. Influência do método e tempo de armazenamento de colmos de capim-cameroon no seu perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca Influence of method and storage time of stem fractions of cameroongrass on tillering and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Marques da Costa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer as influências dos métodos e tempos de armazenamentos de frações de colmos do capim-Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon no seu perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca, aos 70 dias após o plantio. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas divididas no tempo, com três repetições. Os métodos de armazenamento das frações de colmos foram: 1 amarradas em feixes; 2 amarradas em feixes e colocadas em sacos de polietileno com pequenos furos; 3 amarradas em feixes e colocadas em sacos de polietileno sem furos. Os tempos de armazenamento foram: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 dias. Verificou-se uma diferença entre os métodos de armazenamento das frações de colmos para número de perfilhos e para produção de matéria seca. O teor de umidade das frações de colmos foi afetado pelo método e pelo tempo de armazenamento. As frações de colmos de capim-cameroon podem ser armazenadas dentro de sacos de polietileno, perfurados ou não, durante 20 a 30 dias antes do plantio.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methods and storage times of stem fractions upon tillering and dry matter production of Cameroongrass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon at 70 days after planting. Its propagation was carried out by planting culm fractions, each one containing four nodes. A split plot experiment design by time with 3 replications was used. Sorage methods of the stem fractions were: 1 tied bundles; 2 tied bundles and kept in plastic bags with small holes; 3 tied bundles and kept in plastic bags without holes. The storage times were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. A difference among storage methods of stem fractions for number of tillers and for dry matter production was observed. The water contents of stem fractions were affected by the storage methods as well as the storage times. The stem fractions of Cameroongrass could be stored in plastic

  8. Influência do fósforo e de diferentes regimes de corte na produtividade e no perfilhamento do capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton Doell Phosphorus and cut system on the productivity and tillering of the capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton, Doell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Neres de Oliveira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Zootecnia/UFRPE, no período de outubro de 2000 a maio de 2001, objetivando avaliar o efeito da adubação fosfatada e de diferentes regimes de corte sobre a produtividade e perfilhamento do capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton, Doell. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, distribuído em um arranjo fatorial 3 x 2 x 2, sendo três doses de adubação fosfatada (0, 100 e 200 kg/ha de P2O5, duas freqüências de corte (30 e 40 dias e duas intensidades de corte (5 e 15 cm. A produção de MS foi influenciada pelas interações freqüência x intensidade de corte e adubação fosfatada x freqüência de corte. A melhor combinação entre freqüência e intensidade de corte foi de 40 dias e 5 cm, propiciando produção de 10,66 g/vaso de MS. A adubação fosfatada propiciou melhor resultado, quando a freqüência de corte foi de 40 dias (11,70 g/vaso de MS. O perfilhamento do capim-de-raiz foi influenciado pela adubação, freqüência e intensidade de corte.The work was carried out in a greenhouse, at the Animal Science Department/UFRPE, from October 2000 to May 2001, to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilization and different cut systems on the productivity and tillering of the capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton, Doell. The experimental design was completely randomized, distributed in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 x 2, being three levels of application of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha of P2O5, two cut frequencies (30 and 40 days and two cut intensities (5 and 15 cm. Significant interaction between cut frequency and cut intensity as well as phosphorus fertilization and cut frequency for the DM yield was observed. The best combination between cut frequency and cut intensity was 40 days and 5 cm, respectively, with 10.66 g/pot of DM. The phosphorus fertilization showed higher efficacy when the cut frequency was 40 days (11.70 g/pot of DM. Phosphorus

  9. Soil CO2 emission as related to incorporation of sugarcane crop residues and aggregate breaking after rotary tiller Emissão de CO2 do solo em função da incorporação de palha de cana-de-açúcar e quebra de agregados após preparo com enxada rotativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G Teixeira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil tillage is a process that accelerates soil organic matter decomposition transferring carbon to atmosphere, mainly in the CO2 form. In this study, the effect of rotary tillage on soil CO2 emission was investigated, including the presence of crop residues on the surface.Emissions were evaluated during 15 days after tillage in 3 plots: 1 non-tilled and without crop residues on soil surface (NTwo, 2 rotary tiller without the presence of crop residues on soil surface (RTwo, and 3 rotary tiller with the presence of crop residues in soil surface (RTw. Emissions from the RTw plot were higher than the other plots, (0.777 g CO2 m-2 h-1, with the lowest emissions recorded in the NTwo plot (0.414 g CO2 m-2 h-1. Total emission indicates that the difference of C-CO2 emitted to atmosphere corresponds to 3% of the total additional carbon in the crop residues in the RTw plot compared to RTwo. The increase in the RTwo emission in comparison to NTwo was followed by changes in the aggregate size distribution, especially those with average diameter lower than 2 mm. The increase in emission from the RTw plot in relation to RTwo was related to a decrease in crop residue mass on the surface, and its higher fragmentation and incorporation in soil. When the linear correlation between soil CO2 emission, and soil temperature and soil moisture is considered, only the RTw treatment showed significant correlation (pO preparo do solo é um dos processos que aceleram a decomposição da matéria orgânica, transferindo carbono para atmosfera, principalmente na forma de CO2. Neste trabalho, investigou-se o efeito do preparo com enxada rotativa sobre as emissões de CO2 do solo durante 02 semanas após o preparo do solo, incluindo-se a presença de resíduos vegetais sobre a superfície. As emissões foram avaliadas por 15 dias após preparo em 3 parcelas: 1 sem preparo e sem palha superficial (SPs; 2 preparo com enxada rotativa sem a presença de palha na superfície (ERs

  10. Genomewide association study for seeding emergence and tiller ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trait measurements. (i.e. MTW, MTS, ETH and RAT) were estimated from aver- ages of five plants within each plot for subsequent statistical analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlations among phenotypic traits were performed using the statistical soft- ware SPSS ver. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, USA). Heritability (h2).

  11. Genomewide association study for seeding emergence and tiller ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Dezhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Dezhou 253015, People's Republic of China. Abstract. Seeding .... Mexico and France (see table 1 of electronic supplementary material at ... field management followed the standard local practices. RAT ...... ture Liangzhong Project Foundation of China (2014 no. 96) and.

  12. The Experiment of Carbofuran Controlled Release Formulation Insecticide Application on Rice Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulistyati, M.; Ulfa TS; Sofnie M Ch; Kuswadi AN

    2004-01-01

    Field test of carbofuran insecticide (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate) controlled release formulation on rice plants of IR-64 variety was carried out in Pusakanegara, West Java. This insecticide formulation was made by using the mixture of activated charcoal, tapioca, kaolin, Na-alginate as a filler matrix. Insecticide formulation was applied one week after transplanting. The observations were conducted on the number of tillers, damage level caused by Orseolia oryzae (Wood/Mason), Chilo suppressalis (Walker), and Cnaphalocrosis medinalis (Guen) on new young plants. The observation were carried out on three weeks after application of carbofuran insecticide formulation then every two weeks until harvest. The number of tillers were occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation of 20kg/ha, 30kg/ha, and 40kg/ha dose rate on the third weeks, it was showed significant difference compared with commercial carbofuran, and the following weeks were no significant difference between the treatments. The attack of Orseolia oryzae was occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation with dose rate of 30 kg/ha and 40 kg/ha on the seventh weeks, ninth weeks, and eleventh weeks, those attacks were significantly difference found compared with commercial carbofuran. The attack of Chilo suppressalis was occurred at the treatments of controlled release formulation of 40kg/ha dose rate on the fifth weeks, it was showed significant difference which was compared to untreated carbofuran. The attack of Cnaphalocrosis medinalis was occurred on the ninth weeks, three dose rate of controlled released formulation were showed significant differences which compared with commercial carbofuran and were showed 50% less than commercial carbofuran, while the grains dry weight were no significant difference between the treatments. (author)

  13. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauro-Herrera

    Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  14. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  15. Dwarf mutant of rice variety Seratus Malam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono, P. S.; Soemanggono, A.M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'Seratus Malam', a local tall upland variety with long panicles and high yield potential were irradiated with 10-50 krad gamma rays in 1983. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. The dwarf mutant M-362 was obtained from the 10 krad treatment. The mutant shows about 50% reduction in plant height, but also in number of productive tillers. Thus the yield per plant is also significantly less. However, the mutant gene is not allelic to DGWG and therefore may be useful in cross breeding. (author)

  16. Gibberellin deficiency pleiotropically induces culm bending in sorghum: an insight into sorghum semi-dwarf breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ordonio, Reynante L.; Ito, Yusuke; Hatakeyama, Asako; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Sazuka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of symmetrical cell growth in the culm is important for proper culm development. So far, the involvement of gibberellin (GA) in this process has not yet been demonstrated in sorghum. Here, we show that GA deficiency resulting from any loss-of-function mutation in four genes (SbCPS1, SbKS1, SbKO1, SbKAO1) involved in the early steps of GA biosynthesis, not only results in severe dwarfism but also in abnormal culm bending. Histological analysis of the bent culm revealed that the intr...

  17. Evaluation of semi-dwarf mutants in triticale and wheat breeding programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A number of short-statured triticale plants were selected in M 4 following gamma-ray or EMS treatment of seed of Beagle and DR-IRA triticales. Selection for homozygous mutants will be attempted in M 5 . The Cornerstone male sterility mutant mslc is being combined with the three GA-insensitive, reduced-height mutants Gai/Rht1, Gai/Rht2 and Gai/Rht3 in order to establish a composite cross based on homozygosity of a given Gai/Rht allele. This would allow selection for minor genes for increased height on a GA-insensitive, reduced-height background. (author)

  18. semi-dwarf tef lines for high seed yield and lodging tolerance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Three genotypes, namely RIL- 91, RIL-244 and RIL-11, gave the highest seed yield, ranging between 4.4 to 4.7 t ha-1, compared to .... lodging tolerant tef varieties, adapting to the changing ..... moisture stress areas (Tsedey) was grouped.

  19. Response of rice to inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in control lab environment and field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on different growth parameters of rice variety JP-5. Three bacterial strains (Azospirillum brasilense R1, Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1) were used to inoculate rice varietyJP-5 at control lab environment and field. Plant growth promotion was observed in all inoculated treatments over non-inoculated, which was evident from increase in root area, root length, number of tillers, straw and grain yields and total weight of plant. Azospirillum brasilense R1 was more effective in plant growth promotion than other strains and showed 19% increase in the straw weight and 39.5% increase in grain weight. Inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1 increased grain weight by 18.5% and 13.8% respectively. The study revealed that beneficial strains of PGPR can be used as biofertilizer for rice. (author)

  20. Non-enzymatic antioxidant accumulations in BR-deficient and BR-insensitive barley mutants under control and drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszka, Damian; Janeczko, Anna; Dziurka, Michal; Pociecha, Ewa; Fodor, Jozsef

    2017-12-07

    Drought is one of the most adverse stresses that affect plant growth and yield. Disturbances in metabolic activity resulting from drought cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species. It is postulated that brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant tolerance to the stress conditions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. An involvement of endogenous BRs in regulation of the antioxidant homeostasis is not fully clarified either. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants in barley (Hordeum vulgare) under control and drought conditions. The plant material included the 'Bowman' cultivar and a group of semi-dwarf near-isogenic lines (NILs), representing mutants deficient in BR biosynthesis or signaling. In general, accumulations of 11 compounds representing various types of non-enzymatic antioxidants were analyzed under both conditions. The analyses of accumulations of reduced and oxidized forms of ascorbate indicated that the BR mutants contain significantly higher contents of dehydroascorbic acid under drought conditions when compared with the 'Bowman' cultivar. The analysis of glutathione accumulation indicated that under the control conditions the BR-insensitive NILs contained significantly lower concentrations of this antioxidant when compared with the rest of genotypes. Therefore, we postulate that BR sensitivity is required for normal accumulation of glutathione. A complete accumulation profile of various tocopherols indicated that functional BR biosynthesis and signaling are required for their normal accumulation under both conditions. Results of this study provided an insight into the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of the non-enzymatic antioxidant homeostasis. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Combining glyphosate with burning or mowing improves control of Yellow Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S.; Hickman, Karen R.; Harmoney, Keith R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasive yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum [L.] Keng) threatens native biodiversity, and its control is of interest to land managers involved in restoration of invaded grasslands. We used single, double, and triple applications of glyphosate (2.125 kg ai.ha-1.application-1) over the course of one growing season in combinations at different timings (early, middle, late season) with and without a mechanical treatment of mowing or burning to determine the most effective control method. One year after treatment, burning and mowing prior to a mid-season single or double early, middle, and/or late season herbicide application resulted in a similar level of control of yellow bluestem relative to a triple herbicide application, all of which had greater control relative to herbicide treatment alone. Reproductive tiller density and visual obstruction increased 2 yr after treatment with two herbicide treatments applied either early and middle season or early and late season, but it was prevented with burning and mowing prior to herbicide application. With the exception of three herbicide applications, combining burning or mowing with herbicide applications provided more effective control of yellow bluestem than any individual herbicide applications. Burning or mowing likely improves glyphosate effectiveness by altering the invasive grass structure so that plants are clear of standing dead and have shorter, active regrowth to enhance herbicide effectiveness. During restoration projects requiring control of invasive yellow bluestem, an effective management option is a combination of mechanical and chemical control.

  2. Free and Cell Wall-Bound Polyamines under Long-Term Water Stress Applied at Different Growth Stages of ×Triticosecale Wittm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Hura

    Full Text Available Long-stemmed and semi-dwarf cultivars of triticale were exposed to water stress at tillering, heading and anthesis stage. Quantitative determination of free and cell wall-bound polyamines, i.e. agmatine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was supplemented with an analysis of quantitative relationships between free and cell wall-bound polyamines.The content of free and cell wall-bound polyamines varied depending on the development stage, both under optimal and water stress conditions. Drought-induced increase in free agmatine content was observed at all developmental stages in long-stemmed cultivar. A depletion of spermidine and putrescine was also reported in this cultivar, and spermidine was less abundant in semi-dwarf cultivar exposed to drought stress at the three analyzed developmental stages. Changes in the content of the other free polyamines did not follow a steady pattern reflecting the developmental stages. On the contrary, the content of cell wall-bound polyamines gradually increased from tillering, through heading and until anthesis period.Water stress seemed to induce a progressive decrease in the content of free polyamines and an accumulation of cell wall-bound polyamines.

  3. CHR729 Is a CHD3 Protein That Controls Seedling Development in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoding; Ma, Jian; Zhai, Honghong; Xin, Peiyong; Chu, Jinfang; Qiao, Yongli; Han, Longzhi

    2015-01-01

    CHD3 is one of the chromatin-remodeling factors that contribute to controlling the expression of genes associated with plant development. Loss-of-function mutants display morphological and growth defects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CHD3 regulation of plant development remain unclear. In this study, a rice CHD3 protein, CHR729, was identified. The corresponding mutant line (t483) exhibited late seed germination, low germination rate, dwarfism, low tiller number, root growth inhibition, adaxial albino leaves, and short and narrow leaves. CHR729 encoded a nuclear protein and was expressed in almost all organs. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type. In particular, expression of the gibberellin synthetase gibberellin 20 oxidase 4 gene was elevated in the mutant. Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type. Moreover, the seedling dwarfism, late seed germination, and short root length phenotypes of t483 were partially rescued by treatment with exogenous GA3. These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

  4. CHR729 Is a CHD3 Protein That Controls Seedling Development in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoding Ma

    Full Text Available CHD3 is one of the chromatin-remodeling factors that contribute to controlling the expression of genes associated with plant development. Loss-of-function mutants display morphological and growth defects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CHD3 regulation of plant development remain unclear. In this study, a rice CHD3 protein, CHR729, was identified. The corresponding mutant line (t483 exhibited late seed germination, low germination rate, dwarfism, low tiller number, root growth inhibition, adaxial albino leaves, and short and narrow leaves. CHR729 encoded a nuclear protein and was expressed in almost all organs. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type. In particular, expression of the gibberellin synthetase gibberellin 20 oxidase 4 gene was elevated in the mutant. Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type. Moreover, the seedling dwarfism, late seed germination, and short root length phenotypes of t483 were partially rescued by treatment with exogenous GA3. These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

  5. Effects of allelopathic chemicals extracted from various plant leaves on weed control and wheat crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, E.A.; Khakwani, A.A.; Ghazanfarullah, A.

    2015-01-01

    A study on allelopathic effect of leaf water extracts of Eucalyptus, Acacia, Sorghum, Shishum, Sunflower, Poplar, Tobacco and Congress grass on weeds control and growth of wheat cv. Hashim-8 was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan during 2012-2013. The findings of this study revealed that allelopathic chemicals in leaf water extracts of these plants significantly suppressed weeds growth by reducing weed density, fresh and dry weed biomass, and encouraged wheat yield and yield components such as days to 50% heading, plant height, tillers m-2, grain spike-1, 1000-gain weight, biological and grain yield. Even though minimum fresh and dry weed biomass and highest wheat grain yield and yield related components were observed in twice hand weeding treatment which is economically less feasible on large scale. However, our findings showed an alternative allelopathic technique to minimize weed infestation and boost wheat growth and yield using natural plant material. On the basis of present results, it is recommended that leaf water extracts of Sorghum, Sunflower and Congress grass can be applied twice (30 and 60 DAS) during the growing season to control weeds and to enhance wheat grain yield. (author)

  6. Radiomutation induction of dwarf and semidwarf types of domesticated plants in connection with the effectiveness of gibberellic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozsar, B.

    1979-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in plant improvement is reviewed. The intermittant low-dose irradiation of the air-dried seeds increases the rate of dwarf-mutations. This phenomenon was observed in the case of wheat and beans. Dwarfism is constant in the M 1 and M 2 generations, too. Treatment with gibberellinic acid does not alter dwarfism, indicating that irradiation did not only inhibit the synthesis of gibberell ic acid, but induced significant alterations in its action, too. (L.E.)

  7. Rht18 Semidwarfism in Wheat Is Due to Increased GA 2-oxidaseA9 Expression and Reduced GA Content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ford, B. A.; Foo, E.; Sharwood, R.; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Vrána, Jan; MacMillan, C.; Nichols, D. S.; Steuernagel, B.; Uauy, C.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Chandler, M.; Spielmeyer, W.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 177, č. 1 (2018), s. 168-180 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : green-revolution * gibberellin biosynthesis * ectopic expression * common wheat * gene * rice * barley * mutant * chromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  8. Gamma rays effect on inducing semidwarf mutants with good quality in the local durum wheat variety (Hamari)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, Nizar

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to test, under our field conditions, some promising M4-M5 mutant lines that were selected under green house conditions (U.K) from a Ph.D. project aimed at improving protein content in a local Syrian durum wheat variety Hamari. The study lasted 3 years, in the first year there were not enough seeds available for replications, thus, about 90 lines were grown in one location after which many unsatisfactory lines were discarded. In the second and third years 3 recently released varieties and 4 advanced lines from ICARDA were included in the trials with 4 replications and 2 and 3 locations in 1989 and 1990 respectively. Nearest Neighbour Analysis was used to estimate the lines yield performance. The results indicated that, in all locations, there were some mutant lines that surpassed the varieties Sham 3 and Bhuth 1. Moreover, in the dry location (Izraa) 3 mutant lines have out yielded the OM-Al Rabi lines which were produced by ICARDA and described as being suitable in dry areas. The employment of ANOFT and FTAB programme was effective in selecting some lines of interest depending on multiple character selection with variable selection pressure. Such selections resulted in short mutant lines that were better in their yield and quality than the recently released varieties (except for variety Daki in the driest location, Izraa). These results need confirmation for three more years with increasing plot size and locations before sending the superior lines to the national testing and multiplication authorities. (author). 10 refs., 14 tabs

  9. Independent sailing with high tetraplegia using sip and puff controls: integration into a community sailing center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojhani, Solomon; Stiens, Steven A; Recio, Albert C

    2017-07-01

    We are continually rediscovering how adapted recreational activity complements the rehabilitation process, enriches patients' lives and positively impacts outcome measures. Although sports for people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has achieved spectacular visibility, participation by high cervical injuries is often restricted due to poor accessibility, safety concerns, lack of adaptability, and high costs of technology. We endeavor to demonstrate the mechanisms, adaptability, accessibility, and benefits the sport of sailing creates in the rehabilitative process. Our sailor is a 27-year-old man with a history of traumatic SCI resulting in C4 complete tetraplegia. The participant completed an adapted introductory sailing course, and instruction on the sip-and-puff sail and tiller control mechanism. With practice, he navigated an on-water course in moderate winds of 5 to 15 knots. Despite trends toward shorter rehabilitation stays, aggressive transdisciplinary collaboration with recreation therapy can provide community and natural environment experiences while inpatient and continuing post discharge. Such peak physical and psychological experiences provide a positive perspective for the future that can be shared on the inpatient unit, with families and support systems like sailing clubs in the community. Rehabilitation theory directs a team process to achieve patient self-awareness and initiate self-actualization in spite of disablement. Utilization of local community sailing centers that have provided accessible assisted options provides person-centered self-realization of goals as assisted by family and natural supports. Such successful patients become native guides for others seeking the same experience.

  10. Induced lodging resistance in upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam Pillai, M.; Subramanian, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of two short duration but tall upland rice varieties ''PMK 1'' and ''Poongar'', susceptible to lodging, were subjected to mutation breeding in 1988-1989. Dry seeds of these two varieties were treated with 20, 25 and 30 krad of gamma rays and soaked seeds were treated with 40, 50 and 60 mM concentration of EMS. In M 2 generation lodging was measured and a correlation study was made between the angle of lodging and various characters like plant height, length of lower internode, productive tiller number, culm diameter and panicle weight. The angle to which the main tiller can be bent before lodging on the 25th day after flowering was measured by using a protractor. Those plants which lodged at an angle beyond 30 deg. from the vertical plane were classified as lodging. From 60,000 M 2 plants, 78 lodging resistant semi-dwarf mutants and 5 dwarf mutants were selected. As expected, there was generally a negative correlation between internode length and lodging resistance and a positive correlation of culm diameter with lodging resistance. For plant height and tiller numbers, correlations were not so clear. (author)

  11. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  12. Controlling fusarium wilt disease in melon(cucumis melo L.) using tilllered onion bulb extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushu, Z.; Guo, Q.; Xuezheng, W.; Yanan, Z.; Yuting, Li.

    2017-01-01

    Melon wilt disease is a soil-borne disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. This disease incur of the heavy economic loss in melon crops. To decrease damage to melons, many control methods have been developed. However, many of the current control methods have limitations and disadvantages. For example, fungicides may cause health concerns for both humans and the environment due to high toxin content and the presence of residues. Therefore, biological control methods that reduce or eliminate the risk of environmental contamination and threats to human health are urgently needed to solve these issues and to protect melon crops from wilt disease.In this research, we assessed the efficacy of tillered onion bulb extract (TOE) for biocontrol of melon wilt disease in melon. Different concentrations of the TOE have been shown to have inhibitory effects on Fusariumspore germination and growth, pathogenic bacterial biomass, and fungal sporulation, with increased inhibitory effects at higher TOE concentrations. In melon wilt disease, concentrations of TOE greater than 250 mg/mL produced the highest protective effects in both susceptible and resistant melon cultivars. The disease index in resistant varieties was 18%, and the disease control effect was 63.51%, while the disease index in susceptible varieties was 21.41%, and the disease control effect reached 65.96%. These values indicate stronger control effects than those achieved using 40% Ning WP melon blight. High concentrations (over 500 mg/mL) of TOE had strong inhibitory effects on melon seed germination and the activity of protective enzymes in melon cultivars. (author)

  13. Analysis of power tiller noise using diesel-biodiesel fuel blends

    OpenAIRE

    N Keramat Siavash; Gh Najafi; S. R Hassan Beigi Bidgoli; B Ghobadian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There are several sources of noise in an industrial and agriculture environment. Machines with rotating or reciprocating engines are sound-producing sources. Also, the audio signal can be analyzed to discover how well a machine operates. Diesel engines complex noise SPL and sound frequency content both strongly depend on fuel combustion, which produces the so-called combustion noise. Actually, the unpleasant sound signature of diesel engines is due to the harsh and irregular sel...

  14. An Observation of the Sluss-Tiller Civil Affairs Culmination Exercise at Freedom Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of everyday life. Arab-style modern music filled the air as we walked to meet our “guides” for the day. In addition, smoke from a small fire...Adaptive Thinking and Leadership (ATL) coach, the Special Operations Cognitive Enhancement Program (SOCEP) coach, and a unit psychologist. These...think of your next question while staying engaged? • Self-awareness: Were you able you calm yourself and remain focused? • Brain power ( cognitive

  15. A substitution mutation in OsCCD7 cosegregates with dwarf and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dwarf plant height and tillering ability are two of the most important agronomic traits that determine the plant architecture, and have profound influence on grain yield in rice. To understand the molecular mechanism controlling these two traits, an EMS-induced recessive dwarf and increased tillering1 (dit1) mutant was ...

  16. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  17. Control rod control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiji, Takehiko; Obara, Kohei; Yanagihashi, Kazumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable for switching of electric motors for driving each of control rods in a nuclear reactor. Namely, in a control rod controlling device, a plurality of previously allotted electric motors connected in parallel as groups, and electric motors of any selected group are driven. In this case, a voltage of not driving predetermined selected electric motors is at first applied. In this state an electric current supplied to the circuit of predetermined electric motors is detected. Whether integration or failure of a power source and the circuit of the predetermined electric motors are normal or not is judged by the detected electric current supplied. After they are judged normal, the electric motors are driven by a regular voltage. With such procedures, whether the selected circuit is normal or not can be accurately confirmed previously. Since the electric motors are not driven just at the selected time, the control rods are not operated erroneously. (I.S.)

  18. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  19. Control of control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sri Nurdiati, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Shewhart chart is widely used in practice because of its simplicity, applying this control chart to monitor the mean of a process may lead to two types of problems. The first concerns the typically unknown parameters involved in the distribution, while the second concerns the validity

  20. Soil organic carbon stocks in coffee plantations under different weed control systemsEstoques de carbono orgânico do solo em cafezais sob diferentes sistemas de controle de plantas invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Diniz Cogo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (COS is an important indicator of soil quality, as its levels and stocks can change by soil preparation. This study aimed to evaluate COS stocks on a clayey Oxisol cultivated with coffee and subject to different weed control systems in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, and weed control systems were: no weeding, manual weeding, pre-emergence herbicide, post-emergence herbicide, rotary tiller, rotary mowers and disk harrow. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at two positions in the coffee plantation (tire tracks and planting line, at depths of 0-3, 10-13, and 25-28 cm. A nearby native forest was sampled as a reference. A higher bulk density of soils under coffee plantations occurred compared to soil under the forest. There was little difference between COS concentrations in the plating line in relation to the native forest, but for the tire track position, the amount of COS was generally lower. After correction for soil compaction, it was estimated a loss of ca. 20% in SOC stock for te 0-30 cm depth for herbicide post-emergence, rotary tiller, manual weeding and disk barrow, and a 35% loss when using herbicide pre-emergence. SOC stocks under no weeding and rotary mowers did not differ from native forest (37 M-1g ha COS, indicating that the rotary mower, which allows temporary growth of weeds and does not disrupt soil structure, is the most appropriate weed control for the preservation of COS in coffee plantations.O carbono orgânico no solo (COS é um importante indicador da qualidade do solo, pois seus teores e estoques podem ser alterados conforme o sistema de preparo do solo. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os estoques de COS em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico argiloso cultivado com cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L e submetido a diferentes manejos de plantas invasoras no sul de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos os

  1. Dream controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  2. Controllable dose; Dosis controlable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T; Anaya M, R A [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  3. Can epigenetic control explain pronounced within plant heterogeneity of meiosis in a translocation trisome of Secale L.?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybenga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Meiotic metaphase I configuration frequencies were determined in different tillers of genetically related plants of rye (Secale cereale L.) heterozygous for reciprocal translocation T248W (between chromosome arms 1RS and 6RS) and with an additional (telocentric) arm 1RS. Seventeen different

  4. Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Contact Us Share Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... Repellent that is Right for You DEET Mosquito Control Methods Success in mosquito control: an integrated approach ...

  5. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  6. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  7. Neurofuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994).......These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994)....

  8. Control rod position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubukata, Shinji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod position control device which stores data such as of position signals and driving control rod instruction before and after occurrence of abnormality in control for the control rod position for controlling reactor power and utilized the data effectively for investigating the cause of abnormality. Namely, a plurality of individual control devices have an operation mismatching detection circuit for outputting signals when difference is caused between a driving instruction given to the control rod position control device and the control rod driving means and signals from a detection means for detecting an actual moving amount. A general control device collectively controls the individual control devices. In addition, there is also disposed a position storing circuit for storing position signals at least before and after the occurrence of the control rod operation mismatching. With such procedures, the cause of the abnormality can be determined based on the position signals before and after the occurrence of control rod mismatching operation stored in the position storing circuit. Accordingly, the abnormality cause can be determined to conduct restoration in an early stage. (I.S.)

  9. Physiological and biochemical changes during drought and recovery periods at tillering and jointing stages in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Qi, Lei Kang; Zahoor, Rizwan; Tian, Zhongwei; Jiang, Dong; Snider, John L; Dai, Tingbo

    2018-03-15

    Defining the metabolic strategies used by wheat to tolerate and recover from drought events will be important for ensuring yield stability in the future, but studies addressing this critical research topic are limited. To this end, the current study quantified the physiological, biochemical, and agronomic responses of a drought tolerant and drought sensitive cultivar to periods of water deficit and recovery. Drought stress caused a reversible decline in leaf water relations, membrane stability, and photosynthetic activity, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane injury. Plants exhibited osmotic adjustment through the accumulation of soluble sugars, proline, and free amino acids and increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities. After re-watering, leaf water potential, membrane stability, photosynthetic processes, ROS generation, anti-oxidative activities, lipid peroxidation, and osmotic potential completely recovered for moderately stressed plants and did not fully recover in severely stressed plants. Higher photosynthetic rates during drought and rapid recovery after re-watering produced less-pronounced yield declines in the tolerant cultivar than the sensitive cultivar. These results suggested that the plant's ability to maintain functions during drought and to rapidly recover after re-watering during vegetative periods are important for determining final productivity in wheat.

  10. Wheat shovelomics I: A field phenotyping approach for characterising the structure and function of root systems in tillering species

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Malcolm; York, Larry; Foulkes, M; Slack, Shaunagh

    2018-01-01

    Wheat represents a major crop, yet the current rate of yield improvement is insufficient to meet its projected global food demand. Breeding root systems more efficient for water and nitrogen capture represents a promising avenue for accelerating yield gains. Root crown phenotyping, or shovelomics, relies on excavation of the upper portions of root systems in the field and measuring root properties such as numbers, angles, densities and lengths. We report a new shovelomics method that images t...

  11. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hiromi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To realize effective utilization, cost reduction and weight reduction in neutron absorbing materials. Constitution: Residual amount of neutron absorbing material is averaged between the top end region and other regions of a control rod upon reaching to the control rod working life, by using a single kind of neutron absorbing material and increasing the amount of the neutron absorber material at the top end region of the control rod as compared with that in the other regions. Further, in a case of a control rod having control rod blades such as in a cross-like control rod, the amount of the neutron absorbing material is decreased in the middle portion than in the both end portions of the control rod blade along the transversal direction of the rod, so that the residual amount of the neutron absorbing material is balanced between the central region and both end regions upon reaching the working life of the control rod. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which flexible control rods are used to enable insertion of the control rods into guide holes in the core which are distributed over an area larger than the cross section of the control rod penetration in the reactor pressure vessel. Guide tubes extend from the penetration and fan out to the guide holes for guiding the control rods from the penetration to the guide holes

  13. Gaining control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enden, van der E.; Laan, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the efforts of companies to find a solution for tax risk management, tax accounting and being in control. In trying to find a solution, companies work towards an integrated tax control framework (TCF), a tax risk management and control environment embedded in the internal

  14. Associational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the concept of control has had a central position in research into the psychological working environment. Control has been understood as individual autonomy and individual opportunities for development. This article examines whether the concept of control has the same key...

  15. Activation of gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 decreases active gibberellin levels and creates a dominant semi-dwarf phenotype in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Tang, Ding; Shen, Yi; Qin, Baoxiang; Hong, Lilan; You, Aiqing; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Yu, Hengxiu; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2010-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase plays a key role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2beta-hydroxylation. In the present study, we isolated a CaMV 35S-enhancer activation tagged mutant, H032. This mutant exhibited a dominant dwarf and GA-deficient phenotype, with a final stature that was less than half of its wild-type counterpart. The endogenous bioactive GAs are markedly decreased in the H032 mutant, and application of bioactive GAs (GA(3) or GA(4)) can reverse the dwarf phenotype. The integrated T-DNA was detected 12.8 kb upstream of the OsGA2ox6 in the H032 genome by TAIL-PCR. An increased level of OsGA2ox6 mRNA was detected at a high level in the H032 mutant, which might be due to the enhancer role of the CaMV 35S promoter. RNAi and ectopic expression analysis of OsGA2ox6 indicated that the dwarf trait and the decreased levels of bioactive GAs in the H032 mutant were a result of the up-regulation of the OsGA2ox6 gene. BLASTP analysis revealed that OsGA2ox6 belongs to the class III of GA 2-oxidases, which is a novel type of GA2ox that uses C20-GAs (GA(12) and/or GA(53)) as the substrates. Interestingly, we found that a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, positively regulated the OsGA2ox6 gene. Unlike the over-expression of OsGA2ox1, which led to a high rate of seed abortion, the H032 mutant retained normal flowering and seed production. These results indicate that OsGA2ox6 mainly affects plant stature, and the dominant dwarf trait of the H032 mutant can be used as an efficient dwarf resource in rice breeding. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Arabidopsis semidwarfs evolved from independent mutations in GA20ox1, ortholog to green revolution dwarf alleles in rice and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barboza, L.; Effgen, S.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Kooke, R.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Koornneef, M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the genetic bases of natural variation for developmental and stress-related traits is a major goal of current plant biology. Variation in plant hormone levels and signaling might underlie such phenotypic variation occurring even within the same species. Here we report the genetic and

  17. Efficacy of various pre and post-emergence herbicides to control weeds in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, G.M.N.U.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of various pre and post-emergence herbicides viz. pyroxasulfone at the rate 0.15 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/, terbutryn + triasulfuron at the rate 0.18 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and flufenacet + pyroxasulfone at the rate 0.24 + 0.15 kg a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence while flufenacet at the rate 0.24 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/, carfentrazone ethyl + isoproturon at the rate 0.018 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/, bromoxynil + MCPA at the rate 0.49 kg a.i. ha/sup -/ as post-emergence and hand weeding at (20 and 40 DAS) with a weedy check were tested against narrow and broad leaved weeds in wheat during Rabi season 2008-09. The results revealed that Fumaria indica, Melilotus indica and Rumex dentatus density significantly decreased by all the herbicides compared with control. Bromoxynil + MCPA at the rate 0.49 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ as post-emergence application was most effective in controlling F. indica, M. indica and R. dentatus with maximum mortality at both (30 and 60 DAS) without being phytotoxic to wheat. Bromoxynil + MCPA at the rate 0.49 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ as post-emergence spray proved significantly better than other herbicide treatments as it severely reduced the weeds biomass as compared to weedy check. Spike bearing tillers (355.75), spike length (15.07 cm), number of grains spike-1 (52.00) and 1000-grain weight (54.00 g) were maximum in bromoxynil + MCPA at the rate 0.49 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ as post-emergence treated plots, which ultimately enhanced the yield up to 39.13% over control. Bromoxynil + MCPA at the rate 0.49 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ as post-emergence gave the maximum net income of Rs. 97345 ha/sup -1/. However, maximum MRR (%) of 191730 was obtained with the use of bromoxynil + MCPA followed by flufenacet with the MRR (%) of 67590. (author)

  18. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  19. Taking Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast gives action steps and reasons to control diabetes.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/2/2007.

  20. Control Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Inspired by William Glasser's Reality Therapy ideas, Control Theory (CT) is a disciplinary approach that stresses people's ability to control only their own behavior, based on internal motivations to satisfy five basic needs. At one North Dakota high school, CT-trained teachers are the program's best recruiters. (MLH)

  1. CONTROL ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.E.; Matras, S.

    1963-04-30

    This patent shows a method of making a fuel or control rod for a nuclear reactor. Fuel or control material is placed within a tube and plugs of porous metal wool are inserted at both ends. The metal wool is then compacted and the tube compressed around it as by swaging, thereby making the plugs liquid- impervious but gas-pervious. (AEC)

  2. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even if you aren’t going for birth control. What doesn’t work to prevent pregnancy? top It’s ... and taking care of a baby’s many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...

  3. Integrated controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    During 1984, all portions of the Nova control system that were necessary for the support of laser activation and completion of the Nova project were finished and placed in service on time. The Nova control system has been unique in providing, on schedule, the capabilities required in the central control room and in various local control areas throughout the facility. The ambitious goal of deploying this system early enough to use it as an aid in the activation of the laser was accomplished; thus the control system made a major contribution to the completion of Nova activation on schedule. Support and enhancement activities continued during the year on the VAX computer systems, central control room, operator consoles and displays, Novanet data communications network, system-level software for both the VAX and LSI-11 computers, Praxis control system computer language, software management tools, and the development system, which includes office terminals. Computational support was also supplied for a wide variety of test fixtures required by the optical and mechanical subsystems. Significant new advancements were made in four areas in integrated controls this year: the integration software (which includes the shot scheduler), the Praxis language, software quality assurance audit, and software development and data handling. A description of the accomplishments in each of these areas follows

  4. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. This podcast discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  5. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  6. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Shimoshige, Takanori; Nishimura, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: A control rod has been developed, which provided a plurality of through-holes in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position, in order to flatten burn-up, of fuel rods in positions confronting a control rod. Thereby to facilitate the manufacture of the control rods and prevent fuel rod failures. Constitution: A plurality of through-holes are formed in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position of a central support rod to which a sheath for the control rod is fitted. These through-holes are arranged in the axial direction of the central support rod. Accordingly, burn-up of fuel rods confronting the control rods can be reduced by through-holes and fuel rod failures can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Controle de plantas daninhas em soja com doses reduzidas de herbicidas Soybean weed control with reduced rates of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson G. Fleck

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available doses reduzidas dos herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e sethoxydim para controlar papuã [Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitchc.] na cultura da soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill. Haloxyfop-methyl foi testado nas doses de 120, 90, 60 e 30+30 g/ha; já sethoxydim o foi nas doses de 220, 165, 110 e 55+55 g/ha. A pulverização dos herbicidas ocorreu 15 dias após a semeadura da soja; nesta ocasião, a maioria das plantas de papuã encontravam-se no estádio de três a quatro folhas. Os tratamentos herbicidas com doses reduzidas em aplicações seqüenciais, tiveram a segunda pulverização realizada 11 dias após a primeira aplicação. Foi obtido controle ao redor de 95% para todos os tratamentos, com pequenas variações não significativas. O rendimento de grãos de soja foi equivalente entre a testemunha capinada e os tratamentos haloxyfop-methyl a 90 e 60 g/ha, sethoxydim a 220, 110 e 55+55 g/ha. Os demais tratamentos foram semelhantes entre si, superando a testemunha infestada, a qual apresentou o menor rendimento de grãos. Os resultados evidenciam a viabilidade da utilização de doses reduzidas, as quais podem alcançar patamares de produtividade tão elevados quanto aqueles obtidos com doses plenas.During the 1993/94 growing season, it was carried out a field experiment at the Agronomic Experimental Station of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil, in order to evaluate the possibility of using reduced rates of the herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and sethoxydim for Alexandergrass [Brachiaria plafitaginea (Link Hitchc.] control in soybeans. Haloxyfop-methyl was tested at 120, 90, 60, and 30+30 g/ha, where as sethoxydim was at rates, of 220, 165, 110, and 55+55 g/ha. Herbicide spraying occurred 15 days after soybean sowing; at this time Alexandergrass plants ranged from one leaf to one tiller. Herbicide treatments using reduced rates in sequential applications had the second spraying accomplished 11 days after the first one

  8. SAD1, an RNA polymerase I subunit A34.5 of rice, interacts with Mediator and controls various aspects of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Yoshida, Akiko; Takahashi, Megumu; Maekawa, Masahiko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kyozuka, Junko

    2015-01-01

    The DWARF14 (D14) gene of rice functions within the signaling pathway of strigolactones, a group of plant hormones that inhibits shoot branching. We isolated a recessive mutant named super apical dormant (sad1-1) from a suppressor screen of d14-1. The growth of tillers (vegetative shoot branches) is suppressed in both the d14-1 sad1-1 double mutant and the sad1-1 single mutant. In addition, the sad1-1 mutant shows pleiotropic defects throughout development. SAD1 encodes an ortholog of RPA34.5, a subunit of RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Consequently, the level of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is severely reduced in the sad1-1 mutant. These results indicate that proper ribosome function is a prerequisite for normal development in plants. The Arabidopsis ortholog of SAD1 was previously isolated as a Mediator-interacting protein. Here we show that SAD1 interacts physically with the Mediator complex through direct binding with OsMED4, a component of the middle module of the Mediator complex in rice. It is known that Mediator interacts with Pol II, which transcribes mRNAs and functions as a central regulator of transcription. This study indicates a novel aspect of Mediator function in Pol I-controlled rRNA transcription. TFIIF2 and RPC53 are the counterparts of RPA34.5 in Pol II and Pol III, respectively. We demonstrate that the rice orthologs of these proteins also interact with OsMED4. Our results suggest that interaction with MED4 in the Mediator complex is a common feature of the three types of RNA polymerases. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Describing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouet, J.M.; Starynkevitch, B.

    1987-01-01

    Incremental development and maintenance of large systems imply that control be clearly separated from knowledge. Finding efficient control for a given class of knowledge is itself a matter of expertise, to which knowledge-based methods may and should be applied. We present here two attempts at building root systems that may later be tuned by knowledge engineers, using the semantics of each particular application. These systems are given heuristics in a declarative manner, which they use to control the application of heuristics. Eventually, some heuristics may be used to compile others (or themselves) into efficient pieces of programmed code

  10. Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Harvey S.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)

  11. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  12. Control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.

    1990-01-01

    The current state of knowledge about screen systems for application in traffic (e.g., flight control), process control, and production is presented. The 29 lectures, 5 of which relate to aviation, deal with the optimization of the man-machine interface with respect to unusual operating situations and adequate presentation and action methods on the basis of taks and event analyses integrating the users. (DG) [de

  13. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects one third of U.S. adults and is a leading cause of heart disease and stroke. A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  14. DELLA genes restrict inflorescence meristem function independently of plant height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Bencivenga, Stefano; Bush, Max; Schiessl, Katharina; Boden, Scott; Sablowski, Robert

    2017-09-01

    DELLA proteins associate with transcription factors to control plant growth in response to gibberellin 1 . Semi-dwarf DELLA mutants with improved harvest index and decreased lodging greatly improved global food security during the 'green revolution' in the 1960-1970s 2 . However, DELLA mutants are pleiotropic and the developmental basis for their effects on plant architecture remains poorly understood. Here, we show that DELLA proteins have genetically separable roles in controlling stem growth and the size of the inflorescence meristem, where flowers initiate. Quantitative three-dimensional image analysis, combined with a genome-wide screen for DELLA-bound loci in the inflorescence tip, revealed that DELLAs limit meristem size in Arabidopsis by directly upregulating the cell-cycle inhibitor KRP2 in the underlying rib meristem, without affecting the canonical WUSCHEL-CLAVATA meristem size regulators 3 . Mutation of KRP2 in a DELLA semi-dwarf background restored meristem size, but not stem growth, and accelerated flower production. In barley, secondary mutations in the DELLA gain-of-function mutant Sln1d 4 also uncoupled meristem and inflorescence size from plant height. Our work reveals an unexpected and conserved role for DELLA genes in controlling shoot meristem function and suggests how dissection of pleiotropic DELLA functions could unlock further yield gains in semi-dwarf mutants.

  15. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Isao; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent fuel element failures during power conditioning by removing liquid absorbents in poison tubes of control rods in a fast power up step and extracting control rods to slightly increase power in a medium power up step. Constitution: A plurality of poison tubes are disposed in a coaxial or plate-like arrangement and divided into a region capable of compensating the reactivity from the initial state at low temperature to 40% power operation and a region capable of compensating the reactivity in the power up above 40% power operation. Soluble poisons are used as absorbers in the poison tubes corresponding to above 40% power operation and they are adapted to be removed independently from the driving of control rods. The poison tubes filled with the soluble absorbers are responsible for the changes in the reactivity from the initial state at low temperature to the medium power region and the reactivity control is conducted by the elimination of liquid absorbers from the poison tubes. In the succeeding slight power up region above the medium power, power up is proceeding by extracting the control rods having remaining poison tubes filled with solid or liquid absorbers. (Seki, T.)

  16. Losing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Lust, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    picking disorder). CONCLUSIONS: Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant......OBJECTIVE: Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders......, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. METHODS: The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening...

  17. Coordinating controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-07-15

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics.

  18. Helicopter Controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    106 3. Program CC Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) of Hawthorne, CA., develops and markets PC control system analysis and design software including...is marketed in Palo Alto, Ca., by Applied i and can be used for both linear and non- linear control system analysis. Using TUTSIM involves developing...gravity centroid ( ucg ) can be calculated as 112 n m pi - 2 zi acg n i (7-5) where pi = poles zi = zeroes n = number of poles m = number of zeroes If K

  19. Coordinating controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics

  20. Topology control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.; Wagner, D.; Wattenhofer, R.

    2007-01-01

    Information between two nodes in a network is sent based on the network topology, the structure of links connecting pairs of nodes of a network. The task of topology control is to choose a connecting subset from all possible links such that the overall network performance is good. For instance, a

  1. Control mental

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    La revista especialitzada NeuroReport ha publicat un article que m'ha aportat nous elements de reflexió sobre els mecanismes neurals de control mental que, de forma innata, realitzem les persones com a part de la nostra vida social.

  2. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takao; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Sugawara, Satoshi; Fukumoto, Takashi; Endo, Zen-ichiro; Saito, Shozo; Shinpo, Katsutoshi; Nishimura, Akira; Ozawa, Michihiro

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a sufficient shutdown margin upon reactor shutdown, prevent sheath deformation without decreasing neutron absorbents and prevent impact shocks exerted to structural materials. Constitution: The control rod of the present invention comprises a neutron absorption region, a sheath deformation means attached to the side wall and means for restricting and supporting axial movement of the neutron absorbent rod. Then, the amount of absorptive nuclei chained absorbents in the lower region is reduced than that in the upper region. In this way, effective neutron absorbing performance can be obtained relative to the neutron importance distribution during reactor shutdown. In addition, since the operationability is improved by reducing the weight of the control rod and the absorptive nuclei chained neutron abosrbers are used, mechanical nuclear life of the control rod can be increased. Thus, it is possible to prevent the outward deformation of the sheath, as well as prevent collision between the neutron absorber rod and the structural material on the side of inserting the control rod generated upon reactor scram by a simple structure. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...

  4. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  5. Controllable dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  6. quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skujina, A.; Purina, S.; Riekstina, D.

    1999-01-01

    The optimal objects: soils, spruce needles and bracken ferns were found for the environmental monitoring in the regions of possible radioactive contamination - near SalaspiIs nuclear reactor and Ignalina nuclear power plant. The determination of Sr-90 was based on the radiochemical separation of Sr-90 (=Y-90) by HDEHP extraction and counting the Cerenkov radiation. The quality control of the results was carried out. (authors)

  7. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  8. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Inoue, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To flatten the power distribution in the reactor core without impairing neutron economy by disposing pins containing elements of lower atomic number in the central region of a shroud and loading pins containing depleted uranium in the periphery region thereof. Constitution: The shroud has a layer of pins containing depleted uranium in the peripheral region and a layer of pins containing elements of lower atomic number such as beryllium in the central region. Heat removal from those pins containing depleted uranium and elements of lower atomic number (neutron moderator) is effected by sodium flow outside of the cladding material. The control rod operation is conducted by inserting or extracting the central portion (pins containing elements of lower atomic number such as beryllium) inside of the stainless pipe. Upon extraction of the control rod, the moderator in the central region is removed whereby high speed neutrons are no more deccelerated and the absorption rate to the depleted uranium is decreased. This can flatten the power distribution in the reactore core with the disposition of a plurality of control rods at a better neutron economy as compared with the use of neutron absorber such as boron. (Seki, T.)

  9. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Kawashima, Norio; Goto, Yasuyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron absorbers are contained in a tubular member comprising, integrally a tubular portion and four corners disposed at the outer circumference of the tubular portion at every 90deg, to provide a neutron absorbing tube. A plurality of neutron absorbing tubes are arranged in parallel in the lateral direction, and adjacent corners are joined, into a blade to constitute a control rod. Such a control rod has a great structural strength, simple in the structure and relatively light in weight and can contain a great amount of neutron absorbers. Upon formation of the control rod by arranging the blades in a cross-like shape, at least a portion thereof is constituted with short neutron absorbing tubes shorter than the entire length of the blade, and gaps are formed at positions in adjacent in the axial direction. With such a constitution, there is no worry that a wing end of the blade collides against or be abraded with a fuel channel box or a fuel support. Even if fuel channels are vibrated upon scram of the reactor, such as occurrence of earthquakes, it can be inserted to the reactor easily. (N.H.)

  10. Controlled fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  11. Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    can be written as â fj (t) =WO tanh( WIx (t)+bI)+bO, (38) where WI , WO are the input and output matrices, respectively, and bI and bO are the input...applications, present on envisioned airborne optical platforms . One of the problems is that all adaptive optical systems rely on mechanically moving some...of successfully controlling the optical aberration due to the flow over the aperture of airborne optical platforms . As outlined above, systems

  12. Métodos de controle de plantas invasoras na cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. e componentes da acidez do solo Weed control methods and soil acidity components in coffee plantation (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elifas Nunes Alcântara

    2007-12-01

    not been studied, particularly in the long term. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different weed control methods on soil acidity components of a coffee plantation on a dystroferric Red Latosol in an experiment installed at EPAMIG Experimental Station, in São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, Brazil. Seven weed control treatments were evaluated: mower (MW, coffee tandem disk harrow (TD, rotary tiller (RT, post (CH and pre-emergency herbicide (RH application, hand hoe (HH and no weed control (NC. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized block design with three repetitions. Soil samples were collected every two years, for each treatment, starting in 1980, in the 0-0.15 to 0.15-0.30 m soil layers and assessed for pH, Al3+ (mmol c dm-3, effective acidity (H + Al (mmol c dm-3, and Al3+ saturation (%. The HR system increased Al3+ content and saturation and the effective acidity and reduced the pH, compared to the other weed control methods, especially the control (NC. Contrarily to the RH, the NC treatment resulted in higher pH values, Al3+ content and Al3+ saturation in both soil layers. The MW treatment was closest to the SC treatment, while the other weed control systems did not differ significantly.

  13. Improving understanding of controls on spatial variability in methane fluxes in Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Scott J.; Sloan, Victoria; Phoenix, Gareth; Wagner, Robert; Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change relative to the rest of the globe, and this increase in temperature has feedback effects across hydrological and thermal regimes, plant community distribution and carbon stocks within tundra soils. Arctic wetlands account for a significant amount of methane emissions from natural ecosystems to the atmosphere and with further permafrost degradation under a warming climate, these emissions are expected to increase. Methane (CH4) is an extremely important component of the global carbon cycle with a global warming potential 28.5 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100 year time scale (IPCC, 2013). In order to validate carbon cycle models, modelling methane at broader landscape scales is needed. To date direct measurements of methane have been sporadic in time and space which, while capturing some key controls on the spatial heterogeneity, make it difficult to accurately upscale methane emissions to the landscape and regional scales. This study investigates what is controlling the spatial heterogeneity of methane fluxes across Arctic tundra. We combined over 300 portable chamber observations from 13 micro-topographic positions (with multiple vegetation types) across three locations spanning a 300km latitudinal gradient in Northern Alaska from Barrow to Ivotuk with synchronous measurements of environmental (soil temperature, soil moisture, water table, active layer thaw depth, pH) and vegetation (plant community composition, height, sedge tiller counts) variables to evaluate key controls on methane fluxes. To assess the diurnal variation in CH4 fluxes, we also performed automated chamber measurements in one study site (Barrow) location. Multiple statistical approaches (regression tree and multiple linear regression) were used to identify key controlling variables and their interactions. Methane emissions across all sites ranged from -0.08 to 15.3 mg C-CH4 m-2 hr-1. As expected, soil moisture was the main control

  14. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takao; Sugawara, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Saito, Shozo; Fukumoto, Takashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and thereby obtain satisfactory operationability of control rods by combining absorbing nuclear chain type neutron absorbers and conventional type neutron absorbers in the axial direction of blades. Constitution: Neutron absorber rods and long life type neutron absorber rods are disposed in a tie rod and a sheath. The neutron absorber rod comprises a poison tube made of stainless steels and packed with B 4 C powder. The long life type neutron absorber rod is prepared by packing B-10 enriched boron carbide powder into a hafnium metal rod, hafnium pipe, europium and stainless made poison tube. Since the long life type absorber rod uses HF as the absorbing nuclear chain type neutron absorber, it absorbs neutrons to form new neutron absorbers to increase the nuclear life. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Control Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Wayne R.

    2018-03-20

    A control valve includes a first conduit having a first inlet and a first outlet and defining a first passage; a second conduit having a second inlet and a second outlet and defining a second passage, the second conduit extending into the first passage such that the second inlet is located within the first passage; and a valve plate disposed pivotably within the first passage, the valve plate defining a valve plate surface. Pivoting of the valve plate within the first passage varies flow from the first inlet to the first outlet and the valve plate is pivotal between a first position and a second position such that in the first position the valve plate substantially prevents fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage and such that in the second position the valve plate permits fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage.

  16. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  17. [Effects of controlled release blend bulk urea on soil nitrogen and soil enzyme activity in wheat and rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Sheng; Wang, Chang Quan; Li, Bing; Liang, Jing Yue; He, Jie; Xiang, Hao; Yin, Bin; Luo, Jing

    2017-06-18

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) combined with urea (UR) on the soil fertility and environment in wheat-rice rotation system. Changes in four forms of nitrogen (total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and microbial biomass nitrogen) and in activities of three soil enzymes participating in nitrogen transformation (urease, protease, and nitrate reductase) were measured in seven fertilization treatments (no fertilization, routine fertilization, 10%CRF+90%UR, 20%CRF+80%UR, 40%CRF+60%UR, 80%CRF+20%UR, and 100%CRF). The results showed that soil total nitrogen was stable in the whole growth period of wheat and rice. There was no significant difference among the treatments of over 20% CRF in soil total nitrogen content of wheat and rice. The soil inorganic nitrogen content was increased dramatically in treatments of 40% or above CRF during the mid-late growing stages of wheat and rice. With the advance of the growth period, conventional fertilization significantly decreased soil microbial biomass nitrogen, but the treatments of 40% and above CRF increased the soil microbial biomass nitrogen significantly. The soil enzyme activities were increased with over 40% of CRF in the mid-late growing stage of wheat and rice. By increasing the CRF ratio, the soil protease activity and nitrate reductase activity were improved gradually, and peaked in 100% CRF. The treatments of above 20% CRF could decrease the urease activity in tillering stage of rice and delay the peak of ammonium nitrogen, which would benefit nitrogen loss reduction. The treatments of 40% and above CRF were beneficial to improving soil nitrogen supply and enhancing soil urease and protease activities, which could promote the effectiveness of nitrogen during the later growth stages of wheat and rice. The 100% CRF treatment improved the nitrate reductase activity significantly during the later stage of wheat and rice. Compared with the

  18. Custom controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butell, Bart

    1996-02-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic (VB) and Borland's Delphi provide an extremely robust programming environment for delivering multimedia solutions for interactive kiosks, games and titles. Their object oriented use of standard and custom controls enable a user to build extremely powerful applications. A multipurpose, database enabled programming environment that can provide an event driven interface functions as a multimedia kernel. This kernel can provide a variety of authoring solutions (e.g. a timeline based model similar to Macromedia Director or a node authoring model similar to Icon Author). At the heart of the kernel is a set of low level multimedia components providing object oriented interfaces for graphics, audio, video and imaging. Data preparation tools (e.g., layout, palette and Sprite Editors) could be built to manage the media database. The flexible interface for VB allows the construction of an infinite number of user models. The proliferation of these models within a popular, easy to use environment will allow the vast developer segment of 'producer' types to bring their ideas to the market. This is the key to building exciting, content rich multimedia solutions. Microsoft's VB and Borland's Delphi environments combined with multimedia components enable these possibilities.

  19. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the fuel safety by constituting a control rod with a plurality of poison bodies suspended in a cross-like section and shorter length poison bodies made movable and engageable in the gap between each of the above poison bodies thereby maintaining the function of the shorter length poison constant. Constitution: Cross-like supports are secured to the upper and lower parts of a driving shaft journaled in a sheath and poison bodies composed of neutron absorber poisons of a large thermal neutron absorption cross section and neutron absorber poison tubes for containing them are suspended from the supports. A movable cross-like support is mounted slidably at its base to the lower part of the driving shaft and poison bodies shorter than the above poison bodies and composed of neutron absorber poisons having a greater absorption cross section at the neutron energy region higher than thermal neutron region and neutron poison tubes for containing them are suspended to the movable support at the position capable of engaging in the gap between each of the poison bodies. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Akira

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes on how the condition of radiation level in the ring (storage ring) experimentation room changes corresponding to the operating stage of SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring), and does not describe on the present radiation control in the SOR facility. The operating stage of SOR is divided into the following five: (1) 307 MeV electron injection, (2) 307 MeV electron storage (used for SOR experiments), (3) energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV, (4) 380 MeV electron storage, (5) re-injection and completion of operation. Gamma and X ray levels are shown when electron beam is injected from the electron synchrotron to the SOR-ring. Two main causes of the high level are reported. Spatial dose rate in storing 307 MeV electrons in also illustrated. This is sufficiently lower than that at electron incidence. The measurement of radiation level at the time of energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV has just started. Since the radiation level in 380 MeV storage, measured at the points about 20 cm apart from the electron orbit, showed several mR/h, the level seems to be negligible at the points where experiments are carried out, 1 m away from the measurement points. The radiation level in electron reinjection and completion of operation may be large during a short period (a few Roentgen) like the time of energy increase. Therefore, the beam shall be re-injected or decreased after confirming that all experimenters have retreated into the predetermined place. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Active vibration control by robust control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohar, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies active vibration control of multi-degree-of-freedom system. The control techniques considered are LTR, H/sup 2/ and H/sup infinite/. The results show that LTR controls the vibration but its respective settling time is higher than that of the other techniques. The control performance of H/sup infinite/ control is similar to that of H/sup 2/ control in the case of it weighting functions. However, H/sup infinite/ control is superior to H/sup 2/ control with respect to robustness, steady state error and settling time. (author)

  2. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  3. Seletividade e eficiência agronômica de herbicidas no controle de capim-colchão na cultura da melancia Selectivity and agronomic efficiency of herbicides over Digitaria horizontalis control in the watermelon crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber D.G. Maciel

    2002-09-01

    .a./ha with 1.0 L/ha of mineral oil (Dytrol; sethoxydim (184 g/L in the dosage of 230 g i.a./ha with 1.0 L/ha of mineral oil (Assist; free of weeds and weedy. The herbicides were applied in post-emergency, when the watermelon had branches up to 1.4 m long and the D. horizontalis presented three leaves and three tillers, and density of 240 plants/m². The injury evaluations (E.W.R.C., control (0-100% and weed control. were performed at 7. 15 and 30 days after application of treatments. The clethodim herbicide, in the dosage of 96 g i.a./ha or higher, controlled efficiently the D. horizontalis (100, being more efficient than sethoxydim in controlling weeds. None of chemical treatments affected the watermelon development and production. Weedy plots with D. horizontalis interfered in the culture development, resulting in a 36% reduction on watermelon production.

  4. Control panel for CMC 8080 crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Inokuchi

    1978-01-01

    The main features of Control Panel for CAMAC Crate Controller CMC 8080 are described. The control panel can be directly connected with CRATE CONTROLLER's front panel connector with a 50 lines cable without any changes in CMC 8080 system circuits. (author)

  5. Uniting Control Lyapunov and Control Barrier Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romdlony, Zakiyullah; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear control design for solving the problem of stabilization with guaranteed safety. The design is based on the merging of a Control Lyapunov Function and a Control Barrier Function. The proposed control method allows us to combine the design of a stabilizer based on

  6. Interaction between production control and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bij, van der J.D.; Ekert, van J.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study on interaction between systems for production control and quality control within industrial organisations. Production control and quality control interact in a sense. Good performance for one aspect often influences or frustrates the performance of the other. As far as

  7. Control heeft vele gezichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, H.B.A.

    The editorial summarizes several perspectives of control, including the control conducted by supervisors, control based on classical budgeting, control by analytics, et cetera, and relates these angles to the papers in this issue of the journal.

  8. Hierarchical Control of Thermostatically Controller Loads for Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    reserve references. At the middle level, distribution substations estimate the available power of TCLs based on the aggregated bin model, and dispatch control signals to individual TCLs. At the local level, a supplementary frequency control loop is implemented at the local controller, which makes TCLs...... respond to the frequency event autonomously. Case studies show that the proposed controller can efficiently respond to frequency events and fulfill the requirement specified by the system operator. The users’ comforts are not compromised and the short cycling of TCLs is largely reduced. Due...... to the autonomous control, the communication requirement is minimized....

  9. Effects of Different Planting Times of Different Rice Cultivars on Control of the Striped Stem Borer (Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oskou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the world’s most important staple food crops. In Asia, it is the main item of the diet of 3.5 billion people. Rice stem borers are common insect pests in many rice growing countries. Striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker, belonging to Lepidoptera and family of Pyralidae is the most important rice pest in the Northern Iran. Stem borer larva damages rice stem and disturbs nutrient translocation from root to leaf. As the result, tillers in vegetative stage died, which is called dead heart. When larva infests generative stage, it causes empty panicle, which is called white head. Integrated pest management (IPM practices for controlling the stem borers in Iran have not been fully implemented because of limited control technologies which are available. Farmers often rely on heavily insecticide application, although many insecticide applications are not effective. Therefore, many physical and cultural practices have been suggested, including adjustment of planting time to escape the plant from heavy pest. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in deputy of rice research institute in Amol, Mazandaran, Iran, during 2011-2012. The experiment was arranged in split plot design with planting time as main plot and cultivar as subplot and was replicated three times. Three planting times tested were the first planting time i.e. 15 days before farmers’ planting time, the second planting time (simultaneously with farmers’ planting time, and the third planting time (15days after farmers’ planting time. Six rice cultivars tested, representing three types of rice cultivar, Tarom and Kohsar (early maturity cultivars, Shirodi and Fajr (medium maturity cultivars, Neda and Nemat (late maturity cultivar. Rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm planting distance in a 3 m x 9 m plot size. Weeding and fertilization were done as recommended. No insecticide was applied. Dead hearts and white heads were

  10. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  11. Covariance upperbound controllers for networked control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with designing covariance upperbound controllers for a linear system that can be used in a networked control environment in which control laws are calculated in a remote controller and transmitted through a shared communication link to the plant. In order to compensate for possible packet losses during the transmission, two different techniques are often employed: the zero-input and the hold-input strategy. These use zero input and the latest control input, respectively, when a packet is lost. For each strategy, we synthesize a class of output covariance upperbound controllers for a given covariance upperbound and a packet loss probability. Existence conditions of the covariance upperbound controller are also provided for each strategy. Through numerical examples, performance of the two strategies is compared in terms of feasibility of implementing the controllers

  12. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  13. Controlling chaotic systems via nonlinear feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a new method to control chaotic systems is proposed. Using Lyapunov method, we design a nonlinear feedback controller to make the controlled system be stabilized. A numerical example is given to illuminate the design procedure and advantage of the result derived

  14. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  15. Introduction of digital control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin

    1988-01-01

    This book is one of mechatronics series. It deals with digital control, which includes what is digital control?, display way of control system, output of primary system, secondary system like example of system and display way of the system, stabilizing of control system such as method to decide stability and system out of control, displaying equation of state into vector, good control such as the right characteristic, transient behavior and design of position control system using DC servo motor.

  16. Solid state controller three axes controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The reported flight controller features a handle grip which is mounted on a longitudinally extending control element. The handle grip is pivotally mounted on the control element about a pitch axis which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis through the control element. The pivotal mounting includes a resilient force mounting mechanism which centers the grip relative to the control element. Rotation of the handle grip produces a direct rotation of a transducer element in a transducer which provides an electrical indication of the rotative movement about three mutually perpendicular axes.

  17. PID control with robust disturbance feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawai, Fukiko; Vinther, Kasper; Andersen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance Feedback Control (DFC) is a technique, originally proposed by Fuji Electric, for augmenting existing control systems with an extra feedback for attenuation of disturbances and model errors. In this work, we analyze the robustness and performance of a PID-based control system with DFC...... and performance (if such gains exist). Finally, two different simulation case studies are evaluated and compared. Our numerical studies indicate that better performance can be achieved with the proposed method compared with a conservatively tuned PID controller and comparable performance can be achieved when...... compared with an H-infinity controller....

  18. Organizational Control: Two Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, William G.; Maguire, Mary Ann

    1975-01-01

    Distinguishes between two modes of organizational control, personal surveillance (behavior control) and the measurement of outputs (output control). Output control occurs in response to a manager's need to provide legitimate evidence of performance, while behavior control is exerted when means-ends relations are known and appropriate instruction…

  19. Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  20. BSF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Ishii, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Sasaki, H.; Sakai, I.

    1982-08-01

    The booster synchrotron utilization facility (BSF) is a facility which utilizes the four fifths of available beam pulses from the KEK booster synchrotron. The BSF control system includes the beam line control, interactions with the PS central control room and the experimental facilities, and the access control system. A brief description of the various components in the control system is given. (author)

  1. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  2. Justification for parameters of a dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit in studying of active rotational working tools of tiller machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir F. Kupryashkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article deals with design options and technological modes of the dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit for studying tillage machine active rotating work tools. Based on theoretical and experimental studies, the possibility the movable module instability was discovered. This negatively affects on implementing the experiment program trough the especific method. The need in engineering solutions for the defect correction is shown. In addition, the authors consider the structural features and characteristics of the used devices for providing the stabilization of the movable module in the study of active rotating work tools of tillage machines. An electromagnetic brake dynamic stabilizer in the structure of the existing rolling module was proposed as an engineering device. Materials and Methods: A theoretical study of rolling module stability, based on synthesis of basic regulations and laws of mechanics related to active rotating work tools was conducted. As a result of the theoretical research, a design scheme of movable module loading was created. This scheme includes the design features and structural power factors. Results: A database representing the settings of power specification in the motion stability determining the mobile unit was created. Further use of the database values allow supporting the most optimal location of the electromagnetic brake with its design options. Discussion and Conclusions: The research of the electromagnetic brake in a mobile unit promoted stabilizing the unit movement, increased the frequency of its use and provided data that are more precise during experiments.

  3. Performance of Mentik Wangi rice (Oryza sativa, L.) M2 generation from gamma ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, A.; Parjanto; Nandariyah; Wulandari, S.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research is to produce Mentik Wangi rice with shorter flowering age, shorter rice stem and high yield. This research was conducted in Palur Village, Mojolaban Sub-district, Sukoharjo District, from April to August 2016. This research used descriptive method, performed by observing each individual and comparing to the control average. Observational variables included plant height, total number of tillers, number of productive tillers, panicle length, number of grain per panicle, panicle density index, 1,000 filled seed weight, seed weight of cluster, flowering age and M2 mutant selection. The results showed that there were several plants indicated mutation, there were 7 plants indicate short stem mutation with height 85 cm to 97 cm. The plants which indicated short flowering age were 5 weeks after planting up to 6 weeks after planting. The mutated plants indicating of the highest number of productive tillers which were 27 up to 36. Each component result includes total number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of grain of panicle as well as the weight of 1000 seeds in the plant indicated some mutation that has a high level of diversity in each treatment.

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis provides new insights into erect and prostrate growth in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Xiaolin; Zong, Junqin; Chen, Jingbo; Li, Jianjian; Guo, Hailin; Liu, Jianxiu

    2017-12-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) is a prominent warm-season turf and forage grass species with multiple applications. In most C. dactylon cultivars and accessions, erect-growing stems (shoot) and prostrate-growing stems (stolon) often coexist. These two types of stems are both formed through tillering but grow in two directions with different tiller angles. Elucidating the mechanism of tiller angle regulation in bermudagrass could provide important clues to breed cultivars with different plant architectural features for diverse usage. In this study, we compared the stem internode transcriptome of two bermudagrass wild accessions with extremely different tiller angles and stem growth directions. A total of 2088 and 12,141 unigenes were preferentially expressed in prostrate-growing wild accession C792 and erect-growing wild accession C793, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology-based Annotation System (KOBAS) analyses further indicated that light- and gravity-responsive genes were enriched in accession C792, whereas lignin synthesis-related genes were enriched in accession C793, which well explains the difference in lignification of vascular bundles and mechanical tissues in the two accessions. These results not only expand our understanding of the genetic control of tiller angle and stem growth direction in bermudagrass but also provide insight for future molecular breeding of C. dactylon and other turfgrass species with different plant architectures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated Control Using the SOFFT Control Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1996-01-01

    The need for integrated/constrained control systems has become clearer as advanced aircraft introduced new coupled subsystems such as new propulsion subsystems with thrust vectoring and new aerodynamic designs. In this study, we develop an integrated control design methodology which accomodates constraints among subsystem variables while using the Stochastic Optimal Feedforward/Feedback Control Technique (SOFFT) thus maintaining all the advantages of the SOFFT approach. The Integrated SOFFT Control methodology uses a centralized feedforward control and a constrained feedback control law. The control thus takes advantage of the known coupling among the subsystems while maintaining the identity of subsystems for validation purposes and the simplicity of the feedback law to understand the system response in complicated nonlinear scenarios. The Variable-Gain Output Feedback Control methodology (including constant gain output feedback) is extended to accommodate equality constraints. A gain computation algorithm is developed. The designer can set the cross-gains between two variables or subsystems to zero or another value and optimize the remaining gains subject to the constraint. An integrated control law is designed for a modified F-15 SMTD aircraft model with coupled airframe and propulsion subsystems using the Integrated SOFFT Control methodology to produce a set of desired flying qualities.

  6. ISABELLE control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.; Frankel, R.S.; Niederer, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Design principles for the Brookhaven ISABELLE control intersecting storage ring accelerator are described. Principal features include a locally networked console and control computer complex, a system wide process data highway, and intelligent local device controllers. Progress to date is summarized

  7. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  8. Olivo-Cerebellar Controller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R

    2008-01-01

    ...) used in a maneuvering controller or control system of an underwater vehicle. In order to attain the objects described, the present invention provides closed-loop control of multiple inferior olives (IOs...

  9. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  10. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  11. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  12. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  13. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  14. A new controllable damper with neuro controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Saito, O.; Yokoi, R.; Morishita, S.

    1993-01-01

    A new controllable damper is proposed for suppressing the vibration of the piping system for wide frequency range. Electro-Rheological fluid (ER fluid) is enclosed in the damper casing in place of oil, and the apparent viscosity of ER fluid can be varied by applying electric field strength (E.F.S.), which is controlled by an adaptive neural network controller. The shaking test is conducted about a simplified L-shaped piping model with a prototype controllable damper. The test results show the effectiveness of the presented controllable damper for suppressing very small amplitude vibration of the piping system. Furthermore an application of neural network is discussed to control E.F.S. of the electrode. (author)

  15. Digital control programmer for temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajore, S.B.; Kumar, S.V.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a PC based digital control programmer for controlling and programming temperature of a high vacuum resistance heating furnace and the software developed to control power using PID algorithm. It also describes the amplifier specially developed to suit the input requirement of the non-standard W5 thermocouple and the software and hardware protections introduced in the system. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  16. Control and optimal control theories with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Burghes, D N

    2004-01-01

    This sound introduction to classical and modern control theory concentrates on fundamental concepts. Employing the minimum of mathematical elaboration, it investigates the many applications of control theory to varied and important present-day problems, e.g. economic growth, resource depletion, disease epidemics, exploited population, and rocket trajectories. An original feature is the amount of space devoted to the important and fascinating subject of optimal control. The work is divided into two parts. Part one deals with the control of linear time-continuous systems, using both transfer fun

  17. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Haruo; Morimoto, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To operate a reactor always with safety operation while eliminating the danger of tripping. Constitution: In a reactor control device adapted to detect the process variants of a reactor, control a control rod drive controlling system based on the detected signal to thereby control the driving the control rods, control the reactor power and control the electric power generated from an electric generator by the output from the reactor, detection means is provided for the detection of the electric power from said electric generator, and a compensation device is provided for outputting control rod driving compensation signals to the control rod driving controlling system in accordance with the amount of variation in the detected value. (Seki, T.)

  18. Power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukawa, Naohiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the load of an operator by automatically operating the main controller, the speed controller, etc. of a recirculation control system and safely operating them without erroneous operation for long period of time, thereby improving the efficiency of a plant. Constitution: An electric type hydraulic control device controls loads of a turbine and a generator and outputs a control signal also to the main controller of a recirculation flow rate control system. At this time, the main controller is set at an automatic position, and the speed controller receives a recirculation pump speed signal from the main controller at the automatic position. The speed controller outputs a pump speed control signal to the recirculation pump system, and a reactor generates a power corresponding thereto. When the power control is automatically performed by the recirculation flow rate control, an operator sets a rate of change of the recirculation pump speed and the rate of change of the mean power range monitor at a change rate setting unit. Therefore, the control of the recirculation flow rate under the power control can be substantially entirely automated. (Yoshigara, H.)

  19. Process and apparatus for controlling control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebelin, B.; Couture, R.

    1987-01-01

    This process and apparatus is characterized by 2 methods, for examination of cluster of nuclear control rods. Foucault current analyzer which examines fraction by fraction all the control rods. This examination is made by rotation of the cluster. Doubtful rods are then analysed by ultrasonic probe [fr

  20. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust

  1. Try to Control Yourself!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Timm J.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional management controls employees, but successful management encourages and enables employees to control themselves. Where control resides in an organization can be determined by examining its performance tracking systems. Most are management information systems. The best are owned and used by the employees to control and adjust their own…

  2. Evaluation of Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Suciu; Pipu-Nicolae Barsan

    2013-01-01

    Performance is indissolubly tied to control. Performance cannot be obtained without a strong, adequate control, regardless if it is in the public or private sector. Control is one of management’s attributes and it must be organized, implemented and evaluated in every company, regardless of its size. Each person from a company participates to a greater or lesser extent in the control activities.

  3. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  4. Exotic biological control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Hurley, Brett P.; Kenis, Marc; Garnas, Jeffrey R.; Bush, Samantha J.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Lenteren, van Joop C.; Cock, Matthew J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control is a valuable and effective strategy for controlling arthropod pests and has been used extensively against invasive arthropods. As one approach for control of invasives, exotic natural enemies from the native range of a pest are introduced to areas where control is needed.

  5. Optimal decoupling controllers revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020197 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : linear systems * fractional representations * decoupling control lers * stabilizing control lers * optimal control lers Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  6. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  7. Catastrophes control problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of catastrophe control is discussed. Catastrophe control aims to withdraw responsible engineering constructions out of the catastrophe. The mathematical framework of catastrophes control systems is constructed. It determines the principles of systems filling by the concrete physical contents and, simultaneously, permits to employ modern control methods for the synthesis of optimal withdrawal strategy for protected objects

  8. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible...... in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important....... Firstly, it is assumed that the nonlinear processes can be divided into a dynamic linear part and static nonlinear part. Consequently the processes with input nonlinearity and output nonlinearity are treated separately. With the nonlinearity at the input it is easy to set up a model which is linear...

  9. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  10. Responses of upland rice to fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Abdul Khalik Wood; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Zaini Hamzah

    1996-01-01

    The concentration and uptake of macro nutrients, micro nutrients and toxic elements were compared to dry matter yield, biomass components and primary and secondary tillering. Plant tissue analysis of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, Mn, Na, Ca, Al, Cr, As, Th and Ce were carried out using chemical and neutron activation analysis. N and K were found to accumulate in the green vegetative biomass whereas P, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were bound in the dead-plus-senesced component. Compared to control, urea fertilization increased the dry matter yield and uptakes of N, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Na, Al, Th and Ce by upland rice. In addition to similar increases; cattle manuring also increased the green vegetative biomass, secondary tillering and uptake of K, Cl, Co, Cr and As. With the exception of Th uptake, upland rice Oryza Sativa var. Seri Pelanduk subjected to cattle manuring responded better to the uptake of various elements and produced more secondary tillers

  11. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  12. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  13. CONTROLLING AND BUSINESS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vuko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing business successfully in dynamic environment requires effective controlling system. Controlling is the process of defining objectives, planning and management control so that every decision maker can act in accordance with agreed objectives. Controlling function as a separate department contributes business efficiency trough ensuring transparency of business result and business processes. Controlling takes place when manager and controller cooperate. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of controlling function (i.e. controlling department in Croatian companies and to address the specific features of the function that contribute significantly to overall business performance. The research is conducted on the sample of companies listed on the Regulated market of the Zagreb Stock Exchange. Survey is used as a method to collect the data regarding the controlling function, while financial data necessary for the research are extracted from the published financial statements. Results of the research indicate that controlling department has positive effects on the business performance.

  14. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Power, M.A.; Bryan, M.

    1992-01-01

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  15. Control of Bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of bioprocess control is to ensure that the plant operates as designed. This chapter presents the fundamental principles for control of biochemical processes. Through examples, the selection of manipulated and controlled variables in the classical reactor configurations is discussed, so...... are control objectives and the challenges in obtaining good control of the bioreactor. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the bioreactor control problems and to highlight some general traits that distinguish operation of bioprocesses from operation of processes in the conventional chemical process...... industries. It also provides a number of typical control loops for different objectives. A brief introduction to the general principles of process control, the PID control algorithm is discussed, and the design and effect of tuning are shown in an example. Finally, a discussion of novel, model-free control...

  16. Foundations Of Fuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well...... as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID...

  17. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Akiyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable three types of controls, that is, level control, scram control and excess reactivity control required for a reactor by a same mechanism by feeding neutron absorber liquid and pressure control gas to several blind pipes provided in the reactor core. Constitution: A plurality of blind pipes are disposed spaced apart in a reactor core and connected by way of injection pipes to a neutron absorber liquid tank. A pressure regulator is connected to the blind pipes, to which pressure control gas is supplied. The neutron absorber liquid used herein consists of sodium, potassium or their alloy, or mercury as a basic substance incorporated with one or more selected from boron, tantalum, rhenium, europium or their compounds. The level control, scram control and excess reactivity control can be attained by moderating the pressure changes in the pressure control gas or by regulating the fluctuation in the liquid level. (Horiughi, T.)

  18. Applied predictive control

    CERN Document Server

    Sunan, Huang; Heng, Lee Tong

    2002-01-01

    The presence of considerable time delays in the dynamics of many industrial processes, leading to difficult problems in the associated closed-loop control systems, is a well-recognized phenomenon. The performance achievable in conventional feedback control systems can be significantly degraded if an industrial process has a relatively large time delay compared with the dominant time constant. Under these circumstances, advanced predictive control is necessary to improve the performance of the control system significantly. The book is a focused treatment of the subject matter, including the fundamentals and some state-of-the-art developments in the field of predictive control. Three main schemes for advanced predictive control are addressed in this book: • Smith Predictive Control; • Generalised Predictive Control; • a form of predictive control based on Finite Spectrum Assignment. A substantial part of the book addresses application issues in predictive control, providing several interesting case studie...

  19. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  20. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  1. Trust and controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka; Zabłocka-Kluczka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controll...

  2. Arduino based laser control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Muñoz, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    ARDUINO is a vey usefull platform for prototypes. In this project ARDUINO will be used for controling a Semiconductor Tuneable Laser. [ANGLÈS] Diode laser for communications control based on an Arduino board. Temperature control implementation. Software and hardware protection for the laser implementation. [CASTELLÀ] Control de un láser de comunicaciones ópticas desde el ordenador utilizando una placa Arduino. Implementación de un control de temperatura y protección software y hardware ...

  3. Pneumatic control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Seong Gil; Kim, Won Hoe; Nam, Dae Hyun

    1993-03-01

    This book contains property of pneumatic pressure drive, pneumatic pressure device like air cleaning, pressure control, lubricators, air pressure pipe, kinds and function of pneumatic pressure equipment like pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic motor, flow control valve, direction control valve, design of pneumatic control circuit, pneumatic system design, cause and measurement of pneumatic circuit failure, PLC and pneumatic control like introduction and system application and method of PLC programing.

  4. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  5. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  6. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-01-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p max . This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic

  7. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  8. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang E-mail: chenmoon110@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-07-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p{sub max}. This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic.

  9. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  10. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  11. CAMAC multipurpose microprocessor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakova, M.P.; Nemesh, T.; Buj Zoan Chong.

    1978-01-01

    The use of CAMAC controllers in an autonomous system of data acquisition and measurement is considered. The system consists of a control intelligence controller, memory modules, and user modules in the CAMAC standard. The controller and all the modules have an output into the highway and this permits to exchange data among them without using special external cables. To increase the servicing rate, an auxiliary controller which has direct access to memory and controls the user modules, is additionally connected to the data acquisition and measurement system. In this case, the intelligence controller is passive. The system of data acquisition can be realized in the form of a multiple system with branch usage. The controller module width is three units, and the controller incorporates the Intel-8080-type microprocessor and the following interfaces: of CAMAC highways, of interruption, of memory bootstrap, and of data sequence channel

  12. Control rod shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Higashigawa, Yuichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod terminating system in a BWR type nuclear power plant, which stops an induction electric motor as rapidly as possible to terminate the control rods. Namely, the control rod stopping system controls reactor power by inserting/withdrawing control rods into a reactor by driving them by the induction electric motor. The system is provided with a control device for controlling the control rods and a control device for controlling the braking device. The control device outputs a braking operation signal for actuating the braking device during operation of the control rods to stop the operation of the control rods. Further, the braking device has at least two kinds of breaks, namely, a first and a second brakes. The two kinds of brakes are actuated by receiving the brake operation signals at different timings. The brake device is used also for keeping the control rods after the stopping. Even if a stopping torque of each of the breaks is small, different two kinds of brakes are operated at different timings thereby capable of obtaining a large stopping torque as a total. (I.S.)

  13. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Control rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akio.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reliable insertion and drops of control rods, as well as insure a sufficient flow rate of coolants flowing through the control rods for attaining satisfactory cooling thereof to enable relexation of thermal stress resulted to rectifying mechanisms or the likes. Constitution: To the outer circumference of a control rod contained vertically movably within a control rod guide tube, resistive members are retractably provided in such a way as to project to close the gap between outer circumference of the control rod and the inner surface of the control rod guide tube upon engagement of a gripper of control rod drives, and retract upon release of the engagement of the gripper. Thus, since the resistive members project to provide a greater resistance to the coolants flowing between them and the control rod guide tube in the normal operation where the gripper is engaged to drive the control rod by the control rod drives, a major part of the coolant flowing into the control rod guide tube flows into the control rod. This enables to cool the control rod effectively and make the temperature distribution uniform for the coolant flowing from the upper end of the control rod guide tube to thereby attain the relaxation of the thermal stress resulted in the rectifying mechanisms or the likes. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Control rod displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, S.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  16. Intelligent control-III: fuzzy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrial, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade or so, fuzzy logic control (FLC) has emerged as one of the most active and fruitful areas of research and development. The applications include industrial process control to medical diagnostic and financial markets. Many consumer products using this technology are available in the market place. FLC is best suited to complex ill-defined processes that can be controlled by a skilled human operator without much knowledge of their underlying dynamics. This lecture will cover the basic architecture and the design methodology of fuzzy logic controllers. FLC will be strongly based on the concepts of fuzzy set theory, introduced in first lecture. Some practical applications will also be discussed and presented. (author)

  17. Control and automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Zillich, H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of control and automation systems for energy uses. General remarks about control and automation schemes are followed by a description of modern process control systems along with process control processes as such. After discussing the particular process control requirements of nuclear power plants the paper deals with the reliability and availability of process control systems and refers to computerized simulation processes. The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to descriptions of the operating floor, ergonomic conditions, existing systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, the electromagnetic influences on digital circuits as well as of light wave uses. (HAG) [de

  18. Electricity sequence control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Heung Ryeol

    2010-03-01

    The contents of the book are introduction of control system, like classification and control signal, introduction of electricity power switch, such as push-button and detection switch sensor for induction type and capacitance type machinery for control, solenoid valve, expression of sequence and type of electricity circuit about using diagram, time chart, marking and term, logic circuit like Yes, No, and, or and equivalence logic, basic electricity circuit, electricity sequence control, added condition, special program control about choice and jump of program, motor control, extra circuit on repeat circuit, pause circuit in a conveyer, safety regulations and rule about classification of electricity disaster and protective device for insulation.

  19. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  20. Programmable Digital Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassick, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.

  1. Robot welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  2. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  3. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay.......The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...

  4. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  5. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  6. Embedded controllers for local board-control

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, Niko; Mini, Giuseppe; Sannino, Mario; Guzik, Zbigniew; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has a large number of custom electronic boards performing high-speed data-processing. Like in any large experiment the control and monitoring of these crate-mounted boards must be integrated into the overall control-system. Traditionally this has been done by using buses like VME on the back-plane of the crates. LHCb has chosen to equip every board with an embedded micro-controller and connecting them in a large Local Area Network. The intelligence of these devices allows complex (soft) real-time control and monitoring, required for modern powerful FPGA driven electronics. Moreover each board has its own, isolated control access path, which increases the robustness of the entire system. The system is now in pre-production at several sites and will go into full production during next year. The hardware and software will be discussed and experiences from the R&D and pre-production will be reviewed, with an emphasis on advantages and difficulties of this approach to board-control.

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock ampersand Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA's) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation's abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock ampersand Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of

  8. Control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, H.

    1980-01-01

    To control a 1300 megawatt nuclear power plant, about 15000 plant parameters must be collected together to control and operate the plant. The control room design therefore is of particular importance. The main design criteria are: Required functions of the power plant process - Level of Automation - Ergonomics - Available Technology. Extensive analysis has resulted in a control room design method. This ensures that an objective solution will be reached. Resulting from this methodical approach are: 1. Scope, position and appearance of the instrumentation. 2. Scope, position and appearance of the operator controls. Process analysis dictates what instrumentation and operator controls are needed. The priority and importance of the control and instrumentation (this we define as the utilisation areas), dictates the rough layout of the control room. (orig./RW)

  9. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  10. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  11. Method of controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochihara, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactivity controlling characteristics by artificially controlling the leakage of neutron from a reactor and providing a controller for controlling the reactivity. Method: A reactor core is divided into several water gaps to increase the leakage of neutron, its reactivity is reduced, a gas-filled control rod or a fuel assembly is inserted into the gap as required, the entire core is coupled in a system to reduce the leakage of the neutron, and the reactivity is increased. The reactor shutdown is conducted by the conventional control rod, and to maintain critical state, boron density varying system is used together. Futher, a control rod drive is used with that similar to the conventional one, thereby enabling fast reactivity variation, and the positive reactivity can be obtained by the insertion, thereby improving the reactivity controlling characteristics. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. The remote control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The remote-control system is applied in order to control various signals in the car of the spectrometer at distance. The construction (hardware and software) as well as the operation of the system is described. (author). 20 figs

  13. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    activities directed towards the students and the general public. Designed .... attention has been directed towards the use of control and automation to mitigate the effects of those ... The history of automatic control can be divided into four main.

  14. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  15. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's ...

  16. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's ...

  17. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's ...

  18. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Patch KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Patch What's ...

  19. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  20. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  1. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  2. SPECT quality control tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.; Rebelo, M.F.S.; Oliveira, M.A.; Abe, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control tests of tomographic system composed by a rotatory chamber (CGR Gammatomome T-9000) and a microcomputer are presented. Traditional quality control tests for scintilation chambers and specific tests for tomographic systems are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Identification for Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.

    1995-01-01

    Identification of model error bounds for robust control design has recently achieved much attention.......Identification of model error bounds for robust control design has recently achieved much attention....

  4. The LHCb Run Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Callot, O; Duval, P-Y; Franek, B; Frank, M; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; v Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P

    2010-01-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provid...

  5. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  6. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process...

  7. System for controlling apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  8. Strategies for humidity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgarth, S

    1987-01-01

    Humidity and temperature control in air-conditioning systems mostly involves coupled closed-loop control circuits. The author discusses their uncoupling and resulting consequences as well as energy-optimized control of recirculation air flaps or enthalpy recovering systems (h-x control) in detail. Special reference is made of the application of the DDC technology and its scope, limits and preconditions. In conclusions, the author presents pertinent measurement results. (orig.).

  9. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  10. Quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalla, A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the modalities and periodicities of internal quality control on radiotherapy installations. They indicate the different concerned systems and the aspects and items to be controlled (patient and personnel security, apparatus mechanical characteristics, beam quality, image quality, isodose and irradiation duration calculation, data transfer). They present the measurement instruments and tools used for the mechanical controls, dose measurement, beam homogeneity and symmetry, anatomic data acquisition systems, and dose distribution and control imagery calculation

  11. Fuzzy Control Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotoli, M.; Jantzen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The tutorial concerns automatic control of an inverted pendulum, especially rule based control by means of fuzzy logic. A ball balancer, implemented in a software simulator in Matlab, is used as a practical case study. The objectives of the tutorial are to teach the basics of fuzzy control......, and to show how to apply fuzzy logic in automatic control. The tutorial is distance learning, where students interact one-to-one with the teacher using e-mail....

  12. Control rod velocity limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cearley, J.E.; Carruth, J.C.; Dixon, R.C.; Spencer, S.S.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a velocity control arrangement for a reciprocable, vertically oriented control rod for use in a nuclear reactor in a fluid medium, the control rod including a drive hub secured to and extending from one end therefrom. The control device comprises: a toroidally shaped control member spaced from and coaxially positioned around the hub and secured thereto by a plurality of spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the toroidal member spaced therefrom in coaxial position. The side of the control member toward the control rod has a smooth generally conical surface. The side of the control member away from the control rod is formed with a concave surface constituting a single annular groove. The device also comprises inner and outer annular vanes radially spaced from one another and spaced from the side of the control member away from the control rod and positioned coaxially around and spaced from the hub and secured thereto by spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the vanes. The vanes are angled toward the control member, the outer edge of the inner vane being closer to the control member and the inner edge of the outer vane being closer to the control member. When the control rod moves in the fluid in the direction toward the drive hub the vanes direct a flow of fluid turbulence which provides greater resistance to movement of the control rod in the direction toward the drive hub than in the other direction

  13. Tokamak control simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelbaum, T.N.; Serben, S.; Var, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A computer model of a tokamak experimental power reactor and its control system is being constructed. This simulator will allow the exploration of various open loop and closed loop strategies for reactor control. This paper provides a brief description of the simulator and some of the potential control problems associated with this class of tokamaks

  14. Reactor control system. PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWR type reactors have been operated in Japan since the start of Mihama Unit 1 operation in 1970 and various improvements have been made to upgrade operability of power stations as well as reliability and safety of power plants. As the share of nuclear power increases, further improvements of operating performance such as load following capability will be requested for power stations with more reliable and safer operation. This article outlined the reactor control system of PWR type reactors and described the control performance of power plants realized with those systems. The PWR control system is characterized that the turbine power is automatic or manually controlled with request of the electric power system and then the nuclear power is followingly controlled with the change of core reactivity. The system mainly consists of reactor automatic control system (control rod control system), pressurizer pressure control system, pressurizer water level control system, steam generator water level control system and turbine bypass control system. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Process control program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper details the development and implementation of a ''Process Control Program'' at Duke Power's three nuclear stations - Oconee, McGuire, and Catawba. Each station is required by Technical Specification to have a ''Process Control Program'' (PCP) to control all dewatering and/or solidification activities for radioactive wastes

  16. Adaptive LQG controller tuning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Miroslav; Böhm, Josef; Nedoma, Petr; Tesař, Ludvík

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 655-665 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0204; GA AV ČR IBS1075102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : adaptive controller * LQG controller * controller design Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003

  17. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  18. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-21

    Intersoft- ware, Logic Control Control y Aplicaciones , Dielsa, Eliop, EISA, Sainco CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Standard CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Piher...regulation systems Industrial turbine of advanced design Alfa Sewing Machines Control y Aplicaciones , Danobat, Etxe-Tar C02, CO and ultraviolet lasers

  19. FFTF control system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrick, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF control systems provide control equipment for safe and efficient operation of the plant. For convenience, these systems will be divided into three parts for discussions: (1) Plant Protection System (PPS); (2) Plant Control System (PCS); and (3) General Observations. Performance of each of these systems is discussed

  20. Atomic Energy Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This act provides for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The board is responsible for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy. The board is also considered necessary to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy

  1. Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is based in physics, physics-chemical and biological controls. Between the different controls can be enumerated the following: visual aspect,side, number of particle beams,activity,purity,ph,isotonicity,sterility,radioinmunoessay,toxicity,stability and clinical essay

  2. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  3. Fluid control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid control valve is described in which it is not necessary to insert a hand or a tool into the housing to remove the valve seat. Such a valve is particularly suitable for the control of radioactive fluids since maintenance by remote control is possible. (UK)

  4. Neutron generator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelman, H.E.; Bridges, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of controlling the neutron output of a neutron generator tube used in neutron well logging. The system operates by monitoring the target beam current and comparing a function of this current with a reference voltage level to develop a control signal used in a series regulator to control the replenisher current of the neutron generator tube. (U.K.)

  5. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  6. Distributed Power Flow Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In modern power systems, there is a great demand to control the power flow actively. Power flow controlling devices (PFCDs) are required for such purpose, because the power flow over the lines is the nature result of the impedance of each line. Due to the control capabilities of different types of

  7. Global marketing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John Rance; Galina Zhiltsova

    2009-01-01

    The reasoning issue of this work is to research and define the efficient methods of global marketing control. The report is focused on the following aspects: the importance of the control systems in global marketing environment, the relationship between planning and controlling, types and the

  8. Plasma control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain the optimum controllability for the plasmas and the thermonuclear device by selectively executing control operation for proportion, integration and differentiation (PID) by first and second controllers respectively based on selection instruction signals. Constitution: Deviation between a vertical direction equilibrium position: Zp as the plasma status amount measured in a measuring section and an aimed value Zref thereof is inputted to a first PID selection controller. The first controller selectively executes one of the PID control operations in accordance with the first selection signal instruction instructed by a PID control operation instruction circuit. Further, Zp is also inputted to a second PID selection controller, which selectively executes one of the PID control operations in accordance with the second selection instruction signal in the same manner as in the first controller. The deviation amount u between operations signals u1 and u2 from the first and second PID selection controllers is inputted to a power source to thereby supply a predetermined current value to control coils that generate equilibrium magnetic fields for making the vertical direction equilibrium position of plasmas constant. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Control of mitochondrial respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tager, J. M.; Wanders, R. J.; Groen, A. K.; Kunz, W.; Bohnensack, R.; Küster, U.; Letko, G.; Böhme, G.; Duszynski, J.; Wojtczak, L.

    1983-01-01

    The control theory of Kacser and Burns [in: Rate Control of Biological Processes (Davies, D.D. ed) pp. 65-104, Cambridge University Press, London, 1973] and Heinrich and Rapoport [Eur. J. Biochem. (1974) 42, 97-105] has been used to quantify the amount of control exerted by different steps on

  10. Microbial control of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J C; Gadd, G M; Herbert, R A; Jones, C W; Watson-Craik, I A [eds.

    1992-01-01

    12 papers are presented on the microbial control of pollution. Topics covered include: bioremediation of oil spills; microbial control of heavy metal pollution; pollution control using microorganisms and magnetic separation; degradation of cyanide and nitriles; nitrogen removal from water and waste; and land reclamation and restoration.

  11. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...

  12. Optimal magnetic attitude control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic...

  13. Automobile control technology and traffic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaba, Sadao [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1988-09-05

    In the field of automobile control technology, electronic was first adopted for the electronic fuel control as an answer to the exhaust gas regulations. The operations of the driving system, frame system or the automobile itself which is the combination of the two were optimized by adding sensors, computers, actuators, etc. to alleviate the burden of the driver, offering easier drivability and confortableness. For local driving control, measurement of distance up to obstacle has been practiced using the ultrasonic radar sensor. Research and development of microwave radar sensor have been carried out for years. Automatic driving has been a dream technology, and the study for the technology was started since early times. Remarkable progress was made recently in the navigation system for traffic control in wide area. New automobile traffic information communication and other systems are being developed. Historical description is made on the control and information systems for road transportation, dividing the period into the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations. 10 references.

  14. Arbitrating Control of Control and Display Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    The ARINC 739 Switch is a computer program that arbitrates control of two multi-function control and display units (MCDUs) between (1) a commercial flight-management computer (FMC) and (2) NASA software used in research on transport aircraft. (MCDUs are the primary interfaces between pilots and FMCs on many commercial aircraft.) This program was recently redesigned into a software library that can be embedded in research application programs. As part of the redesign, this software was combined with software for creating custom pages of information to be displayed on a CDU. This software commands independent switching of the left (pilot s) and right (copilot s) MCDUs. For example, a custom CDU page can control the left CDU while the FMC controls the right CDU. The software uses menu keys to switch control of the CDU between the FMC or a custom CDU page. The software provides an interface that enables custom CDU pages to insert keystrokes into the FMC s CDU input interface. This feature allows the custom CDU pages to manipulate the FMC as if it were a pilot.

  15. Controle de dez espécies daninhas em cana-de-açúcar com o herbicida mesotrione em mistura com ametryn e metribuzin Control of ten weed species in sugarcane using mesotrione mixed with ametryn and metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    -emergence control is the great challenge. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the herbicide mesotrione in mixture with ametryn and metribuzin in the post-emergence control of ten weeds sown in sugarcane, variety RB86-7515. The weeds used in the experiment were: Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis, Panicum maximum, Amaranthus deflexus, Bidens pilosa, Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea nil and Sida glaziovii, sown in between the rows after crop emergence. The herbicides were applied on the 45th day after sugarcane planting when the monocotyledon weeds reached the third tiller phase and the dicotyledon weeds completed three to four leaves. The following treatments were carried out: mesotrione (120 g ha-1; ametryn (2,000 g ha-1; metribuzin (1,920 g ha-1; mesotrione + ametryn (120 g + 2,000 g ha-1; mesotrione + metribuzin (120 g + 1,920 g ha-1 and control with and without weeds. It was concluded that the herbicides, isolated or in mixture, were selective to sugarcane. Regarding control efficiency, it was observed that the herbicide mesotrione was efficient in the control of A. deflexus; ametryn was efficient in the control of A. deflexus, B. pilosa and I. nil; metribuzin was efficient in the control of A. deflexus, B. pilosa and S. glaziovii; mesotrione + ametryn were efficient in the control of B. decumbens, B. plantaginea, D. horizontalis, P. maximum, A. deflexus, B. pilosa, I. nil and S. glaziovii, and mesotrione + metribuzin was efficient in the control of B. plantaginea, D. horizontalis, P. maximum, A. deflexus, B. pilosa and S. glaziovii. A high synergistic effect of mesotrione was verified with the tested herbicides, with the mixture with ametryn being the most prominent.

  16. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A reactor core, one or more control rods, and a control rod drive are described for selectively inserting and withdrawing the one or more control rods into and from the reactor core, which consists of: a support structure secured beneath the reactor core; control rod positioning means supported by the support structure for movably supporting the control rod for movement between a lower position wherein the control rod is located substantially beneath the reactor core and an upper position wherein at least an upper portion of the control rod extends into the reactor core; transmission means; primary drive means connected with the control rod positioning means by the transmission means for positioning the control rod under normal operating conditions; emergency drive means for moving the control rod from the lower position to the upper position under emergency conditions, the emergency drive means including a weight movable between an upper and a lower position, means for movably supporting the weight, and means for transmitting gravitational force exerted on the weight to the control rod positioning means to move the control rod upwardly when the weight is pulled downwardly by gravity; the transmission means connecting the control rod positioning means with the emergency drive means so that the primary drive means effects movement of the weight and the control rod in opposite directions under normal conditions, thus providing counterbalancing to reduce the force required for upward movement of the control rod under normal conditions; and restraint means for restraining the fall of the weight under normal operating conditions and disengaging the primary drive means to release the weight under emergency conditions

  17. Customs control of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research question, consists in defining the moment of customs control pre or post-clearance control of goods.

  18. Internet congestion control

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Subir

    2015-01-01

    Internet Congestion Control provides a description of some of the most important topics in the area of congestion control in computer networks, with special emphasis on the analytical modeling of congestion control algorithms. The field of congestion control has seen many notable advances in recent years and the purpose of this book, which is targeted towards the advanced and intermediate reader, is to inform about the most important developments in this area. The book should enable the reader to gain a good understanding of the application of congestion control theory to a number of applic

  19. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  20. Span of control matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Deb; Jeska, Susan; Karnas, Joan; Miller, Sue E; Pechacek, Judy; Rheault, Lolita

    2004-09-01

    Prompted by manager concerns about span of control, a large, integrated health system set out to determine if span of control really mattered. Was there something to it, or was it just an excuse for poor performance? A team of middle managers studied the problem and ultimately demonstrated a strong relationship between span of control and employee engagement. Consequently, it was decided to add 4 management positions to note the effect. One year later, positive changes were observed in employee engagement scores in all 4 areas. This study suggests careful review of manager spans of control to address the untoward effects of large spans of control on employee engagement.

  1. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  2. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  3. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To secure the reactor operation safety by the provision of a fluid pressure detecting section for control rod driving fluid and a control rod interlock at the midway of the flow pass for supplying driving fluid to the control rod drives. Constitution: Between a driving line and a direction control valve are provided a pressure detecting portion, an alarm generating device, and a control rod inhibition interlock. The driving fluid from a driving fluid source is discharged by way of a pump and a manual valve into the reactor in which the control rods and reactor fuels are contained. In addition, when the direction control valve is switched and the control rods are inserted and extracted by the control rod drives, the pressure in the driving line is always detected by the pressure detection section, whereby if abnormal pressure is resulted, the alarm generating device is actuated to warn the abnormality and the control rod inhibition interlock is actuated to lock the direction control valve thereby secure the safety operation of the reactor. (Seki, T.)

  4. A national control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1975-01-01

    An effective control of nuclear fissionable material is dependent on three different kinds of control, the industry - laboratory management, a national control system and an international safeguards system. The national systems of control differ greatly between various industrialized countries. Two principal reasons for fact can be mentioned. The type and the amounts for nuclear material may be different depending upon the stage of development of the nuclear industry in the country in question. Another reason may be that the country may wish to establish a very elaborate national system of control in order to minimize the IAEA control as much as possible. The two safeguards agreements between the Agency and Sweden on one hand and the Agency and Japan on the other hand can serve as examples for the understanding of the latitude of the IAEA safeguards system under NPT due to the influence of the national control system. If it thus is apparent that the national control system is strongly interrelated to the international safeguards system it is equally influenced by the control and accountancy systems which exist at the nuclear plants and development laboratories. A detailed study of national control systems and their relations to plant management control would fall outside the scope of this article. Some important features will however be examined. (author)

  5. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a simple and economical control rod drive using a control circuit requiring no pulse circuit. Constitution: Control rods in a BWR type reactor are driven by hydraulic pressure and inserted or withdrawn in the direction of applying the hydraulic pressure. The direction of the hydraulic pressure is controlled by a direction control valve. Since the driving for the control rod is extremely important in view of the operation, a self diagnosis function is disposed for rapid inspection of possible abnormality. In the present invention, two driving contacts are disposed each by one between the both ends of a solenoid valve of the direction control valve for driving the control rod and the driving power source, and diagnosis is conducted by alternately operating them. Therefore, since it is only necessary that the control circuit issues a driving instruction only to one of the two driving contacts, the pulse circuit is no more required. Further, since the control rod driving is conducted upon alignment of the two driving instructions, the reliability of the control rod drive can be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  7. Control from the bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    To improve the efficiency and to cut down on cost at the uranium mine at Roessing in SWA/Namibia, the control of all the various plants in the complex has been concentrated in one centralised control system. The processing of uranium ores is also discussed. The selection of future operators of the control system was made at the start of the project. Considerable effort went into conceptualising the role and skill requirements for their job, as well as into their training. The project was concluded in 1984. The original hardware installed in the central room was configured with two basic operating stations controlling the Uranium Plant and an additional station controlling the Acid Plant. Since full implementation of the central process control system, the uranium recovery has been significantly increased whilst tighter control of process parameters has enabled reductions to be made in consumable and utilities usage

  8. Controlling chaos faster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period

  9. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the scram operation of a control rod by the reliable detection for the position of control rods. Constitution: A permanent magnet is provided to the lower portion of a connecting rod in engagement with a control rod and a tube having a plurality of lead switches arranged axially therein in a predetermined pitch is disposed outside of the control rod drives. When the control rod moves upwardly in the scram operation, the lead switches are closed successively upon passage of the permanent magnet to operate the electrical circuit provided by way of each of the lead switches. Thus, the position for the control rod during the scram can reliably be determined and the scram characteristic of the control rod can be recognized. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takao; Inoue, Toyokazu.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To protect the reactor floor by alleviating the shock imparted to the reactor floor by a dropped control rod when a wire rope accidentally breaks. Constitution: A control rod is hung by wire rope from a control rod drive, and shock absorbers are mounted at the upper and lower portions of the control rod. The outer diameter of the upper shock absorber is made larger than the inner diameter of a control rod inserting hole formed in the reactor core. If the control rod drops, the upper absorber is stopped at the upper tapered portion of the inserting hole. Thus, the dropping energy of the control rod can be sufficiently absorbed by the upper and lower shock absorbers. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    of balancing trust and control becomes an issue that deserve ongoing attention. This paper adds to the discussion on the relation between trust and control by showing that the process perspective reframes the problem of balancing trust and control. More generally, by demonstrating the importance of the process......The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... on trust and control made the problem of finding a balance between trust and control a once and for all decision the process perspective introduced here implies that balancing trust and control is an ongoing process of balancing and rebalancing. The implication for management is that the problem...

  12. Controllable Elastohydrodynamics With Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Haugaard, Martin Asger

    dynamic properties. The actively controlled bearing surface profiles can be generated by attaching any kind of actuator (hydraulic, electromagnetic or piezoelectric) to deformable bushes. In this paper the elastohydrodynamic model is used to investigate static and dynamic properties of a tilting-pad......Due to the development of high performance rotating machinery, growing attention has been paid to the design of new active (mechatronic) devices able to actively control vibrations and improve its dynamic behavior, i.e. magnetic bearings piezoelectric bearing pushers, hydraulic actuator journal...... journal bearing under hybrid elastohydrodynamics (open loop control) as well as controllable radial oil injection (closed loop control). The bearing dynamic coefficients are heavily influenced by the control parameters and pad compliance. Strong synergy between elastohydrodynamics and active control...

  13. Elements on reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to achieve the two-fold goal of maximizing the energy obtained from reactor fuel and ensuring the large flexibility of plant operation in respect to safety regulations and keeping the reactor integrity the control of PWRs is generally based on real time monitoring and analysing of independent neutronic parameters: thermal power release, axial power distribution in the core and temperatures of the primary loop. Two control chains more or less coupled according to the control chosen mode are in charge of the control of these parameters. With the brief history of control in French power reactors the advanced X control mode adopted by Framatome for N4 plants is described in detail. A summary of N4 reactor control and protection system is included

  14. Integrated control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that instrument manufacturers must develop standard network interfaces to pull together interrelated systems such as automatic start-up, optimization programs, and online diagnostic systems. In the past individual control system manufacturers have developed their own data highways with proprietary hardware and software designs. In the future, electric utilities will require that future systems, irrespective of manufacturer, should be able to communicate with each other. Until now the manufactures of control systems have not agreed on the standard high-speed data highway system. Currently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in conjunction with several electric utilities and equipment manufactures, is working on developing a standard protocol for communicating between various manufacturers' control systems. According to N. Michael of Sargent and Lundy, future control room designs will require that more of the control and display functions be accessible from the control room through CRTs. There will be less emphasis on traditional hard-wired control panels

  15. Trust and controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controlling and the teamwork in controlling were described. The role of controlling in process of trust-building to an organisation was presented. Establishing relations with the environment and systems of measurement of organisation’s achievements were presented, too.

  16. Controlling chaos faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.

  17. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  18. Intelligent control systems 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoureshi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence (Al) has generated many useful ideas and techniques that can be integrated into the design of control systems. It is believed and, for special cases, has been demonstrated, that integration of Al into control systems would provide the necessary tools for solving many of the complex problems that present control techniques and Al algorithms are unable to do, individually. However, this integration requires the development of basic understanding and new fundamentals to provide scientific bases for achievement of its potential. This book presents an overview of some of the latest research studies in the area of intelligent control systems. These papers present techniques for formulation of intelligent control, and development of the rule-based control systems. Papers present applications of control systems in nuclear power plants and HVAC systems

  19. Control of SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Y.; Sugita, M.; Kiuchi, T.; Okuda, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a thyristor Graetz bridge as the interface between the 3-phase ac source and the superconducting magnet (SM) has become standard in superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). In the future, the bridge will be DDC (direct digital control) controlled by microprocessors and the higher computations, such as the strategy for economical operation of the SMES plant will be computed by a large-scale computer resulting in a hierarchical control scheme. Some of the problems of DDC control of a SM are discussed, control schemes for effective and reactive power are compared, and the control system for the sequential control of a 0.5 MJ pulsed magnet, which is under construction, is described

  20. Controlling chaos faster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Christian [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience (BCCN), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Mathematics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); Kolodziejski, Christoph [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); III. Physical Institute—Biophysics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Nonlinear Dynamics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.

  1. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered dire...

  2. The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.

  3. Position control device for a control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takehiko; Kusaka, Shuji.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To reliably prevent dangerous operation in the control of the position of the control rod by checking for abnormal pulse motor coil excitation voltage and, at the time of occurrence of abnormality, immediately holding the control rod stationary lest it should be moved to an unsafe position, this being accomplished excitation from a compensating excitation system. Constitution: In an FBR reactor, a circuit for memorizing the correct output states of individual drive signals at arbitrary instants and consequtively producing the memorized results is provided, and the output of the circuit and the actual drive signal are compared at all times to discriminate whether the drive signal being compared is normal or not. When the actual drive signal is abnormal, a series signal varying after a predetermined pattern is shifted to enable replacement of the actual drive signal, so that irrespective of whether the problem drive signal is ''on'' or ''off'', a drive signal of the correct pattern may be supplied to the pulse motor to hold the control rod and prevent it from being moved toward the dangerous side due to its own weight or other causes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    Distributed intelligence for accelerator control systems has become possible as a result of advances in microprocessor technology. A system based on distributed intelligence is inherently versatile, readily expandable, and reduces both information flow across the system and software complexity in each unit

  5. Price control and macromarketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  6. Tango for experiment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.; Claustre, L.; Petitdemange, S.; Svensson, O.; Götz, A.; Coutinho, T.; Klora, J.; Picca, F.; Ounsy, M.; Buteau, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Tango control system framework allows you to control an accelerator complex as well as single equipment. The framework contains the communication bus with the standard communication modes (synchronous, asynchronous, event driven) as well as the basic hardware access modules, GUI tools and development kits, bindings to commercial products (LabView, Matlab, IgorPro) and services (administration, archiving, access control) to set up a control system. Tango was mainly developed by several synchrotron light sources that have to support not only the accelerator complex but also a lot of experimental end stations. For synchrotron experiments we have to control the whole process from basic hardware access over data taking to data analysis. This paper describes in the first part the special features of Tango allowing flexible experiment control. The dynamic configuration, the rapid hardware interface development and the sequencing and scanning framework are some examples. The second part gives an overview of some packages developed in the Tango community for experiment control: A HKL library for diffraction computation and diffractometer control, a library to control 2D detectors and a data analysis workbench with workflow engine for on-line and off-line data analysis. These packages are not part of Tango and can be used with other control systems. (author)

  7. Fission reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Tomoo.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a control rod in a PWR type reactor. A control rod has an inner cladding tube and an outer cladding tube disposed coaxially, and a water draining hole is formed at the inside of the inner cladding tube. Neutron absorbers are filled in an annular gap between the outer cladding tube and the inner cladding tube. The water draining hole opens at the lower end thereof to the top end of the control rod and at the upper end thereof to the side of the upper end plug of the control rod. If the control rod is dropped to a control rod guide thimble for reactor scram, coolants from the control rod guide thimble are flown from the lower end of the water draining hole and discharged from the upper end passing through the water draining hole. In this way, water from the control rod guide thimble is removed easily when the control rod is dropped. Further, the discharging amount of water itself is reduced by the provision of the water draining hole. Accordingly, sufficient control rod dropping speed can be attained. (I.N.)

  8. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    pourront etre enploy6s. Avant l’attaque, des profils de vole contr~lant I’Anergie seront 6tablis pour augmenter au maximum l’dnergie disponible do...VERIIATION PROCEDURES NTRTO PERFORM CONTROL SYSTEM REPEAT TESTS WITH ACTUAL ENGIRE ITEATO INTEGRATION TO TIENMO. RUUINED TE VALIDATE TESTING TESI ...fonrtionnement est disponible . Teat-dea rodur d’nrf /sortie .an. scs i lquiesent posslde ce* deux dispositife, on test des rodeurs et sx~fiutA *Sur une vote do

  9. Artificial locomotion control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, Christine; Poignet, Philippe; Espiau, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    of postural and walking control; use of evolutive optimization objectives; on-line event handling and environment adaptation and anticipation. This leads to the synthesis of an original control scheme based on non-linear model predictive control: Trajectory Free NMPC. The movement is specified implicitly......This paper concerns the simultaneous synthesis and control of walking gaits for biped robots. The goal is to propose an adaptable and reactive control law for two-legged machines. The problem is addressed with human locomotion as a reference. The starting point of our work is an analysis of human...... walking from descriptive (biomechanics) as well as explicative (neuroscience and physiology) points of view, the objective being to stress the relevant elements for the approach of robot control. The adopted principles are then: no joint trajectory tracking; explicit distinction and integration...

  10. Control of training instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K. W.; Joo, Y. C.; Park, J. C.; Hong, C. S.; Choi, I. K.; Cho, B. J.; Lee, H. Y.; Seo, I. S.; Park, N. K.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the annual results on control of training instrument. The scope and contents are the following: 1. Control of Compact Nuclear Simulator 2. Control of Radiation/Radioactivity Measurement 3. Control of Non-Destructive Testing Equipment 4. Control of Chemical Equipment 5. Control of Personal Computer 6. Other related Lecture Aid Equipment. Efforts were employed to upgrade the training environment through retrofitting experimental facilities, compiling teaching materials and reforcing audio-visual aids. The Nuclear Training Center executed the open-door training courses for 2,496 engineers/scientists from the nuclear regulatory, nuclear industries, research institutes and other related organizations by means of offering 45 training courses during the fiscal year 1995. (author). 15 tabs., 7 figs., 13 refs

  11. Quality Control Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2013-01-01

    Quality control is a constant priority in electrical, mechanical, aeronautical, and nuclear engineering – as well as in the vast domain of electronics, from home appliances to computers and telecommunications. Quality Control Applications provides guidance and valuable insight into quality control policies; their methods, their implementation, constant observation and associated technical audits. What has previously been a mostly mathematical topic is translated here for engineers concerned with the practical implementation of quality control. Once the fundamentals of quality control are established, Quality Control Applications goes on to develop this knowledge and explain how to apply it in the most effective way. Techniques are described and supported using relevant, real-life, case studies to provide detail and clarity for those without a mathematical background. Among the many practical examples, two case studies dramatize the importance of quality assurance: A shot-by-shot analysis of the errors made ...

  12. Tautological control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a description of a new modelling framework for nonlinear/geometric control theory. The framework is intended to be—and shown to be—feedback-invariant. As such, Tautological Control Systems provides a platform for understanding fundamental structural problems in geometric control theory. Part of the novelty of the text stems from the variety of regularity classes, e.g., Lipschitz, finitely differentiable, smooth, real analytic, with which it deals in a comprehensive and unified manner. The treatment of the important real analytic class especially reflects recent work on real analytic topologies by the author. Applied mathematicians interested in nonlinear and geometric control theory will find this brief of interest as a starting point for work in which feedback invariance is important. Graduate students working in control theory may also find Tautological Control Systems to be a stimulating starting point for their research.

  13. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  14. Control Multivariable por Desacoplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Morilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La interacción entre variables es una característica inherente de los procesos multivariables, que dificulta su operación y el diseño de sus sistemas de control. Bajo el paradigma de Control por desacoplo se agrupan un conjunto de metodologías, que tradicionalmente han estado orientadas a eliminar o reducir la interacción, y que recientemente algunos investigadores han reorientado con objetivos de solucionar un problema tan complejo como es el control multivariable. Parte del material descrito en este artículo es bien conocido en el campo del control de procesos, pero la mayor parte de él son resultados de varios años de investigación de los autores en los que han primado la generalización del problema, la búsqueda de soluciones de fácil implementación y la combinación de bloques elementales de control PID. Esta conjunción de intereses provoca que no siempre se pueda conseguir un desacoplo perfecto, pero que sí se pueda conseguir una considerable reducción de la interacción en el nivel básico de la pirámide de control, en beneficio de otros sistemas de control que ocupan niveles jerárquicos superiores. El artículo resume todos los aspectos básicos del Control por desacoplo y su aplicación a dos procesos representativos: una planta experimental de cuatro tanques acoplados y un modelo 4×4 de un sistema experimental de calefacción, ventilación y aire acondicionado. Abstract: The interaction between variables is inherent in multivariable processes and this fact may complicate their operation and control system design. Under the paradigm of decoupling control, several methodologies that traditionally have been addressed to cancel or reduce the interactions are gathered. Recently, this approach has been reoriented by several researchers with the aim to solve such a complex problem as the multivariable control. Parts of the material in this work are well known in the process control field; however, most of them are

  15. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  16. Flight control actuation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  17. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  18. Intelligent power supply controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumrill, R.S.; Reinagel, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have developed a new power supply controller which would combine 20-bit precision, simple interfacing, and versatile software control. It performs many tasks internal to the power supply and also communicates with an external host computer. Parameters can be entered and/or read over a serial link using one of the 82 command words. In addition, an optional remote control panel can be located up to thousands of feet away. This new controller will reduce the software development time normally spent by the user, while increasing the reliability of the system. The cost is less than buying the equivalent separate CAMAC system. Nonvolatile memory remembers all configuration data; one generic controller can thus be programmed to use anywhere from the smallest power supply to the largest. The controllers will be used at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Facility at Los Alamos

  19. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  20. The energy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Because of strong constraints, the energy control has not been a priority of the public choices. With the market liberalization, the framework of the energy control is modified. But the new program became not sufficient. This study aims to present the necessary new policy of the energy control, which must be integrated in the attitudes and must imply the local government. (A.L.B.)

  1. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  2. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  3. SDN controllers security issues

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is essentially varying the way we design and manage networks, which makes a communication network programmable. In SDN, a logically centralized controller has straight control over the packet-handling functions of the network switches, using a standard, open API (Application Programming Interface) such as OpenFlow. OpenFlow is a broadly used protocol for software-defined networks (SDNs) that presents a new model in which the control plane is inattentive from ...

  4. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  5. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel ® Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators

  6. Controllability of nilpotent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, V.A.; Martin, L.S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate algebraic conditions which give information about the controllability of invariant control systems on nilpotent Lie groups. With the same purpose, the authors use the co-adjoint representation and define the concept of symplectic vectors. We study the existence of these objects to analyze the controllability. In particular, we obtain a characterization when G is simply connected. (author). 9 refs

  7. Crop characteristics and weed Interactions of diverse Rrecurrent Inbred Lines (RILs) from a weed-suppressive x non-suppressive rice mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ndica rice genotypes with enhanced weed suppression traits have been previously identified as potentially useful in supplementing weed control efforts in drill-seeded systems in the southern USA. A particularly weed-suppressive indica genotype (PI 312777) that was also high tillering and high yield...

  8. Air-propelled abrasive grit can damage the perennial weed, quackgrass, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

    Science.gov (United States)

    New techniques are needed to control quackgrass in organic crops. With greater than or equal to 2 applications of abrasive air-propelled (800 kPa) corncob grit to 15 cm tall quackgrass tillers, regrowth was minimal at 5 weeks after treatment. Abrasive grits may be effective tools to help manage pere...

  9. Mathematical control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrachev, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This volume is based on the lecture notes of the minicourses given in the frame of the school on Mathematical Control Theory held at the Abdus Salam ICTP from 3 to 28 September 2001. Mathematical Control Theory is a rapidly growing field which provides strict theoretical and computational tools for dealing with problems arising in electrical and aerospace engineering, automatics, robotics, applied chemistry, and biology etc. Control methods are also involved in questions pertaining to the development of countries in the South, such as wastewater treatment, agronomy, epidemiology, population dynamics, control of industrial and natural bio-reactors. Since most of these natural processes are highly nonlinear, the tools of nonlinear control are essential for the modelling and control of such processes. At present regular courses in Mathematical Control Theory are rarely included in the curricula of universities, and very few researchers receive enough background in the field. Therefore it is important to organize specific activities in the form of schools to provide the necessary background for those embarking on research in this field. The school at the Abdus Salam ICTP consisted of several minicourses intended to provide an introduction to various topics of Mathematical Control Theory, including Linear Control Theory (finite and infinite-dimensional), Nonlinear Control, and Optimal Control. The last week of the school was concentrated on applications of Mathematical Control Theory, in particular, those which are important for the development of non-industrialized countries. The school was intended primarily for mathematicians and mathematically oriented engineers at the beginning of their career. The typical participant was expected to be a graduate student or young post-doctoral researcher interested in Mathematical Control Theory. It was assumed that participants have sufficient background in Ordinary Differential Equations and Advanced Calculus. The volume

  10. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  11. An integrated gyrotron controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Georg, E-mail: michel@ipp.mpg.de; Sachtleben, Juergen

    2011-10-15

    The ECRH system of W7-X is composed of 10 independent gyrotron modules. Each module consists of one gyrotron and its peripherals such as power supplies, cooling plants and distributed PLC systems. The fast real-time control functions such as the timing of the two high voltage supplies, trigger pulses, protection, modulation and communication with the central control of W7-X, is implemented in an integrated controller which is described in this paper. As long-term maintainability and sustainability are important for nuclear fusion experiments, the choice fell on an FPGA-based design which is exclusively based on free (as in 'freedom') software and configuration code. The core of the controller consists of a real-time Java virtual machine (JVM) that provides the TCP-IP connectivity as well as more complicated control functions, and which interacts with the gyrotron-specific hardware. Both the gyrotron-specific hardware and the JVM are implemented on the same FPGA, which is the main component of the controller. All 10 controllers are currently completed and operational. All parameters and functions are accessible via Ethernet. Due to the open, FPGA-based design, most hardware modifications can be made via the network as well. This paper discusses the capabilities of the controllers and their integration into the central W7-X control.

  12. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  13. Control in Complex Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennstam, Jens; Kärreman, Dan

    The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily for their ......The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily...... for their productivity on the knowledge and creativity of their work force. In this type of “knowledge work,” the strong focus on vertical control is insufficient as it fails to account for the important operative and horizontal interactions upon which many contemporary organizations depend. Drawing on practice theory...... and an ethnographic study of engineering work, this paper theorizes control as a form of work that does not only belong to formal management, but is dispersed among various work activities, including horizontal ones. The article introduces the idea of control work as a key practice in contemporary organizations...

  14. Mathematical control theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrachev, A A [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); SISSA, Trieste [Italy; ed.

    2002-07-15

    This volume is based on the lecture notes of the minicourses given in the frame of the school on Mathematical Control Theory held at the Abdus Salam ICTP from 3 to 28 September 2001. Mathematical Control Theory is a rapidly growing field which provides strict theoretical and computational tools for dealing with problems arising in electrical and aerospace engineering, automatics, tics, applied chemistry, and biology etc. Control methods are also involved in questions pertaining to the development of countries in the South, such as wastewater treatment, agronomy, epidemiology, population dynamics, control of industrial and natural bio-reactors. Since most of these natural processes are highly nonlinear, the tools of nonlinear control are essential for the modelling and control of such processes. At present regular courses in Mathematical Control Theory are rarely included in the curricula of universities, and very few researchers receive enough background in the field. Therefore it is important to organize specific activities in the form of schools to provide the necessary background for those embarking on research in this field. The school at the Abdus Salam ICTP consisted of several minicourses intended to provide an introduction to various topics of Mathematical Control Theory, including Linear Control Theory (finite and infinite-dimensional), Nonlinear Control, and Optimal Control. The last week of the school was concentrated on applications of Mathematical Control Theory, in particular, those which are important for the development of non-industrialized countries. The school was intended primarily for mathematicians and mathematically oriented engineers at the beginning of their career. The typical participant was expected to be a graduate student or young post-doctoral researcher interested in Mathematical Control Theory. It was assumed that participants have sufficient background in Ordinary Differential Equations and Advanced Calculus. The volume contains

  15. Intelligent networked teleoperation control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a unified framework for networked teleoperation systems involving multiple research fields: networked control systems for linear and nonlinear forms, bilateral teleoperation, trilateral teleoperation, multilateral teleoperation and cooperative teleoperation. It closely examines networked control as a field at the intersection of systems & control and robotics and presents a number of experimental case studies on testbeds for robotic systems, including networked haptic devices, robotic network systems and sensor network systems. The concepts and results outlined are easy to understand, even for readers fairly new to the subject. As such, the book offers a valuable reference work for researchers and engineers in the fields of systems & control and robotics.

  16. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  17. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  18. Mechatronics control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This book consists six chapters, which are an assembler grammar and practical use on Z801 8041/8048 and kind of assemblers and how to use, control of a microprocessor and mechatro with application of 8255, interface circuit and direction of DA converter, control of stepping motor such as introduction of it, sequence switch, drive program of stepping motor, control for DC motor such as normal rotation and abnormal rotation operation of DC motor by personal computer, control AC motor like PWM inverter and data communication among systems such as RS-232C and INTEL-HEXA format program.

  19. Strain actuated aeroelastic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on strain actuated aeroelastic control are presented. Topics covered include: structural and aerodynamic modeling; control law design methodology; system block diagram; adaptive wing test article; bench-top experiments; bench-top disturbance rejection: open and closed loop response; bench-top disturbance rejection: state cost versus control cost; wind tunnel experiments; wind tunnel gust alleviation: open and closed loop response at 60 mph; wind tunnel gust alleviation: state cost versus control cost at 60 mph; wind tunnel command following: open and closed loop error at 60 mph; wind tunnel flutter suppression: open loop flutter speed; and wind tunnel flutter suppression: closed loop state cost curves.

  20. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaruoka, Hiromitsu.

    1994-01-01

    A high pressure water injection recycling system comprising injection pipelines of a high pressure water injection system and a flow rate control means in communication with a pool of a pressure control chamber is disposed to a feedwater system of a BWR type reactor. In addition, the flow rate control means is controlled by a power control device comprising a scram impossible transient event judging section, a required injection flow rate calculation section for high pressure water injection system and a control signal calculation section. Feed water flow rate to be supplied to the reactor is controlled upon occurrence of a scram impossible transient event of the reactor. The scram impossible transient event is judged based on reactor output signals and scram operation demand signals and injection flow rate is calculated based on a predetermined reactor water level, and condensate storage tank water or pressure control chamber pool water is injected to the reactor. With such procedures, water level can be ensured and power can be suppressed. Further, condensate storage tank water of low enthalpy is introduced to the pressure suppression chamber pool to directly control elevation of water temperature and ensure integrity of the pressure vessel and the reactor container. (N.H.)

  1. Control functions in MFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) has been proposed as a tool for representing goals and functions of complex industrial plants and suggested as a basis for reasoning about control situations. Lind presents an introduction to MFM but do not describe how control functions are used in the modeling....... The purpose of the present paper is to serve as a companion paper to this introduction by explaining the basic principles used in MFM for representation of control functions. A theoretical foundation for modeling control functions is presented and modeling examples are given for illustration....

  2. Control of dynamical localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jiangbin; Woerner, Hans Jakob; Brumer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Control over the quantum dynamics of chaotic kicked rotor systems is demonstrated. Specifically, control over a number of quantum coherent phenomena is achieved by a simple modification of the kicking field. These include the enhancement of the dynamical localization length, the introduction of classical anomalous diffusion assisted control for systems far from the semiclassical regime, and the observation of a variety of strongly nonexponential line shapes for dynamical localization. The results provide excellent examples of controlled quantum dynamics in a system that is classically chaotic and offer opportunities to explore quantum fluctuations and correlations in quantum chaos

  3. Fuzzy control and identification

    CERN Document Server

    Lilly, John H

    2010-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to basic fuzzy logic and Mamdani and Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems. The text shows how these can be used to control complex nonlinear engineering systems, while also also suggesting several approaches to modeling of complex engineering systems with unknown models. Finally, fuzzy modeling and control methods are combined in the book, to create adaptive fuzzy controllers, ending with an example of an obstacle-avoidance controller for an autonomous vehicle using modus ponendo tollens logic.

  4. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  5. MOSFET Power Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J.; Jones, K.

    1986-01-01

    High current and voltage controlled remotely. Remote Power Conroller includes two series-connected banks of parallel-connected MOSFET's to withstand high current and voltage. Voltage sharing between switch banks, low-impedance, gate-drive circuits used. Provided controlled range for turn on. Individually trimmable to insure simultaneous switching within few nanoseconds during both turn on and turn off. Control circuit for each switch bank and over-current trip circuit float independently and supplied power via transformer T1 from inverter. Control of floating stages by optocouplers.

  6. Mechatronics control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-15

    This book consists six chapters, which are an assembler grammar and practical use on Z801 8041/8048 and kind of assemblers and how to use, control of a microprocessor and mechatro with application of 8255, interface circuit and direction of DA converter, control of stepping motor such as introduction of it, sequence switch, drive program of stepping motor, control for DC motor such as normal rotation and abnormal rotation operation of DC motor by personal computer, control AC motor like PWM inverter and data communication among systems such as RS-232C and INTEL-HEXA format program.

  7. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  8. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  9. Debt Out of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Anja; Hubert, Marco; Kenning, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a representative sample of the German population (n = 946), we explored the links between self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Participants completed the self-control scale (Tangney, Boone, & Baumeister, 2004) and the German Addictive Buying Scale (Raab, Neuner, Reisch, & Scherhorn, 2005......, there was a gender effect on compulsive buying: women were more prone to compulsive buying than men. Age also was significantly negatively related to compulsive buying and positively linked to self-control. Household income was not linked to self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Implications for practice...

  10. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

  11. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  12. The LHCb Run Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, M C; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Callot, O [LAL, IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Paris 11, Orsay (France); Duval, P-Y [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Franek, B [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Galli, D, E-mail: Clara.Gaspar@cern.c [Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  13. The ISOLDE control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  14. Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanchaisri, Boonrak [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Samsang, Nuananong [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, Liang Deng; Singkarat, Somsorn [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, Somboon, E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-06-01

    The culm length of two semidwarf rice mutants (PKOS1, HyKOS1) obtained from low-energy N-ion beam bombardments of dehusked Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seeds showed 25.7% and 21.5% height reductions and one spindly rice mutant (TKOS4) showed 21.4% increase in comparison with that of the KDML 105 control. A cDNA-RAPD analysis identified differential gene expression in internode tissues of the rice mutants. Two genes identified from the cDNA-RAPD were OsSPY and 14-3-3, possibly associated with stem height variations of the semidwarf and spindly mutants, respectively. The OsSPY gene encoded the SPY protein which is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA). On the other hand, the 14-3-3 encoded a signaling protein which can bind and prevent the RSG (repression of shoot growth) protein function as a transcriptional repressor of the kaurene oxidase (KO) gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Expression analysis of OsSPY, 14-3-3, RSG, KO, and SLR1 was confirmed in rice internode tissues during the reproductive stage of the plants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The expression analysis showed a clear increase of the levels of OsSPY transcripts in PKOS1 and HyKOS1 tissue samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and TKOS4 samples at the age of 50-60 days which were at the ages of internode elongation. The 14-3-3 expression had the highest increase in the TKOS4 samples compared to those in KDML 105, PKOS1 and HyKOS1 samples. The expression analysis of RSG and KO showed an increase in TKOS4 samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and that of the two semidwarf mutants. These results indicate that changes of OsSPY and 14-3-3 expression could affect internode elongation and cause the phenotypic changes of semidwarf and spindly rice mutants, respectively.

  15. Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phanchaisri, Boonrak; Samsang, Nuananong; Yu, Liang Deng; Singkarat, Somsorn; Anuntalabhochai, Somboon

    2012-01-01

    The culm length of two semidwarf rice mutants (PKOS1, HyKOS1) obtained from low-energy N-ion beam bombardments of dehusked Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seeds showed 25.7% and 21.5% height reductions and one spindly rice mutant (TKOS4) showed 21.4% increase in comparison with that of the KDML 105 control. A cDNA-RAPD analysis identified differential gene expression in internode tissues of the rice mutants. Two genes identified from the cDNA-RAPD were OsSPY and 14-3-3, possibly associated with stem height variations of the semidwarf and spindly mutants, respectively. The OsSPY gene encoded the SPY protein which is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA). On the other hand, the 14-3-3 encoded a signaling protein which can bind and prevent the RSG (repression of shoot growth) protein function as a transcriptional repressor of the kaurene oxidase (KO) gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Expression analysis of OsSPY, 14-3-3, RSG, KO, and SLR1 was confirmed in rice internode tissues during the reproductive stage of the plants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The expression analysis showed a clear increase of the levels of OsSPY transcripts in PKOS1 and HyKOS1 tissue samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and TKOS4 samples at the age of 50–60 days which were at the ages of internode elongation. The 14-3-3 expression had the highest increase in the TKOS4 samples compared to those in KDML 105, PKOS1 and HyKOS1 samples. The expression analysis of RSG and KO showed an increase in TKOS4 samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and that of the two semidwarf mutants. These results indicate that changes of OsSPY and 14-3-3 expression could affect internode elongation and cause the phenotypic changes of semidwarf and spindly rice mutants, respectively.

  16. Mapping QTLs Controlling Flowering Time and Important Agronomic Traits in Pearl Millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Hash, C Tom; Nepolean, T; Satyavathi, C Tara; Singh, Govind; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D; Yadav, Rattan S; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2017-01-01

    Pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a staple crop for the people of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is fast gaining importance as a climate resilient nutricereal. Exploiting the bold seeded, semi-dwarf, and early flowering genotypes in pearl millet is a key breeding strategy to enhance yield, adaptability, and for adequate food in resource-poor zones. Genetic variation for agronomic traits of pearl millet inbreds can be used to dissect complex traits through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. This study was undertaken to map a set of agronomically important traits like flowering time (FT), plant height (PH), panicle length (PL), and grain weight (self and open-pollinated seeds) in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 cross. Excluding grain weight (open pollinated), heritabilities for FT, PH, PL, grain weight (selfed) were in high to medium range. A total of six QTLs for FT were detected on five chromosomes, 13 QTLs for PH on six chromosomes, 11 QTLs for PL on five chromosomes, and 14 QTLs for 1,000-grain weight (TGW) spanning five chromosomes. One major QTL on LG3 was common for FT and PH. Three major QTLs for PL, one each on LG1, LG2, and LG6B were detected. The large effect QTL for TGW (self) on LG6B had a phenotypic variance ( R 2 ) of 62.1%. The R 2 for FT, TGW (self), and PL ranged from 22.3 to 59.4%. A total of 21 digenic interactions were discovered for FT ( R 2 = 18-40%) and PL ( R 2 = 13-19%). The epistatic effects did not reveal any significant QTL × QTL × environment (QQE) interactions. The mapped QTLs for flowering time and other agronomic traits in present experiment can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) breeding programs.

  17. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  18. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  19. APS power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications

  20. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  1. Checking quality control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    How is quality control doing within the community of GIS, web-services based on geo-information, GI etc.?......How is quality control doing within the community of GIS, web-services based on geo-information, GI etc.?...

  2. Control of Squeezed States

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, Anthony M.; Rojo, Alberto G.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical and quantum control of squeezed states of harmonic oscillators. This provides a method for reducing noise below the quantum limit and provides an example of the control of under-actuated systems in the stochastic and quantum context. We consider also the interaction of a squeezed quantum oscillator with an external heat bath.

  3. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Kawamura, Atsuo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce pellet-clad mechanical interactions, as well as improve the fuel safety. Constitution: In the rod drive of a bwr type reactor, an electric motor operated upon intermittent input such as of pulse signals is connected to a control rod. A resolver for converting the rotational angle of the motor to electric signals is connected to the rotational shaft of the motor and the phase difference between the output signal from the resolver and a reference signal is adapted to detect by a comparator. Based on the detection result, the controller is actuated to control a motor for control rod drive so that fine control for the movement of the control rod is made possible. This can reduce the moving distance of the control rod, decrease the thermal stress applied to the control rod and decrease the pellet clad mechanical interaction failures due to thermal expansion between the cladding tube and the pellets caused by abrupt changes in the generated power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. Security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, E.A.; Morgan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book attempts to clarify and define selected current issues and problems related to security and arms control from an international perspective. The chapters are organized under the following headings. Conflict and the international system, Nuclear deterrence, Conventional warfare, Subconventional conflict, Arms control and crisis management

  5. Decentralized control: An overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2008), s. 87-98 ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200750802; GA MŠk(CZ) LA 282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralized control * large-scale systems * decomposition Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2008

  6. Proxemic-aware controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledo, David; Greenberg, Saul; Marquardt, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Remote controls facilitate interactions at-a-distance with appliances. However, the complexity, diversity, and in-creasing number of digital appliances in ubiquitous com-puting ecologies make it increasingly difficult to: (1) dis-cover which appliances are controllable; (2) select a par-ticular a......Remote controls facilitate interactions at-a-distance with appliances. However, the complexity, diversity, and in-creasing number of digital appliances in ubiquitous com-puting ecologies make it increasingly difficult to: (1) dis-cover which appliances are controllable; (2) select a par......-ticular appliance from the large number available; (3) view information about its status; and (4) control the ap-pliance in a pertinent manner. To mitigate these problems we contribute proxemic-aware controls, which exploit the spatial relationships between a person's handheld de-vice and all surrounding appliances...... to create a dynamic appliance control interface. Specifically, a person can discover and select an appliance by the way one orients a mobile device around the room, and then progressively view the appliance's status and control its features in in-creasing detail by simply moving towards it. We illus...

  7. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  8. IBM 3705 Communications Controller

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The IBM 3705 Communications Controller is a simple computer which attaches to an IBM System/360 or System/370. Its purpose is to connect communication lines to the mainframe channel. It was a first communications controller of the popular IBM 37xx series.

  9. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  10. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  11. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, N.S.; Gummer, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  12. Structural Emergency Control Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    demand and hopefully stabilize the system. This traditional emergency control results in interrupted service with severe economic damage to customers. Also, such control is usually less effective due to the lack of coordination among protective devices. In this paper, we propose a novel structural...

  13. Coalgebra, concurrency and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCoalgebra is used to generalize notions and techniques from concurrency theory, in order to apply them to problems concerning the supervisory control of discrete event systems. The main ingredients of this approach are the characterization of controllability in terms of (a variant of)

  14. Multiple nuclear ADC controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovett, A; Rapaport, M S [Center for Nuclear Research, Soreq (Israel)

    1980-12-01

    A controller for an on-line three parameter coincidence and multispectra scaling system has been developed. It has been designed to control, event-by-event, the outputs of three nuclear analog-to-digital converters used at the SOLIS facility. The system utilizes an HP minicomputer with a 32k-word core memory, a disc drive and magnetic tape units.

  15. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design...

  16. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  17. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  18. Overflow control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessinger, B.A.; Hundal, R.; Parlak, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    An overflow control valve for use in a liquid sodium coolant pump tank which can be remotely engaged with and disengaged from the pump tank wall to thereby permit valve removal. An actuating shaft for controlling the valve also has means for operating a sliding cylinder against a spring to retract the cylinder from sealing contact with the pump tank nozzle. (author)

  19. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Naftale

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 the Special Programme for Schistosomiasis Control was introduced in Brazil with the objective of controlling this parasitic disease in six northeastern states. The methodology applied varied largely from state to state, but was based mainly on chemotherapy, This Programme was modified about ten years after it beginning with the main goals including control of morbidity and the blockage of establishment of new foci in non-endemic areas. In two states, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the schistosomiasis control programme started in 1979 and 1983, respectively. The recently made evaluation of those two programmes is the main focus of this paper. It must also be pointed out, that the great majority of the studies performed by different researchers in Brazil, at different endemic areas, consistently found significant decrease on prevalence and incidence, when control measures are repeatedly used for several years. Significant decrease of hepatosplenic forms in the studied areas is well documented in Brazil. After more than 20 years of schistosomiasis control programmes in our country, chemotherapy has shown to be a very important tool for the control of morbidity and to decrease prevalence and incidence in endemic areas. Nevertheless, in medium and long terms, sanitation, water supply, sewage draining and health education seem to be the real tools when the aim is persistent and definitive schistosomiasis control.

  20. The CEBAF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III.

    1995-01-01

    CEBAF has recently upgraded its accelerator control system to use EPICS, a control system toolkit being developed by a collaboration among laboratories in the US and Europe. The migration to EPICS has taken place during a year of intense commissioning activity, with new and old control systems operating concurrently. Existing CAMAC hardware was preserved by adding a CAMAC serial highway link to VME; newer hardware developments are now primarily in VME. Software is distributed among three tiers of computers: first, workstations and X terminals for operator interfaces and high level applications; second, VME single board computers for distributed access to hardware and for local control processing; third, embedded processors where needed for faster closed loop operation. This system has demonstrated the ability to scale EPICS to controlling thousands of devices, including hundreds of embedded processors, with control distributed among dozens of VME processors executing more than 125,000 EPICS database records. To deal with the large size of the control system, CEBAF has integrated an object oriented database, providing data management capabilities for both low level I/O and high level machine modeling. A new callable interface which is control system independent permits access to live EPICS data, data in other Unix processes, and data contained in the object oriented database

  1. Temperature-controlled resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, T. G.

    1969-01-01

    Electrical resistance of a carbon-pile resistor is controlled by the compression or relaxation of a pile of carbon disks by a thermally actuated bimetallic spring. The concept is advantageous in that it is direct-acting, can cover a wide range of controllable characteristics, and can handle considerable power directly.

  2. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. de S. Dias

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.

  3. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  4. Advanced Cruise Control (ACC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Advanced Cruise Control (ACC), also known as adaptive or intelligent cruise control, not only maintains the driver-set vehicle speed, but also adjusts the vehicle's speed to that of a preceding vehicle, and helps to maintain a pre-selected headway time to the vehicle ahead. ACC systems can have a

  5. Advanced Cruise Control (ACC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Cruise Control (ACC), ook bekend als Adaptive, Active of Intelligent Cruise Control, handhaaft niet alleen de door de bestuurder ingestelde rijsnelheid, maar stemt ook de snelheid van het voertuig af op die van de voorligger. ACC helpt op deze manier om een vooraf bepaalde volgtijd tot de

  6. Emerging Engine Control Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Chevalier, Alain

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work published by the author and co-authors, a dynamic model called a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) was developed. This model is physically based and is intended mainly for control applications. It is especially well suited to embedded model applications in engine controllers, susch...

  7. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  9. Process control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshifumi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    A process control device comprises a memory device for memorizing a plant operation target, a plant state or a state of equipments related with each other as control data, a read-only memory device for storing programs, a plant instrumentation control device or other process control devices, an input/output device for performing input/output with an operator, and a processing device which conducts processing in accordance with the program and sends a control demand or a display demand to the input/output device. The program reads out control data relative to a predetermined operation target, compares and verify them with actual values to read out control data to be a practice premise condition which is further to be a practice premise condition if necessary, thereby automatically controlling the plant or requiring or displaying input. Practice presuming conditions for the operation target can be examined succesively in accordance with the program without constituting complicated logical figures and AND/OR graphs. (N.H.)

  10. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. Systems and Control Engineering - Control Systems-Analysis and Design. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May 1999 pp 88-94 ...

  11. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 1. Systems and Control Engineering - Notions of Control. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 1 January 1999 pp 45-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gun control legislation. One study estimated that more than 4 500 lives were saved across five SA cities from 2001 to 2005.[5] Pro-gun interest groups seeking to promote gun ownership and diffusion have attacked these findings, suggesting that stricter gun control was only enacted in 2004 following the publication of ...

  13. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuklinski, Robert

    2008-01-01

    .... The segmented ring wing is controlled by a ring actuator. The ring actuator may be used to control the angle of attack of the ring wing. Alternately, or in combination the flow over the ring wing may be neutralized by using the cavitator of the vehicle to globally enlarge the cavity and thus limit the flow.

  14. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  15. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  16. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  17. Attoliter Control of Microliquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Fumito; Kuroiwa, Hiroyuki; Nakada, Akira; Kosaka, Kouji; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    The technology of the sub-femtoliter volume control of liquids in nanometer range pipettes (nanopipettes) has been developed for carrying out surgical operations on living cells. We focus attention on an interface forming between oil and water in a nanopipette. The interface position can be moved by increasing or decreasing the input pressure. If the volume of liquid in the nanopipette can be controlled by moving the position of the interface, cell organelles can be discharged or suctioned and a drug-solution can be injected into the cell. Quantity volume control in the pico-attoliter range using a tapered nanopipette is controlled by the condition of an interface with a convex shape toward the top of the nanopipette. The volume can be controlled by the input pressure corresponding to the interfacial radius without the use of a microscope by preliminarily preparing the pipette shape and the interface radius as a function of the input pressure.

  18. Intelligent Flow Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  19. The ILC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Saunders, C.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, b.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larson, R.S.; Downing, R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the last ICALEPCS, a small multi-region team has developed a reference design model for a control system for the International Linear Collider as part of the ILC Global Design Effort. The scale and performance parameters of the ILC accelerator require new thinking in regards to control system design. Technical challenges include the large number of accelerator systems to be controlled, the large scale of the accelerator facility, the high degree of automation needed during accelerator operations, and control system equipment requiring 'Five Nines' availability. The R and D path for high availability touches the control system hardware, software, and overall architecture, and extends beyond traditional interfaces into the technical systems. Software considerations for HA include fault detection through exhaustive out-of-band monitoring and automatic state migration to redundant systems, while the telecom industry's emerging ATCA standard - conceived, specified, and designed for High Availability - is being evaluated for suitability for ILC front-end electronics.

  20. Handbook of Chaos Control

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, H G

    2008-01-01

    This long-awaited revised second edition of the standard reference on the subject has been considerably expanded to include such recent developments as novel control schemes, control of chaotic space-time patterns, control of noisy nonlinear systems, and communication with chaos, as well as promising new directions in research. The contributions from leading international scientists active in the field provide a comprehensive overview of our current level of knowledge on chaos control and its applications in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and engineering. In addition, they show the overlap with the traditional field of control theory in the engineering community.An interdisciplinary approach of interest to scientists and engineers working in a number of areas

  1. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  2. Control systems under attack?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

  3. Autorotation flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward N. (Inventor); Lee, Dong-Chan (Inventor); Aponso, Bimal L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides computer implemented methodology that permits the safe landing and recovery of rotorcraft following engine failure. With this invention successful autorotations may be performed from well within the unsafe operating area of the height-velocity profile of a helicopter by employing the fast and robust real-time trajectory optimization algorithm that commands control motion through an intuitive pilot display, or directly in the case of autonomous rotorcraft. The algorithm generates optimal trajectories and control commands via the direct-collocation optimization method, solved using a nonlinear programming problem solver. The control inputs computed are collective pitch and aircraft pitch, which are easily tracked and manipulated by the pilot or converted to control actuator commands for automated operation during autorotation in the case of an autonomous rotorcraft. The formulation of the optimal control problem has been carefully tailored so the solutions resemble those of an expert pilot, accounting for the performance limitations of the rotorcraft and safety concerns.

  4. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal eMushtaq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.

  5. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Akira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent misoperation in a control system for the adjustment of core coolant flow rate, and the increase in the neutron flux density caused from the misoperation in BWR type reactors. Constitution: In a reactor power control system adapted to control the reactor power by the adjustment of core flow rate, average neutron flux signals of a reactor core, entire core flow rate signals and operation state signals for coolant recycling system are inputted to a microcomputer. The outputs from the computer are sent to a recycling MG set speed controller to control the reactor core flow rate. The computer calculates the change ratio with time in the average neutron flux signals, correlation between the average neutron flux signals and the entire core flow rate signals, change ratio with time in the operation state signals for the coolant recycling system and the like and judges the abnormality in the coolant recycling system based on the calculated results. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. Asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with an increased number of days lost from school, exacerbations and days in hospital. Furthermore, children with uncontrolled asthma have more frequent contacts with the health-care system. Recent...... studies have added new information about the effects of poorly controlled asthma on a range of important, but less studied outcomes, including risk of obesity, daily physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, stress, concentration and focused attention, learning disabilities and risk of depression. From...... these studies it seems that poor asthma control may have a greater impact on the child than previously thought. This may have important long-term consequences for the child such as an increased risk of life-style associated diseases and poorer school performance. The level of control seems to be the most...

  7. The Vivitron process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.R.; Marsaudon, J.C.

    1989-10-01

    The operation of the VIVITRON electrostatic accelerator designed since 1981 and under construction at the CRN since 1985 needs a dedicated process control set up. The study and design of this control system started in 1987. The electrostatic accelerators are rarely operated by a modern control system. So little knowledge is available in this field. The timing problems are generally weak but the Vivitron specific structure, with seven porticos in the tank and sophisticated beam handling in the terminal, imposes control equipment inside the tank under extreme severe conditions. Several steps are necessary to achieve the full size control system. Some tests in the MP used as a pilot machine supplied practical information about surrounding accelerator conditions inside the tank. They also provided better knowledge of the beam behavior, especially inside the accelerator tube

  8. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  9. Low noise control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    Noise is one of the problems associated with the use of any type of control valve in systems involving the flow of fluids. The advent of OSHA standards has prompted control valve manufacturers to design valves with special trim to lower the sound pressure level to meet these standards. However, these levels are in some cases too high, particularly when a valve must be located in or near an area where people are working at tasks requiring a high degree of concentration. Such locations are found around and near research devices and in laboratory-office areas. This paper describes a type of fluid control device presently being used at PPL as a bypass control valve in deionized water systems and designed to reduce sound pressure levels considerably below OSHA standards. Details of the design and construction of this constant pressure drop variable flow control valve are contained in the text and are shown in photographs and drawings. Test data taken are included

  10. Controlling Electronics Boards with PVS

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    - Introduction - Control System Architecture - Device Description - FPGA Programming - Register Control - Data Subscription - Examples of Graphics User Interfaces - Parameter - Register Translation - Application on the LHCb Timing Fast Control System

  11. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS OF CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelcu Serban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS OF CONTROLLING Nedelcu Serban Universitatea ,,Babes-Bolyai`` Facultatea de Stiinte Economice si Gestiunea Afacerilor 'Controlling' represents a new concept in the Romanian economic environement, being implemented successfully in very few companies. Unlike the German space where controlling is very well represented both at a practical level and in the academia, in Romania controlling can only be found at a practical level, and the specialized literature is restraint, almost absent. Since the practicians of controlling in Romania only know the toolkit they use and not the theoretical elements as well, what is needed in this case is a conceptual delimitation so that controlling would be better implemented, and improved with various elements of the economic environment. In practice, inside various linguistic areas different problems of communication may occur very often in regards to the use of different concepts that may be missunderstood. Therefore in the Romanian research area it becomes imperative to try and clarify the existing issues and to intensify the reasearch in this field. Studying the evolution of the concept we observe that the need for its implementation is primarily experienced at the practical level of the companies, to be then followed by a debate in the specialized literature. The internationalization and the fierce competition that the Romanian companies are confronting on the ecenomic market represent the decissive factor in adopting the concept of controlling.This article is part of the research conducted for my doctoral thesis, 'Controlling in hetergenous economic envirnoments', under the coordination and supervision of Prof.Dr.Dumitru Matis. Keywords: Controlling, Management Accounting, Management Control, Accounting, Internal audit JEL Code: M49

  12. Rice stem borers in Malaya. A proposal to use mutation breeding for their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vohra, F C [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1970-03-01

    The problem of rice stem borers: Among the various problems in the rice crop the loss caused by the larvae of lepidopterous stem borers seems to be very serious. In some districts of the Kurian area, the rate of damage has been as much as 100%. It is not unlikely that the stem borer threat will become worse with the introduction of double cropping in many areas. The control of stem borers has mainly been through the application of various insecticides, namely DDT, BHC, Endrin, dieldrin and gamma-BHC, and this has met with a certain amount of success. The chemical method of control, however, is not fully satisfactory because of: (a) The high recurrent cost in application; (b) The danger of hazard to man by residues; (c) The toxic effects to fish and mammals in the paddy fields; (d) The poisoning of the natural parasites of the borers; (e) The difficulties for proper application, exact concentrations etc. by untrained farmers; and (f) The probability for development of insecticide resistance in stem borers. Apparently there is an urgent need for some control free from chemical hazards. Scientists in various countries have turned to breeding for varietal resistance, among other approaches, to save the crop from damage by stem borers. The development of a variety of rice resistant to stem borers will provide an effective control operative at all levels of insect population without additional cost and inconvenience to the farmer. The research project: To achieve this objective a research project has recently been started as a co-operative venture at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. This project involves (a) Detailed ecological studies of boxers in different varieties of rice grown commonly in the various parts of the country; (b) A study of parasites of borers for possible biological control; and (c) Production of rice varieties resistant to stem borers through induction of mutations and hybridization with locally used types

  13. Group control of elevators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Yasukazu; Hikita, Shiro; Tuji, Sintaro (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-05

    Items to be evaluated in the group control of elevators, and a typical control system are described. A new system in which the fuzzy rule base is employed is introduced together with the configuration. The items to be evaluated are waiting time, riding time, accuracy of forecasting, energy saving, and ease of usage. The everage waiting time of less than 20 seconds with less than 3% waiting rate of more than 60 seconds is accepted as a satisfactory service condition. There are many conflicting matters in group-controlling, and the study for the controlling must deal with the optimization of multi-purpose problems. The standards for group-control evaluation differ according to building structures and the tastes of users, and an important problem is where to give emphasis of the evaluation. The TRAFFIC PATTERN LEARNING METHOD has been applied in the system for careful control to accommodate the traffic. No specific function is provided for the evaluation, but the call allocation is made by fuzzy rule-base. The configuration of a new group-control system is introduced. 7 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  14. The light controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, BingXin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is a new technique for controlled fusion. • There will be an attraction force between the two oscillating nuclei. • The attraction force is greater than the Coulomb repulsion between the two nuclei. • The kinetic energy and the density of the two nuclei can be controlled. • The electric vector and the frequency of the light can be controlled. - Abstract: This is a new technique for controlled fusion. When two nuclei are colliding with each other, light, whose the frequency is higher than the minimal threshold frequency of lithium, will be aimed directly at the two nuclei, the two nuclei will perform the simple harmonic oscillation, the charged particle’s simple harmonic oscillation can be considered as an oscillating electric dipole, and the two oscillating nuclei will radiate the electromagnetic wave. Either of the two oscillating electric dipoles will attract each other, or they will repulse each other. There will be an attraction force between the two oscillating nuclei. When the attraction force is greater than the Coulomb repulsion between the two nuclei, the two nuclei will fuse together. Where the kinetic energy and the density of the two nuclei can be controlled, the electric vector and the frequency of the light can be controlled also and, therefore, the fusion can be controlled

  15. The Crane Robust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hicar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about a control design for complete structure of the crane: crab, bridge and crane uplift.The most important unknown parameters for simulations are burden weight and length of hanging rope. We will use robustcontrol for crab and bridge control to ensure adaptivity for burden weight and rope length. Robust control will be designed for current control of the crab and bridge, necessary is to know the range of unknown parameters. Whole robust will be splitto subintervals and after correct identification of unknown parameters the most suitable robust controllers will be chosen.The most important condition at the crab and bridge motion is avoiding from burden swinging in the final position. Crab and bridge drive is designed by asynchronous motor fed from frequency converter. We will use crane uplift with burden weightobserver in combination for uplift, crab and bridge drive with cooperation of their parameters: burden weight, rope length and crab and bridge position. Controllers are designed by state control method. We will use preferably a disturbance observerwhich will identify burden weight as a disturbance. The system will be working in both modes at empty hook as well asat maximum load: burden uplifting and dropping down.

  16. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  17. Learning from neural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Hill, David J

    2006-01-01

    One of the amazing successes of biological systems is their ability to "learn by doing" and so adapt to their environment. In this paper, first, a deterministic learning mechanism is presented, by which an appropriately designed adaptive neural controller is capable of learning closed-loop system dynamics during tracking control to a periodic reference orbit. Among various neural network (NN) architectures, the localized radial basis function (RBF) network is employed. A property of persistence of excitation (PE) for RBF networks is established, and a partial PE condition of closed-loop signals, i.e., the PE condition of a regression subvector constructed out of the RBFs along a periodic state trajectory, is proven to be satisfied. Accurate NN approximation for closed-loop system dynamics is achieved in a local region along the periodic state trajectory, and a learning ability is implemented during a closed-loop feedback control process. Second, based on the deterministic learning mechanism, a neural learning control scheme is proposed which can effectively recall and reuse the learned knowledge to achieve closed-loop stability and improved control performance. The significance of this paper is that the presented deterministic learning mechanism and the neural learning control scheme provide elementary components toward the development of a biologically-plausible learning and control methodology. Simulation studies are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  18. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuo.

    1991-01-01

    Heretofore, since the aimed value of a reactor power has been determined only based on the deviation between a temperature variation coefficient and the aimed value, it involves a problem that a region for finely determining a control constant is complicated. In view of the above, in the present invention, an approximate value of the aimed reactor power value is determined based on the aimed value for the temperature variation coefficient, then a compensation value for the aimed power value is determined based on the deviation between the temperature variation coefficient and the aimed value and, further, the aimed power value is determined based on the approximate value and the compensation value. Control elements are automatically operated so that the power follows the aimed value after determining the aimed value. Then, since the aimed reactor power value is controlled finely so that the responsiveness of the temperature variation coefficient is satisfactory and the temperature variation coefficient agrees with the aimed value, the stability for the control of temperature variation coefficient is satisfactory. That is, high performance control is enabled by a simple control algorithm to reduce the number of the steps for the design and the device control. (N.H.)

  19. Fuzzy Control Teaching Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dietrich Kramer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many degree courses at technical universities include the subject of control systems engineering. As an addition to conventional approaches Fuzzy Control can be used to easily find control solutions for systems, even if they include nonlinearities. To support further educational training, models which represent a technical system to be controlled are required. These models have to represent the system in a transparent and easy cognizable manner. Furthermore, a programming tool is required that supports an easy Fuzzy Control development process, including the option to verify the results and tune the system behavior. In order to support the development process a graphical user interface is needed to display the fuzzy terms under real time conditions, especially with a debug system and trace functionality. The experiences with such a programming tool, the Fuzzy Control Design Tool (FHFCE Tool, and four fuzzy teaching models will be presented in this paper. The methodical and didactical objective in the utilization of these teaching models is to develop solution strategies using Computational Intelligence (CI applications for Fuzzy Controllers in order to analyze different algorithms of inference or defuzzyfication and to verify and tune those systems efficiently.

  20. A controllable spin prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakioglu, T

    2009-01-01

    Based on Khodas et al (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 086602), we propose a device acting like a controllable prism for an incident spin. The device is a large quantum well where Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are present and controlled by the plunger gate potential, the electric field and the barrier height. A totally destructive interference can be manipulated externally between the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The spin-dependent transmission/reflection amplitudes are calculated as the control parameters are changed. The device operates as a spin prism/converter/filter in different regimes and may stimulate research in promising directions in spintronics in analogy with linear optics.

  1. Nonlinear optimal control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berkovitz, Leonard David

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Optimal Control Theory presents a deep, wide-ranging introduction to the mathematical theory of the optimal control of processes governed by ordinary differential equations and certain types of differential equations with memory. Many examples illustrate the mathematical issues that need to be addressed when using optimal control techniques in diverse areas. Drawing on classroom-tested material from Purdue University and North Carolina State University, the book gives a unified account of bounded state problems governed by ordinary, integrodifferential, and delay systems. It also dis

  2. Telerik WPF controls tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Spalding, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Telerik Reporting is a lightweight reporting solution for all .NET cloud, web, and desktop platforms (Azure, Silverlight, WPF, ASP.NET, and Windows Forms) which targets developers and end users alike. Rich interactive and reusable reports can be created by developers in Visual Studio and by end users in the desktop-based Report Designer. This book will guide you through working with specific Telerik WPF controls as well as working with the database and other methods to load the controls. It will focus on four key technologies: the DataContext property of WPF, Telerik RadControls for WPF, XML s

  3. Tokamak instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.; Bettis, E.S.; Houlberg, W.A.; Onega, R.J.; Stone, R.S.

    1979-02-01

    The three areas of study emphasis to date are: (1) Physics implications for controls, (2) Computer simulation, and (3) Shutdown/aborts. This document reports on the FY 78 efforts (the first year of these studies) to address these problems. Transient scenario options for the startup of a tokamak are developed, and the implications for the control system are discussed. This document also presents a hybrid computer simulation (analog and digital) of the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) which is now being used for corroborative controls investigations. The simulation will be expanded to represent a TNS/ETF machine

  4. Radiological Control Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  5. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1996-01-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. The authors discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of the experiences in developing it. They also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  6. Radiological Control Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records

  7. Control rod testing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunt, R.R.; Ashman, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    A control rod testing apparatus is described comprising: a first guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod; a second guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod. The first and second guide means are supported at axially spaced locations with the openings coaxial; and a substantially cylindrical subassembly having a vertical cylindrical opening therethrough. The subassembly is trapped coaxial with and between the first and second guide means, and the subassembly radially floats with respect to the first and second guide means

  8. The GSI control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, U.; Schaa, V.; Steiner, R.

    1992-01-01

    The GSI accelerator facility consists of an old linac and two modern machines, a synchrotron and a storage ring. It is operated from one control room. Only three operators at a time have to keep it running with only little assistance from machine specialists in daytime. So the control tools must provide a high degree of abstraction and modeling to relieve the operators from details on the device level. The program structures to achieve this are described in this paper. A coarse overview of the control architecture is given. (author)

  9. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  10. Benefits of weight control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallak, D. [P & H Mining Equipment (United States)

    2006-07-15

    With haul truck tyres and fuel taking a greater toll on operating costs, controlling haul truck payloads is more important than ever. The paper explains the technologies behind two new optional systems that let operators take control. P & H has introduced two new shovel-based payload measurement options that break new ground for accuracy in the Payload{trademark} and Payload{trademark} Plus Monitoring Systems. Both require P & M's Centurion supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The Payload system can be retrofitted on existing shovels. 4 figs.

  11. Control system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, T J

    2008-01-01

    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  12. PREPP criticality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cargo, C.H.; Becker, G.K.; Berglund, G.R.; O'Connor, N.J.

    1989-03-01

    There is a general lack of data available with regards to criticality control in the use of incineration for full scale processing of TRU waste. In addition to the new analytical tools, such as PRA, are only now starting to be applied to criticality control. These factors have made the development of the PREPP Criticality Control Plan somewhat unique. It is hoped that the PREPP experiences gained in these efforts will provide new insight which will be useful to future facilities processing waste material containing fissile material. 1 fig

  13. Control in the Chemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses various control techniques used in chemical processes, including measuring devices, controller functions, control valves, and feedforward and feedback actions. Applications of control to a real chemical plant are exemplified. (CC)

  14. Nonlinear chaos control and synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijberts, H.J.C.; Nijmeijer, H.; Schöll, E.; Schuster, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Nonlinear Geometric Control Some Differential Geometric Concepts Nonlinear Controllability Chaos Control Through Feedback Linearization Chaos Control Through Input-Output Linearization Lyapunov Design Lyapunov Stability and Lyapunov's First Method

  15. Phase Control in Nonlinear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Samuel; Seoane, Jesús M.; Mariño, Inés P.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Meucci, Riccardo

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Phase Control of Chaos * Description of the model * Numerical exploration of phase control of chaos * Experimental evidence of phase control of chaos * Phase Control of Intermittency in Dynamical Systems * Crisis-induced intermittency and its control * Experimental setup and implementation of the phase control scheme * Phase control of the laser in the pre-crisis regime * Phase control of the intermittency after the crisis * Phase control of the intermittency in the quadratic map * Phase Control of Escapes in Open Dynamical Systems * Control of open dynamical systems * Model description * Numerical simulations and heuristic arguments * Experimental implementation in an electronic circuit * Conclusions and Discussions * Acknowledgments * References

  16. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  17. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...... can be implemented in the laboratory, e.g. three-axis attitude control, slew manoeuvres, spins stabilization using magnetic actuation and/or reaction wheels. The spacecraft attitude can be determined applying magnetometer measurements...

  18. Emergency control; Kawalan kecemasan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: plans and actions taken in emergency condition. It covers four main elements in planning, command, control center, emergency plans, continuous training and practices.

  19. Geometric control of manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruarooran, C.

    1996-01-01

    Resolved motion control enables the end effector to be moved as a rigid body in space without having to work out manually the joint combinations needed. Since a rigid body in space has three independent translational and three independent rotational movements, a manipulator with at least six joints can be controlled in this way. Normally the manipulator has more than six joints providing an infinite number of ways of moving the tip in the desired direction and this redundancy can be exploited in a variety of ways. Resolved motion tests performed on a hydraulically operated heavy duty manipulator at the Dungeness nuclear power plant are described. The results have shown that manipulators with as many as ten joints can be controlled under resolved tip motion and the areas which are critical to the performance of this type of control have been identified. (UK)

  20. Controlled synchronization of pendula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogromski, A.Y.; Belykh, V.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we design a controller forsynchronization problem for two pendula suspended on anelastically supported rigid beam. A relation to Huijgens'experiments as well as the practical motivation are emphasized.