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Sample records for control potato tubers

  1. Chemical variations observed in irradiated, treated with IPC and control potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The content in soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and phenolic acids of potato tubers preserved by irradiation and IPC, during storage period of five months are studied. In the irradiated tubers, soluble sugars increased immediately after the irradiation, in relation to the control tubers reaching inferior values to those reached by the control tubers, at the end of the storage period. The content in ascorbic acid is generally kept higher in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers than in the control tubers and the content in phenolic acids increased in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers by immediate effect of this treatment. (Author) 39 refs

  2. Chemical variations observed in irradiated, treated with IPC and control potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The content in soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and phenolic acids of potato tubers preserved by irradiation and IPC, during a storage period of five months are studied. In the irradiated tubers, soluble sugars increased immediately after the irradiation, in relation to the control tubers reaching inferior values to those reached by the control tubers, at the end of the storage period. The content in ascorbic acid is generally kept higher in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers than in the control tubers and the content in phenolic acids increased in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers by immediate effect of this treatment.(author) [es

  3. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper Foged; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins...... manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...

  4. Chemical variations observed in irradiated, treated with IPC and control potato tubers; Variaciones quimica observadas en tuberculos de patata irradiados, tratados con IPC y testigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M P; Fernandez Gonzalez, J

    1976-07-01

    The content in soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and phenolic acids of potato tubers preserved by irradiation and IPC, during storage period of five months are studied. In the irradiated tubers, soluble sugars increased immediately after the irradiation, in relation to the control tubers reaching inferior values to those reached by the control tubers, at the end of the storage period. The content in ascorbic acid is generally kept higher in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers than in the control tubers and the content in phenolic acids increased in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers by immediate effect of this treatment. (Author) 39 refs.

  5. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper

    We are testing the hypothesis that oxidized peptides are released from stressed mitochondria and contribute to retrograde signalling (Møller IM & Sweetlove LJ 2010 Trends Plant Sci 15, 370-374). However, there is a large gap between the number of experimentally verified mitochondrial proteins (~450......) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...

  6. Evaluation of Some Plant Extracts and Gamma Radiation for Controlling Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimea operculella (Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghally, S.E.; Abdel Kawy, F.K; Abd-alla, M.S; Mohamed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In This work two plant species: fruits of chinaberry, Melia azedarach and leaves of Duranta plumieri were chosen to study the efficiency of these plant extracts with concentrations from 2 to 6 % (w/v) for the first and from 15 to 25% (w/v) for the second with joint action of gamma radiation at 200 Gy in controlling potato tuber moth Ph. operculella. It was noticed that, the solved used have no effect on the larval development. Percent pupation was adversely affected by increasing the concentration of plant extracts. Also the reduction in adult emergence was increased with increasing treatments used. The gradual increase in susceptibility of insect larvae to plant extract was noticed as the dose of gamma irradiation applied. The sex ratio of the resulting adults was not affected at all concentrations used. Duranta extracts have a slight effects on all the stages of Ph. operculella. Percent pupation was 19.54% with Melia fruits extract at concentration 5%, while it was 45.05% with Duranta leaves extract at 15% concentration. Finally Duranta extract had a little toxicity against Ph. operculella comparing with another extract

  7. In vivo thermoterapy: attempt to eliminate virus in potato tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Astarini, Ida; Margareth, Deborah; Temaja, I. Gede Rai Maya

    2018-03-01

    Potato is one of an important vegetable crop in Indonesia, including Bali. Main potato production areas in Bali are at Bedugul region, 1.200 m above sea level. Potato production in Bali continued to decrease due to diseases infection, such as early blight, late blight, black leg and virus diseases. Potato farmers in Bali usually set aside their harvest as seed potatoes, resulting in virus diseases being carried out on the next planting seasons and eventually would decrease potato production both in quantity and quality. Four types of virus were confirmed: PVY, PVX, PVS and PRLV. A number of studies have reported thermotherapy technique has been employed to eliminate potato virus in vitro. However, this technique is not readily available for farmers, since there is no established tissue culture laboratory to support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more practical method. The objective of this study was to eliminate virus on seed potatoes using thermotherapy on tuber. Seed potatoes with 1 cm sprout which were virus positive were placed on sterile charred rice paddy husk, and then put into a humidified incubator. Tubers were exposed to 37°C for four days followed by 34°C for three days alternately for two weeks and three weeks duration. Four tubers received heat exposure regime for each virus type. After thermotherapy, potato tubers were transferred to pots containing charred rice paddy husk and maintain for three weeks until new leaves emerge for virus analyses. Results show that seed tubers experienced delayed growth after thermotherapy. Control plants sprout one week after thermotherapy, while treated plants were not yet sprouting. Experiment is currently underway. It is expected that heat treatment on tuber will give a practical method for farmers to eliminate virus of seed potatoes.

  8. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    lay eggs in soil cracks and on exposed tubers (Radcliffe ... Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in ..... specific adaptation of the set of olfactory receptors on the.

  9. Mapping Loci That Control Tuber and Foliar Symptoms Caused by PVY in Autotetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Washington L; Ingram, Jason; Hackett, Christine A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David; Bryan, Glenn J; De Jong, Walter; Gray, Stewart

    2017-11-06

    Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) is a tuber deformity associated with infection by the tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY NTN ). PTNRD negatively impacts tuber quality and marketability, and poses a serious threat to seed and commercial potato production worldwide. PVY NTN symptoms differ in the cultivars Waneta and Pike: Waneta expresses severe PTNRD and foliar mosaic with vein and leaf necrosis, whereas Pike does not express PTNRD and mosaic is the only foliar symptom. To map loci that influence tuber and foliar symptoms, 236 F 1 progeny of a cross between Waneta and Pike were inoculated with PVY NTN isolate NY090029 and genotyped using 12,808 potato SNPs. Foliar symptom type and severity were monitored for 10 wk, while tubers were evaluated for PTNRD expression at harvest and again after 60 d in storage. Pairwise correlation analyses indicate a strong association between PTNRD and vein necrosis (τ = 0.4195). QTL analyses revealed major-effect QTL on chromosomes 4 and 5 for mosaic, 4 for PTNRD, and 5 for foliar necrosis symptoms. Locating QTL associated with PVY-related symptoms provides a foundation for breeders to develop markers that can be used to eliminate potato clones with undesirable phenotypes, e.g. , those likely to develop PTNRD or to be symptomless carriers of PVY. Copyright © 2017 Silva et al.

  10. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  11. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayoub Ghaleb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  12. STUDY OF BORER PEST CONTROL POTATO TUBER IN WAREHOUSES SEEDLINGS (With fungus Beauveria bassiana and Leaf of Tagetes erecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loso Winarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of borer pest control potato tuber (Phthorimaea operculella Zell in warehouses seedlings with the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo and leaf Tagetes erecta was conducted in Kutagadung village, district of Brand, Karo District, starting in October until December 2010. The draft that is in use is completely randomized (CRD comprised of seven treatments with three replications. Treatment at Kaji is: Control (no treatment, the density of conidia 106 per ml, 105 per ml, 104 per ml, leaf thickness Tegetes two cm, three cm, and four cm. Observations were P. operculella and intensity of attacks healthy seedlings. In the final analysis, the intensity of attacks in 100 percent control treatment, the density of conidia.

  13. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  14. Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papacchioli Velia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a major staple food, and modification of its provitamin content is a possible means for alleviating nutritional deficiencies. beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and of xanthophyll esters. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. Results We silenced the first dedicated step in the beta-epsilon- branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCY-e, by introducing, via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an antisense fragment of this gene under the control of the patatin promoter. Real Time measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of Lcy-e. Antisense tubers showed significant increases in beta-beta-carotenoid levels, with beta-carotene showing the maximum increase (up to 14-fold. Total carotenoids increased up to 2.5-fold. These changes were not accompanied by a decrease in lutein, suggesting that LCY-e is not rate-limiting for lutein accumulation. Tuber-specific changes in expression of several genes in the pathway were observed. Conclusion The data suggest that epsilon-cyclization of lycopene is a key regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. Upon tuber-specific silencing of the corresponding gene, beta-beta-carotenoid and total carotenoid levels are increased, and expression of several other genes in the pathway is modified.

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism during potato tuber dormancy and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassens, M.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Potato tuber dormancy is part of the vegetative life cycle of potato. It refers to a period, in which no growth is occurring, although the tuber is stored under conditions that are favourable for growth. Factors in the tuber are responsible for this growth arrest; soon

  16. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?

    Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large

  17. Assuring Potato Tuber Quality during Storage: A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Alamar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potatoes represent an important staple food crop across the planet. Yet, to maintain tuber quality and extend availability, there is a necessity to store tubers for long periods often using industrial-scale facilities. In this context, preserving potato quality is pivotal for the seed, fresh and processing sectors. The industry has always innovated and invested in improved post-harvest storage. However, the pace of technological change has and will continue to increase. For instance, more stringent legislation and changing consumer attitudes have driven renewed interest in creating alternative or complementary post-harvest treatments to traditional chemically reliant sprout suppression and disease control. Herein, the current knowledge on biochemical factors governing dormancy, the use of chlorpropham (CIPC as well as existing and chemical alternatives, and the effects of pre- and post-harvest factors to assure potato tuber quality is reviewed. Additionally, the role of genomics as a future approach to potato quality improvement is discussed. Critically, and through a more industry targeted research, a better mechanistic understanding of how the pre-harvest environment influences tuber quality and the factors which govern dormancy transition should lead to a paradigm shift in how sustainable storage can be achieved.

  18. Occurrence of Parthenogenesis in Potato Tuber Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ya; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zong-Kai; Xiao, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Parthenogenesis, a natural form of asexual reproduction produced from unfertilized eggs, occurs in many insects in Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, but very rarely in Lepidoptera. The current study aimed to test the larval density dependent occurrence of parthenogenesis in potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. More than 10% of females out of 25 tested females that developed from the high larval density treatment at 45 larvae per tuber were capable to reproduce asexually. Both male and female offspring were produced parthenogenetically. The sexually reproductive offspring of a laboratory parthenogenetic population had a lower egg hatch rate, shorter larval stage, and shorter male life span when compared with the non-parthenogenetic population. This suggests that the sexually reproductive offspring of parthenogenetic population have a decreased overall fitness compared to the sexually reproductive offspring of non-parthenogenetic population.

  19. Effect of irradiation on the potato tubers rotting during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Z.; Fiszer, W.

    1991-01-01

    The potato tubers subjected to irradiation in autumn were found dry and soft rotting more numerous than non-irradiated ones for the whole period of storage and especially in April and May. The above mentioned phenomenon brought about a little quicker elimination of tubers naturally infected by pectinolytic bacteria. Susceptibility of both kinds of tubers was similar to Fusarium sulphureum introduced under a cover tissue. The irradiation of potato tubers in autumn 1986 led to the appearance of some hard tubers with brown ring spots in spring 1987

  20. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. The three-dimensional distribution of minerals in potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Nithya K.; White, Philip J.; Broadley, Martin R.; Ramsay, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The three-dimensional distributions of mineral elements in potato tubers provide insight into their mechanisms of transport and deposition. Many of these minerals are essential to a healthy human diet, and characterizing their distribution within the potato tuber will guide the effective utilization of this staple foodstuff. Methods The variation in mineral composition within the tuber was determined in three dimensions, after determining the orientation of the harvested tuber in the soil. The freeze-dried tuber samples were analysed for minerals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Minerals measured included those of nutritional significance to the plant and to human consumers, such as iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur. Key Results The concentrations of most minerals were higher in the skin than in the flesh of tubers. The potato skin contained about 17 % of total tuber zinc, 34 % of calcium and 55 % of iron. On a fresh weight basis, most minerals were higher in tuber flesh at the stem end than the bud end of the tuber. Potassium, however, displayed a gradient in the opposite direction. The concentrations of phosphorus, copper and calcium decreased from the periphery towards the centre of the tuber. Conclusions The distribution of minerals varies greatly within the potato tuber. Low concentrations of some minerals relative to those in leaves may be due to their low mobility in phloem, whereas high concentrations in the skin may reflect direct uptake from the soil across the periderm. In tuber flesh, different minerals show distinct patterns of distribution in the tuber, several being consistent with phloem unloading in the tuber and limited onward movement. These findings have implications both for understanding directed transport of minerals in plants to stem-derived storage organs and for the dietary implications of different food preparation methods for potato tubers

  2. Effect of potato plants grown from tubers irradiated with low doses of gamma radiation on feeding and reproductive behaviours of potato tuber moth Phtorimaea Operculella (Lep., Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.; Al-Oudat, M.

    1997-09-01

    The feeding behavior of potato tuber moth Phthorimaea Operculella (Lep., Gelechiidae) larvae reared on leaves and tubers of potato plants, which its seeds had been irradiated with low doses of gamma irradiation (1, 3, 5, 10, Gy) has been studied. Significant differences in the larval developmental time, pupae developmental time, pupae weight, mortality, fecundity and percentage of egg hatch, was observed between insects fed on plants grown from the irradiated seeds and the control. It appears that leaves of potato plants grown from the irradiated seeds, particularly those of 3 Gy, became more favourable for the larvae, whilst the resulted tubers, except tubers of the dose of 10 Gy, which could have repellent properties became more resistant to potato tuber moth. Plant development stage and tubers storage at ambient temperatures condition affect the degree of sensitivity of the larvae. Leaves and tubers of 10 Gy irradiated seeds became more suitable for insect development, indicating that the later dose may inhibit the production of secondary plant metabolites chemical compounds. (author)

  3. Mini Tuber Production in Potato Via Aeroponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdullah Ahmed AHMED

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aeroponic production system is one of the new applications in soilless agriculture. This system is also an alternative seed production system for mini-tuber production of potato in terms of providing optimum growth conditions, enabling potato production to be free from diseases and pests and to make economic use of agricultural inputs. This system, which is independent of climatic conditions, has the advantage of improving the vegetative growth, delaying tuber formation, prolonging the vegetative period, increasing the tuber yield per plant and total tuber yield while decreasing the tuber weight. Due to the problems experienced in potato seedling tuber production in recent years, it emerged as an alternative production system for our country.

  4. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  5. Test results of the experimental laser device for potato tubers radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrik, S.S.; Korzun, O.S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of 3 year investigation of the influence of the presowing low intensity laser radiation treatment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers with the help of laser device with various spectral composition and exposition on plant growth, development and productivity and potato tubers quality and starch content in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. Presowing tubers treatment of potato cultivars Sante, Yavar and Arkhideya was realized by He-Ne, Ar-, Cu (in course of 3 and 5 minutes) and CO2 (in course of 5 seconds) lasers. Research results have shown that presowing treatment with CO2 laser promoted the higher (on 1,7-6,6%) potato germination capacity in comparison with the control variant without radiation treatment. Height of potato plants of Sante variety after radiation treatment fell behind the control ones. Haulm quantity per one plant and yield quality did not depend on radiation treatment Treatment with CO2 laser exercised the stimulatory action on productivity of Sante variety without changing the starch content in tubers. Tuber weight increased up to 0,4 kg (0,2 kg in the control variant). Similar effect for Arkhideya and Yavar varieties was obtained after Cu-laser treatment in course of 5 minutes. Radiation treatment with He-Ne laser caused the increased starch accumulation (on 0,4-0,6% in comparison with the control variant) in potato tubers of all studied varieties

  6. Isolation of Mitochondria from Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Salvato, Fernanda; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    One way to study the function of plant mitochondria is to extract them from plant tissues in an uncontaminated, intact and functional form. The reductionist assumption is that the components present in such a preparation and the in vitro measurable functions or activities reliably reflect...... the in vivo properties of the organelle inside the plant cell. Here, we describe a method to isolate mitochondria from a relatively homogeneous plant tissue, the dormant potato tuber. The homogenization is done using a juice extractor, which is a relatively gentle homogenization procedure where...... the mitochondria are only exposed to strong shearing forces once. After removal of starch and large tissue pieces by filtration, differential centrifugation is used to remove residual starch as well as larger organelles. The crude mitochondria are then first purified by using a step Percoll gradient...

  7. Cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases play crucial roles in controlling cold-induced sweetening and apical dominance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengfei; Fang, Hui; Liu, Jun; Reid, Stephen; Hou, Juan; Zhou, Tingting; Tian, Zhendong; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2017-12-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an important enzyme that functions in producing energy and supplying intermediates for cellular metabolism. Recent researches indicate that GAPDHs have multiple functions beside glycolysis. However, little information is available for functions of GAPDHs in potato. Here, we identified 4 putative cytosolic GAPDH genes in potato genome and demonstrated that the StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3, which are constitutively expressed in potato tissues and cold inducible in tubers, encode active cytosolic GAPDHs. Cosuppression of these 3 GAPC genes resulted in low tuber GAPDH activity, consequently the accumulation of reducing sugars in cold stored tubers by altering the tuber metabolite pool sizes favoring the sucrose pathway. Furthermore, GAPCs-silenced tubers exhibited a loss of apical dominance dependent on cell death of tuber apical bud meristem (TAB-meristem). It was also confirmed that StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3 interacted with the autophagy-related protein 3 (ATG3), implying that the occurrence of cell death in TAB-meristem could be induced by ATG3 associated events. Collectively, the present research evidences first that the GAPC genes play crucial roles in diverse physiological and developmental processes in potato tubers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Identification of irradiated food. II. Identification of irradiated potato tubers by means of a test based on the variations of electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity of potato tubers is described. By means of this method irradiated tubers can be distinguished from IPC treated tubers and control tubers. The values of conductivity in the control and INC treated tubers were about 0,2 millimhos/cm, while those in the irradiated tubers oscillated about 0,17 millimhos/cm. (author) [es

  9. Potato tuber wounding induces responses associated with various healing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wounding induces an avalanche of biological responses involved in the healing and protection of internal tuber tissues exposed by mechanical damage and seed cutting. Collectively, our studies have framed a portrait of the mechanisms and regulation of potato tuber wound-healing, but much more is req...

  10. Biological and biochemical studies on irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.F.M

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study and overcome two important diseases which attacks potato plant, using some chemical and physical treatments. The first disease was pre harvest brown rot caused by ralstonia solanacearum and the second was post harvest dry rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. The results are summarized as follows: firstly brown rot : 1- Foliar treatment of salicylic acid or calcium chloride on potato plants leads to increasing in plant height and number of potato tubers, since salicylic acid give the highest value of plant height and also calcium chloride give the highest number of potato tubers. Also, this treatment leads to insignificant decreasing in number of potato tubers infected by brown rot. 2- The bacteria ralstonia solanacearum isolated from infected tubers obtained from the project of brown rot, Ministry of agriculture, Egypt, added with irrigate water to the pots this bacteria could infect healthy potato plant and the symptoms of brown rot observed on tubers also pathogenicity test was carried out using seedling of tomato cultivar Gs plants and wilting of tomato plant observed after 10-15 days from injection with R.solanacearum. 3- Concerning D 10 -value determined from the relation between dose rate of gamma ray (k-rad) and log count of bacterial number it was found that the D 10 -value for R.solanacearum was 0.25 kGy

  11. Dielectric spectroscopy for evaluating dry matter content of potato tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glenn G. B.; Kjaer, Anders; Klösgen, Beate

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the application of dielectric spectroscopy as a method for evaluating the dry matter content of potato tubers. Sample specific factors determining the precision of this application were investigated by studying the prediction of the dry material content in agar gel...... of the predicted dry matter content was observed in chemically and spatially uniform systems, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of the predicted dry-matter content of 0.64 percentage points observed in agar gels containing refined potato starch. A marked decrease in precision is observed in model systems which...... include chemical variations between potato tuber samples. The added dry material content was predicted with a RMSE of 0.94 percentage points in agar gels with added dried material extracted from separate potato tubers. The local dry matter content from a region within 2 cm of the center location...

  12. Examining the role of tuber biochemistry in the development of zebra chip in stored potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), associated with infection by the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is an emerging problem for potato growers in the United States, Mexico, and New Zealand. Although potato tubers exhibiting ZC symptoms will be rejected by processors, it remains possible...

  13. Identification of irradiated food. III. Identification of irradiated potato tubers by means of a test based on the cellular proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Mazon Matanzo, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the formation of the wound periderm in potato tubers cut in halves and on the proliferation of the potato parenchyma cultivated ''in vitro'' is studied. Doses of 3 Krad and higher ones completely inhibit the formation of the wound periderm and the growth of protuberances in the fragments of the parenchyma cultivated ''in vitro''. In the control and IPC treated tubers the proliferation was normal and abundant, in the tubers as well as in the potato parenchyma tissues cultivated ''in vitro''.(author) [es

  14. Assessing potato tuber diel growth by means of X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Pfeifer, Johannes; Walter, Achim

    2015-11-01

    The formation and development of belowground organs is difficult to study. X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides the possibility to analyse and interpret subtle volumetric changes of belowground organs such as tubers, storage roots and nodules. Here, we report on the establishment of a method based on a voxel dimension of 240 μm and precision (standard deviation) of 30 μL that allows interpreting growth differences among potato tubers happening within 3 h. Plants were not stressed by the application of X-ray radiation, which was shown both by morphological comparison with control plants and by analysis of lipid peroxidation as a measure of oxidative stress. Diel (24 h) tuber growth fluctuations of three potato genotypes were monitored in soil-filled pots of 10 L. In contrast to the results from previous reports, most tubers grew at similar rates during day and night. Tuber growth was not related to the developmental stage of plants and tubers. Pronounced differences were observed between average growth rates in different tubers within a plant. These results are discussed in the context of restrictions of past methods to study tuber growth and in the context of their potential for the characterization of the formation and development of other belowground plant organs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Distribution of radionuclides in potato tubers. Implication for dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Wilkins, B.T.; Poultney, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the distribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, Pu and Am in potato tubers has been carried out. Cesium-137 was essentially uniformly distributed throughout the tuber, whereas up to about 50% of the 90 Sr activity was found in the peel. Results for actinides indicated that most of the activity would be found in the peel and of this more than half would be located in the thin outermost skin. When account is taken of the form in which potatoes are consumed in the UK, the values of soil-plant transfer factors currently assumed in the NRPB model FARMLAND are reasonable for general assessment purposes. (author)

  16. Wound healing activity of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Sonkamble

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. from the family Convolvulaceae is the world’s sixth largest food crop. The tubers of Ipomoea batatas commonly known as sweet potato are consumed as a vegetable globally. The tubers contain high levels of polyphenols such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids and vitamins A, B and C, which impart a potent antioxidant activity that can translate well to show wound healing effects. To check their effects on wound healing, the peels and peel bandage were tested on various injury models in rats in the present study.Methods: The methanolic extracts of the peels and peel bandage of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato were screened for wound healing by excision and incision wound models on Wistar rats. Three types of gel formulations were prepared, viz., gel containing 3.0% (w/w peel extract, gel containing 6.0% (w/w peel extract and gel containing 10% (w/w peel extract. Betadine (5% w/w povidone iodine cream was used as a reference standard. In the incision wound model, Tensile strength of the skin was measured. Epithelization time, wound contraction, hydroxyproline content of the scab, and ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde content of the plasma were determined in the excision wound model.Results: In the incision wound model, high tensile strength of the wounded skin was observed in animals treated with the peel extract gels and the peel bandage when compared with wounded control animals. The increase in tensile strength indicates the promotion of collagen fibers and that the disrupted wound surfaces are being firmly knit by collagen. In the excision wound model, significant wound closure was observed on the 4th day in rats treated with all three gel formulations when compared with the wounded control rats. A significant increase inFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 10:403-415hydroxyproline and ascorbic acid content in the gel-treated animals and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content in the

  17. Cereal cystatins delay sprouting and nutrient loss in tubers of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Aurélie; Simon, Marie-Aube; Khalf, Moustafa; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-12-21

    Recent studies have reported agronomically useful ectopic effects for recombinant protease inhibitors expressed in leaves of transgenic plants, including improved tolerance to abiotic stress conditions and partial resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we assessed the effects of these proteins on the post-dormancy sprouting of storage organs, using as a model potato tubers expressing cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin protein superfamily. Sprout emergence and distribution, soluble proteins, starch and soluble sugars were monitored in tubers of cereal cystatin-expressing clones stored for several months at 4 °C. Cystatin expression had a strong repressing effect on sprout growth, associated with an apparent loss of apical dominance and an increased number of small buds at the skin surface. Soluble protein content remained high for up to 48 weeks in cystatin-expressing tubers compared to control (untransformed) tubers, likely explained by a significant stabilization of the major storage protein patatin, decreased hydrolysis of the endogenous protease inhibitor multicystatin and low cystatin-sensitive cysteine protease activity in tuber tissue. Starch content decreased after several months in cystatin-expressing tubers but remained higher than in control tubers, unlike sucrose showing a slower accumulation in the transgenics. Plantlet emergence, storage protein processing and height of growing plants showed similar time-course patterns for control and transgenic tubers, except for a systematic delay of 2 or 3 d in the latter group likely due to limited sprout size at sowing. Our data point overall to the onset of metabolic interference effects for cereal cystatins in sprouting potato tubers. They suggest, in practice, the potential of endogenous cysteine proteases as relevant targets for the development of potato varieties with longer storage capabilities.

  18. The Role of Iron and Zinc on Tuber Yield and Yield Components of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The soils of potato production fields in Ardabil due to alkalinity and not having a proper crop rotations are deficient in micronutrients. To evaluate the effect of these micronutrients on the yield and some traits affecting potato tubers an experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications in Ardabil during 2012. Micronutrient treatments used were the various concentrations of iron and zinc (0.002, 0.004 and 0.008 concentrations of these elements as Fe1Zn1, Fe1Zn2, Fe1Zn3, Fe2Zn1, Fe2Zn2, Fe2Zn3, Fe3Zn1 and Fe3Zn2 and a control treatment (Fe0Zn0. Analysis of variance of traits under study showed statistically significant differences among treatments in terms of tuber yield, number of tubers per plant, tuber size, skin thickness and volumetric weight and dry weight of tubers. The highest tuber yield (48.10 t.ha-1 and maximum skin thickness were obtained from Fe1Zn3 treatment. The highest tuber number belonged to Fe2Zn1 (0.004 and 0.002 concentrations of iron and zinc and Fe1Zn3 (0.002 and 0.008 concentrations of iron and zinc. Tuber weights higher than 35 grams and higest volumetric tuber weight were produced by using Fe3Zn2. The conclusion is this that using Fe1Zn3 traetment (0.002 and 0.008 concentrations resulted in highest tuber yield and thickness of tuber skin.

  19. Phosphorylation of formate dehydrogenase in potato tuber mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykova, N.V.; Stensballe, A.; Egsgaard, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two highly phosphorylated proteins were detected after two-dimensional (blue native/SDS-PAGE) gel electrophoretic separation of the matrix fraction isolated from potato tuber mitochondria. These two phosphoproteins were identified by mass spectrometry as formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and the E1alpha...

  20. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Heather A.; Wright, Kathryn M.; McDougall, Gordon J.; Roberts, Alison G.; Chapman, Sean N.; Morris, Wayne L.; Hancock, Robert D.; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A.; James, Euan K.; Taylor, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture m...

  1. Fusarium growth on culture media made of tissue juice from irradiated and unirradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taczanowski, M.

    1994-01-01

    Fusarium Sulphureum Schlecht is one of the tuber pathogens causing potato storage disease knowing as dry rot. Because irradiation can disturb the tissue defence mechanism against the pathogen, it was decided to carry out experiments on influence of the treatment on subsequent tuber tissue reaction to a maceration process. The maceration as a physical stress was a substitute for the pathogen activity. Tubers of two potato varieties were tested: Mila -a resistant variety to Fusarium and Atol - susceptible one. Tubers of both varieties were irradiated with a dose of 105 kGy. Unirradiated tubers were taken as a control. A day after irradiation the cortex tissue was macerated using an ordinary rasper and the resulted tissue pulp was strained through medical gauze to obtain crude juice. The juice was clarified by centrifugation and then added to dissolved PDA. The volume ratio of juice to PDA was 1:1. The prepared media were dispensed into Petri dishes. Small pieces of the Fusarium culture were put on the surface of the medium at the centre of each Petri dish. Subsequent growth of the fungus was assessed by measurement of culture diameters every 24 hours. Linear functions of the Fusarium growth were obtained for Mila control and Atol control. In the case of Mila, the Fusarium found more favourable conditions for its growth in the presence of juice from irradiated tubers than from the control ones. Making the same comparison for Atol, no difference was detected. (author)

  2. Supplemental calcium nutrition improves tuber yield and quality of native potatoes in the Peruvian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato tubers are known to be calcium deficient. This is because calcium moves with water and most water is transported to leaves and tubers being in soil do not have the draw for water and calcium. Calcium fertilizers are now routinely used to improve tuber quality and production in the US. Potatoe...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPS AND FARMYARD MANURE FERTILIZATION IN CHANGEABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS ON CONSUMPTION VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA PŁAZA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research carried out over 1999-2002 with the aims to determine the influence of intercrops and farmyard manure fertilization on consumption value of potato tubers in changeable weather conditions. The following combinations of intercrops fertilization were taken into account: the control plot (without intercrop fertilization, farmyard manure, undersown crop (birdsfoot trefoil, birdsfoot trefoil + Italian ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, stubble crop (oleiferous radish, oleiferous radish – mulch. The results pointed that, the conditions of vegetation period, significantly modified the consumption values of potato tubers. The consumption value of potato tubers which were fertilized with intercrops was formed on approximated level, as the potato which was fertilized with farmyard manure. The best consumption features, especially taste, had potatoes which were fertilized with birdsfoot trefoil and with the mixture of birdsfoot trefoil and Italian ryegrass.

  4. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Shelley; Fajardo, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Potato starch is composed primarily of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately 3:1 ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable in North American and European markets, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potato starch. There is also interest in marketing 'baby' potatoes, which are harvested when they are physiologically immature. This study was carried out to determine weekly changes in amylose content in potato tubers of 11 North American cultivars during the growing season. The trial was repeated across 3 years. We determined that amylose content is highest early and it decreases in a linear fashion as the growing season progresses. Mean amylose content across cultivars and years declined from 30.0% in late June to 26.8% in late August. The rate of decrease varied across years, with slopes of linear regression plots ranging from -0.17 in 2012 to -0.74 in 2011. Amylose content in tuber starch varied among cultivars, with the highest levels observed in Ranger Russet (30.7%) and White Pearl (31.6%); it was lowest in Kennebec (25.7%) and Langlade (25.6%). This study adds to a growing body of literature on the nutritional value of immature potato tubers. In addition to having higher levels of some phytonutrients, as reported in other studies, immature tubers have a higher proportion of amylose in the starch. This is nutritionally desirable in affluent regions where high fiber content is more important than calories from carbohydrates. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Study of the free and proteic amino acids content in potato tubers by fours different methods of preservation, and stored during five months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Aguirre Alfaro, A.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the qualitative and quantitative content in free and proteic aminoacids of the potato tubers stored during five months. The results obtained in tubers treated with maleic hydrazide, isopropyl carbanilate (IPC), refrigeration and gamma irradiation, are compared with those from tubers control without treatment. There are no significant differences in the relative proportion of the aminoacids from the tubers treated by different methods, but they do exist significant differences when compared with the non treated controls. (Author) 46 refs

  6. Study of the free and proteic amino acids content in potato tubers by four different methods of preservation, and stored during five months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Aguirre Alfaro, A.

    1976-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative content in free and proteic amino acids of the potato tubers stored during five months are studied. The results obtained in tubers treated with maleic hydrazide, isopropyl carbanilate (IPC), refrigeration and gamma irradiation, are compared with those from control tubers without treatment. There are no significant differences in the relative proportion of the amino acids from the tubers treated by different methods, but significant differences do exist when compared with the untreated controls

  7. Changes of endogenous hormones in irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.E.A.; El-Saeid, H.M.; Abou-Hadid, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Potato tubers Solatum tuberosum L. cv. Alpha were irradiated with 0.12 kgy and stored at room temperature. The endogenous hormones were extracted and determined using bioassay at dormant, budding and sprouting stages. The studied promoters were IAA, IAN, GA3 and Gibberellin like substances besides the inhibitors which included ABA and B-inhibitors. The results indicated that IAA was more sensitive to irradiation than IAN, GA3 but ABA was more stable than B-inhibitors during the dormancy. Irradiation decreased IAA and Gibberellin like substances and B-inhibitors but no change was observed in ABA content at dormant period. Irradiation caused a balance between promoters inhibitors at the end of tuber storage and after tubers sprouting

  8. Impact of selenium enrichment on seed potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TURAKAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Se enrichment on the growth of sprouts and growth vigour of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. stored for 2 to 8 months. Our results showed that Se did not affect the duration of dormancy. At the high addition levels (0.075 and 0.9 mg kg-1 quartz sand, Se had some positive effects on the growth of sprouts. The peak sprouting capacity was reached after 8 months of storage. The highest Se enrichment of tubers had some positive effect on the free putrescine content in sprouts. However, the better growth of sprouts was not consistent with the growth vigour of the seed tubers and yield produced. Selenium had no significant effect on the malondialdehyde (MDA or on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch. No significant effect of added Se on the early growth, stem and tuber numbers and yield parameters was observed. Irrespective of the level of Se added, the highest yield was harvested from plants produced with seed tubers stored for 6 months. Our results indicate that Se had some positive effects on the growth of sprouts, but it had no consistent effect on the growth vigour of seed tubers.;

  9. Measurements of potato tubers gamma-ray irradiated in nitrogen gas or carbondioxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Dohmaru, Takaaki; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Furuta, Jun-ichiro.

    1984-01-01

    In this report the respiration of the potato tubers irradiated in nitrogen gas or carbondioxide gas was studied. Potato tubers of common Japanese variety, ''Danshaku'' were used for the examination. Potato tubers of about 2kg were put into each of Triple-Nylon bags and the bags were sealed after replacement of air in bags with nitrogen or carbondioxide gases. More than 16 hours after sealing of bags, the γ-dose ( 60 Co) of 150 Gy or 250 Gy were given to the potato tubers in bags at the dose rate of 10 4 R/h. After irradiation, all bags were opened in air and amounts of CO 2 released by respiration of tubers were measured with Hitachi gas chromatograph analyser Type 023. The amounts of CO 2 released from the potato tubers irradiated in open air is shown in Fig. 2. The results show that there is an initial lag period of several hours, followed by a rapid increase in the respiration, after which the CO 2 release was gradually decreased. Potato tubers irradiated in nitrogen gas show a similar release of CO 2 on time scale to the potato tubers irradiated in open air, but the total amounts of CO 2 are approximately half of those of the potato tubers irradiated in open air (Figs. 3 and 4). (J.P.N.)

  10. Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Raymond; Pont, Simon D A; Morris, Jenny A; McKenzie, Gaynor; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Hedley, Pete E; Ramsay, Gavin; Bryan, Glenn J; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide QTL analysis of potato tuber carotenoid content was investigated in populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja that segregate for flesh colour, revealing a novel major QTL on chromosome 9. The carotenoid content of edible plant storage organs is a key nutritional and quality trait. Although the structural genes that encode the biosynthetic enzymes are well characterised, much less is known about the factors that determine overall storage organ content. In this study, genome-wide QTL mapping, in concert with an efficient 'genetical genomics' analysis using bulked samples, has been employed to investigate the genetic architecture of potato tuber carotenoid content. Two diploid populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja were genotyped (AFLP, SSR and DArT markers) and analysed for their tuber carotenoid content over two growing seasons. Common to both populations were QTL that explained relatively small proportions of the variation in constituent carotenoids and a major QTL on chromosome 3 explaining up to 71 % of the variation in carotenoid content. In one of the populations (01H15), a second major carotenoid QTL was identified on chromosome 9, explaining up to 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Whereas the major chromosome 3 QTL was likely to be due to an allele of a gene encoding β-carotene hydroxylase, no known carotenoid biosynthetic genes are located in the vicinity of the chromosome 9 QTL. A unique expression profiling strategy using phenotypically distinct bulks comprised individuals with similar carotenoid content provided further support for the QTL mapping to chromosome 9. This study shows the potential of using the potato genome sequence to link genetic maps to data arising from eQTL approaches to enhance the discovery of candidate genes underlying QTLs.

  11. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  12. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs

  13. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months have been studied. By immediate effect of gamma radiation, an increase in the oxigen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers has been observed. Such increase persits even four months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated ''in vitro'' the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues.(author) [es

  14. Detection of DNA specific sequences of Spongospora subterranea in soil and potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oswaldo Saavedra Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A test has been developed for early identification of the casual agent for potato powdery scab (Spongospora subterranea fs subterranea. Identification was carried out in seeds and soil where this tuber is grown. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR was set up for detecting 372, 390 and 391 bp ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS in the S. subterraneagenome. A method for extracting and purifying DNA from infected plant material (potato root nodes and pustules on the potato was standardised. Plant tissue was obtained by potato tuber propagation using an inoculum from the pathogen in greenhouse conditions. After the PCR had been optimised and its sensitivity determined, a molecular methodology was validated by examining plant material infected with S. subterranea and soil samples infested with the pathogen obtained from the departments of Cundinamarca and Nariño. The PCR detected S. subterranea DNA from infected material and soil samples (all thirty samples from the experimental area analysed proved PCR positive. These results show that this molecular method was not just useful for the early detection of the pathogen in soil samples but as a tool for detecting or determining the possible presence of this micro-organism in places that have been declared f ree of S. subterranea and an effective form of quality control in producing the certif ied potato seed. Key words: Powdery scab, cystosori, internal transcribed spacer, PCR, plasmodiophorid.

  15. The effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and soaking of potato strips in water on density differences of intermediates for French-fry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol Zygmunt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and immersing of potato strips in water on differences in density of intermediate products for French-fry production. The density difference used for description of the experiment was defined as a relationship between the post-treatment density and pre-treatment density. The study was conducted on tubers of the Innovator variety. The studies of density changes induced by absorption of water involved measurements of the mass of potato strips in air and in water. Potato strips measured 10 × 10 mm and 60 mm in length. The strips were cut lengthwise along the longest tuber axis set between the proximal and distal tuber end. Water absorption was investigated by immersing strips in water (1 at a temperature of 20°C for 15 min and (2 at 40°C for 20 min. In addition, the study included the group (3 where strips were blanched at a temperature of 90°C for 2 min and a control group (0 which was not immersed in water. Potato tubers were irradiated by UV-C in the following ways: (1 irradiation on one side for 30 min, (2 irradiation on both sides for 15 min each, (0 control group (no irradiation. The studies were conducted at two dates: (0 after harvest and (1 after 3-month storage. Laboratory and storage experiments were conducted in 2016-2017. The density difference was statistically significantly influenced by storage time, UV-C stimulation and immersion conditions of potato strips. The density difference increased with the increase in storage duration of tubers, immersion duration of strips, water temperature (up to starch gelification temperature and UV-C stimulation.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation and formulated essential oils on stored potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-El Seoud, M.A.; Helal, I.M.M.; Sarhan, M.M.; Galal, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Potato tubers were irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 0.5, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 K-Gy. Irradiated and non-irradiated tubers were soaked in biocides formulated from essential oils of fennel, peppermint and caraway oil. All treated and non-treated tubers were stored at room temperature (20 ±1 degree C) for period of 150 days. Samples were taken every 30 days for different quality determinations. Results showed that non-treated tubers were decayed and appear to be sprouted continuously alongside the different storage periods. However, exposing the studied tubers to gamma radiation induced a promising effect for retarding this decay and sprouting. Moreover, soaking potato tubers in the formulated biocides induced further interruption for tubers decay and sprouting. In addition, the applied treatment exhibited other positive effects for keeping the good quality of the studied tubers during storage.

  17. Effect of Dose and Oxadiargyl Application Time at the Different Growth Stages on Weed Biomass and Tuber Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of dose and application time of oxadiargyl, as a postemergence herbicide, on weed biomass and tuber yield of potato, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications was conducted at Alaroog Research Station at the University of Mohaghegh-Ardabili in 2013. Treatments consisted of oxadiargyl dosages (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 lit a.i /ha, and its time of applications at different potato growth stages (potato emergence, stolon initiation and potato tuber bulking, weed free treatment was considered as control. Statistical analysis showed that 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl reduced biomass of weed by 66.16 percent. Oxadiargyl application at emergence time resulted in highest percent reduction of weed biomass. Results, also, showed that application 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl, after weed free condition, increased number of seed tuber and total tuber yield by 82.16 and 51.59 percent respectively, but it reduced number of non seed tuber by 43.17 percent. Application of oxadiargyl at emergence time, as compared with the other application times, resulted in highest increase in the number of seed tuber and total tuber yield, but it did not affected number of non seed tubers. Interaction effect of dose by time of oxadiargyl application revealed that using 0.8 lit a.i/ha dose at potato emergence time increased number of edible tubers by 100%. It may be conducted that application of this dose at potato emergence time was highly efficient in controlling weeds and increasing potato tuber yield.

  18. Expression of mung bean pectin acetyl esterase in potato tubers: effect on acetylation of cell wall polymers and tuber mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfila, Caroline; Dal Degan, Florence; Jørgensen, Bodil; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Ray, Peter M; Ulvskov, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A mung bean (Vigna radiata) pectin acetyl esterase (CAA67728) was heterologously expressed in tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the granule-bound starch synthase promoter or the patatin promoter in order to probe the significance of O-acetylation on cell wall and tissue properties. The recombinant tubers showed no apparent macroscopic phenotype. The enzyme was recovered from transgenic tubers using a high ionic strength buffer and the extract was active against a range of pectic substrates. Partial in vivo de-acetylation of cell wall polysaccharides occurred in the transformants, as shown by a 39% decrease in the degree of acetylation (DA) of tuber cell wall material (CWM). Treatment of CWM using a combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin methyl esterase extracted more pectin polymers from the transformed tissue compared to wild type. The largest effect of the pectin acetyl esterase (68% decrease in DA) was seen in the residue from this extraction, suggesting that the enzyme is preferentially active on acetylated pectin that is tightly bound to the cell wall. The effects of acetylation on tuber mechanical properties were investigated by tests of failure under compression and by determination of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. These tests suggested that de-acetylation resulted in a stiffer tuber tissue and a stronger cell wall matrix, as a result of changes to a rapidly relaxing viscoelastic component. These results are discussed in relation to the role of pectin acetylation in primary cell walls and its implications for industrial uses of potato fibres.

  19. Plant Residual Management in different Crop Rotations System on Potato Tuber Yield Loss Affected by Wireworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarea Feizabadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selection a proper crop rotation based on environmental conservation rules is a key factor for increasing long term productivity. On the other hand, the major problem in reaching agricultural sustainability is lack of soil organic matter. Recently, a new viewpoint has emerged based on efficient use of inputs, environmental protection, ecological economy, food supply and security. Crop rotation cannot supply and restore plant needed nutrients, so gradually the productivity of rotation system tends to be decreased. Returning the plant residues to the soil helps to increase its organic matter and fertility in long-term period. Wireworms are multi host pests and we can see them in wheat and barley too. The logic way for their control is agronomic practices like as crop rotation. Wireworms’ population and damages are increased with using grasses and small seed gramineas in mild winters, variation in cropping pattern, reduced chemical control, and cover crops in winter. In return soil cultivation, crop rotation, planting date, fertilizing, irrigation and field health are the examples for the effective factors in reducing wireworms’ damage. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of crop rotations, residue management and yield damage because of wireworms’ population in soil, this experiment was conducted using four rotation systems for five years in Jolgeh- Rokh agricultural research station. Crop rotations were included, 1 Wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW, 2 Wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW, 3 Wheat- sugar beet- wheat- potato- wheat (WSWPW, 4 Wheat- maize- wheat- potato- wheat (WMWPW as main plots and three levels of returning crop residues to soil (returning 0, 50 and 100% produced crop residues to soil were allocated as sub plots. This experiment was designed as split plot based on RCBD design with three replications. After ending each rotation treatment, the field was sowed with potato cv. Agria

  20. Determining Specific Window Period for Common Scab Disease Infection in Potato Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhim Bahadur Khatri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments was conducted under glasshouse and hydroponic conditions to determine the specific window period for common scab disease infection in potato tubers. The study was performed in a glasshouse system where separate tubers from the root zone were inoculated at different intervals during plant growth along with a novel hydroponic system to inoculate individual tubers at specific times of development growth allowing non-destructive observations of common scab symptoms developing. The window of tuber susceptibility to common scab disease infection was shown to vary with the season or conditions under which the plants were grown. Different internodes on tubers were found susceptible to infection at different times during tuber development. Basal internodes, which are the first sections of the tuber to expand, were susceptible to infection in the beginning of tuber development, whereas apical internodes only became susceptible later in tuber growth when the basal internodes were no longer susceptible.

  1. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Heather A; Wright, Kathryn M; McDougall, Gordon J; Roberts, Alison G; Chapman, Sean N; Morris, Wayne L; Hancock, Robert D; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A; James, Euan K; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture method and a sloughing assay, revealing major differences between the potato types. Differences in pectin structure between potato types with different textural properties were revealed using monoclonal antibodies specific for different pectic epitopes. Chemical analysis of tuber pectin clearly demonstrated that, in tubers containing a higher level of total PME activity, there was a reduced degree of methylation of cell wall pectin and consistently higher peak force and work done values during the fracture of cooked tuber samples, demonstrating the link between PME activity, the degree of methylation of cell wall pectin, and cooked tuber textural properties.

  2. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers

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    Pizzichini Daniele

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

  3. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

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    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  4. POSSIBILITIES FOR MONITORING GUATEMALAN POTATO TUBER MOTH TECIA SOLANIVORA (POVOLNY AND POTATO TUBERWORM PHTHORIMAEA OPERCULELLA (ZELLER BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

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    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Guatemalan moth (GTPM, Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, was first registered in Guatemala and most recently invaded and became a key pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in Central and South America. Larvae feed exclusively on potato tubers, in the field and in store. Tuber quality is much reduced and heavily infested tubers can no longer be used for human or animal consumption. Stocks can be totally destroyed in less than 3 months. The potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in field and storage and is generally of greatest importance in warmer climates. After pest detection, synthetic sex pheromones are principally used to monitor population levels and trigger applications of chemicals or other control methods. In this article we described our results for using pheromone traps Delta VI of the company of Trécé Inc. USA for monitoring of the both pests in a Carchi province in Zona 1 in Ecuador. We give conclusions and recommendation for using these pheromone traps for detection and monitoring of these very important pests on Solanaceae crops.

  5. Effects of organic fertilizers on yield and quality of potato tubers in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    In this lecture, an overview was given over effects of organic fertilizers (compost, farmyard manure, slurry, organic commercial fertilizers) on yield and quality (DM, starch, contents of N, P, K) of potato tubers in organic farming.

  6. Some cytologic aspects of ionizing radaiation and electron treatment effect of potatoes tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totadze, L.Eh.; Svanidze, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of ionizing radiation and electron treatment on the microstructure of potatoe tubers of the Majestic sort has been studied. The potatoe is subjected to alternating current and Co 60 gamma-radiation treatment (with the doses 5000 rad, 10000, 15000, 20000, 25000 and 30000 rad). A supposition is made that the pass of alternating current at the voltage of 60 V, current intensity 1 mA and the exposure of 5 min through potatoe tuber causes certain cytoplasmatic changes in somatic cells manifested in the increase of tuber rest period. During potatoe tuber treatment with Co 60 γ-radiation a direct correlation between irradiation doses and degradation of somatic cells is observed

  7. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBERS FROM ORGANIC SWEET POTATO ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILA DE OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine instead at determining chemical composition, nutritional aspects and morphological characteristic of tubers from sweet potato roots (Ipomoea batatas L. of cultivars Rosinha de Verdan, Capivara and orange-fleshed produced under the organic system. The chemical composition of flours from sweet potato (SP roots was different among cultivars. The starch content for SP cultivar ranged from 26-33 % (d. b., and the orange-fleshed roots presented 3182 μg of β-carotene/100 g. The flour yield ob-tained for SPF processing was higher in Rosinha de Verdan (25.40%, and the starch content of roots ranged from 12.48-27.63 % (d.b.. The processing condition modified the starch granular characteristics of the flours and reduced 31% the carotene content and vitamin A value of the orange-fleshed flour. The orange-fleshed flour presented higher levels of carbohydrate, starch and total energy value (TEV than others white fleshed flour. The consumption of serving size of orange-fleshed roots and flour provided higher provitamin A require-ments for children.

  9. Tuber and root resistance of potato genotypes against Meloidogyne chitwoodi in the presence of Avena strigosa, related to tuber quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Thomas H.; Molendijk, Leendert P.G.; Teklu, Misghina G.; Schomaker, Corrie H.

    2017-01-01

    Relative tuber infestation and quality of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi resistant potato genotypes, AR04-4096 and 2011M1, were compared in glasshouse experiments at initial population density (Pi) = 16 second-stage juveniles (g dry soil)−1 in the presence and absence of the bristle oat, Avena strigosa.

  10. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  11. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content in sweet potato roots and potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kawashima, K.

    1982-01-01

    The sucrose content in both potato tubers and sweet potato roots was considerably increased by gamma-irradiation. The maximum increase was achieved by an irradiation dose of 3 to 4 kGy for potatoes and 0.8 to 2 kGy for sweet potatoes. Cooling treatment (15°C, 2 weeks) for sweet potato roots also enhanced the sucrose content (almost 2 times) but was not additive to the irradiation treatment; the maximum sucrose content in irradiated sweet potato roots was in the range of 7 to 12% irrespective of the cooling treatment, depending on the variety of sweet potatoes. Irradiation made the sucrose content in the roots 2 to 4 times higher

  12. Enhancement of DNA polymerase activity in potato tuber slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akira; Imaseki, Hidemasa

    1977-01-01

    DNA polymerase was extracted from potato (Soleum tuberosum L.) tuber discs and the temporal correlation of its activity change to DNA synthesis in vivo was examined during aging of the discs. Most of the DNA polymerase was recovered as a bound form in the 18,000 x g precipitate. Reaction with the bound-form enzyme was dependent on the presence of four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, Mg 2+ , and a template. ''Activated'' DNA and heat-denatured DNA, but not native DNA, were utilized as templates. The polymerase activity was sensitive to SH reagents. Fresh discs, which do not synthesize DNA in vivo, contained a significant amount of DNA polymerase and its activity increased linearly with time until 48 hr after slicing and became four times that of fresh discs after 72 hr, whereas the activity of DNA synthesis in vivo increased with time and decreased after reaching a maximum at 30 hr. Cycloheximide inhibited the enhancement of polymerase activity. DNA polymerase from aged and fresh discs had identical requirements for deoxynucleotides and a template in their reactions, sensitivity to SH reagent, and affinity to thymidine triphosphate. (auth.)

  13. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  14. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  15. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber

  16. A potato tuber-expressed mNRA with homology to steroid dehydrogenases affects gibberellin levels and plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachem, C.W.B.; Horvath, B.M.; Trindade, L.M.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Davelaar, E.; Jordi, W.J.R.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP RNA fingerprinting throughout potato tuber development, we have isolated a transcript-derived fragment (TDF511) with strong homology to plant steroid dehydrogenases. During in vitro tuberization, the abundance profile of the TDF shows close correlation to the process of tuber

  17. Multiple alleles for tuber shape in diploid potato detected by qualitative and quantitative genetic analysis using RFLPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.; Jacobs, J.M.E.; Stam, P.; Ton, J.; Stiekema, W.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Tuber shape in potato is commonly regarded as displaying continuous variation, yet at the diploid level phenotypes can be discerned visually, having round or long tubers. Inheritance of qualitative tuber shape can be explained by a single locus Ro, round being dominant to long. With restriction

  18. Quantitative determination of chlorogenic acid in γ-ray-irradiated potato tubers by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Makoto; Chonan, Takao; Yamagishi, Takashi; Ando, Yoshiaki

    1984-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) in lyophilized potato tubers were quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the changes in CGA contents of γ-ray-irradiated potato tubers (100 Gy) during storage at 25 0 C were studied. The CGA contents of the irradiated potato tubers slightly increased immediately after irradiation, but decreased gradually after 29th day and reached the same level as that in the beginning of storage on the 73rd day after irradiation. However, the CGA contents of the unirradiated potato tubers increased steadily with increasing days of storage period, and reached twice that in the beginning of storage on the 73rd day after irradiation. The CGA contents in potato tubers determined by Diazo and Folin-Denis methods were shown to be two - eight times higher than those by HPLC method, and there appeared to be no significant relation between the CGA contents determined by HPLC method and by colorimetrical methods. (author)

  19. Regulation by magnesium of potato tuber mitochondrial respiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joaquim A F; Madeira, Vítor M C; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2004-12-01

    Dehydrogenase activities of potato tuber mitochondria and corresponding phosphorylation rates were measured for the dependence on external and mitochondrial matrix Mg2+. Magnesium stimulated state 3 and state 4 respiration, with significantly different concentrations of matrix Mg2+ required for optimal activities of the several substrates. Maximal stimulation of respiration with all substrates was obtained at 2-mM external Mg2+. However, respiration of malate, citrate, and alpha-ketoglutarate requires at least 4-mM Mg2+ inside mitochondria for maximization of dehydrogenase activities. The phosphorylation system, requires a low level of internal Mg2+ (0.25 mM) to reach high activity, as judged by succinate-dependent respiration. However, mitochondria respiring on citrate or alpha-ketoglutarate only sustain high levels of phosphorylation with at least 4-mM matrix Mg2+. Respiration of succinate is active without external and matrix Mg2+, although stimulated by the cation. Respiration of alpha-ketoglutarate was strictly dependent on external Mg2+ required for substrate transport into mitochondria, and internal Mg2+ is required for dehydrogenase activity. Respiration of citrate and malate also depend on internal Mg2+ but, unlike alpha-ketoglutarate, some activity still remains without external Mg2+. All the substrates revealed insensitive to external and internal mitochondrial Ca2+, except the exogenous NADH dehydrogenase, which requires either external Ca2+ or Mg2+ for detectable activity. Calcium is more efficient than Mg2+, both having cumulative stimulation. Unlike Ca2+, Mn2+ could substitute for Mg2+, before and after addition of A23, showing its ability to regulate phosphorylation and succinate dehydrogenase activities, with almost the same efficiency as Mg2+.

  20. Metabolic engineering of potato carotenoid content through tuber-specific overexpression of a bacterial mini-pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Diretto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the creation of "Golden Rice", biofortification of plant-derived foods is a promising strategy for the alleviation of nutritional deficiencies. Potato is the most important staple food for mankind after the cereals rice, wheat and maize, and is extremely poor in provitamin A carotenoids. METHODOLOGY: We transformed potato with a mini-pathway of bacterial origin, driving the synthesis of beta-carotene (Provitamin A from geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Three genes, encoding phytoene synthase (CrtB, phytoene desaturase (CrtI and lycopene beta-cyclase (CrtY from Erwinia, under tuber-specific or constitutive promoter control, were used. 86 independent transgenic lines, containing six different promoter/gene combinations, were produced and analyzed. Extensive regulatory effects on the expression of endogenous genes for carotenoid biosynthesis are observed in transgenic lines. Constitutive expression of the CrtY and/or CrtI genes interferes with the establishment of transgenosis and with the accumulation of leaf carotenoids. Expression of all three genes, under tuber-specific promoter control, results in tubers with a deep yellow ("golden" phenotype without any adverse leaf phenotypes. In these tubers, carotenoids increase approx. 20-fold, to 114 mcg/g dry weight and beta-carotene 3600-fold, to 47 mcg/g dry weight. CONCLUSIONS: This is the highest carotenoid and beta-carotene content reported for biofortified potato as well as for any of the four major staple foods (the next best event being "Golden Rice 2", with 31 mcg/g dry weight beta-carotene. Assuming a beta-carotene to retinol conversion of 6ratio1, this is sufficient to provide 50% of the Recommended Daily Allowance of Vitamin A with 250 gms (fresh weight of "golden" potatoes.

  1. Reactivation of meristem activity and sprout growth in potato tubers require both cytokinin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Senning, Melanie; Hedden, Peter; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2011-02-01

    Reactivation of dormant meristems is of central importance for plant fitness and survival. Due to their large meristem size, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers serve as a model system to study the underlying molecular processes. The phytohormones cytokinins (CK) and gibberellins (GA) play important roles in releasing potato tuber dormancy and promoting sprouting, but their mode of action in these processes is still obscure. Here, we established an in vitro assay using excised tuber buds to study the dormancy-releasing capacity of GA and CK and show that application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is sufficient to induce sprouting. In contrast, treatment with 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud break but did not support further sprout growth unless GA(3) was administered additionally. Transgenic potato plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GA 20-oxidase or GA 2-oxidase to modify endogenous GA levels showed the expected phenotypical changes as well as slight effects on tuber sprouting. The isopentenyltransferase (IPT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Arabidopsis cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase1 (CKX) were exploited to modify the amounts of CK in transgenic potato plants. IPT expression promoted earlier sprouting in vitro. Strikingly, CKX-expressing tubers exhibited a prolonged dormancy period and did not respond to GA(3). This supports an essential role of CK in terminating tuber dormancy and indicates that GA is not sufficient to break dormancy in the absence of CK. GA(3)-treated wild-type and CKX-expressing tuber buds were subjected to a transcriptome analysis that revealed transcriptional changes in several functional groups, including cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, and auxin and ethylene signaling, denoting events associated with the reactivation of dormant meristems.

  2. The effects of enhanced methionine synthesis on amino acid and anthocyanin content of potato tubers

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    Bánfalvi Zsófia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a staple food in the diet of the world's population and also being used as animal feed. Compared to other crops, however, potato tubers are relatively poor in the essential amino acid, methionine. Our aim was to increase the methionine content of tubers by co-expressing a gene involved in methionine synthesis with a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein in potato plants. Results In higher plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CgS is the first enzyme specific to methionine biosynthesis. We attempted to increase the methionine content of tubers by expressing the deleted form of the Arabidopsis CgS (CgSΔ90, which is not regulated by methionine, in potato plants. To increase the incorporation of free methionine into a storage protein the CgSΔ90 was co-transformed with the methionine-rich 15-kD β-zein. Results demonstrated a 2- to 6-fold increase in the free methionine content and in the methionine content of the zein-containing protein fraction of the transgenic tubers. In addition, in line with higher methionine content, the amounts of soluble isoleucine and serine were also increased. However, all of the lines with high level of CgSΔ90 expression were phenotypically abnormal showing severe growth retardation, changes in leaf architecture and 40- to 60% reduction in tuber yield. Furthermore, the colour of the transgenic tubers was altered due to the reduced amounts of anthocyanin pigments. The mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the enzyme catalysing the first step of anthocyanin synthesis, were decreased. Conclusion Ectopic expression of CgSΔ90 increases the methionine content of tubers, however, results in phenotypic aberrations in potato. Co-expression of the 15-kD β-zein with CgSΔ90 results in elevation of protein-bound methionine content of tubers, but can not overcome the phenotypical changes caused by CgSΔ90 and can not significantly improve the nutritional value of tubers. The level

  3. Identification and reproducibility of diagnostic DNA markers for tuber starch and yield optimization in a novel association mapping population of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, E M; Ortega, F; Barandalla, L; Aragones, A; Ruiz de Galarreta, J I; Liao, J-C; Sanetomo, R; Walkemeier, B; Tacke, E; Ritter, E; Gebhardt, C

    2016-04-01

    SNPs in candidate genes Pain - 1, InvCD141 (invertases), SSIV (starch synthase), StCDF1 (transcription factor), LapN (leucine aminopeptidase), and cytoplasm type are associated with potato tuber yield, starch content and/or starch yield. Tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC), and starch yield (TSY) are complex characters of high importance for the potato crop in general and for industrial starch production in particular. DNA markers associated with superior alleles of genes that control the natural variation of TY, TSC, and TSY could increase precision and speed of breeding new cultivars optimized for potato starch production. Diagnostic DNA markers are identified by association mapping in populations of tetraploid potato varieties and advanced breeding clones. A novel association mapping population of 282 genotypes including varieties, breeding clones and Andean landraces was assembled and field evaluated in Northern Spain for TY, TSC, TSY, tuber number (TN) and tuber weight (TW). The landraces had lower mean values of TY, TW, TN, and TSY. The population was genotyped for 183 microsatellite alleles, 221 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fourteen candidate genes and eight known diagnostic markers for TSC and TSY. Association test statistics including kinship and population structure reproduced five known marker-trait associations of candidate genes and discovered new ones, particularly for tuber yield and starch yield. The inclusion of landraces increased the number of detected marker-trait associations. Integration of the present association mapping results with previous QTL linkage mapping studies for TY, TSC, TSY, TW, TN, and tuberization revealed some hot spots of QTL for these traits in the potato genome. The genomic positions of markers linked or associated with QTL for complex tuber traits suggest high multiplicity and genome wide distribution of the underlying genes.

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation used to inhibit potato sprouting on potato tuber moth eggs, larvae and pupae Phthorimaea Operculella zeller (Lep., Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    2002-12-01

    Different age groups of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea Operculella zeller, eggs were exposed to gamma irradiation at incremental doses up to 150 Gy (the upper dose limit allowed for potato sprout inhibition). Young eggs were more sensitive to gamma irradiation than older eggs and the sensitivity level declined with eggs age. The exposure of 3 - 3.5 d-old eggs to 150 Gy resulted in an 26% increase in egg incubation period compared with unirradiated eggs. The minimum dose required to 75 Gy, 9.7% of larvae survived to the adult stage but emerged as deformed moths. At 100 and 125 Gy, 10.2 and 9.6% of larvae pupated, respectively; however no adult eclosion was recorded. Whereas at 150 Gy, the larvae remained in mid-instar stage and eventually died. Young larvae and pupae were more susceptible to irradiation injuries than older ones. When larvae and of different ages were exposed to doses equal or higher than 100 Gy, only 13 to 35% pupated, but no adult emergence was obtained . The exposure of 1 - 1.5 or 3 - 3.5 day old pupae to 150 Gy induced high level of sterility and remarkable reduction in female mating ability and fecundity whereas, the reduction was less noticeable for 5 - 5.5 day-old pupae. Gamma irradiation doses applied to inhibit potato sprouting could used as an efficient control approach against potato tuber moth eggs, larval and pupal infestations (authors)

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation used to inhibit potato sprouting on potato tuber moth eggs, larvae and pupae Phthorimaea Operculella zeller (Lep., Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    2003-01-01

    Different age groups of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea Operculella zeller, eggs were exposed to gamma irradiation at incremental doses up to 150 Gy (the upper dose limit allowed for potato sprout inhibition). Young eggs were more sensitive to gamma irradiation than older eggs and the sensitivity level declined with eggs age. The exposure of 3 - 3.5 d-old eggs to 150 Gy resulted in an 26% increase in egg incubation period compared with unirradiated eggs. The minimum dose required to 75 Gy, 9.7% of larvae survived to the adult stage but emerged as deformed moths. At 100 and 125 Gy, 10.2 and 9.6% of larvae pupated, respectively. However no adult eclosion was recorded. Whereas at 150 Gy, the larvae remained in mid-in star stage and eventually died. Young larvae and pupae were more susceptible to irradiation injuries than older ones. When larvae and of different ages were exposed to doses equal or higher than 100 Gy, only 13 to 35% pupated, but no adult emergence was obtained . The exposure of 1 - 1.5 or 3 - 3.5 day old pupae to 150 Gy induced high level of sterility and remarkable reduction in female mating ability and fecundity whereas, the reduction was less noticeable for 5 - 5.5 day-old pupae. Gamma irradiation doses applied to inhibit potato sprouting could used as an efficient control approach against potato tuber moth eggs, larval and pupal infestations (authors)

  6. Auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific promoter alters hormonal status of transgenic potato plants and their responses to exogenous phytohormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolachevskaya, Oksana O; Sergeeva, Lidiya I; Floková, Kristyna; Getman, Irina A; Lomin, Sergey N; Alekseeva, Valeriya V; Rukavtsova, Elena B; Buryanov, Yaroslav I; Romanov, Georgy A

    2017-03-01

    Ectopic auxin overproduction in transgenic potato leads to enhanced productivity accompanied with concerted and occasional changes in hormonal status, and causing altered response of transformants to exogenous auxin or cytokinin. Previously, we generated potato transformants expressing Agrobacterium-derived auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific patatin gene promoter (B33-promoter). Here, we studied the endogenous hormonal status and the response to exogenous phytohormones in tms1 transformants cultured in vitro. Adding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or kinetin to culture medium affected differently tuberization of tms1-transformed and control plants, depending also on sucrose content in the medium. Exogenous phytohormones ceased to stimulate the tuber initiation in transformants at high (5-8%) sucrose concentration, while in control plants the stimulation was observed in all experimental settings. Furthermore, exogenous auxin partly inhibited the tuber initiation, and exogenous cytokinin reduced the average tuber weight in most transformants at high sucrose content. The elevated auxin level in tubers of the transformants was accompanied with a decrease in content of cytokinin bases and their ribosides in tubers and most shoots. No concerted changes in contents of abscisic, jasmonic, salicylic acids and gibberellins in tubers were detected. The data on hormonal status indicated that the enhanced productivity of tms1 transformants was due to auxin and not mediated by other phytohormones. In addition, exogenous cytokinin was shown to upregulate the expression of genes encoding orthologs of auxin receptors. Overall, the results showed that tms1 expression and local increase in IAA level in transformants affect both the balance of endogenous cytokinins and the dynamics of tuberization in response to exogenous hormones (auxin, cytokinin), the latter reaction depending also on the carbohydrate supply. We introduce a basic model for the hormonal network

  7. Evaluation of Hail Simulated Damage on Marketable Tuber Yield of Potato Agria Cultivar in Ardabil Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hassanpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Ardabil Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station during the year of 2010. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications and two factors were used to evaluate the effect of simulated hail damage to foliage at different growth stages of potato Agria cultivar on marketable tuber yield. The first factor consisted of six levels of foliar damage (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent and the second factor of five levels of plant growth stages (2, 5, 8, 11 and 15 weeks after the growing. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among plants for levels and times of hail damage and their interactions in terms of marketable tuber yield. Percentage of marketable yield reduction at early stages of vegetative growth (2 weeks after growing was minimal. Occurrence of hail damage at the tuberization and bulking stages (5, 8 and 11 weeks after growing severely reduced marketable tuber yield. While, its damage at late growing stages of (14 weeks after growing on tuber yield was not appreciable. Times of hail damage on marketable tuber yield reduction was calculated through the regression. Relative reduction of marketable tuber yield at the early stages of vegetative growth, due to hail damage, against non-marketable tuber yield was higher than of bulking stage.

  8. Potato tuber proteomics: Comparison of two complementary extraction methods designed for 2-DE of acidic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Wal, van der F.; Dierick, J.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Jardin, du P.; America, A.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Two protein extraction procedures were tested in order to remove interfering compounds prior to 2-DE of potato tubers. These methods using SDS lysis buffer and phenol-phase extraction were compared regarding the quality of the resulting 2-D gel. While the resolution of SDS extracts on

  9. Impacts on the metabolome of down-regulating polyphenol oxidase in transgenic potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Estima) genetically modified (GM) to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and enzymatic discolouration were assessed for changes in the metabolome using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Gas Chromatography (GC)-MS. Metabolome changes ...

  10. Response of stored potato seed tubers from contrasting cultivars to accumulated day-degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Caldiz, D.O.; Scholte, K.

    2006-01-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), the accumulated day-degrees (temperature sum, calculated by accumulating the daily temperatures) from dormancy break until seed tuber use has been suggested as an indicator of the physiological status of the seed. We tested whether similar temperature sums differing

  11. Role of citric acid in the after-cooking darkening of γ-irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Adam, S.; Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    With the aim of exploring the reasons for radiation-induced after-cooking darkening of potato tubers, organic acids from a naturally darkening (Irmgard) and a nondarkening cultivar (Hansa) were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and quantified by gas--liquid chromatography of the trimethylsilyl derivatives. Citric, malic, and pyroglutamic acids were the main components, citric acid forming 70 to 80% of the total acids. Major differences in citric and malic acid content were observed between the darkening and nondarkening cultivars. A significant decrease in citric acid content accompanied by increases in malic and pyroglutamic acids were noted in irradiated tubers during storage. The induction of after-cooking darkening in irradiated potatoes is attributed to decreased citric acid levels and enhanced polyphenols in the tuber tissues, both changes favoring the formation of iron--phenolic complexes responsible for the discoloration

  12. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of candidate gene markers for marker-assisted selection of potato cultivars with improved tuber quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhardt; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Draffehn, Astrid M; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Tuber yield, starch content, starch yield and chip color are complex traits that are important for industrial uses and food processing of potato. Chip color depends on the quantity of reducing sugars glucose and fructose in the tubers, which are generated by starch degradation. Reducing sugars accumulate when tubers are stored at low temperatures. Early and efficient selection of cultivars with superior yield, starch yield and chip color is hampered by the fact that reliable phenotypic selection requires multiple year and location trials. Application of DNA-based markers early in the breeding cycle, which are diagnostic for superior alleles of genes that control natural variation of tuber quality, will reduce the number of clones to be evaluated in field trials. Association mapping using genes functional in carbohydrate metabolism as markers has discovered alleles of invertases and starch phosphorylases that are associated with tuber quality traits. Here, we report on new DNA variants at loci encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and the invertase Pain-1, which are associated with positive or negative effect with chip color, tuber starch content and starch yield. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and marker validation were performed in tetraploid breeding populations, using various combinations of 11 allele-specific markers associated with tuber quality traits. To facilitate MAS, user-friendly PCR assays were developed for specific candidate gene alleles. In a multi-parental population of advanced breeding clones, genotypes were selected for having different combinations of five positive and the corresponding negative marker alleles. Genotypes combining five positive marker alleles performed on average better than genotypes with four negative alleles and one positive allele. When tested individually, seven of eight markers showed an effect on at least one quality trait. The direction of effect was as expected. Combinations of two to three marker alleles were

  14. Tuberous root characteristics of sweet potato clones using multivariate techniques for selection of superior genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the tuberous root characteristics of sweet potato clones using multivariate techniques for selection of superior genotypes, the present research was carried out in the Experimental area of the Plant Genetic Breeding Sector of the Agrarian Sciences Center of the Federal University of Alagoas (SMGP/CECA/UFAL. Were evaluated 44 new clones originated from progenies of half-siblings and germanic siblings, in addition to the cultivar Sergipana Vermelha, in lines of 5 m in length, spacing 1.0 mx 0.5 m, totaling a total area of 5 m²/clone. The harvest was done at 120 days after planting the branches, in which the production of non-commercial tuberous roots (PRTNC was evaluated, production of commercial tuberous roots (PRTC, production of tuberous roots (PTRT, total number of tuberous roots (NTRT, average weight of commercial tuberous roots (PMRTC, predominant color of tuberous root skin (CPPERT and predominant color of the tuberosal root pulp (CPPORT. Descriptive statistics, correlation technique and principal component analysis were used. It was observed that clones 23, 36, 17 and 37 presented interesting agronomic characteristics, being recommended for the cultivation and in the analysis of main components, the variables PTRT and PRTC presented greater importance, reflecting that they discriminate the clones satisfactorily.

  15. Disinfestation of different varieties of potato naturally or artificially infested by the potato tuber moth, Phthorimea Operculella Zell. In the storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiba, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    The exposure of potato tuber varieties of Alpha, Spunta, Cara and escort to radiation dose level of 150 Gy could be used to disinfest the potatoes from their natural attacked pest, Phthorimaea Operculella, after the harvest and before storage. Escort variety exhibited somewhat resistance to the natural infestation if compared with the others. The irradiation of the potato tubers did not protect them from the re infestation, during the storage. Also, there were significant changes in some biological properties of the resulted pests, among the four potato varieties, whether the potatoes were non-irradiated or irradiated. The feeding of the artificial infested larvae on the treated tubers gave some malformed adults. 3 tabs

  16. Covalent structures of potato tuber lipases (patatins) and implications for vacuolar import

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Jørgensen, Malene

    that the path is via the Golgi apparatus. However, the vacuolar targeting signal has never been identified for this storage and defence protein, which amounts to 25-40% of tuber protein. We propose that a six-residue ct-propeptide, -ANKASY-COO- composes this signal. The crystallographic structure...... the Danish Research Council for Technology and Production, and grant 2052-03-0022 from the Danish Research Agency.   Reference Welinder KG, Jørgensen M (2009) Covalent structures of potato tuber lipases (patatins) and implications for vacuolar import. J. Biol. Chem., Feb 2009; doi:10.1074/jbc.M809674200....

  17. Effect of genetic modification of potato starch on decomposition of leaves and tubers and on fungal decomposer communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannula, S.E.; De Boer, W.; Baldrian, P.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a risk evaluation of growing genetically modified crops, we investigated the effects of a genetic modification of starch quality (increased level of amylopectin) in potato tubers (Solanum Tuberosum L.) on the decomposition of tissues (tubers and leaves) as well as on the associated fungal

  18. WATER EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO TUBERS REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE 0F HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED BY NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE JAWI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compliance of hypertensive patients to take medication is one of many determinant factors to achieve successful treatment. Side effects and the expensive price of drugs are the causes of the incompliance of patients taking the medication. Utilization of herbal medicine is a new hope to resolve the issue. Purple sweet potato tuber is a plant part that expected has beneficial effect in lowering blood pressure because it contains anthocyanins which are antioxidants and can preserve endothelial function. To prove these hypothesis, a study was conducted with randomized control group pre and post-test design. The  study was done on 20 adult male Wistar rats that were divided into two groups of 10 rats.  Both groups of rats were made hypertensive by administering high doses of NaCl. Control group of rats given only NaCl alone for 14 days. Treatment group were given NaCl and water extract of purple sweet potato tuber with a dose of 4 cc per day for 14 days. Before treatment and during treatment, blood pressure were taken everyday with special sphygmomanometer. The results indicate a significant difference in blood pressure between the control group with treatment (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in blood pressure compared to the control group (P=0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of purple sweet potato tuber water extract may lower high blood pressure of rats induced by NaCl.

  19. The effect of mineral fertilization on fungi colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers after harvest and after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact experiment conducted in Bałcyny, in which a late potato cultivar, Jasia, was grown. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization: A (N 80 kg × ha-1 P 80 kg × ha-1 K120 kg × ha-1 and B (N 120 kg × ha-1 P 144 kg × ha-1 K156 kg × ha-1, and foliar fertilization (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn and Solubor DF on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungal populations colonizing potato tubers. Fungi were isolated immediately after harvest and after a five-month storage period. After seven days of incubation, fungal colonies were transferred onto agar slants for microscopic identification. Over the entire experimental period, more pathogenic fungi were obtained from potato tubers analyzed after storage (62.9% of the total fungal population after storage than from those analyzed immediately after harvest (39.1%, and the greatest number of fungi was reported in 2004. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated most frequently, followed by Colletotrichum coccodes and Alternaria alternata. Pathogens of the genus Fusarium and the species Helminthosporium solani were not numerous. In the treatment A with soil mineral fertilization with lower NPK rates, larger numbers of pathogenic fungi were noted in 2004 after harvest and after five-month storage, and in 2005 after harvest. At the remaining dates of analysis, pathogens were more frequently isolated from potato tubers in experimental variant B with higher NPK rates. Immediately after harvest, the highest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated in the treatment with foliar application of ADOB Mn and Basfoliar 12-4-6. After five-month storage, pathogens most often colonized potato tubers in experimental variant B with foliar application of Solubor DF, Solubor DF and ADOB Mn, and in experimental variant A with a combination of fertilizers. In the other fertilization variants, including in the control

  20. WEED MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cleón de Castro Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review shows instructions to potatoes' farmer about behavior of the weeds and how to manage them so as to minimize loss of productivity through the use of control strategies for potato crop. The prevention consists in adoption of practices that prevents entry of unwanted species of weeds in the planting site. The control reduces the infestation of these species, but this practice does not eradicate them completely. However, it needs to control the weeds before the area preparation for planting the tubers until complete closure of the soil by shoots of potatoes during the critical period. After covering the soil, the potato crop does not suffer negative interference caused by weeds. The cultural practices include a good plane for harvest, plant crop rotation, the planting of appropriate plants for covering the soil, the ideal space to the planting and the correct time to potato planting. The control must be efficient to reduce the number of weeds in the area to avoid economic losses to farmers. It is necessary to establish weed management strategies in order to maintain sustainable farming systems, preserving the environment and quality of life of the farmer.

  1. Study of the free and proteic amino acids content in potato tubers by fours different methods of preservation, and stored during five months; Estudio del contenido en aminoacidos libre y proteicos en tuberculos de patata tratados por cuatro metodos de conservacion y almacenados durante cinco meses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J; Aguirre Alfaro, A

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the qualitative and quantitative content in free and proteic aminoacids of the potato tubers stored during five months. The results obtained in tubers treated with maleic hydrazide, isopropyl carbanilate (IPC), refrigeration and gamma irradiation, are compared with those from tubers control without treatment. There are no significant differences in the relative proportion of the aminoacids from the tubers treated by different methods, but they do exist significant differences when compared with the non treated controls. (Author) 46 refs.

  2. Identification of irradiated food. I.-A test established on the ''in vitro'' culture of potato buds to identify the irradiated tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Fernandez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method based upon the ''in vitro'' culture of potato buds in a mineral medium is described, by which method tubers irradiated can be distinguished from tubers treated by refrigeration or inhibited by chemical agents. (author)

  3. Identification of irradiated food. I.- A test established on the in vitro culture of potato buds to identified the irradiated tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method based upon the in vitro culture of potato buds in a mineral medium is described, by which method tubers irradiated can be distinguished from tubers treated by refrigeration or inhibited by chemical agents. (Author) 9 refs

  4. Influence of Pheromone Trap Color and Placement on Catch of Male Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato Tuber Moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the damaging pests of potatoes in both field crops and storage worldwide. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of product. Mass trapping application of synthetic pheromone has been found to be effective to control P. operculella; however, several factors have to be optimized for improving its efficiency. This experiment was carried out during the 2012 season, Ardabil province, Iran to evaluate the effectiveness of pheromone trap to capture males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. Particularly, in this experiment the influence of color (yellow, red and green, and height (ground level, 0.3 and 0.6 m of water-pan trap on males captures was tested. The results showed that green traps captured significantly (P < 0.05 more males than red and yellow traps. Water-pan traps placed at 0.6 above plant canopy captured significantly (P < 0.05 the highest number of the moths in comparison to traps placed at ground level and 0.3 m.

  5. Biolistic transmission of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) populations to weeds frequently grown on potato fields and PSTVd pathogenesis on cultured Chamomilla recutita

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Orctová, Lidmila; Ptáček, J.; Dědič, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2009), s. 43-55 ISSN 1802-940X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : potato fields * weed plants * potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  6. Rapid differentiation between gamma-irradiated and non irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jona, R.; Fronda, A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation as commercial method for the preservation of fruits and vegetables calls for methods of differentiation between irradiated and non-irradiated foodstuffs. In a previous research, the polysaccharidic content of cell walls of irradiated tissue has been investigated, but it required rather long time to reach the result. A method devised to ascertain the vitality of cells has been applied to distinguish irradiated from non-irradiated potato tubers. 500 mg of tissue excised from tubers have been infiltrated with tetrazolium chloride 0.6% in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. After 15 hrs of incubation at 30 0 C the treated tissues have been extracted with 95% ethanol whose O.D. has been measured at 530 mμ wavelength. The colour intensity of the alcohol allowed a very clearcut recognition of the irradiated tubers. (author)

  7. In vitro antagonistic activity of fungi isolated from sclerotia on potato tubers against Rhizoctonia solani

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCİ, Erkol; DANE, Elif; EKEN, Cafer

    2011-01-01

    Forty-five fungal isolates were obtained from sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani on potato tubers in Erzurum, Turkey. The interaction between fungal isolates and R. solani was studied in dual culture technique. Some fungal isolates affected R. solani by antibiosis and/or parasitism. Results of the antagonism tests showed that Acremonium sp., Gliocladium viride, Paecilomyces marquandii, Paecilomyces sulphurellus, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium frequentans (ME-50), Penic...

  8. Detection of Irradiated Tubers (Ginger and Potato) Using Photostimulated Luminescence Technique (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun

    2016-01-01

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) measurement was conducted to detect irradiated gingers (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) after dark storage for 1 week, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all the samples were correctly distinguished between non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 50, 150 and 500 Gy based on photon count values. The PSL signal stability of irradiated samples (150 and 500 Gy) appeared to fade upon 6 months storage but remained well above upper threshold values of 5000 photon counts/ 60 s (PCs) for irradiated gingers and potatoes. The PCs of irradiated tubers showed a general trend of increase with the increase in doses up to 500 Gy. Samples showed highest intensity after irradiation. The differences in intensity to irradiation are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each tuber sample. Tubers irradiated at doses higher than 150 Gy, showed sensitivity index ratio of less than 10. Sensitivity Index was suggested for irradiated samples at doses slightly above 150 Gy. Irradiated samples at doses less than 150 Gy should be subjected for further investigation using thermoluminescence (TL) analysis. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated tubers. (author)

  9. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Pérombelon, M.C.M.; Jafra, S.; Lojkowska, E.; Potrykus, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Sledz, W.

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in

  10. Effect of source and level of potash on yield and quality of potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.; Akhtar, M.E.; Mahmood, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons at NARC potato research area Islamabad, Pakistan, to study comparative effect of source, levels and methods of K fertilization on yield and quality of potato produce. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at 250 and 125 kg ha/sup -1/, respectively whereas three K/sub 2/O levels, 0, 150 and 225 kg ha/sup -1/ from two sources of potash (SOP and MOP) were tested. Potassium was also applied as foliar spray at 1% K/sub 2/O solution at 30, 45 and 60 days after germination (DAG) and soil was also amended by 150 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/. A significant increase in tuber yield with K application at 150 kg ha/sup -1/ as K/sub 2/O from both the K sources over NP treatment was recorded. Increase in tuber yield with K/sub 2/O at the rate of 225 kg ha/sup -1/ was statistically nonsignificant compared to 150 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/. A positive interaction between soil applied P and K with N in plant system was observed. Potassium treatments not only increased K concentration but also affected N and P contents in potato tubers. The quality parameters like dry matter, specific gravity, starch contents, vitamin-C and ash contents were also affected with P and K fertilization. (author)

  11. In planta modification of the potato tuber cell wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, R.J.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from its well known uses in the human diet a large amount of the grown potatoes (about one third in the Netherlands) is used for the isolation of starch which is used in several food and non-food applications. The cell wall fibres comprise a large portion of the waste material remaining

  12. Description of the Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae Attacking the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lep.: Gelechiidae New to Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diadegma fenestrale is known as a parasitoid of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella. The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller is one of the most destructive pest of potatoes. Also, we found this species attacking the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Ratio of parasitism is 20-30% and cocoon of lepidopteran was parasitic ichneumonid species after 3 days. This species and the genus Diadegma are recorded for the first time from Korea. In this paper, description of the parasitoid and photographs of the diagnostic characteristics are provided.

  13. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a potato collection with contrasting tuber carotenoid content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sulli

    Full Text Available After wheat and rice, potato is the third most important staple food worldwide. A collection of ten tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum and diploid (S. phureja and S. chacoense genotypes with contrasting carotenoid content was subjected to molecular characterization with respect to candidate carotenoid loci and metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Irrespective of ploidy and taxonomy, tubers of these genotypes fell into three groups: yellow-fleshed, characterized by high levels of epoxy-xanthophylls and xanthophyll esters and by the presence of at least one copy of a dominant allele of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase 2 (CHY2 gene; white-fleshed, characterized by low carotenoid levels and by the presence of recessive chy2 alleles; and orange-fleshed, characterized by high levels of zeaxanthin but low levels of xanthophyll esters, and homozygosity for a Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (ZEP recessive allele. Novel CHY2 and ZEP alleles were identified in the collection. Multivariate analysis identified several groups of co-regulated non-polar compounds, and resulted in the grouping of the genotypes according to flesh color, suggesting that extensive cross-talk exists between the carotenoid pathway and other metabolite pathways in tubers. Postharvest traits like tuber dormancy and weight loss during storage showed little correlation with tuber carotenoid content, with the exception of zeaxanthin and its esters. Other tuber metabolites, such as glucose, monogalactosyldiacyglycerol (a glycolipid, or suberin precursors, showed instead significant correlations with both traits.

  14. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a potato collection with contrasting tuber carotenoid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulli, Maria; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Sturaro, Monica; Onofri, Chiara; Diretto, Gianfranco; Parisi, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    After wheat and rice, potato is the third most important staple food worldwide. A collection of ten tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum) and diploid (S. phureja and S. chacoense) genotypes with contrasting carotenoid content was subjected to molecular characterization with respect to candidate carotenoid loci and metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Irrespective of ploidy and taxonomy, tubers of these genotypes fell into three groups: yellow-fleshed, characterized by high levels of epoxy-xanthophylls and xanthophyll esters and by the presence of at least one copy of a dominant allele of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase 2 (CHY2) gene; white-fleshed, characterized by low carotenoid levels and by the presence of recessive chy2 alleles; and orange-fleshed, characterized by high levels of zeaxanthin but low levels of xanthophyll esters, and homozygosity for a Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (ZEP) recessive allele. Novel CHY2 and ZEP alleles were identified in the collection. Multivariate analysis identified several groups of co-regulated non-polar compounds, and resulted in the grouping of the genotypes according to flesh color, suggesting that extensive cross-talk exists between the carotenoid pathway and other metabolite pathways in tubers. Postharvest traits like tuber dormancy and weight loss during storage showed little correlation with tuber carotenoid content, with the exception of zeaxanthin and its esters. Other tuber metabolites, such as glucose, monogalactosyldiacyglycerol (a glycolipid), or suberin precursors, showed instead significant correlations with both traits. PMID:28898255

  15. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  16. SNPs in genes functional in starch-sugar interconversion associate with natural variation of tuber starch and sugar content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-07-31

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. Copyright © 2014 Schreiber et al.

  17. PROTEINS OF POTATOES IN RELATION TO THE CONTENT OF CADMIUM IN THEIR TUBERS

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    Judita Bystrická

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the work the influence of cadmium in soil on the range of cumulating in tubers of potatoes and in proteins of potatoes grown under model conditions of pot trial experiment and under the real conditions of locality Imeľ in Danube Lowland was surveyed. Under conditions of pot trial the increased contents in tubers positively correlated with contents of cadmium applied into soil; the highest content of Cd was assessed in variety Junior (from 0.211 mg.kg-1 FM in 1st variant to 0.715 mg.kg-1 FM in 4th variant. The influence of increased content of Cd was manifested statistically significant in the content of proteins also in the content of Cd in protein fractions (1st var. 0.026 (Asterix – 0.045 (Agria mg.kg-1 FM; 2nd var. 0.047 (Livera – 0.085 (Asterix mg.kg-1 FM; 3rd var. 0.06 (Livera – 0.117 (Junior mg.kg-1 FM; 4th var. 0.068 (Livera – 0.142 (Asterix mg.kg-1 FM. Contents of Cd in potatoes from locality Imeľ did not exceed the value 0.1 mg.kg-1 FM defined in PK SR. The average contents of proteins were in range from 1.19 % (Victoria to 1.489 % (Adora, the average content of Cd cumulated in proteins was the highest in variety Vivaldi (1.317 μg.kg-1 FM. Positive correlation was confirmed between the content of Cd in potato tubers and in proteins only in Livera variety. doi:10.5219/74

  18. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L..

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    Roberta Fogliatto Mariot

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3 and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A. According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  19. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  20. Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis Appears Linked with Suberin Production in Potato Tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2015-05-20

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and are formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed, but little is known about their path in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), and CA serves as a substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of the mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in the flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization toward suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2, and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers suggest a major flux toward suberin.

  1. Bacterial diversity on the surface of potato tubers in soil and the influence of the plant genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Nicole; Meincke, Remo; Gottwald, Christine; Heuer, Holger; Schloter, Michael; Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2010-10-01

    The surface of tubers might be a reservoir for bacteria that are disseminated with seed potatoes or that affect postharvest damage. The numbers of culturable bacteria and their antagonistic potential, as well as bacterial community fingerprints were analysed from tubers of seven field-grown potato genotypes, including two lines with tuber-accumulated zeaxanthin. The plant genotype significantly affected the number of culturable bacteria only at one field site. Zeaxanthin had no effect on the bacterial plate counts. In dual culture, 72 of 700 bacterial isolates inhibited at least one of the potato pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Verticillium dahliae or Phytophthora infestans, 12 of them suppressing all three. Most of these antagonists were identified as Bacillus or Streptomyces. From tubers of two plant genotypes, including one zeaxanthin line, higher numbers of antagonists were isolated. Most antagonists showed glucanase, cellulase and protease activity, which could represent mechanisms for pathogen suppression. PCR-DGGE fingerprints of the 16S rRNA genes of bacterial communities from the tuber surfaces revealed that the potato genotype significantly affected the Pseudomonas community structure at one site. However, the genotypes showed nearly identical fingerprints for Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacillus and Streptomycetaceae. In conclusion, tuber-associated bacteria were only weakly affected by the plant genotype. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of starch content in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, A.V.; Filippova, G.I.; Gaitova, N.A.; Kutovenko, L.N.

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical changes and connections defining the starch accumulation in potato tubers are showed. Using the radioisotope C14O2 are analysed data on carbohydrates accumulation in leaves, speed of their movement in tubers, synthetic and decomposing enzyme activities in plant organs, the content of starch in tubers depending on the combination of fertilizers. The necessity for dose phosphorus application level not lower than nitrogen is reasoned. Recommendations on the optimal combination of macrofertilizers, ensuring compromise between yield and tuber starchiness for sod-podzoil sandy-loam and loamy, grey forest, peat, chernozem soils in dry-farming and irrigation are given [ru

  3. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Xiong, Binglin; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity) and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg−1 soil). The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield. PMID:26752657

  4. Genotype by Environment Effects on Potato Mini-Tuber Seed Production in an Aeroponics System

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    Julián F. Mateus-Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the environmental effect on plant development and mini-tuber production of a diverse group of potato genotypes grown under an aeroponic system, a G × E interaction experiment was carried out in greenhouses located at CIP’s experimental stations in La Molina (Lima and Huancayo (Junín. Five contrasting environments were set-up and evaluated. A combined Analysis of Variance was performed for the variables “days to tuber set”, “days to senescence” and “plant height”. An Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI Analysis was performed for yield variables: mini-tuber “weight” and “number of mini-tubers” per plant. There was a high variation in all the responses to the treatments. “Days to tuber set” was influenced by genetic responses, temperature and greenhouse Photosynthetically Active Radiation intensity. Considerable increases in the length of the vegetative cycle and plant height were recorded for all genotypes, and these were particularly notable in the warmer coastal environments. AMMI analysis showed that yield variables were primarily influenced by the genotypic effect followed by the genotype by environment interaction effect. The Venturana variety (T2 was the best performing genotype with a total average mini-tuber “weight” of 644 g per plant while the Chucmarina variety (T1 performed best for the variable “number of mini-tubers” with an overall average of 60.2 mini-tubers per plant. Both showed stability across different environments for these variables. The advanced clones T3 (395434.1, T5 (397077.16 and T6 (397073.16 showed stability for yield variables, but their performance was below the overall average of the trial. It is recommended that the environment and management should ideally be tailored to the genotype as this will result in significant yield gains.

  5. Simultaneous Detection of Brown Rot- and Soft Rot-Causing Bacterial Pathogens from Potato Tubers Through Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, R K; Singh, Dinesh; Baranwal, V K

    2016-11-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al. (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) are the two major bacterial pathogens of potato causing brown rot (wilt) and soft rot diseases, respectively, in the field and during storage. Reliable and early detection of these pathogens are keys to avoid occurrence of these diseases in potato crops and reduce yield loss. In the present study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed for simultaneous detection of R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora from potato tubers. A set of oligos targeting the pectatelyase (pel) gene of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and the universal primers based on 16S r RNA gene of R. solanacearum were used. The standardized multiplex PCR protocol could detect R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora up to 0.01 and 1.0 ng of genomic DNA, respectively. The protocol was further validated on 96 stored potato tuber samples, collected from different potato-growing states of India, viz. Uttarakhand, Odisha, Meghalaya and Delhi. 53.1 % tuber samples were positive for R. solanacearum, and 15.1 % of samples were positive for E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and both the pathogens were positive in 26.0 % samples when BIO-PCR was used. This method offers sensitive, specific, reliable and fast detection of two major bacterial pathogens from potato tubers simultaneously, particularly pathogen-free seed certification in large scale.

  6. Changes in anthocyanidin levels during the maturation of color-fleshed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miloslav; Kotíková, Zora; Paznocht, Luboš; Pivec, Vladimír; Hamouz, Karel; Lachman, Jaromír

    2017-12-15

    Certain potato cultivars are capable of producing anthocyanin pigments in the potato skin and flesh and those pigments have been shown, together with other phytochemicals, to promote good health. Six common anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, malvidin and peonidin) were analyzed weekly for 15weeks in red- and purple-fleshed potato cultivars (Red Emma, Königspurpur, Valfi and Blaue de la Mancha) grown in field conditions using a validated LC-(+ESI)MS/MS method. Pelargonidin was the major type detected in red-fleshed cultivars whereas petunidin was the major type detected in the purple ones. Neither cyanidin nor delphinidin were found in any of the cultivars. The anthocyanidin levels observed were as high as 78mg/100g FW during tuber growth; however, fully matured tubers contained only 10-39mg anthocyanidins/100gFW. Anthocyanidin levels were moderately correlated with global solar irradiation (r<0.6252) but not with rainfall or daily temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lethal Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) and its Effect on Certain Physicochemical Properties of Potato Tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, G.M.; Rizk, S. A.; Abdalla, R.S.; Sobeiha, A.M.K.; Dahroug, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of 4-day-old eggs of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) to a dose level of 800 Gy of gamma radiation caused complete mortality and prevent egg hatching after 4 days from exposure to radiation. This dose level was considered as the lethal dose for the egg stage. The dose levels of 700 and 2800 Gy were considered lethal for the full grown larvae after periods of 9 and 1 days elapsed respectively from exposure to gamma radiation .The percent larval mortality increased with the increase of both the dose level applied and the time elapsed after exposure to gamma radiation. Irradiation of full grown pupae at the dose level 1900 Gy resulted in a complete reduction of adult emergence, reached 100 % . It could be concluded that gamma irradiation with a dose level 2800 Gy caused complete mortality to different stages of Phthorimaea operculella. Moreover, the physical and chemical properties of irradiated potato tubers did not significantly differ as compared to unirradiated tubers .This obtained, fatal irradiation dose did not exceed the safe limits recommended by the international organization FAO/WHO.

  8. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation; Variaciones observadas en la actividad respiratoria de tuberculos de patata (Solanum tuberosum L.) despues de un tratamiento con radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M P; Fernandez Gonzalez, J

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs.

  9. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Chaparro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS and ionomics (ICP-MS analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds, nutrients (42, lipids (76, and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%, however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation, bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation, medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation, and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation. Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class. Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits.

  10. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Holm, David G.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Heuberger, Adam L.

    2018-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS) and ionomics (ICP-MS) analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds), nutrients (42), lipids (76), and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%), however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation), bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation), medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation), and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation). Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class). Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits. PMID:29876353

  11. Creation of initial breeding material of potato with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Гордієнко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To select the initial breeding material with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight among the created potato of secondary interspecific hyb­rids. Methods. Interspecific hybridization, laboratory test, analytical approach. Results. Based on the interspecific hybridization, the initial breeding material was created and the degree of its resistance to the above pathogens was determined by way of artificial infection of tubers with the inoculum of such fungi as Fusarium sambucinum Fuck and Phytophthora infestans (Mont. De Bary. During interspecific hybridization based on schemes of saturating and enriching crosses, using forms of various species with a high phenotypic expression of resistance to Fusarium dry rot, the result of the cumulative effect of genes that control resistance to the pathogen was observed. Crossing combinations differed significantly for the degree of population average manifestation of resistance to the diseases. Conclusions. Combinations В54, В53, В61 with a mean resistance (above 7 grades to Fusarium dry rot have been selected. Such combinations as B52, B50 and B54 had increased resistance to tuber late blight. It was found that the combination В54 is characterized by complex resistance to both diseases. For further work, the following samples with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight (7 grades or more were selected: В59с42, В59с43, В50с16, В50с19, В50с44, В51с1, В51с26, В51с28, В52с11, В52с23, В52с24, В52с29, В53с1, В53с11, В53с17 , В53с23, В54с13, В54с14.

  12. Effect of early oviposition experience on host acceptance in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and application of F1 sterility and T.principium to suppress the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev and Sorokina females offered potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) eggs demonstrated that wasps rates of oviposition were highest the first day and decreased gradually thereafter. In addition, when T. principium females were sequentially offered eggs from 250-Gy irradiated parents or obtained from non-irradiated moths, the probability of host acceptance was not influenced by treatment of host eggs. In a concurrent laboratory study, a large cage test with combinant releases of T. principium and 250-Gy irradiated moths produced the greatest reduction in potato tuber moth F3-emerged progeny. Reductions obtained with irradiated moths alone, single release of irradiated moths with T. principium, and one or three releases of parasitoids were significantly higher than those in the control. From a pest management perspective, T. principium releases would synergistically complement the effects of F1 sterility against potato tuber moth infestation. (author)

  13. Effect of antibrowning agents on fresh-cut potato tubers using frequency filtering of biospeckle images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minz, Preeti D; Ansari, Md Zaheer; Nirala, A K

    2015-01-01

    Our present work aims to study the physiological changes of chemically treated fresh-cut potato tubers and then to correlate such changes with the results of the non destructive and non invasive laser biospeckle technique. The effect of chemically treated (citric acid (CA-0.5% and 1.0%) and citric acid + sodium chloride (CS-0.5% and 1.0%)) fresh-cut potato tubers on physiological activities such as the respiration rate and weight loss at cold storage has been studied for eight consecutive days. In addition, biospeckle recording has been carried out for eight consecutive days for all the chemically treated samples and from captured images, and the numerical results (inertia moment (IM)) with and without frequency filtering have been obtained. A comparatively higher respiration rate and lower weight loss is observed for CS treated samples than that of CA treated samples. The results of the IM obtained with the exclusion of the higher frequency show a similar nature to the respiration rate and also, separations of the respiration curves at two concentrations for both the treated samples were well correlated with the IM curves. The concentration effect for both the treatments on the IM value with the exclusion of lower frequencies has also been presented. Thus the IM method with filtration of particular bands is able to separate the different physiological phenomena with one another and is also able to differentiate the chemical effect on the samples. (paper)

  14. Visualisation of plastid outgrowths in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers by carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, Wojciech; Bederska, Magdalena; Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena

    2015-05-01

    We describe two types of plastid outgrowths visualised in potato tubers after carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining. Probable esterase activity of the outgrowths has been demonstrated for the first time ever. Plastid outgrowths were observed in the phelloderm and storage parenchyma cells of red potato (S. tuberosum L. cv. Rosalinde) tubers after administration of carboxyfluorescein diacetate stain. Endogenous esterases cleaved off acetic groups to release membrane-unpermeable green fluorescing carboxyfluorescein which accumulated differentially in particular cell compartments. The intensive green fluorescence of carboxyfluorescein exhibited highly branched stromules (stroma-filled plastid tubular projections of the plastid envelope) and allowed distinguishing them within cytoplasmic strands of the phelloderm cells. Stromules (1) were directed towards the nucleus or (2) penetrated the whole cells through the cytoplasmic bands of highly vacuolated phelloderm cells. Those directed towards the nucleus were flattened and adhered to the nuclear envelope. Stromule-like interconnections between two parts of the same plastids (isthmuses) were also observed. We also documented the formation of another type of the stroma-filled plastid outgrowths, referred to here as protrusions, which differed from previously defined stromules in both morphology and esterase activity. Unlike stromules, the protrusions were found to be associated with developmental processes leading to starch accumulation in the storage parenchyma cells. These results strongly suggest that stromules and protrusions exhibit esterase activity. This has been demonstrated for the first time. Morphological and biochemical features as well as possible functions of stromules and protrusions are discussed below.

  15. Zebra Chip disease and potato biochemistry: Tuber physiological changes in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), putatively caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is of increasing concern to potato production in Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. However, little is known about host tuber physiological changes that result in ZC symptom formation. This study exp...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Serratia plymuthica A30, Isolated from Rotting Potato Tuber Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica A30 is a Gram-negative bacterium expressing antagonistic activity toward blackleg- and soft rot-causing Dickeya sp. biovar 3 ("Dickeya solani"). Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain A30, which has been isolated from rotten potato tuber tissue. [KEYWORDS: biovar 3

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Serratia plymuthica A30, Isolated from Rotting Potato Tuber Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica A30 is a Gram-negative bacterium expressing antagonistic activity toward blackleg- and soft rot-causing Dickeya sp. biovar 3 (“Dickeya solani”). Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain A30, which has been isolated from rotten potato tuber tissue

  18. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negichi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate) of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars ('Toyoshiro', 'Kitahime', 'Snowden' and 'Poroshiri') were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.

  19. Breaking continuous potato cropping with legumes improves soil microbial communities, enzyme activities and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuhao; Yeboah, Stephen; Cao, Li; Zhang, Junlian; Shi, Shangli; Liu, Yuhui

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the changes in soil microbial populations, enzyme activity, and tuber yield under the rotation sequences of Potato–Common vetch (P–C), Potato–Black medic (P–B) and Potato–Longdong alfalfa (P–L) in a semi–arid area of China. The study also determined the effects of continuous potato cropping (without legumes) on the above mentioned soil properties and yield. The number of bacteria increased significantly (p continuous cropping soils, respectively compared to P–C rotation. The highest fungi/bacteria ratio was found in P–C (0.218), followed by P–L (0.184) and then P–B (0.137) rotation over the different cropping years. In the continuous potato cropping soils, the greatest fungi/bacteria ratio was recorded in the 4–year (0.4067) and 7–year (0.4238) cropping soils and these were significantly higher than 1–year (0.3041), 2–year (0.2545) and 3–year (0.3030) cropping soils. Generally, actinomycetes numbers followed the trend P–L>P–C>P–B. The P–L rotation increased aerobic azotobacters in 2–year (by 26% and 18%) and 4–year (40% and 21%) continuous cropping soils compared to P–C and P–B rotation, respectively. Generally, the highest urease and alkaline phosphate activity, respectively, were observed in P–C (55.77 mg g–1) and (27.71 mg g–1), followed by P–B (50.72 mg mg–1) and (25.64 mg g–1) and then P–L (41.61 mg g–1) and (23.26 mg g–1) rotation. Soil urease, alkaline phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase activities decreased with increasing years of continuous potato cropping. On average, the P–B rotation significantly increased (p improve soil biology environment, alleviate continuous cropping obstacle and increase potato tuber yield in semi–arid region. PMID:28463981

  20. Combined effect of gamma irradiation and plant oils on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Z)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, A.I.A.

    2012-01-01

    1- Susceptibility of Phthorimaea operculella to plant oil and gamma- irradiation. 2- Susceptibility of Phthorimaea operculella to powder of some plants and gamma irradiation.-selection of the suitable concentration of plant oils. - effect on male fertility. -effect on female fecundity. -effect on adult survival. 3- Separate and combined effects of radiation and plant oil on the male mating competitiveness using the sterile dose. 4- Separate and combined effects of radiation and plant oil on the male mating competitiveness using the sub sterile dose. 5- The effects of gamma- irradiation and plant oil on the pest when the potato tubers store for different periods. 6- Some biochemical studies. o Determine the adult total protein content of treated pupae. Determine the effect of plant oils and gamma- irradiation on the activity of some enzymes as proteinase, ATPase, keitenase cholinesterase.

  1. Trafficking of the potato spindle tuber viroid between tomato and Orobanche ramosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachev, T; Ivanova, D; Minkov, I; Tsagris, M; Gozmanova, M

    2010-04-10

    Viroids, small RNA pathogens capable of infecting flowering plants, coexist in the field with parasitic plants that infest many crops. The ability of viroids to be exchanged between host and parasitic plants and spread in the latter has not yet been investigated. We studied the interaction between the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and Branched bromrape (Orobanche ramosa) using the tomato, Solanum lycopersicon, as a common host. We report the long distance trafficking of PSTVd RNA via the phloem from tomato to O. ramosa, but not vice versa. Furthermore, we identify O. ramosa as a novel host with the ability to facilitate the replication and processing of PSTVd. Finally, molecular variants of PSTVd with single nucleotide substitutions that replicate with different efficiencies in tomato were isolated from O. ramosa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution of potato spindle tuber viroid in reproductive organs of petunia during its developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yosuke; Tsuda, Shinya

    2014-09-01

    Embryo infection is important for efficient seed transmission of viroids. To identify the major pattern of seed transmission of viroids, we used in situ hybridization to histochemically analyze the distribution of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) in each developmental stage of petunia (flowering to mature seed stages). In floral organs, PSTVd was present in the reproductive tissues of infected female × infected male and infected female × healthy male but not of healthy female × infected male before embryogenesis. After pollination, PSTVd was detected in the developed embryo and endosperm in all three crosses. These findings indicate that PSTVd is indirectly delivered to the embryo through ovule or pollen during the development of reproductive tissues before embryogenesis but not directly through maternal tissues as cell-to-cell movement during embryogenesis.

  3. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Elke M.; Czapla, Sylvia; Jahnke, Anuschka; Willmitzer, Lothar; Heyer, Arnd G.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography. These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species. Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves. Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers. PMID:10890908

  4. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitulli Federico

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as β-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT-PCR (qPCR. Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as β-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox

  5. Natural Plant Oils and Terpenes as Protector for the Potato Tubers against Phthorimaea operculella Infestation by Different Application Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For protecting potato tubers from the potato tuber moth (PTM infestation during storage, different concentrations of ten natural plant oils and three commercial monoterpnes were tested, some as fumigants or dusts against adults or dusts against neonate larvae, while others as sprays on the gunny sacks in which potato tubers were stored. Tuber damage indices as well as persistence indices for tested materials were assessed. Vapors of Cymbopogon citratus, Myristica fragrans (nutmag, Mentha citrata and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused a highly significant reductions in the life span of exposed moths as well as in new adult offsprings. Other tested oils as Cinnamonium zeylanicum, Myristica. fragrans (Mace and Pelargonium graveolens caused a insignificant effect. There was no significant effect of the tested vapors on egg hatchability, except in case of oils of C. citratus, M. fragrans (nutmag and M. tragrans(Mace oil which caused high reduction in egg hatchability. According to the values of damage indices, the most effective oil vapors were arranged ascendingly as follows: Myristica (nutmag < Cymbopogon < Mentha < a - Ionone. Dusting potato tubers with 1% conc., (mixed with talcum powder of Myristica, Mentha, Cymbopogons oils and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused high reduction in egg deposition, adult emergence as well as percentage of penetrated larvae of PTM. According to their damage indices, Cymbopogon and ά-Ionone were the most protective oils, followed by Myristica and Mentha. Spraying gunnysacks with 1% conc., of the aforementioned natural oils separately elicited high reduction in PTM progeny; while their combinations did not elicit any significant synergistic effect. According to their tuber damage indices, it was found that Cymbopogon oil alone or mixed with Myristica oil showed the best protective effect, followed by Myristica oil alone and Mentha oil mixed with Cymbopogon oil. Assessment of the persistence index of various tested materials

  6. Effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation pf potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) during the storing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation of potato tubers stored during a period of six months is described by evaluating the loss by sprouting, transpiration and infections. The dose of 9 Krad inhibits sprouting with independence of the epoch in wich the treatment is made, on the other hand a dose of 6 Krad inhibits sprouting only if the tubers are irradiated during the resting period. The treatment with IPC gave similar results to those obtained with a dose of 9 Krad. (author) [es

  7. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  8. Nuclear targeting by fragmentation of the Potato spindle tuber viroid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraitiene, Asta; Zhao Yan; Hammond, Rosemarie

    2008-01-01

    Transient expression of engineered reporter RNAs encoding an intron-containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a Potato virus X-based expression vector previously demonstrated the nuclear targeting capability of the 359 nucleotide Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA genome. To further delimit the putative nuclear-targeting signal, PSTVd subgenomic fragments were embedded within the intron, and recombinant reporter RNAs were inoculated onto Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Appearance of green fluorescence in leaf tissue inoculated with PSTVd-fragment-containing constructs indicated shuttling of the RNA into the nucleus by fragments as short as 80 nucleotides in length. Plant-to-plant variation in the timing of intron removal and subsequent GFP fluorescence was observed; however, earliest and most abundant GFP expression was obtained with constructs containing the conserved hairpin I palindrome structure and embedded upper central conserved region. Our results suggest that this conserved sequence and/or the stem-loop structure it forms is sufficient for import of PSTVd into the nucleus

  9. Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Luttikholt, A.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals,

  10. In vitro development of buds from tubers of potato (Solanum tuUerosum L.) subjected to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The 'in vitro' development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad is studied. The effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradication is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (author) [es

  11. T4-related bacteriophage LIMEstone isolates for the control of soft rot on potato caused by 'Dickeya solani'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien M Adriaenssens

    Full Text Available The bacterium 'Dickeya solani', an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with 'Dickeya solani', the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics.

  12. Transcription of potato spindle tuber viroid by RNA polymerase II starts in the left terminal loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolonko, Nadine; Bannach, Oliver; Aschermann, Katja; Hu, Kang-Hong; Moors, Michaela; Schmitz, Michael; Steger, Gerhard; Riesner, Detlev

    2006-01-01

    Viroids are single-stranded, circular RNAs of 250 to 400 bases, that replicate autonomously in their host plants but do not code for a protein. Viroids of the family Pospiviroidae, of which potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the type strain, are replicated by the host's DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II in the nucleus. To analyze the initiation site of transcription from the (+)-stranded circles into (-)-stranded replication intermediates, we used a nuclear extract from a non-infected cell culture of the host plant S. tuberosum. The (-)-strands, which were de novo-synthesized in the extract upon addition of circular (+)-PSTVd, were purified by affinity chromatography. This purification avoided contamination by host nucleic acids that had resulted in a misassignment of the start site in an earlier study. Primer-extension analysis of the de novo-synthesized (-)-strands revealed a single start site located in the hairpin loop of the left terminal region in circular PSTVd's secondary structure. This start site is supported further by analysis of the infectivity and replication behavior of site-directed mutants in planta

  13. Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation with Protecto on Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, H.M.; Haiba, I.M.; Rizk, M.A.; Youssef, L.A.; Zahran, N.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on certain biological aspects of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella was studied. Five day old pupae were irradiated with sub sterilizing dose (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 Gy). Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of bacterial commercial product of Bacillus thuringiensis (Protecto) on the newly hatched larvae of Ph. operculella at four concentrations (0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 g/100 ml water). LC 50 value was calculated for protecto, significant positive relationship between dose levels and the percentage of adult emergence was obtained. The number of egg per female and the percentage of egg hatch of emerged adults were significantly decreased by the increase of gamma rays. In addition, dose levels of 50 and 100 Gy were completely inhibited the larval development. The larval mortality percentages were increased with the increase of concentrations as well as the period after the treatment of Protecto. The percentage of survived larvae to adult stage was reduced as the irradiation dose and Protecto concentrations increased, while larval and pupal durations were relatively longer. The longevity of adults was decreased by increasing the dose of radiation and concentration of Protecto. The percentage of malformation among adults was increased by increasing gamma rays doses and concentration of the Protecto

  14. Chlorogenic acid, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol biosynthesis in flesh and skin of Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; Ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2017-08-15

    Natural variation of Andean potato was used to study the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. Levels of phenolic compounds and corresponding structural gene transcripts were examined in flesh and skin of tubers. Phenolic acids, mainly chlorogenic acid (CGA), represent the major compounds, followed by anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols. High-anthocyanin varieties have high levels of CGA. Both metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh and showed a good correspondence. Two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferases (HCT/HQT) have been involved in CGA production, of which HCT reflects CGA levels. Catechin was found in pigmented tissues whereas epicatechin was restricted to tuber skin. Transcripts of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR), which generates catechin, could not be detected. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) transcripts, the enzyme responsible for epicatechin production, showed similar levels among samples. These data suggest that the biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols in potato tuber would require ANR but not LCR and that an epimerization process is involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical mapping of QTL for tuber yield, starch content and starch yield in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by means of genome wide genotyping by sequencing and the 8.3 K SolCAP SNP array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, Elske Maria; Ding, Jia; Ritter, Enrique; Paulo, Maria João; Cara, Nicolás; Tacke, Ekhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2017-08-22

    Tuber yield and starch content of the cultivated potato are complex traits of decisive importance for breeding improved varieties. Natural variation of tuber yield and starch content depends on the environment and on multiple, mostly unknown genetic factors. Dissection and molecular identification of the genes and their natural allelic variants controlling these complex traits will lead to the development of diagnostic DNA-based markers, by which precision and efficiency of selection can be increased (precision breeding). Three case-control populations were assembled from tetraploid potato cultivars based on maximizing the differences between high and low tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC) and starch yield (TSY, arithmetic product of TY and TSC). The case-control populations were genotyped by restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and the 8.3 k SolCAP SNP genotyping array. The allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared between cases and controls. RADseq identified, depending on data filtering criteria, between 6664 and 450 genes with one or more differential SNPs for one, two or all three traits. Differential SNPs in 275 genes were detected using the SolCAP array. A genome wide association study using the SolCAP array on an independent, unselected population identified SNPs associated with tuber starch content in 117 genes. Physical mapping of the genes containing differential or associated SNPs, and comparisons between the two genome wide genotyping methods and two different populations identified genome segments on all twelve potato chromosomes harboring one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for TY, TSC and TSY. Several hundred genes control tuber yield and starch content in potato. They are unequally distributed on all potato chromosomes, forming clusters between 0.5-4 Mbp width. The largest fraction of these genes had unknown function, followed by genes with putative signalling and regulatory functions. The

  16. Peptidomics of Peptic Digest of Selected Potato Tuber Proteins: Post-Translational Modifications and Limited Cleavage Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C K Rajendran, Subin R; Mason, Beth; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-03-23

    Bioinformatic tools are useful in predicting bioactive peptides from food proteins. This study was focused on using bioinformatics and peptidomics to evaluate the specificity of peptide release and post-translational modifications (PTMs) in a peptic digest of potato protein isolate. Peptides in the protein hydrolysate were identified by LC-MS/MS and subsequently aligned to their parent potato tuber proteins. Five major proteins were selected for further analysis, namely, lipoxygenase, α-1,4-glucan phosphorylase, annexin, patatin, and polyubiquitin, based on protein coverage, abundance, confidence levels, and function. Comparison of the in silico peptide profile generated with ExPASy PeptideCutter and experimental peptidomics data revealed several differences. The experimental peptic cleavage sites were found to vary in number and specificity from PeptideCutter predictions. Average peptide chain length was also found to be higher than predicted with hexapeptides as the smallest detected peptides. Moreover, PTMs, particularly Met oxidation and Glu/Asp deamidation, were observed in some peptides, and these were unaccounted for during in silico analysis. PTMs can be formed during aging of potato tubers, or as a result of processing conditions during protein isolation and hydrolysis. The findings provide insights on the limitations of current bioinformatics tools for predicting bioactive peptide release from proteins, and on the existence of structural modifications that can alter the peptide bioactivity and functionality.

  17. Influence of Integrated Use of Inorganic fertiliser and Organic manures on Bacterial Wilt Incidence (WI) and Tuber Yield in Potato Production Systems in Southern Slopes of Mt. Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mriithi, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most damaging of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Kenya and worldwide. In Kenya Potato tuber yield losses due to BW infection are estimated at 50-100%. Low soil fertility is also one of the most important constraints limiting potato production in central Kenya highlands. Farmers tackle this problem through use of inorganic fertilisers and organic manures, both of which amend the soil environment to influence bacterial wilt development. Undecomposed organic manures can also introduce the pathogen into a clean field. Between short rains 1999 and 2000, 10 on-farm researcher/farmer-designed and farmer-managed trials were done at Kianjuki catchment in Embu District. The objective was to use farmers' participatory research approach and select the most suitable organic and inorganic fertiliser combination(s) with lowest BWI and acceptable usable tuber yields. And also demonstrate use of some components of integrated disease management methods in reduction of disease incidence and spread. Seven treatments were proposed, presented to the farmers for discussion and the most relevant four were selected for evaluation . A newly released potato variety 'Asante' was planted during the short-rains 1999 and long rains 2000. BWI didn't;t result in significant differences between treatments but the tuber yields were significantly different in short-rains 1999 and 2000. During short-rains 2000, both BWI and tuber yields and unusable tubers differed significantly between treatments. The results confirmed that use of well-decomposed manures or manures from pathogen-free areas can be used in combination with inorganic fertilisers to improve soil fertility and potato tuber yields in smallholder farm without influencing BWI. Use of certified seed tubers in pathogen free fields and following recommendation field sanitation measures, resulted in apparently bacterial wilt free crop

  18. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-François; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H P; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-François; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4 degrees C over 270 d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dimensional electrophoresis. In the experimental conditions of this study, a marked proteolysis of patatin occurred after the PAI reached a value of 0.6. In parallel, several glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated and cellular components influencing protein conformation and the response to stress were altered. The equilibrium between the 20S and 26S forms of the proteasome was modified, the 20S form that recycles oxidized proteins being up-regulated. Two proteins belonging to the cytoskeleton were also differentially expressed during ageing. As most of these changes are also observed in an oxidative stress context, an approach focused on antioxidant compounds and enzymes as well as oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins was conducted. All the changes observed during ageing seemed to allow the potato tubers to maintain their radical scavenging activity until the end of the storage period as no accumulation of oxidative damage was observed. These data are interpreted considering the impact of reactive oxygen species on the development and the behaviour of other plant systems undergoing ageing or senescence processes.

  19. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  20. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, R; Pérombelon, McM; Jafra, S; Lojkowska, E; Potrykus, M; van der Wolf, Jm; Sledz, W

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage thereby reducing yield and quality. Efficient and cost-effective detection and identification methods are essential to investigate the ecology and pathogenesis of the SRE as well as in seed certification programmes. The aim of this review was to collect all existing information on methods available for SRE detection. The review reports on the sampling and preparation of plant material for testing and on over thirty methods to detect, identify and differentiate the soft rot and blackleg causing bacteria to species and subspecies level. These include methods based on biochemical characters, serology, molecular techniques which rely on DNA sequence amplification as well as several less-investigated ones.

  1. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L., cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham., chatim (Alstonia scholaris L., mander (Erythrina variegata, bael (Aegle marmelos L., marigold (Tagetes erecta, onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum L., neem (Azadiracta indica, lime (Citrus aurantifolia, and turmeric (Curcuma longa L. were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  2. Detection of potato mop-top virus in soils and potato tubers using bait-plant bioassay, ELISA and RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Ali, Murad; Rehman, Anayatur; Fahim, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The hilly region of Northwest of Pakistan is leading seed potato producing areas of the country. Soil and plant samples were collected from the region and tested for PMTV using both conventional and molecular techniques. The bait plants exhibited PMTV-characteristic v-shaped yellow leaf markings in Nicotiana debneyi plants grown in putative viruliferious soils from 20/26 locations. The results were confirmed by back inoculation of sap from both roots and leaves of bait plant on indicator hosts (N. debneyi, Nicotiana benthamiana). The root samples of bait plants grown in soils of 25 locations and leaves of 24 locations reproduced systemic infection on indicator hosts upon back inoculation. The virus was identified in bait plants grown in soils from 25/26 locations using double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS)-ELISA and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The products of the 566bp were amplified from coat protein region of PMTV RNA 3 in both root and leaf samples of baited plants. The virus was detected in 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. The virus was also detected in zoospores of Spongospora subterranea derived from the peels of selected scabby tubers using triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA. The results indicate that a bait plant bioassay, infectivity assay, ELISA and RT-PCR can detect PMTV in roots and leaves of baited plants, field samples, zoospores of S. subterranea and tubers of 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Push-Pull Effects of Three Plant Secondary Metabolites on Oviposition of the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.F.; Xiao, C.

    2013-01-01

    The push-pull effects of three plant secondary metabolites, azadirachtin, eucalyptol, and heptanal, on the oviposition choices of potato tubers by the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were tested in the laboratory. Azadirachtin at concentrations from 1.5 to 12 mg/L had a significant repellent effect on oviposition. Eucalyptol at concentrations from 3 to 12 mg/L promoted oviposition. Heptanal promoted oviposition at low concentrations from 0.1875 to 3.0 mg/L but repelled it at higher concentrations from 12 to 24 mg/L. The combination of azadirachtin (12 mg/L) with eucalyptol (3.0 mg/L) resulted in a significant pushpull effect of 56.3% on oviposition. The average maximum push-pull effects occurred with the combinations of azadirachtin with heptanal (12 and 0.375 mg/L, respectively; 38.7% push-pull effect), heptanal with eucalyptol (12 and 6 mg/L, respectively; 31.4% push-pull effect), and heptanal (high concentration) with heptanal (low concentration) (12.0 and 0.375 mg/L, respectively; 25% push-pull effect). PMID:24786822

  4. Study of genetic variation at the level of DNA between normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males (phthorimaea operculella, zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilized males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 μg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  5. Study Of Genetic Variation At The Level Of DNA Between Normal And Steriled Potato Tuber Moth Males (Phthorimaea operculella, Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilize males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 Mg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  6. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  7. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  8. Natural losses in tuber weight during storage as a predictor of susceptibility to post-wounding blackspot in advanced potato breeding materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Barbaś, Piotr

    2017-08-01

    In potatoes, mechanical damage and the formation of black spots in the tuber flesh cause substantial economic losses and degradation of quality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of new potato genotypes (178 elite breeding lines) to blackspot damage after 7 months' storage at 5 and 8 °C, and to examine whether this susceptibility correlated with natural losses. The lowest index of blackspot damage after harvest was found in genotypes from the mid-late group of earliness and low-susceptibility group, and after storage in genotypes from the early group of earliness and low-susceptibility group. After storage at 5 °C tubers were characterized by a lower susceptibility to bruising compared with tubers stored at 8 °C. The storage temperature significantly affected the natural losses in advanced potato breeding materials after storage in the case of all earliness and susceptibility groups. The highest susceptibility to blackspot damage and natural losses occurred in potatoes stored at 8 °C (r = 0.85-0.91). Such a relationship was not observed in potatoes stored at 5 °C. For potato tubers susceptible to the formation of after-wounding blackspot, the natural losses arising as a result of storage at 8 °C can be used as a subjective method to evaluate the susceptibility of potatoes to the formation of black spots in the flesh. However, this observation needs further studies and stronger proof of this theory. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of CO2 enrichment and drought pretreatment on metabolite responses to water stress and subsequent rehydration using potato tubers from plants grown in sunlit SPAR chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed using naturally sunlit Soil–Plant–Atmosphere-Research chambers that provided ambient or elevated CO2. Potato plants were grown in pots that were water sufficient (W), water insufficient for 12 to 18 days during both vegetative and tuber development stages (VR), or water i...

  10. Screening of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae for resistance to and induction of juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes and their potential for trap cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ninety accessions of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae were screened for (i) resistance to and (ii) stimulatory effect on juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes, and (iii) their growth under temperate climatic conditions. All plant species belonging to the genus Solanum tested induced hatching but this

  11. Content of nitrates in potato tubers depending on the organic matter, soil fertilizer, cultivation simplifications applied and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Pobereżny

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates naturally occur in plant-based food. Nitrates content in consumable plant organs is small and should not raise concern provided that the recommended fertilization and harvest terms of the original plants are observed. The aim was to determine the effect of the application of various organic matter of soil fertilizer and simplifications in growing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. on the content of nitrates in the tubers of mid-early cultivar 'Satina' after harvest and after 6-mo of storage. Introducing cultivation simplification involves limiting mineral fertilization by 50% as well as chemical protection limitation. The soil fertilizer was used: 0.6 (autumn, 0.3 (spring, and 0.3 L ha-1 (during the vegetation period. The content of nitrates, was determined with the use of the ion-selective method (multi-purpose computer device CX-721, Elmetron. The lowest amount of nitrates was recorded in the tubers from the plots without the application of organic matter with a 50% rate of mineral fertilization with soil fertilizer (120.5 mg kg-1 FW. The use of varied organic matter resulted in a significant increase in the content of nitrates in tubers and the lowest effect on their accumulation was reported for straw. The soil fertilizer used significantly decreased the content of nitrates in tubers by 15% for 100% NPK and 10.4% for 50% NPK. After 6-mo storage, irrespective of the experiment factors, the content of nitrates decreased in the fertilization experiment by 26% and in the experiment with a limited protection - by 19.9%.

  12. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Pourazari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field. The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N economy of two genetically modified (GM potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%, N uptake efficiency (+53%, tuber N content (+20%, and N accumulation (+120% compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly

  13. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourazari, Fereshteh; Andersson, Mariette; Weih, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field). The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N) economy of two genetically modified (GM) potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%), N uptake efficiency (+53%), tuber N content (+20%), and N accumulation (+120%) compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly increased

  14. Effect of partially purified components of zoospores and mycelia of phytophthora infestans on uptake of 3H-leucine by potato tuber disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Norio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Doke, Noriyuki

    1980-01-01

    The zoosporial component of Phytophthora infestans, which was previously reported to cause reduction of 3 H-leucine uptake by potato tuber disks, was partially purified. Precipitate (A-fraction) was obtained by homogenizing zoospores with acetate buffer at pH 4.5 and centrifuging at 20,000 x g, and the A-fraction was suspended in borate buffer at pH 8.8, boiled for 1 hr and then centrifuged at 20,000 x g, giving the precipitate (B-fraction) and supernatant (C-fraction). Ten ml of 10 mM tris-HCl buffer containing 1 mM CaCl 2 at pH 7.4 was used to suspend A and B-fraction. The buffer was used as a control. A, B and C fractions obtained from 5 - 6 x 10 6 zoosprores reducted uptake of 3 H-leucine by the tuber disks of potato cv. Rishiri, but the inhibition rates caused by these fractions differed markedly. However, very high correlation was found between inhibition rates of 3 H-leucine uptake and sugar contents of these fractions. There was no difference in the inhibition rates between the zoosporial components of incompatible and compatible races, when the activities were expressed in terms of the sugar contents. The mycelial components of P. infestans extracted by the modified method of Lisker and Kuc which was used to extract phytoalexin elicitor from that of P. infestans, also had the same effect as the zoosporial components (A, B, and C-fraction) on 3 H-leucine uptake by the disks. C-fraction containing 15 μg of sugar per ml sufficed to inhibit 3 H-leucine uptake at the maximum rate, and the maximum rate of inhibition was attained within 2 hr after the zoosporial component (C-fraction containing 30 μg sugar/ml) was administered to the disks. (author)

  15. Control of Ralstonia Solanacearum The Causal Agent of Brown Rot in Potato Using Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Five essential oils, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), caraway (Carium carvum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Staph.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were used separately against Ralstonia solanacearum; the causal agent of brown rot in potato. The most two effective oils (peppermint and thyme) were used in vitro and in vivo after testing their effects on potato tubers buds germination. Peppermint inhibited buds germination but thyme have no effects on buds germination. In vivo, the control of brown rot using thyme oil in glass house experiment reduced the percentage of brown rot infection to 30.6% and reduced the severity of disease from 5 to 3.

  16. Verticillium dahliae disease resistance and the regulatory pathway for maturity and tuberization in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tai, Helen H.; De Koyer, David; Sønderkær, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a pathogenic fungus causing wilting, chlorosis and early dying in potato. Genetic mapping of resistance to V. dahliae was done using a diploid population of potato. The major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Verticillium resistance was found on chromosome 5. The St...

  17. Natural DNA variation at candidate loci is associated with potato chip color, tuber starch content, yield and starch yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Paulo, M.J.; Strahwald, J.; Lubeck, J.; Hofferbert, H.R.; Tacke, E.; Junghans, H.; Wunder, J.; Draffehn, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Gebhardt, C.

    2008-01-01

    Complex characters of plants such as starch and sugar content of seeds, fruits, tubers and roots are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Understanding their molecular basis will facilitate diagnosis and combination of superior alleles in crop improvement programs (precision

  18. Analysis of small RNA production patterns among the two potato spindle tuber viroid variants in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the production of small RNA (sRNA by viroids upon infecting the plants, the tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Rutgers were inoculated with the variants of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd. After 21-days of postinoculation, total RNA was extracted and subjected for deep-sequencing using Illumina HiSeq platform. The primers were trimmed and only 21- to 24-nt long sRNAs were filtered after quality check of the raw data. The filtered sRNA population was then mapped against both the genomic (+ and antigenomic (− strands of the respective PSTVd variants using standard pattern-matching algorithm. The profiling of viroid derived sRNA (vd-sRNA revealed that the viroids are susceptible to host RNA silencing mechanism. High-throughput sequence data linked to this project have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE69225.

  19. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  1. Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-12-26

    The antioxidant profile of 23 native Andean potato cultivars has been investigated from a human nutrition perspective. The main carotenoid and tocopherol compounds were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a fluorescence detector, respectively, whereas polyphenols (including anthocyanins in colored tubers) were identified by means of both HPLC-mass spectrometry and HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant profiling revealed significant genotypic variations as well as cultivars of particular interest from a nutritional point of view. Concentrations of the health-promoting carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, ranged from 1.12 to 17.69 microg g(-1) of dry weight (DW) and from 0 to 17.7 microg g(-1) of DW, with cultivars 704353 and 702472 showing the highest levels in lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Whereas beta-carotene is rarely reported in potato tubers, remarkable levels of this dietary provitamin A carotenoid were detected in 16 native varieties, ranging from 0.42 to 2.19 microg g(-1) of DW. The amounts of alpha-tocopherol found in Andean potato tubers, extending from 2.73 to 20.80 microg g(-1) of DW, were clearly above the quantities generally reported for commercial varieties. Chlorogenic acid and its isomers dominated the polyphenolic profile of each cultivar. Dark purple-fleshed tubers from the cultivar 704429 contained exceptionally high levels of total anthocyanins (16.33 mg g(-1) of DW). The main anthocyanin was identified as petanin (petunidin-3-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-glucoside). The results suggest that Andean potato cultivars should be exploited in screening and breeding programs for the development of potato varieties with enhanced health and nutritional benefits.

  2. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Yuling [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Chen, Dan [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Chen, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Haoli, E-mail: mahaoli@nwsuaf.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  3. Major Proteins of the Amyloplast of Agar and Soil - Grown Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Simon; Blennow, Andreas; Stensballe, Allan

    and total tuber extracts by SDS-PAGE and the specific activities of marker enzymes for amyloplast, cytosol, mitochondria and the vacuole. SDS-PAGE separated amyloplast and starch granule proteins were in-gel digested with trypsin, analyzed by mass spectrometry, and identified by searches against presently...

  4. MAPA distinguishes genotype-specific variability of highly similar regulatory protein isoforms in potato tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Hummel, Jan; Egelhofer, Volker; Selbig, Joachim; van Dongen, Joost T; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2011-07-01

    Mass Accuracy Precursor Alignment is a fast and flexible method for comparative proteome analysis that allows the comparison of unprecedented numbers of shotgun proteomics analyses on a personal computer in a matter of hours. We compared 183 LC-MS analyses and more than 2 million MS/MS spectra and could define and separate the proteomic phenotypes of field grown tubers of 12 tetraploid cultivars of the crop plant Solanum tuberosum. Protein isoforms of patatin as well as other major gene families such as lipoxygenase and cysteine protease inhibitor that regulate tuber development were found to be the primary source of variability between the cultivars. This suggests that differentially expressed protein isoforms modulate genotype specific tuber development and the plant phenotype. We properly assigned the measured abundance of tryptic peptides to different protein isoforms that share extensive stretches of primary structure and thus inferred their abundance. Peptides unique to different protein isoforms were used to classify the remaining peptides assigned to the entire subset of isoforms based on a common abundance profile using multivariate statistical procedures. We identified nearly 4000 proteins which we used for quantitative functional annotation making this the most extensive study of the tuber proteome to date.

  5. Repression of a novel isoform of disproportionating enzyme (stDPE2) in potato leads to inhibition of starch degradation in leaves but not tubers stored at low temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, J.R.; Blennow, A.; Burhenne, K.

    2004-01-01

    and tubers. Transgenic potato plants were made in which its presence was almost completely eliminated. It could be demonstrated that starch degradation was repressed in leaves of the transgenic plants but that cold-induced sweetening was not affected in tubers stored at 4degreesC. No evidence could be found...

  6. Effect of gamma irradiated parenchyma on the growth of irradiated potato tuber buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds greffed on irradiated potato parenchyma was studied. The irradiated parenchyma does not influence the sprouting capacity of buds, but it affects the way they develop. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Development of the system nematode, Ditylenchus Dipsaci (Kuehn) Filipjev, and the potato tuber nematode, D. Destructor thore, after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Karnkowski, W.

    1996-01-01

    Juvenile and adult nematodes emerged from onion and garlic samples on the 3 rd week after irradiation with doses up to 0.5 kGy and from potato treated with doses up to 2.0 kGy. However, irradiation of onion infected with Ditylenchus dipsaci caused the inhibition of the development and growth of juvenile nematodes to mature forms. Doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 kGy had only a slight effect, if any, on the development and growth of D. dipsaci nematodes infecting garlic, but they increased juvenile mortality. Gamma radiation at doses up to 2.0 kGy induced increased mortality of nematode juveniles of the potato tuber nematode, D. destructor but less so inhibited their development to mature forms. Nematodes were found to be resistant to irradiation treatment. Therefore the use of gamma irradiation for nematode disinfestation of agricultural products seems to be impractical, if the aim of the treatment is to kill these pests within a few weeks. The level of radiation required to kill nematodes in infected plants would damage plant tissues so that the further storage of vegetables will be impossible. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Identification of irradiated food. I.- A test established on the in vitro culture of potato buds to identified the irradiated tubers; Identificacion de alimentos irradiados. I. Test basado en el cultivo de yemas in vitro para la identificacion de tuberculos de patatas irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J; Garcia Collantes, M A

    1976-07-01

    A method based upon the in vitro culture of potato buds in a mineral medium is described, by which method tubers irradiated can be distinguished from tubers treated by refrigeration or inhibited by chemical agents. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Characterization of films made with chayote tuber and potato starches blending with cellulose nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aila-Suárez, Selene; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana I; Hernández-Uribe, Juan P; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize chayotextle starch films reinforced with cellulose (C) and cellulose nanoparticle (CN) (at concentrations of 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 1.2%), using thermal, mechanical, physicochemical, permeability, and water solubility tests. C was acid-treated to obtain CN. The films were prepared by casting; potato starch and C were used as the control. The solubility of the starch films decreased with the addition of C and CN compared with its respective film without C and CN. No statistical difference (α=0.05) was found in the films added with different concentrations of C and CN. In general, the mechanical properties were improved with the addition of C and CN, and higher values of tensile strength and elastic modulus were determined in the films reinforced with CN. The melting temperature and enthalpy increased with the addition of C and CN, and the values of both thermal parameters were higher in the films with CN than with C; the enthalpy value of the film decreased when the concentration of C or CN increased in the composite. Low concentration of C and CN is better distributed in the matrix film. The addition of C and CN in the starch films improved some mechanical, barrier, and functional properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Requirement for two or more Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora pectolytic gene products for maceration of potato tuber tissue by Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, D P; Berman, P M; Allen, C; Stromberg, V K; Lacy, G H; Mount, M S

    1986-01-01

    Several genes encoding enzymes capable of degrading plant cell wall components have been cloned from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora EC14. Plasmids containing cloned EC14 DNA mediate the production of endo-pectate lyases, exo-pectate lyase, endo-polygalacturonase, and cellulase(s). Escherichia coli strains containing one of these plasmids or combinations of two plasmids were tested for their ability to macerate potato tuber slices. Only one E. coli strain, containing two plasmids that en...

  11. Evaluating Rimsulforon Efficiency on Controlling Weeds in Potato at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khatami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potato is globally the fourth important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize and is cultivated in several countries worldwide like Iran. Weeds are the most important restriction factor for crop development in agricultural systems and the absence of weed control lead to crop yield reduction between 10 to 100 percent and this reduction could be a serious threat for a growing world population to be considered. Rimsulfuron is a sulfonylurea herbicide for control of weeds in potato, corn, wheat, barley and canola. It can be used as pre or post emergence in potato. These herbicide act through inhibition of enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS, which catalyzes key reactions in the biosynthesis of basic branched-chain amino acids that are essential components of the growth process in plant cell division such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine Materials and methods In order to study rimsulfuron (Titus 25% DF effect on weed biomass as a postemergence herbicide, a field experiment was carried out in the farm located 3 km out the city of Ardabil during 2014. The factorial experiment was performed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Potato cultivar was Agria (common cultivar in Ardabil. The first factor was rimsulfuron doses with six levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 gr a.i. / ha, and the second factor was time of application based on different potato growth stages, (Potato emergence, stoloning and tuber bulking. Also two treatment (with and without weeding were considered as control. Tubers were hand sown on 22th May in rows 75 cm apart and 20 cm in the rows at 10 cm depth. Rimsulfuron was applied by backpack sprayer fitted with 8001 flat fan nozzles. Three weeks after treatment, weed sampling was carried out by a quadrate sized 0.375 m2. Tubers were harvested from two center rows to determine total tuber yield per hectare. Two models fitted to the data were three parameter logistic and three parameter sigmoid. Data

  12. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; Oliveira, De Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, R.C.B.; Dijk, Van J.P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative

  13. Proteome analysis of potato juice and tuber vacuoles from cv. Kuras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Malene

    %), Kunitz protease inhibitors (KPI, 30 %) and lipoxygenases (10 %). The large amount of lipoxygenase indicates that lipoxygenase also function as a storage protein. The tetraploid nature of most potatoes seems to give rise to a huge complexity of the proteome. The KPI superfamily was found to be represented...

  14. Identification of alleles of carotenoid pathway genes important for zeaxanthin accumulation in potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, A.M.A.; Uitdewilligen, J.G.A.M.L.; Kloosterman, B.A.; Hutten, R.C.B.; Visser, R.G.F.; Eck, van H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the genetics and molecular biology of orange flesh colour in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). To this end the natural diversity in three genes of the carotenoid pathway was assessed by SNP analyses. Association analysis was performed between SNP haplotypes and flesh colour

  15. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  16. The impact of R1and R3a genes on tuber resistance to late blight of the potato breeding clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoteyeva Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato breeding clones were evaluated for resistance to late blight (agent Phytophthora infestans using tuber inoculation tests and for presence of the resistance alleles of R1 and R3a genes in polymerase chain reaction tests. Among clones tested those expressing high, moderate and low resistance were identified. The data were analysed for the impact of R1 and R3a genes on tuber resistance to late blight in tested plant material. In previous evaluations performed on smaller amount of clones the tuber resistance levels significantly depended on presence/absence of the resistance allele of R3a gene and did not depend on presence of R1 gene allele. In the current study the statistical analyses did not prove the significant difference in resistance levels depending on presence of the resistance alleles, neither of R1 gene, nor of R3a gene. Tuber resistant clones bearing R3a gene resistance alleles still noticeably prevailed over the clones bearing the alleles of R1 gene as well as over the clones bearing the no resistance alleles of both genes. In several cases the resistance of clones with detected resistance allele of R1 gene was higher compared to those derived from the same crosses and showing amplification of the allele of R3a gene or those with no resistance alleles. Clones accumulating the resistance alleles of both (R1 and R3a genes expressed high tuber resistance accompanied by necrotic reaction.

  17. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ali, M. E.; Khan, A. A.; Akanda, A. M.; Uddin, Md. Kamal; Hashim, U.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5%) antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7%) of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers. PMID:22645446

  18. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5% antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7% of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers.

  19. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (p0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high-glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Hamilton, John P; Crisovan, Emily; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Marand, Alexandre P; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Jiang, Jiming; Douches, David S; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin

    2018-05-01

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp. Pseudomolecule construction anchored 508 Mb of the genome assembly into 12 chromosomes. Genome annotation yielded 49 124 high-confidence gene models representing 37 740 genes. Comparative analyses of the M6 genome with six other Solanaceae species revealed a core set of 158 367 Solanaceae genes and 1897 genes unique to three potato species. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the M6 genome revealed enhanced residual heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 8 and 9 relative to the other chromosomes. Access to the M6 genome provides a resource for identification of key genes for important agronomic traits and aids in genome-enabled development of inbred diploid potatoes with the potential to accelerate potato breeding. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40 mg.kg-1, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 mg.kg-1. The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  2. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Midgut Epithelial Cells of Female Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella, Zeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiba, I.M.; Abd El-Meguid, A.A.; Yousef, H.A.A.; Mahmoud, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present work deals with the histological studies of the midgut in non- irradiated 4-day-old potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella and after the exposure of 5-day-old pupae to sub sterilizing and sterilizing doses 50 and 150 Gy, respectively. Anatomically, the midgut was a wide straight tube, the proximal part was marked by the connection to the crop and the distal part was determined by the connection of the Malpighian tubules. The arrangement of the Malpighian tubules around the midgut tube took a special pattern symmetrically on each side. Histologically, the midgut was subdivided into three main subdivisions, anterior, middle and posterior regions. The epithelial cells differed in shape and size according to the regions in the midgut. Exposure to gamma-irradiation showed various forms of changes, there was direct relationship between the dose levels and the observed effects. At dose level 150 Gy, the effects were more advanced than those at 50 Gy dose level. The effects of radiation could be summarized as: appearance of vacuoles and vesicles in the cytoplasm, nuclei in some cells were pyknotic or karyolysed, reduction in the cell number, enlargement in nuclei, absence of regenerative cells from some parts and the epithelial cells suffered from hydropic degeneration

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on fertility of potato tuber moth males and study of inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    1996-01-01

    Newly emerged adult males (0-18 h) potato tuber moth (PTM) phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were irradiated with various doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 45 krad. Sterility in order of 91% was induced when males were irradiated with a dose of 45 Krad. Longevity of male PTM was not affected by the application of irradiation, while mating ability and frequency of mating of the males irradiated with 25, 35 and 45 Krad were decreased. The mean number of eggs laid by females mated with males irradiated at 35 and 45 Krad was lower than the control. When males PTM were irradiated with high doses their competitiveness values were reduced, while the competitiveness was increased when the sex ratio of irradiated males to normal males was increased, specially with ration 1 : 10 : 1 (Normal male: Irradiated males: Normal female). Application of 15 Krad dose permitted, the ability to obtain a desired level of male sterility with acceptable reduction in its competitiveness. The inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males irradiated with 10-15 and 20 Krad was studied. Sterility in F1 progeny was higher than that in their irradiated male parents. The sex ratio of F1 progeny was distorted in favour of the males. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on fertility of potato tuber moth males and study of inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saour, G; Makee, H [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1996-01-01

    Newly emerged adult males (0-18 h) potato tuber moth (PTM) phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were irradiated with various doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 45 krad. Sterility in order of 91% was induced when males were irradiated with a dose of 45 Krad. Longevity of male PTM was not affected by the application of irradiation, while mating ability and frequency of mating of the males irradiated with 25, 35 and 45 Krad were decreased. The mean number of eggs laid by females mated with males irradiated at 35 and 45 Krad was lower than the control. When males PTM were irradiated with high doses their competitiveness values were reduced, while the competitiveness was increased when the sex ratio of irradiated males to normal males was increased, specially with ration 1 : 10 : 1 (Normal male: Irradiated males: Normal female). Application of 15 Krad dose permitted, the ability to obtain a desired level of male sterility with acceptable reduction in its competitiveness. The inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males irradiated with 10-15 and 20 Krad was studied. Sterility in F1 progeny was higher than that in their irradiated male parents. The sex ratio of F1 progeny was distorted in favour of the males. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Tamanho do tubérculo-semente de batata não interfere na manifestação da murcha bacteriana Potato seed tuber size does not interfere with the incidence of potato bacterial wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A batata-semente é comercializada no Brasil em diferentes tamanhos, conforme determinação do MAPA, variando do tipo 0 (zero, com tubérculos acima de 60 mm, até o tipo V, com tubérculos menores que 23 mm. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito do tamanho do tubérculo da batata-semente na manifestação da murcha bacteriana nas cultivares Agata, BRS Ana, Asterix e Bintje, em campo naturalmente infestado com Ralstonia solanacearum, em Brasília-DF. Foram usados tubérculos pequenos, médios e grandes, com aproximadamente 30, 50 e 90 mm em média, tamanhos correspondentes respectivamente aos tipos IV, II e 0 das normas do MAPA. Diferenças significativas quanto à incidência da doença foram encontradas entre cultivares: BRS Ana e Asterix não diferiram entre si e foram mais resistentes que Agata e Bintje que, por sua vez, tampouco diferiram entre si. As diferenças entre tamanhos de tubérculos e as interações entre cultivar e tamanho de tubérculos não foram significativas. Portanto concluiu-se que o tamanho de tubérculos dentro dos limites avaliados neste trabalho, não interferiu na manifestação da doença em testes de avaliação para resistência à murcha bacteriana.Potato seed tubers in Brazil are commercialized in different sizes as determined by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The sizes are classified in types, which vary from type 0 (zero, tubers above 60 mm, up to type V, tubers below 23 mm. In this work, we evaluated the influence of seed tuber size on the incidence of bacterial wilt on cultivars Agata, BRS Ana, Asterix, and Bintje, grown in a field naturally infested with Ralstonia solanacearum, in Brasilia, Brazil. We used small, medium and large tubers, measuring in average 30, 50 and 90 mm, which correspond respectively to types IV, II and 0 according to the Brazilian legislation. Significant differences in bacterial wilt incidences were detected among cultivars: BRS Ana and Asterix did not

  6. Preliminary study on the effect of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the conservation of potato tubers for consumption (Solanum tuberosum l.), during the storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montepeque Roldan, R.

    1984-03-01

    The object of the thesis is the study of the inhibiting effect of the sprouting of potato tubers, variety Loman, after Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation (with doses of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 Krads) as well as after treatment with the chemical inhibitor Isopropyl-N-Phenyl Carbonate (IPC). These treatments were applied to different groups of tubers, after 15 and 45 days from harvesting, stored under two illumination conditions: darkness (closed room), and indirect light (straw hut). The number, length and thickness of the sprouts, as well as the weight, humidity contents and infection of the tubers were recorded twice a month. A random 2x2x7x4 multifactorial design, with 3 repetitions, was used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. Variance and multiple regression analysis, as well as Tukey tests were performed on the IBM/370 computer of the San Carlos University (Guatemala). It was found that both the 4 and 6 Krad doses and the IPC treatments have no effect on the sprouting inhibition. The irradiation with the 8, 10, and 12 Krad doses inhibited the sprouting in an irreversible way, with insignificant loss of weight and moisture, regardless of the irradiation epoch and light condition. However, the tubers stored in darkness, showed ideal characteristics for consumption, and the 8 Krad dose, applied at 15 days after harvesting is concluded to be the best

  7. The effect of autumn ridging and inter-row subsoiling on potato tuber yield and quality on a sandy soil in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Christian Martin Bugge; Mølgaard, Jens Peter; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Autumn ridging is a modified version of the ridge tillage system. Instead of setting up ridges during the growing season, they are established in autumn and left for the winter. Previous studies have documented positive effects of autumn ridging on potato yield and we hypothesized that subsoiling...... could enhance these effects. To determine the effect of autumn ridging and inter-row subsoiling on potato yield and quality a field experiment was conducted on sandy soil from 2001 to 2003. Autumn ridging resulted in an average total and marketable tuber yield of 25.6 and 9.2 t ha1, which...... was not significantly different from the average total and marketable yield of 25.6 and 8.9 t ha1 with ploughing. However, autumn ridging significantly reduced the incidence of black scurf from 2.5% to 2.2%. Inter-row subsoiling in the growing season significantly increased marketable potato tuber yield from 8.4 to 9...

  8. Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 reduces photosynthetic capacity and tuber production, and promotes ABA-mediated stomatal closure in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuanyuan, Guochao; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Ruofang; Jiang, Jiming

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is one of the most ubiquitous transcription factors (TFs), comprising NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits, and has been identified and reported in various aspects of development for plants and animals. In this work, StNF-YB3.1, a putative potato NF-YB subunit encoding gene, was isolated from Solanum tuberosum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 in potato (cv. Atlantic) resulted in accelerated onset of flowering, and significant increase in leaf chlorophyll content in field trials. However, transgenic potato plants overexpressing StNF-YB3.1 (OEYB3.1) showed significant decreases in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance both at tuber initiation and bulking stages. OEYB3.1 lines were associated with significantly fewer tuber numbers and yield reduction. Guard cell size and stomatal density were not changed in OEYB3.1 plants, whereas ABA-mediated stomatal closure was accelerated compared to that of wild type plants because of the up-regulation of genes for ABA signaling, such as StCPK10-like, StSnRK2.6/OST1-like, StSnRK2.7-like and StSLAC1-like. We speculate that the acceleration of stomatal closure was a possible reason for the significantly decreased stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. CCD-Based Skinning Injury Recognition on Potato Tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.): A Comparison between Visible and Biospeckle Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingwang; Geng, Jinfeng; Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin

    2016-10-18

    Skinning injury on potato tubers is a kind of superficial wound that is generally inflicted by mechanical forces during harvest and postharvest handling operations. Though skinning injury is pervasive and obstructive, its detection is very limited. This study attempted to identify injured skin using two CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor-based machine vision technologies, i.e., visible imaging and biospeckle imaging. The identification of skinning injury was realized via exploiting features extracted from varied ROIs (Region of Interests). The features extracted from visible images were pixel-wise color and texture features, while region-wise BA (Biospeckle Activity) was calculated from biospeckle imaging. In addition, the calculation of BA using varied numbers of speckle patterns were compared. Finally, extracted features were implemented into classifiers of LS-SVM (Least Square Support Vector Machine) and BLR (Binary Logistic Regression), respectively. Results showed that color features performed better than texture features in classifying sound skin and injured skin, especially for injured skin stored no less than 1 day, with the average classification accuracy of 90%. Image capturing and processing efficiency can be speeded up in biospeckle imaging, with captured 512 frames reduced to 125 frames. Classification results obtained based on the feature of BA were acceptable for early skinning injury stored within 1 day, with the accuracy of 88.10%. It is concluded that skinning injury can be recognized by visible and biospeckle imaging during different stages. Visible imaging has the aptitude in recognizing stale skinning injury, while fresh injury can be discriminated by biospeckle imaging.

  10. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  11. Two carbon fluxes to reserve starch in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber cells are closely interconnected but differently modulated by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettke, Joerg; Leifels, Lydia; Brust, Henrike; Herbst, Karoline; Steup, Martin

    2012-05-01

    in potato tuber cells.

  12. Evaluation of Oxadiargyl Efficiency on Weed Control of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is one of the most important root crops in the world. Weed is biotic stress that reduces yield and quality of crops through competition. Chemical weed control seems indispensable and has proved efficient in controlling weeds. Metribuzin and Paraquat are registered herbicides for potato production in Iran which are using early in the growing season. Metribuzin and Paraquat are dual purpose herbicides and destruct photosystem sites of action (Metribuzin is photosystem Ⅱ inhibitor and Paraquat is photosystem Ⅰ inhibitor which are not control summer weeds. Oxadiargyl belongs to the oxidiazole chemical group and acts as a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor and primarily has been developed for general weed control in rice and sugar cane. It is commonly used in rice, potato, sunflower, onion, cabbage, chickpea, spanish and lettuce and lavender. Weed control obtained with oxadiargyl at rates above 0.30 kg a.i/ ha was comparable to the standard metribuzin at 1.0 kg a.i/ ha; Oxadiargyl was superior comparing to the standard on Solanum nigrum, a weed of common occurrence in potato plantations, and Panicum subalbidum. The objective of our research was to evaluate the efficacy of Oxadiargyl for weed control and determination of appropriate application time in potato fields. Materials and Methods: Trials were conducted in Ardabil Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station during 2013. The factorial experiment with control (with and without weeding was performed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Potato cultivar was Agria (common cultivar in Ardabil. The first factor was Oxadiargyl dosages with six levels (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Lit a.i/ ha, and the second factor was time of application (at different potato growth stages; potato emergence, stoloning and tuber bulking, as well as two treatments (with and without weeding were considered as control. Tubers were hand

  13. Analysis of protein amino acids, non-protein amino acids and metabolites, dietary protein, glucose, fructose, sucrose, phenolic, and flavonoid content and antioxidative properties of potato tubers, peels, and cortexes (pulps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The composition and antioxidative activity of whole potato tubers from five Korean cultivars, three peels from one cultivar, and eight pulps (cortexes) after peeling from six different cultivars were evaluated. The following characteristics were determined: the dimensions and water content of whole...

  14. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits act...

  15. Effect of Pheromone Trap Density on Mass Trapping of Male Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, and Level of Damage on Potato Tubers Efecto de la Densidad de Trampas de Feromona en Masiva de Machos de Polilla de la Papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, y en el Nivel de Daño a los Tubérculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere with insect mating for pest control has been widely demonstrated in numerous Lepidoptera and other insect species. An experiment was carried out during the 2004-2005 season in Valle del Elqui, Coquimbo Region, Chile, to evaluate the effectiveness of different pheromone trap densities to capture P. operculella males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. The study evaluated densities of 10, 20, and 40 traps ha-1, baited with 0.2 mg of PTM sexual pheromone, and water-detergent for captures. Results indicated that larger numbers of male PTM were captured per trap with densities of 20 and 40 traps per hectare, resulting in a significant reduction (P La polilla de la papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, es una de las plagas que causan mayor daño a la papa (Solanum tuberosum L., tanto a los cultivos en campo como a los tubérculos almacenados, especialmente en zonas de climas cálidos y secos. Las larvas de este insecto se desarrollan en el follaje y tubérculos de papa causando pérdidas directas del producto a comercializar. La utilización de feromonas sintéticas, como una herramienta que interfiere con el apareamiento, ha sido ampliamente demostrada en innumerables especies de polillas y otros insectos. Con el fin de evaluar la efectividad de diferentes densidades de trampas de feromona en la captura de machos de P. operculella, para su futura utilizacióncomo técnica de trampeo masivo y consecuente disminución de la reproducción del insecto, se realizó un estudio durante la temporada 2004-2005, en el Valle del Elqui

  16. Use of organic waste as biofumigant for controlling root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. I. P.; Lisnawita; Oemry, S.; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of the important pathogens that causes big impact on potato crop yields. One of the control strategies for controlling this nematode is the use of biofumigants. Biofumigants are volatile toxic compound derived from plants, and have biocide properties against insects and plant pathogens. Organic waste such as Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae can be used as biofumigant sources. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae as biofumigants against Meloidogyne spp. The experiment was set in a completely randomized design (CRD) with the treatments were organic wastes including Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae, both single and combinations, and 2 controls (positive and negative controls) with 3 replications. Each of the biofumigant treatments was prepared and stored for 2 weeks. Potato tubers were transplanted 15 days after germination into polybag inoculated with 1,000 Meloidogyne spp. J2s. The results showed that Brassicaceae + Solanaceae were effective in decreasing the number of galls in potato plants, however only Solanaceae improved plant growth.

  17. Control of yam tuber rot with leaf extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for the control of yam tuber rot caused by Fusarium ... The extracts of suppressed the growth of these fungi in culture ..... Methodolgy for analysis of Vegetable drug. Practical.

  18. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009. The experiment involved the following treatments: 1 biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. inoculum was applied to the roots, − tubers were dressed and plants were sprayed with Polyversum three times during the growing season, 2 chemical control - at two-week intervals, plants were sprayed with the following fungicides: Infinito 687.5 SC and Tanos 50 WG, Valbon 72 WG and Tanos 50 WG. In the control treatment, potato plants were not protected against pathogens. During the growing season, the severity of late blight and early blight was evaluated on a nine-point scale. The composition of fungal communities colonising potato stems was analysed. The fungistatic properties of the fungicides used in the field experiment were evaluated in an in vitro test. The symptoms of infections caused by Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria spp. were significantly reduced in the treatment which used the integrated chemical and biological control. The least diverse fungal community was isolated from fungicide-treated plants. In the in vitro test, fungicides at all analysed concentrations inhibited the linear mycelial growth of selected pathogens.

  19. Characterizing zebra chip symptom severity and identifying spectral signatures associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' infected potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip (ZC) is a disease of potatoes, which is associated with the bacteria ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso). Lso is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). ZC reduces yield and quality, as it results in discoloration of the vascular ...

  20. Effect of infection by Phytophthora infestans and treatment with its zoosporial components on uptake of 3H-leucine and protein synthesis potato tuber tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Norio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Doke, Noriyuki

    1978-01-01

    Both sides of aged disks of potato tubers were inoculated with incompatible race 0 or compatible race 1 of P. infestans. The uptake of radioactivity from 3 H-leucine into the disks was greatly reduced by the infection with the incompatible race, but the ratio of incorporated radioactivity in the acid soluble fraction of the disks to total radioactivity in the 20,000 x g supernatant was increased by the infection with the incompatible race 0. In case of the compatible race 1, the infection had less effect on the incorporation ratio of the radioactivity into the acid insoluble fraction than the case of the race 0. The results suggested that the reduction in 3 H-leucine uptake may be due to alteration of the physiological activity of host plasma membrane, instead of the reduction of metabolic activity. The treatment of tuber disks with the insoluble fraction of the zoosporial homogenate of race 0 or race 1 greatly reduced the uptake of 3 H-leucine by the disks. The supernatant fraction of the zoosporial homogenate also reduced the uptake, but the effect was lost by dialysis. The results suggest that some substances in the insoluble components of the zoosporial homogenate of P. infestans may be at least one cause of the reduction in the uptake of 3 H-leucine which begins to occur at very early period of the inoculation with race 0 or race 1 while penetration has not yet occurred. (Kobatake, H.)

  1. Metabolic flux analysis of the phenylpropanoid pathway in wound-healing potato tuber tissue using stable isotope-labeled tracer and LC-MS spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Fumio; Morino, Keiko; Miyashita, Masahiro; Miyagawa, Hisashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Department of Agriculture

    2003-05-01

    The metabolic flux of two phenylpropanoid metabolites, N-p-coumaroyloctopamine (p-CO) and chlorogenic acid (CGA), in the wound-healing potato tuber tissue was quantitatively analyzed by a newly developed method based upon the tracer experiment using stable isotope-labeled compounds and LC-MS. Tuber disks were treated with aqueous solution of L-phenyl-d{sub 5}-alanine, and the change in the ratio of stable isotope-labeled compound to non-labeled (isotope abundance) was monitored for p-CO and CGA in the tissue extract by LC-MS. The time-dependent change in the isotope abundance of each metabolite was fitted to an equation that was derived from the formation and conversion kinetics of each compound. Good correlations were obtained between the observed and calculated isotope abundances for both p-CO and CGA. The rates of p-CO formation and conversion (i.e. fluxes) were 1.15 and 0.96 nmol (g FW){sup -1}h{sup -1}, respectively, and for CGA, the rates 4.63 and 0.42 nmol (g FW){sup -1}h{sup -1}, respectively. This analysis enabled a direct comparison of the biosynthetic activity between these two compounds. (author)

  2. Distribution of rishitin and lubimin in potato-tuber tissue infected by an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestans and the site where rishitin is synthesized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Kinukawa, Masaru

    1975-01-01

    Cut surface of potato tuber (R 1 -cultivar) was inoculated with an incompatible race of Phytophthora infestans. Then the slices prepared from the infected tissue were analyzed for their rishitin and lubimin content. Most of rishitin and lubimin was found in a zone in which the cells became brown with only a trace in the healthy tissue adjacent to the brown zone. However, the amount of lubimin was very low as compared with that of rishitin. In the inoculation fluid within the hole made in the tuber tissue, a large amount of rishitin and lubimin was found. In this case, lubimin was found in greater amount than rishitin during the early period of infection, but later the amount of rishitin exceeded that of lubimin. It was demonstrated by incorporation of acetate-2- 14 C into rishitin that rishitin was synthesized mostly in the adjacent healthy tissue which had not been invaded by the parasite. Rishitin synthesis was especially active in the first several healthy cell layers neighbouring the brown tissue. Since, at this time, hyphal development has already stopped, these cells were never invaded by the parasite and did never turn brown. Rishitin seemed not to be synthesized in the browned tissue. It is concluded that the rishitin sythesized in the adjacent healthy cells is transported to the brown cells and accumulates there. It also diffuses and accumulates outside the brown cells. (auth.)

  3. Ecology and control of Dickeya spp. in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Potato blackleg caused by pectinolytic Pectobacterium and Dickeya species is a bacterial disease creating serious economic losses in (seed)potato production worldwide. Effective management to control blackleg is absent and validated, cost-effective detection protocols for blackleg bacteria do not

  4. Quality control in the storage of potatoes for industrial processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijck, G.J.C.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    A novel control structure for a potato storage facility is presented that is directly geared at the optimal preservation of product quality. The quality of the stored potatoes is defined as frying colour that depends on sugar concentration. The optimal storage conditions are estimated using models

  5. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  6. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in chipping potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifes...

  7. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene]. Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfen absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of 14 C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] for two years provided the best control of nutsedge

  8. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. ) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene). Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfen absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of /sup 14/C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) for two years provided the best control of nutsedge.

  9. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilarasan Thangavel

    Full Text Available Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15-20 days after inoculation (DAI and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15-45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate.

  10. Monitoring Spongospora subterranea Development in Potato Roots Reveals Distinct Infection Patterns and Enables Efficient Assessment of Disease Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Tegg, Robert S; Wilson, Calum R

    2015-01-01

    Spongospora subterranea is responsible for significant potato root and tuber disease globally. Study of this obligate (non-culturable) pathogen that infects below-ground plant parts is technically difficult. The capacity to measure the dynamics and patterns of root infections can greatly assist in determining the efficacy of control treatments on disease progression. This study used qPCR and histological analysis in time-course experiments to measure temporal patterns of pathogen multiplication and disease development in potato (and tomato) roots and tubers. Effects of delayed initiation of infection and fungicidal seed tuber and soil treatments were assessed. This study found roots at all plant developmental ages were susceptible to infection but that delaying infection significantly reduced pathogen content and resultant disease at final harvest. The pathogen was first detected in roots 15-20 days after inoculation (DAI) and the presence of zoosporangia noted 15-45 DAI. Following initial infection pathogen content in roots increased at a similar rate regardless of plant age at inoculation. All fungicide treatments (except soil-applied mancozeb which had a variable response) suppressed pathogen multiplication and root and tuber disease. In contrast to delayed inoculation, the fungicide treatments slowed disease progress (rate) rather than delaying onset of infection. Trials under suboptimal temperatures for disease expression provided valuable data on root infection rate, demonstrating the robustness of monitoring root infection. These results provide an early measure of the efficacy of control treatments and indicate two possible patterns of disease suppression by either delayed initiation of infection which then proceeds at a similar rate or diminished epidemic rate.

  11. Potato Sprout Inhibition and Tuber Quality after Post-Harvest Treatment with Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Leaves and Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talei, Daryush; Bina, Fatemeh; Valdiani, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Storage of potatoes is one of the most important concerns in maintaining freshness and nutritional quality in the storage process. To achieve this, an experiment was carried out with five different storage conditions at various temperatures using fresh rosemary leaves and branches with three...... replicates. The results revealed that storage of potatoes at 25°C with rosemary leaves and branches resulted in the lowest sprout development and weight loss after 10 weeks. This was significantly different from either 4°C or 30°C. The findings indicated the potential of rosemary fresh leaves and branches...

  12. Conductimetric detection of Pseudomonas syringae pathover pisi in pea seeds and soft rot Erwinia spp. on potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, B.

    1996-01-01


    Pea bacterial blight and potato blackleg are diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi ( Psp ) and soft rot Erwinia spp., respectively. The primary source of inoculum for these bacteria is

  13. Effects of foliar and tuber sprout suppressants on shelf life of ware potatoes under tropical ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important source of dietary carbohydrate and cash income for farmers in the tropical highlands of Kenya. The feasibility for cold storage at the farm level is limited due to the high costs of maintaining such a facility and there is limited data on the long-term post...

  14. The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and mapping of tuber skin colour loci using RFLPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.; Jacobs, J.M.E.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Stiekema, W.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Two existing genetic models for anthocyanin pigmentation are compared: the genetic model as proposed by Lunden (1937, 1960, 1974) for tetraploid potato Solanum tuberosum group Tuberosum and the model by Dodds & Long (1955, 1956) for diploid cultivated Solanum species. By crossing well defined

  15. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  16. Critical Control Points in the Processing of Cassava Tuber for Ighu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the critical control points in the processing of cassava tuber into Ighu was carried out. The critical control points were determined according to the Codex guidelines for the application of the HACCP system by conducting hazard analysis. Hazard analysis involved proper examination of each processing step ...

  17. Effect of synthetic and natural water-absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality of potato in a semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengtao; Zhang, Lei; McLaughlin, Neil B; Mi, Junzhen; Chen, Qin; Liu, Jinghui

    2016-02-01

    The effect of water-absorbing soil amendments on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality was investigated in a field experiment in a semi-arid region in northern China in 2010-2012. Treatments included two synthetic water-absorbing amendments, potassium polyacrylate (PAA) and polyacrylamide (PAM), and one natural amendment, humic acid (HA), both as single amendments and compound amendments (HA combined with PAA or PAM), and a no amendment control. Soil amendments had a highly significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on photosynthesis characteristics, dry biomass, crop root/shoot (R/S) ratio and tuber nutritional quality. They improved both dry biomass above ground and dry biomass underground in the whole growing season by 4.6-31.2 and 1.1-83.1% respectively in all three years. Crop R/S ratio was reduced in the early growing season by 2.0-29.4% and increased in the later growing season by 2.3-32.6%. Soil amendments improved leaf soil plant analysis development value, net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate by 1.4-17.0, 5.1-45.9, 2.4-90.6 and 2.0-22.6% respectively and reduced intercellular CO2 concentration by 2.1-19.5% in all three years. Amendment treatment with PAM + HA always had the greatest effect on photosynthesis characteristics and tuber nutritional quality among all amendment treatments and thus merits further research. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Leaching of human pathogens in repacked soil lysimeters and contamination of potato tubers under subsurface drip irrigation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Anita; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    The risk for contamination of potatoes and groundwater through subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water was explored in 30 large-scale lysimeters containing repacked coarse sand and sandy loam soils. The human pathogens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O......, phage 28B was detected in low concentrations (2 pfu ml1) in leachate from both sandy loam soil and coarse sand lysimeters. After 27 days, phage 28B continued to be present in similar concentrations in leachate from lysimeters containing coarse sand, while no phage were found in lysimeters with sandy....... The findings of bacterial pathogens and phage 28 on all potato samples suggest that the main risk associated with subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water is faecal contamination of root crops, in particular those consumed raw....

  19. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  20. Ultraviolet light-induced crosslinking reveals a unique region of local tertiary structure in potato spindle tuber viroid and HeLa 5S RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, A.D.; Benenfeld, B.J.; Robertson, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The positions of intramolecular crosslinks induced by irradiation with ultraviolet light were mapped into potato spindle tuber viroid RNA and HeLa 5S rRNA. Crosslinking in each of these molecules occurred at a single major site, which was located by RNA fingerprinting and secondary analysis. Various lines of evidence suggest that these crosslinks identify a previously undescribed element of local tertiary structure common to these two widely divergent RNA molecules: (i) both crosslinks occur in an identical eight-base context, with the sequence 5 GGGAA 3 on one side and the sequence 5 UAC 3 on the other; (ii) both crosslinks connect bases that are not thought to be involved in conventional hydrogen bonding, within regions usually depicted as single-stranded loops flanked by short helical segments; and (iii) both crosslinks connect a purine and a pyrimidine residue, and both may generate the same G-U dimer. Furthermore, it is likely that the crosslinking site is of functional significance because it is located within the most highly conserved region of the viroid sequence and involves bases that are essentially invariant among eukaryotic 5S rRNA molecules

  1. Requirement for two or more Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora pectolytic gene products for maceration of potato tuber tissue by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D P; Berman, P M; Allen, C; Stromberg, V K; Lacy, G H; Mount, M S

    1986-07-01

    Several genes encoding enzymes capable of degrading plant cell wall components have been cloned from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora EC14. Plasmids containing cloned EC14 DNA mediate the production of endo-pectate lyases, exo-pectate lyase, endo-polygalacturonase, and cellulase(s). Escherichia coli strains containing one of these plasmids or combinations of two plasmids were tested for their ability to macerate potato tuber slices. Only one E. coli strain, containing two plasmids that encode endo-pectate lyases, exo-pectate lyase, and endo-polygalacturonase, caused limited maceration. The pectolytic proteins associated with one of these plasmids, pDR1, have been described previously (D. P. Roberts, P. M. Berman, C. Allen, V. K. Stromberg, G. H. Lacy, and M. S. Mount, Can. J. Plant Pathol. 8:17-27, 1986) and include two secreted endo-pectate lyases. The second plasmid, pDR30, contains a 2.1-kilobase EC14 DNA insert that mediates the production of an exo-pectate lyase and an endo-polygalacturonase. These enzymes are similar in physicochemical properties to those produced by EC14. Our results suggest that the concerted activities of endo-pectate lyases with endo-polygalacturonase or exo-pectate lyase or both cause maceration.

  2. Mutation induction and isolation in potato through true seed and tuber mutagenesis and use of tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhya, M.D.; Abraham, M.J.; Dass, B.; Chandra, R.

    1982-01-01

    Advance MV generation clones from hydrazine-sulphate-treated 'O.T' cultures have been field evaluated and 12 cultures have been selected for yield trials. One culture, DN-31-3, has been found to be day-neutral in its tuberization behaviour. Four JL/RA clones have been selected after a large-scale field trial. These clones are the selections from gamma-irradiated self seeds of Kufri Lauvkar (A-7416) and hybrid A-2235. Similarly 15 MV 3 clones have been selected from the populations raised from EMS- and DES-treated self seeds of A-2235. Day-neutral mutants have been selected from the fourth to seventh sprouts taken from EMS-treated tuber halves of Kufri Jyoti. From the sixth sprout harvest from EMS-treated Kufri Jyoti halves, one mutant, BCN-6-2, has been isolated which showed less than 30 cysts of G. rostochiensis in the MV 2 generation. This clone has been multiplied and made disease-free through apical meristem culture. Through the use of a new medium, PM-32, the plating efficiency of mechanically isolated single callus cells of dihaploid PH-258 is 30-35%. Nitsch's medium has been modified to formulate a new medium for direct embryogenesis in single callus cells of Phulwa. All stages up to the globular stage could be observed after five to six weeks of culture. Efforts were continued for the enzymatic isolation of single-leaf mesophyll cells from dihaploid PH-258. A new cell separation medium has been formulated which gives 80% viable cells. The LD 50 and LD 100 doses of EMS for the single callus cells of dihaploid PH-255 were found to be 500 ppm and 1000 ppm respectively. (author)

  3. The effect of urea with urease inhibitors and urea on yield and nitrate content in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Drápal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-year field trial was established on two localities – Žabčice and Valečov in 2010–2012. Seven variants of nitrogen fertilization in four replications have been involved in this experiment – 100% of urea (U, 80% of urea, 60% of urea, 100% of UreaStabil (US, 80% of UreaStabil and 60% of UreaStabil, whilst 100% corresponded to 90 kg N.ha−1 after subtracting the content of Nmin in the soil, and the control variant without fertilization by mineral nitrogen. The two varieties with different lengths of vegetation periods have been chosen for the experiment – the early variety Karin and the mid-early variety Red Anna. In all cases, samples for the yield and qualitative analyses have been taken according to the phenological phase – the beginning of physiological maturity. The obtained results show that the highest average yield has been achieved in the variant of 100% of urea – 40.95 t. ha−1, the yield of this variant was statistically significantly higher than the yield of the other variants of fertilization (P < 0.05. Variants treated by urea without the urease inhibitor reached an average yield of 37.62 t.ha−1. However, this yield was not statistically significantly higher when comparing to the urea with the urease inhibitor (P > 0.05. In regard to localities, a relatively high average yield (44.58 t.ha−1 has been achieved on a characteristically potato-growing locality Valečov. This yield was statistically significantly higher than the one attained on the Žabčice locality (P < 0.05. In respect to varieties, the mid-early variety Red Anna attained a higher average yield (39.65 t. ha−1. Likewise, this yield was statistically significantly higher than the one of the early variety Karin (P < 0.05. The best year was 2012, in which the average yield of 38.73 t.ha−1 was achieved. This yield was statistically significantly higher than the yield of the year 2010 (P < 0.05. As far as nitrates are concerned, the

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollenberg, Benjamin J; Liu, Jingjing; Yu, Shu; Lin, Hong; Tian, Li

    2018-02-05

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated and functionally characterized in potato. In this work, we cloned StC3'H from potato and showed that it catalyzed the formation of caffeoylshikimate and CGA (caffeoylquinate) from p-coumaroyl shikimate and p-coumaroyl quinate, respectively, but was inactive towards p-coumaric acid in in vitro enzyme assays. When the expression of StC3'H proteins was blocked through antisense (AS) inhibition under the control of a tuber-specific patatin promoter, moderate changes in tuber yield as well as phenolic metabolites in the core tuber tissue were observed for several AS lines. On the other hand, the AS and control potato lines exhibited similar responses to a bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum. These results suggest that StC3'H is implicated in phenolic metabolism in potato. They also suggest that CGA accumulation in the core tissue of potato tubers is an intricately controlled process and that additional C3'H activity may also be involved in CGA biosynthesis in potato. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Technological quality and utilization of potato tubers Qualidade tecnológica e utilização de tubérculos de batata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Feltran

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns have been verified with regard to the quality factor of potato tubers and their correct form of use and consumption. The purpose of this research was to determine the technological quality of potato tuber cultivars and identify the best forms of use and consumption. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted with 18 treatments represented by cultivars Agata, Apuã (IAC-5977, Aracy (IAC-2, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Asterix, Bintje, Dali, Clone IAC-6090, Itararé (IAC-5986, Laguna, Remarka, Liseta, Mondial, Novita, Oscar, Picasso, Santana, and Solide, with four replications. Specific gravity showed a positive correlation with starch content, texture, pulp pH, and soluble solids, and was negatively correlated with reducing sugars. The technological characteristics represented by specific gravity, dry matter content, texture, starch content, reducing sugars, pulp pH, titrable acidity, and soluble solids are influenced by genotype or cultivar. Cultivars Oscar, Itararé, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Clone IAC-6090, Aracy, Solide, Asterix, Santana, and Laguna were outstanding with best characteristics for frying, mashing and roasting. Mondial, Picasso, Novita, Dali, and Agata are appropriate for boiling, and more specifically for salads. In turn, potato cultivars Apuã, Remarka, Bintje, and Liseta are suitable for mashing and for roasting.Atualmente tem ocorrido crescente preocupação com o fator qualidade da batata e a forma correta de utilização para o consumo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a qualidade tecnológica dos tubérculos de cultivares de batata, visando identificar a melhor forma de utilização e consumo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 18 tratamentos, representados pelos cultivares Agata, Apuã (IAC-5977, Aracy (IAC-2, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Asterix, Bintje, Dali, Clone IAC-6090, Itararé (IAC-5986, Laguna, Remarka, Liseta, Mondial, Novita, Oscar, Picasso, Santana e Solide, com quatro

  6. Potato proteins : their properties and nutritive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labib, A.I.

    1962-01-01

    Physical and biological investigations were carried out on the nitrogenous substances in the potato tuber. The importance of the potato as a food was considered in the introduction. By paper electrophoresis proteins in potato tuber sap could be separated into at least six fractions. The protein

  7. A thermodynamically influenced control for potato storage | Ndiema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained show that the modified control achieved reduced mass loss by about 5% while the fan energy input was reduced by up to 10%. It is therefore possible to achieve improved control of the potato storage condition by modifying the controls to operate on the basis of thermodynamic state diagrams.

  8. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: Effects of variety and tuber storage time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J. Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T.; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G.; Mottram, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed. PMID:25842300

  9. Comparative storage studies of selected varieties of potatoes treated with CIPC and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Karim, A.; Hossain, M.M.; Hossain, A.

    1990-01-01

    Three varieties of potatoes (Diamant, Kufri sinduri and Lal pakri) were treated with 8 Krad of gamma radiation and CIPC at the rate of 2 gm/kg of potatoes and were stored at 4 deg C, 15 deg. C and ambient temperature. The control, irradiated and CIPC treated potatoes at ambient temperature spoiled within 2 months of storage. Control potatoes stored at 15 deg. C lost their market value due to sprouting and shrinkage after 6 months of storage. Irradiated potatoes stored at 15 deg. C lost weight at a slower rate than CIPC treated samples stored at the same temperature and control potatoes stored at 4 deg. C. All the potatoes in control samples sprouted within 3 months of storage at 15 deg. C whereas no sprouting was recorded in any variety of potatoes treated with radiation or CIPC and stored at 15 deg. C for 6 months. After 6 months of storage reducing sugar content was much lower in the irradiated or CIPC treated potatoes than the control potatoes stored at 4 deg. C. The irradiated tubers stored at 15 deg. C and control tubers stored at 4 deg. C retained excellent physical appearance and market quality at the end of 6 months storage though irradiated potatoes were more attractive

  10. Levels of Intra-specific AFLP Diversity in Tuber-Bearing Potato Species with Different Breeding Systems and Ploidy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn J. Bryan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based marker analysis of plant genebank material has become a useful tool in the evaluation of levels of genetic diversity and for the informed use and maintenance of germplasm. In this study, we quantify levels of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP in representative accessions of wild and cultivated potato species of differing geographic origin, ploidy, and breeding system. We generated 449 polymorphic AFLP fragments in 619 plants, representing multiple plants (16–23 from 17 accessions of 14 potato taxa as well as single plants sampled from available accessions (from 3 to 56 of the same 14 taxa. Intra-accession diversities were compared to those of a synthetic ‘taxon-wide’ population comprising a single individual from a variable number of available accessions of each sampled taxon. Results confirm the expected considerably lower levels of polymorphism within accessions of self-compatible as compared to self-incompatible taxa. We observed broadly similar levels of ‘taxon-wide’ polymorphism among self-compatible and self-incompatible species, with self-compatible taxa showing only slightly lower rates of polymorphism. The most diverse accessions were the two cultivated potato accessions examined, the least diverse being the Mexican allohexaploids Solanum demissum and S. iopetalum. Generally allopolyploid self-compatible accessions exhibited lower levels of diversity. Some purported self-incompatible accessions showed relatively low levels of marker diversity, similar to the more diverse self-compatible material surveyed. Our data indicate that for self-compatible species a single plant is highly representative of a genebank accession. The situation for self-incompatible taxa is less clear, and sampling strategies used will depend on the type of investigation. These results have important implications for those seeking novel trait variation (e.g., disease resistance in gene banks as well as for the selection of individuals

  11. Alteration of cell wall polysaccharides through transgenic expression of UDP-Glc 4-epimerase-encoding genes in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Hong; Kortstee, Anne; Dees, Dianka C T; Trindade, Luisa M; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-08-01

    Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) catalyzes the conversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. Cell wall materials from the cv. Kardal (wild-type, background) and two UGE transgenic lines (UGE 45-1 and UGE 51-16) were isolated and fractionated. The galactose (Gal) content (mg/100g tuber) from UGE 45-1 transgenic line was 38% higher than that of wild-type, and resulted in longer pectin side chains. The Gal content present in UGE 51-16 was 17% lower than that of wild-type, although most pectin populations maintained the same level of Gal. Both UGE transgenic lines showed unexpectedly a decrease in acetylation and an increase in methyl-esterification of pectin. Both UGE transgenic lines showed similar proportions of homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I within pectin backbone as the wild-type, except for the calcium-bound pectin fraction exhibiting relatively less rhamnogalacturonan I. Next to pectin modification, xyloglucan populations from both transgenic lines were altered resulting in different XSGG and XXGG proportion in comparison to wild-type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative

  13. Postharvest changes in glycoalkaloid content of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; McDonald, G M

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes contain antinutritional and potentially toxic compounds including inhibitors of digestive enzymes, hemagglutinins, and glycoalkaloids. Solanum glycoalkaloids are reported to inhibit cholinesterase, disrupt cell membranes, and induce teratogenicity. In this overview, we describe the role of potatoes in the human diet, reported changes in glycoalkaloid content of fresh and processed potatoes during storage, under the influence of light and radiation, following mechanical damage, and as a result of food processing. Also covered are safety aspects and suggested research needs to develop a protocol that can be adopted by the potato producers and processors to minimize post-harvest synthesis of glycoalkaloids in potatoes. Reducing the glycoalkaloid content of potatoes will provide a variety of benefits extending from the farm to processing, shipping, marketing, and consumption of potatoes and potato products. A commercially available ELISA kit is described which permits rapid assay of glycoalkaloid content of parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and peel, as well as processed potato products including french fries, chips, and skins. Understanding the multiple overlapping aspects of glycoalkaloids in the plant and in the diet will permit controlling postharvest glycoalkaloid production for the benefit of the producer and consumer.

  14. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  15. Effect of Three Species of Mycorrhiza Inoculation on Yield and Some Physiological properties of Two Potato Cultivars under Drought Stress in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khaninejad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In recent years, rainfall deficiency was an increasing problem in most countries; which limited the production of agricultural crops. Among abiotic stresses the plants encountered, drought stress is considered as the most important limiting factor in plants growth and reproduction in natural and agricultural systems through most parts of the world; while drought stress causes 45% increase in the crops among various stress making factors (biotic and abiotic. A suitable procedure for controlling drought stress in agriculture is making the symbiotic relation between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi decrease the plant ability in absorbing nutrients, ion balance, keeping enzyme activity, increasing chlorophyll density and root-soil connection; they decline the hazards caused by stress and decrease the plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Potato is one of the most valuable sources to provide human food in the developing countries and is one of the most productive crops, while its production is twofold to rice and wheat. Producing more than 5 million tones potato makes this crop as the first utilizable nutrient after wheat, in this country. Potato is sensitive to soil humidity caused by limited and low-deep root system. Materials and Methods Thus, an investigation was conducted to examine the effect of three of mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and Glomus fasciculatum on two potato cultivars (Agria and Fontana under drought stress and control conditions, in factorial experiment based on complete randomize block with three repetitions in research greenhouse of Ferdowsi University in 2012. In control treatment, irrigating was done when field capacity got 80% and it was conducted to 100% field capacity. Stress treatment was done when the field capacity got 60% and continued to 80% field capacity. Fungus treatment was done with a 100g mixture of inoculum including mycorrhizal root sections of corn

  16. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and... environmental assessment (EA) relative to the control of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). The EA considers the... States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of air potato infestations. We are...

  17. Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of 18 Potato Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Bolandi

    2016-10-01

    to those of check. Based on results of this experiment, the clones 397003-7, 396151-27 and 397045-100 could be selected for Ardebil region. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative traits of cultivars and advanced potato clones in spring cultivation (Jolge-e-Rokh region. Materials and Methods In this research, 18 potato clones for the quantitative and qualitative traits were compared with three check cultivars including: Agria (suitable for French-fries, Marfona (suitable for boiled eating and Lady Rosetta (suitable for chips in Jolge-Rokh Agriculture Research Station, the location 35'¸ 50° north latitude and 59° east longitude and 1721 m above sea level, in crop year 2011. Experimental design was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. Treatment consisted of 18 advanced potato clones: 396151-8, 397045-4, 397045-10, TP12-13, TP21-29, TP12-8, 397007-16, 397007-17, 396140-6, 397009-8, 397015-14, 397003-7, 396151-27, 397045-100, 397097-9, 396151-20, 397045-7 and 69 indigenous with three control cultivars (Agria, Marfona and Lady Rosetta. Tubers were planted on two rows with 6 meters length. Distance between row and plants on the row were 75 and 25 cm, respectively. Area of each plot was 9 square meter. The evaluated characters were total yield, marketable yield, eye number, dry matter percentage, tuber number per plant, tuber weight per plant and mean of tuber weight. In order to measure total yield, after maturity, and remove the aerial organs, all of the tubers were harvested and the fresh weight was obtained. After removal of the tumor in bad shape, with soft rot and smaller than 30 mm that cannot be sold as part of the marketable yield, rest of them were used to measure marketable yield. Tuber dry matter percentage (TDM% was determined from the relationship between fresh and dry weights of sub-sample of 8-10 thinly sliced tubers dried for 48 h at 80° C. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.1 software. The

  18. Morphological characterization of the local potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... agronomical characteristics of the genotypes were described according to the criteria developed for potato .... potato tubers were stored at 4°C and 80% moisture storage con- ...... Starch and Sugar Plant Production, Turkey VII.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation and different modes of cooking on vitamin C content of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Changes in reduced and total ascorbic acid content in control and gamma irradiated potatoes of four cultivars were studied during 15 degC storage and after cooking by different methods. Under identical prolonged storage conditions, control tubers suffered heavy losses of vitamin C and total marketability due to sprouting and shrinkage unlike irradiated tubers. Time consuming cooking destroys more vitamin C as compared to faster cooking methods. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  20. Validation of a tuber blight (Phytophthora infestans) prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses in storage. There is limited published quantitative data on predicting tuber blight. We validated a tuber blight prediction model developed in New York with cultivars Allegany, NY 101, and Katahdin using independent...

  1. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world’s most important vegetable crop and central to global food security. Cultivated potato is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Numerous wild potato species serve as a resource for introgress...

  2. Potato carbohydrates: what’s in the middle counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is one of the world’s most important foods. Accumulation of starch in potato tubers depends on photosynthesis. Maintenance of 100% light capture per unit land area during the target growing season maximizes yields. Warm temperatures increase shoot and tuber respiration rates and depress tuber...

  3. Tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tuberous sclerosis has been described with a diagnostic triad, it is not present consistently in all cases. Variety of skin manifestations were reported in tuberous sclerosis. This studay was undertaken to assess the frequency of various skin changes in tuberous sclerosis. Ten consecutive cases of tuberous sclerosis were studied. Angiofibroma was the commonest cutaneous manifestation. Atypical fibroxanthoma, dermatofibroma and neurofibroma were also noticed as interesting associations.

  4. Modification of the health-promoting value of potato tubers field grown under drought stress: emphasis on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in five native andean cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Schafleitner, Roland; Guignard, Cédric; Oufir, Mouhssin; Aliaga, Carlos Alberto Alvarado; Nomberto, Giannina; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2009-01-28

    The effects of drought stress on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in potato tubers were investigated using a selection of five native Andean cultivars. Both freshly harvested and 4 month-stored tubers were analyzed. Responses to drought stress were highly cultivar-specific. The antioxidant contents of the yellow tuber-bearing cultivars (Sipancachi and SS-2613) were weakly affected by the drought treatment, whereas the pigmented cultivars demonstrated highly cultivar-dependent variations. A drastic reduction of anthocyanins and other polyphenols was revealed in the red- (Sullu) and purple-fleshed (Guincho Negra) cultivars, whereas an increase was shown in the purple-skinned and yellow-fleshed cultivar (Huata Colorada). The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu and H-oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays) was highly correlated with the polyphenol content and followed, therefore, the same behavior upon drought. Carotenoid contents, including beta-carotene, as well as vitamin E, tended to increase or remain stable following drought exposure, except for the cultivar Sullu, in which the level of these lipophilic antioxidants was decreased. Vitamin C contents were not affected by drought with the exception of Guincho Negra, in which the level was increased. These variations of health-promoting compounds were associated with increased or stable levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. Storage at 10 degrees C for 4 months tended to decrease the concentrations of all dietary antioxidants, except those of vitamin E. This storage also reduced the drought-induced variations observed in freshly harvested tubers. These results were discussed in terms of their implications for human diet and health as well as in plant stress defense mechanisms.

  5. Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Promising Potato Clones and Commercial Cultivars Using the GGE Bi-plot and AMMI Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D HassanPanah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics and stability of marketable tuber yield of 13 promising potato clones, along with three commercial cultivars (Agria, Marfona and Lady Rosetta as checks, an experiment was based on a randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station of Ardabil during 2011 and 2012. During the growing period and after harvest, attributes like number of main stem per plant, plant height, tuber number and weight per plant, total and marketable tuber yield, dry matter percentage, baking type, hollow heart, tuber inner ring and discoloration of raw tuber flesh after 24 hours were measured. Combined ANONA for quantitative traits showed that there were significant differences among promising clones as to total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, mean tuber weight, number of main stem per plant and dry matter percentage and their interactions with year in total and marketable tuber yield and tuber number and weight per plant. The clones 396151-7, 397008-5, 397015-8, 397008-2 and 994001-4 were found to have higher total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant and mean tuber weight. These clones produced high and mid-uniform tuber, yellow skin color, yellow and white flesh color, oval round and round tuber shape, mid and shallow eyes, with no hollow heart, tuber inner crack and tuber inner ring, mid-late maturity and mid and high dry matter percentage as compared with control and other clones. In this experiment, GGE Bi-plot and AMMI models were found to be proper methods for selection of 397008-2, 397008-5 and 994001-4 as being high marketable and stable yielding clones.

  6. Detection and sequencing of Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV in a volunteer plant of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Diacol-Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Camilo Medina Cárdenas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases are among the most limiting factors in the production of potato in Colombia and the rest of the world. The best strategy to control plant viruses consists on the use of certified seed tubers, control of arthropod vectors and the use of adequate crop management practices that reduce mechanical transmission and the presence of viral reservoirs like weeds and volun-teer plants. However, the successful implementation of these practices relies on the availability of highly sensitive techniques that allow for the asymptomatic detection of viruses. In this work, we tested the performance of Next-generation sequencing (NGS and real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR on a single volunteer potato plant (cv. Diacol-Capiro growing naturally in a seed-tuber storage facility in Yarumal (Antioquia. Our NGS results demonstrate a mixed infection with Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV. RT-qPCR was performed in roots, main stolons, crown (root collar and upper, middle and lower leaves using specific primers for PVY, PLRV, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus V (PVV, Potato virus X (PVX and Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV. Only PVY and PLRV were detected in good agreement with the NGS data. This work demonstrates the use-fulness of both techniques for supporting integrated management of plant viruses in potato, in-cluding virus detection in natural reservoirs such as volunteer plants and weeds.

  7. Effect of irradiation and cooking methods on ascorbic acid levels of four potato cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The changes in reduced and total ascorbic acid (AA) contents in control and in tubers irradiated to 100 Gy gamma rays for sprout inhibition were studied by HPLC and iodophenol titrimetry methods in four potato cultivars as a function of storage at 15 degC and after cooking by different methods. Both reduced and total ascorbic acid levels decreased in control tubers during the first 3 months in storage recording respectively 22 to 35% and 26 to 45% losses depending on the cultivar. Irradiated tubers recorded additional losses of 5 to 10% and 6.5 to 13%, respectively in reduced and total ascorbic acid levels during the same period but remained in good marketable conditions. Cooking of tubers in boiling water showed maximum loss in vitamin C content, whereas pressure and microwave cooking recorded least losses. The magnitude of losses in reduced and total vitamin C during cooking was comparable in control and in irradiated tubers. (author)

  8. Expressão de caracteres de tubérculos em função do tamanho de recipiente usado no cultivo de batata na geração de plântulas Expression of tuber traits as a function of pot size used to grow potato seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alvaro Aloisio Verissimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento genético de batata, para alguns caracteres, é possível eliminar genótipos inferiores já nas gerações iniciais, o que permite reduzir o número de genótipos avaliados a campo, proporcionando redução de custos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho de vaso na expressão de caracteres de tubérculo, em famílias de batata, na geração de plântula. Em casa de vegetação, dez famílias de batata foram avaliadas em dois tamanhos de recipientes, vaso grande (1 L e vaso pequeno (250 ml. Os caracteres de tubérculos avaliados foram: cor, aspereza, profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, formato, uniformidade de formato, apontamento, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral, massa por planta, massa média e número de tubérculos. O vaso grande proporciona maior expressão da variação genética para os caracteres profundidade de olho, sobrancelha, curvatura, achatamento, aparência geral e todos os componentes de rendimento. As maiores médias de produção de tubérculos em número, tamanho e massa foram obtidas no vaso grande, enquanto o maior coeficiente de variação genético para os caracteres formato, uniformidade de formato e apontamento de tubérculo foi obtido no vaso pequeno.In potato breeding, the exclusion of inferior genotypes by selection in early generations provides more versatility and cost reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of pot size on the expression of tuber traits in potato families grown as seedling generation. Ten potato families were planted in two pot sizes, large (1 L and small (250 ml, in the greenhouse. The following tuber traits were evaluated: color, roughness, depth of eye, eyebrow, shape, uniformity of shape, pointing, curvature, flattening, tuber general appearance, total mass per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers. The larger pot provided greater expression of genetic variation for the depth of eye, eyebrow, curvature

  9. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  10. Biological and Histological Studies of Inherited Sterility on Irradiated Males of the Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kawy, F.K; Ghally, S.E.; Abd-Alla, M.S; Mohamed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, gamma radiation was applied at sub sterilizing doses, 100, 150 and 200 Gy for full grown pupae of male Ph. operculella. Sterility, reproduction, mortality, and histological effects on the testis were investigated. The percent mating was not affected to any dosage except at (To x N+) in the parents at 200 Gy and in the progeny with 150 Gy. The number of spermatophores per mated female for parents and progeny was not obviously different from the control. The percent sperm transfer for both normal and irradiated males was not affected. The average number of eggs per female significantly reduced when when mated with parental males irradiated with 200 Gy. Fecundity of female progeny was negatively correlated with the dose received by parental males. The amount of inherited sterility of progeny was dependent on the dosage received by the male parent. Irradiation had not effect on male and female longevity for parents and their progeny, however the sex ratio was in favour of males in the resulting progenies. Gamma radiation had effect on emergency of parental males more than their progeny. The size and structure of testis contents were severely affected with increase the dosage from 150 to 200 Gy and the effects were more pronounced in the progeny than the parental adults

  11. Characterization of bacterial isolates from rotting potato tuber tissue showing antagonism to Dickeya sp. biovar 3 in vitro and in planta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities for biocontrol of biovar 3 Dickeya sp. in potato were investigated, using bacteria from rotting potato tissue isolated by dilution plating on nonselective agar media. In a plate assay, 649 isolates were screened for antibiosis against Dickeya sp. IPO2222 and for the production of

  12. Determination of physiomorphological characteristics of potato crop regulated by potassium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, M.A.; Ayyub, C.M.; Shaheen, M.R.; Noor, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Balanced use of nutrients is essential for sustainable productivity of crops. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are being used while potassium (K) application is ignored which causes serious decrease in the status of K in soils of potato growing areas. Has prodigious importance in improving quality and yield of potatoes. Therefore, the research project of field studies was designed with different levels K from SOP to determine its effects on some physio-morphological features of potato. A promising red potato cultivar Desiree was selected. Optimal recommended doses of nitrogen and phosphors (250 and 125 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively) along with 6 levels of K, i.e. 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 kg K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ were applied. Data of different qualitative and quantitative characteristics was collected under the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and was analyzed by using standard statistical over the year techniques. The results revealed that SOP at the level of 150 kg ha/sup -1/ gave the best results in most of the parameters (i.e. total emergence percentage, plant height, number of tubers per plant, tuber weight per plant, yield per hectare, TSS, tuber dry weight per plant) while, extremely high dose of SOP showed the poor results as compared to control for some of the parameters. Number of aerial stems per plant, number of leaves per plant, specific gravity of tubers and tuber dry mass did not show any significant change with change in K levels. (author)

  13. Influence of gamma radiation on the growth and metabolism ''in vitro'' culture of potato parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Mazon Matanzo, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    The growth ''in vitro'' of the parenchyma tissues coming from control and irradiated potato tubers with doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. is studied. At the end of a four months' cultivation period the cellular proliferation, respiratory activity, content in ascorbic acid, conductivity, and pH was studied. Some differences between control and irradiated tissues were observed. (author) [es

  14. Influence of gamma radiation on the growth and metabolism in vitro culture of potato parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Mazon Matanzo, M. P.

    1977-01-01

    The present work studies the growth in vitro of the parenchyma tissues coming from control and irradiated potato tubers with doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. At the end of a four months cultivation period the cellular proliferation, respiratory activity, content in ascorbic acid, conductivity and ph was studied. Some differences between control and irradiated tissues were observed. (Author) 22 refs

  15. Transgenic potatoes for potato cyst nematode control can replace pesticide use without impact on soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jayne; Wang, Dong; Lilley, Catherine J; Urwin, Peter E; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    Current and future global crop yields depend upon soil quality to which soil organisms make an important contribution. The European Union seeks to protect European soils and their biodiversity for instance by amending its Directive on pesticide usage. This poses a challenge for control of Globodera pallida (a potato cyst nematode) for which both natural resistance and rotational control are inadequate. One approach of high potential is transgenically based resistance. This work demonstrates the potential in the field of a new transgenic trait for control of G. pallida that suppresses root invasion. It also investigates its impact and that of a second transgenic trait on the non-target soil nematode community. We establish that a peptide that disrupts chemoreception of nematodes without a lethal effect provides resistance to G. pallida in both a containment and a field trial when precisely targeted under control of a root tip-specific promoter. In addition we combine DNA barcoding and quantitative PCR to recognise nematode genera from soil samples without microscope-based observation and use the method for nematode faunal analysis. This approach establishes that the peptide and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor that offer distinct bases for transgenic plant resistance to G. pallida do so without impact on the non-target nematode soil community.

  16. Transgenic potatoes for potato cyst nematode control can replace pesticide use without impact on soil quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Green

    Full Text Available Current and future global crop yields depend upon soil quality to which soil organisms make an important contribution. The European Union seeks to protect European soils and their biodiversity for instance by amending its Directive on pesticide usage. This poses a challenge for control of Globodera pallida (a potato cyst nematode for which both natural resistance and rotational control are inadequate. One approach of high potential is transgenically based resistance. This work demonstrates the potential in the field of a new transgenic trait for control of G. pallida that suppresses root invasion. It also investigates its impact and that of a second transgenic trait on the non-target soil nematode community. We establish that a peptide that disrupts chemoreception of nematodes without a lethal effect provides resistance to G. pallida in both a containment and a field trial when precisely targeted under control of a root tip-specific promoter. In addition we combine DNA barcoding and quantitative PCR to recognise nematode genera from soil samples without microscope-based observation and use the method for nematode faunal analysis. This approach establishes that the peptide and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor that offer distinct bases for transgenic plant resistance to G. pallida do so without impact on the non-target nematode soil community.

  17. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S. [Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    experimental potato technology was developed and tested by stakeholders on 130 plots of Stolyn and Slavgorod districts during 2001-2003. The results have shown that potato yield in experiment was increased up to 35 t ha{sup -1} or in 1.6 times to the control with usual technology. The 1 euro invested to the potato experiment provided 1.5-2.0 euros of net return on the average. The careful testing of technology by some participants allowed to reduce the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr accumulation in potatoes up to 50-70% and the nitrate concentration in 1.5-2.6 times to the control. Presumably the {sup 90}Sr concentration on plots contaminated by radionuclide and nitrate concentration in tuber should be permanently controlled. (author)

  18. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    technology was developed and tested by stakeholders on 130 plots of Stolyn and Slavgorod districts during 2001-2003. The results have shown that potato yield in experiment was increased up to 35 t ha -1 or in 1.6 times to the control with usual technology. The 1 euro invested to the potato experiment provided 1.5-2.0 euros of net return on the average. The careful testing of technology by some participants allowed to reduce the 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation in potatoes up to 50-70% and the nitrate concentration in 1.5-2.6 times to the control. Presumably the 90 Sr concentration on plots contaminated by radionuclide and nitrate concentration in tuber should be permanently controlled. (author)

  19. Irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. A compilation of technical data for its authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This publication contains a compilation of available scientific and technical data on the irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. The compilation was prepared in response to the requirement of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and associated Code that radiation treatment of food be justified on the basis of a technological need or of a need to improve the hygienic quality of the food. It was also in response to the recommendations of the FAO/IAEA/WHO/ITC-UNCTAD/GATT International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food (Geneva, 1989) concerning the need for regulatory control of radiation processing of food. 448 refs, 6 tabs

  20. Influence of altitude and enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on tuber production, seed viability, leaf pigments and morphology in the wild potato species Solanum kurtzianum Bitter & Wittm collected from an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, V N; Berli, F J; Masuelli, R W; Bottini, R A; Marfil, C F

    2017-08-01

    Climate change could lead to an upward shift in plant distribution, exposing populations to higher levels of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. In the framework of an in situ strategy for conserving potato wild relatives, we evaluated the effect of high UV-B levels on natural population of Solanum kurtzianum. The hypothesis is that plants from naturally higher altitudes are more adapted to increased UV-B radiation. Two populations from low and high altitudes were field supplemented using UV-B-lamps (+UV-B) or excluded from it with plastic filters. Additionally, to assess in which extent the plant responses to these artificial experimental conditions are reproducible in natural conditions, three genotypes were cultivated in two mountain experimental gardens (EG) at different elevations. +UV-B treatment induced changes in leaf morphology and increases in phenolic compounds in both populations, indicating plant adaptation, since chlorophylls and reproductive structures were not negatively affected. These results indicate that this environmental factor may not limit the displacement of populations towards sites with higher UV-B levels. Meanwhile, in higher-altitude EG a tubers yield reduction, mainly through a decreased tuber number and a bigger accumulation of phenolic compounds than in +UV-B treatment were observed, suggesting that UV-B is not the only factor involved in plants adaptation to high altitude environments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Variação da composição química em cultivares de batata durante seu desenvolvimento Variation in the chemical composition of potato tubers of three cultivars during the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Soave Spoladore

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se no presente trabalho a dinâmica de acúmulo de substâncias de reserva e glicoalcalóides totais, durante o desenvolvimento de tubérculos de três cultivares de batata - Aracy (IAC-2, Itaiquara (IAC-3551 e Teberê (IAC-4489 - criados e selecionados pela Seção de Raízes e Tubérculos do Instituto Agronômico, no ano agrícola 1982/83, em plantio "das águas" (novembro-janeiro. Os resultados obtidos são referentes às amostragens realizadas aos 64, 79 e 111 dias após o plantio (DAP, e mostraram que o cultivar Aracy acumulou maior quantidade de matéria seca, proteínas, cinzas, polissacarídeos totais e açúcares solúveis por tubérculo.In the rain season of 1982-1983 (November-January, it was studied the dynamics of accumulation of reserve substances and total glycoalkaloids in growing tubers of the Brazilian potato cultivars Aracy (IAC-2, Itaiquara (IAC-355 1 and Teberê (IAC-4489. Data are related to three sampling dates, 64, 79 and 111 days after planting (DAP. Tubers of Aracy (IAC-2 had the highest dry matter, protein, ash, total polisacharides and soluble e sugar contenta.

  2. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  3. Symptom expression of Potato virus Y across all market classes of U.S. potato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) can cause a range of foliar and tuber symptoms that can lead to reduced yield and quality defects in the daughter tubers. Five strains of PVY were used to inoculate 70 potato varieties in aphid screened greenhouses in Idaho and New York. Three to five isolates per strain were ...

  4. Control of Late Blight of Tomato and Potato by Oilgochitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ho Choi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4-linked D-glucosamine and Nacetyl- D-glucosamine. There have been many reports on the induced systemic resistance and in vivo antifungal activities of higher molecular weight chitosans with molecular weights over 3,000 amu (atomatic mass unit, but there are few papers on in vivo antifungal activities of low molecular weight chitosans (oligochitosans with molecular weights less than 3,000 amu. In our study, an oligochitosan sample (320?3,000 amu showed a potent 1-day protective activity with control values more than 94% at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ?g/ml especially against tomato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans under growth chamber conditions. It also displayed a moderate 1-day protective activity with control values of 67?89% at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ?g/ml against wheat leaf rust and red pepper anthracnose. On the other hand, it showed a 16-hr curative activity against red pepper anthracnose, but not against tomato late blight and wheat leaf rust. In field experiments, oligochitosan effectively suppressed the development of late blight on potato and tomato plants with control values of 72% and 48%, respectively. The results strongly indicate that oligochitosan can be used as an eco-friendly organic material for the control of late blight on tomato and potato plants.

  5. Weed Control with Cover Crops in Irrigated Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Mehring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments at Oakes, ND, USA in 2010 and Carrington, ND, USA in 2011 were conducted to evaluate the potential for cover crops grown in the Northern Great Plains, USA in order to reduce weed emergence and density in irrigated potatoes. Treatments included five cover crop treatments and three cover crop termination treatments. Termination of cover crops was done with glyphosate, disk-till, and roto-till. Cover crop biomass accumulation was greatest for rye/canola and triticale at Oakes, and hairy vetch and hairy vetch/rye at Carrington. Cover crop and termination affected weed control 14, 29, and 51 days after planting (DAP at Oakes. Weed control at Carrington was at least 90% for all cover crop and termination treatments at all three evaluation timings. Marketable yield at Oakes was greater when roto-till was used to terminate the cover crops compared with disk-till or herbicide, which is beneficial for organic systems where herbicides are not used. Marketable yield at Carrington was not affected by cover crop or termination treatments. Results suggest that cover crops can successfully be integrated into irrigated potato production for weed control with yields equal to no cover crop, and with attention to potential mechanical difficulties.

  6. Interaction proteins of invertase and invertase inhibitor in cold-stored potato tubers suggested a protein complex underlying post-translational regulation of invertase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Huiling; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2013-12-01

    The activity of vacuolar invertase (VI) is vital to potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS). A post-translational regulation of VI activity has been proposed which involves invertase inhibitor (VIH), but the mechanism for the interaction between VI and VIH has not been fully understood. To identify the potential partners of VI and VIH, two cDNA libraries were respectively constructed from CIS-resistant wild potato species Solanum berthaultii and CIS-sensitive potato cultivar AC035-01 for the yeast two-hybrid analysis. The StvacINV1 (one of the potato VIs) and StInvInh2B (one of the potato VIHs), previously identified to be associated with potato CIS, were used as baits to screen the two libraries. Through positive selection and sequencing, 27 potential target proteins of StvacINV1 and eight of StInvInh2B were clarified. The Kunitz-type protein inhibitors were captured by StvacINV1 in both libraries and the interaction between them was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco cells, reinforcing a fundamental interaction between VI and VIH. Notably, a sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 was captured by both the baits, suggesting that a protein complex could be necessary for fine turning of the invertase activity. The target proteins clarified in present research provide a route to elucidate the mechanism by which the VI activity can be subtly modulated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of pesticides used potatoes control on the growth of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from potatoes fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Metarhizium anisopliae, M.flavoviridae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus was estimated on Sabouraud's medium to which insecticides and herbicides were added in three doses: A - 10 times higher from recommended field dose, B - as recommended field dose, C - 10 timer lower than recommended. Fungicides were used in B and C doses as well as in dose D - 100 times lower than recomended one. The fungi were obtained from soil under potatoes using Galleria mellonella as bait insect. Chlorothalonil and copper oxychloride were chosen from fungicides, linuron, MCPA, fluazifop-P-butyl and dikwat - from herbicides and deltamethrin, teflubenzuron and fozalon from insecticides. The growth of both species of Metarhizium was stronger inhibited than of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus by fungicides however colonies of Metarhizium always overpassed 50% controls colonies apart from M. flavoviridae on medium with copper oxychloride at concentration B. Herbicide linuron was more toxic to fungi than fungicides. M. anisopliae and M. fluvoviridae did not grow on medium containing dose A and dose B this herbicide but the colonies of P. fumosoroseus at dose B did not overpass 20% of controlled ones. MCPA and fluazifop-P-butyl inhibited fungal colonies in approximated way. On the medium with these herbicides in concentration A fungal colonies were strongly inhibited and the growth of fungi on medium with MCPA at this concentration appeared not before 5 days after inoculation. Dikwat in dose A strongly inhibited the growth of M. anisopliae but in remaining combinations growth of fungal colonies was similar to controlled ones. Fozalon, among insecticides, inhibited the growth of inwestigated fungi strongest. On the medium containing this insecticide in dose A all fungi did not grow, and in dose B colonies of both species of Metarhizium did not overpass 40% of controlled ones. Deltamethrin in dose A and B inhibited the growth of M. anisopliae and M. flavoviridae, but

  8. Filocrono em batateira afetado pelo tamanho do tubérculo-semente e pela época de cultivo Phyllocrono in potato affected by tuber-seed size and growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o filocrono de plantas de batata da cultivar Asterix oriundas de diferentes tamanhos de tubérculos-semente, em duas épocas de cultivo em campo utilizando o conceito de graus-dia para o cálculo do filocrono. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Santa Maria (RS, na primavera de 2003 e no outono de 2004. Foram usados quatro tamanhos de tubérculos-semente da cultivar de batata Asterix: entre 2 e 4 cm, 4 e 6 cm, 6 e 8 cm e 8 e 10 cm. O filocrono (ºC dia folha-1 foi estimado pelo inverso do coeficiente angular da relação entre número de folhas na haste principal e a soma térmica calculada por três métodos: método 1 - considera apenas a temperatura base; método 2 - considera a temperatura base e a temperatura ótima, e método 3 - considera a temperatura base, a temperatura ótima e a temperatura máxima. O tamanho do tubérculo-semente não afetou o filocrono, mas o método de cálculo da soma térmica e a época de cultivo afetaram o filocrono da batateira cultivar Asterix. No método de cálculo da soma térmica a ser usado no filocrono da batateira cultivar Asterix, recomenda-se usar a temperatura base e a temperatura ótima, pois com este método, o filocrono foi similar entre as épocas de cultivo.The objective of this study was to estimate the phyllochron of the potato cultivar Asterix in plants derived from different tuber seed sizes in two field growing seasons using the concept of degrees-days for calculating the phyllochron. The experiment was conducted in Santa Maria, RS, during Spring 2003 and Fall 2004. Four classes of tuber-seed diameter of the potato cultivar Asterix were used: 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-8 cm and 8-10 cm. The phyllochron was estimated as the inverse of the slope of the linear regression of main stem leaves number against the thermal time calculated with three methods: method 1 - considering only the base temperature, method 2 - considering the base temperature and the optimum

  9. Efficacies of quorum sensing inhibitors, piericidin A and glucopiericidin A, produced by Streptomyces xanthocidicus KPP01532 for the control of potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Eun; Han, Jae Woo; Jeon, Byeong Jun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2016-03-01

    To discover potential inhibitors of the quorum sensing (QS) system, a library of microbial culture extracts was screened with Chromobacterium violaceumCV026 strain. The culture extract of Streptomyces xanthocidicus KPP01532 contained quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs) of the CV026 strain. The active constituents of the culture extract of strain KPP01532 were purified using a series of chromatographic procedures, and based on data from NMR and mass spectroscopy, piericidin A and glucopiericidin A were identified. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) is a plant pathogen that causes blackleg and soft rot diseases on potato stems and tubers. The virulence factors of Eca are regulated by QS. The expression of virulence genes (pelC, pehA, celV and nip) under the control of QS was monitored using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The transcription levels of the four genes were significantly lower when Eca was exposed to piericidin A or glucopiericidin A. These two compounds displayed similar control efficacies against soft rot caused by Eca in potato slices as furanone C-30. Therefore, piericidin A and glucopiericidin A are potential QSIs that suppress the expression of the virulence genes of Eca, suggesting that they could have potential use as control agents of soft rot disease on potato tubers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Biopolymer films to control fusarium dry rot and their application to preserve potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Films were cast using sodium alginate (NaAlg), high molecular weight (HMW) chitosan, and low molecular weight (LMW) chitosan as film forming biopolymers. Fludioxonil (Fl) at 1% concentration was used as fungicide. Thermal stability, mechanical, and water sorption properties of the films were examine...

  11. Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Jawdat, D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg -1 . Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author)

  12. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  13. Analysing potato late blight control as a social-ecological system using fuzzy cognitive mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, Francine C.A.; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Schaap, Ben F.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the main diseases in potato production, causing major losses in yield. Applying environmentally harmful fungicides is the prevailing and classical method for controlling late blight, thus contaminating food and water. There is

  14. Formation of trichothecenes by Fusarium solani var. coeruleum and Fusarium sambucinum in potatoes.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Banna, A A; Scott, P M; Lau, P Y; Sakuma, T; Platt, H W; Campbell, V

    1984-01-01

    Fusarium solani var. coeruleum can form deoxynivalenol in potato tubers and in liquid medium, although concentrations observed in the rot were highly variable; acetyldeoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin were detected in 1 to 3 tubers only (of 57). Trichothecenes were also detected in a very few (3 of 20) cultures of Fusarium sambucinum in potato tubers.

  15. Potato seed dressing with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 enhances yield and reduces black scurf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A rhizospheric strain RZ9 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed for in-vitro growth inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani and effectiveness to control black scurf on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. of the cultivars Spunta and Nicola, in greenhouse and field experiments. The strain RZ9 inhibited R. solani mycelial growth by more than 60% and completely inhibited the germination of sclerotia from infested potato tubers in in-vitro tests. In greenhouse assays, seed potato treatment with RZ9 cell suspension increased stem length, decreased the relative weight of infected potato tubers (by 67%, and increased the potato yield (by 16% compared to pathogen-inoculated plants for both potato cultivars. In field trials conducted on sandy soils during 2012 and 2013, strain RZ9 reduced black scurf incidence and increased potato yield by an average of 5.3 t ha-1 for ′Spunta′ and 5 t ha-1 for ′Nicola′. This study showed that the selected strain of P. aeruginosa is an efficient bacterium for enhancing yield and reducing black scurf of field-grown potatoes.

  16. Significance of tuber size for complications of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Hernández-Moneo, J L; Pascual-Pascual, S I; Viaño, J; Gutiérrez-Molina, M; Velazquez-Fragua, R; Quiñones Tapia, D; Morales Bastos, C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is one of the most frequent neurocutaneous disorders. Cortical tubers are the most common pathological changes in TSC and they are directly related to the disease's main clinical manifestations: seizures, mental retardation, and autistic behaviour. The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between tuber size and the severity of clinical features in TSC. We performed a retrospective study of the clinical and imaging findings from 45 TSC patients (22 females and 23 males) and compared the clinical features with the location, size, and number of the cortical tubers in each patient. Four patients had voluminous tubers located in 1 or both cerebral hemispheres. All of these patients had intractable seizures and severe mental retardation; 3 of these cases also presented with autistic behaviour, despite tubers having been resected in all 4 patients. Thirteen patients had tubers of large-to-average size, and all patients in this group showed intractable seizures and mental retardation. Nine patients who had experienced infantile spasms during the first year of life presented autistic behaviour. Multiple tubers of small to average size were found in 28 patients. In general, this group had seizures that responded well to antiepileptic drugs and a low prevalence of autism. In 3 patients who all presented good seizure control and normal intelligence, single cortical/subcortical tubers were located in the frontal or occipital lobes. Of the total of 45 patients, 13 had cerebellar as well as cerebral tubers; these were generally present in cases with more severe clinical features. Although large tubers are less common than small to medium-sized ones, they are much more likely to be accompanied by severe clinical symptoms (seizures, mental retardation and autistic behaviour), even when the smaller tubers are quite numerous. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Esclerosis tuberosa Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations Child Neurology ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Esclerosis tuberosa Order NINDS Publications Definition Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) ...

  18. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  19. Mapping genetic factors controlling potato - cyst nematode interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The thesis describes strategies for genetic mapping of the genomes of the potato cyst nematode and potato. Mapping in cyst nematodes was achieved by AFLP genotyping of single cysts and subsequent segregation analysis in a family of sibling populations. The genetic map of Globodera

  20. Strategies to control late blight in potatoes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Evenhuis, A.; Spits, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe an aggressive genetically diverse population of potato late blight is present which regularly causes problems in all potato growing regions. It is therefore of the utmost importance that blight is managed in an integrated way by combining a range of measures. Hygiene measures can keep the

  1. Adaptability Evaluation of 104 Potato Hybrids in Ardabil and Alborz Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Hassanpanah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess potato hybrids for their promising agronomic, and marketability traits and their adaptability to climatic conditions of potato production areas in country. Some 104 potato hybrids selected during five years (2010-2014 along with Savalan, Ceaser, Agria and Khavaran cultivars, as controls, were compared in an augment design (preliminary experiment without replications both at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station of Ardabil and Seed and Plant Institute Improvement of Karaj. These hybrids (104, tested in this experiment, were from 8 breeding populations. One half of the hybrids (52 in Ardabil and the other half (52 in Karaj (a total of 104 hybrids each were planted in the 4 blocks and each block consisted of 13 hybrids with four control (Agria, Khavaran, Ceaser and Savalan cultivars. During growing period and after harvest the traits like: plant height, main stem number per plant, main stem diameter, tuber number and weight per plant, marketable tuber yield and tuber dry matter percent were measured. Then 81 hybrids were selected as superior hybrids as to their marketable tuber yield and tuber dry matter content. Hybrids selected consisted of 17 hybrids from ♂ Satina × ♀ Luca population, 36 hybrids from ♂ Ceaser × ♀ Luca population, 14 hybrids from ♂ Savalan × ♀ Luca population, 7 hybrids from ♂ Savalan × ♀ Ceaser population, 4 hybrids from ♂ Ceaser × ♀ Savalan population, 1 hybrids from ♂ Satina × ♀ Savalan population and 2 hybrids from ♂ Satina × ♀ Savalan population. Cluster analysis divided 104 hybrids and cultivars into three groups. The first group with 49 hybrids had higher average tuber number per plant, marketable tuber yield and tuber dry matter percent than the remaining hybrids. In factor analysis, three independent factor total explained 73.90% of the variations. These were named as, 1- tuber yield and its components factor (marketable tuber yield

  2. Tuber resistance and slow rotting characteristics of potato clones associated with the Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project to the US-24 clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease on potato worldwide and new lineages of the pathogen continue to develop in the U.S. Breeding for resistance is important for economic and environmental purposes. The Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project (SolCAP) focuses ...

  3. Foliar application of chlorocholine chloride improves leaf mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huigun; Xiao, Langtao; Tong, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    activity. Results showed that 1.5 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in potato leaves. These treatments also increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves. A positive linear relationship...

  4. Breeding and development of Globodera-resistant potato varieties with long tuber shape and russet skin for production in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis, and G. pallida,) have been identified in the U.S. and are under quarantine regulations, with a third newly identified species (G. ellingtonae) not categorized as a quarantined pest. Management of G. rostochiensis in the state of New York...

  5. O uso de substâncias inibidoras da brotação de tubérculos de batatinha Use op sprouting inhibiting substances on potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservação de tubérculos de batatinha para o consumo vem preocupando os pesquisadores em diferentes países, por se tratar de um produto fácilmente perecível. Além dos trabalhos sôbre frigorificação, já bem conhecidos, iniciou-se o emprêgo de substâncias químicas inibidoras da brotação e que impedem as podridões causadas por Fusarium. Dentre essas drogas sobressairam-se o éster metílico do ácido alfanaftaleno acético e o tetracloronitrobenzeno. Os resultados alcançados, embora contraditórios em alguns pontos, vieram demonstrar a viabilidade do seu uso, principalmente em países onde o inverno é rigoroso. Das experiências e observações feitas no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas a partir de 1946, chegou-se à conclusão que as referidas drogas somente trouxeram bons resultados quando os tubérculos tratados foram conservados a baixa temperatura (4°C. Por outro lado, as batatinhas armazenadas a essa temperatura tornaram-se adocicadas e de má aceitação pelos consumidores, devido à formação de açúcares. Mantendo-se as temperaturas entre 18 e 26°C não houve, na maioria dos casos, influência nítida das drogas sôbre a redução da brotação, constatando--se, ao contrário, um aumento na porcentagem de tubérculos deteriorados devido à podridão mole causada por bactérias.Storage of Irish potato tubers under 3 to 5° C, with air moisture remaining between 70 and 90%, affords good results in preventing sprouting of the tubers. As this treatment enables sugar formation in the tubers, the latter should not be used for consumption due to their unpalatability. At temperatures above 8°C sprouting occurs with loss of weight and other disadvantages. In the experiments herein reported two hormonlike substances were used to prevent sprouting under different temperatures. The chemical used were the methyl ester of alphanaphtaleneacetic acid (MENA and 2, 3, 5, 6 tetrachloronitrobenzene (TCNB mixed with talc. Under room

  6. Botanicals and Phosphonate Show Potential to Replace Copper for Control of Potato Late Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rudolf Forrer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potato late blight (PLB caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising botanicals, including bark of buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA, roots of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum palmatum and galls of the nutgall tree (Galla chinensis, were tested in multi-year field experiments. The current study shows for the first time that botanicals could replace copper under field conditions and best PLB reduction on leaves was achieved with FA, reaching a level close to that of 2 to 3 kg copper per hectare and year. Better results than with copper were achieved with Phosfik® (Ph, a phosphonate-based product. For both FA and Ph, the mode of action is based on induced resistance, for Ph also on direct fungicidal effects. A disadvantage of Ph is the accumulation of residues in potato tubers. Nevertheless, two to three applications with 2 to 3 L/ha of Ph would be feasible to not exceed a minimal risk level (MLR of 20 mg/kg of phosphorous acid as proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Due to an excellent environmental profile and a complex mode of action counteracting Pi resistance, phosphonate-based products would be most suitable for sustainable PLB management in integrated pest management (IPM programmes.

  7. Selection and hydroponic growth of potato cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molders, K.; Quinet, M.; Decat, J.; Secco, B.; Dulière, E.; Pieters, S.; van der Kooij, T.; Lutts, S.; Van Der Straeten, D.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, Ghent University and the Université catholique de Louvain investigated the suitability, growth and development of four potato cultivars in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions with the aim to incorporate such cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Potato plants can fulfill three major functions in an ECLSS in space missions: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of tubers for human nutrition and (c) production of clean water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four cultivars (Annabelle, Bintje, Desiree and Innovator) were selected and grown hydroponically in nutrient film technique (NFT) gullies in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. The plant growth parameters, tuber harvest parameters and results of tuber nutritional analysis of the four cultivars were compared. The four potato cultivars grew well and all produced tubers. The growth period lasted 127 days for all cultivars except for Desiree which needed 145 days. Annabelle (1.45 kg/m2) and Bintje (1.355 kg/m2) were the best performing of the four cultivars. They also produced two times more tubers than Desiree and Innovator. Innovator produced the biggest tubers (20.95 g/tuber) and Desiree the smallest (7.67 g/tuber). The size of Annabelle and Bintje potatoes were intermediate. Bintje plants produced the highest total biomass in term of DW. The highest non-edible biomass was produced by Desiree, which showed both the highest shoot and root DW. The manual length and width measurements were also used to predict the total tuber mass. The energy values of the tubers remained in the range of the 2010 USDA and Souci-Fachmann-Kraut food composition databases. The amount of Ca determined was slightly reduced compared to the USDA value, but close to the Souci-Fachmann-Kraut value. The concentration of Cu, Zn and P were high compared to both databases

  8. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  9. Detection of latent infection by Ralstonia solanacearum in potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... solanacearum in potato tuber seed certification schemes more so in screening for presence of R. solanacearum in seed ... Bacterial wilt is, after late blight, the most important ... with respect to tuber-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and those ... The potato crop was preceded by maize. Bacterial wilt ...

  10. Preservation of potatoes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khattak, Y.I.; Khan, R.

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes (Varieties: Cardinal and Patrones) were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 kGy in Co-60 irradiator and stored at 20 degree centigrade for a period of 4 months. There was 5 and 3 percent rotting in control and 9 and 5 percent rotting in irradiated tubers in Cardinal and Patrones respectively at the end of 4 months storage period. The sprouting percentage at the end of 4 months was 51 and 59 in unirradiated tubers in Cardinal and Patrones varieties whereas no sprouting was observed in the irradiated potatoes in both the varieties. The weight loss was more (8.3 and 6.6%) in the control than the irradiated tubers (6.7 and 5.7%) in Cardinal and Patrones varieties at the end of 4 months storage period. Effect of radiation and storage was significant on ascorbic acid but negligible on sugars. Sensory quality was improved as a result of radiation treatment. The cost economics for food irradiation based on a source strength of 59 kCi was Rs. 290 per tone

  11. Utilization of radiations in mutation breeding of tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, H.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the tuber crops are vegetatively propagated and their spontaneous mutations have been constructively utilized to practical farming. Significance of utilization of mutations to breeding should not be overlooked, since mutation can be articially induced by various mutagenic agents. In tuber crops, ionizing radiations are mostly applied to induce mutations. Radiosensitivity varies with species, genotypes and organs. For the purpose of mutation induction, 10-20 kR of gamma-rays is given to tubers and/or shoots in sweet potato and 2-10 kR in potato. It should be noted that radiation damage is more or less transmissible to later vegetative generations. A useful characters in practical agriculture, following mutations have been obtained so far: skin colour, short stemmed, changes in dry matter content, total sugars content and tuber yield, earlier maturity and sculf resistance in sweet potato. And, skin colour, changes in starch content and stolon length, day-neutral tuberization and cyst-nematode resistance in potato. Apart from mutations, radiation can be utilized for breaking down the incompatibility in sweet potato. Promising mutant clones with probable release in Japan are Kyushu 78 of sweet potato and Koniku 16 and Konkei 55 of potato. (author)

  12. The Effect of Different Storage Temperatures on the Agronomic Characteristics and Yield of Two Varieties of Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H Jalali

    2016-10-01

    , one treatment of 80 degree-day (T5, and control treatment (T6 on agronomic characteristics and yield of Marfona and Ramus cultivars was investigated by using a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Kabootar Abad Agriculture Research Center of Isfahan. Period of 10 days and 12 ° C were found in all treatments. For example, in the treatment of T3, the tissue repair process that is carried out for 10 days at 12 ° C to 80 GDD is received by the tubers (8 × 10, 8 for the reason that, 4 ° C is base temperature and should be minus of 12. Salable and non-salable yield, number of stems produced, emergence rate, the number of tubers per plant, tubers weight and the tubers size were measured in this study. Results and Discussion The results of this study showed that the effect of temperature treatment and the interaction of temperature treatment and cultivar on yield and yield components were considered statistically significant. Marfona cultivar and use of T3 treatment with 51733 kg ha-1 had the highest tuber yield. However, there was not significant difference between this treatment and use of T2 treatment, and also using of Ramus cultivar and T3 and T4 temperature storage. For both cultivars used in this study, T3 treatment produced maximum number of stems per plant. Harvest index was fluctuated at different temperature treatments from 63.5 to 76.1 percent in the Ramos cultivar, and from 64 to 79.6 percent in Marfona cultivar. In summary, management of storage temperature can increase potato crop yields, especially in areas with short growing seasons. It seems that effects of physiological age differ between cultivars and different varieties of potatoes have different abilities to produce tuber yields in response to different heat treatments. Increasing of total tuber yield, especially as affected by thermal temperature storage application higher than 500 GDD was reported in some studies such as Knowles and Botar (1992 in

  13. Interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Helen; Gray, Simon N; Crump, David H

    2003-01-01

    The efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (PCN) as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) regime were studied. The compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium bilaii and Trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. Paecilomyces lilacinus was the most successful competitor when the ability to grow and inhibit growth of an opposing colony at both 10 and 20 degrees C was considered. P. lilacinus also showed potential for control of the soil-borne fungal pathogen R. solani, releasing a diffusable substance in vitro which inhibited its growth and caused morphological abnormalities in its hyphae. Pochonia chlamydosporia was least susceptible to growth inhibition by other fungi at 20 degrees in vitro, but the isolate tested did not grow at 10 degrees. Plectosphaerella cucumerina was a poor saprophytic competitor. Radial growth of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Plectosphaerella cucumerina was slowed, but not prevented, when grown on potato dextrose agar incorporating the fungicides fenpiclonil and tolclofos-methyl, and was not inhibited by the addition of pencycuron or the nematicide oxamyl. Radial growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia was partially inhibited by all the chemical pesticides tested. The efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus as a control agent for R. solani was further investigated in situ. Treatment with P. lilacinus significantly reduced the symptoms of Rhizoctonia disease on potato stems in a pot trial. The effectiveness of P. lilacinus and P. cucumerina against PCN was also tested in situ. Three application methods were compared; incorporating the fungi into alginate pellets, Terra-Green inoculated with the fungi and applying conidia directly to the tubers. Both formulations containing P

  14. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  15. Combined effects of CO2 enrichment, changes in diurnal light level and water stress on foliar metabolites of potato plants grown in naturally sunlit controlled environment chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kennebec) were grown in outdoor, naturally sunlit, soil-plant-atmosphere research (SPAR) chambers. Drought treatments were imposed at post-tuber initiation stage to assess water stress effects on leaf metabolites, and interactions with enriched CO2 concentrati...

  16. Potato spindle tuber viroid infection triggers degradation of chloride channel protein CLC-b-like and Ribosomal protein S3a-like mRNAs in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Iyer, Pavithran Sridharan; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-21

    It is well established that viroid derived small RNA (vd-sRNA) induces RNA silencing of endogenous mRNA. However, it remains not clear how exactly viroid infections can lead to severe symptom induction given the fact that fewer vd-sRNAs binding the specific target mRNAs were recovered from the infected plants. To answer this question, the two least expressed (+) and (-) strand vd-sRNAs of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) binding to both the 3' UTR and the coding region of tomato mRNAs were analyzed by infecting tomato plants with two variants of PSTVd. As products of these putative target mRNAs are involved in plant phenotype, the effect of this viroid on these genes were analyzed by infecting tomato plants with two variants of PSTVd. The direct interaction between the vd-sRNAs and putative mRNAs was validated by artificial microRNA experiments in a transient expression system and by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Parallel analysis of RNA ends of viroid infected plants revealed the widespread cleavage of the target mRNAs in locations other than the vd-sRNA binding site during the viroid infection implying the viroid-infection induced vd-sRNA independent degradation of endogenous mRNAs during viroid infection.

  17. Consumptive qualities of different potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Фурдига

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To summarize results of studying consumptive qualities of different varieties of potato and define basic characteristics which allow to subsume them under specific economic categories. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, summarizing, analytical approach. Results. Potato varieties entered in the State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine and new ones especially to be bred at the Institute of Potato Growing of NAAS were studied during the period of 2005–2016 for such basic economic characters as consumptive quality of tubers, content of starch, dry matters, protein, sugar, vitamins, carotenoids and mineral substances as well as aminoacids, color of flesh, suitability for industrial manufacturing of potato products and for purpose of technology. Attention was paid to the good prospects to use varie­ties with purple, blue and red potato tuber flesh with high antioxidant capacity. Potato varieties with above cha­racteristics and their complex combination were defined and described. The requirements of processing industry for potato as a raw material for manufacturing of potato food were given. Conclusions. The major criterion for consumptive qualities of a potato variety and correspondingly division for the commercial use is consumptive quality of tubers, especially content of essential nutrients and their favorable combination, improved taste and cooking quality, high antioxidant capacity, suitability for potato products manufacturing and use for purpose of technology. Potato varieties can be divided for economic purposes into edible, suitable for potato products manufacturing, technical and multipurpose ones.

  18. Ecological Weed Management by Cover Cropping: Effect on Winter Weeds and Summer Weeds Establishment in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaffari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a day winter cover crops planting has been attended to reduce herbicide application. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu- Ali Sina, University, in 2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The trial included of five treatments consists of no cover crop, rye, winter oilseed rape, barley and triticale. The results showed that winter cereals were produced more biomass than winter oilseed rape. living mulch of rye, barley, oilseed rape and triticale reduced winter weeds biomass 89, 86, 82 and 70 percent respectively, in compare to control. Cover crop treatments showed significant different weeds control of potato at 3 time (15, 45 and 75 DAPG compare to control treatment. Residues mixed to soil of oilseed rape and rye had the most inhibition affects on summer weeds. These treatments, average weeds biomass decreased 61 and 57 percent respectively, in compare to control. Oilseed rape and rye in compare to control reduced weeds density in potato 36 and 35 percent, respectively. Significant negation correlations of weeds plant population, weeds dry matter with average tuber weight and potato yield. The treatments, oilseed rape and rye in compare to control increased tuber yield of potato 54 and 50 percent, respectively. These treatments, the average tuber weight increased 74 and 38 percent in compare with control, respectively.

  19. Experience with irradiation of table potatoes in the CSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the years 1976 to 1980 the effect of gamma radiation on potatoes was tested. The following parameters were monitored: weight losses of tubers, sprouting and weight of sprouts, changes in chemical composition of tubers, the development of storage diseases and the interest of consumers in irradiated potatoes. The tests were made on 5 potato species. Irradiation was carried out in three time intervals with 60 Gy, 100 Gy and 150 Gy applied from a source with an activity of 4.07x10 14 Bq. Weight losses were on average higher in irradiated potatoes than in the control group. Positive was the reduced sprouting rate at 100 Gy. No substantial changes were found in chemical composition. The development of storage diseases was found to be more dependent on previous gathering and sorting, in some species it increased after irradiation in others it dropped after the 100 Gy dose. The inquiry failed and the potatoes were sold without the buyers having expressed their views. (J.P.)

  20. Genotype x Environment Interaction for Tuber Yield, Dry Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine stability of tuber yield, dry matter content and specific gravity, and the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction in elite tetraploid potato genotypes. Eleven potato genotypes including two standard checks were evaluated in the eastern part of Ethiopia at ...

  1. The potato-specific apyrase is apoplastically localized and has influence on gene expression, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Apyrases hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates and are found in all eukaryotes and a few prokaryotes. Although their enzymatic properties have been well characterized, relatively little is known regarding their subcellular localization and physiological function in plants. In this study, we used reverse genetic and biochemical approaches to investigate the role of potato (Solanum tuberosum)-specific apyrase. Silencing of the apyrase gene family with RNA interference constructs under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter led to a strong decrease in apyrase activity to below 10% of the wild-type level. This decreased activity led to phenotypic changes in the transgenic lines, including a general retardation in growth, an increase in tuber number per plant, and differences in tuber morphology. Silencing of apyrase under the control of a tuber-specific promoter led to similar changes in tuber morphology; however, there were no direct effects of apyrase inhibition on tuber metabolism. DNA microarrays revealed that decreased expression of apyrase leads to increased levels of transcripts coding for cell wall proteins involved in growth and genes involved in energy transfer and starch synthesis. To place these results in context, we determined the subcellular localization of the potato-specific apyrase. Using a combination of approaches, we were able to demonstrate that this enzyme is localized to the apoplast. We describe the evidence that underlies both this fact and that potato-specific apyrase has a crucial role in regulating growth and development.

  2. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  4. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water......A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... potential, but increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in both leaf and xylem sap. At each salinity level, incorporation of biochar increased shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, An, gs, midday leaf water potential, and decreased ABA concentration in the leaf and xylem sap as compared...

  5. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of yield contributing characters in sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.D.; Rabbani, M.G.; Mollah, M.L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of 30 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) genotypes for yield contributing characters and tuber yield per plant revealed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and GCV, respectively) for number of tubers per plant, average tuber weight and tuber yield per plant. The heritability and genetic advance were higher for tuber yield per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant. These three characters also reflected high heritability as well as high genetic advance. As high positive significant correlation, as well as positive direct effect of average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant on tuber yield per plant were found, these characters should be given prime importance for selecting high yielding sweet potato genotypes. (author)

  6. The potential of soil fungi associated with potato rhizosphere to control root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, E.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, AR; Hasanuddin

    2018-02-01

    The root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of important pathogens on potato crops in North Sumatra, Indonesia. This nematode causes significant crop losses on potatoes directly and indirectly. The effect of fungal isolates (Trichoderma sp. 1, Mucor sp.1, Aspergillus sp. 2, Mucor sp. 2) that were isolated from rhizosphere of potato in North Sumatra were studied in green house experiments on the growth of potato and the reproduction of the nematode (Meloidogyne spp). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. 1 caused a significant gall reduction, while Mucor sp.1 and Mucor sp.2 could improve the growth of potato.

  7. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  8. Common scab and its control in seed-potato crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labruyere, R.E.

    1971-01-01

    In the Netherlands common scab of the potato is usually caused by Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Waksman et Henrici, following Corbaz's description, and rarely by other Streptomyces species. Variation in morphological and other characteristics

  9. Epidemiology and integrated control of Potato Late Blight in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.J.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Hermansen, A.; Bain, R.; Bradshaw, N.; Ritchie, F.; Shaw, D.S.; Evenhuis, A.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Wander, J.G.N.; Andersson, B.; Hansen, J.G.; Hannukkala, A.; Naerstad, R.; Nielsen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is a major threat to potato production in northwestern Europe. Before 1980, the worldwide population of P. infestans outside Mexico appeared to be asexual and to consist of a single clonal lineage of A1 mating type characterized by a single

  10. The effect of lowdose irradiation on the physicochemical changes of potatoes during storage [in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Karim, A.; Langerak, D.I.; Hossain, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Potatoes were irradiated with 0.25,50,75 and 100 Gy and stored at 10°C and 85% R.H. for 180 days to find out a balanced dose for effective sprout inhibition and decreased rottage during storage in Bangladesh. Weight loss, sprouting, rotting, contents of vitamin C and sugar, and organoleptic properties of the stored potatoes were investigated the control tubers and those irradiated with 25 Gy were 100% sprouted within 45 and 135 days of storage respectively. At 50 Gy there was about 14% sprouting and about 7.3% rottage during 180 days of storage whereas at 75 and 100 Gy, sprouting was completely inhibited but the rottage was 10% and 14.7% respectively. Irradiation caused about 15% loss of vitamin C but during storage, the rate of loss of vitamin C was similar between control and irradiated tubers. Immediately after irradiation, potato tubers displayed a transient increase in total sugar content but during storage, the total sugar content of the irradiated potatoes decreased as compared to the control

  11. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  12. Derivation of Mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Deficient in Export of Pectolytic Enzymes with Potential for Biological Control of Potato Soft Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José M.; Loper, Joyce E.

    1994-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Ecb168 produces an antibiotic(s) that suppresses growth of the related bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture and in wounds of potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 also produces and secretes pectolytic enzymes and causes a vascular necrosis and root rot of sugar beet. Genes (out) involved in secretion of pectolytic enzymes by Ecb168 were localized to two HindIII fragments (8.5 and 10.5 kb) of Ecb168 genomic DNA by hybridization to the cloned out region of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and by complementation of Out- mutants of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. Out- mutants of Ecb168, which did not secrete pectate lyase into the culture medium, were obtained when deletions internal to either HindIII fragment were introduced into the genome of Ecb168 through marker exchange mutagenesis. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were complemented to the Out+ phenotype by introduction of the corresponding cloned HindIII fragment. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were less virulent than the Out+ parental strain on potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives inhibited the growth of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture, indicating that the uncharacterized antibiotic(s) responsible for antagonism was exported through an out-independent mechanism. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives reduced the establishment of large populations of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in wounds of potato tubers and suppressed tuber soft rot caused by E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. PMID:16349316

  13. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation of five pre-emergence herbicides for volunteer potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volunteer potatoes can cause significant weed problems in crops following potatoes as large numbers of potato tubers remain behind in the field after mechanical harvesting. These volunteer plants can create havoc with rotation programs and serve as a source of pests and diseases. The aim of this project was to identify a ...

  15. Optimal control of indoor climate in agricultural storage facilities for potatoes and onions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Maldegem, van J.; Dierkes, E.; Voort, van der A.J.; Kramer-Cuppen, de J.E.; Kolk, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the use of receding horizon optimal control (RHOC) for optimal climate control in storage facilities for potatoes and onions. RHOC is used on a supervisory level above the classical feedback climate controller. Some theoretical issues on RHOC are discussed, amongst which a

  16. Weed Control with Cover Crops in Irrigated Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    G.H. Mehring; J.E. Stenger; H.M. Hatterman-Valenti

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments at Oakes, ND, USA in 2010 and Carrington, ND, USA in 2011 were conducted to evaluate the potential for cover crops grown in the Northern Great Plains, USA in order to reduce weed emergence and density in irrigated potatoes. Treatments included five cover crop treatments and three cover crop termination treatments. Termination of cover crops was done with glyphosate, disk-till, and roto-till. Cover crop biomass accumulation was greatest for rye/canola and triticale at Oakes, ...

  17. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on the growth and metabolism in vitro culture of potato parenchyma; Influencia de la radiacion gamma sobre el desarrollo y metabolismo del parenquina amilifero de patata cultado in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J; Monzon Matanzo, M P

    1977-07-01

    The present work studies the growth in vitro of the parenchyma tissues coming from control and irradiated potato tubers with doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. At the end of a four months cultivation period the cellular proliferation, respiratory activity, content in ascorbic acid, conductivity and ph was studied. Some differences between control and irradiated tissues were observed. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. Detection and eradication of Spongospora subterranea in mini-tuber production tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie E. van der Waals

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Powdery scab, a root and tuber disease caused by the pathogen Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea (Sss, poses a major problem to potato producers worldwide because it affects potato quality. Inoculum can be seed-borne or originate from contaminated growing media or contaminated equipment. During 2006, a potato mini-tuber production facility in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa had an outbreak of powdery scab. The purpose of this study was to detect Sss in the production facility and identify the source or sources of contamination so that corrective measures could be taken to eradicate the pathogen. Swab samples were taken from numerous points in the facility in 2009 and Sss-specific primers (Sps1 and Sps2 were used in a polymerase chain reaction to detect Sss. Of 11 surfaces tested, 6 were positive for Sss. A second set of swab samples was taken after efforts were made to eradicate the pathogen through improved facility hygiene measures to determine whether these corrective measures were efficient. Corrective measures resulted in a disease-free harvest from 2009 onwards. This novel study has value for the mini-tuber industry as production tunnels can be tested for the presence of Sss and other pathogens before planting to ensure that, where suitable control measures are available, disease-free mini-tubers are produced.

  20. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Sugiyama, Junnichi; Otobe, Kazuki; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1993-01-01

    The impedance ratio at 5kHz to 50kHz (Z 6K /Z 50K ) determined at 22degC at an apical region of potato tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radian treatment. Irradiated potatoes of 10 cultivars could be detected with this method, and potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at Shihoro could be distinguished from unirradiated 'Danshaku'. (author)

  1. Effect of low-temperature storage, gamma irradiation and iso-propyl-N-(3-chlorophenyl carbamate) treatment on the processing quality of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.S.; Chen, R.Y.; Tsai, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    In Taiwan commercial storage of potatoes (CV Kennebec, Wu-Foon, Cardinal) at 2°C. 85% RH, can supply the fresh market all year round. However, reducing sugar and total sugar which accumulate in the tubers will reduce the processing quality of potatoes. Reconditioning of tubers from cold stores was undertaken at ambient temperature (20°C) for up to 6 weeks. The optimum temperature for Kennebec and Cardinal reconditioning ranged from 20 to 25°C. However, after storage at 2°C for a long period, the sugar content of potato tubers cannot be reduced to a satisfactory level. When newly harvested potatoes were pretreated with CIPC (300–500 μg litre −1 ) and stored at 10°C, 80 % RH, sprouting was inhibited effectively. The quality of potatoes was retained well and reducing sugar remained at a low level for up to 8 months. MENA was found to be ineffective. Gamma irradiation of potatoes at 0.175-0 20·0-10–0.125 and 0.125 kGy for Cardinal, Kennebec and Wu-Foon respectively was found to be effective in controlling the sprouting of tubers stored at 10°C, 80 % RH, for 9 months. A rapid increase in sugar content was found in irradiated Cardinal and Wu-Foon after storage for 7 months, while the reducing sugar in irradiated Kennebec was still below 0°2 % after 8 month's storage. Gamma irradiation had no adverse effect on the ascorbic acid content, and higher firmness retention was obtained in irradiated tubers throughout storage at 10°C

  2. Detection of Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV), Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Virus X (PVX) on Five Potato Varieties by Using of DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik

    2012-01-01

    Potato is a staple food crop that widely grown around the world. Virus infection is main factor that affects great loss of the potato production. Potato virus X(PVX), potato virus Y(PVY),and potato leaf roll virus(PLRV) are top three viruses that result in decreased yield of potato in Indonesia. Therefore, the rapid methods of DAS-ELISA was studied to test tuber samples of five potato varieties, Granola, Atlantik, Raja, Super John, Kalosi, and Masalle. Two simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable...

  3. Using Gamma Irradiation To Induce New Mutants In Potatoes Cv. Diamant Through Tissue Culture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.; Ali, Amina A. M.; Ahmed, F. A.; Afifi, Abd El-Moneim M.

    2004-01-01

    The excess salt, usually NaCl, inhibits potato plant growth and decreases tubers yield. The use of gamma irradiation to induce new mutants in potato cv. Diamant through tissue culture technique was the main task of this study. Sterilized meristemic tips of potato tubers were cultured on aseptic solid MS-medium, pH 5.7, and were incubated at 20 ± 2 d eg C and 16 hrs day length of 3000-Lux light intensity, to produce virus-free plantlets. Micro-propagation started after 6-8 weeks and plantlets were sub-cultured every 3-4 weeks to increase plantlets population. Plantlets were exposed to 0, or 40 Gy, dose rate 27.7 rad / sec., using Co 60 source at the National Center for Research and Radiation Technology, Cairo, Egypt. Irradiated and unirradiated plantlets were transplanted into 60 ml liquid 1/2MS-medium, pH 5.7, and supplemented with 0, 2000 or 4000 ppm NaCl. And, they were incubated for 2 weeks under the same conditions of temperature and light till the new plantlets were grown up. Healthy plantlets were selected, and micro-propagated up to the sixth vegetative generation (M 1 V 6 ), under the same conditions of salinity and incubation conditions Thereafter, the plantlets were transferred to tuberization liquid 1/2MS-medium, supplemented with the same mentioned concentrations of NaCl, to obtain microtubers. The microtubers were collected after 6-8 weeks and preserved at 10 deg C for 3 months approximately, to break the dormancy. Sprouted microtubers were sown to obtain minitubers, and subsequently macrotubers. All cultures were performed in 30-cm pots in a protected greenhouse, and were irrigated with the same concentrations of NaCl. It could be elicited that cv. Diamant is salinity sensitive. This was evidenced by the decrease in the average number of tubers per plant and average fresh weight of tuber under salinity stress up 4000 ppm NaCl, comparing to unsaline control treatment. Potato plants, which still healthy and produced tubers under salinity stress up to

  4. Effects of commercial organic fertilizers on the yield and yield structure of potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work has dealt with investigations of two type commercial organic fertilizers (DCM ECO-MIX 4 NPK 7:7:10 i GUANITO NPK 6:15:3 effects on the yield and yield structure of three potato cultivars (Cleopatra, Carrera and Sylvana. The control variant was used in plots without the use of organic fertilizers. The field experiment was performed in 2012. in a populated area Dobrica (N 45° 13’, E 20° 51’, 78 m.s.l. at the experimental farm plot Belča on which is certified organic production, on anthropogenic soil subtype chernozem on carbonate terrace. The results of research showed that the lowest tuber yield was determined in the control treatment (20,87 t ha-1, while the highest yield was achieved with a commercial organic fertilizer DCM ECO-MIX 4 (23,96 t ha-1. Number of tubers per plant corresponded to the characteristics of the studied cultivars. The largest number of tubers per plant was correlated with yield. Specifically, individual variants of the two greatest yields had the highest average number of tubers per plant. Cultivar Cleopatra of variant with GUANITO achieved 17,51 tubers per plant, while cultivar Sylvana of variant with DCM ECO-MIX 4 achieved 17,38 tubers per plant.

  5. Effect of Different Plastic mulch on Growth and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khosro parvizi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The advantages of plastic mulches have been known in production of agricultural crops. Their capability have been demonstrated to help nutrition uptake, precocity and yield of fruit trees, and decreasing of aphid population as viruses pest vectors. It is also demonstrated some advantages of plastic mulch on some traits in potato such as increasing growth rate, yield and number of medium tuber size. Also, the effects of combined use of straw, chopped and polyethylene as well as different levels of irrigation (60, 80, 100, 120% water requirement on yield and water use efficiency in potato have been investigated. In previous studies, it is concentrated on the effect of the special type of plastic on growing aspect of potato and there is no comparative assessment between different types of the mulches. So that in this research we evaluated the responses between types of plastic mulches. Material and Methods: this research was conducted under field conditions. A factorial experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments consisted of mulch in five levels (clear, white, black, double layer and control (without mulch and two cultivars (Agria and Sante. Each plot was designed in 4 m2. For every plot, ridges were divided into complicated double rows with 50 × 150 centimeters wide. Irrigation tapes were placed between every duplicated row. Water requirement was calculated through corrected evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith equation with considering 90% water use efficiency. During the growing season some characteristics such as requirement time to 80% emergence, tuberization time, plant height in flowering time, number of stems and leaf area have been measured. Harvesting time was recorded along with measurement of tuber weights. Total yield was measured by random selection of one m2 in each plot. Harvested tubers were separated based on three sizes; edible tuber

  6. Process for producing vegetative and tuber growth regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W. (Inventor); Yorio, Neil C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process of making a vegetative and tuber growth regulator. The vegetative and tuber growth regulator is made by growing potato plants in a recirculating hydroponic system for a sufficient time to produce the growth regulator. Also, the use of the vegetative and growth regulator on solanaceous plants, tuber forming plants and ornamental seedlings by contacting the roots or shoots of the plant with a sufficient amount of the growth regulator to regulate the growth of the plant and one more of canopy size, plant height, stem length, internode number and presence of tubers in fresh mass. Finally, a method for regulating the growth of potato plants using a recirculating hydroponic system is described.

  7. biotechnological studies on the irradiated potato (solanum tuberosum) with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial wilt or brown rot disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes extensive annual losses of different crops especially potato crop. It is considered as one of the limiting factors for potato production and exportation in Egypt. Therefore, the main purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma rays on two potato cultivars (Diamant and Spunta). And, to obtain new genotypes of potato resistant to bacterial wilt disease. This study was carried out in the field and Biotechnology laboratory of the Plant Res. Dept., Nuclear Res. Center, Inshas, Egypt and Genetics Dept., Faculty of Agricultural., Cairo Univ., during 2008-2011. In the field experiment, dry tubers of potato cultivars were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays (20, 30 and 40 Gy) to study the effect of gamma rays on the vegetative and yield traits. The results showed that there are no significant differences between cultivars for all studied traits except a number of tubers per plant trait. Also, there are only highly significant and significant differences between treatments for weight of tubers per plant and number of tubers per plant traits, respectively. However, there are only significant differences between the interactions of cultivars and treatments for plant height and weight of tubers per plant traits. Six genotypes were selected from M 1 V 2 generation depending on high yield for RAPD analysis to determine their genetic variability from its parents at molecular level using 11 primers. The results of RAPD analysis showed that 11 primers generated 56 distinct bands of which 31 (55.4%) were considered as polymorphic. The similarity indices of six genotypes of potato and its parents ranged from 70 to 91%. The highest genetic similarity 91% was found between D20 genotype and its parent D0 (Diamant control). On the other hand, the lowest genetic similarity 70% was found between S30, S40 genotypes and its parent S0 (Spunta control). In the artificial infection experiment

  8. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  9. Assessment of Paclobutrazol’s Time and Concentration of Foliar Application on Production and Germination of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Mini-tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2018-02-01

    and sand with 3:3:4 ratios, formed the substrate. Potato plantlets were fed with corrected Hoagland solution. Treatments were foliar application of paclobutrazol at two growth stages (stolen initiation and tuber initiation and six concentrations (control, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg l-1. Foliar application of mentioned concentrations implemented in the final hours of day. After 95 days from transplanting, number of mini-tuber in plant, mini-tuber length, mini-tuber diameter and mean of mini-tuber weight were measured. Then, mini-tubers saved to fridge with 8±2ºC and 10% relative humidity. Two months later, mini-tuber’s germination was measured. Finally, time of achievement to 5, 10, 50, 90 and 95 germination percentage was measured with Germin program. Beside that, rate of germination was calculated with equation 1: (1 R50 and D50: rate of germination (1/h and time of achievement to 50% germination, respectively. Analysis of variance and correlation between trials was done with SAS 9.1 Software. Means comparison measured with least significant difference test (LSD at 5% probability level. Results and Discussion The main effects and interactions of paclobutrazol foliar application and growth stages, on number of mini-tuber in plant, mini-tuber length, mini-tuber diameter, mean of mini-tuber weight and time of achievement to 5, 10, 50, 90 and 95 germination percentage trials were significant. But interaction between foliar application and growth stages was not significant at germination rate trial. The effect of foliar application on maintained trials in tuber initiation stage was lower than stolen initiation. Increase in paclobutrazol concentration increased mini-tuber dormancy and reduced germination rate. Paclobutrazol application in tuber initiation stage had more inhibition on mini-tuber germination. With increase in paclobotrazol concentration, time of achievement to 5, 10, 50, 90 and 95% germination were 11, 13, 17, 19 and 17% in comparison between foliar

  10. Microbiological aspects of storage of irradiated potatoes and wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, G B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1978-09-01

    Radiation provides an effective means for extending the post-harvest storage life of perishable foods. Based on extensive studies over the past two decades in India and abroad, WHO have recently recognised potatoes and wheat as 'unconditionally' safe for human consumption alongwith several other items of food. In potatoes exposed to 10 Krad of gamma-irradiation, sprouting and tuber moth infestation were completely eliminated, irrespective of the storage temperature. The ambient temperatures could not however control the microbial rotting of the tubers. Microbiological studies have indicated that spoilage at temperatures above 15/sup 0/C are due to Erwinia spp. while dry rotting below 10/sup 0/C could be attributed to Micrococcus spp. The tubers were not amenable to fungal attack by organisms of Aspergillus spp. during storage due to phenolic compounds which were otherwise labile to heating. The studies with artificial loading of wheat with conidia of Aspergillus flavus showed a correlation between growth and relative humidity (RH) which determined the moisture content in the grain. Aflatoxin production could occur only above a critical level (13%) of grain moisture at RH value over 90% at 28/sup 0/ +- 2/sup 0/C. The toxin produced in irradiated grains seemed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls, indicating that radiation treatment did not cause any alterations in wheat which could otherwise promote aflatoxin producing potential.

  11. Microbiological aspects of storage of irradiated potatoes and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation provides an effective means for extending the post-harvest storage life of perishable foods. Based on extensive studies over the past two decades in India and abroad, WHO have recently recognised potatoes and wheat as 'unconditionally' safe for human consumption alongwith several other items of food. In potatoes exposed to 10 Krad of gamma-irradiation, sprouting and tuber moth infestation were completely eliminated, irrespective of the storage temperature. The ambient temperatures could not however control the microbial rotting of the tubers. Microbiological studies have indicated that spoilage at temperatures above 15 0 C are due to Erwinia spp. while dry rotting below 10 0 C could be attributed to Micrococcus spp. The tubers were not amenable to fungal attack by organisms of Aspergillus spp. during storage due to phenolic compounds which were otherwise labile to heating. The studies with artificial loading of wheat with conidia of Aspergillus flavus showed a correlation between growth and relative humidity (RH) which determined the moisture content in the grain. Aflatoxin production could occur only above a critical level (13%) of grain moisture at RH value over 90% at 28 0 +- 2 0 C. The toxin produced in irradiated grains seemed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls, indicating that radiation treatment did not cause any alterations in wheat which could otherwise promote aflatoxin producing potential. (author)

  12. Glycoalkaloids in potatoes: Content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes for consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Jensen, Udo; Schmidt, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    mg/kg. Thus the aim of this study was to make a survey of the distribution and contents of TGA in potatoes on the Danish market, including many different and relevant varieties during a 6-year period. A total of 386 samples of potato tubers were analysed for α-solanine and α-chaconine by extraction...... with acetic acid and determination by RP-HPLC with UV-detection at 202 nm. The results not only confirmed that contents above 100 mg TGA/kg in potato tubers frequently occurred in some years, but also showed the possibility of finding lower contents in the same varieties other years. This led to the cautious...

  13. Biological control of potato black scurf by rhizosphere associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Tariq

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to study the potential of plant rhizosphere associated bacteria for the biocontrol of potato black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun AG-3. A total of twenty-eight bacteria isolated from diseased and healthy potato plants grown in the soil of Naran and Faisalabad, Pakistan were evaluated for their antagonistic potential. Nine bacterial strains were found to be antagonistic in vitro, reduced the fungal growth and caused the lysis of sclerotia of R. solani in dual culture assay as well as in extracellular metabolite efficacy test. The selected antagonistic strains were further tested for the production and efficacy of volatile and diffusible antibiotics, lytic enzymes and siderophores against R. solani. Selected antagonistic bacteria were also characterized for growth promoting attributes i.e., phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation and indole acetic acid production. Biocontrol efficacy and percent yield increase by these antagonists was estimated in greenhouse experiment. Statistical analysis showed that two Pseudomonas spp. StT2 and StS3 were the most effective with 65.1 and 73.9 percent biocontrol efficacy, as well as 87.3 and 98.3 percent yield increase, respectively. Potential antagonistic bacterial strain StS3 showed maximum homology to Pseudomonas sp. as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These results suggest that bacterial isolates StS3 and StT2 have excellent potential to be used as effective biocontrol agents promoting plant growth with reduced disease incidence.

  14. Management of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) with bio-fumigants/stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T J G; Turner, S J; Fleming, C C

    2007-01-01

    Field trials evaluated the effect of four plant-based bio-fumigants/stimulants on population levels of G. pallida and the resulting potato yields and quality. Three formulations contained seaweed biostimulants (Algifol, Nutridip and Metastim) and one bio-fumigant containing mustard and chilli pepper extracts (Dazitol). These were compared with the fumigant nematicide Nemathorin and untreated control plots. The effect of G. pallida on growing potato crops was assessed by recording haulm characteristics which indicated that the nematicide treatment gave most protection. Levels of PCN juveniles and migratory nematodes were assessed during the trial. Plots treated with Nemathorin and Dazitol had fewest PCN, whilst the highest number of migratory nematodes occurred in fallow plots. Sixteen weeks after planting the nematicide treatment produced highest yield and tuber numbers. Dazitol treatment produced a lower yield but the largest tubers.

  15. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BADO, Souleymane

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... In addition to high starch levels, potato tubers contain significant ... 2000; Li et al., 2005) modified histological and texture properties (Nayak et al., ..... transported or shipped over long distances and stored for over 6 months.

  16. The effect of storage and culinary treatment of irradiated potato on the cytogenetic activity of extracts obtained therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipova, I.N.; Shillinger, Yu.I.; Zajtsev, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    Male-rats (25-27 g) were given perorally extracts separated from potato subjected to gamma-radiation in a dose of 10krad (test groups) and from non-irradiated tubers (controls). The extracts were introduced for a period of one week, daily in an amount of 1 ml. The males from the test groups (each numbering 8-10 animals) received extracts of the raw potato stored for 4 months after irradiation and of the potato subjected to thermal treatment (cooking) after 1 day, 1 and 4 months of its storage. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells was determined by the anaphase method. Altogether about 34000 cells (500-600 from each animal) were counted. The results testified to a significantly reduced frequency of chromosomal aberrations (bridges and fragments) accurring in the bone marrow cells of the mice which received extracts from the raw stored irradiated potato and from thermally treated freshly irradiated tubers, as compared to extracts obtained from the raw freshly irradiated potatoes. The extracts of irradiated potato cooked after 1 and 4 month of storage did not display any mutagenic properties

  17. Studies regarding the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis oil treatments in healthy and potato virus Y (PVY infected plants Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Liliana BĂDĂRĂU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato virus Y cause loss in yield and quality of tubers. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid present in oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants are implicated in signaling against stress. The effects of these chemicals on tuber yield and pigments content were evaluated in plants testing positive after virus mechanical infection. Without chemical treatment, positive plants showed significant reductions in leaf pigments content and tuber weights compared to uninfected controls. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and oil treatments of PVY infected plants significantly reduced the number of minitubers, enhancing their weights, while leaf pigment content also increased. This research demonstrates potential benefits of treatments with oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants and hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid in enhancing the yield and quality of tubers.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation and temperature on potatoes during storage Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakdi, O.M.; Pal, I.; Szoeke, P.; Beczner, J.

    1991-01-01

    Potato varieties Desire and Metal were irradiated with 0, 50, 100 and 500 Gy gamma rays, and were stored at 5 deg C and 20-25 deg C for 6 months. Respiratory rate, starch, total and reducing sugar contents were determined every month. The control samples of variety Desire showed higher respriration rates in comparison with the irradiated tubers. The respiratory rate was significantly higher in the variety Metal in comparison with the variety Desire. The sugar content was higher in the irradiated tubers, and it was also higher in the tubers stored at 5 deg C than in those stored at 20-25 deg C. This increase in sugars accompained with a decrease in starch content, suggests conversion of starch into sugars. (author) 16 refs.; 10 figs

  19. Root morphology of several potato varieties - infected Meloidogyne spp. and addition of organic matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, K.; Lubis, A. M.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This research was aimed to determine root morphology of several potato varieties which were applied by organic materials into the planting medium inoculated nematodes. The research was conducted at Research Station of Horticulture in Berastagi, Sumatera Utara on May to November 2016. The randomized block design was used with two factors; the first factor was K1 = Positive control (no use compost / inoculation of nematodes) K2 = Negative control (no use compost / no inoculation of nematodes) K3 = Using compost mucuna and inoculation of nematode, K4 = Using compost peanuts and inoculation of nematodes and the second factor was potato varieties (Tenggo, Maglia, and Margahayu). The results showed that organic matters increased the shoot fresh weight, the root fresh weight, the tubers weight and the number of tubers, root diameter, root lenght. However, organic matters also increased the number of nematodes. Varieties of Tenggo and Maglia showed significant affect to all observed characters. The interaction of the two treatments had significant affect to the shoot fresh weight, the number of root-knot, and the number of tubers, root lenght. However, no significant affect was observed in root wet weight, and tuber weight.

  20. Cloning and characterization of a potato StAN11 gene involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Wang, Bing; Wang, Man; Chen, Min; Yin, Jing-Ming; Kaleri, Ghullam Murtaza; Zhang, Rui-Jie; Zuo, Tie-Niu; You, Xiong; Yang, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of products of plant secondary metabolism and are responsible for tubers color in potato. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a complex biological process, in which multiple genes are involved including structural genes and regulatory genes. In this study, StAN11, a WD40-repeat gene, was cloned from potato cultivar Chieftain (Solanum tuberosum L.). StAN11 (HQ599506) contained no intron and its open reading frame (ORF) was 1,029 bp long, encoding a putative protein of 342 amino acids. In order to verify its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, StAN11 was inserted behind the CaMV-35S promoter of pCMBIA1304 and the recombination vector was introduced into the potato cultivar Désirée plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The color of transgenic tuber skin was significantly deepened, compared to the wild-type control, which was highly consistent with the accumulation of anthocyanin and expression of StAN11 in transgenic lines tuber skin. Further analysis on the expression of Flavonone-3-hydroxylase (F3H), Dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), Anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and Flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase (3GT) in transgenic plants revealed that only DFR was upregulated. This result suggested that StAN11 regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato by controlling DFR expression and accumulation of anthocyanin could be increased through overexpression of StAN11 in the tubers with the genetic background of anthocyanin biosynthesis. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Developmental changes in carbohydrate metabolism during early tuberisation of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The potato tuber is a vegetative storage organ, which is initiated at the tip of an underground diagravitropic growing stem, called a stolon. The process of tuber formation comprises the induction, initiation and growth of a stolon, cessation of the longitudinal growth of the stolon,

  2. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  3. Influência da adubação e da fumigação do solo, na incidência de nematôides em tubérculos de batatinha Influence of fertilizers and soil fumigation on the nematode incidence of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas que podem levar ao fracasso a cultura da batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L. no Brasil, sobressaem as devidas aos nematóides causadores de galhas ou pipoca Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoide & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949. Os tubérculos, quando atacados, tornam-se impróprios ao plantio e ao consumo apodrecendo rapidamente. Em vista dêsse fato vêm sendo realizadas, no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, experiências visando ao combate àquela praga. Os resultados obtidos ultimamente, quando se procurou constatar a influência sôbre a redução da infestação exercida pelas adubações e pelas fumigações do solo com dibrometo de etileno, forneceram os seguintes esclarecimentos: a adubação não exerceu nenhuma influência sôbre o aumento ou diminuição das infestações dos tubérculos pelos nematóides; o dibrometo de etileno mostrou-se eficiente na redução da infestação, na dose de 276 litros por hectare, não devendo, todavia, ser aplicado no terreno no ato do plantio da batatinha mas sim com antecedência de oito ou mais dias; o melhor espaçamento entre aplicações foi o de 20x20 cm; a produção de tubérculos aumentou satisfatoriamente com a fumigação, principalmente quando o nematocida foi aplicado duas vezes no mesmo terreno, isto é, antes de cada uma das culturas ("da sêca" e "das águas".The most important losses caused by root nematodes to the potato crop in the State of Silo Paulo and other parts of Brazil are due to the species Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoide & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 and Pralylenchus steineri Lordello, Zamith & Boock, 1954. The former is quite widespread and measures aiming at its control were studied under field conditions. The present paper reports the results on the influence of fertilizer and soil fumigation with ethilene dibromide at 10%, cither separately or combined, on the nematode infestation of the potato yield. The results of the tests showed that the fertilizer application

  4. Seleção para duração do ciclo vegetativo em batata e relação com a produtividade de tubérculos Selection for vegetative growth period and its relationship to tuber yield of potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel B Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de batata no Brasil geralmente apresentam ciclo vegetativo de 90 a 110 dias, sendo bem mais longo em países de clima temperado, podendo chegar até 150 dias. O ciclo vegetativo longo nestes países proporciona maior produtividade e constitui-se em alternativa para aumento da produção de tubérculos sob condições tropicais. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o potencial da seleção para aumentar ou diminuir o ciclo vegetativo da batata e verificar a relação entre a duração do ciclo vegetativo e a produção de tubérculos em condições tropicais. Na primeira geração clonal foram avaliados a produção de tubérculos e o ciclo vegetativo de 1.561 genótipos oriundos de 22 famílias clonais. Na segunda geração clonal foram avaliadas as mesmas características em 320 genótipos selecionados para ciclo vegetativo precoce, intermediário e tardio. A seleção nas gerações iniciais foi eficiente, tanto para diminuir permitiu obter maior ganho do que a seleção entre famílias. Os genótipos mais tardios foram mais produtivos que os mais precoces.Potato cultivars in Brazil generally present a growth cycle duration ranging from 90 to 110 days, whereas in countries located in temperate climate it can reach up to 150 days. Longer vegetative growth cycle in these countries confer higher tuber yield and, in tropical countries it also could be an alternative to increase tuber yield. In this work we evaluated the selection potential for longer or shorter growth cycle duration of potato clones and we determined the relationship between growth cycle duration and tuber yield. In the first clonal generation tuber yield and growth cycle duration were evaluated on 1561 genotypes derived from 22 clonal families. In the second clonal generation, the same traits were evaluated on 320 genotypes selected for earliness, intermediate and late vegetative cycle. Selection in the initial generations was efficient both to decrease and to

  5. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers...... that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal....... In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy...

  6. Regulation, overexpression, and target gene identification of Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) – a class-I KNOX gene in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ameya S.; Kondhare, Kirtikumar R.; Rajabhoj, Mohit P.; Kumar, Amit; Ghate, Tejashree; Ravindran, Nevedha; Habib, Farhat; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Banerjee, Anjan K.

    2016-01-01

    Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) is a KNOX-I (Knotted1-like homeobox) family gene in potato that is orthologous to Shoot Meristemless (STM) in Arabidopsis. Despite numerous reports on KNOX genes from different species, studies in potato are limited. Here, we describe photoperiodic regulation of POTH15, its overexpression phenotype, and identification of its potential targets in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena). qRT-PCR analysis showed a higher abundance of POTH15 mRNA in shoot tips and stolons under tuber-inducing short-day conditions. POTH15 promoter activity was detected in apical and axillary meristems, stolon tips, tuber eyes, and meristems of tuber sprouts, indicating its role in meristem maintenance and leaf development. POTH15 overexpression altered multiple morphological traits including leaf and stem development, leaflet number, and number of nodes and branches. In particular, the rachis of the leaf was completely reduced and leaves appeared as a bouquet of leaflets. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of 35S::GUS and two POTH15 overexpression lines identified more than 6000 differentially expressed genes, including 2014 common genes between the two overexpression lines. Functional analysis of these genes revealed their involvement in responses to hormones, biotic/abiotic stresses, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. qRT-PCR of selected candidate target genes validated their differential expression in both overexpression lines. Out of 200 randomly chosen POTH15 targets, 173 were found to have at least one tandem TGAC core motif, characteristic of KNOX interaction, within 3.0kb in the upstream sequence of the transcription start site. Overall, this study provides insights to the role of POTH15 in controlling diverse developmental processes in potato. PMID:27217546

  7. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    seven test compounds were chosen from different chemical classes such ... The test chemicals were diluted in paraffin ..... Jansens S, Cornelissen R, de Clercq R, Reynaerts A and ... Park K C, Zhu J, Harris J, Ocheing S A and Baker T C 2001.

  8. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...

  9. Effects of heat stress on the endogenous contents of hormones and related gene expression in developing axillary tubes of potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potatoes are a cool season crop and optimum tuber initiation, development, yield, and quality require growing temperatures between 15 -20°C. At temperatures above 30°C, tuber initiation is delayed or prevented and developing tubers exhibit decreased starch content, increased malformation, chain-tube...

  10. Effect of combinations of gamma irradiation, hot water, Sodium chloride, and Acetic acid treatments on potato-dry rot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zayat, M.M.; Farahat, A.A.; Saad, N.H.; Shaarawy, N.S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma irradiation increased the severity of dry rot in potato tubers when they were inoculated with any of 4 species of Fusarium, previously isolated either from irradiated or unirradiated tubers. Treating either irradiated or unirradiated tubers with warm water or sodium chloride solutions following inoculation with F. roseum also increased the severity of dry rot to some extent

  11. Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II ions (4 mg of cadmium(II acetate per kilogram of the soil. The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05 was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg. We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants.

  12. Qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente tratados com paraquat e o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduo do herbicida Quality of seed potato tubers treated with paraquat and the development of a simplified methodology for paraquat residue detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington Pereira

    1995-01-01

    concentração do produto aumenta. A metodologia simplificada desenvolvida permitiu detectar resíduos de paraquat ao nível de 0,06 ppm, indicando uma excelente aproximação, pois, o limite de tolerância do paraquat em tubérculos de batata é de 0,2 ppm, normalmente, determinado pelo método analítico completo, que apresenta limites de detecção em torno de 0,01 ppm e recuperação acima de 70%. Uma avaliação qualitativa da concentração residual de produto nas amostras foi possível através de leitura e comparações visuais entre os diferentes graus de cores desenvolvidas nas soluções visuais entre os diferentes graus de cores desenvolvidas nas soluções padrão e a cor desenvolvida na amostra, não necessitando, portanto, das leituras colorimétricas, podendo ser feita inclusive no campo. Observou-se que a maioria do paraquat permaneceu na região de casca até o período de 4 semanas após a aplicação do paraquat.Seed potatoes tubers (Solanum tuberosum of two cultivars (Achat and Baronesa were treated with paraquat solutions to evalute the internal tuber quality and to detect its residue by a simplified methodology. Two experiments were carried out at the National Research Center on Vegetables, Brasília, DF. In experiment one some tubers were immersed in 0 and 200 ppm of paraquat solutions and others were injected with 0,5 ml of 0 and 200 ppm solutions of the herbicide. Twelve tubers were used as plot in a complete randomized design with 8 replications. The internal tuber quality was evaluated after breaking dormancy and sprouting of ten tubers. Also, two tubers were sampled and put in 5 liter pots and grown under greenhouse conditions to observe if the herbicide would affect the growth of the new plant generation. The immersion treatments did not cause any internal damage to the tubers nor did they affect the new plant generation; however, tubers injected with paraquat were severely damaged (carbonization. Also, the next plant generation was affected

  13. A major QTL and an SSR marker associated with glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum × S. sparsipilum located at chromosome I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Olsson, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    tubers and identify markers that link tightly to this trait. In this study, tubers of a dihaploid BC1 population, originating from a cross between 90-HAF-01 (S. tuberosum 1) and 90-HAG-15 (S. tuberosum 2 × S. sparsipilum), were evaluated for content of α-solanine and α-chaconine (total glycoalkaloid, TGA...... and the HAF parent. Quantitative trait loci for glycoalkaloid production in foliage of different Solanum species have previously been mapped to this chromosome. In the present research, QTLs for α-solanine and α-chaconine content were mapped to the same location as for TGA content. Similar results were...

  14. Reliability of measurement and genotype x environment 1 interaction for potato specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dry matter content of potatoes used to make potato chips and French fries strongly influences fry oil absorption and texture of the finished product. Specific gravity (SpGr) is often used to assess the processing quality of potatoes tubers because of its strong correlation with dry matter conten...

  15. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...

  16. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  17. Factors influencing gene silencing of granule-bound starch synthase in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilersig, H.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, antisense RNA technology was used to modify the composition of potato tuber starch. Potato starch comprises amylose and amylopectin, polymers of glucose. Amylose production in potato is completely dependent on the presence of granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI). Inhibition of GBSSI

  18. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  19. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  20. Diversity and evolution of potato mop-top virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuch, Ulrike; Beuch, Sofia; Åkerblom, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Nearly complete sequences of RNA-CP and 3′-proximal RNA-TGB were determined for 43 samples of potato mop-top virus (PMTV) originating from potato tubers and field soil from Sweden, Denmark and the USA. The results showed limited diversity and no strict geographical grouping, suggesting only a few...

  1. The tuberal lateral hypothalamus is a major target for GABAA--but not GABAB-mediated control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turenius, Christine I; Charles, Jonathan R; Tsai, Donna H; Ebersole, Priscilla L; Htut, Myat H; Ngo, Phuong T; Lara, Raul N; Stanley, B Glenn

    2009-08-04

    The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is a site of integration for control mechanisms of feeding behavior as it has extensive reciprocal connections with multiple intrahypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain areas. Evidence suggests that blockade of ionotropric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the LH elicits eating in satiated rats. To determine whether this GABA(A) receptor antagonist effect is specific to the LH, the antagonist picrotoxin was injected into one of six nearby sites and food intake was measured. Picrotoxin at 133 pmol elicited eating in the LH, but not in surrounding sites (thalamus, lateral preoptic area, ventral tegmental area, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and entopeduncular nucleus). More specifically, picrotoxin injected into the tuberal LH (tLH) elicited eating, but was ineffective when injected into the anterior or posterior LH. We also investigated whether GABA(B) receptors in the LH participated in the control of food intake and found that neither blockade nor activation of these receptors under multiple conditions changed food intake. Collectively, our findings suggest that GABA(A) but not GABA(B) receptors in the tLH act to suppress feeding behavior.

  2. Field evaluation of the nematicide fluensulfone for control of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norshie, Patrick M; Grove, Ivan G; Back, Matthew A

    2016-10-01

    Three field experiments evaluated the performance of the nematicide fluensulfone against the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida in Shropshire, England. Experiments 1 and 2 showed reduced root infection and lowered multiplication of G. pallida following fluensulfone (Nimitz 15G(®) ) soil treatments at five rates (1.95, 3.00, 4.05 (full rate), 5.05 and 6.00 kg AI ha(-1) ) and Nimitz 480EC(®) at the full rate. Experiment 3 demonstrated a positive interaction between the full rate of Nimitz 15G and the potato variety Santé in the reduction of G. pallida. The fluensulfone treatments at the full rate had more consistent effects than the lower rates, and there were no greater effects for the treatments higher than this full rate. Generally, fluensulfone was less efficacious than oxamyl or fosthiazate, which suggests that the treatment may not be reliably integrated within shorter potato rotations. The data suggest that fluensulfone soil application could make a useful addition to the few available nematicide treatments for the control of G. pallida rather than be a substitute for these treatments.© 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Potential Use of Insecticides and Mineral Oils for the Control of Transmission of Major Aphid-Transmitted Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses occurring in Serbia and other countries in the region are a huge problem constrainingseed potato production. At lower altitudes, in lowland and hilly regions, wheretable potato production is widely distributed, more than 50% of healthy plants becomeinfected with potato virus Y during one growing season. Under these conditions, seed potatoproduction is hindered due to a high infection pressure of potato virus Y which spreads farmore rapidly compared to leaf roll virus, virus S and other viruses hosted by this plant species.This study tended to clarify a frequent dilemma regarding the use of insecticides in preventingthe infection of healthy plants with potato virus Y and leaf roll virus, given the oraland written recommendations from pesticide manufacturers, agronomists and scientistsin the field of crop protection arising from a logical conclusion that aphid vector controlresults in virus transmission control.The present findings, which are in agreement with reports of authors from other countries,show that the use of insecticides is ineffective in preventing potato virus Y which isnonpersistently transmitted by aphids from an external source of infection.However, insecticides can exhibit efficacy in preventing potato virus Y transmissionfrom infected plants to healthy plants within a crop, which can have an overall positiveeffect only if seed potato is grown in areas that have no external source of infection.The present results and those of other authors show that insecticides are effective inpreventing the infection of healthy plants with persistently transmitted leaf roll virus.Mineral oils provide effective control of potato virus Y by preventing the infection ofpotato plants with the virus. They can be combined with other management practices toprotect seed potato crops against the virus.Given the fact that the initial first-year infection of healthy potato plants with virus Y inrelation to leaf roll virus is approximately 10

  4. Applicability of impedance measuring method to the detection of irradiation treatment of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Otobe, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Junnichi

    1993-01-01

    The incubation condition of potato tubers prior to impedance measurement greatly influenced the reliability of detection of irradiated potatoes; the impedance ratio at 5 kHz to 50 kHz (Z 5k /Z 50k ) determined at 22degC at an apical region of tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radiation treatment of potatoes. The impedance ratio was dependent upon dose applied to potato tubers. Potatoes irradiated at 100 Gy could be distinguished from unirradiated potatoes for 10 cultivars of potatoes. The impedance ratio of potatoes irradiated at the same dose was little influenced by the planting locality if the cultivar was the same, although the ratio varied with potato cultivars. These results indicate that irradiated potatoes can be detected if the potato cultivar is known. Potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at the Shihiro Potato Irradiation Center could be differentiated from unirradiated 'Danshaku' at different planting localities; the impedance ratio was lower than 2.75 for the unirradiated potatoes and higher than 2.75 for the irradiated ones. (author)

  5. Effect of gamma irradiated parenchyma on the growth of irradiated potato tuber buds; Efecto del parenquina irradiado sobre el desarrollo de las yemas de tuberculos de patata tratados por radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J; Garcia Collantes, M A

    1976-07-01

    The development of buds greffed on irradiated potato parenchyma was studied. The irradiated parenchyma does not influence the sprouting capacity of buds, but it affects the way they develop. (Author) 9 refs.

  6. Tolerance of some Potato Mutants Induced with Gamma Irradiation to Drought in Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Al-Ayyoubi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro selection program was conducted in order to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum,L.) tolerance to drought. Potato mutant plants were obtained through a previously conducted mutation breeding program on three potato cultivars (Draga, Spunta, and Diamant) aimed to improve potato tolerance to salinity and resistance to late blight disease. In order to apply selection pressure, growth media (MS based) were prepared with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3% concentrations of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). As a result, three mutants were selected that were tolerant to water stress (i.e. drought tolerant), two of them were derived from the cultivar Draga and one came from Spunta. Physiological growth parameters (plant length, leaf number, branch number, roots number, leaf area, stomata number, and chlorophyll concentration content) were determined on the growing plantlets. The selected mutants were distinguished based on some characteristics which being associated with in their tolerance to drought. Such as an increases in leaf number, root number, and a decrease in stomata number. However a reduction in chlorophyll content was observed as compared with the control. This is considered a negative parameter which may result in a decrease in number and size of tubers. Thus it is important to continue selection for higher chlorophyll content. Also, these mutant lines will need further selection in the field for plants with larger tubers before they can be considered as certified lines.

  7. The retardation by gamma irradiation of greening in potatoes exposed to fluorescent lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1981-01-01

    The optimum gamma irradiation treatments for the inhibition of greening of unwashed Up-to-Date potatoes exposed to continuous fluorescent lighting were 0,15 and 0,20 kGy. The 0,15 and 0,20 kGy treated potatoes took 8,7 and 10,3 d longer respectively than the controls for 50% of the potatoes to turn green. The results were verified by chlorophyll determinations. The solanine content of the γ-irradiated potatoes did not differ significantly from that of the controls during the period of exposure. Gamma irradiated tubers which were removed from continuous fluorescent lighting after 7 d to 'household' conditions of daylight and fluorescent light alternated with darkness maintained the quality of day 7 for at least another 16 d. Factors such as washing, packaging, display temperature, post-irradiation pre-illumination storage and cultivar differences did not detract from the effectiveness of γ-irradiation in retarding the greening of potatoes. A comparison of γ-irradiation with dipping inedible oil showed the latter treatment to be more effective than irradiation in inhibiting greening but the treatment caused serious rotting. No difference in the taste or colour of irradiated and nonirradiated potatoes cooked in various ways could be detected [af

  8. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  9. Effect of radiation on potato susceptibility to plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The average world production of potatoes is about 7 billion bushels, having a value nearly, if not quite, equal to that of wheat. Hence, it has for years been recognized as the world's leading food crop (Thompson, 1949). Potato is the world's leading vegetable crop and rivals wheat in total value. There is probably no food article in daily diet of the white race more common than the potato. Potato tuber contains nearly 80 per cent water in it's uncooked state. Most of the remainder consists of about 2 per cent protein and 18 per cent starch. The potato is one of the cheapest and most common sources of carbohydrate food

  10. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Otobe, K.; Sugiyama, J.

    1996-01-01

    Potato is one of the major food items to be treated with ionising radiation and potatoes are irradiated on a large scale in several countries. Every year around 15,000 t of potatoes are irradiated at doses of 60 to 150 Gy (average dose is about 100 Gy) in Japan. Although various methods to detect irradiated potatoes have been investigated, no established method has been reported. Measuring electrical conductivity or impedance of potatoes has been reported as a promising method for the detection of irradiated potatoes. In previous studies it has been found that the ratio of impedance magnitude at 50 kHz to that at 5 kHz, measured immediately after puncturing a potato tuber, is dependent upon the dose applied to the tuber, independent of storage temperature and stable during storage after irradiation. The aim of this study was to establish the optimum conditions for impedance measurement and to examine the applicability of the impedance measuring method to various cultivars (cv.) of potatoes. (author)

  11. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A

    2011-01-01

    tend not to be grown on a large scale. From the grower’s perspective, the savings in fungicide input that can be achieved with these varieties are not compensated by the higher (perceived) risk of blight. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. The spray strategies...

  12. Effects of Exposion to Fine Particles of Pb and Cd on Early Growth of Rice and Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Fan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal-containing particles in the atmosphere have negative impacts on the seedling growth and early stage growth of terrestrial plants. Exposure scenarios were established to simulate the ambient conditions with different pollution levels of airborne heavy metals. Under these scenarios, hazardous impacts of fine particles containing lead(Pb and cadmium(Cd on the emergence, seedling growth, and fresh weight(including both above ground stem leaf of rice and underground stem tuber of potato were evaluated. The results showed that, for exposure treatment groups, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in the artificial soil increased at the end of the test. Compared with the background value in soil, the Cd level elevated about 8.8 times while no significant increase was observed for Pb concentration. The accumulation values of Pb and Cd were 0.002 0, 0.054 mg·kg-1 in the stem leaf of rice and 0.185 0, 0.074 mg·kg-1 in the stem tuber of potato. The exposure had no significant inhibition effect on all the biomass endpoints of rice, but had an inhibition rate of 27% on the fresh weight of potato underground stem tuber. Thus, under the simulation exposure, larger impact was projected to the Cd concentration in the artificial soil, and the Cd accumulative effect was more obvious in the underground stem tuber of potatoes. Compared with the control groups, the combined pollution of Pb and Cd in the exposure treatment groups indicated remarkable inhibition and stress effects. Moreover, aboveground stem leaf of rice showed better adaption and low sensitivity when exposed to pollutants at certain concentrations.

  13. Effects of planting times and plant densities of top-shoot cuttings on multiplication of breeder seed potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdullah Al Mamun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-shoot cuttings were planted with the whole tuber (as a control at different dates using three spacings at the Horticultural Research Farm of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University to evaluate the performance of top-shoots as planting material and to determine the optimum time of planting and the optimum spacing for top-shoot cuttings as planting material for breeder seed production. The survival of top shoot cuttings was more than 97.8% irrespective of the planting time and plant spacing. Significant variations were found among the treatment combinations for plant height at 45 and 60 days after planting (DAP, foliage coverage at 45 and 60 DAP, number of branches per plant, number of tubers per plant, individual tuber weight, tuber yields per plant and per hectare yield. The highest mean yield (46.57 t/ha was produced by whole tubers planted on 10 November with 50 × 10 cm spacing which was similar to whole tubers planted on 1 November with 50 × 10 cm spacing. On the other hand, plants from top-shoot cuttings yielded 34.82 t/ha in T3S2 followed by T1S1 (33.34 t/ha, T3S3 (30.70 t/ha. The total yield of potato increased 122.8% from a single, early crop due to taking two repeated cuttings compared with 89.6% from a single late crop. Early planting of top-shoot cuttings with closer spacing (50 × 10 cm and 50 × 15 cm is recommended for the multiplication of breeder seed potato.

  14. Relative efficacy of sterile adults in the control of potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zellar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rananavare, H.D.; Harwalkar, M.R.; Rahalkar, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Effectiveness of releasing sterile males or females alone or both sexes together in the control of potato tuberworm has been experimentally examined. For female, a dose of 30 Krad was adequate to cause near complete sterility. Reduction in progeny production in one generation was 76 per cent when only sterile males were released while female alone or both sexes together were released, it was to the order of 41.9 and 63.2 per cent, respectively. The relative merits of release of sterile adult males or females alone or both sexes together, have been discussed. (author). 12 refs

  15. Resistance to Black Dot in Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black dot fungus can colonize tubers on the surface, in the stolon end, or in a combination of both.On the surface the fungus is prevalent as sclerotia, and in the stolon end the fungus colonizes the vascular tissuesas hyphae. The fungus is introduced to non-infested soils mostly by infected potato ...

  16. Using common mycorrhizal networks for controlled inoculation of Quercus spp. with Tuber melanosporum: the nurse plant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Guillermo; Palfner, Götz; Chávez, Daniel; Suz, Laura M; Machuca, Angela; Honrubia, Mario

    2013-07-01

    The high cost and restricted availability of black truffle spore inoculum for controlled mycorrhiza formation of host trees produced for truffle orchards worldwide encourage the search for more efficient and sustainable inoculation methods that can be applied globally. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the nurse plant method for the controlled inoculation of Quercus cerris and Quercus robur with Tuber melanosporum by mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures. Pine bark compost, adjusted to pH 7.8 by liming, was used as substrate for all assays. Initially, Q. robur seedlings were inoculated with truffle spores and cultured for 12 months. After this period, the plants presenting 74 % mycorrhizal fine roots were transferred to larger containers. Nurse plants were used for two treatments of two different nursling species: five sterilized acorns or five 45-day-old, axenically grown Q. robur or Q. cerris seedlings, planted in containers around the nurse plant. After 6 months, colonized nursling plant root tips showed that mycorrhiza formation by T. melanosporum was higher than 45 % in the seedlings tested, with the most successful nursling combination being Q. cerris seedlings, reaching 81 % colonization. Bulk identification of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae was based on morphological and anatomical features and confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of selected root tips. Our results show that the nurse plant method yields attractive rates of mycorrhiza formation by the Périgord black truffle and suggest that establishing and maintaining common mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures enables sustained use of the initial spore inoculum.

  17. Efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven bacterial isolates from faba bean (Vicia faba L. root-nodules were screened for their antagonistic activity against eight Rhizoctonia solani strains isolated from infected potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers. Two bacterial strains (designated as Kl.Fb14 and S8.Fb11 gave 50% in vitro inhibition of R. solani mycelial growth. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain Kl.Fb14 exhibited 99.5% identity with Pseudomonas moraviensis, and that S8.Fb11 exhibited 99.8% identity with Pseudomonas reinekei. Greenhouse trials in soil showed that strain S8.Fb11 reduced the percentage of sclerotia on potato tubers and amounts of tuber infection for the potato cultivars Spunta and Nicola. In a field trial conducted in South Tunisia, infection with R. solani reduced potato yield by approximately 40% for ‘Spunta’ and 17% for ‘Nicola’; about 20% of the total tuber production was severely infected. However, when potato tubers were treated with strain S8.Fb11 prior to sowing, disease incidence was reduced to 6% of total production with low infection levels; potato yield was enhanced by about 6 kg per 10 m row in comparison to R. solani infected plants. The second selected Pseudomonas sp. (strain Kl.Fb14 did not affect either the levels of sclerotia on tubers or potato yield.

  18. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  19. Possible role of calcium dependent protein phosphorylation in the modulation of wound induced HRGP gene activation in potatoes after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ussuf, K.K.; Laxmi, N.H.; Nair, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein (HRGP) gene is induced in both control and gamma irradiated potato tubers after wounding. The enhanced RNA synthesis in response to wounding correlated well with the accumulation of both HRGP gene transcripts and protein. Initially, the level of HRGP gene expression in gamma irradiated potatoes in response to wounding was 30% more than the corresponding controls. After post irradiation storage of 3-5 weeks, HRGP gene expression in response to wounding was significantly lower than the unirradiated samples. This low level of HRGP gene expression in irradiated potatoes was partially retrieved by 5 mM Ca 2+ treatment. Prior treatment with trifluoperazine, a calcium channel blocker resulted in 35% reduction in wound induced HRGP gene expression in control potatoes, further providing evidence for the involvement of Ca 2+ dependency for HRGP gene activation. A comparative study on in vivo protein phosphorylation induced by wounding in control and irradiated potatoes exhibited significant differences. A good correlation was observed in the modulation of phosphorylation and HRGP gene expression by Ca 2+ in irradiated potatoes. Wound induced signal transduction system and subsequent Ca 2+ dependent protein phosphorylation for the activation of HRGP gene is affected in potatoes after gamma irradiation, thus impairing the wound healing process adversely. (author). 25 refs., 5 figs

  20. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Impact of choice of future climate change projection on growth chamber experimental outcomes: a preliminary study in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P.; Wood, Joshua C.; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Tang, Ying; Douches, Dave S.; Robin Buell, C.; Winkler, Julie A.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on agriculture is essential to ensure adequate future food production. Controlled growth experiments provide an effective tool for assessing the complex effects of climate change. However, a review of the use of climate projections in 57 previously published controlled growth studies found that none considered within-season variations in projected future temperature change, and few considered regional differences in future warming. A fixed, often arbitrary, temperature perturbation typically was applied for the entire growing season. This study investigates the utility of employing more complex climate change scenarios in growth chamber experiments. A case study in potato was performed using three dynamically downscaled climate change projections for the mid-twenty-first century that differ in terms of the timing during the growing season of the largest projected temperature changes. The climate projections were used in growth chamber experiments for four elite potato cultivars commonly planted in Michigan's major potato growing region. The choice of climate projection had a significant influence on the sign and magnitude of the projected changes in aboveground biomass and total tuber count, whereas all projections suggested an increase in total tuber weight and a decrease in specific gravity, a key market quality trait for potato, by mid-century. These results demonstrate that the use of more complex climate projections that extend beyond a simple incremental change can provide additional insights into the future impacts of climate change on crop production and the accompanying uncertainty.

  2. Detection of Potato Storage Disease via Gas Analysis: A Pilot Study Using Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rutolo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a commonly occurring potato tuber disease that each year causes substantial losses to the food industry. Here, we explore the possibility of early detection of the disease via gas/vapor analysis, in a laboratory environment, using a recent technology known as FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry. In this work, tubers were inoculated with a bacterium causing the infection, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and stored within set environmental conditions in order to manage disease progression. They were compared with controls stored in the same conditions. Three different inoculation time courses were employed in order to obtain diseased potatoes showing clear signs of advanced infection (for standard detection and diseased potatoes with no apparent evidence of infection (for early detection. A total of 156 samples were processed by PCA (Principal Component Analysis and k-means clustering. Results show a clear discrimination between controls and diseased potatoes for all experiments with no difference among observations from standard and early detection. Further analysis was carried out by means of a statistical model based on LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis that showed a high classification accuracy of 92.1% on the test set, obtained via a LOOCV (leave-one out cross-validation.

  3. Accumulation of heavy metals in plants and potential phytoremediation of lead by potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C

    2007-05-01

    The use of sewage sludge as a source of nutrients in crop production is increasing in the United States and worldwide. A field study was conducted on a 10% slope at Kentucky State University Research Farm. Eighteen plots of 22x3.7 m each were separated using metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with sewage sludge, six plots were mixed with yard waste compost, and six unamended plots were used for comparison purposes. During a subsequent 3-year study, plots were planted with potato (year 1), pepper (year 2), and broccoli (year 3). The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) characterize chemical properties of soil-incorporated sewage sludge and yard waste compost; (ii) determine the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mo) in sewage sludge and yard waste compost used for land farming; and (iii) monitor heavy metal concentrations in edible portions of plants at harvest. Concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge were below the U.S. EPA limits. Analysis of potato tubers, peppers, and broccoli grown in sludge-amended soil showed that Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were not significantly different from control plants. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mo were significantly greater in tubers and peppers grown in sludge compared to their respective controls. Zn and Mo in broccoli heads were higher than their control plants. The ability of potato to accumulate lead needs additional investigation to optimize the phytoremediation of this pollutant element.

  4. Enhancement of the efficacy of a carbamate nematicide against the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, through mycorrhization in commercial potato fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliopoulos, T; Minnis, S T; Jones, P W; Haydock, P P J

    2010-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted over 2 years in commercial potato fields in Shropshire, UK, to evaluate the compatibility of the nematicide aldicarb with commercial inocula of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the control of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. The AMF used were Vaminoc (mixed-AMF inoculum), Glomus intraradices (BioRize BB-E) and G. mosseae (isolate BEG 12). In the absence of AMF, the in-soil hatch of G. pallida increased 30% (P potato (cv. Golden Wonder) tubers with AMF eliminated this delay in G. pallida hatch by stimulating a mean increase of 32% (P < 0.01) in hatch within 2 wk after planting. In the aldicarb-treated plots in Experiment 1, G. pallida multiplication rate was 38% lower (P < 0.05) in roots of AMF-inoculated than noninoculated plants, but in Experiment 2, this effect was slightly lower (P = 0.07). In these plots, the single AMF inocula showed also a weak trend (P = 0.10) towards greater tuber yields relative to their noninoculated counterparts. Mycorrhization therefore appears to enhance the efficacy of carbamate nematicides against G. pallida and consequently more research is proposed to validate these findings and fully explore the potential of this model.

  5. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  6. Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som

    2015-12-01

    Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt.

  7. Foliar Application of Potassium Fertilizer to Reduce the Effects of Salinity in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Molahoseini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The potato of commerce (Solanum tuberosum L. is an annual dicot species. It is an autotetraploid with 4x=48 chromosomes. In Iran the consumption per capita of potato is over the 35 kg. Potato production is usually done without reducing yield in the irrigation water salinity 1-2 dS m-1, but 4.2 dS m-1 salinity reduces yield by 26 percent. 10, 25 and 50 percent yield reduction have been reported in soil electrical conductivity 2.5, 3.8 and 5.9 dS m-1, respectively . Between the ability of plant species to maintain potassium levels and their tolerance to salinity is positive correlation and on this basis nutritional irregularity due to increased salinity can be compensated by increasing of potassium fertilizer. In tolerant plant species, during times of increased salinity, selective absorption of potassium increased. The ability of plants to maintain a certain level of K/Na within the cell is essential for salt tolerance and sometimes of these ratios is used as indicators of salinity tolerance. Potato yield in response to salt stress, according to a variety of uses, can be reduced from 20 to 85 percent. Harmful effects of salinity in the beginning stages of tubers and tuber growth stage are important, therefore, tuber number and tuber size are two important components of yield which may reduce in the effect of salinity. Accelerate the aging process of the shoot, unwanted earliness, are of the reasons for the reduction in tuber size. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in the agricultural and natural resources research center (31° 32´ N, 51° 51´ E, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. According to twenty years statistics, rainfall and temperature means for experiment location were 110 mm and 25 °C, respectively. The experiment was conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were three levels of foliar K application (control, K sulphate 10 ppm, and 2.5 ppm

  8. Transport of calcium in stolones of potato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.; Marschner, H.

    1974-01-01

    In hydroculture tests with potato plants, the 45 Ca displacement into the stolons depending on the growth rate and the degree of supply of Ca of the tuber as well as on the relative air humidity in the region of stolons and tubers was investigated. 45 Ca was either applied via the roots or via the stolon surface. With the 45 Ca supply via the root, only a small 45 Ca displacement into the stolon or tuber takes place if the stolon tip or the tubers were additionally supplied exagenously with Ca (CaSO 4 solution) or if the relative humidity of the air in the region of the stolons or tubers was high. At high relative air humidity around the tubers, there was no 'sink' effect of the tuber on the 45 Ca displacement in the stolon even if the Ca supply of the tuber was bad. 45 Ca applied via the stolon surface at high relative air humidity in the stolon region was practically exclusively displaced to the direction of the sprout. At low air humidity in the region of the stolen and tuber, on the other hand, the 45 Ca was well displaced into the stolon in the direction of the sprout or tuber after application via the root as well as via the stolon. (GSE/LH) [de

  9. Pectin engineering to modify product quality in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Heather A; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Hancock, Robert D; Verrall, Susan R; Morris, Jenny A; Tucker, Gregory A; Stewart, Derek; Hedley, Pete E; McDougall, Gordon J; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Although processed potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity as a potential factor impacting on textural properties, and the expression of a gene encoding an isoform of PME (PEST1) was associated with cooked tuber textural properties. In this study, a transgenic approach was undertaken to investigate further the impact of the PEST1 gene. Antisense and over-expressing potato lines were generated. In over-expressing lines, tuber PME activity was enhanced by up to 2.3-fold; whereas in antisense lines, PME activity was decreased by up to 62%. PME isoform analysis indicated that the PEST1 gene encoded one isoform of PME. Analysis of cell walls from tubers from the over-expressing lines indicated that the changes in PME activity resulted in a decrease in pectin methylation. Analysis of processed tuber texture demonstrated that the reduced level of pectin methylation in the over-expressing transgenic lines was associated with a firmer processed texture. Thus, there is a clear link between PME activity, pectin methylation and processed tuber textural properties. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Substancias con actividad citoquinínica estimulan la brotación de yemas en tubérculos de papa Substâncias com atividade citocinínica estimulam a brotação de gemas em tubérculos de batata Cytokinin-like substences activity promotes shoot sprouting in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Flórez

    2009-09-01

    ção coordenada de vários fitorreguladores. A presença de citocininas em S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia e em S. tuberosum L. variedades ICA-Única e Tuquerreña foi determinada em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento do tubérculo: 00 - tubérculo em estádio de dormência; 03 - tubérculo no final da dormência e brotos com 2 a 3 mm de comprimento; e 40 - início da tuberização, espessamento das extremidades dos estolões ao dobro do diâmetro inicial. As citocininas foram extraídas por cromatografia de camada delgada e sua detecção e quantificação observadas por meio do bioensaio da massa cotiledonar de rabanete (Raphanus sativus. Na espécie precoce S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia a presença de citocininas foi detectada em quantidades significativas nos estádios 00 e 03. Por outro lado, nas variedades de S. tuberosum L. as citocininas foram significativamente maiores no estádio 03 para 'ICA-Única' (variedade precoce, e a sua presença não foi detectada na var. Tuquerreña (variedade tardia. Demonstrou-se a relação direta entre a concentração de citocininas e a precocidade das variedades analisadas durante a tuberização: as citocininas estiveram presentes nas variedades precoces e ausentes na tardia.Before sprouting, potato tubers pass through a period of dormancy which has an specific time for each variety. When the conditions are suitable for tuberset, stolon elongation stops and swelling starts between two last nodes of each stolon. Many factors are involved in this process, but an important and coordinated action between hormones is proposed. Cytokinins levels in both S. tuberosum L. varieties ICA-Única and Tuquerreña and S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Criolla Colombia were quantified during different stages of tuber development: 00 - potato tuber in stage of dormancy; 03 - tubers in break dormancy with buds between 2 to 3 mm of length; and 40 - initiation of tuber formation; swelling and duplicating initial diameter

  11. Road and street smart lighting control systems as a new application area of the hot-potato protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiedrowski, Piotr; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Boniewicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the new application area of the hot-potato routing protocol, which is a “last-mile” communication network for controlling systems of road and street lighting. Four variants of the hot-potato protocol are analyzed with use of the graph theory. For the assessment of the traffic ...... parameters the ETX parameter is used in relation to the length of the shortest path. Proposed methods are independent of the media type and can be implemented either in wireless or PLC....

  12. Biological Control Of The Egyptian Brown Rot In Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Askora, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescence, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillus and streptomyces spp. Were used in control of Ralstonia solanacearum, the casual agent of brown rot in potato. In vitro, antagonistic activities showed that streptomyces spp. was the most antagonistic followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa respectively. Also, in vivo, biological control of R. solanacearum showed that Streptomyces spp. was found to reduce the percentage of brown rot infection to 5% followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa reducing the percentage of infection to 15 , 25 and 40%, respectively. Also, the disease severity when using Streptomyces spp. and P. fluorescence was reduced from 5 to 1 and reduced from 5 to 2 when using Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa.

  13. Rainfall thresholds as support for timing fungicide applications in the control of potato late blight in Ecuador and Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Perez, Willmer G.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulated rainfall thresholds were studied in seven field experiments conducted in Ecuador and Peru for their value in timing applications of fungicide to control potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Fungicide regimes based on accumulated rainfall thresholds ranging from 10 to 70...

  14. Improvement of root and tuber crops by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme is to breed cultivars which are more productive, more resistant to diseases and pests and which have better quality. Two Research Co-ordination Meetings in this programme were convened. They reviewed in detail the status and breeding research needs of the major root and tuber crops and other vegetatively propagated corps, viz. cassava, yam, sweet potato, potato and sugar cane. The participants presented their research achievements and difficulties, exchanged information, co-ordinated their future research and made recommendations

  15. Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.

  16. Bioactive Potential of Andean Fruits, Seeds, and Tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, David; Chirinos, Rosana; Gálvez Ranilla, Lena; Pedreschi, Romina

    2018-01-01

    The Andes is considered the longest continental mountain range in the world. It covers 7000km long and about 200-700km wide and an average height of about 4000m. Very unique plant species are endemic of this area including fruits (e.g., lucuma, cherimoya, sweet pepino, sauco), roots and tubers (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yacón, chicuru, mashua, olluco, etc.), and seeds (quinoa, amaranth, tarwi, etc.). These crops have been used for centuries by the native population and relatively recently have gained the world attention due to the wide range of nutrients and/or phytochemicals they possess. In this chapter, main Andean fruits, seeds, and roots and tubers have been selected and detailed nutritional and functional information is provided. In addition, traditional and current uses are provided and their bioactive potential is reported based on published scientific literature. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuberous Sclerosis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starting. For more information, talk with an assisted reproduction specialist at a fertility clinic. How common is ... skin Tubers, or thickened areas, found in the brain Nodules (round growths) found in the brain Subependymal ...

  18. Heritability for Yield and Glycoalkaloid Content in Potato Breeding under Warm Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides Manuel A. Gastelo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures affect potato production in the tropics, putting tuber yield and quality at risk and leading to increased glycoalkaloid concentration the cause of the bitter taste in potatoes and a cause for concern for human health. The International Potato Center (CIP, has developed new heat tolerant clones which are heat tolerant and also resistant to late blight. These clones offer an opportunity to evaluate yield and glycoalkaloid levels after growth under high temperature environments. We evaluated four sets of 16 full-sib families and 20 clones for tuber yield and glycoalkaloid content in order to estimate narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability respectively. We used a randomized complete block design replicated in three locations in Peru; San Ramon, La Molina and Majes At harvest, the number and weight of marketable and nonmarketable tubers were recorded. We analyzed samples of tubers from each clone for glycoalkaloid content using spectrophotometry. Narrow-sense heritability for tuber yield, tuber number and average tuber weight were 0.41, 0.50 and 0.83, respectively, indicating that further gains in breeding for heat tolerance will be possible. Broadsense heritability for glycoalkaloid content was 0.63 and correlation with tuber yield was weak, r=0.33 and R²=0.11 (P<0.01. High heritability and weak correlation will allow us to select clones with high tuber yield and low glycoalkaloid content, to serve as candidate varieties and parents in breeding programs.

  19. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Zhu

    Full Text Available Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  20. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Steen L.

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important aphid-transmitted virus affecting potato crops in Denmark. Because of a changed seed potato growing strategy, the seed potato area in Denmark is changing from regions with a low average temperature to regions...... with a higher average temperature. This means that the aphids may infest the potato crops earlier and the population development of the aphids may be faster, and consequently PVY may more easily become epidemic in seed potato crops. With a view to reducing the spread of PVY a 3-year experiment was carried out...... with a combination of mineral oil and insecticides. In 2005 and 2007 when a very high number of aphids were present, nearly all plants were infected with PVY. In 2006 with a lower number of aphids a smaller proportion of the plants were infected, and a tendency to a lower PVY incidence in mineral-oil treated plots...

  1. Effect of Transplanting Dates and Spacing on Yield Attributing Character, Productivity and Economics of Potato Cultivation Through True Potato Seed (TPS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Sen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in split plot design was conducted during the rabi season of 2001-02 and 2002-03 at Potato Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Anandapur,West Midnapore,West Bengal to study the effect of dates of transplanting and spacing on yield attributing character, productivity and economics of potato cultivation through true potato seed (TPS technology. The highest number of tubers per plant was recorded in early transplanted (December 3 crop, while, crop spacing did not produce any significant differences in recording tuber number per plant. Early established crop also produced significantly higher tuber weight per plant as compared to intermediate (December 11 and late (December 19 transplanted crops and widely spaced (60 x 15 cm crop recorded higher weight of tuber per plant as compared to the narrowly spaced crop. Early transplanting and wider spacing also showed its superiority in respect of recording harvest index of potato. As such, early transplanted and densely planted crops produced significantly higher yield of seedling tuber, marketable tuber and total tuber than their counterparts. Though cost of production of early transplanted and closely spaced crop was higher, but net profit and return per rupee investment was also higher in those cases.

  2. Simulación de un lavado hidráulico en tuberías para el control del crecimiento de biopelicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS_ F. CARVAJAL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un problema actual y de gran importancia en los sistemas de acueducto, el cual es la biopelícula que se desarrolla al interior de las paredes de las tuberías y que puede presentar problemas en la calidad del agua y predisposición de los usuarios respecto al servicio público que se presta. Se presenta una revisión de los mecanismos físicos que la generan y el control de la biopelícula en tuberías mediante el Lavado Hidráulico. En este caso se hace una simulación hidráulica aplicada a una red que permite conocer si se tienen zonas propensas a la formación de la biopelícula, considerando parámetros de velocidad de flujo y tiempo de permanencia de la zona en condiciones críticas. Se puede estimar si las presiones y velocidades obtenidas están en el rango aceptado por el ente regulador del servicio. Además, se pueden definir criterios de simulación y operación en una red para el control de la biopelícula.

  3. Contribution to the study of the effect of a low dose of gamma irradiation on seeds and tubers before planting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvy, A.

    1968-01-01

    From 1962 to 1965, 25 tests have been made with carrots (1 variety), radish (3 varieties), spinach (2 var.), tomatoes (2 var.), potatoes (2 var.), barley (2 var.), rice (3 var.) and corn (1 var.), with the object of studying the interest for agriculture of seed and tuber gamma irradiation at low dose before planting. These tests were made in the laboratory, in greenhouses and in the open field, all necessary care being taken for a valuable statistical analysis of- the results. Special attention was paid to the homogeneity of plant material by controlling more particularly moisture content of seeds and the storage conditions of tubers. The observations concerned germination, growth at early stages, development phases and yield of leaves, roots and fruit. Some stimulation cases are observed. For tomatoes, it is found that stimulation cases occur at extreme moisture content and not in the range of mean moisture content which corresponds to maximum radioresistance. The demonstration of these effects is related to varieties, complementary treatments, conditions of cultivation and observation criteria. In most cases, they are short-lived and suitable modifications of seed conditioning produce, upon controls, an effect equivalent to that of irradiation. In conclusion, it seems very unlikely - considering our cultivation methods - that seed and tuber irradiation before planting could be of interest for agriculture. (authors) [fr

  4. Phytoalexins as Possible Controlling Agents of Microbial Spoilage of Irradiated Fresh Fruit and Vegetables During Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, S. A. [Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Commission, Cairo (Egypt)

    1978-04-15

    The decline in bio generating capacity to form natural antibiotic compounds (phytoalexins), rishitin and lubimin in potato tubers and rishitin in tomatoes, after gamma irradiation seems to be the essence of the suppression of natural immunity exhibited by an increase in per cent of rotted tubers and fruits during storage. In vitro studies postulated that the rot-causing fungi Phytophthora infestons (Mond) De Bary, Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) James and Grout, Botrytis cinerea Persson., Fusarium oxysporum Syder and Hansen and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenberg were significantly controlled by the application of phytoalexins that had been initially formed by potato tubers (rishitin), tomato fruits (rishitin) and pepper fruits (capsidiol). In vivo studies revealed that post-irradiation treatment of potato tubers and tomato fruits with phytoalexins that had been produced by the same plant organ or by another of the same family seems to be experimentally feasible to reduce the radiation dose or increase the efficiency of irradiation in controlling microbial spoilage during storage of irradiated potatoes and tomatoes. (author)

  5. Phytoalexins as possible controlling agents of microbial spoilage of irradiated fresh fruit and vegetables during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The decline in biogenerating capacity to form natural antibiotic compounds (phytoalexins), rishitin and lubimin in potato tubers and rishitin in tomatoes, after gamma irradiation seems to be the essence of the suppression of natural immunity exhibited by an increase in per cent of rotted tubers and fruits during storage. In vitro studies postulated that the rot-causing fungi Phytophthora infestans (Mond) De Bary, Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) James and Grout, Botrytis cinerea Persson., Fusarium oxysporum Syder and Hansen and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenberg were significantly controlled by the application of phytoalexins that had been initially formed by potato tubers (rishitin), tomato fruits (rishitin) and pepper fruits (capsidiol). In vivo studies revealed that post-irradiation treatment of potato tubers and tomato fruits with phytoalexins that had been produced by the same plant organ or by another of the same family seems to be experimentally feasible to reduce the radiation dose or increase the efficiency of irradiation in controlling microbial spoilage during storage of irradiated potatoes and tomatoes. (author)

  6. Lung commitment in Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, Jorge A; Araque G, Julio Mario; Camargo P, Carlos B

    1992-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare hereditary anomaly characterized by hamartomas in many parts of the body. Lung involvement is found in only one of 100 cases. In this case report we present a patient with lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis

  7. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port. Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer,. Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for ...

  8. Analysis of seed and ware potato production systems and yield constraints in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldiz, D.O.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the seed and ware potato production systems in Argentina and their possible yield constraints in order to develop specific strategies to increase seed quality and tuber yield.

    This thesis starts with a survey of the actual potato

  9. Detection of Glycoalkaloids and Chlorophyll in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to detect and quantify chlorophyll (Chl) and total glycoalkaloid concentrations (TGA) in potatoes. To create a set of tubers with different concentrations of Chl and TGA, potatoes of four varieties were wounded...

  10. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  11. Potentials for the production of industrial basic material from native tuber crops and perspectives for their utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittenhelm, S.; Dambroth, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the present paper the potentials of native tuber crops for the production of raw material for the industry are discussed and the first results presented. The following points are especially important: Based on their high yield potential the potato and the Jerusalem artichoke are especially valuable as industrial crops. First breeding results with potato show that improvements in tuber yield, which are necessary for a better competitive ability are possible. To what extent hybrids between our cultivated potato and different primitive forms can be used as industrial potatoes has to be tested. In order to reduce production input the resistance against nematodes and lade blight is most important for the production of basic populations of potatoes for industrial purposes. The succes of breeding Jerusalem artichoke depends on solving the problems of bad seed set.

  12. Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) are chloride-sensitive: Is this dogma valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütsch, Birgit W; Keipp, Katrin; Glaser, Ann-Kathrin; Schubert, Sven

    2018-06-01

    Chloride sensitivity of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Marabel and Désirée was investigated in two pot experiments (soil/sand mixture and hydroponics). It was tested whether there are differential effects of KCl and K 2 SO 4 application on tuber yield and tuber quality, and whether both potato cultivars differ in their chloride sensitivity. Tuber yield, dry matter percentage of the tubers, starch concentration and starch yield were not significantly affected by potassium source (K 2 SO 4 or KCl). After exposure to salt stress in hydroponics (100 mmol L -1 NaCl, 50 mmol L -1 Na 2 SO 4 , 50 mmol L -1 CaCl 2 ) for 5 days, 3-week-old potato plants had significantly reduced shoot dry mass after NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 application. However, CaCl 2 treatment did not significantly affect shoot growth, although the chloride concentration reached 65 to 74 mg Cl - mg -1 dry matter, similar to the NaCl treatment. In contrast, growth reductions were closely related to sodium concentrations, thus plants suffered sodium toxicity and not chloride toxicity. Both potato cultivars are chloride-resistant and can be fertilised with KCl instead of K 2 SO 4 without the risk of depression in tuber yield or tuber quality. The statement that potatoes are chloride-sensitive and that chloride has negative effects on yield performance needs reconsideration. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. A new generation starch product as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .3. Parameters affecting controlled drug release from tablets based on high surface area retrograded pregelatinized potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TeWierik, GHP; Eissens, AC; ArendsScholte, AW; Bolhuis, GK

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the general applicability of a new pregelatinized starch product in directly compressible controlled-release matrix systems. It was prepared by enzymatic degradation of potato starch followed by precipitation (retrogradation), filtration and washing with ethanol. The advantages

  14. A potato model intercomparison across varying climates and productivity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Fleisher, David; Condori, Bruno; Quiroz, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A potato crop multi-model assessment was conducted to quantify variation among models and evaluate responses to climate change. Nine modeling groups simulated agronomic and climatic responses at low- (Chinoli, Bolivia and Gisozi, Burundi) and high- (Jyndevad, Denmark and Washington, United States.......01). These are the first reported results quantifying uncertainty for tuber/root crops and suggest modeling assessments of climate change impact on potato may be improved using an ensemble approach....

  15. OSCILLATING MODE OF TOPINAMBUR TUBERS DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Golubkivich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of a chemical composition of tubers and green material of a topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus, high efficiency and ecological plasticity, profitability of growing, biotechnological potential of use enable to identify a topinambur as a of high-energy cultures of the future. High moisture of various topinambur parts, features of the mechanism of a heat and mass transfer set a problem of search of the new drying methods promoting to increase dehydration efficiency and produce a quality product. A method of calculation of duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying in a dense layer is worked out. The topinambur tubers cut on cubes with the side of 6 mm were taken as object of researches. Researches were conducted in the setting of various drying modes: two experiences at the oscillating mode with height of a material layer of 0.07 m and 0.17 m; and also as a check experiment was material drying at a constant temperature of the drying agent. Duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying was calculated on their basis of received curves of changes of moisture content at various modes of drying. Estimate indicators were confirmed with experimental data. Results of determination of duration of the oscillating modes of topinambur tubers drying proved that efficiency of the oscillating modes is 18 percent higher, than at control experiment.

  16. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabash, M; Orabi, I O [National Center for research and radiation Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Eloksh, I I; Abd-Alia, M A [Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs.

  17. Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.; Orabi, I.O.; Eloksh, I.I.; Abd-Alia, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs

  18. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisade Russet is a medium-late maturing, lightly russeted potato breeding clone notable for its resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) infection of foliage and tuber. Palisade Russet is suitable for processing with low tuber glucose concentrations observed following long-term storage ...

  19. Assessment of recent outbreaks of Dickeya sp (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) slow wilt in potato crops in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsror, L.; Erlich, O.; Lebiush, S.; Hazanovsky, M.; Zig, U.; Slawiak, M.; Grabe, G.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Haar, van de J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Suspected Dickeya sp. strains were obtained from potato plants and tubers collected from commercial plots. The disease was observed on crops of various cultivars grown from seed tubers imported from the Netherlands during the spring seasons of 2004-2006, with disease incidence of 2-30% ( 10% in

  20. Chemical Ecology of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, and Potential for Alternative Control Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François J. Verheggen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado potato beetle (CPB has been a major insect pest to potato farming for over 150 years and various control methods have been established to reduce its impact on potato fields. Crop rotation and pesticide use are currently the most widely used approaches, although alternative methods are being developed. Here we review the role of various volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in behavior changes of CPB that may have potential for their control. First, we describe all volatile and nonvolatile chemicals involved in host plant localization and acceptance by CPB beetles, including glycoalcaloids and host plant volatiles used as kairomones. In the second section, we present the chemical signals used by CPB in intraspecific communication, including sex and aggregation pheromones. Some of these chemicals are used by natural enemies of CPBs to locate their prey and are presented in the third section. The last section of this review is devoted a discussion of the potential of some natural chemicals in biological control of CPB and to approaches that already reached efficient field applications.

  1. Mutation breeding techniques and behaviour of irradiated shoot apices of potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harten, A.M. van.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes part of the investigations being carried out at the Institute of Plant Breeding, Wageningen into mutation breeding in potato; in particular, efforts to produce a di(ha)ploid tester clone for reliable mutation frequency data are described, the formation of adventitious roots and shoots from potato leaves, leaflets and stem parts in vivo is studied, and damage and recovery of irradiated potato tuber eyes is investigated. (G.T.H.)

  2. Variations in Zebra Chip disease expression and tuber biochemistry in response to vector density

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined effects of the number of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso)-positive psyllids feeding on potatoes to Lso titers, zebra chip disease (ZC) symptom severity, and levels of amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics in tubers harvested weeks later. Red La Soda and Russet Nor...

  3. The use of everolimus in the treatment of neurocognitive problems in tuberous sclerosis (TRON): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Elizabeth; McNamara, Rachel; Davies, D Mark; Owen-Jones, Eleri; Kirby, Nigel; Angel, Lianna; Drew, Cheney; Cannings-John, Rebecca; Smalley, Michelle; Saxena, Anurag; McDermott, Emer; Stockwell, Laura; de Vries, Petrus J; Hood, Kerry; Sampson, Julian R

    2016-08-11

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder affecting about 1 in 6000 people and is characterised by the development of tumours in many organs, including the skin and kidneys, and by a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations. TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND) occur in the majority of those with TSC, and they have a significant impact on patients and their families, given the everyday impact of TAND on education, employment, family and social life. The potential benefits of better treatment for TAND therefore include reduction in health care demands and wider benefits for patients and their carers. We have planned a single-centre, two-arm, individually randomised, phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of everolimus versus placebo in the treatment of neurocognitive problems in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Everolimus is a licensed medicine in this patient group, but for a different target of effect. The present trial is a proof-of-principle study developed to provide effect size estimates which may be used to inform the design of subsequent trials. Forty-eight patients aged 16-60 years with tuberous sclerosis who have an IQ >60 and a significant deficit (at least -2 SD) in one or more primary outcome measures will be randomly allocated in a ratio of 2:1 to receive everolimus or placebo, respectively. Participants will be assessed for eligibility and then be started on study medication 4 weeks later. They will then be randomised and receive placebo or everolimus for 24 weeks. Neurocognitive and safety assessments will be carried out at baseline and weeks 4, 12, 24 and 36. This study is designed to determine the effect sizes of treatment with everolimus or placebo for 6 months on specific neurocognitive functions-recall memory (verbal and non-verbal) and executive function-in people affected by TSC who have significant deficits in these functions. These data will provide new evidence to determine whether

  4. A simple kit for rapid field diagnosis of potato virus Y by latex serological test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarne Kurppa

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple kit for rapid detection of potato virus Y by latex serological test was developed. The test is carried out on a white cardboard sheet and the results can be read by naked eye in two minutes. A test card of 10 x 6 cm holds latex sensitized antibodies, buffers and other necessary ingredients as dry blue colored formulate on the ringed areas of the card. A test card includes space for six tests and positive and negative controls. The kit also includes disposable plastic sticks for mixing the samples with test reagents and a hand press with disposable plastic tips. For testing, dried reagents are dissolved in drops of sample and mixed. After gentle rotation, samples containing virus appear clearly granulated while samples from healthy plants remain unagglutinated. The testing of undiluted extracts of evenly developed tuber sprouts resulted in over 91 % identity with the results obtained with ELISA that was used as a control method. Testing of diluted leaf extracts reached the same reliability but undiluted leaf extracts from glasshouse grown potatoes were not well suitable as test samples because of their dark green color. No such problems occurred with field grown material and a complete identity with the ELISA readings was true when the samples included secondarily infected potato plants. No reaction to other potato viruses than PVY was obtained by the test kit.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on potato meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds in potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 8 and 12 Krad is studied at histological level. The irradiation was supplied at the beguining and end of the resting period, and the irradiated buds were observed at different stages of their development. Meristem's sensitivity depends on the state of activity involved at the moment of irradiation. Different parts of the meristem present different radiosensitivity, being the most radioresistant. (author) [es

  7. [Allelic state of the molecular marker for the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance gene H1 among Ukrainian and world cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelov, A V; Pilipenko, L A; Kozub, N A; Bondus, R A; Borzykh, A U; Sozinov, I A; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was determination of allelic state of the H1 resistance gene against the pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 of golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) among Ukrainian and world potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars. The allelic condition of the TG689 marker was determined by PCR with DNA samples isolated from tubers of potato and primers, one pair of which flanks the allele-specific region and the other one was used for the control of DNA quality. Among analyzed 77 potato cultivars the allele of marker associated with the H1-type resistance was found in 74% of Ukrainian and 90% foreign ones although some of those cultivars proved to be susceptible to the golden potato nematode in field. The obtained data confirm the presence of H1-resistance against golden nematode pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 among the Ukrainian potato cultivars and efficiency of the used marker within the accuracy that has been declared by its authors.

  8. A Medicago truncatula H+-pyrophosphatase gene, MtVP1, improves sucrose accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Wang, H Q; Xiang, W W; Chai, T Y

    2014-05-09

    We recently cloned MtVP1, a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase from Medicago truncatula. In the present study, we investigated the cellular location and the function of this H(+)-PPase in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). An MtVP1::enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion was constructed, which localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing MtVP1 had more robust root systems and redder shoots than wild-type (WT) plants under conditions of cold stress. Furthermore, overexpression of MtVP1 in potato accelerated the formation and growth of vegetative organs. The tuber buds and stem base of transgenic potatoes became redder than those of WT plants, but flowering was delayed by approximately half a month. Interestingly, anthocyanin biosynthesis was promoted in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and potato tuber buds. The sucrose concentration of transgenic potato tubers and tuber buds was enhanced compared with that of WT plants. Furthermore, sucrose concentration in tubers was higher than that in tuber buds. Although there was no direct evidence to support Fuglsang's hypothetical model regarding the effects of H(+)-PPase on sucrose phloem loading, we speculated that sucrose concentration was increased in tuber buds owing to the increased concentration in tubers. Therefore, overexpressed MtVP1 enhanced sucrose accumulation of source organs, which might enhance sucrose transport to sink organs, thus affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  9. Acrylamide in Japanese processed foods and factors affecting acrylamide level in potato chips and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ono, Hiroshi; Chuda, Yoshihiro; Yada, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Ohara-Takada, Akiko; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Mori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide concentrations in processed foods sold in Japanese markets were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods. Most potato chips and whole potato-based fried snacks showed acrylamide concentration higher than 1000 microg/kg. The concentrations in non-whole potato based Japanese snacks, including rice crackers and candied sweet potatoes, were less tha. 350 microg/kg. Those in instant precooked noodles were less than 100 microg/kg with only one exception. The effect of storage condition of potato tubers on acrylamide concentration in potato chips after frying was also investigated. Sugar content in the tubers increased during cold storage, and the acrylamide concentration increased accordingly. The concentrations of asparagine and other amino acids, however, did not change during the cold storage. High correlations were observed between the acrylamide content in the chips and glucose and fructose contents in the tubers. This fact indicated that the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in potato chips is reducing sugar, not asparagine content in the tubers. Effects of roasting time and temperature on acrylamide concentration in roasted green tea are also described.

  10. Effect of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of micropropagated potato plantlets and on the extent of disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M K; Tweddell, R J; Désilets, H

    2002-10-01

    Two micropropagated potato cultivars, Goldrush and LP89221, were inoculated into sowing trays with either Glomus etunicatum or G. intraradices in a greenhouse. After 2 weeks, plantlets were transplanted into pots and roots were challenged 7 days later with Rhizoctonia solani. At different times after R. solani infection, disease severity, mortality rate, root colonization levels, various growth parameters, and shoot mineral content were evaluated. In Goldrush, only inoculation with G. etunicatum led to a significant reduction in disease severity, ranging between 60.2% and 71.2%, on both shoot and crown. This decrease was not observed in LP89221. Compared with the control plantlets, inoculation of Goldrush with G. etunicatum or G. intraradices reduced significantly the mortality rate by 77% and 26%, respectively, whereas vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi did not significantly influence the mortality rate in LP89221. In Goldrush, inoculation with G. etunicatum significantly increased shoot fresh weight, root dry weight and the number of tubers produced per plant, whereas G. intraradices only significantly increased the number of tubers. Tuber and root fresh weights of both potato cultivars were significantly reduced by R. solani infection. However, R. solani-infected plantlets of both Goldrush and LP89221, inoculated with G. etunicatum, produced significantly greater tuber fresh weight than non-VAM plantlets. In R. solani-infected plantlets of Goldrush but not LP89221, G. etunicatum and G. intraradices increased root fresh weight by approximately 140.3% and 76.5%, respectively, compared with non-VAM plants. The potato cultivars Goldrush and LP89221 responded differently to VAM fungal inoculation and to R. solani infection in terms of shoot mineral content.

  11. Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology ... (FYM); V2 = 2.5 t/h fresh sesbania green manure (FSB) V3 = 5 t/ha FYM; and V4 = 5 t/ha FYM +2.5 ...

  12. Modifying glycoalkaloid content in transgenic potato – Metabolome impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolite profiling has been used to assess the potential for unintended composition changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers, which have been genetically modified (GM) to reduce glycoalkaloid content via the independent down-regulation of three genes SGT1, SGT2 and SGT3 known t...

  13. Looking ahead…how biotechnology may change potato storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been growing, harvesting, storing and characterizing tubers from transgenic potato plants for the past four years. The plants have low expression of the vacuolar invertase gene and were produced for research purposes by Jiming Jiang’s group at UW-Madison. We’ve analyzed sugars from over 2400...

  14. Yield and Nitrogen Assimilation of Potato Varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.) as Affected by Saline Water Irrigation and Organic Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, A.; Gadalla, A.M.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Ismail, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in lysimeter under controlled greenhouse conditions. Saline water was applied in different levels, i.e. fresh water, 3 and 6 dS/m. Organic manure were applied to soil at rates of 0, 2.6 and 5.2 kg/m2. Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labelled urea (10% a.e.) was applied at rate of 200 kg N/ha. 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer efficiency. Comparison held between the two potato varieties indicated that higher reduction in shoot dry weight was recorded with Nicola variety than Spunta one which irrigated with 6 dS/m water salinity level. Addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 organic rate induced an increase in N uptake with fresh water and 3 dS/m salinity then tended to decrease with 6 dS/m level as compared to the untreated control. Concerning the nitrogen fertilization, data of 15 N analysis showed that, water salinity levels combined with organic addition rates were frequently affected the nitrogen derived from fertilizer and consequently the fertilizer use efficiency. Most of nitrogen was derived from the applied nitrogen fertilizer with maximum accumulation in tuber rather than shoots or roots of both potato varieties. Gradual increase of tuber starch with increasing salinity levels was noticed with addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 of organic matter. In general, Spunta variety showed some superiority in tuber starch over those of Nicola variety tuber

  15. Effect of Versaklin® bioproduct on Early Blight in potato cv. ‘Romano’ seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelenys Alvarado-Capó

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the need to produce potato seed (Solanum tuberosum L. with low inputs, this work was carried out with the aim of to determine the effect of the Versaklin® bioproduct on Early Blight (Alternaria solani Sorauer in the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. ‘Romano’ seed. Minitubers obtained as basic seed were used. A field experiment was designed with three treatments: application of Versaklin®, chemical products and control without application of products. The incidence and intensity of the disease were determined, the area under the disease progression curve (AUDPC was calculated and the technical effectiveness of the culture was estimated with Versaklin® or chemical products. In addition, the number of tubers per plant was quantified, the fresh and dry mass of the tubers were determined and it were classified by their diameter (caliber. Treatment with Versaklin® reduced incidence (30% and disease severity (23.0%. The AUDPC was found in a value between control and chemical treatment. The superiority of the chemical treatment was verified by its technical efficiency and the potential of Versaklin® use because it reached a value that represents 60% of chemical treatment but with only one product. The number of tubers per plant had no significant differences among treatments. The highest proportion of tubers of caliber to be used as seed (35-45 mm occurred in the treatment with Versaklin®. The results indicated that Versaklin® bioproduct could be part of disease management strategies.   Key words: Alternaria solani, bioproduct, minitubers, Solanum tuberosum

  16. Tolerance of some potato mutants induced with gamma irradiation to drought in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Ayyoubi, Z.

    2006-04-01

    An in vitro selection program was conducted in order to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to drought. Potato mutant plants were obtained through a previously conducted mutation breeding program on three potato cultivars (Draga, Spunta, and Diamant) aimed at improving potato tolerance to salinity and resistance to late blight disease. In order to apply selection pressure, growth media (MS based) were prepared with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3% concentrations of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). As a result, three mutants were selected that were tolerant to water stress (i.e. drought tolerant) two of which came from the cultivar Draga and one from Spunta. Physiological growth parameters (plant length, leaf number, branch number, roots number, leaf area, stomata number, and chlorophyll concentration content) were taken on the growing plantlets. The selected mutants were distinguished with some characteristics which can help in their tolerance to drought. Some of these characteristics were an increase in leaf number, root number, and a decrease in stomata number. However a reduction in chlorophyll content was observed as compared with the control. These mutant lines will need further selection in the field for plants with larger tubers before they can be considered as certified lines. (author)

  17. Effect of irradiation on the post-harvest life of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob, F.; Badshah, N.; Jabeen, N.; Ayub, G.

    2004-01-01

    Research work was conducted to find out the effect of irradiation on the post-harvest life of potatoes. Cultivar Raja was obtained from Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, and irradiated by Cobalt-60 source at different doses 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 Krad at the Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab during the year 2002. The samples were then stored for three months at the Horticultural Research Farm, Malakandher, at a room temperature of 30-39 degree C and relative humidity of 29-63%. Various tests carried out at Food Science laboratory revealed that irradiation significantly affected the weight loss, sugars, starch, ascorbic acid, sprouting and specific gravity. It was observed that maximum sprouting has occurred in control (42.1%) followed by 5 Krad irradiated tubers (6.4%). While irradiation doses of 7.5, 10 and 15 Krad completely inhibited sprouting. Maximum percent decrease in weight (42.66%), reducing sugars (0.57%), non reducing sugars (0.87%), starch (12%), ascorbic acid (32%) and specific gravity (4%) were recorded for control while minimum percent decrease in weight (31.40%), reducing sugars (0.19%), non-reducing sugars (0.27%), starch (8.0%), ascorbic acid (12%) and specific gravity (1.7%) were noted for IS Krad irradiated tubers. Irradiation dose of 7.5 Krad seems to be better for the extension of shelf life of potatoes

  18. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M. Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N. Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N.; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60–80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17–20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95–105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300–3...

  19. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes......) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French fry acrylamide content....

  20. Use of induced mutations for potato improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, H.; Das, B.; Subramanyam, K.N.; Chandra, R.; Upadhya, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The investigations aim at the utilization of induced mutations for potato improvement. The effect of γ-rays was tested on selfed seeds and hybrid seeds as well as on tubers of several potato varieties. Chemical mutagens have been successfully employed to produce daylength neutral clones. An attempt to induce resistance against Pseudomonas solanacearum did not give conclusive results. Potato improvement in relation of yield and other characters of economic significance like maturity and attributes of tubers has been handicapped by several technical considerations world over. The crux of the problem lies in the narrow genetic base (variability) for potato breeders to work with. The use of mutation breeding, therefore, offers a good tool for this. Improvement by mutation breeding for the quantitative characters besides the resistance to disease and pest has been demonstrated in other crops like white mustard variety Primex (Anderson and Olsson, 1954), barley (Gustafsson, 1965) and peanut (Gregory, 1956). Keeping these in view and the success we had in isolating photoperiod insensitive types (Upadhaya et al, 1973, 1974) study was enlarged to use mutagens to increase as wide a spectrum as possible of the variability for quantative and qualitative characters. (author)

  1. Use of biology agents for the control phytosanitary in the minitubers production of potato in the acclimatization conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alberto Jimenez-Terry

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The employment of biological controls of pests and diseases is a technology with trends to increase at present for being economic, lasting and of beneficial results, related to the stability that they offer the ecosystem; avoiding the pollution of the environment produced by the application of pesticides. The present work was realized to evaluate the phytosanitary control on pests and diseases in the production of potato minitubers in acclimatization conditions. Combinations of agents Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus turhingiensis, Verticillum lecanii, Thrichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium viridens, were applied comparatively with the utilization of chemical products and a control without application. The results gave an efficient control of the chemical products and on the other hand, the biocontrol agents also exercised their role with valuable performance for the combinations of Trichoderma harzianum + Bacillus thuringiensis + Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma harzianum + Bacillus thuringiensis + Verticillum lecanii, in which the yields of minitubers per plant were superior with significant differences to the control. Evidently these results allowed the proposal of using these biocontrol agents for the acclimatization of potato vitroplants. Key words: Beauveria, control phytosanitary, in vitro plants, Ttrichoderma, Verticillum

  2. Purification and Partial Characterization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase and Its Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Invertase plays an important role in the hydrolysis of sucrose in higher plants, especially in the storage organs. In potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers, and in some other plant tissues, the enzyme seems to be controlled by interaction with an endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor. An acid invertase from potato tubers (variety russet) was purified 1560-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity by consecutive use of concanvalin A-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography, Sephadex G-150 chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography. The enzyme contained 10.9% carbohydrate, had an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 by gel filtration, and was composed of two identical molecular weight subunits (Mr 30,000). The enzyme had a Km for sucrose of 16 millimolar at pH 4.70 and was most stable and had maximum activity around pH 5. The endogenous inhibitor was purified 610-fold to homogeneity by consecutive treatment at pH 1 to 1.5 at 37°C for 1 hour, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, Sephadex G-100 chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex G-50-120 chromatography, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The inhibitor appears to be a single polypeptide (Mr 17,000) without glyco groups. The purified inhibitor was stable over the pH range of 2 to 7 when incubated at 37°C for 1 hour. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667287

  3. The effect of in vitro mycorrhization on growth characteristics, changes in endogenous hormones and performance of microplants in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro PARVIZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets were inoculated in vitro with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices and their growth response, performance and endogenous hormonal status evaluated. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design consisting of two potato cultivars (Agria and Sante and four culture media was conducted with four replications. The culture media included non-inoculated Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (control, inoculated MS medium, inoculated half-strength MS medium and inoculated MS medium without vitamins and sugar. To do inoculation, germinated spores of fungus were transferred to the root zone of plantlets. Colonization percentage, total chlorophyll content, internodes and stolon length, shoot diameter, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and the level of three endogenous hormones (total auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins were determined. In addition, mini-tuber production was assayed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results demonstrated that the effect of two factors on all characteristics including mini-tuber production was different significantly. Interaction between cultivar and inoculation systems was significantly associated with endogen auxins as well as all range of mini-tuber production. The inoculated MS medium showed the better results, but it did not have significant difference to half-strength MS in terms of plantlet performance and growing parameters. Responses of both cultivars to inoculation were very conspicuous in the production of endogen hormones. Higher endogen hormone levels were associated with elevated growth parameters, greater biomass production and better plantlet performance.

  4. THE RESEARCH OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS CONTENT AND THEIR CHANGES IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF POTATOES

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    Beáta Volnová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants with antioxidant properties. In this work we research the changes in the content of total polyphenols in five varieties of potatoes (Rumelia, Arwen, Megan, Malvína, Erídia. Potatoes were grown at the stage of full maturity from Matejovce nad Hornádom, region of Poprad. Total polyphenols we determined in whole peeled potatoes; in the outside part of peeled potato tubers (1 cm; in inside part of potato tubers (mean 2 cm and in the whole peel-boiled potatoes. The total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (λ = 765 nm and it was used lyophilized samples in ethanol extracts. In whole peeled potatoes was the content of total polyphenols in the range from 243.34 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Rumelia to 446.38 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Megan, in the outside part of peeled potato tubers was content in the range from 190.45 mg.kg-1 (cv. Rumelia to 446.84 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Malvína and in inside part of potato tubers from 245.51 mg.kg-1 to 446.26 mg.kg-1 DM (Arwen < Rumelia < Megan < Erídia < Malvína. In the whole peel-boiled potatoes was the lowest content of total polyphenols in variety Rumelia (252.5 mg.kg-1 DM and the highest content in variety Megan (440.54 mg.kg-1 DM. Results were statistically evaluated by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA – Multiple Range Tests, Method: 95.0 percent LSD using statistical software STATGRAPHICS (Centurion XVI.I, USA and the regression and correlation analysis (Microsoft Excel was used.

  5. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems. II - The effects of temperature under 24-h and 12-h photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Steffen, Kenneth L.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of temperature and the photoperiod length on the growth and tuberization of Norland potatoes were investigated for two photoperiods, 12-h and 24-hr at 400 micromol/sq m per sec PPF, and at temperatures of 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 C. It was found that stem length increased with increasing temperature under both photoperiods. The highest tuber yield was obtained at 16 C under the 24-hr photoperiod and at 20 C under the 12-hr photoperiod (i.e., increasing the photoperiod from 12 to 24 hrs effectively decreases the optimal temperature for tuber formation). Little or no tuber formation occurred at 28 C under either photoperiod.

  6. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

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    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. �Balady�, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  7. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  8. Multimodel Inference for the Prediction of Disease Symptoms and Yield Loss of Potato in a Two-Year Crop Rotation Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.; Vos, J.; Grasman, J.

    2012-01-01

    The second order Akaike information criterion was used for the assessment of 139 regression models for three responses of potato test crops: (a) incidence of Spongospora subterranea on the harvested tubers, (b) percentage of haulms infected with Verticillium dahliae, and (c) tuber yield. Six

  9. EFFECT OF COMPLEX FERTILIZERS USED IN EARLY CROP POTATO CULTURE ON LOAMY SAND SOIL

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    Wanda Wadas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a high tuber yield of early crop potato good conditions for plant growth must be ensured. Potato has a relatively shallow root system and requires significant nutrient inputs to maintain tuber productivity and quality. The paper presents the results of the research on the effect of complex fertilizers type NPK MgS with and without microelements from the nitrophoska (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 and the amophoska group (Polimag S, and single-nutrient fertilizers on the plant growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’ on loamy sand soil. The field experiment was carried out in mideastern Poland (52°03'N, 22°33'E. Potatoes were harvested 75 days after planting (the end of June. The type of fertilizer (single-nutrient or complex fertilizer slightly affected the growth of potato plants. With the use of complex fertilizers, the assimilation leaf area and leaf area index (LAI were similar to the application of single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the examined complex fertilizers, Viking 13 (representing the nitrophoska group without microelements resulted in a smaller increase of assimilation leaf area in comparison with the cultivation without mineral fertilization. The type of fertilizer exerted a greater influence on the plant growth of ‘Aster’ (Poland than ‘Fresco’ (The Netherlands and ‘Gloria’ (Germany. The productive effects of complex fertilizers in early crop potato culture on loamy sand soil were comparable with single-nutrient fertilizers. The highest tuber yield was achieved with the application of Nitrophoska Blue Special (from the nitrophoska group with the lowest NNH4+ concentration; the total tuber yield was higher on average by 2.94 t*ha-1 (21.0% and the yield of marketable tuber fraction (diameter above 30 mm by 2.55 t*ha-1 (20.4% in comparison with the cultivation without mineral fertilization. Although the total tuber yield was a little

  10. Ação de acibenzolar-s-methyl isolado e em mistura com fungicidas no controle da requeima da batata Action of acibenzolar-S-methyl, isolated and in a mixture with fungicides on potato late blight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus G. Töfoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar o desempenho de acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH isolado e em mistura com os fungicidas mancozeb, chlorothalonil e metaxyl-M+chlorothalonil no controle da requeima da batata, foram realizados dois experimentos em cultivos comerciais nos municípios paulistas de Pilar do Sul (cv. Baraka e Bragança Paulista (cv. Asterix, de maio a agosto e agosto a outubro de 2001, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições, com cada parcela medindo 25 m². Durante os experimentos foram realizadas um total de 10 pulverizações, a intervalos de 5 a 10 dias com pulverizador costal munido de barra de aplicação contendo 5 bicos TXKV26, pressão constante (4 bar e volume médio de 800 L/ha. Avaliou-se a severidade nas folhas (0 a 100%, nas hastes ( escala de notas de 1 a 5 e a produtividade comercial de tubérculos. O BTH apresentou efeitos significativos de controle quando utilizado isolado e em mistura com fungicidas de contato e sistêmico. Os maiores aumentos relativos de produtividade foram verificados para as misturas de BTH com mancozeb e chlorothalonil.To evaluate the performance of acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH, alone and mixed with mancozeb, chlorothalonil and metaxyl-M+chlorothalonil, for the control of potato late blight, two experiments were carried out in commercial crops in the counties of Pilar do Sul (cv. Baraka and Bragança Paulista (cv. Asterix, state of São Paulo, Brazil, from May to August and August to October 2001, respectively. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications, with each plot measuring 25 m². A total of 10 sprayings was done at 5- to 10-day intervals with a backpack sprayer using a 5-nozzle (TXKV26 spray wand, constant pressure of 4 bars (58 psi and average volume of 800 L/ha. Evaluations were done in regard to the severity on the leaves (0 to 100%, on the stems (score from 1 to 5 and the commercial yield of tubers. BTH presented expressive effects

  11. Physico-chemical properties of starches isolated from potato cultivars grown in soils with different phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Magali; Carmo, Ezequiel L; Fernandes, Adalton M; Franco, Célia M L; Soratto, Rogério P

    2016-04-01

    Starch is the major component of potato tubers, amounting approximately to 150-200 g kg (-1) of the tuber weight. Starch is considered to be a major factor for the functionality of the potato in food applications. This study evaluated the physical characteristics of potato starches isolated from tubers of different potato cultivars grown in soil with three levels of phosphorus (P) availability. All potatoes were growing according the same method. The starches were isolated by physical methods and the samples were analyzed for the amylose, P content, paste properties (RVA) and thermal properties of gelatinization and retrogradation (DSC). Experimental data were analyzed considering the potato cultivars and the three soil P availability. For all measured parameters significant impact of cultivar and soil P availability was determined. Phosphorus contents in potato starches ranged from 0.252 to 0.647 g kg(-1) and amylose from 27.18 to 30.8%. Starches from different potato cultivars independent of soil showed a small range of gelatinization temperature. All starches showed low resistance heating and shear stress. The results showed the influence of growing conditions (soil P availability) and also of the differences between the potato cultivars on important characteristics of applicability of starches. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Rhizoctonia solani infection reduced by bacterial and fungal combination of biofertilizer inoculums on organic potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Orsolya; Biro, Borbala; Abod, Eva; Jung, Timea; Tirczka, Imre; Drexler, Dora

    2017-04-01

    Soil biological functioning and proper agrotechnical management are of key importance in organic agriculture. Beneficial microbial inoculums are used either as plant strengthening products (psp) or also as plant protecting products (ppp). Question is, which type of microbes should be applied to certain soil-plant systems to improve yield or reduce the damage of soil-born plant pathogens? Objective of present study was to compare the effect of inoculums 1 (PPS) with plant growth promoting bacterium strains (PGPR) and inoculums 2 (TPB) with potential biocontrol-agents, including both fungi and bacteria in organic potato production. Field experiment was conducted at the Organic Research Station of the Szent István University (Babatpuszta, Hungary). Growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Demon) was studied in the two microbial treatments and control, in four replicates. The PPS inoculums included Pseudomonas protegens, Ps. jessenii and Strenotrophomonas maltophylia, with plant growth promoting (PGPR) effect. TPB inoculums consisted of Trichoderma hartianum, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis strains with main biocontrol effects of fungal and bacterium combination. Strains were incubated for 24 hours at 28 oC in a rotary shaker (140 rpm/min) up till cell-number about 1010 cell.ml-1 in Nutrient broth substrate, and mixed to prepare combined inoculums. Each potato tuber was treated by 10 ml inoculums that was added to 100 ml water respectively with only water at the controls. Yield of potato (10 plants/plot) and tuber quality, i.e. the percentage ratio of scabbiness (Streptomyces scabies), Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium sp. infection was estimated. Abundance of total aerob and anaerob heterotrophs, total microscopic fungi, pseudomonads bacteria and some sporeforming microorganisms was assessed by the most probable number (MPN) method in soil samples, collected four times during vegetation. Soil enzyme, dehydrogenase (DH) and fluorescein diacetate

  13. Comparison of alternative methods for the control of potatoes nematodes (globodera rostochiensis and Globodera pallida) in soils of SA Pobla. Majorca, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomila, I.; Olmo, D.; Rotger, B.; Rossello, M. I.; Nieto, A.; Rossello, J.; Lopez-Lopez, G.; Ibanez, A.; Sastre Conde, I.; Juan Serra, A.

    2009-07-01

    Among phytoparistic nematodes. Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera pallida represent one the highest problem of potato crop and as so need to be controlled years. Tradicionally, this control was performed through soil chemical disinfection before starting the crop. Nowadays most of the products used for this disinfection are eliminated from the market due to the UE directive 91/444. (Author)

  14. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  15. Observações sôbre as manchas ferruginosas internas (chocolate, em tubérculos de batatinha Observations on the internal brown spot of irish potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available É comum observar-se, em diferentes variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., principalmente quando cultivadas no chamado "período das águas", setembro-fevereiro , a presença de manchas ferruginosas no interior dos tubérculos, vulgarmente conhecidas pela denominação de "chocolate". Com a finalidade de constatar qual a região da batatinha onde4 elas se localizam, e de correlacionar a presença das manchas aos característicos externo* tais como aspereza da película, presença de brotos novos necrosados e, ainda, com o tamanho e forma dos tubérculos, foram feitas observações em diversas variedades e em clones criados no Instituto Agronômico.Observations were made with standard varieties and new clones of Irish potatoes (Solatium tuberosum L. to determine the localization of internal brown spots ("Chocolate" disease in the tubers. This disease is considered to be of physiological origin, and an attempt was made to correlate the internal brown spots with external characteristics of the tubers, such as size, shape, roughness of skin, and the presence of necrosis in young sprouts. The following results were obtained : a the presence of internal brown spots appears to be closely related to the variety and weather conditions during the growing season ; varieties such as Konsuragis and Ultimus give high percentages of internal brown spots when grown in the socalled rainy season (September to February. They do not show these symptoms in the dry season (March to August or under well controlled irrigation ; b internal brown spots have been found to appear more frequently in the apex and middle of the tubers than in their base; c a high correlation between rough skin and the presence of the disease in the tubers was noticed for varieties that have a tendency to show internal brown spots ; this was noticed even in case of tubers that due to unfavorable weather conditions showed two distinct phases of growth, one with a rough skin and the

  16. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y

    2014-09-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100 ± 10 °C die temperature and 15 ± 2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Urek; S Širca; Stare Geric; B Dolničar; P Strajnar

    2008-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultiva...

  18. Feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Wahid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a study conducted to explore the possibility of extending the storage life of potatoes, onions and garlic, which pose a serious storage problem in the hot summer months. Potatoes of the Ultimus and Desiree varieties, stored at ambient room temperature (25-40 0 C), R.H. 40-50% and irrespective of the treatment, started rotting only two weeks after storage began and all the lots were completely destroyed by rot attack after a storage period of 12 weeks. The irradiated tubers (10krad) of both Ultimus and Desiree, stored at low temperature (14-16 0 C) and R.H. 60-70%, showed complete inhibition of sprouting. Sprouting was completely inhibited in irradiated onions (10krad) stored at ambient and low temperature during the whole storage period. The extent of loss due to rot attack after 150 days of storage at room temperature was 35 and 36% in control and irradiated bulbs, whereas at low temperature this loss was 22 and 15% respectively. Irradiated garlic (10krad), stored at room and low temperatures, showed complete inhibition of sprouting up to 6 months. However, the rot attack in control and irradiated bulbs stored at ambient room temperature was 46 and 54% respectively. It is concluded that radiation followed by storage at 14-16 0 C is the optimum condition for storing potatoes, onions and garlic in good condition for more than 5 months in tropical countries like Pakistan. (author)

  19. Determination of processing and nutritional quality attributes of potato genotypes in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Hafiz, I.A.; Hussain, A.

    2011-01-01

    The acceptability of potatoes for processing as french fries is largely dependent on the quality of the end products. Processing industry is totally dependent on the quality parameters of tuber to satisfy the increasing demand of customers. Thirty two potato genotypes for processing and yield quality traits were assessed for screening. Significant differences in all the quality parameters and various characteristics were found, while the genotypes; 394021-120, 9625, Kiran, NARC 2002-1, NARC 1-2006/1 and VR 90-217 gave the highest results regarding yield and quality of potato tubers except kiran, which has a high yield but low quality characters. The tuber sizes an d weight was also significantly different among genotypes except weight of big size tubers. Variations existed among genotypes in tuber characteristics (skin color, tuber shape, eye depth, flesh color and general appearance). The results regarding correlation studies indicated that french fry color exhibited negative correlation with reducing sugar (r = -0.7046), total sugars (r = -0.6659) and positive correlation with dry matter (r = 0.5013).This screening is helpful to the ongoing efforts to select the best genotype for the emerging processing industry of Pakistan. (author)

  20. Potato cv. Romano reaction to primary and secondary infection with potato necrotic strain Y virus (PVYNTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.

  1. Effect of packaging material on nitrate nitrogen content of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, N.I.; Koushik, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of packaging materials on nitrate nitrogen content of irradiated potatoes was investigated. Tubers were irradiated at 10, 30 and 100 Krads and stored for 12 wk at 5 degrees C in paper or plastic bags. Nitrate nitrogen content was significantly (p 0.01) higher in tubers packaged in plastic as compared to those in paper bags. Irradiation significantly (p 0.01) increased nitrate nitrogen content between the lowest and highest levels of treatment in tubers stored in both paper and plastic bags

  2. Variation of Growth and Disease Characters Between Clones of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Bång, H; Kotkas, K

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and magnitude of variation of selected characters in clones derived from meristem tips of four potato cultivars in field trials in three countries was assessed. Recorded were: the number of plants per plot; maturity of plants; skin and flesh colour; tuber deformity; time of emergence......; flowering; number of stems and tubers per plant; tuber size, yield and dry matter percentage; and the occurrence of common scab. Far more significant differences between clones than could be expected by chance were found for the last eight characters. Most of the significant differences for number of stems...... per plant, number of tubers, yield and tuber size distribution were found in six clones of three cultivars and were repeated at different locations and in different years. It is concluded that significant clone differences exist and are repeated at independent locations over the years...

  3. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  4. The anti-Phytophthora effect of selected potato-associated Pseudomonas strains: from the laboratory to the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk eGuyer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In organic farming, late blight is controlled by repeated applications of copper-based products, which negatively impact the environment. To find alternative solutions for late blight management, we have previously isolated a large collection of bacteria from the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of potatoes. Here we report the antagonistic potential of these strains when co-cultivated with P. infestans as well as with other potato pathogens. We then focused on three Pseudomonas strains and compared their protective impact against late blight to that of well-known biocontrol strains in planta using a high-throughput leaf disc assay with automated picture analysis. When sprayed on the leaves of potatoes in the greenhouse, the strains were able to survive for at least 15 days. Under field conditions, populations decreased faster but all tested strains could still be retrieved after 8 days. The most active strain in vitro, P. chlororaphis R47, was also the best protectant on leaf discs from plants grown in the greenhouse experiment, but its protection potential could not be verified in the field due to unfavourable infection conditions. However, its protective effect against P. infestans in planta, its survival in the phyllosphere as well as its ability to colonise the potato rhizosphere in very high population densities, suggest a potential for field application, e.g. in the form of tuber treatment or leaf spray.

  5. Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani on potato by using indigenous Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Emre Demirer

    2016-04-01

    At this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of Trichoderma isolates that was isolated from the soil samples taken from the different regions on black scurf and stem canker disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn that has been one of the biggest problems of the potato cultivation. At the end of the soil isolations, totally 81 Trichoderma isolates were obtained and their species were identified. Of these isolates, T. harzianum (42%), T. virens (31%), T. asperellum (15%) and T. viride (12%). All of the isolates were tested in vitro for their antagonistic activity against the R. solani isolate. The isolates that show high inhibition rate was selected and tested against R. solani in vitro. Potato plants were grown in a greenhouse for about 10 weeks. Then the plants were evaluated according to the scale, plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights were noted. The experiment was conducted two times in three replications. At the in vitro tests, generally, it was determined that Trichoderma isolates have inhibited to R. solani and in vivo, they were reduced the effects of the disease and they were raised the development of the plant. In particular, it was determined that some isolates of the T. harzianum and T. virens have reduced the severity of the disease. It was determined that both in vitro and in vivo isolates have shown different efficiency against R. solani.

  6. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  7. Comparison of two strategies for use of translaminar and contact fungicide in the control of potato late blight in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Leon, D.; Andrade-Piedra, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Strategies based on using the translaminar fungicide cymoxanil for control of potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, were compared in the highland tropics of Ecuador in three separate field experiments. In one strategy, a commercial formulation of cymoxanil mixed with mancozeb was ...

  8. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Soleimani-Delfan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668 and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669. Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains.

  9. The effect of storage of whole potatoes of three cultivars on the patatin and protease inhibitor content; a study using capillary electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, A.M.; Gruppen, H.; Diepenbeek, R. van; Lee, J.J. van der; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Wijngaards, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1999-01-01

    The content and biological activity of patatin and the protease inhibitors of molecular size 20-22 kDa present in whole potato tubers were investigated as a function of storage time. The amount of buffer-extractable protein decreased gradually during storage of whole potatoes of the cultivars Bintje

  10. Temperature-dependent regulation of sugar metabolism in wild-type and low-invertase transgenic chipping potatoes during and after cooling for low-temperature storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulation of sugar metabolism in cold-stored potato tubers has significant ramifications for potato chip and French fry producers and consumers. Though low-temperature storage reduces losses due to sprouting and disease, it induces accumulation of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. These rea...

  11. Influence of plastic mulch on damage and yield of yam tuber by yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design with three treatments: black plastic mulch, white plastic mulch and as unprotected control plot which were replicated three times. Data collected were, the number, depth and diameter of feeding holes on yam tuber (Dioscorea rotundata cv adaka), tuber yield and percentage yield increase over control as well as ...

  12. The differential gene expression of key enzyme in the gibberellin pathway in the potato (solanum tuberosum) mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.B.; Ye, G.J.; Yang, Y.Z.; Wang, F.; Zhou, Y; Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the expression patterns of the key genes in the gibberellin synthesis pathway in the potato dwarf mutant M4P-9 were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Using Actin as an internal control, CPS1, KS, KO, GA20ox1, and GA2ox1, genes for key gibberellin synthesis enzymes, were evaluated, along with a gibberellin receptor gene. The standard curves were obtained from dilutions of PCR product; the correlation coefficient for Actin was 0.995, and those for the target genes varied from 0.994 to 1.000. The expression patterns of gibberellin pathway genes in different growth stages and tissues were calculated according to the method of Pfaffl. These genes showed expression patterns that varied based on growth stage and tissue type. The higher expression levels of CPS1 and GA2ox1 in roots, the lower expression levels of GA20ox1 in roots during tuber formation stage; as well as the increased expression of GA20ox1 and GA2ox1 genes in stems during the tuber formation stage, likely play key roles in the plant height phenotype in M4P-9 mutant materials. This article provides a basis for researching the mechanism of gibberellin synthesis in potato. (author)

  13. Management of Potato Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghany, H.; Moussa, Z.; Abd El-Rahman, A.F.; Salem, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation aims to apply a safe practice to minimize potato losses due to soft rot disease of tubers kept under ambient temperature. In this regard, gamma irradiation was used to extend keeping quality through its effect on soft rot bacteria. Eight bacterial isolates were recovered on Logan’s medium from kitchen kept tubers with symptoms of soft rot disease. Five isolates were found pathogenic and tentatively identified as Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense on the basis of the usual bacteriological methods. A molecular method using 16SrDNA sequence analysis for verification of the identity of two isolates was made. The two bacterial isolates, Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays. Complete inhibition occurred at doses 2.5 and 2.0 KGy for high densities (Approximately 4.0x10"9 CFU/ml) of P. atrosepticum and P. carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, respectively. The D10 value of gamma irradiation was 0.24 KGy for P. atrosepticum and 0.20 KGy for P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Irradiation of artificially infected tubers with soft rot bacteria using the two mentioned D10 doses for the two bacterial species increased the shelf life of tubers kept under ambient temperature. The internal chemical quality of tubers was shown to be improved by keeping the tubers under ambient temperature after irradiation by the two D10 doses 0.24 and 0.20 KGy

  14. Efficiency of clinorotation usage on virus-infected seed potatoes for its improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Ivan; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Dunich, Alina; Mishchenko, Anatoliy; Boiko, Anatolii

    Potato crop as a food staple takes a fourth place in the world by impotence after wheat, maize, and rice. Under present-day conditions, the role of this crop will invariably grow up, as fighting hunger is a number one problem in the 21st century. Planting material quality is very important for profitable potato production, and this quality is determined by the absence of disease-including organisms in tubers. Viral diseases cause much damage to crop production. Planting material tubers infected with viruses are an important source of the primary inoculum and infection is transferred in a mechanical way. Without effective methods of viral disease control, the losses of yield are considerable, as well as potato quality determination, so the obtaining of virus free planting material is a primary task for the planting material producers. During the last decades, the progress in potato viral disease control is connected with tissue culture research activities, as a result of which it became possible to obtain virus -free tabers from the varieties formerly completely infected. The use of meristem-tip culture for the obtaining of virus free plants has been based on the assumption that viruses were not able to penetrate the meristem tissues of the buds. Later on, it was found out that viruses penetrated into the meristems but the remediation of plants occurs in the process of tissue culture in vitro. Up to date hypotheses of remediation from the viruses occurring in the process of in vitro culture show that an interrelation in the system “virus - host plant” is affected by many factors, but some intensive redox processes take place in the meristems, creating an environment in which viral replication becomes suppressed. An important part in phytoviral pathogenesis is played by abiotic environmental factors. Gravity is a necessary condition for the growth and spatial orientation of plants, whereas the disturbances of g-vector change the structure of plant organism, its

  15. [Active crop canopy sensor-based nitrogen diagnosis for potato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Fei; Qin, Yong-Lin; Fan, Ming-Shou

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County, Inner Mongolia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato. The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background. With the advance of growth stages, NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 = 0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration (R2 = 0.699) when plant fully covered soil. In conclusion, GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants. The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor.

  16. EFECTO DE DOS MICROORGANISMOS Y UN CONSORCIO DE MICORRIZAS EN COMBINACIÓN CON VIRUTA DE PINO SOBRE EL CONTROL DE SARNA POLVOSA (Spongospora subterránea EN PAPA EFECT OF TWO MICROORGANISMS, MYCORHIZE AND PINE WOOD SHAVINGS ON THE CONTROL OF POWDERY SCAB (Spongospora subterranea IN POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Restrepo Duque

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los efectos de dos biocontroladores potenciales, un consorcio de micorrizas y viruta de pino sobre el control de Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en papa Diacol Capiro muy susceptible a la sarna polvosa. El estudio se realizó en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú, corregimiento de Santa Elena Medellín a 2.550 msnm, temperatura media de 14 ºC y precipitación promedio anual de 2.500 mm. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y cinco tratamientos (Trichoderma harzianum; Producto comercial de micorrizas “Mikorhyze lote C7”; Pseudomonas fluorescents, viruta de pino y Testigo sin control. Se encontraron porcentajes de incidencia de la enfermedad en raíces (32% para el tratamiento testigo (sin control, aunque el porcentaje de severidad tanto del testigo como de los demás tratamientos fue bajo, el cual no superó el 0,23%. La expresión de síntomas en tubérculos mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el tratamiento testigo y la aplicación de T. harzianum, micorrizas y P. fluorescents a los tubérculos, al igual que la adición de la viruta de pino al suelo. Estos tratamientos redujeron la incidencia y severidad de la sarna polvosa en las raíces y tubérculos. Las variables fisiológicas peso seco de raíces, peso de tubérculos y peso seco de la parte aérea, no presentaron incrementos positivos ni diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos evaluados.The effect of two potential microorganism, mycorhize and pine wood shavings for management of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea in potato cultivar DIACOL Capiro were evaluated. This research was established at the Agricultural Center of Paysandú (Santa Elena - Medellín to 2,550 masL, average temperature of 14 ºC and average annual rainfall of 2,500 mm. A field experiment was established using a randomized complete design with four replications and five treatments (Trichoderma harzianum; Comercial product

  17. Dillapiol: a pyrethrum synergist for control of the Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S Q; Scott, I M; Pelletier, Y; Kramp, K; Durst, T; Sims, S R; Arnason, J T

    2014-04-01

    Dillapiol, the main constituent in dill Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Apiaceae) oil and wild pepper, Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae), is an effective cytochrome P450 inhibitor similar to piperonylbutoxide (PBO). Laboratory and field trials with pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) vis. extracts combined with dillapiol (1:5 and 1:16 ratio) were effective against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In the laboratory, pyrethrum efficacy was increased 2.2-fold with the SS strain and 9.1-fold with the RS strains by using pyrethrum + dillapiol. Two field trials with the pyrethrum + dillapiol formulation demonstrated efficacy > or = 10 times than that of pyrethrum alone. The residual activity (half-life) of the combination exposed to direct sunlight was 3 h but it increased to 10.7 h by adding 2% of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate.

  18. In vitro development of buds from tubers of (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the in vitro development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. Ths effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradiation is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (Author) 17 refs

  19. Natural variation of folate tuber content in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folates are essential vitamins in the human diet. Folate deficiency is still a common worldwide problem that is linked to various serious disorders, such as birth defects, certain types of cardiovascular diseases and cancers, megaloblastic anemia, impaired cognitive performance and depression. There...

  20. MULCHING MATERIALS OF PLANT ORIGIN AT POTATO GROWING IN ASTRAKHAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Bairambekov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phytogenous mulching materials based on local processed raw materials at potato cultivation in irrigated conditions of the Astrakhan region has allowed optimization of temperature and moisture regime of the soil. It was found that in case of the spring term of planting, the mulching has increased the soil temperature up to 0,6-0,9°C on April-May at a depth of 0,10 m as compared to the control. During heat period, mulching materials have decreased the soil temperature. Antecedent soil water under mulching materials in the phase of tubers formation was on 1,15-1,19 times higher than in the control variant without mulching. The most effective materials for the soils of different grain-size distribution were determined: for the heavy-loamy soil the best mulching material was straw, for the sandy loam soil the more efficient mulching was saw-dust.