WorldWideScience

Sample records for control method part

  1. A method of numerically controlled machine part programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Computer program is designed for automatically programmed tools. Preprocessor computes desired tool path and postprocessor computes actual commands causing machine tool to follow specific path. It is used on a Cincinnati ATC-430 numerically controlled machine tool.

  2. Redox control of electric melters with complex feed compositions. Part I: analytical methods and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Diemer, R.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The redox state of glass from electric melters with complex feed compositions is determined by balance between gases above the melt, and transition metals and organic compounds in the feed. Part I discusses experimental and computational methods of relating flowrates and other melter operating conditions to the redox state of glass, and composition of the melter offgas. Computerized thermodynamic computational methods are useful in predicting the sequence and products of redox reactions and in assessing individual process variations. Melter redox state can be predicted by combining monitoring of melter operating conditions, redox measurement of fused melter feed samples, and periodic redox measurement of product. Mossbauer spectroscopy, and other methods which measure Fe(II)/Fe(III) in glass, can be used to measure melter redox state. Part II develops preliminary operating limits for the vitrification of High-Level Radioactive Waste. Limits on reducing potential to preclude the accumulation of combustible gases, accumulation of sulfides and selenides, and degradation of melter components are the most critical. Problems associated with excessively oxidizing conditions, such as glass foaming and potential ruthenium volatility, are controlled when sufficient formic acid is added to adjust melter feed rheology

  3. An alternative method for noise analysis using pixel variance as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.; Young, K.; Lazzari, B.; Ravaglia, V.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Engen, R. van

    2009-01-01

    According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does

  4. Controlled parts management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, C.M.; Hidalgo, S.P.; Martinez, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Controlled Parts Management (CPM) system is based on industry standard practices for managing inventory. CPM is designed to record the movement of any type of inventory in a defined region referred to as an Account or SubAccount. The system is used to track the receiving, processing, storing and transfer of inventory parts. CPM provides information on parts, quantity and the exact location of the inventory. CPM is a barcode-based-part tracking system currently used to track controlled parts that are used in the R and D and testing of weapons; this tracking helps maintain the part pedigree that is required for certification of a weapon or weapon test. CPM includes bar code data collection software programmed into portable bar code readers for automating physical inventory services and remote transaction capture. CPM interfaces to other Engineering systems and supports a 'material content' of a weapons test through the test Bill of Materials and assignment of a unique inventory part in CPM. Additional functionality includes the ability to group or join parts, logically or physically and temporary or permanent, to represent discrete parts, containers, subassemblies and assemblies, and groupings.

  5. An alternative method for noise analysis using pixel variance as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, R; Broeders, M; Van Engen, R; Young, K; Lazzari, B; Ravaglia, V

    2009-01-01

    According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does not discriminate sufficiently between systems with and without additional noise besides quantum noise. This paper attempts to give an alternative and relatively simple method for noise analysis which can divide noise into electronic noise, structured noise and quantum noise. Quantum noise needs to be the dominant noise source in clinical images for optimal performance of a digital mammography system, and therefore the amount of electronic and structured noise should be minimal. For several digital mammography systems, the noise was separated into components based on the measured pixel value, standard deviation (SD) of the image and the detector entrance dose. The results showed that differences between systems exist. Our findings confirm that the proposed method is able to discriminate systems based on their noise performance and is able to detect possible quality problems. Therefore, we suggest to replace the current method for noise analysis as described in the European Guidelines by the alternative method described in this paper.

  6. Statistical method for the control of the electric power service interruptions (second part); Metodo de control estadistico de las interrupciones del servicio electrico (2a. parte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issouribehere, Pedro E.; Barbero, Juan C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Inst. de Investigaciones Tecnologicas para Redes y Equipos Electricos (IITREE-LAT)]. E-mail: iitree@.ing.unlp.edu.ar; Martinez, Jorge L.; Galinski, Alejandro [Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad (ENRE), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the register of interruptions in application points of the concession areas of three concessionaires. The reliability indexes are presented of the controlled sites: interruption ratio {lambda}, time of average reposition r and unavailability Q obtained with the field information recompiled during three years from June 2000. The paper also obtains by concessionaire, the ratios of brief interruptions occurrence which constitutes another indicator of the Electric Service Quality.

  7. Stimulus control: Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In his effort to distinguish operant from respondent conditioning, Skinner stressed the lack of an eliciting stimulus and rejected the prevailing stereotype of Pavlovian “stimulus—response” psychology. But control by antecedent stimuli, whether classified as conditional or discriminative, is ubiquitous in the natural setting. With both respondent and operant behavior, symmetrical gradients of generalization along unrelated dimensions may be obtained following differential reinforcement in the...

  8. Installation and working methods of a testing laboratory to establish a private control at the concrete plant (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haarmann, F.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEl ''Control de Calidad'' puede considerarse tan importante, desde un punto de vista práctico, que unas instalaciones adecuadas para el control, tanto de la producción como de los productos acabados, representan una seguridad en la calidad de los productos y en el rendimiento de la empresa. Con la ayuda de algunos ejemplos, el presente trabajo muestra las posibilidades existentes para mantener la calidad del producto a un elevado nivel, empleando para ello instalaciones de control de calidad, aumentando, además, el rendimiento y reduciendo los costos innecesarios. En la segunda parte de este trabajo se describen ocho centros de control de calidad de grandes y pequeñas dimensiones y de acuerdo con la disposición de la figura 1. Seguidamente se hacen algunas observaciones críticas respecto a la adquisición de instalaciones para realizar un adecuado control. En un apéndice del trabajo se representan esquemáticamente unas instalaciones para el control de áridos, del hormigón fresco y del hormigón endurecido.

  9. Field evalution of controling methods of mango fruit flies bactrocera zonata (Biptera:Tephritidae in the southern part of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khosravi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bactrocera zonata (Diptera, Tephritidae, is considered as a dangerous pest of mango in the south of Iran, which its control is one of the main concerns of farmers who are facing numerous problems. To assay the different methods for controlling B. zonata, this study was carried out. Method: The treatments were, A spraying 7% methyl eugenol+7% technical malathion on trunk and tree branches, B soaking 8-10 layers of jute sacks with previous treatment that were attached to tree branches, C bucket trap along with chipboard that was saturated with 6 ml of methyl eugenol, D spraying 3% protein hydrolysate+3 ppm malathion (EC 57% on the trunk and tree branches, E spraying 3% sugar permit+3 ppm malathion on the trunk and tree branches, and F control (no treatment. The experiments were repeated at two consecutive years. Results: The results confirmed that the differences among treatments and the effect of the year on the treatments were significant (p>1%. The treatment D captured the highest numbers of fruit flies in both years of replications. The treatments had significant effect on percentage of fruit infestation. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that treatments C and B had the greatest impact on pest control.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 76 - Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers B Appendix B to Part 76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES...

  11. Quality-control analytical methods: endotoxins: essential testing for pyrogens in the compounding laboratory, part 3: a simplified endotoxin test method for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James F

    2011-01-01

    The first two parts of the IJPC series on endotoxin testing explained the nature of pyrogenic contamination and described various Limulus amebocyte lysate methods for detecting and measuring endotoxin levels with the bacterial endotoxin test described in the United States Pharmacopeia. This third article in that series describes the endotoxin test that is simplest to permorm for pharmacists who prefer to conduct an endotoxin assa at the time of compounding in the pharmacy setting.

  12. Mosquito Control: Do Your Part

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Everyone can do their part to help control mosquitoes that can carry viruses like West Nile, Zika, dengue and chikungunya. In each episode of this podcast, you will learn ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes in and around your home.

  13. Prediction of forces and moments for flight vehicle control effectors. Part 1: Validation of methods for predicting hypersonic vehicle controls forces and moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughmer, Mark D.; Ozoroski, L.; Ozoroski, T.; Straussfogel, D.

    1990-01-01

    Many types of hypersonic aircraft configurations are currently being studied for feasibility of future development. Since the control of the hypersonic configurations throughout the speed range has a major impact on acceptable designs, it must be considered in the conceptual design stage. The ability of the aerodynamic analysis methods contained in an industry standard conceptual design system, APAS II, to estimate the forces and moments generated through control surface deflections from low subsonic to high hypersonic speeds is considered. Predicted control forces and moments generated by various control effectors are compared with previously published wind tunnel and flight test data for three configurations: the North American X-15, the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and a hypersonic research airplane concept. Qualitative summaries of the results are given for each longitudinal force and moment and each control derivative in the various speed ranges. Results show that all predictions of longitudinal stability and control derivatives are acceptable for use at the conceptual design stage. Results for most lateral/directional control derivatives are acceptable for conceptual design purposes; however, predictions at supersonic Mach numbers for the change in yawing moment due to aileron deflection and the change in rolling moment due to rudder deflection are found to be unacceptable. Including shielding effects in the analysis is shown to have little effect on lift and pitching moment predictions while improving drag predictions.

  14. Numerical computer methods part D

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to brief researchers of the importance of data analysis in enzymology, and of the modern methods that have developed concomitantly with computer hardware. It is also to validate researchers' computer programs with real and synthetic data to ascertain that the results produced are what they expected. Selected Contents: Prediction of protein structure; modeling and studying proteins with molecular dynamics; statistical error in isothermal titration calorimetry; analysis of circular dichroism data; model comparison methods.

  15. Numerical computer methods part E

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael L

    2004-01-01

    The contributions in this volume emphasize analysis of experimental data and analytical biochemistry, with examples taken from biochemistry. They serve to inform biomedical researchers of the modern data analysis methods that have developed concomitantly with computer hardware. Selected Contents: A practical approach to interpretation of SVD results; modeling of oscillations in endocrine networks with feedback; quantifying asynchronous breathing; sample entropy; wavelet modeling and processing of nasal airflow traces.

  16. Control method for prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  17. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  18. Optimal control linear quadratic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2007-01-01

    This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the

  19. Method of controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochihara, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactivity controlling characteristics by artificially controlling the leakage of neutron from a reactor and providing a controller for controlling the reactivity. Method: A reactor core is divided into several water gaps to increase the leakage of neutron, its reactivity is reduced, a gas-filled control rod or a fuel assembly is inserted into the gap as required, the entire core is coupled in a system to reduce the leakage of the neutron, and the reactivity is increased. The reactor shutdown is conducted by the conventional control rod, and to maintain critical state, boron density varying system is used together. Futher, a control rod drive is used with that similar to the conventional one, thereby enabling fast reactivity variation, and the positive reactivity can be obtained by the insertion, thereby improving the reactivity controlling characteristics. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  1. Numerical methods in nuclear engineering. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.J.

    1983-08-01

    These proceedings, published in two parts contain the full text of 56 papers and summaries of six papers presented at the conference. They cover the use of numerical methods in thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, neutron diffusion, subchannel analysis, risk assessment, transport theory, and fuel behaviour

  2. T-method duct design. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsal, R.J.; Behls, H.F.; Mangel, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for simulating HVAC duct systems, called T-method. The desirability of simulation appears in many HVAC problems, such as determining system operating efficiency, system retrofitting, nuclear plant normal/emergency conditions, fire/smoke control systems, fans operating in parallel, pressure balancing after system modification, and noise generated by dampers. T-method is capable of simulating these problems. This paper includes problem definition, a theoretical approach, calculation procedures, and many examples

  3. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part I: Modeling and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a work on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The study is performed from the perspective of giving a unitary control method to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. To illustrate the proposed HVAC control technique, in this first part it is considered as benchmark problem a single thermal space HVAC system. The construction of the mathematical model is performed only with a view to obtain a framework of HVAC intelligent control validation by numerical simulations. The latter will be reported in a second part of the study.

  4. Comparative Methods of Application of Wild Plant Parts on Growth and in the Control of Root Rot Fungi of Leguminous Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, N.; Dawae, S.

    2016-01-01

    Present research work was carried out for the management of root rot fungi with wild plant part capsules and pellets formulation in soil. When application of pellets and capsules was carried out with Prosopis juliflora stem, leaves and flowers showed significant reduction in disease incidence and enhancement in growth and physiological parameters. Colonization of Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani was completely suppressed when P. juliflora leaves pellets incorporated in soil. Physiological parameters such as chlorophyll a and b and protein were significantly increased when leaves pellets incorporated in soil at the rate of 1 percent w/w so P. juliflora leaves pellets were most effective in the control of root rot fungi and enhanced the growth of crop plants. (author)

  5. Method for controlling powertrain pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Karl Andrew; Spohn, Brian L; Demirovic, Besim; Martini, Ryan D; Miller, Jean Marie

    2013-10-22

    A method of controlling a pump supplying a fluid to a transmission includes sensing a requested power and an excess power for a powertrain. The requested power substantially meets the needs of the powertrain, while the excess power is not part of the requested power. The method includes sensing a triggering condition in response to the ability to convert the excess power into heat in the transmission, and determining that an operating temperature of the transmission is below a maximum. The method also includes determining a calibrated baseline and a dissipation command for the pump. The calibrated baseline command is configured to supply the fluid based upon the requested power, and the dissipation command is configured to supply additional fluid and consume the excess power with the pump. The method operates the pump at a combined command, which is equal to the calibrated baseline command plus the dissipation command.

  6. Quality control of injection moulded micro mechanical parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Quality control of micro components is an increasing challenge. Smaller mechanical parts are characterized by smaller tolerance to be verified. This paper focuses on the dimensional verification of micro injection moulded components selected from an industrial application. These parts are measured...... using an Optical Coordinate Measuring Machine (OCMM), which guarantees fast surface scans suitable for in line quality control. The uncertainty assessment of the measurements is calculated following the substitution method. To investigate the influence parameters in optical coordinate metrology two...

  7. Resistance test of high-speed ship by means of attitude control method. Part 2; Shisei seigyo hoshiki ni yoru kosokutei no teiko shiken. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, S [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    The previous paper has proposed a resistance test method by controlling the attitude of a high-speed model ship using a personal computer without making a data base. For this method, the fluid force acting on the hull of model ship is measured, to change its attitude based on the measurement, and then, the fluid force is measured again, to change the attitude again. The traveling attitude is created by repeating this, to measure the force acting on the hull. Since the attitude is changed by calculating using the fluid force measured, various factors can be considered in the calculation process. For example, a test with an arbitrary displacement in an arbitrary position of center of gravity can be conducted in spite of actual displacement and position of center of gravity of the model ship. A test for a high-speed ship was conducted through this method, to obtain nearly satisfactory results compared with a usual resistance test. Occasionally, a lot of repetitions were required to satisfy the balancing condition of the force. In this study, the improvement of testing efficiency has been planned by modifying the analyzing program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Methods for the quality control of macroaggregates and colloids labelled with technetium-99m. Part of a coordinated programme on radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifka, J.

    1975-09-01

    Comprehensive studies of the antimony sulphide and sulphur colloids labelled with sup(99m)Tc was performed by the authors. Similar studies dealing with human serum albumin macroaggregates labelled with sup(99m)Tc were also initiated. The labelling processes were studied to determine the possible chemical forms of technetium-99m not bound to the colloidal particles. It was found that pertechnetate-99m is not the only possible impurity in the case of the colloids. Technetium-99m may be present as an soluble tartrate complex in the case of antimony sulphide colloid or as a soluble chlorocomplex in the case of the sulphur colloid. Techniques for the control of these colloids were developed. A method for the determination of particle size of the sulphur colloid is also described

  9. Method for assembling dynamoelectric machine end shield parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Methods, apparatus, and systems are provided for automatically assembling end shield assemblies of subassemblies for electric motors. In a preferred form, a system and methods are provided that utilize a non-palletized, non-synchronous concept to convey end shields through a number of assembly stations. At process stations situated along a conveyor, operations are performed on components. One method includes controlling traffic of sub-assemblies by toggle type escapements. A stop or latch of unique design stops end shield components in midstream, and ''lifts'' of unique design disengage parts from the conveyor and also support such parts during various operations. Photo-optic devices and proximity and reed switch mechanisms are utilized for control purposes. The work stations involved in one system include a unique assembly and pressing station involving oil well covers; a unique feed wick seating system; a unique lubricant adding operation; and unique ''building block'' mechanisms and methods

  10. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  11. Coastal Erosion Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, V.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal erosion is bad because the ecosystem there will be washed away and the animals could drown or be displaced and have to adapt to a new ecosystem that they are not prepared for. I'm interested in this problem because if there aren't beaches when I grow up I won't be able to do the things I would really like to do. I would like to be a marine biologist. Secondly, I don't want to see beach houses washed away. I would like to see people live in harmony with their environment. So, to study ways in which to preserve beaches I will make and use models that test different erosion controls. Two different ideas for erosion control I tested are using seaweed or a rock berm. I think the rock berm will work better than the model of seaweed because the seaweed is under water and the waves can carry the sand over the seaweed, and the rock berm will work better because the rocks will help break the waves up before they reach the shore and the waves can not carry the sand over the rocks that are above the water. To investigate this I got a container to use to model the Gulf of Mexico coastline. I performed several test runs using sand and water in the container to mimic the beach and waves from the Gulf of Mexico hitting the shoreline. I did three trials for the control (no erosion control), seaweed and a rock berm. Rock berms are a border of a raised area of rock. The model for seaweed that I used was plastic shopping bags cut into strips and glued to the bottom of my container to mimic seaweed. My results were that the control had the most erosion which ranged from 2.75 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The seaweed was a little better than the control but was very variable and ranged from 1.5 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The rock berm worked the best out of all at controlling erosion with erosion ranging from 1.5 - 2 inches. My hypothesis was correct because the rock berm did best to control erosion compared to the control which had no erosion control and the model with seaweed.

  12. Subjects and methods of a population-based case-control study on life-style factors and cancer of the pancreas and the biliary system. Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueno de Mesquita HB; Heisterkamp SH; Moerman CJ; Runia S

    1989-01-01

    Gedurende de jaren 1984-1988 werd in Nederland een patient-controle onderzoek uitgevoerd in de algemene bevolking naar de relatie tussen levensstijl factoren met inbegrip van de voeding en het ontstaan van kanker van de alvleesklier en het galweg systeem. Het onderzoek maakte deel uit van het

  13. Quality demands and methods of control in the case of welded plastic-casing pipe joints. Part 1. Kontrolmetoder og kvalitetskrav til svejste kapperoerssamlinger af plast. 1. delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.; Svanum, M.

    1983-03-15

    The aim of the literary study was to attain knowledge relevant to the production and utilization of pre-insulated district heating pipes coated with polyethylene. Methods of testing for longevity and quality in addition to an evaluation of welding processes were also studied. It was concluded that welders should be specially trained and follow clearly specified working procedures and that their equipment should be standardized. (AB).

  14. Exact statistical analysis of nonlinear dynamic power reactor models by the Fokker--Planck method. Part II. Reactor with on-off control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debosscher, A.F.; Dutre, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the exact stochastic analysis of the low-frequency neutron density fluctuations in an on-off controlled nuclear power reactor without delayed neutrons and perturbed by Gaussian white reactivity noise. The stochastic process, being Markovian, is completely characterized by its first-order probability density function (pdf) and the transition pdf. The first-order pdf is the normalized solution to the time-independent Fokker--Planck equation (FPE). Using this pdf, a general expression for the moments is obtained. The conditions for stochastic stability in probability, in the mean, and in the mean-square are derived. The time-dependent FPE is solved using the Laplace transform technique, which results in four distinct expressions for the transition pdf, according to the relative magnitude of initial and final reactor power with respect to the regulator level. After Laplace inversion, a physical interpretation of the controller's effect on the stochastic process becomes possible. Finally, making use of the obtained pdf's, the spectral density of the reactor power fluctuations is calculated

  15. Chemical control methods and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller

    2011-01-01

    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  16. Some analytical methods for explosives: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1965-12-08

    This report is the second compilation of methods for analyzing explosives. All the methods were developed for routine performance by techniques, and an attempt has therefore been made to keep them as simple as possible. Methods are presented for analyzing plastic-bonded explosives based on sym-cyclomethylenetetra-nitramine (HMX), based on viton in addition to HMX, and based on pentraerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  17. Trust Control of VTOL Aircraft Part Deux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust control of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft has always been a debatable issue. In most cases, it comes down to the fundamental question of throttle versus collective. Some aircraft used throttle(s), with a fore and aft longitudinal motion, some had collectives, some have used Thrust Levers where the protocol is still "Up is Up and Down is Down," and some have incorporated both throttles and collectives when designers did not want to deal with the Human Factors issues. There have even been combinations of throttles that incorporated an arc that have been met with varying degrees of success. A previous review was made of nineteen designs without attempting to judge the merits of the controller. Included in this paper are twelve designs entered in competition for the 1961 Tri-Service VTOL transport. Entries were from a Bell/Lockheed tiltduct, a North American tiltwing, a Vanguard liftfan, and even a Sikorsky tiltwing. Additional designs were submitted from Boeing Wichita (direct lift), Ling-Temco-Vought with its XC-142 tiltwing, Boeing Vertol's tiltwing, Mcdonnell's compound and tiltwing, and the Douglas turboduct and turboprop designs. A private party submitted a re-design of the Breguet 941 as a VTOL transport. It is important to document these 53 year-old designs to preserve a part of this country's aviation heritage.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods A Appendix A to Part 63... to Part 63—Test Methods Method 301—Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods from Various Waste Media 1. Applicability and principle 1.1Applicability. This method, as specified in the applicable...

  19. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  20. Methods for adult education Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author presents five methods for adult education, primarily intended for use at the start of seminars, workshops, courses or other forms of teaching. The methods for generating participants awareness are particularly important in creating a motivational learning environment, and are primarily intended both to dispel fear and to establish closer links amongst the participants, thus hclping to allow at a later stage for effective exchanges of experience. Each method is presented through three elements: the nature of the teaching aim being followed, the way in which individual methods are put into practice, and the conditions which must be fulfilled if we are effectively to implement a particular method.

  1. Fuzzy logic control to be conventional method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eker, Ilyas [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Torun, Yunis [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Technical Vocational School of Higher Education

    2006-03-01

    Increasing demands for flexibility and fast reactions in modern process operation and production methods result in nonlinear system behaviour of partly unknown systems, and this necessitates application of alternative control methods to meet the demands. Fuzzy logic (FL) control can play an important role because knowledge based design rules can easily be implemented in systems with unknown structure, and it is going to be a conventional control method since the control design strategy is simple and practical and is based on linguistic information. Computational complexity is not a limitation any more because the computing power of computers has been significantly improved even for high speed industrial applications. This makes FL control an important alternative method to the conventional PID control method for use in nonlinear industrial systems. This paper presents a practical implementation of the FL control to an electrical drive system. Such drive systems used in industry are composed of masses moving under the action of position and velocity dependent forces. These forces exhibit nonlinear behaviour. For a multi-mass drive system, the nonlinearities, like Coulomb friction and dead zone, significantly influence the operation of the systems. The proposed FL control configuration is based on speed error and change of speed error. The feasibility and effectiveness of the control method are experimentally demonstrated. The results obtained from conventional FL control, fuzzy PID and adaptive FL control are compared with traditional PID control for the dynamic responses of the closed loop drive system. (author)

  2. Fuzzy logic control to be conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eker, Ilyas; Torun, Yunis

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demands for flexibility and fast reactions in modern process operation and production methods result in nonlinear system behaviour of partly unknown systems, and this necessitates application of alternative control methods to meet the demands. Fuzzy logic (FL) control can play an important role because knowledge based design rules can easily be implemented in systems with unknown structure, and it is going to be a conventional control method since the control design strategy is simple and practical and is based on linguistic information. Computational complexity is not a limitation any more because the computing power of computers has been significantly improved even for high speed industrial applications. This makes FL control an important alternative method to the conventional PID control method for use in nonlinear industrial systems. This paper presents a practical implementation of the FL control to an electrical drive system. Such drive systems used in industry are composed of masses moving under the action of position and velocity dependent forces. These forces exhibit nonlinear behaviour. For a multi-mass drive system, the nonlinearities, like Coulomb friction and dead zone, significantly influence the operation of the systems. The proposed FL control configuration is based on speed error and change of speed error. The feasibility and effectiveness of the control method are experimentally demonstrated. The results obtained from conventional FL control, fuzzy PID and adaptive FL control are compared with traditional PID control for the dynamic responses of the closed loop drive system

  3. Connecting inventory control and repair shop control : a differentiated control structure for repairable spare parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.A.; Rustenburg, W.D.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a control structure for integrating decisions on spare parts inventory control and the control of repair shops for maintenance spare parts. A dierentiated control structure is proposed for the various repair shop types recognized in practice. Decisions functions are mapped and

  4. SELECTION METHOD FOR AUTOMOTIVE PARTS RECONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Florin NITOI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents technological methods for metal deposition, costs calculation and clasification for the main process that helps in automotive technologies to repair or to increase pieces properties. Paper was constructed based on many technological experiments that starts from practicans and returns to them. The main aim is to help young engineers or practicians engineers to choose the proper reconditioning process with the best information in repairing pieces from automotive industry.

  5. Plasma facing parts and repairing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma facing parts of the present invention are constituted by joining an armour comprising a material having a high melting point and a cooling member comprising copper or the like. A metal member having good solderability with the cooling member is disposed on the joined surface of the armor member. In addition, the joined surface of the cooling member is provided with a barrier layer for preventing invasion of a solder. A solder having a low melting point is interposed between the armour and the cooling member. If they are heated entirely, the solder having low melting point is melted, so that the metal member having good solderability disposed on the armor member is soldered with the barrier layer for the cooling member. Upon exchange of the armour, the joint is heated again. Then, the solder having a low melting point is melted and the armour member and the cooling member are separated. If a solder is put on the cooling member and a new armour is placed and then heated, repairing is completed. (I.S.)

  6. Control system and method for prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the movable body part through the full-shrug position of the movable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the movable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective movable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  7. Maintenance Centered Service Parts Inventory Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.L. van Jaarsveld (Willem)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractHigh-tech capital goods enable the production of many services and articles that have become a part of our daily lives. Examples include the refineries that produce the gasoline we put in our cars, the photolithography systems that enable the production of the chips in our cell phones

  8. Shrinkage calibration method for μPIM manufactured parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Salaga, J.

    2016-01-01

    Five green and five sintered parts of a micro mechanical component, produced by micro powder injection moulding, were measured using an optical coordinate measuring machine. The aim was to establish a method for quality assurance of the final produced parts. Initially, the so called “green” parts...... were compared with the sintered parts (final products) calculating the percentage of shrinkage after sintering. Successively, the expanded uncertainty of the measured dimensions were evaluated for each single part as well as for the overall parts. Finally, the estimated uncertainty for the shrinkage...... was evaluated propagating the expanded uncertainty previously stated and considering green and sintered parts correlated. Results showed that the proposed method can be effective instating tolerances if it is assumed that the variability on the dimensions induced by the shrinkage equals the propagated expanded...

  9. Control Method for Variable Speed Wind Turbines to Support Temporary Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haijiao; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Quanyuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a control method for variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) to support temporary primary frequency control of power system. The control method contains two parts: (1) up-regulate support control when a frequency drop event occurs; (2) down-regulate support control when a frequen...

  10. Active Vibration Control of Plate Partly Treated with ACLD Using Hybrid Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model of plate partly treated with ACLD treatments is developed based on the constitutive equations of elastic, piezoelectric, viscoelastic materials and Hamilton’s principle. The Golla-Hughes-Mctavish (GHM method is employed to describe the frequency-dependent characteristics of viscoelastic material (VEM. A model reduction is completed by using iterative dynamic condensation and balance model reduction method to design an effective control system. The emphasis is concerned on hybrid (combined feedback/feedforward control system to attenuate the vibration of plates with ACLD treatments. The optimal linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG controller is considered as a feedback channel and the adaptive filtered-reference LMS (FxLMS controller is used as a feedforward channel. They can be utilized individually or in a hybrid way to suppress the vibration of plate/ACLD system. The results show that the hybrid controller which combines feedback/feedforward together can reduce the displacement amplitude of plate/ACLD system subjected to a complicated disturbance substantially without requiring more control effort. Furthermore, the hybrid controller has more rapid and stable convergence rate than the adaptive feedforward FxLMS controller. Meanwhile, perfect robustness to phase error of the cancellation path in feedforward controller and the weight matrices in feedback LQG controller is demonstrated in proposed hybrid controller. Therefore, its application in structural engineering can be highly appreciated.

  11. Methods of humidity determination Part II: Determination of material humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Rübner, Katrin; Balköse, Devrim; Robens, E.

    2008-01-01

    Part II covers the most common methods of measuring the humidity of solid material. State of water near solid surfaces, gravimetric measurement of material humidity, measurement of water sorption isotherms, chemical methods for determination of water content, measurement of material humidity via the gas phase, standardisation, cosmonautical observations are reviewed.

  12. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  13. A Method of Poisson's Ration Imaging Within a Material Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention, longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to display the data.

  14. Method of Poisson's ratio imaging within a material part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to displayed the image.

  15. A circular feature-based pose measurement method for metal part grasping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chenrui; He, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Xinyue

    2017-01-01

    The grasping of circular metal parts such as bearings and flanges is a common task in industry. Limited by low texture and repeated features, the point-feature-based method is not applicable in pose measurement of these parts. In this paper, we propose a novel pose measurement method for grasping circular metal parts. This method is based on cone degradation and involves a monocular camera. To achieve higher measurement accuracy, a position-based visual servoing method is presented to continuously control an eye-in-hand, six-degrees-of-freedom robot arm to grasp the part. The uncertainty of the part’s coordinate frame during the control process is solved by defining a fixed virtual coordinate frame. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the factors that affect measurement accuracy are analyzed. (paper)

  16. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue

    This Ph.D dissertation,ffAdditive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Controlff, deal with Additive Manufacturing technologies which is a common name for a series of processes that are recognized by being computer controlled, highly automated, and manufacture objects...... by a layered deposition of material. Two areas of particular interest is addressed. They are rooted in two very different areas, yet is intended to fuel the same goal. To help Additive Manufacturing technologies one step closer to becoming the autonomous, digital manufacturing method of tomorrow. Vision...... systems A paradox exist in the field of Additive Manufacturing. The technologies allow for close-to unrestrained and integral geometrical freedom. Almost any geometry can be manufactured fast, e"ciently and cheap. Something that has been missing fundamental capability since the entering of the industrial...

  17. Model Development for Auto Spare Parts Inventory Control and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... essential motivating factors for providing control in manufacturing companies has never showed any sign ... The management of these parts can only be done with the aid of a computer; ... perform a discrete event simulation of.

  18. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Jin; Hwang, Eui-Youp; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea.

  19. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Jin; Hwang, Eui-Youp; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea

  20. New sulphiding method for steel and cast iron parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelnyk, V.; Martsynkovskyy, V.; Gaponova, O.; Konoplianchenko, Ie; Dovzyk, M.; Tarelnyk, N.; Gorovoy, S.

    2017-08-01

    A new method for sulphiding steel and cast iron part surfaces by electroerosion alloying (EEA) with the use of a special electrode is proposed, which method is characterized in that while manufacturing the electrode, on its surface, in any known manner (punching, threading, pulling, etc.), there is formed at least a recess to be filled with sulfur as a consistent material, and then there is produced EEA by the obtained electrode without waiting for the consistent material to become dried.

  1. Contradictions of Control, Part 1: Administrators and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Linda M.

    1988-01-01

    Bureaucratic controls are at war with educational goals in our school system. This disharmony drastically affects the teacher/student relationship. The first in a three-part series, this article summarizes complex ethnographic data from the report "Contradictions of Control: School Structure and School Knowledge." Includes 6 references. (MD)

  2. Resonant power processors. II - Methods of control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruganti, R.; Lee, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of resonant converter control is discussed. Employing the state-portrait, different control methods for series resonant converter are identified and their performance evaluated based on their stability, response to control and load changes and range of operation. A new control method, optimal-trajectory control, is proposed which, by utilizing the state trajectories as control laws, continuously monitors the energy level of the resonant tank. The method is shown to have superior control properties especially under transient operation.

  3. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  4. Nuclear methods - an integral part of the NBS certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Within the past twenty years, new techniques and methods have emerged in response to new technologies that are based upon the performance of high-purity and well-characterized materials. The National Bureau of Standards, through its Standard Reference Materials (SRM's) Program, provides standards in the form of many of these materials to ensure accuracy and the compatibility of measurements throughout the US and the world. These standards, defined by the National Bureau of Standards as Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), are developed by using state-of-the-art methods and procedures for both preparation and analysis. Nuclear methods-activation analysis constitute an integral part of that analysis process

  5. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  6. Knowledge-based methods for control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis consists of three projects which combine artificial intelligence and control. The first part describes an expert system interface for system identification, using the interactive identification program Idpac. The interface works as an intelligent help system, using the command spy strategy. It contains a multitude of help system ideas. The concept of scripts is introduced as a data structure used to describe the procedural part of the knowledge in the interface. Production rules are used to represent diagnostic knowledge. A small knowledge database of scripts and rules has been developed and an example run is shown. The second part describes an expert system for frequency response analysis. This is one of the oldest and most widely used methods to determine the dynamics of a stable linear system. Though quite simple, it requires knowledge and experience of the user, in order to produce reliable results. The expert system is designed to help the user in performing the analysis. It checks whether the system is linear, finds the frequency and amplitude ranges, verifies the results, and, if errors should occur, tries to give explanation and remedies for them. The third part describes three diagnostic methods for use with industrial processes. They are measurement validation, i.e., consistency checking of sensor and measurement values using any redundancy of instrumentation; alarm analysis, i.e. analysis of multiple alarm situations to find which alarms are directly connected to primary faults and which alarms are consequential effects of the primary ones; and fault diagnosis, i.e., a search for the causes of and remedies for faults. The three methods use multilevel flow models, (MFM), to describe the target process. They have been implemented in the programming tool G2, and successfully tested on two small processes. (164 refs.) (au)

  7. Controlled Nonlinear Stochastic Delay Equations: Part I: Modeling and Approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2012-01-01

    This two-part paper deals with “foundational” issues that have not been previously considered in the modeling and numerical optimization of nonlinear stochastic delay systems. There are new classes of models, such as those with nonlinear functions of several controls (such as products), each with is own delay, controlled random Poisson measure driving terms, admissions control with delayed retrials, and others. There are two basic and interconnected themes for these models. The first, dealt with in this part, concerns the definition of admissible control. The classical definition of an admissible control as a nonanticipative relaxed control is inadequate for these models and needs to be extended. This is needed for the convergence proofs of numerical approximations for optimal controls as well as to have a well-defined model. It is shown that the new classes of admissible controls do not enlarge the range of the value functions, is closed (together with the associated paths) under weak convergence, and is approximatable by ordinary controls. The second theme, dealt with in Part II, concerns transportation equation representations, and their role in the development of numerical algorithms with much reduced memory and computational requirements.

  8. Concepts and Methods in Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Staroswiecly, M.; Wu, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to technical parts of the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control combines diagnosis with control methods to handle faults...

  9. Grinding Method and Error Analysis of Eccentric Shaft Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiming; Han, Qiushi; Li, Qiguang; Peng, Baoying; Li, Weihua

    2017-12-01

    RV reducer and various mechanical transmission parts are widely used in eccentric shaft parts, The demand of precision grinding technology for eccentric shaft parts now, In this paper, the model of X-C linkage relation of eccentric shaft grinding is studied; By inversion method, the contour curve of the wheel envelope is deduced, and the distance from the center of eccentric circle is constant. The simulation software of eccentric shaft grinding is developed, the correctness of the model is proved, the influence of the X-axis feed error, the C-axis feed error and the wheel radius error on the grinding process is analyzed, and the corresponding error calculation model is proposed. The simulation analysis is carried out to provide the basis for the contour error compensation.

  10. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 which are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  11. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; McCreery, P.N.; Shappert, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  12. Development of spraying methods for high density bentonite barriers. Part 3. Field investigation of spraying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Toida, Masaru; Fukuda, Katsumi; Sato, Tatsuro; Nonaka, Katsumi; Gozu, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of constructing high density bentonite barriers by means of a wet spraying method. Using this method, backfill material can be placed in narrow upper and side parts in a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Using a new supplying machine for bentonite, spraying tests were conducted to investigate the conditions during construction. On the basis of the test results, the various parameters for the spraying method were investigated. The test results are summarized as follows: 1. The new machine supplied about twice the weight of material supplied by a screw conveyor. A dry density of spraying bentonite 0.05 Mg/m 3 higher than that of a screw conveyor with the same water content could be achieved. 2. The dry density of sprayed bentonite at a boundary with concrete was the same as that at the center of the cross section. 3. The variation in densities of bentonite sprayed in the vertical downward and horizontal directions was small. Also, density reduction due to rebound during spraying was not seen. 4. Bentonite controlled by water content could be sprayed smoothly in the horizontal direction by a small machine. Also rebound could be collected by a machine conveying air. (author)

  13. Reference neutron radiations. Part 1: Characteristics and methods of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    ISO 8529 consists of the following parts, under the general title Reference neutron radiations: Part 1: Characteristics and methods of production; Part 2: Calibration fundamentals of radiation protection devices related to the basic quantities characterizing the radiation field; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosimeters and determination of response as a function of energy and angle of incidence. This Part 1. of ISO 8529 specifies the reference neutron radiations, in the energy range from thermal up to 20 MeV, for calibrating neutron-measuring devices used for radiation protection purposes and for determining their response as a function of neutron energy. Reference radiations are given for neutron fluence rates of up to 1x10 9 m 2 s-1 , corresponding, at a neutron energy of 1 MeV, to dose-equivalent rates of up to 100 mSv h -1 . This part of ISO 8529 is concerned only with the methods of producing and characterizing the neutron reference radiations. The procedures for applying these radiations for calibrations are described in ISO 8529-2 and ISO 8529-3. The reference radiations specified are the following: neutrons from radionuclide sources, including neutrons from sources in a moderator; neutrons produced by nuclear reactions with charged particles from accelerators; neutrons from reactors. In view of the methods of production and use of them, these reference radiations are divided, for the purposes of this part of ISO 8529, into the following two separate sections. In clause 4, radionuclide neutron sources with wide spectra are specified for the calibration of neutron measuring devices. These sources should be used by laboratories engaged in the routine calibration of neutron-measuring devices, the particular design of which has already been type tested. In clause 5, accelerator-produced monoenergetic neutrons and reactor-produced neutrons with wide or quasi monoenergetic spectra are specified for determining the response of neutron-measuring devices

  14. A method for the electrolytic coating of uranium or uranium alloy parts, and parts thus obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method, preceded by a surface treatment, for applying an electrolytic coating (e.g. of nickel) on uranium, or uranium alloy parts. This method is characterized in that the previous surface treatment comprises a chemical removal of grease in halogenated solvent bath (free from halogen ions) and an anodic scouring in a buffered aqueous solution solution of an acid free from halogen ions. The coating can be applied to fuel elements for nuclear industry, counter-weight for aeronautics and space industries and to radiation shields [fr

  15. Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were ... More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of ...

  16. Spare parts inventory control under system availability constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Kranenburg, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the tactical planning level for spare parts management. It describes a series of multi-item inventory models and presents exact and heuristic optimization methods, including greedy heuristics that work well for real, life-sized problems. The intended audience consists of

  17. Inventory of LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases. Methods and typology report part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    method(s) in Work package 8 (WP8) of the OMNIITOX project. The selection methods and the other CRS methods are described in detail, a set of evaluation criteria are developed and the methods are evaluated against these criteria. This report (Deliverable 11B (D11B)) gives the results from task 7.1d, 7.1e......This report describes an inventory of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) selection methods for assessing toxic releases. It consists of an inventory of current selection methods and other Chemical Ranking and Scoring (CRS) methods assessed to be relevant for the development of (a) new selection...... and 7.1f of WP 7 for selection methods. The other part of D11 (D11A) is reported in another report and deals with characterisation methods. A selection method is a method for prioritising chemical emissions to be included in an LCIA characterisation of toxic releases, i.e. calculating indicator scores...

  18. A new method of 3-D cephalometry Part I: the anatomic Cartesian 3-D reference system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, G.R.J.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Barth, E.L.; Groeve, P. De; Mey, A. De

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a new innovative three-dimensional (3-D) cephalometric method. Part I deals with the set-up and validation of a voxel-based semi-automatic 3-D cephalometric reference system. The CT data (DICOM 3.0 files) of 20 control patients with normal skeletal

  19. Clustering Methods; Part IV of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Two papers are included as Part Four of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Controlled Single Pass Classification Algorithm with Application to Multilevel Clustering" by D. B. Johnson and J. M. Laferente presents a single pass clustering method which compares favorably…

  20. Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the typical methods used by oil and gas pipeline companies to reduce the noise level associated with their pump and compressor stations. The common method is for the design engineer to specify an acceptable noise level at a specified distance. Unfortunately, the results by this method are rarely acceptable because vendors have not considered the effects of sound propagation outside the station, the owners have not considered the cumulative effect of various machinery, and there is little methodology available to distinguish the individual components which might be contributing the acoustically unacceptable noise levels in a multi-component system. This article stresses balanced noise control designs using noise control engineering

  1. Spectral shift reactor control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method of operating a nuclear reactor having a core and coolant displacer elements arranged in the core wherein is established a reator coolant temperature set point at which it is desired to operate said reactor and first reactor coolant temperature band limits are provided within which said set point is located and it is desired to operate said reactor charactrized in that said reactor coolant displacer elements are moved relative to the reactor core for adjusting the volume of reactor coolant in said core as said reactor coolant temperature approaches said first band limits thereby to maintain said reactor coolant temperature near said set point and within said first band limits

  2. Adaptive Control Methods for Soft Robots

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — I propose to develop methods for soft and inflatable robots that will allow the control system to adapt and change control parameters based on changing conditions...

  3. Spectral shift reactor control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impink, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of operating a nuclear reactor having a core and coolant displacer elements arranged in the core where there is established a reactor coolant temperature set point at which it is desired to operate the reactor and first reactor coolant temperature band limits within which the set point is characterized. The reactor coolant displacer elements are moved relative to the reactor core for adjusting the volume of reactor coolant in the core as the reactor coolant temperature approaches the first band limits to maintain the reactor coolant temperature near the set point and within the first band limits. The reactivity charges associated with movement of respective coolant displacer element clusters is calculated and compared with a calculated derived reactivity charge in order to select the cluster to be moved. (author)

  4. Bypass flow rate control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyama, Yoichi.

    1997-01-01

    In a PWR type reactor, bypass flow rate is controlled by exchanging existent jetting hole plugs of a plurality of nozzles disposed to the upper end of incore structures in order to flow a portion of primary coolants as a bypass flow to the upper portion of the pressure vessel. Two kinds of exchange plugs, namely, a first plug and a second plug each having a jetting out hole of different diameter are used as exchange plugs. The first plug has the diameter as that of an existent plug and the second plug has a jetting out hole having larger diameter than that of the existent plug. Remained extent plugs are exchanged to a combination of the first and the second plugs without exchanging existent plugs having seizing with the nozzles, in which the number and the diameter of the jetting out holes of the second plugs are previously determined based on predetermined total bypass flow rate to be jetted from the entire plugs after exchange of plugs. (N.H.)

  5. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Biotoxin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the pathogen methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  6. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Radiochemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the radiochemistry methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  7. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Pathogen Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the biotoxin methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  8. Quality Control Guidelines for SAM Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the chemistry methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  9. Nanosilicon properties, synthesis, applications, methods of analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Ischenko, Anatoly A; Aslalnov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and pro...

  10. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  11. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  12. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-04

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Controlling Precision Stepper Motors in Flight Using (Almost) No Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David

    2010-01-01

    This concept allows control of high-performance stepper motors with minimal parts count and minimal flight software complexity. Although it uses a small number of common flight-qualified parts and simple control algorithms, it is capable enough to meet demanding system requirements. Its programmable nature makes it trivial to implement changes to control algorithms both during integration & test and in flight. Enhancements such as microstepping, half stepping, back-emf compensation, and jitter reduction can be tailored to the requirements of a large variety of stepper motor based applications including filter wheels, focus mechanisms, antenna tracking subsystems, pointing and mobility. The hardware design (using an H-bridge motor controller IC) was adapted from JPL's MER mission, still operating on Mars. This concept has been fully developed and incorporated into the MCS instrument on MRO, currently operating in Mars orbit. It has been incorporated into the filter wheel mechanism and linear stage (focus) mechanism for the AMT instrument. On MCS/MRO, two of these circuits control the elevation and azimuth of the MCS telescope/radiometer assembly, allowing the instrument to continuously monitor the limb of the Martian atmosphere. Implementation on MCS/MRO resulted in a 4:1 reduction in the volume and mass required for the motor driver electronics (100:25 square inches of PCB space), producing a very compact instrument. In fact, all of the electronics for the MCS instrument are packaged within the movable instrument structure. It also saved approximately 3 Watts of power. Most importantly, the design enabled MCS to meet very its stringent maximum allowable torque disturbance requirements.

  14. MINIMIZING GLOVEBOX GLOVE BREACHES, PART IV: CONTROL CHARTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Lee, Michelle B.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium. isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebo gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGIP) was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, i.e., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation detennine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations.

  15. Adaptive Method Using Controlled Grid Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin FRUNZULICA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an adaptive method using the controlled grid deformation over an elastic, isotropic and continuous domain. The adaptive process is controlled with the principal strains and principal strain directions and uses the finite elements method. Numerical results are presented for several test cases.

  16. Methods for control over learning individual trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsel, A. A.; Cherniaeva, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    The article discusses models, methods and algorithms of determining student's optimal individual educational trajectory. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects.

  17. Controlled Nonlinear Stochastic Delay Equations: Part II: Approximations and Pipe-Flow Representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second part of a work dealing with key issues that have not been addressed in the modeling and numerical optimization of nonlinear stochastic delay systems. We consider new classes of models, such as those with nonlinear functions of several controls (such as products), each with is own delay, controlled random Poisson measure driving terms, admissions control with delayed retrials, and others. Part I was concerned with issues concerning the class of admissible controls and their approximations, since the classical definitions are inadequate for our models. This part is concerned with transportation equation representations and their approximations. Such representations of nonlinear stochastic delay models have been crucial in the development of numerical algorithms with much reduced memory and computational requirements. The representations for the new models are not obvious and are developed. They also provide a template for the adaptation of the Markov chain approximation numerical methods.

  18. Computationally efficient methods for digital control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro Tome Antunes, D.J.; Hespanha, J.P.; Silvestre, C.J.; Kataria, N.; Brewer, F.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of designing a digital controller is considered with the novelty of explicitly taking into account the computation cost of the controller implementation. A class of controller emulation methods inspired by numerical analysis is proposed. Through various examples it is shown that these

  19. A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields. Part II: Advanced control approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, E.F.; Rubio, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion, Area de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Carretera Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Canada, Almeria (Spain); Valenzuela, L. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, Carretera Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents a survey of the different advanced automatic control techniques that have been applied to control the outlet temperature of solar plants with distributed collectors during the last 25 years. A classification of the modeling and control approaches described in the first part of this survey is used to explain the main features of each strategy. The treated strategies range from classical advanced control strategies to those with few industrial applications. (author)

  20. The Robust Control Mixer Module Method for Control Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    into a LTI dynamical system, and furthermore multiple dynamical control mixer modules can be employed in our consideration. The H_{\\infty} control theory is used for the analysis and design of the robust control mixer modules. Finally, one practical robot arm system as benchmark is used to test the proposed......The control mixer concept is efficient in improving an ordinary control system into a fault tolerant one, especially for these control systems of which the real-time and on-line redesign of the control laws is very difficult. In order to consider the stability, performance and robustness...... of the reconfigurated system simultaneously, and to deal with a more general controller reconfiguration than the static feedback mechanism by using the control mixer approach, the robust control mixer module method is proposed in this paper. The form of the control mixer module extends from a static gain matrix...

  1. Novel magnetic controlled plasma sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelevich, A.; Rabinovich, E.; Golan, G.

    1996-01-01

    A novel method to improve thin film vacuum sputtering is presented. This method is capable of controlling the sputtering plasma via an external set of magnets, in a similar fashion to the tetrode sputtering method. The main advantage of the Magnetic Controlled Plasma Sputtering (MCPS) is its ability to independently control all deposition parameters without any interference or cross-talk. Deposition rate, using the MCPS, is found to be almost twice the rate of triode and tetrode sputtering techniques. Experimental results using the MCPS to deposit Ni layers are described. It was demonstrated that using the MCPS method the ion beam intensity at the target is a result of the interaction of a homogeneous external magnetic field and the controlling magnetic fields. The MCPS method was therefore found to be beneficial for the production of pure stoichiometric thin solid films with high reproducibility. This method could be used for the production of compound thin films as well. (authors)

  2. Iron ore sintering. Part 3: Automatic and control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de sinterización implica un gran número de parámetros, más de quinientos, cada uno de los cuales ejerce una mayor o menor influencia y necesita ser controlado, dentro de los límites posibles, con el fin de optimizar la productividad, la estabilidad del proceso, y la composición y la calidad de la sinterizado producido. Para cumplir con la legislación ambiental, un sistema de control de la contaminación debe monitorizar la composición de las partículas y los gases generados en la planta de sinterización y emitidos a la atmósfera. Los sistemas de automatización y control son herramientas vitales para ayudar a los operadores de la planta en el seguimiento de cada etapa del proceso de producción de sinterizado.

  3. Method and device for controlling reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, Masahisa; Masuda, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load following-up operation of a reactor adapted to perform power conditioning by the control of the liquid poison density in the core and by the control rods. Constitution: In a case where the reactor power is repeatedly changed in a reactor having a liquid poison density control device and control rods, the time period for the power control is divided depending on the magnitude of the change with time in the reactivity and the optimum values are set for the injection and removal amount of the liquid poison within the divided period. Then, most parts of the control required for the power change are alloted to the liquid poison that gives no effect on the power distribution while minimizing the movement of the control rods, whereby the power change in the reactor as in the case of the load following-up operation can be practiced with ease. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Development of test methods for quality control of LLW and MLW in cement or polymers (Parts 1 and 2). Task 3. Characterization of radioactive waste forms. A series of final reports (1985-1989) no. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, G. de; Marchetti, A.; Balzamo, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. In the first part, the qualification of samples arising from the cementation of low (LLW) and intermediate level ( MLW) radioactive wastes is studied. In particular, bead ion exchange resins, filter sludges, BWR evaporator concentrates and decontamination solutions have been taken into account. The properties of the final waste forms have been compared with the ones of laboratory scale samples. The qualification of the solidified wastes was performed according to the requirements of the Italian Regulatory Body. Particular attention is devoted to mechanical and thermal properties, biodegradability and behaviour versus water. In the second part, the influence of different parameters on the leaching of Cesium from cemented BWR evaporator concentrates (sulfates) is tested. In particular the influence of the variation of temperature, initial concentration of the tracer, renewal and chemical composition of the leachant, size of the sample, has been tested. 20 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs

  5. METHODS OF CONTROL DIPHTHERIA VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isayenko Ye. Yu

    2016-12-01

    of toxin it's examined the WHO's proposal to use an intradermal method on guinea pigs and tests on cell cultures. Attention is drawn to the fact that the determination of specific toxicity in cell culture can be carried out at presence of the approval of this method of a national control authority and sensitivity rates no less than in experiments on guinea pigs. The determining of specific toxicity of ready vaccine by subcutaneous method is described. The publication gave a test for elevated toxicity of the final product by intraperitoneal infection of mice and guinea pigs. It’s cited the WHO recommendations aimed at removing the possibility of recovery of the refined toxin toxicity. Checking vaccines toxicity, pyrogenicity, sterility, allergenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity and immunogenicity mainly performed on laboratory animals. The review examined the unreliability of animal experiments and the need to find alternative methods for determining the toxicity without their use particularly in light of the “3R”concept. Methods for determining diphtherial toxin using cell cultures is considered, namely, colony overlay test (COT, tests using a monolayer of HeLa cell culture, a culture of Vero cells (kidney cells of african green monkeys , a culture of CHO cells (cells of Chinese hamster ovary, which are based on the toxin cytopathic effect on sensitive cell culture. Their advantages and disadvantages are listed. An alternative method for the quantitative detection of C. diphtheriae toxin using the polystyrene plate coated with monoclonal antibody to the part of the diphtheria toxin which defines its binding to the cell, is described. It’s regarded the cytotoxic effect of diphtheria toxin on cells of the immune system of mice and guinea pigs: splenocytes, adhesive phagocytes i B- lymphocytes.

  6. Statistical learning methods: Basics, control and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: zimmerm@mppmu.mpg.de

    2006-04-01

    The basics of statistical learning are reviewed with a special emphasis on general principles and problems for all different types of learning methods. Different aspects of controlling these methods in a physically adequate way will be discussed. All principles and guidelines will be exercised on examples for statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics. These examples prove in addition that statistical learning methods very often lead to a remarkable performance gain compared to the competing classical algorithms.

  7. Statistical learning methods: Basics, control and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.

    2006-01-01

    The basics of statistical learning are reviewed with a special emphasis on general principles and problems for all different types of learning methods. Different aspects of controlling these methods in a physically adequate way will be discussed. All principles and guidelines will be exercised on examples for statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics. These examples prove in addition that statistical learning methods very often lead to a remarkable performance gain compared to the competing classical algorithms

  8. Two optimal control methods for PWR core control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karppinen, J.; Blomsnes, B.; Versluis, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Multistage Mathematical Programming (MMP) and State Variable Feedback (SVF) methods for PWR core control are presented in this paper. The MMP method is primarily intended for optimization of the core behaviour with respect to xenon induced power distribution effects in load cycle operation. The SVF method is most suited for xenon oscillation damping in situations where the core load is unpredictable or expected to stay constant. Results from simulation studies in which the two methods have been applied for control of simple PWR core models are presented. (orig./RW) [de

  9. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbunova A. V.; Maximova O. N.; Ekova V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding eva...

  10. [Scientific reductionism and social control of mind. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra Velázquez, Leonardo

    In the second part of this essay, the progressive subordination of scientific endeavor and knowledge of business and profit is pointed out. For instance, the way facts are prioritized over concepts and ideas in scientific knowledge can translate into technological innovation, central to enterprise competitiveness and key to social mechanisms of control (military, cybernetic, ideological). Overcoming the scientific reductionism approach indicates recognizing the need to define progress in another way, one that infuses scientific knowledge with real liberating and inquisitive power. Power is essential in the search for a more collaborative, inclusive and pluralistic society where respect for human dignity and care for the ecosystem that we live in are prioritized. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Strike Point Control on EAST Using an Isoflux Control Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhe; Xiao Bingjia; Luo Zhengping; Walker, M. L.; Humphreys, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    For the advanced tokamak, the particle deposition and thermal load on the divertor is a big challenge. By moving the strike points on divertor target plates, the position of particle deposition and thermal load can be shifted. We could adjust the Poloidal Field (PF) coil current to achieve the strike point position feedback control. Using isoflux control method, the strike point position can be controlled by controlling the X point position. On the basis of experimental data, we establish relational expressions between X point position and strike point position. Benchmark experiments are carried out to validate the correctness and robustness of the control methods. The strike point position is successfully controlled following our command in the EAST operation. (paper)

  12. Electronic Control Of Small Hydro-Generators Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez G, Alvaro; Romero A, Carlos E.

    1993-01-01

    This work is the beginning of several applied itineraries, to the government of micro-centrals, mainly directed to the control of electric variables of the generator with the desire of obtaining a system of electric generation to drop it climbs, economic, reliable and with great sense of use of the hydraulic resources guided to poor communities, isolated of the system of national interconnection. In all hydroelectric power station without caring their capacity is fundamental to govern the speed of the system turbine generator, to guarantee a constant frequency of 60 Hz, the stability of this parameter is a measure of the quality of the energy given to the user. The used regulation method is the mechanical governor, its action it is to control the flow of water that it enters to the turbine. For small generation power stations (smaller to 200 Kw), the mechanical governor's cost is comparable to the total cost of the plant, then it is economic to use an electronic load control. The project develops the load control whose function is to add external electric load to the generator to maintain the constant nominal active power and similar to the power nominal mechanics surrendered by the turbine. The microprocessor 8088 dedicated to the control of the system by the complexity of the process, the quantity of variables and the precision in the answer of the system is used. To carry out the investigation project a simulation program it was designed in computer that allows to know the answer of the load control ahead of time for different conditions of the user's operation. These results were answered with the obtained experimental values of the final tests of the team, throwing very near values to those calculated

  13. Methods of determining information needs for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Work has begun in the Main Data Center in the field of mining (Poland) on estimation in improvement of methods of determining information requirements necessary for control. Existing methods are briefly surveyed. Their imperfection is shown. The complexity of characteristics for this problem is pointed out.

  14. Effectiveness of weed control methods on pavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Verwijs, B.R.; Kempenaar, C.

    2007-01-01

    The policy in the Netherlands is to signifiantly reduce the use of herbicides, also on pavements. Existing non-chemical methods to control weeds are much less effective than spot spraying, the usual method at this moment. Therefore, the cost of non-chemical weed management is often estimated to be 4

  15. Method of controlling chaos in laser equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong-van, M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of controlling chaotic to laminar flows in the Lorenz equations using fixed points dictated by minimizing the Lyapunov functional was proposed by Singer, Wang, and Bau [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1123 (1991)]. Using different fixed points, we find that the solutions in a chaotic regime can also be periodic. Since the laser equations are isomorphic to the Lorenz equations we use this method to control chaos when the laser is operated over the pump threshold. Furthermore, by solving the laser equations with an occasional proportional feedback mechanism, we recover the essential laser controlling features experimentally discovered by Roy, Murphy, Jr., Maier, Gills, and Hunt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1259 (1992)

  16. Method of controlling chaos in laser equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-van, Minh

    1993-01-01

    A method of controlling chaotic to laminar flows in the Lorenz equations using fixed points dictated by minimizing the Lyapunov functional was proposed by Singer, Wang, and Bau [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1123 (1991)]. Using different fixed points, we find that the solutions in a chaotic regime can also be periodic. Since the laser equations are isomorphic to the Lorenz equations we use this method to control chaos when the laser is operated over the pump threshold. Furthermore, by solving the laser equations with an occasional proportional feedback mechanism, we recover the essential laser controlling features experimentally discovered by Roy, Murphy, Jr., Maier, Gills, and Hunt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1259 (1992)].

  17. LED lamp color control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  18. Method for control-room display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, R.

    1988-01-01

    This document describes a method for control-room displays design. It can be used either for isolated display to add to an existing system either for the design of a full system of operator aids. The method is a top-down design with steps of possible iteration. The emphasis is put on display design rather than on system design; system aspects are just mentioned. Advantages of using a method are described [fr

  19. Method of controlling the reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Akira; Nakakura, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To moderate vibratory response due to delayed operation thereby obtain stable controlled response in the operation control for a PWR type reactor. Method: the reactor operation is controlled by the axial power distribution control by regulating the boron concentration in primary coolants with a boron density control system and controlling the average temperature for the primary coolants with the control rod control system. In this case, the control operation and the control response become instable due to transmission delay, etc. of aqueous boric acid injection to the primary coolant circuits to result in vibratory response. In the present invention, signals are prepared by adding the amount in proportion to the variation coefficient with time of xenone concentration obtained from the measured value for the reactor power added to the conventional axial power distribution parameter deviation and used as the input signals for the boron concentration control system. As a result, the instability due to the transmission delay of the aqueous boric acid injection is improved by the preceding control by the amount in proportion with the variation coefficient with time of the xenone concentration. An advantageous effect can be expected for the load following operation during day time according to the present invention. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Robustness analysis method for orbit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Yang, Keying; Qi, Rui; Zhao, Shuge; Li, Yanyan

    2017-08-01

    Satellite orbits require periodical maintenance due to the presence of perturbations. However, random errors caused by inaccurate orbit determination and thrust implementation may lead to failure of the orbit control strategy. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the robustness of the orbit control methods. Feasible strategies which are tolerant to errors of a certain magnitude can be developed to perform reliable orbit control for the satellite. In this paper, first, the orbital dynamic model is formulated by Gauss' form of the planetary equation using the mean orbit elements; the atmospheric drag and the Earth's non-spherical perturbations are taken into consideration in this model. Second, an impulsive control strategy employing the differential correction algorithm is developed to maintain the satellite trajectory parameters in given ranges. Finally, the robustness of the impulsive control method is analyzed through Monte Carlo simulations while taking orbit determination error and thrust error into account.

  1. Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.

    1993-01-01

    Reduction of noise pollution at gas compressor stations associated with natural gas pipelines and distribution systems, has long been a complex problem. Specified noise levels of individual components tell nothing of the overall system when it is installed and placed in a site-specific setting. Further, testing for compliance performance guarantees is virtually impossible to conduct at a distant location because one cannot distinguish among various contributing noise sources. This paper develops a plan for calculating an estimate of sound generation from a compressor station and the methods for controlling and measuring sounds of individual components. It also classifies the types of noise and gives various methods of dealing with each noise type

  2. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén D; Andrén T

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick leave increases the likelihood of recovering and dominates full-time sick leave for sickness spel...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 261 - Representative Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative Sampling Methods I...—Representative Sampling Methods The methods and equipment used for sampling waste materials will vary with the form and consistency of the waste materials to be sampled. Samples collected using the sampling...

  4. Developing methods of measuring competitiveness of sterilized laboratory insects. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for control of Lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay-Marzso, L.

    1978-08-01

    Optical and acoustical equipment were developed and tested for measuring insect activity, one of the parameters used to assess insect quality. The acoustical equipment which recorded the sound generated by moving insects performed well in the laboratory but was either unsuitable to measure the activity of populations as opposed to pairs or was unsuitable under field conditions. The optical equipment, however, based on light interception, performed well in the field also. In other studies the fitness of insects receiving various treatments was assessed on the basis of release-recapture experiments, number of matings and percentage sperm transfer. These methods proved very sensitive but were more laborious compared to automated recordings

  5. Controle Remoto: principio de funcionamento (parte 1 de 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Almeida Cavalcante

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2013v30n3p554 Este trabalho tem como principal objetivo a difusão da utilização do micro-controlador Arduino, no ensino e aprendizagem de Física Moderna. Para isso, elaboramos uma sequência didática com o objetivo de explorar o funcionamento de controles remoto. Esta sequência será apresentada em dois módulos; o primeiro deles destinado ao estudo dos fenômenos físicos envolvidos na transmissão de sinais sem fio por meio de radiação infravermelha e, que será objeto desta 1ª parte do artigo. O segundo módulo destinado à compreensão do modelo associado à lógica e interpretação dos sinais pelo receptor infravermelho. Para este último, atividades são desenvolvidas acoplando o receptor IR da serie PNA4601M ao micro-controlador Arduino, que interpreta e executa ações a partir dos códigos recebidos. Todos os experimentos propostos nestes módulos visam tornar possível a compreensão não apenas do funcionamento de um controle remoto, mas de todo o processo de comunicação envolvido e dos diferentes comandos/códigos advindos de cada tecla. Pretendemos, com isso, explorar conceitos de física a partir de instrumentos e aplicações tecnológicas presentes no dia a dia dos estudantes, tornando as aulas de Física mais dinâmicas e motivadoras.

  6. A survey of quantum Lyapunov control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shuang; Meng, Fangfang

    2013-01-01

    The condition of a quantum Lyapunov-based control which can be well used in a closed quantum system is that the method can make the system convergent but not just stable. In the convergence study of the quantum Lyapunov control, two situations are classified: nondegenerate cases and degenerate cases. For these two situations, respectively, in this paper the target state is divided into four categories: the eigenstate, the mixed state which commutes with the internal Hamiltonian, the superposition state, and the mixed state which does not commute with the internal Hamiltonian. For these four categories, the quantum Lyapunov control methods for the closed quantum systems are summarized and analyzed. Particularly, the convergence of the control system to the different target states is reviewed, and how to make the convergence conditions be satisfied is summarized and analyzed.

  7. Feedwater control method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Mitsugu; Ichikawa, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Tanikawa, Naoshi; Mizuki, Fumio.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for easily changing the constitution of feedwater systems without causing change in the water level of a reactor even when a plurality of feedwater systems have imbalance points. Namely, a feedwater control device comprises at least two feedwater systems capable of feeding water to tanks independently respectively and a controller capable of controlling water level in the tanks by controlling these feedwater systems. There is disposed a means for outputting gradually increasing driving signals to other feedwater systems, when the water level controller automatically controls one of the feedwater systems. There is also disposed a means for switching from automatic control for one of the feedwater systems to automatic control for the other feedwater system by a water level controller when the other feedwater system is in a stable operation region. As a result, entire feedwater flow rate is not temporarily changed and the water level in the tanks can be maintained constant. (N.H.)

  8. Materials, methods and quality control, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vader, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the chemical reagents, the 125 I-labelled angiotensin I, the antiserum and the standards is given. A modified measuring method with the New England Nuclear kit for angiotensin I radioimmunoassay is presented as well as the quality control data

  9. An expert system for spare parts inventory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.Y.; Chen, P.Y.C.; Okrent, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system which can handle spare part requirements not only in corrective maintenance (CM) or preventive maintenance (PM), but also when failure rates of components or parts are updated by new data or by predictive maintenance (PDM), and which can also decide optimum stocking level of each spare part. This expert system provides a maintenance (or inventory) manager with an improved basis for decision making in the maintenance related to spare parts. The definitions of PM and PDM from NUREG-1212 (USNRC 1986) are used herein. This expert system used Intellignece/Compiler (Intelligence Ware, 1986) as a language/tool in the IBM-PC

  10. Advanced Control Architectures for Intelligent MicroGrids, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Chandorkar, Mukul; Lee, Tzung-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of advanced control techniques for microgrids. The paper covers decentralized, distributed, and hierarchical control of grid connected and islanded microgrids. At first, decentralized control techniques for microgrids are reviewed. Then, the recent developments in the...

  11. Automatic temperature control method of shipping can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Kaoru.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of rapidly and accurately controlling the temperature of a shipping can, which is used upon shipping inspection for a nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a measured temperature value of the shipping can is converted to a gas pressure setting value in a jacket of the shipping can by conducting a predetermined logic calculation by using a fuzzy logic. A gas pressure control section compares the pressure setting value of a fuzzy estimation section and the measured value of the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can, and conducts air supply or exhaustion of the jacket gas so as to adjust the measured value with the setting value. These fuzzy estimation section and gas pressure control section control the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can to control the water level in the jacket. As a result, the temperature of the shipping can is controlled. With such procedures, since the water level in the jacket can be controlled directly and finely, temperature of the shipping can is automatically controlled rapidly and accurately compared with a conventional case. (I.S.)

  12. Method of inspecting control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomomi; Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro; Hasegawa, Hidenobu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct inspection for control rod drives and fuel handling operations in parallel without taking out the entire fuel, while maintaining the reactor in a subcritical state. Method: Control rod drives are inspected through the release of connection between control rods and control rod drives, detachment and dismantling of control rod drives, etc. In this case, structural materials having neutron absorbing power equal to or greater than the control rods are inserted into the gap after taking out fuels. Since the structural materials have neutron absorbing portion, subcriticality is maintained by the neutron absorbing effect. Accordingly, there is no requirement for taking out all of the fuels, thereby enabling to check the control rod drives and conduct handling for the fuels in parallel. As a result, the number of days required for the inspection can be shortened and it is possible to improve the working efficiency for the decomposition, inspection, etc. of the control rod drives and, thus, improve the operation efficiency of the nuclear power plant thereby attaining the predetermined purpose. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Fuzzy logic controller using different inference methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; De Keyser, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the design of fuzzy controllers by using different inference methods is introduced. Configuration of the fuzzy controllers includes a general rule-base which is a collection of fuzzy PI or PD rules, the triangular fuzzy data model and a centre of gravity defuzzification algorithm. The generalized modus ponens (GMP) is used with the minimum operator of the triangular norm. Under the sup-min inference rule, six fuzzy implication operators are employed to calculate the fuzzy look-up tables for each rule base. The performance is tested in simulated systems with MATLAB/SIMULINK. Results show the effects of using the fuzzy controllers with different inference methods and applied to different test processes

  14. Methods of control the machining process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Petrakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Presents control methods, differentiated by the time of receipt of information used: a priori, a posteriori and current. When used a priori information to determine the mode of cutting is carried out by simulation the process of cutting allowance, where the shape of the workpiece and the details are presented in the form of wireframes. The office for current information provides for a system of adaptive control and modernization of CNC machine, where in the input of the unit shall be computed by using established optimization software. For the control by a posteriori information of the proposed method of correction of shape-generating trajectory in the second pass measurement surface of the workpiece formed by the first pass. Developed programs that automatically design the adjusted file for machining.

  15. Method of driving control rod in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osa, Hirotaka.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve security and safety of the reactor by reducing reactor output automatically and quickly when circulation of cooling water is stopped. Constitution: When the circulating pump is under operation, fluid pressure in the discharge pipe is transferred to the fluid room of fluid pressure cylinder via the control rod drive pipe and lift up the piston, and then the control rod is drawn out of the reactor core. When the circulating pump is lowered in its functions, discharge pipe fluid pressure decreases, fluid pressure in the fluid room decreases, and with less force of piston movement, the control rod gets lowered by its own weight. At this time, the blocked state of the opening by the piston is released, fluid flows into the room. Lowering of pressure and the control rod is promoted by transferring out fluid below the piston in the fluid room to the upper part of the piston via a small gap when the control rod falls by gravity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. An extension of the method of brackets. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The method of brackets is an efficient method for the evaluation of alarge class of definite integrals on the half-line. It is based on a small collection of rules, some of which are heuristic. The extension discussed here is based on the concepts of null and divergent series. These are formal representations of functions, whose coefficients an have meromorphic representations for n ∈ ℂ, but might vanish or blow up when n ∈ ℕ. These ideas are illustrated with the evaluation of a variety of entries from the classical table of integrals by Gradshteyn and Ryzhik.

  17. Nondestructive testing methods in building industry '83. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conference heard 52 papers of which 11 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these was the use of radiometric methods and instruments for nondestructive testing of building materials and ways of testing the quality of concrete during nuclear power plant construction. (J.P.)

  18. Control and estimation methods over communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous framework in which to study problems in the analysis, stability and design of networked control systems. Four dominant sources of difficulty are considered: packet dropouts, communication bandwidth constraints, parametric uncertainty, and time delays. Past methods and results are reviewed from a contemporary perspective, present trends are examined, and future possibilities proposed. Emphasis is placed on robust and reliable design methods. New control strategies for improving the efficiency of sensor data processing and reducing associated time delay are presented. The coverage provided features: ·        an overall assessment of recent and current fault-tolerant control algorithms; ·        treatment of several issues arising at the junction of control and communications; ·        key concepts followed by their proofs and efficient computational methods for their implementation; and ·        simulation examples (including TrueTime simulations) to...

  19. Methods of algebraic geometry in control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Falb, Peter

    1999-01-01

    "Control theory represents an attempt to codify, in mathematical terms, the principles and techniques used in the analysis and design of control systems. Algebraic geometry may, in an elementary way, be viewed as the study of the structure and properties of the solutions of systems of algebraic equations. The aim of this book is to provide access to the methods of algebraic geometry for engineers and applied scientists through the motivated context of control theory" .* The development which culminated with this volume began over twenty-five years ago with a series of lectures at the control group of the Lund Institute of Technology in Sweden. I have sought throughout to strive for clarity, often using constructive methods and giving several proofs of a particular result as well as many examples. The first volume dealt with the simplest control systems (i.e., single input, single output linear time-invariant systems) and with the simplest algebraic geometry (i.e., affine algebraic geometry). While this is qui...

  20. Aerial robot intelligent control method based on back-stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Xue, Qian

    2018-05-01

    The aerial robot is characterized as strong nonlinearity, high coupling and parameter uncertainty, a self-adaptive back-stepping control method based on neural network is proposed in this paper. The uncertain part of the aerial robot model is compensated online by the neural network of Cerebellum Model Articulation Controller and robust control items are designed to overcome the uncertainty error of the system during online learning. At the same time, particle swarm algorithm is used to optimize and fix parameters so as to improve the dynamic performance, and control law is obtained by the recursion of back-stepping regression. Simulation results show that the designed control law has desired attitude tracking performance and good robustness in case of uncertainties and large errors in the model parameters.

  1. Part-load pumping operation, control and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Twenty one papers are printed. Their main concern is with pump performance under abnormal operating conditions or when operating at part-load. The effect of part-load operation on pump performance, pump internal flow and pump cavitation and noise were considered. The pumps considered are used in a variety of situations and some case studies were discussed. One paper about part-load operation of the boiler pumps for French pressurized water reactors and one paper on pressure pulsations of centrifugal pumps at very low flowrate, are indexed separately. (U.K.)

  2. A simple time-delayed method to control chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the adaptive iterative learning strategy, a simple time-delayed controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in chaotic attractors. This controller includes two parts: one is a linear feedback part; the other is an adaptive iterative learning estimation part. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the effectiveness of this controller

  3. Nuclear data for specific problems. Part 1: Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    The growing volume of basic nuclear data, methods and codes for processing these data, and the wide variety of problems where these data and codes are required, oblige to have an efficient system for managing all this information. In this work we present a new methodology for nuclear data processing, applied to neutron and photon transport calculations for specific problems. The base of the new methodology is the analysis of the requirements, following the chain: Problem-Components-Materials-Elements-Isotopes-Process-Tests-Final product (a library with processed data). This order is the inverse of the normal order followed up to date where, for performing a specific calculation, the first step is the choice of an existing data library for general purposes, without the previous steps of pre-processing data, and tests of the final library. Then, the used data are limited to the isotope content of this library, and the adaptation of material compositions and components to the data availability is necessary , performing finally the required calculations in a rather approximated form, depending on the available data. An interactive computer program for PC , is developed, for managing all the information generated by nuclear data processing, with the additional advantage of having a help tool for performing the needed analysis, before processing data calculations for specific applications. These analyses are based on the particular characteristics of each application, and the processed information of previous cases, is stored in conveniently designed data bases for an easy inspection of its contents. By means of an example of application of the new method, in this paper the methods of analysis and calculations and the tools used (computer programs, data bases and documents) are describes. (author)

  4. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing

  5. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  6. Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    cycle cost ; and 4. Improve procurement and test of small quantities of parts and materials that meet system requirements. This document supersedes...the reliability of program PMP to reduce PMP failures at all levels of assembly and test 3. Reduce program lifecycle cost 4. Improve procurement and...part shall be procured in single lots directly from the manufacturer or its authorized franchised distributor. The contractor shall be able to

  7. The statistical process control methods - SPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floreková Ľubica

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of statistical evaluation of quality – SPC (item 20 of the documentation system of quality control of ISO norm, series 900 of various processes, products and services belong amongst basic qualitative methods that enable us to analyse and compare data pertaining to various quantitative parameters. Also they enable, based on the latter, to propose suitable interventions with the aim of improving these processes, products and services. Theoretical basis and applicatibily of the principles of the: - diagnostics of a cause and effects, - Paret analysis and Lorentz curve, - number distribution and frequency curves of random variable distribution, - Shewhart regulation charts, are presented in the contribution.

  8. Analytic Methods Used in Quality Control in a Compounding Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2017-01-01

    Analytical testing will no doubt become a more important part of pharmaceutical compounding as the public and regulatory agencies demand increasing documentation of the quality of compounded preparations. Compounding pharmacists must decide what types of testing and what amount of testing to include in their quality-control programs, and whether testing should be done in-house or outsourced. Like pharmaceutical compounding, analytical testing should be performed only by those who are appropriately trained and qualified. This article discusses the analytical methods that are used in quality control in a compounding pharmacy. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  9. Cascade plant control by timer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiguchi, Takashi; Inoue, Kotaro; Kawai, Toshio; Senoo, Makoto.

    1970-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of controlling uranium flow rate through a cascaded centrifuge plant for the purpose of enriching uranium 235. Such a cascade includes multiple gas separation stage each of which consists of a plurality of centrifuges. The product gas usually includes a large amount of He gas, and a cold trap is used to eliminate the He from UF 6 . The cold trap is operated periodically in such a way that the mixed gas of He and UF 6 is cooled to solidify only UF 6 and then warmed to obtain UF 6 by gasification. In order to operate the plant continuously, parallel multiple cold traps are operated alternatively. The operating conditions in such a complex cascade system are difficult to alter by conventional control methods. The present invention provides a rapid method of controlling the system when a certain percentage of the centrifuges in one stage malfunction. The control system consists of timers which are provided one for each cold trap to control the operational period of the trap. For example, if 20% of the centrifuges in a particular stage malfunction, the timer period of the cold traps attached to the normally operating centrifuge within the stage is maintained, and the period of all the other centrifuges are changed to 10/8 times that of the initial value. In this way the flow volume through all centrifuges except that in the particular stage is reduced to 80% of the initial value and the operation of the system can be continued with reduced efficiency. (Masui, R.)

  10. GPS User Devices Parameter Control Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Klūga, A; Kuļikovs, M; Beļinska, V; Zeļenkovs, A

    2007-01-01

    In our day’s wide assortment of GPS user devices is manufacture. How to verify that parameters of the real device corresponds to parameters that manufacture shows. How to verify that parameters have not been changed during the operation time. The last one is very important for aviation GPS systems, which must be verified before the flight, but the values of parameter in time of repair works. This work analyses GPS user devices parameters control methods.

  11. New method of control of tooth whitening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, I.; Mantareva, V.; Gisbrecht, A.; Valkanov, S.; Uzunov, Tz.

    2010-10-01

    New methods of control of tooth bleaching stages through simultaneous measurements of a reflected light and a fluorescence signal are proposed. It is shown that the bleaching process leads to significant changes in the intensity of a scattered signal and also in the shape and intensity of the fluorescence spectra. Experimental data illustrate that the bleaching process causes essential changes in the teeth discoloration in short time as 8-10 min from the beginning of the application procedure. The continuation of the treatment is not necessary moreover the probability of the enamel destroy increases considerably. The proposed optical back control of tooth surface is a base for development of a practical set up to control the duration of the bleaching procedure.

  12. Power controlling method for BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reactor operation exactly following after an aimed curve in the high power resuming and maintaining period without failures in cladding tubes. Method: Upon recovery of the reactor power to a high power level after changing the reactor power from the high power to the low power level, control rod is operated under such conditions that the linear power density after operation of the control rod does not exceed the PC envelope in the low power period, and the core flow rate is coordinated to the control rod operation. The linear power density can be suppressed within an allowable linear power density by the above operation during high power resuming and maintaining period and, as the result, PCI failures can be prevented. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding evaluation criteria in the quality management system of enterprises is introduced. Authors also introduce the method of controlling quality costs and propose it for the practical application, which allows them to determine useful and unnecessary costs at the existing operating plant. Implementing the proposed recommendations in the system of cost management at an enterprise will allow to improve productivity of processes operating and reduce wasted expense on the quality of the process on the basis of determining values of useful and useless costs of quality according to criteria of processes functioning in the system of quality management.

  14. Integrating CHWs as Part of the Team Leading Diabetes Group Visits: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Elizabeth M; Johnston, Craig A; Cardenas, Victor J; Moreno, Jennette P; Foreyt, John P

    2017-12-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) as part of the team leading diabetes group visits. Methods This was a randomized controlled study that integrated CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits for low-income Hispanic adults (n = 50). Group visits met for 3 hours each month for a 6-month duration. Main measures included baseline and 6-month clinical outcomes (ie, A1C, lipids), concordance with 8 standard of care guidelines (ie, screens for cervical, breast, and colon cancer) from the US Preventive Task Force and American Diabetes Association, and participant acceptability. Results Compared to control participants, the intervention group resulted in significantly better clinical outcomes or guideline concordance for the following areas: target A1C levels, retinal eye exams, diabetes foot exams, mammograms, and urine microalbumin. Significantly more individuals in the control group gained weight, whereas a greater number of participants in the intervention group lost weight. Intervention participants found the group visits highly acceptable. Conclusions Integrating CHWs as part a comprehensive diabetes group visit program is a feasible and effective system-level intervention to improve glycemic control and achieve guideline concordance.

  15. Transonic Airfoil Flow Simulation. Part I: Mesh Generation and Inviscid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir CARDOS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A calculation method for the subsonic and transonic viscous flow over airfoil using thedisplacement surface concept is described. Part I presents a mesh generation method forcomputational grid and a finite volume method for the time-dependent Euler equations. The inviscidsolution is used for the inviscid-viscous coupling procedure presented in the Part II.

  16. Measuring solar reflectance - Part II: Review of practical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23 ], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45 ]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R{sub g,0}{sup *}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R{sub g,0}{sup *} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R{sub g,0}{sup *} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R{sub g,0}{sup *} to within about 0.01. (author)

  17. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...... position was measured on the polymer μ-parts to evaluate filling behavior of the polymer melt flowing through μ-features. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses. Results showed...... that the injection speed in one of the most influencing process parameters on the μIM process and on the μ-parts filling....

  18. Data mining for water resource management part 2 - methods and approaches to solving contemporary problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of two papers that describe how data mining can aid natural-resource managers with the difficult problem of controlling the interactions between hydrologic and man-made systems. Data mining is a new science that assists scientists in converting large databases into knowledge, and is uniquely able to leverage the large amounts of real-time, multivariate data now being collected for hydrologic systems. Part 1 gives a high-level overview of data mining, and describes several applications that have addressed major water resource issues in South Carolina. This Part 2 paper describes how various data mining methods are integrated to produce predictive models for controlling surface- and groundwater hydraulics and quality. The methods include: - signal processing to remove noise and decompose complex signals into simpler components; - time series clustering that optimally groups hundreds of signals into "classes" that behave similarly for data reduction and (or) divide-and-conquer problem solving; - classification which optimally matches new data to behavioral classes; - artificial neural networks which optimally fit multivariate data to create predictive models; - model response surface visualization that greatly aids in understanding data and physical processes; and, - decision support systems that integrate data, models, and graphics into a single package that is easy to use.

  19. Monolithic Controlled Delivery Systems: Part I. Basic Characteristics and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Blagoeva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers contemporary systems for controlled delivery of active agents, such as drugs, agricultural chemicals, pollutants and additives in the environment. A useful classification of the available controlled release systems (CRS is proposed according to the type of control (passive, active or self-preprogrammed and according to the main controlling mechanism (diffusion, swelling, dissolution or erosion. Special attention is given to some of the most used CRS - polymer monoliths. The structural and physical-chemical characteristics of CRS as well as the basic approaches to their production are examined. The basic mechanisms of controlled agent release are reviewed in detail and factors influencing the release kinetics are classified according to their importance. The present study can be helpful for understanding and applying the available mathematical models and for developing more comprehensive ones intended for design of new controlled delivery systems.

  20. An improved method for forecasting spare parts demand using extreme value theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, S.; Dekker, R.; van Jaarsveld, W.; Renjie, R.W.; Koning, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Inventory control for spare parts is essential for many organizations due to the trade-off between preventing high holding cost and stockouts. The lead time demand distribution plays a central role in inventory control. The estimation of this distribution is problematic as the spare part demand is

  1. Learning styles: The learning methods of air traffic control students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dontae L.

    In the world of aviation, air traffic controllers are an integral part in the overall level of safety that is provided. With a number of controllers reaching retirement age, the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) was created to provide a stronger candidate pool. However, AT-CTI Instructors have found that a number of AT-CTI students are unable to memorize types of aircraft effectively. This study focused on the basic learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) of students and created a teaching method to try to increase memorization in AT-CTI students. The participants were asked to take a questionnaire to determine their learning style. Upon knowing their learning styles, participants attended two classroom sessions. The participants were given a presentation in the first class, and divided into a control and experimental group for the second class. The control group was given the same presentation from the first classroom session while the experimental group had a group discussion and utilized Middle Tennessee State University's Air Traffic Control simulator to learn the aircraft types. Participants took a quiz and filled out a survey, which tested the new teaching method. An appropriate statistical analysis was applied to determine if there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups. The results showed that even though the participants felt that the method increased their learning, there was no significant difference between the two groups.

  2. Condyle-fossa modifications and muscle interactions during herbst treatment, part 1. New technological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudouris, John C; Woodside, Donald G; Altuna, Gurkan; Kuftinec, Mladen M; Angelopoulos, Gerassimos; Bourque, Paul J

    2003-06-01

    Changes in the condyle, the glenoid fossa, and the muscles of mastication were investigated in subjects undergoing continuous orthopedic advancement of the mandible with a Herbst-block appliance. The total sample consisted of 56 subjects and included 15 nonhuman primates (in the middle mixed, early permanent, and permanent dentitions), 17 human Herbst patients in the early permanent dentition, and 24 human controls from the Burlington Growth Center. The 8 nonhuman primates in the middle mixed dentition were the focus of this study. Mandibular advancement was obtained progressively in 5 animals by adding stops to the telescopic arms of fixed functional Herbst appliances with occlusal coverage; activations of 5.0 mm, 7.0 mm, and 8.0 mm were achieved. Two primates served as controls, and the third was a sham control. Two experimental animals and the 2 controls also wore surgically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the superior and inferior heads of the lateral pterygoid muscles and in the superficial masseter and anterior digastric muscles. Changes in condylar growth direction and amount were assessed with the Björk method from measurements made on serial cephalometric tracings superimposed on metallic implants. Undecalcified sections, treated with intravenous tetracycline vital staining, were viewed with fluorescence microscopy to examine histologic changes in the condyle and the glenoid fossa. New bone formation in the fossa associated with continuous mandibular protrusion was quantified by using computerized histomorphometric analysis of decalcified histological sections and polarized light. The unique combination of permanently implanted electromyographic electrodes, tetracycline vital staining, and histomorphometry represents a significant technological advancement in methods and materials. Together, they demonstrated different muscle-bone interaction results for functional appliances than those reported in previous studies. In Part 1 of this study, we

  3. Integral inventory control in spare parts networks with capacity restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleptchenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Integral inventory control of repairable items in service networks can result in a significant gain compared to traditional local control mechanisms, in terms of both efficiency and customer service. Research on quantitative decision support models has yielded various useful results. However, in

  4. Analysis of Offshore Knuckle Boom Crane - Part Two: Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten K. Bak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper design of electro-hydraulic motion control systems for offshore knuckle boom cranes is discussed. The influence of the control valve bandwidth along with the ramp time for the control signal are investigated both analytically with simplified system models and numerically with an experimentally verified crane model. The results of both types of investigations are related to general design rules for selection of control valves and ramp times and the relevance of these design rules is discussed. Generally, they are useful but may be too conservative for offshore knuckle boom cranes. However, as demonstrated in the paper, the only proper way to determine this is to evaluate the motion control system design by means of simulation.

  5. Method for controlling FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamano, Toyomi; Iwashita, Tsuyoshi; Sakuragi, Masanori

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a controlling method for moderating thermal transient upon trip in an FBR type reactor. A flow channel for bypassing an intermediate heat exchanger is disposed in a secondary Na system. Then, bypassing flow rate is controlled so as to suppress fluctuations of temperature at a primary exit of the intermediate heat exchanger. Bypassing operation by using the bypassing flow channel is started at the same time with plant trip, to reduce the flow rate of secondary Na flown to the intermediate heat exchanger, so that the imbalance between the primary and the secondary Na flowrates is reduced. Accordingly, fluctuations of the temperature at the primary exit of the intermediate heat exchanger upon trip is suppressed. In view of the above, thermal transient applied to the reactor container upon plant trip can be moderated. As a result, the working life of the reactor can be extended, to improve plant integrity and safety. (I.S.)

  6. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part I. Experimental methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work rheological studies of the gelling process were carried out. We have developed a measuring system for studying the rheology of the gelation process. It consisted of several measuring cells of the Weiler-Rebinder type, system for automatic regulation of the composition of the medium and hermostabilization system. This complex is designed to measure the dependence of the value of the ultimate shear stress as a function of time, from the start of the sol-gel transition to the complete conversion of the sol to the gel. The developed device has a wide range of measured values of critical shear stresses τ0 = (0,05÷50000 Dyne/cm2. Using the developed instrument, it was possible to establish the shape of the initial section of the curve τ0 = f(t and develop a methodology for more accurate determination of gelation time. The developed method proved that the classical method for determining the start time of the sol-gel transition using the point of intersection of the tangent to the linear part of the rheological curve τ0 = f(t,gives significantly distorted results. A new phenomenon has been discovered: the kinetic curves in the coordinates of the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation have an inflection point which separates the kinetic curve into two parts, the initial and the final. It was found that the constant k in the Avrami–Erofeev–Bogolyubov quation does not depend on the temperature and is the same for both the initial and final parts of the kinetic curve. It depends only on the chemical nature of the reacting system. It was found that for the initial section of the kinetic curves, the value of the parameter n in the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation was n = 23,4±2,8 and, unlike the final section of the rheological curve, does not depend on temperature. A large value of this parameter can be interpreted as the average number of directions of growth of a fractal aggregate during its growth. The value of this parameter depends

  7. A Riccati-Based Interior Point Method for Efficient Model Predictive Control of SISO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, Morten; Johansson, Rolf; Bagterp Jørgensen, John

    2017-01-01

    model parts separate. The controller is designed based on the deterministic model, while the Kalman filter results from the stochastic part. The controller is implemented as a primal-dual interior point (IP) method using Riccati recursion and the computational savings possible for SISO systems...

  8. Electronic Control Of Small Hydro-Generators Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz B, Pedro; Torres M, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    The present project arises for the Colombian population's necessity to overcome the underdevelopment, the poverty, the education and the level of life in rural areas of difficult access, for an economic rural electrification. The UIS, by means of the advisory committee of investigations of the ability of Physical-mechanical Sciences and the ability of Electricity and Electronic, it begins the process of developing in 1991 a study of economic and reliable control for the handling of small micro-centrals. Providing from electric power to the rural sector is a world problem, and have more than enough this some countries (China, Nepal, Peru, The islands of Papua, New Guinea), they have made investigations, outlining and building central micro controlled by microprocessor. The present study is developed with the objective of carrying out a load control that acts reliable and quickly. Traditionally they have been come using mechanical governors, which are those in charge of making the load control by means of valves that regulate the flow of water in the turbines, involving this way big retards characteristic of any mechanical control. In summary, the electronic governor of load presents on the mechanical governor, the advantage of acting to more speed and consequently to maintain stable the frequency of the system. To continue with the study, the objective that this project must develop, is an electronic control of load which presents to a small hydro generator, a relatively constant and independent electric load that the demanded consumption for the user varies from none to full load, given as initial parameters a constant flow in the turbine and a control in the line tension. This way it seeks to improve the energy quality given by isolated generators

  9. Dimensional control and check of field machining parts for reactor internals installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caifang

    2010-01-01

    Some key issues of dimensional control for reactor internals installation are analyzed, and important technical requirements of crucial quality control elements on the measurement, machining, and checking of reactor internals filed machining parts are discussed. Moreover, provisions on quality control and risk prevention of reactor internals filed machining parts are presented in this paper. (author)

  10. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  11. Dividing traffic cluster into parts by signal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    When a cluster of vehicles with various speeds moves through the series of signals, the cluster breaks down by stopping at signals and results in smaller groups of vehicles. We present the nonlinear-map model of the motion of vehicles controlled by the signals. We study the breakup of a cluster of vehicles through the series of signals. The cluster of vehicles is divided into various groups by controlling the cycle time of signals. The vehicles within each group move with the same mean velocity. The breakup of the traffic cluster depends highly on the signal control. The dependence of dividing on both cycle time and vehicular speed is clarified. Also, we investigate the effect of the irregular interval between signals on dividing.

  12. Measuring and controlling method for organic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Igarashi, Hiroo

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns measurement and control for organic impurities contained in ultrapurified water for use in a nuclear power plant. A specimen containing organic impurities leached out of anionic exchange resins and cationic exchange resins is introduced to an organic material decomposing section to decompose organic impurities into organic carbon and other decomposed products. Sulfate ions, nitrate ions, nitrite ions and carbon dioxide are produced by the decomposition of the organic impurities. As a next step, carbon dioxide in the decomposed products is separated by deaerating with a nitrogen gas or an argon gas and then a TOC concentration is measured by a non-dispersion-type infrared spectrometer. Further, a specimen from which carbon dioxide was separated is introduced to a column filled with ion exchange resins and, after concentrating inorganic ion impurities, the inorganic ion impurities are identified by using a measuring theory of an ion chromatographic method of eluting and separating inorganic ion impurities and detecting them based on the change of electroconductivity depending on the kinds of the inorganic ion impurities. Organic impurities can be measured and controlled, to improve the reliability of water quality control. (N.H.)

  13. Method for enhanced control of welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Donald A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tung, David M.; Schroder, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Method and system for producing high quality welds in welding processes, in general, and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, in particular by controlling weld penetration. Light emitted from a weld pool is collected from the backside of a workpiece by optical means during welding and transmitted to a digital video camera for further processing, after the emitted light is first passed through a short wavelength pass filter to remove infrared radiation. By filtering out the infrared component of the light emitted from the backside weld pool image, the present invention provides for the accurate determination of the weld pool boundary. Data from the digital camera is fed to an imaging board which focuses on a 100.times.100 pixel portion of the image. The board performs a thresholding operation and provides this information to a digital signal processor to compute the backside weld pool dimensions and area. This information is used by a control system, in a dynamic feedback mode, to automatically adjust appropriate parameters of a welding system, such as the welding current, to control weld penetration and thus, create a uniform weld bead and high quality weld.

  14. Research methods of simulate digital compensators and autonomous control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kudryashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of the present stage of development of the production is the need to control and regulate a large number of process parameters, the mutual influence on each other that when using single-circuit systems significantly reduces the quality of the transition process, resulting in significant costs of raw materials and energy, reduce the quality of the products. Using a stand-alone digital control system eliminates the correlation of technological parameters, to give the system the desired dynamic and static properties, improve the quality of regulation. However, the complexity of the configuration and implementation of procedures (modeling compensators autonomous systems of this type, associated with the need to perform a significant amount of complex analytic transformation significantly limit the scope of their application. In this regard, the approach based on the decompo sition proposed methods of calculation and simulation (realization, consisting in submitting elements autonomous control part digital control system in a series parallel connection. The above theoretical study carried out in a general way for any dimension systems. The results of computational experiments, obtained during the simulation of the four autonomous control systems, comparative analysis and conclusions on the effectiveness of the use of each of the methods. The results obtained can be used in the development of multi-dimensional process control systems.

  15. Transducer-actuator systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, William E.; Dow, Thomas A.; Garrard, Kenneth P.; Marston, Zachary

    2016-07-12

    Systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment, including: a measurement component operable for determining the position of a part on a machine; and an actuation component operable for adjusting the position of the part by contacting the part with a predetermined force responsive to the determined position of the part. The measurement component consists of a transducer. The actuation component consists of a linear actuator. Optionally, the measurement component and the actuation component consist of a single linear actuator operable for contacting the part with a first lighter force for determining the position of the part and with a second harder force for adjusting the position of the part. The actuation component is utilized in a substantially horizontal configuration and the effects of gravitational drop of the part are accounted for in the force applied and the timing of the contact.

  16. Control of cattle trypanosomiasis in coastal savannah of Ghana Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies on the control of animal trypanosomiasis were undertaken in the Coastal Savanna of Ghana to det-ermine the importance of the disease in livestock production. The methodologies adopted were participatory ru-ral appraisal, geographical information systems, and entomological or parasitological evaluation.

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods B Appendix... FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. B Appendix B to Part 178—Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods In addition to the method prescribed in § 178.604 of this subchapter, the following leakproofness test methods...

  18. Instrumentation and control aging management: A focus on electronic parts and boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocombette, C.; Simon, G.; Favaro, P.; Naser, J.; Guffroy, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear power industry is currently facing increasing aging and obsolescence issues with original equipment installed for instrumentation, control, and safety system applications. One area that needs attention is the aging of electronic boards and components used in instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). In this context, EPRI has launched a project dedicated to NPP electronic component and board aging management. The goals of this project are: 1) to better understand the degradation mechanisms of I and C electronic systems; 2) to develop new methods to monitor prevalent mechanisms and forecast generic aging cases; and 3) to give guidelines for the aging management of I and C electronic systems. The ultimate objectives are: 1) to reduce the likelihood of losing plant availability due to a board or component failure; and 2) to reduce the global cost of maintenance by optimizing preventive maintenance tasks and the schedule for refurbishment or renewal. Degradation mechanisms of electronic boards in NPP - Aging mechanisms of electronic parts depend on technologies, manufacturing quality, and conditions of environment and operation. Aging of electronic parts is well documented in harsh environments (e.g., aerospace, military, or automotive industries data). However, only a small amount of data on electronic part failures in NPPs is available because the conditions are benign and the failure rates are supposed to be low. It is thus difficult to identify what will predominantly cause the aging of electronic systems after 20 or 30 years of operation. Usual causes are temperature, corrosion, temperature cycles, or extrinsic aggressions (Electrical Over Stress (EOS), Electro Static Discharges (ESD)). From field data and bibliographic analyses, we found that electrolytic capacitors, relays, potentiometers, power devices (thyristors, power transistors, etc.), optocouplers, on-board connectors, printed boards, integrated

  19. Routes to chaos in continuous mechanical systems. Part 1: Mathematical models and solution methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awrejcewicz, J.; Krysko, V.A.; Papkova, I.V.; Krysko, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    In this work chaotic dynamics of continuous mechanical systems such as flexible plates and shallow shells is studied. Namely, a wide class of the mentioned objects is analyzed including flexible plates and cylinder-like panels of infinite length, rectangular spherical and cylindrical shells, closed cylindrical shells, axially symmetric plates, as well as spherical and conical shells. The considered problems are solved by the Bubnov–Galerkin and higher approximation Ritz methods. Convergence and validation of those methods are studied. The Cauchy problems are solved mainly by the fourth Runge-Kutta method, although all variants of the Runge-Kutta methods are considered. New scenarios of transition from regular to chaotic orbits are detected, analyzed and discussed. First part of the paper is devoted to the validation of results obtained. This is why the same infinite length problem is reduced to that of a finite dimension through the FDM (Finite Difference Method) with the approximation order of O(c 2 ), BGM (Bubnov–Galerkin Method) or RM (Ritz Method) with higher approximations. We pay attention not only to convergence of the mentioned methods regarding the number of partitions of the interval [0, 1] in the FDM or regarding the number of terms in the series applied either in the BGM or RM methods, but we also compare the results obtained via the mentioned different approaches. Furthermore, a so called practical convergence of different Runge-Kutta type methods are tested starting from the second and ending with the eighth order. Second part of the work is devoted to a study of routes to chaos in the so far mentioned mechanical objects. For this purpose the so-called “dynamical charts” are constructed versus control parameters {q 0 , ω p }, where q 0 denotes the loading amplitude, and ω p is the loading frequency. The charts are constructed through analyses of frequency power spectra and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LE). Analysis of the mentioned charts

  20. Fpga As A Part Of Ms Windows Control Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kołek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The attention is focused on the Windows operating system (OS used as a control and measurementenvironment. Windows OS due to extensions becomes a real-time OS (RTOS.Benefits and drawbacks of typical software extensions are compared. As far as hardwaresolutions are concerned the field programmable gate arrays FPGA technology is proposed toensure fast time-critical operations. FPGA-based parallel execution and hardware implementationof the data processing algorithms significantly outperform the classical microprocessoroperating modes. Suitability of the RTOS for a particular application and FPGA hardwaremaintenance is studied.

  1. Method for operating a nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided which may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but also to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod to be scrammed into the core. When a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  2. Simulations and Experiments on Vibration Control of Aerospace Thin-Walled Parts via Preload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin-walled parts primarily comprise the entire piece of rough machining, and the material removal rate can surpass 95%. Numerous components with thin-walled structures are preferred in the aerospace industry for their light weight, high strength, and other advantages. In aerospace thin-walled workpiece machining processes and practical applications, they are excited by the vibration. The preload changing the modal stiffness of the part is found and this change causes continuous changes in the natural frequency. Researching on the influence of pretightening force on dynamic characteristics of thin-walled components is highly significant for controlling vibration. In this study, the typical aviation thin-walled part is the research object. Finite element numerical simulation and experimental verification are employed to analyze the dynamic characteristics of 7075 aluminum alloy thin-walled plates under different preloads for exploring the relationship between natural frequency and preload. The relationship is validated by comparative results. Both the simulation and experimental results show that the natural frequencies of plates increase following the augmentation of the preload. Thus, this research introduces the method where vibration of aerospace thin-walled parts is reduced by preload. For practical engineering application, a program showing the relationship between natural frequency and preload is written using Visual Basic language.

  3. Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the "Emotional Part'' (EP) and the "Apparently Normal Part'' (ANP), have different biopsychosocial reactions to supraliminal and subliminal trauma-related cues and that these reactions cannot be mimicked by fantasy prone healthy controls nor by actors. Methods: Arterial ...

  4. Synchronous Control Method and Realization of Automated Pharmacy Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Quan

    Firstly, the control method of elevator's synchronous motion is provided, the synchronous control structure of double servo motor based on PMAC is accomplished. Secondly, synchronous control program of elevator is implemented by using PMAC linear interpolation motion model and position error compensation method. Finally, the PID parameters of servo motor were adjusted. The experiment proves the control method has high stability and reliability.

  5. Method of controlling radioactive waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Sato, Takao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the pellet production amount, maximize the working life of a solidifying device and maintaining the mechanical strength of pellets to a predetermined value irrespective of the type and the cycle of occurrence of the secondary waste in the secondary waste solidifying device for radioactive waste processing systems in nuclear power plants. Method: Forecasting periods for the type, production amount and radioactivity level of the secondary wastes are determined in input/output devices connected to a control system and resulted signals are sent to computing elements. The computing elements forecast the production amount of regenerated liquid wastes after predetermined days based on the running conditions of a condensate desalter and the production amounts of filter sludges and liquid resin wastes after predetermined days based on the liquid waste processing amount or the like in a processing device respectively. Then, the mass balance between the type and the amount of the secondary wastes presently stored in a tank are calculated and the composition and concentration for the processing liquid are set so as to obtain predetermined values for the strength of pellets that can be dried to solidify, the working life of the solidifying device itself and the radioactivity level of the pellets. Thereafter, the running conditions for the solidifying device are determined so as to maximize the working life of the solidifying device. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Method and device for controlling ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To accomplish reactor cooling without exposing fuel assemblies out of the coolant and also without inducing counter-current flow (CCFL) brake likely to be caused by excess injection of water even in case of malfunction of one system in a loss-of-coolant accident. Method: In a BWR type reactor having more than two independent ECCS, the lower plenum water level is measured and when the lower plenum is full of water, the ECCS are kept in a fully closed state, and reversely when the lower plenum is not full of water, more coolant than the lost quantity of water will be injected into the plenum at a higher pressure than a pressure at which fuel rods just begin to be exposed to the steam phase. The subcool energy of the emergency coolant to be injected is determined by the decay heat of the core and the change rate of a container pressure. However, the quantity of the emergency coolant is controlled such that the subcool energy will always become less than the overheating energy in the core range and the lower plenum range, thus improving safety and enabling the removal of a prior-art ECCS. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Reactor power control method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Atsushi; Ishii, Yoshihiko; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Kiyoharu, Norihiko; Aizawa, Yuko.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a device suitable to rise the temperature and increase the pressure of the reactor to an aimed pressure in accordance with an aimed value for a reactor water temperature changing rate in the course of rising temperature and increasing pressure of the reactor upon start up of a BWR type power plant. Namely, neutron fluxes in the reactor and the temperature of reactor water are detected respectively. The maximum value among the detected values for the neutron fluxes is detected. The reactor water temperature changing rate is calculated based on the detected values of the reactor water temperature, from which the maximum value of the reactor water temperature changing rate is detected. An aimed value for the neutron flux is calculated in accordance with both detected maximum values and the aimed value of the reactor water temperature changing rate. The position of control rods is adjusted in accordance with the aimed value for the calculated neutron flux. Then, an aimed value for the neutron flux for realizing the aimed value for the reactor water temperature changing rate can be obtained accurately with no influence of the sensitivity of the detected values of the neutron fluxes and the time delay of the reactor water temperature changing rate. (I.S.)

  8. Evaluation of polymer micro parts produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro manufacturing scale feature production by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes for the direct production of miniaturized polymer components is analysed in this work. The study characterizes the AM processes for polymer micro parts productions using the vat photopolymerization method...

  9. Optimization of Inventories for Multiple Companies by Fuzzy Control Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kawase, Koichi; Konishi, Masami; Imai, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this research, Fuzzy control theory is applied to the inventory control of the supply chain between multiple companies. The proposed control method deals with the amountof inventories expressing supply chain between multiple companies. Referring past demand and tardiness, inventory amounts of raw materials are determined by Fuzzy inference. The method that an appropriate inventory control becomes possible optimizing fuzzy control gain by using SA method for Fuzzy control. The variation of ...

  10. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  11. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  12. Understanding common statistical methods, Part I: descriptive methods, probability, and continuous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Carl G; Patel, Manish M; Thomas, Jerry D; Miller, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Statistical methods are pervasive in medical research and general medical literature. Understanding general statistical concepts will enhance our ability to critically appraise the current literature and ultimately improve the delivery of patient care. This article intends to provide an overview of the common statistical methods relevant to medicine.

  13. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part I, sample preparation and measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R.A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we completed a project on the comparison of macrostickies measurement methods. Based on the success of the project, we decided to embark on this new project on comparison of microstickies measurement methods. When we started this project, there were some concerns and doubts principally due to the lack of an accepted definition of microstickies. However, we...

  14. A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.

  15. Feedwater temperature control methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Noonan, Jack Patrick; Saha, Pradip

    2014-04-22

    A system for controlling the power level of a natural circulation boiling water nuclear reactor (NCBWR) is disclosed. The system, in accordance with an example embodiment of the present invention, may include a controller configured to control a power output level of the NCBWR by controlling a heating subsystem to adjust a temperature of feedwater flowing into an annulus of the NCBWR. The heating subsystem may include a steam diversion line configured to receive steam generated by a core of the NCBWR and a steam bypass valve configured to receive commands from the controller to control a flow of the steam in the steam diversion line, wherein the steam received by the steam diversion line has not passed through a turbine. Additional embodiments of the invention may include a feedwater bypass valve for controlling an amount of flow of the feedwater through a heater bypass line to the annulus.

  16. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  17. The application of controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric method to prospecting for uranium and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Taiping

    1992-01-01

    The controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric method is a new geophysical method which is rapid, effective and economical and can be used for studying the structural pattern of underground strata (rock bodies). This method provides the basis for the determination of the deeper part and structures within the unconformity-related uranium deposit in North China Platform and the result of application is optimal

  18. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  19. Controlling the quality of replacement parts in nuclear station, class 1E equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierson, R.K.; Clemons, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear station owners have traditionally purchased replacement parts for Class 1E equipment from the original supplier of the equipment. By this method, part and equipment quality could be maintained. In recent years, however, this traditional source of parts has continuously declined as an increasing number of original equipment suppliers stop producing Class 1E equipment or no longer stock parts for older equipment. When replacement parts for Class 1E equipment are not obtainable from the original suppliers, equipment owners have created a variety of methods for assuring the quality of parts obtained from other sources. A standard that provides direction and guidance for maintaining the quality of Class 1E equipment when repaired with parts from alternate sources is, therefore, needed to assure the methods in use are satisfactory and to alert the equipment owners to additional acceptable methods. The standard has now been proposed. IEEE Standard P934 (June, 1983 Draft): ''Requirements for Replacement Parts for Class 1E Equipment in Nuclear Power Generating Stations'' (Ref-3) consist of an introductory section followed by sections on part selection, procurement, replacement (including inspections and tests), non-conforming conditions and records. The proposed standard also includes a non-mandatory appendix on acceptable procurement methods and a summary intended to assist the user in selecting a proper procurement method

  20. General Quality Control (QC) Guidelines for SAM Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  1. System and method for controlling microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sumit [Niskayuna, NY; Achilles, Alfredo Sebastian [Bavaria, DE; Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Ahmed, Emad Ezzat [Munich, DE; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2011-07-19

    A system for controlling a microgrid includes microgrid assets and a tieline for coupling the microgrid to a bulk grid; and a tieline controller coupled to the tieline. At least one of the microgrid assets comprises a different type of asset than another one of the microgrid assets. The tieline controller is configured for providing tieline control signals to adjust active and reactive power in respective microgrid assets in response to commands from the bulk grid operating entity, microgrid system conditions, bulk grid conditions, or combinations thereof.

  2. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2016-07-21

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor is grounded (80), a pressure sensor (82) coupled to the combustor and configured to detect pressure in the combustor, and an instability controlling assembly coupled to the pressure sensor and to an alternating current power supply (86), where, the instability controlling assembly can control flame instability of a flame in the system based on pressure detected by the pressure sensor.

  3. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 327 - Internal Management Control Review Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal Management Control Review Checklist B... B to Part 327—Internal Management Control Review Checklist (a) Task: Personnel and/or Organization... See footnote 2 to this Appendix B. (1) I attest that the above listed internal controls provide...

  4. Use of Modern Birth Control Methods Among Rural Communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    ABSTRACT. This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in ... respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. ..... School of Public Health.

  5. Structured functional assessments in general practice increased the use of part-time sick leave: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, Nina; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Kann, Inger Cathrine; Brage, Søren

    2010-03-01

    A method for structured functional assessments of persons with long-term sick leave was implemented in a cluster randomised controlled trial in general practice. The aim was to analyse intervention effects on general practitioner (GP) sick-listing practice and patient sick leave. 57 GPs were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention group GPs learned the method at a 1-day workshop including teamwork and role-playing. The control group GPs were requested to assess functional ability as usual during the 8 months intervention period in 2005. Outcome measures included duration of patient sick leave episodes, GP prescription of part-time sick leave, active sick leave, and vocational rehabilitation. This data was extracted from a national register. The GPs in the intervention group prescribed part-time sick leave more often (p part-time and less active sick leave compared to the control group GPs. As a result, more intervention GP patients returned to part-time work compared to control GP patients. No intervention effect was seen on duration of patient sick leave episodes or on prescription of vocational rehabilitation.

  6. Methods to improve efficiency of four stroke, spark ignition engines at part load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlar, Osman Akin; Arslan, Hikmet; Calik, Alper Tolga

    2005-01-01

    The four stroke, spark ignition (SI) engine pressure-volume diagram (p-V) contains two main parts. They are the compression-combustion-expansion (high pressure loop) and the exhaust-intake (low pressure or gas exchange loop) parts. The main reason for efficiency decrease at part load conditions for these types of engines is the flow restriction at the cross sectional area of the intake system by partially closing the throttle valve, which leads to increased pumping losses and to increased low pressure loop area on the p-V diagram. Meanwhile, the poorer combustion quality, i.e. lower combustion speed and cycle to cycle variations, additionally influence these pressure loop areas. In this study, methods for increasing efficiency at part load conditions and their potential for practical use are investigated. The study also includes a review of the vast literature on the solution of this problem. This investigation shows that the potential for increasing the efficiency of SI engines at part load conditions is not yet exhausted. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Among these, the most promising methods to decrease the fuel consumption at part load conditions are stratified charge and variable displacement engines. When used in combination, the other listed methods are more effective than their usage alone

  7. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Fric, Thomas Frank [Greer, SC; Lyons, James Patrick Francis [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Holley, William Edwin [Greer, SC; Barbu, Corneliu [Guilderland, NY

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  8. Markov chain-based mass estimation method for loose part monitoring system and its performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hwan Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A loose part monitoring system is used to identify unexpected loose parts in a nuclear reactor vessel or steam generator. It is still necessary for the mass estimation of loose parts, one function of a loose part monitoring system, to develop a new method due to the high estimation error of conventional methods such as Hertz's impact theory and the frequency ratio method. The purpose of this study is to propose a mass estimation method using a Markov decision process and compare its performance with a method using an artificial neural network model proposed in a previous study. First, how to extract feature vectors using discrete cosine transform was explained. Second, Markov chains were designed with codebooks obtained from the feature vector. A 1/8-scaled mockup of the reactor vessel for OPR1000 was employed, and all used signals were obtained by impacting its surface with several solid spherical masses. Next, the performance of mass estimation by the proposed Markov model was compared with that of the artificial neural network model. Finally, it was investigated that the proposed Markov model had matching error below 20% in mass estimation. That was a similar performance to the method using an artificial neural network model and considerably improved in comparison with the conventional methods.

  9. Set-theoretic methods in control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchini, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this monograph describes the set-theoretic approach for the control and analysis of dynamic systems, both from a theoretical and practical standpoint.  This approach is linked to fundamental control problems, such as Lyapunov stability analysis and stabilization, optimal control, control under constraints, persistent disturbance rejection, and uncertain systems analysis and synthesis.  Completely self-contained, this book provides a solid foundation of mathematical techniques and applications, extensive references to the relevant literature, and numerous avenues for further theoretical study. All the material from the first edition has been updated to reflect the most recent developments in the field, and a new chapter on switching systems has been added.  Each chapter contains examples, case studies, and exercises to allow for a better understanding of theoretical concepts by practical application. The mathematical language is kept to the minimum level necessary for the adequate for...

  10. Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...

  11. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor

  12. Advanced Control Method for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort aims to develop software control algorithms that will correct for roll reversal before it happens. Roll reversal occurs when an aircraft is...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 505 - Management Control Evaluation Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. G Appendix G to Part 505—Management Control Evaluation Checklist (a) Function. The function covered by this checklist is DA Privacy...

  14. Design of analog networks in the control theory formulation. Part 2: Numerical results

    OpenAIRE

    Zemliak, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents numerical results of design of nonlinear electronic networks based on the problem formulation in terms of the control theory. Several examples illustrate the prospects of the approach suggested in the first part of the work.

  15. A method for increase abrasive wear resistance parts by obtaining on methods casting on gasifying models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedukhin, V. V.; Anikeev, A. N.; Chumanov, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Method optimizes hardening working layer parts’, working in high-abrasive conditions looks in this work: bland refractory particles WC and TiC in respect of 70/30 wt. % prepared by beforehand is applied on polystyrene model in casting’ mould. After metal poured in mould, withstand for crystallization, and then a study is carried out. Study macro- and microstructure received samples allows to say that thickness and structure received hardened layer depends on duration interactions blend harder carbides and liquid metal. Different character interactions various dispersed particles and matrix metal observed under the same conditions. Tests abrasive wear resistance received materials of method calculating residual masses was conducted in laboratory’ conditions. Results research wear resistance showed about that method obtaining harder coating of blend carbide tungsten and carbide titanium by means of drawing on surface foam polystyrene model before moulding, allows receive details with surface has wear resistance in 2.5 times higher, than details of analogy steel uncoated. Wherein energy costs necessary for transformation units mass’ substances in powder at obtained harder layer in 2.06 times higher, than materials uncoated.

  16. Integrating CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits: A randomized controlled feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) as part of the team leading diabetes group visits. This was a randomized controlled study that integrated CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits for low-income Hispanic adults (n=5...

  17. The Method of Validity Evaluation of Hard Coal Excavation in Residual Seam Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, Krzysztof; Bijańska, Jolanta; Gumiński, Adam

    2017-12-01

    The excavation of residual seam parts should be justified by positive assessment of the purposefulness, technical feasibility and economic effectiveness. The results of the profitability evaluation are crucial in a decision making process. The excavation of residual seam parts, even if it is possible from a technical point of view, should not be implemented if it is economically inefficient or when accompanied by a very high risk of non-recovery of invested capital resources. The article presents the evaluation method of possibilities of excavating hard coal from residual seam parts, and the example of its use in one of collieries in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Working in line with the developed method, allows to indicate the variant of residual seam part exploitation, which is feasible to implement from a technical point of view, and which is characterized by the highest economic effectiveness and lowest risk.

  18. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  19. Pattern recognition methods in air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauber, S

    1978-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition methods for predicting air pollution developments is discussed. Computer analysis of historical pollution data allows comparison in graphical form. An example of crisis prediction for carbon monoxide concentrations, using the pattern recognition method of analysis, is presented. Results of the analysis agreed well with actual CO conditions. (6 graphs, 4 references, 1 table)

  20. Apparatus and methods for controlling electron microscope stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duden, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    Methods and apparatus for generating an image of a specimen with a microscope (e.g., TEM) are disclosed. In one aspect, the microscope may generally include a beam generator, a stage, a detector, and an image generator. A plurality of crystal parameters, which describe a plurality of properties of a crystal sample, are received. In a display associated with the microscope, an interactive control sphere based at least in part on the received crystal parameters and that is rotatable by a user to different sphere orientations is presented. The sphere includes a plurality of stage coordinates that correspond to a plurality of positions of the stage and a plurality of crystallographic pole coordinates that correspond to a plurality of polar orientations of the crystal sample. Movement of the sphere causes movement of the stage, wherein the stage coordinates move in conjunction with the crystallographic coordinates represented by pole positions so as to show a relationship between stage positions and the pole positions.

  1. New methods in transport theory. Part of a coordinated programme on methods in neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, D.

    1975-09-01

    The research work of this contract was oriented towards the study of different methods in neutron transport theory. Authors studied analytical solution of the neutron slowing down transport equation and extension of this solution to include the energy dependence of the anisotropy of neutron scattering. Numerical solution of the fast and resonance transport equation for the case of mixture of scatterers including inelastic effects were also reviewed. They improved the existing formalism for treating the scattering of neutrons on water molecules; Identifying modal analysis as the Galerkin method, general conditions for modal technique applications have been investigated. Inverse problems in transport theory were considered. They obtained the evaluation of an advanced level distribution function, made improvement of the standard formalism for treating the inelastic scattering and development of a cluster nuclear model for this evaluation. Authors studied the neutron transport treatment in space energy groups for criticality calculation of a reactor core, and development of the Monte Carlo sampling scheme from the neutron transport equation

  2. System and method for controlling a vision guided robot assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yhu-Tin; Daro, Timothy; Abell, Jeffrey A.; Turner, III, Raymond D.; Casoli, Daniel J.

    2017-03-07

    A method includes the following steps: actuating a robotic arm to perform an action at a start position; moving the robotic arm from the start position toward a first position; determining from a vision process method if a first part from the first position will be ready to be subjected to a first action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the first position; commencing the execution of the visual processing method for determining the position deviation of the second part from the second position and the readiness of the second part to be subjected to a second action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the second position; and performing a first action on the first part using the robotic arm with the position deviation of the first part from the first position predetermined by the vision process method.

  3. Parallel control method for a bilateral master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tomohiro; Hagihara, Shiro

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a new control method for a bilateral master-slave manipulator is proposed. The proposed method yields stable and fast response of the control system. These are essential to obtain a precise position control and a sensitive force reflection control. In the conventional position-force control method, each control loop of the master and the slave arms are connected in series to construct a bilateral control loop. Therefore the total phase lag through the bilateral control loop becomes twice as much as that of one arm control. Such phase lag makes the control system unstable and control performance worse. To improve the stability and the control performance, we propose 'parallel control method.' In the proposed method, the control loops of the master and the slave arms are connected in parallel so that the total phase lag is reduced to as much as that of one arm. The stability condition of the proposed method is studied and it is proved that the stability of this method can be guaranteed independent of the rigidness of a reaction surface and the position/force ratio between the master and the slave arms while the stability of the conventional method depends on them. (author)

  4. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 2. Theoretical investigations of the pressure difference method. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 2. Theoretische Untersuchungen zur Druckdifferenz-Methode. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knissel, Jens; Grossklos, Marc [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Werner, Johannes [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    In energy-efficient buildings with mechanical ventilation and heat recovery, the heat losses of ventilation of a building can be influenced by additional open windows. This causes a significant rise in the heating demand. The Drd method (pressure difference method) assumes that the negative pressure in a building after switching off the supply air fan will depend on whether all windows are closed, or at least one window is open. In the research project under consideration the determination of the position of the window aperture using the Drd method shall be developed further. The operating conditions of the Drd method is investigated theoretically. Questions of the required building tightness and plant characteristics are clarified.

  5. A control method for manipulators with redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Junji; Usui, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Redundant manipulators have more ability than nonredundant ones in many aspects such as avoiding obstacles, avoiding singular states, etc. In this paper, a control algorithm for redundant manipulators working under the circumstance in the presence of obstacles is presented. First, the measure of manipulability for robot manipulators under obstacle circumstances is defined. Then, the control algorithm for the obstacle avoidance is derived by using this measure of manipulability. The obstacle avoidance and the maintenance of good posture are simultaneously achieved by this algorithm. Lastly, an experiment and simulation results using an eight degree of freedom manipulator are shown. (author)

  6. A keyboard control method for loop measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a keyboard control mode based on the DEC VAX computer. The VAX Keyboard code can be found under running of a program was developed. During the loop measurement or multitask operation, it ables to be distinguished from a keyboard code to stop current operation or transfer to another operation while previous information can be held. The combining of this mode, the author successfully used one key control loop measurement for test Dual Input Memory module which is used in a rearrange Energy Trigger system for LEP 8 Bunch operation

  7. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  8. EFFICACY OF CULTURAL METHODS IN THE CONTROL OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... conventional disease control involving chemical fumigation with ... the promising non-chemical strategies may form part of the urgently ... In Kenya, Rhizoctonia damping off is a serious disease of tomato and other vegetables.

  9. Augmented Lagrangian Method For Discretized Optimal Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we are concerned with one-dimensional time invariant optimal control problem, whose objective function is quadratic and the dynamical system is a differential equation with initial condition .Since most real life problems are nonlinear and their analytical solutions are not readily available, we resolve to ...

  10. Asynchronous electromotor controlled tuned through CARLA method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březina, Tomáš; Turek, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2004, 8-9 (2004), s. 27-30 ISSN 0033-2089. [Mechatronics 2004. Warsaw, 23.09.2004-25.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : CARLA * control Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  11. Method and device for controlling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    A device which will control radiation emanating from colour television sets is described. It consists of two transparent plates the same size as a television screen, with a thin layer of transparent mineral oil sealed between them. The device may be installed by the manufacturer or bought separately and installed by the user. (LL)

  12. Evaluation of Controller Tuning Methods Applied to Distillation Column Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; W. Andersen, Henrik; Kümmel, Professor Mogens

    A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope of this is to ex......A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope...

  13. Evaluation of two methods in controlling dental treatment water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ritu; Puttaiah, Raghunath; Harris, Robert; Reddy, Anil

    2011-03-01

    Dental unit water systems are contaminated with biofilms that amplify bacterial counts in dental treatment water in excess of a million colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association have agreed that the maximum allowable contamination of dental treatment water not exceed 500 cfu/ml. This study was conducted to evaluate two protocols in controlling contamination of dental unit water systems and dental treatment water. Both methods used an antimicrobial self-dissolving chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) tablet at a high concentration (50 ppm) to shock the dental unit water system biofilms initially followed by periodic exposure. To treat dental treatment source water for patient care, 3 parts per million (ppm) ClO₂ in municipal/tap water was compared to use of a citrus botanical extract dissolved in municipal water. Heterotrophic microbial counts of effluent water and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate effects of the two treatments. Results from this study indicated that both treatments were effective in controlling biofilm contamination and reducing heterotrophic plate counts Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(2):73-83. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  14. Schinus terebinthifolius countercurrent chromatography (Part III): Method transfer from small countercurrent chromatography column to preparative centrifugal partition chromatography ones as a part of method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves Costa, Fernanda; Hubert, Jane; Borie, Nicolas; Kotland, Alexis; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2017-03-03

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) are support free liquid-liquid chromatography techniques sharing the same basic principles and features. Method transfer has previously been demonstrated for both techniques but never from one to another. This study aimed to show such a feasibility using fractionation of Schinus terebinthifolius berries dichloromethane extract as a case study. Heptane - ethyl acetate - methanol -water (6:1:6:1, v/v/v/v) was used as solvent system with masticadienonic and 3β-masticadienolic acids as target compounds. The optimized separation methodology previously described in Part I and II, was scaled up from an analytical hydrodynamic CCC column (17.4mL) to preparative hydrostatic CPC instruments (250mL and 303mL) as a part of method development. Flow-rate and sample loading were further optimized on CPC. Mobile phase linear velocity is suggested as a transfer invariant parameter if the CPC column contains sufficient number of partition cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji

    1998-01-01

    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  16. Methods of neutron spectrum calculation from measured reaction rates in saips. Part 1. Review of mathematical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondars, Kh.Ya.; Lapenas, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    We adapted or used on ES EhVM, operating under the control of OS ES, the currently most common algorithms for calculating neutron spectra from measured reaction rates. These programs, together with the neutron cross-section and spectrum libraries, are part of the computerized information system SAIPS. The present article descibes the basic mathematical concepts used in the algorithms of the SAIPS calculation programs

  17. Preventive Methods for ATM Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Baronak; Robert Trska

    2004-01-01

    Broadband transfer mode ATM represent one of alternative solutions for growing requirements on transfer capabilities. Its advantage is an effort for provisions of guaranteed quality of transport services with preservations of high transfer rate. This property is covered by several mechanisms, which role is to control not only the traffic of existing connections, but also the admission of new ones and prevent the violation of requirements on transport quality of existing and new connections.

  18. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendix I to Part 25—Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) I25.1General. (a... crew to increase thrust or power. I25.2Definitions. (a) Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust...

  19. 41 CFR 61-250.99 - What is the OMB control number for this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the OMB control... TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 250-ANNUAL REPORT FROM FEDERAL CONTRACTORS § 61-250.99 What is the OMB control number for this part? Pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., and...

  20. 41 CFR 61-300.99 - What is the OMB control number for this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the OMB control... TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 300-ANNUAL REPORT FROM FEDERAL CONTRACTORS § 61-300.99 What is the OMB control number for this part? Pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq., and...

  1. Method of controlling a control rod drive exchange apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Kanji; Hirano, Shigeo; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oowada, Masataka.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To move the mountings means for control rod drives to an aimed position easily in a short time by alternately rotating a rotational moving means and radially moving a lateral transfer means. Constitution: Positions for a rotational moving vehicle and a lateral moving vehicle are inspected respectively by synchro generators A and B. The positional signals detected by the synchro generator A is transformed into an angle by a transducer C and the positional signals detected by the synchro generator B is transformed into a radial distance by a transducer D, whereafter each of the data is transmitted to a computer. The computer controls motors to operate the rotational moving means and the lateral moving means alternately. (Seki, T.)

  2. Epidemiologic methods in mastitis treatment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, M C

    1993-11-01

    Methods and concepts of epidemiology offer means whereby udder health can be monitored and evaluated. Prerequisite to a sound epidemiologic approach is development of measures of mastitis that minimize biases and that account for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests. Mastitis surveillance offers an ongoing and passive system for evaluation of udder health, whereas clinical and observational trials offer a more proactive and developmental approach to improving udder health.

  3. Influence of discretization method on the digital control system performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futás József

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of control system can be divided into two steps. First the process or plant have to be convert into mathematical model form, so that its behavior can be analyzed. Then an appropriate controller have to be design in order to get the desired response of the controlled system. In the continuous time domain the system is represented by differential equations. Replacing a continuous system into discrete time form is always an approximation of the continuous system. The different discretization methods give different digital controller performance. The methods presented on the paper are Step Invariant or Zero Order Hold (ZOH Method, Matched Pole-Zero Method, Backward difference Method and Bilinear transformation. The above mentioned discretization methods are used in developing PI position controller of a dc motor. The motor model was converted by the ZOH method. The performances of the different methods are compared and the results are presented.

  4. Application of finite element method in mechanical design of automotive parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Suohai

    2017-09-01

    As an effective numerical analysis method, finite element method (FEM) has been widely used in mechanical design and other fields. In this paper, the development of FEM is introduced firstly, then the specific steps of FEM applications are illustrated and the difficulties of FEM are summarized in detail. Finally, applications of FEM in automobile components such as automobile wheel, steel plate spring, body frame, shaft parts and so on are summarized, compared with related research experiments.

  5. Solution of task related to control of swiss-type automatic lathe to get planes parallel to part axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabekina, N. A.; Chepchurov, M. S.; Evtushenko, E. I.; Dmitrievsky, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    The work solves the problem of automation of machining process namely turning to produce parts having the planes parallel to an axis of rotation of part without using special tools. According to the results, the availability of the equipment of a high speed electromechanical drive to control the operative movements of lathe machine will enable one to get the planes parallel to the part axis. The method of getting planes parallel to the part axis is based on the mathematical model, which is presented as functional dependency between the conveying velocity of the driven element and the time. It describes the operative movements of lathe machine all over the tool path. Using the model of movement of the tool, it has been found that the conveying velocity varies from the maximum to zero value. It will allow one to carry out the reverse of the drive. The scheme of tool placement regarding the workpiece has been proposed for unidirectional movement of the driven element at high conveying velocity. The control method of CNC machines can be used for getting geometrically complex parts on the lathe without using special milling tools.

  6. Helical type thermonuclear device and control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional helical type thermonuclear device, electric current flows in the toroidal direction under magnetic fields of helical coils and vertical magnetic coils, by which a circulating electric field is caused. Therefore, there is a problem that electrons as a seed are generated by cosmic rays, etc., the electrons are confined in a magnetic field boundary, are accelerated by the circulating electric field, to reach a high energy level, collide against structures in a vacuum vessel and emit a great amount of X-rays. Then, compensation coils for offsetting the magnetic fields generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils and the power source therefor are disposed at the positions opposing to each other on both sides of the vertical magnetic coils for controlling the variation coefficient rate of electric current upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils. Since the compensation coils also offset the magnetic field generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic field coils by this control, the circulating magnetic field is not caused in the vacuum vessel to reduce the X-ray radiation by electrons at high energy level. (N.H.)

  7. Global warming and climate change: control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laal, M.; Aliramaie, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aimed at finding causes of global warming and ways to bring it under control. Data based on scientific opinion as given by synthesis reports of news, articles, web sites, and books. global warming is the observed and projected increases in average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Burning fossil fuels is the main factor of pollution. As average temperature increases, habitats, species and people are threatened by drought, changes in rainfall, altered seasons, and more violent storms and floods. Indeed the life cycle of nuclear power results in relatively little pollution. Energy efficiency, solar, wind and other renewable fuels are other weapons against global warming . Human activity, primarily burning fossil fuels, is the major driving factor in global warming . Curtailing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by reducing use of oil, gasoline, coal and employment of alternate energy, sources are the tools for keeping global warming under control. global warming can be slowed and stopped, with practical actions thal yield a cleaner, healthier atmosphere

  8. TESTING OF FRAMED STRUCTURE PARTS OF COMPACT MUON SOLENOID BY NONDESTRUCTIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Larchenkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension parts of a compact muon solenoid for Large Hadron Collider have been tested in the paper. The paper describes a steady-state and cyclic “tension-compression” load created by superconducting electromagnet with energy of 3 GJ and magnetic induction of 4 tesla. A nondestructive testing method has been applied in the paper.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 425 - Modified Monier-Williams Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified Monier-Williams Method B Appendix B to Part 425 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 425, App. B Appendix B to...

  10. Towards an empirical method of usability testing of system parts : a methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.P.; Haakma, R.; Bouwhuis, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Current usability evaluation methods are essentially holistic in nature. However, engineers that apply a component-based software engineering approach might also be interested in understanding the usability of individual parts of an interactive system. This paper examines the efficiency dimension of

  11. Contamination control methods for gases used in the microlithography process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Larry; Applegarth, Chuck; Vergani, Giorgio

    2002-07-01

    Sensitivity to contamination continues to increase as the technology shrinks from 365 nm I-line lamp illumination to 13.4 nm Extreme Ultraviolet laser activated plasma. Gas borne impurities can be readily distributed within the system, remaining both suspended in the gas and attached to critical surfaces. Effects from a variety of contamination, some well characterized and others not, remain a continuing obstacle for stepper manufacturers and users. Impurities like oxygen, moisture and hydrocarbons in parts per billion levels can absorb light, reducing the light intensity and subsequently reducing the consistence of the process. Moisture, sulfur compounds, ammonia, acid compounds and organic compounds such as hydrocarbons can deposit on lens or mirror surfaces affecting image quality. Regular lens replacement or removal for cleaning is a costly option and in-situ cleaning processes must be carefully managed to avoid recontamination of the system. The contamination can come from outside the controlled environment (local gas supply, piping system, & leaks), or from the materials moving into the controlled environment; or contamination may be generated inside the controlled environment as a result of the process itself. The release of amines can occur as a result of the degassing of the photo-resists. For the manufacturer and user of stepper equipment, the challenge is not in predictable contamination, but the variable or unpredictable contamination in the process. One type of unpredictable contamination may be variation in the environmental conditions when producing the nitrogen gas and Clean Dry Air (CDA). Variation in the CDA, nitrogen and xenon may range from parts per billion to parts per million. The risk due to uncontrolled or unmonitored variation in gas quality can be directly related to product defects. Global location can significantly affect the gas quality, due to the ambient air quality (for nitrogen and CDA), production methods, gas handling equipment

  12. Stirling engine control mechanism and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, John J.

    1983-01-01

    A reciprocating-to-rotating motion conversion and power control device for a Stirling engine includes a hub mounted on an offset portion of the output shaft for rotation relative to the shaft and for sliding motion therealong which causes the hub to tilt relative to the axis of rotation of the shaft. This changes the angle of inclination of the hub relative to the shaft axis and changes the axial stroke of a set of arms connected to the hub and nutating therewith. A hydraulic actuating mechanism is connected to the hub for moving its axial position along the shaft. A balancing wheel is linked to the hub and changes its angle of inclination as the angle of inclination of the hub changes to maintain the mechanism in perfect balance throughout its range of motion.

  13. METHODS OF AUTOMATIC QUALITY CONTROL OF AGGLUTINANTSANDS IN FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to comparative analysis of the well-known methods of automatic quality control of agglutinant sands in process of their preparation and to the problems of automation control of the mix preparation processes.

  14. Method for automatic control rod operation using rule-based control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kiguchi, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    An automatic control rod operation method using rule-based control is proposed. Its features are as follows: (1) a production system to recognize plant events, determine control actions and realize fast inference (fast selection of a suitable production rule), (2) use of the fuzzy control technique to determine quantitative control variables. The method's performance was evaluated by simulation tests on automatic control rod operation at a BWR plant start-up. The results were as follows; (1) The performance which is related to stabilization of controlled variables and time required for reactor start-up, was superior to that of other methods such as PID control and program control methods, (2) the process time to select and interpret the suitable production rule, which was the same as required for event recognition or determination of control action, was short (below 1 s) enough for real time control. The results showed that the method is effective for automatic control rod operation. (author)

  15. Method of controlling ECCS system in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, Hideaki; Ikehara, Morihiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the risk of misoperation and thereby improve the reliability of ECCS system upon accident. Method: ECCS system for nuclear reactor is automatically started by either of signals from a water level detector in a pressure vessel or from a pressure detector in a reactor container. Further, the ECCS system is started or stopped by the manual operation irrespective of the signals, and the signals from the pressure detector are isolated from the ECCS-starting signal by the contacts which actuate interlocked with the stopping operation of the manual operation switch. Then, after stopping the ECCS system by the manual operation, the ECCS system is started by the signals from the water level detector irrespective of the signals from the pressure detector. (Seki, T.)

  16. Standard Practice for Optical Distortion and Deviation of Transparent Parts Using the Double-Exposure Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This photographic practice determines the optical distortion and deviation of a line of sight through a simple transparent part, such as a commercial aircraft windshield or a cabin window. This practice applies to essentially flat or nearly flat parts and may not be suitable for highly curved materials. 1.2 Test Method F 801 addresses optical deviation (angluar deviation) and Test Method F 2156 addresses optical distortion using grid line slope. These test methods should be used instead of Practice F 733 whenever practical. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Developments of methods for computerized configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is known that Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is nowadays the appropriate technology and tool that can be used to optimize, during the design phase, a considered installation taking into account reliability and safety aspects, and also to evaluate and quantify the base-line risk level for the optimized installation. This base-line risk level is normally expressed by an average frequency per plant-year assigned to a scenario of interest (e.g. core damage, in case of a NPP). A considerable number of changes in components and system design can occur during the construction phase and another during the subsequent operation phase due to a continuous change in the plant configurations and their operating procedures, when compared to the configuration considered for the base-line risk quantification. These changes can be originated by planned activities like tests, maintenance and repair or by unplanned actions, mainly random events (failures) on components and systems. This results in a fluctuation of the risk level over operating time and is denominated as the ''risk profile'' (RP) of the installation. Living PSA and risk monitoring programs can assess the RP. An adequate management tool, calculating the ''risk profile'', can be used to control and optimize the operation of the installation with respect to a minimal risk level over the operating time. As a result we obtained a so called fault tolerant operation. 30 refs, 1 tab, figs

  18. Review of selected non-seismic methods for onshore hydrocarbon exploration in Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L.

    2012-09-15

    Project ALTKUL was commissioned by DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden; the Danish Energy Agency followed the project closely. The starting point of the study was the need in Danish onshore areas for more knowledge on alternative methods that could be used for hydrocarbon exploration, as an alternative to seismic investigations. DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden approached GEUS, suggesting a study of seven different methods. The Danish Energy Agency was interested in the subject and requested that an actual test of a method be carried out as a part of the project. The seven methods considered and reviewed are: 1: Surface geochemistry; 2: Gravimetric modelling; 3: Magnetotellurics (MT, AMT and ZTEM); 4: High-Moment Electromagnetics (HMEM); 5: High-Powered Spectral Induced Polarization (HPSIP); 6: Electron Para-magnetic Resonance (EPR); 7: Airborne Transient Pulse Surveys. Getting a test of one of the methods based on electromagnetic theory organised caused some difficulties. An experiment with a galvanic controlled source was considered to be the optimum choice. However, based on various contacts and failed attempts to organise a test, a contract was entered with Uppsala University for some initial tests of the MT method. The test is to be carried out in August 2012 and will be reported in a separate report (ALTKUL Project Report Part 2). (LN)

  19. Model Predictive Control of the Exit Part Temperature for an Austenitization Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari S. Ganesh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quench hardening is the process of strengthening and hardening ferrous metals and alloys by heating the material to a specific temperature to form austenite (austenitization, followed by rapid cooling (quenching in water, brine or oil to introduce a hardened phase called martensite. The material is then often tempered to increase toughness, as it may decrease from the quench hardening process. The austenitization process is highly energy-intensive and many of the industrial austenitization furnaces were built and equipped prior to the advent of advanced control strategies and thus use large, sub-optimal amounts of energy. The model computes the energy usage of the furnace and the part temperature profile as a function of time and position within the furnace under temperature feedback control. In this paper, the aforementioned model is used to simulate the furnace for a batch of forty parts under heuristic temperature set points suggested by the operators of the plant. A model predictive control (MPC system is then developed and deployed to control the the part temperature at the furnace exit thereby preventing the parts from overheating. An energy efficiency gain of 5.3 % was obtained under model predictive control compared to operation under heuristic temperature set points tracked by a regulatory control layer.

  20. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations -survey of design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmorran, P.D.

    1979-12-01

    The development of larger nuclear generating stations increases the importance of dynamic interaction between controllers, because each control action may affect several plant outputs. Multivariable control provides the techniques to design controllers which perform well under these conditions. This report is a foundation for further work on the application of multivariable control in AECL. It covers the requirements of control and the fundamental mathematics used, then reviews the most important linear methods, based on both state-space and frequency-response concepts. State-space methods are derived from analysis of the system differential equations, while frequency-response methods use the input-output transfer function. State-space methods covered include linear-quadratic optimal control, pole shifting, and the theory of state observers and estimators. Frequency-response methods include the inverse Nyquist array method, and classical non-interactive techniques. Transfer-function methods are particularly emphasized since they can incorporate ill-defined design criteria. The underlying concepts, and the application strengths and weaknesses of each design method are presented. A review of significant applications is also given. It is concluded that the inverse Nyquist array method, a frequency-response technique based on inverse transfer-function matrices, is preferred for the design of multivariable controllers for nuclear power plants. This method may be supplemented by information obtained from a modal analysis of the plant model. (auth)

  1. Real Time Part Input Control of a Pull Production System by Finding IF-THEN Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rizauddin; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Abu Qudeiri, Jaber

    This paper considers the part input problem of a production system where two Flexible Transfer Lines (FTLs) consisting of an up-stream production line and a down-stream production line while operating under Just In Time (JIT) production management. The up-stream production line processes the raw material after receiving them from suppliers, and after processing them, delivers the processed product to a down-stream production line via a conveyer. In this paper, we have proposed a novel idea for a part input real time control system, known as Algorithm for Real Time Control of Part Input Systems (ARTCOPS). The algorithm is useful when FTLs are in operation under a production order that is different from the pre-decided production schedule. Simulations of virtual production systems have been carried out to verify that ARTCOPS is useful in real time control, although the production orders are different from the pre-decided production scheduling.

  2. A Design Method of Robust Servo Internal Model Control with Control Input Saturation

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 功; 舩見, 洋祐

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we examine a design method of robust servo Internal Model Control with control input saturation. First of all, we clarify the condition that Internal Model Control has robust servo characteristics for the system with control input saturation. From this consideration, we propose new design method of Internal Model Control with robust servo characteristics. A numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown.

  3. Design Method of Active Disturbance Rejection Variable Structure Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-jie Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on lines cluster approaching theory and inspired by the traditional exponent reaching law method, a new control method, lines cluster approaching mode control (LCAMC method, is designed to improve the parameter simplicity and structure optimization of the control system. The design guidelines and mathematical proofs are also given. To further improve the tracking performance and the inhibition of the white noise, connect the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC method with the LCAMC method and create the extended state observer based lines cluster approaching mode control (ESO-LCAMC method. Taking traditional servo control system as example, two control schemes are constructed and two kinds of comparison are carried out. Computer simulation results show that LCAMC method, having better tracking performance than the traditional sliding mode control (SMC system, makes the servo system track command signal quickly and accurately in spite of the persistent equivalent disturbances and ESO-LCAMC method further reduces the tracking error and filters the white noise added on the system states. Simulation results verify the robust property and comprehensive performance of control schemes.

  4. Interactive robot control system and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having joints, actuators, and sensors, and a distributed controller. The controller includes command-level controller, embedded joint-level controllers each controlling a respective joint, and a joint coordination-level controller coordinating motion of the joints. A central data library (CDL) centralizes all control and feedback data, and a user interface displays a status of each joint, actuator, and sensor using the CDL. A parameterized action sequence has a hierarchy of linked events, and allows the control data to be modified in real time. A method of controlling the robot includes transmitting control data through the various levels of the controller, routing all control and feedback data to the CDL, and displaying status and operation of the robot using the CDL. The parameterized action sequences are generated for execution by the robot, and a hierarchy of linked events is created within the sequence.

  5. Optimal treatment cost allocation methods in pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenying; Fang Dong; Xue Dazhi

    1999-01-01

    Total emission control is an effective pollution control strategy. However, Chinese application of total emission control lacks reasonable and fair methods for optimal treatment cost allocation, a critical issue in total emission control. The author considers four approaches to allocate treatment costs. The first approach is to set up a multiple-objective planning model and to solve the model using the shortest distance ideal point method. The second approach is to define degree of satisfaction for cost allocation results for each polluter and to establish a method based on this concept. The third is to apply bargaining and arbitration theory to develop a model. The fourth is to establish a cooperative N-person game model which can be solved using the Shapley value method, the core method, the Cost Gap Allocation method or the Minimum Costs-Remaining Savings method. These approaches are compared using a practicable case study

  6. Methods to control for unmeasured confounding in pharmacoepidemiology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jamal; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Ali, Mohammed Sanni; de Boer, Anthonius; Roes, Kit C B; Chowdhury, Muhammad A B; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-06-01

    Background Unmeasured confounding is one of the principal problems in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Several methods have been proposed to detect or control for unmeasured confounding either at the study design phase or the data analysis phase. Aim of the Review To provide an overview of commonly used methods to detect or control for unmeasured confounding and to provide recommendations for proper application in pharmacoepidemiology. Methods/Results Methods to control for unmeasured confounding in the design phase of a study are case only designs (e.g., case-crossover, case-time control, self-controlled case series) and the prior event rate ratio adjustment method. Methods that can be applied in the data analysis phase include, negative control method, perturbation variable method, instrumental variable methods, sensitivity analysis, and ecological analysis. A separate group of methods are those in which additional information on confounders is collected from a substudy. The latter group includes external adjustment, propensity score calibration, two-stage sampling, and multiple imputation. Conclusion As the performance and application of the methods to handle unmeasured confounding may differ across studies and across databases, we stress the importance of using both statistical evidence and substantial clinical knowledge for interpretation of the study results.

  7. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  8. Study on control method of the actuators accepting commands from different classifications in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lixue; Zhang Nan; Fan Jin; Li Liang

    2015-01-01

    The distributed control system has become the main control system for the nuclear power plant, consisting of 1E and non-1E parts. Because the safety actuators accept commands from different safety classifications, this is a difficulty of controlling those actuators in nuclear power plant. This article discusses about the control method for safety actuators accepting commands from different classifications. Firstly, one control method adopted in new nuclear power projects is introduced. Then based on this, an optimized method is raised. The new method mainly concludes two points than the adopted method: 1. The concept 'local control mode' is introduced into the signal priority logic modules, and the priority logic module turns into local mode for the non-1E control system once it accepts safety signal; 2. The 'remote control mode' is added into the module of the safety actuator in the non-1E control system, and this can make the non-1E control system abandon controlling the safety actuator when the relevant priority logic module accept the safety signal. Based on verifying the correctness of modified scheme, comparisons between the fore-and-aft schemes are provided to summary the merits of the optimized method. It is concluded that optimized scheme is better in the aspects of reliability, safety and economy. (authors)

  9. Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives th...... the condenser pressure towards an optimal state. The objective of this is to present a feasible method that can be used for energy optimizing control. A simulation model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as basis for testing the control method....

  10. Internal quality control of RIA with Tonks error calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaodong

    1996-01-01

    According to the methodology feature of RIA, an internal quality control chart with Tonks error calculation method which is suitable for RIA is designed. The quality control chart defines the value of the allowance error with normal reference range. The method has the simplicity of its performance and directly perceived through the senses. Taking the example of determining T 3 and T 4 , the calculation of allowance error, drawing of quality control chart and the analysis of result are introduced

  11. THE USE OF TEACHING METHODS IN CLASS MAIN PART OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Međedović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical education as compulsory form of education has its own structure, which has different structure from the other subjects. The differences are especially spotted throw metodicalad mission, also throw working methods which are different, dipending of unit which has been done, method which will be used in main or simple part of class depends on aims and subject matters of cimesiolical operaters (these are simple teaching aids, it also dependes of age and sex, depends of relation between teacher and pupil and of course of laws on which is built this subject. Throw empirical researches on representativle sample of 56 home room teachers, it showed that the most used method is demonstrative and it also showed the importance of methods which are used in this subject. These results which are gained throw instrumental researches of questionnaire, are represented in charts, graphics and texts.

  12. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    preparation , implementation, and operation of a Parts, Materials, and Processes (PMP) control program for use during the design, development...Processes List CDR Critical Design Review CDRL Contract Data Requirements List CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CONOPS Concept of Operations...Failure Review Board GFE Government Furnished Equipment GIDEP Government Industry Data Exchange Program HBT Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor IPT

  13. Document control system as an integral part of RA documentation database application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steljic, M.M; Ljubenov, V.Lj. . E-mail address of corresponding author: milijanas@vin.bg.ac.yu; Steljic, M.M.)

    2005-01-01

    The decision about the final shutdown of the RA research reactor in Vinca Institute has been brought in 2002, and therefore the preparations for its decommissioning have begun. All activities are supervised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which also provides technical and experts' support. This paper describes the document control system is an integral part of the existing RA documentation database. (author)

  14. A novel adaptive force control method for IPMC manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Lina; Sun, Zhiyong; Su, Yunquan; Gao, Jianchao; Li, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    IPMC is a type of electro-active polymer material, also called artificial muscle, which can generate a relatively large deformation under a relatively low input voltage (generally speaking, less than 5 V), and can be implemented in a water environment. Due to these advantages, IPMC can be used in many fields such as biomimetics, service robots, bio-manipulation, etc. Until now, most existing methods for IPMC manipulation are displacement control not directly force control, however, under most conditions, the success rate of manipulations for tiny fragile objects is limited by the contact force, such as using an IPMC gripper to fix cells. Like most EAPs, a creep phenomenon exists in IPMC, of which the generated force will change with time and the creep model will be influenced by the change of the water content or other environmental factors, so a proper force control method is urgently needed. This paper presents a novel adaptive force control method (AIPOF control—adaptive integral periodic output feedback control), based on employing a creep model of which parameters are obtained by using the FRLS on-line identification method. The AIPOF control method can achieve an arbitrary pole configuration as long as the plant is controllable and observable. This paper also designs the POF and IPOF controller to compare their test results. Simulation and experiments of micro-force-tracking tests are carried out, with results confirming that the proposed control method is viable. (paper)

  15. A Robust Cooperated Control Method with Reinforcement Learning and Adaptive H∞ Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Masanao; Uchiyama, Shogo; Kuremoto, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kunikazu

    This study proposes a robust cooperated control method combining reinforcement learning with robust control to control the system. A remarkable characteristic of the reinforcement learning is that it doesn't require model formula, however, it doesn't guarantee the stability of the system. On the other hand, robust control system guarantees stability and robustness, however, it requires model formula. We employ both the actor-critic method which is a kind of reinforcement learning with minimal amount of computation to control continuous valued actions and the traditional robust control, that is, H∞ control. The proposed system was compared method with the conventional control method, that is, the actor-critic only used, through the computer simulation of controlling the angle and the position of a crane system, and the simulation result showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Revealing metabolomic variations in Cortex Moutan from different root parts using HPLC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chaoni; Wu, Man; Chen, Yongyong; Zhang, Yajun; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metabolites in the different root parts of Cortex Moutan (the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) is not well understood, therefore, scientific evidence is not available for quality assessment of Cortex Moutan. To reveal metabolomic variations in Cortex Moutan in order to gain deeper insights to enable quality control. Metabolomic variations in the different root parts of Cortex Moutan were characterised using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and multivariate data analysis. The discriminating metabolites in different root parts were evaluated by the one-way analysis of variance and a fold change parameter. The metabolite profiles of Cortex Moutan were largely dominated by five primary and 41 secondary metabolites . Higher levels of malic acid, gallic acid and mudanoside-B were mainly observed in the second lateral roots, whereas dihydroxyacetophenone, benzoyloxypaeoniflorin, suffruticoside-A, kaempferol dihexoside, mudanpioside E and mudanpioside J accumulated in the first lateral and axial roots. The highest contents of paeonol, galloyloxypaeoniflorin and procyanidin B were detected in the axial roots. Accordingly, metabolite compositions of Cortex Moutan were found to vary among different root parts. The axial roots have higher quality than the lateral roots in Cortex Moutan due to the accumulation of bioactive secondary metabolites associated with plant physiology. These findings provided important scientific evidence for grading Cortex Moutan on the general market. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Bionic optimization in structural design stochastically based methods to improve the performance of parts and assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Gekeler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The book provides suggestions on how to start using bionic optimization methods, including pseudo-code examples of each of the important approaches and outlines of how to improve them. The most efficient methods for accelerating the studies are discussed. These include the selection of size and generations of a study’s parameters, modification of these driving parameters, switching to gradient methods when approaching local maxima, and the use of parallel working hardware. Bionic Optimization means finding the best solution to a problem using methods found in nature. As Evolutionary Strategies and Particle Swarm Optimization seem to be the most important methods for structural optimization, we primarily focus on them. Other methods such as neural nets or ant colonies are more suited to control or process studies, so their basic ideas are outlined in order to motivate readers to start using them. A set of sample applications shows how Bionic Optimization works in practice. From academic studies on simple fra...

  18. Presenting automatic demand control (ADC) as a new frequency control method in smart grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameli, Mohammad Taghi; Ameli, Ali; Maleki, Hamed [Power and Water Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mobarhani, Alireza [Amir Kabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Electric power is the most important part of human energy consumption, and since it has a low storage coefficient it is of particular importance to establish a balance in demand and generation in order to modify and optimize consumption patterns. The expression ''Smart Grid'' can be used to describe technologies which are applied for the automation and optimization of the generation, transmission and distribution network management. This technology requires the integration of information and communication technology in electrical network operation. This paper will study how the Smart Grid capabilites can be used to manage and optimize power network consumption, as well as how the consumers collaboration process using an AGC (Automatic Generation Control) system acts to provide secondary frequency control through consumed load shedding. Reestablishing the balance between demand and generation in critical network operation is also investigated. In other words, utilizing the above method, a new system, ADC (Automatic Demand Control), is offered for use alongside the AGC system in Smart Grids to restore the frequency value to its nominal value. This can lead to a more competitive electricity market and reduce the system storage while maintaining adequate security and network reliability. One of the benefits of the proposed methods described in this paper, in addition to restoring the frequency value to its nominal value, is lower costs and a more economic network operation through reducing fuel and CO2 emission by managing and controlling the amount of the consumed load in the Smart Grid. Also consumers are given the capability to have a specific timetable to economize on their energy requirements which will also reduce the load peak and the network losses. (orig.)

  19. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.М. Bunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institution, information systems, control procedures and control monitoring. The dependence between the effectiveness of accounting and internal control of a budget institution is determined. The paper highlights the methods of evaluation of internal control of a budget institution. This method is recommended for use in the preliminary assessment of control risk budget institution. The concept of «decision» as on the whole and also in particular in internal control is covered. The essential grouping indications of internal control decisions are defined and every type of decisions is characterized. The main directions of improvement of internal control to prevent violations in accounting of a budgetary institution is examined.

  20. Method for evaluating operator inputs to digital controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Most industrial processes employ operator-interactive control systems. The performance of these control systems is influenced by the choice of control station (device through which operator enters control commands). While the importance of proper control-station selection is widely accepted, standard and simple selection methods are not available for the control station using color-graphics terminals. This paper describes a unique facility for evaluating the effectiveness of various control stations. In the facility, a process is simulated on a hybrid computer, color-graphics display terminals provide information to the operator, and different control stations accept input commands to control the simulation. Tests are being conducted to evaluate a keyboard, a graphics tablet, and a CRT touch panel for use as control stations on a nuclear power plant. Preliminary results indicate that our facility can be used to determine those situations where each type of station is advantageous

  1. Production and quality control of concrete for the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station - [Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Roy, P.K.; Sukhtankar, K.D.; Prasad, K.

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of the production and quality control of concrete and concrete materials used in the construction of twin-reactor Rajasthan Atomic Power Station are discussed : (1) relationship between strength of cubes and cylinders made of concrete used for the prestressed dome (2) temperature control during pouring of concrete (3) thermal conductivity of heavy concrete (4) various types of grouting procedures used for different structures forming part of reactors (5) quality control of normal and heavy concrete and (6) leakage through form ties. Typical concrete mixes used for grouts are also given. (M.G.B.)

  2. A time-delayed method for controlling chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Zhou Donghua; Shang Yun

    2005-01-01

    Combining the repetitive learning strategy and the optimality principle, this Letter proposes a time-delayed method to control chaotic maps. This method can effectively stabilize unstable periodic orbits within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. Numerical simulations of some chaotic maps verify the effectiveness of this method

  3. Polarization control method for UV writing of advanced bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Plougmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2002-01-01

    We report the application of the polarization control method for the UV writing of advanced fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). We demonstrate the strength of the new method for different apodization profiles, including the Sinc-profile and two designs for dispersion-free square filters. The method has...

  4. Improving the Quality of Hot Stamping Parts with Innovative Press Technology and Inline Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, R.; Palm, C.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing number of hot stamped parts in the automotive industry is challenging different process areas. This paper presents a method how to improve the production rates over the whole life cycle of a hot forming part. In the core element of a hot forming line, the hydraulic press, mainly two processing steps are performed. Forming and quenching of the sheet metal part. In addition to the forming operation, it is inevitable to optimize the quenching condition in the bottom dead centre in order to reach a fully martensitic structure and tight geometrical tolerances of the part. Deviations in the blank thickness, tool wear, polishing of classical tools impair the quenching condition and therefore the part quality over the time. A new press and tool design has been developed to counter this effect by providing homogenous contact pressure over the whole die. Especially with a multi cavity tool, the new method is advantageous. Test series have shown that the new tool and press concept can produce parts with a blank thickness of 1.0 mm within 8.0 s cycle time. The so called PCH flex principle makes it possible to produce such high output rates under reliable conditions.

  5. Force Feedback Control Method of Active Tuned Mass Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active tuned mass dampers as vibration-control devices are widely used in many fields for their good stability and effectiveness. To improve the performance of such dampers, a control method based on force feedback is proposed. The method offers several advantages such as high-precision control and low-performance requirements for the actuator, as well as not needing additional compensators. The force feedback control strategy was designed based on direct-velocity feedback. The effectiveness of the method was verified in a single-degree-of-freedom system, and factors such as damping effect, required active force, actuator stroke, and power consumption of the damper were analyzed. Finally, a simulation study was performed by configuring a main complex elastic-vibration-damping system. The results show that the method provides effective control over modal resonances of multiple orders of the system and improves its dynamics performance.

  6. Preliminary study of S-CO{sub 2} cycle control logic for part load operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The benefits of S-CO{sub 2} cycle are relatively high efficiency under the mild turbine inlet temperature region, simple layout configuration and small foot-print. In addition, the safety of the SFR system can be inherently enhanced as the violent sodium-water reaction can be substituted with the mild sodium-CO{sub 2} reaction. 75MWe S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle with radial type turbomachineries and PCHE was designed. Under various part load conditions (30-100% thermal load), off-design performance of the designed system was assessed, and different control logics were first tested. It was identified that the inventory control strategy is the most efficient logic for the part load operation. In the system operation, the compressor surge condition is seriously considered and controlled to avoid the system damage.

  7. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 1: Definitions, basic relationships and laboratory methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Part 1 of this Handbook is focused on description of fundamental issues of soil physical and chemical arts and on soil mechanical definitions and relationships. Part 2 comprises a material data basis including also preparation and field testing methods. Part 3 provides a collection of physical and mathematical models and examples of how they can and should be applied. The present document, which has been prepared by Geodevelopment AB in co-operation with Scandia Consult AB and Clay Technology AB, Sweden, and with TVO, Finland, makes up Part 1. Most of the data and information emanate from the work that Geodevelopment AB and Clay Technology AB have performed for SKB but a number of results from experiments made in and for other organizations have been included as well. A significant number of experimental procedures and ways of characterizing buffers and backfills are included. The experience from the comprehensive international Stripa Project, concerning both systematic material investigations in the laboratory and the full-scale field experiments, has contributed significantly to this report. However, similar and additional information gained from later work in SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and from NAGRA and also from other waste-isolation projects have helped to make this document of assumed international interest.

  8. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 1: Definitions, basic relationships and laboratory methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland

    2002-04-01

    Part 1 of this Handbook is focused on description of fundamental issues of soil physical and chemical arts and on soil mechanical definitions and relationships. Part 2 comprises a material data basis including also preparation and field testing methods. Part 3 provides a collection of physical and mathematical models and examples of how they can and should be applied. The present document, which has been prepared by Geodevelopment AB in co-operation with Scandia Consult AB and Clay Technology AB, Sweden, and with TVO, Finland, makes up Part 1. Most of the data and information emanate from the work that Geodevelopment AB and Clay Technology AB have performed for SKB but a number of results from experiments made in and for other organizations have been included as well. A significant number of experimental procedures and ways of characterizing buffers and backfills are included. The experience from the comprehensive international Stripa Project, concerning both systematic material investigations in the laboratory and the full-scale field experiments, has contributed significantly to this report. However, similar and additional information gained from later work in SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and from NAGRA and also from other waste-isolation projects have helped to make this document of assumed international interest

  9. Bifurcation-free design method of pulse energy converter controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolov, Yury; Ustinov, Pavel; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a design method of pulse energy converter (PEC) controllers is proposed. This method develops a classical frequency domain design, based on the small signal modeling, by means of an addition of a nonlinear dynamics analysis stage. The main idea of the proposed method consists in fact that the PEC controller, designed with an application of the small signal modeling, is tuned after with taking into the consideration an essentially nonlinear nature of the PEC that makes it possible to avoid bifurcation phenomena in the PEC dynamics at the design stage (bifurcation-free design). Also application of the proposed method allows an improvement of the designed controller performance. The application of this bifurcation-free design method is demonstrated on an example of the controller design of direct current-direct current (DC-DC) buck converter with an input electromagnetic interference filter.

  10. Main formulations of the finite element method for the problems of structural mechanics. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat’ev Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author offers is the classification of the formulae of Finite Element Method. This classification help to orient in a huge number of published articles, as well as those to be published, which are dedicated to the problem of enhancing the efficiency of the most commonly used method. The third part of the article considers the variation formulations of FEM and the energy principles lying in the basis of it. If compared to the direct method, which is applied only to finite elements of a simple geometrical type, the variation formulations of FEM are applicable to the elements of any type. All the variation methods can be conventionally divided into two groups. The methods of the first group are based on the principle of energy functional stationarity - a potential system energy, additional energy or on the basis of these energies, which means the full energy. The methods of the second group are based on the variants of mathematical methods of weighted residuals for solving the differential equations, which in some cases can be handled according to the principle of possible displacements or extreme energy principles. The most widely used and multipurpose is the approach based on the use of energy principles coming from the energy conservation law: principle of possible changes in stress state, principle of possible change in stress-strain state.

  11. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1996-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  12. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1997-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  13. The Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design By Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form....... By regarding the nominal control system as the desired model, an augmented control system is constructed through the model-matching formulation, such that the current robust control techniques can be usedto synthesize these dynamical modules. One extension of this method with respect to the performance...... recovery besides the functionality recovery is also discussed under this framework. Comparing with the conventional control mixer method, the proposed method considers the recon gured system's stability, performance and robustness simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated by a case study...

  14. Control system and method for payload control in mobile platform cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Groom, Kenneth N.; Feddema, John T.; Parker, Gordon G.

    2002-01-01

    A crane control system and method provides a way to generate crane commands responsive to a desired payload motion to achieve substantially pendulation-free actual payload motion. The control system and method apply a motion compensator to maintain a payload in a defined payload configuration relative to an inertial coordinate frame. The control system and method can further comprise a pendulation damper controller to reduce an amount of pendulation between a sensed payload configuration and the defined payload configuration. The control system and method can further comprise a command shaping filter to filter out a residual payload pendulation frequency from the desired payload motion.

  15. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES, PART TWO: APPLICABILITY OF CURRENT METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-10-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no U.S. nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  16. An historical survey of computational methods in optimal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the salient theoretical developments in the specific area of optimal control algorithms. The first algorithms for optimal control were aimed at unconstrained problems and were derived by using first- and second-variation methods of the calculus of variations. These methods have subsequently been recognized as gradient, Newton-Raphson, or Gauss-Newton methods in function space. A much more recent addition to the arsenal of unconstrained optimal control algorithms are several variations of conjugate-gradient methods. At first, constrained optimal control problems could only be solved by exterior penalty function methods. Later algorithms specifically designed for constrained problems have appeared. Among these are methods for solving the unconstrained linear quadratic regulator problem, as well as certain constrained minimum-time and minimum-energy problems. Differential-dynamic programming was developed from dynamic programming considerations. The conditional-gradient method, the gradient-projection method, and a couple of feasible directions methods were obtained as extensions or adaptations of related algorithms for finite-dimensional problems. Finally, the so-called epsilon-methods combine the Ritz method with penalty function techniques.

  17. Two Reconfigurable Flight-Control Design Methods: Robust Servomechanism and Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Lu; Bahm, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the fight body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.

  18. Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ilić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids brings together leading experts in power, control and communication systems,and consolidates some of the most promising recent research in smart grid modeling,control and optimization in hopes of laying the foundation for future advances in this critical field of study. The contents comprise eighteen essays addressing wide varieties of control-theoretic problems for tomorrow’s power grid. Topics covered include: Control architectures for power system networks with large-scale penetration of renewable energy and plug-in vehicles Optimal demand response New modeling methods for electricity markets Control strategies for data centers Cyber-security Wide-area monitoring and control using synchronized phasor measurements. The authors present theoretical results supported by illustrative examples and practical case studies, making the material comprehensible to a wide audience. The results reflect the exponential transformation that today’s grid is going...

  19. An Accurate Transmitting Power Control Method in Wireless Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naikang; Wen, Zhiping; Hou, Xunping; Bi, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Power control circuits are widely used in transceivers aiming at stabilizing the transmitted signal power to a specified value, thereby reducing power consumption and interference to other frequency bands. In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional modes of power control, this paper proposes an accurate signal power detection method by multiplexing the receiver and realizes transmitting power control in the digital domain. The simulation results show that this novel digital power control approach has advantages of small delay, high precision and simplified design procedure. The proposed method is applicable to transceivers working at large frequency dynamic range, and has good engineering practicability.

  20. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning. Part 1. A description of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    This paper contains a description of the methods used in a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for decommissioning facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The ARCL method is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. Thes modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. The analysis results in site-specific ARCL values that can be used for determining compliance with any annual dose limit selected. This flexibility permits proper consideration of field situations involving the radionuclide mixtures and physical conditions encountered. In addition, this method permits a full determination of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) conditions

  1. Countermeasures for electrolytic corrosion - Part II: Implementation of a rapid potential-controlled rectifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Yoon-Cheol; Bae, Jeong-Hyo [Underground Systems Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 28-1 Sungju-dong, Changwon, 641-120 (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    In electrolytic interference circumstances such as underground pipelines in the vicinity of DC electrified railroads, drainage method or impressed current cathodic protection method has been widely used as a countermeasure for the electrolytic corrosion. In the former method, forced or polarized drainage is commonly adopted and in the latter, the phase-controlled rectifier with thyristor is in common use. Both methods, however, does not show as the optimal measure for the integrity of the pipeline, since the pipe-to-soil potential fluctuates highly positive to the cathodic protection criterion. In particular, as the potential of the pipeline near the railroad varies rapidly, a new rapidly responding countermeasure is necessary. In this paper, we introduce a new rapid potential controlled rectifier and report the result in field tests. Comparison with the existing forced drainage method is also made. The pipe-to-soil potential data show the effectiveness of the rapid potential-controlled rectifier. (authors)

  2. Optimality with feedback control in relativistic dynamics of a mass point. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaquiere, A.; Pauchard, M.; Tahri-Yousfi, N.; Wickers, D.

    1984-01-01

    This article is an account of part of a research task currently in progress; it deals with relativistic dynamics of a mass-point from the point of view of the theory of optimal feedback control. In the first part, the theoretical frame is presented with an application to the case of special Relativity. This application shows that the way followed in this article is a natural one for approaching Wave mechanics, and that it closely parallels the way along which Louis de Broglie introduced Wave mechanics [fr

  3. A ballistics module as a part of the fire control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka R. Luković

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a ballistics module as a part of the fire control system of weapons for fire support (mortars, artillery weapons and rocket launchers. The software is "open" with the prominence of autonomy work. It can be modulated and adapted on the user demand. Moreover, it is independent of the hardware base. Introduction: The fire control system is based on a ballistic module (BM which determines the firing data for each weapon tool in the battery. Ballistic calculations, for the given position of the target in relation to the position of tools in the given weather conditions, determine firing data (elevation, direction, timing and locating devices so that the missile seems to cause the desired effect. This paper gives the basic information about the features the BM performs and the manner of their implementation in the fire control system without going into algorithmic solution procedures. Ballistic problem in the fire control system: Ballistic calculation is based on a trajectory calculation of all kinds of projectiles (current, time-fuze, illuminating, smoke, with conventional propulsion, rocket, with built-in gas generator, etc.. Instead of previous solutions, where a trajectory calculation of the fire control system was done by approximate methods, in this BM the trajectory calculation is made by the same model with the same data as for a weapon and ammunition in the process of creating a firing table. The data used in the fire control system are made simultaneously with the preparation of firing tables for a particular tool and associated ammunition,. A modified model of particle, standardized at the NATO level, is also used. Taking into account the meteorological situation, before the trajectory calculation is done, a relative position of the target in relation to the position of the tool should be determined. A selection or loading check is carried out (possibility of reaching a given target as well as the point at which the

  4. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  5. Study of Inverted Pendulum Robot Using Fuzzy Servo Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inverted pendulum robot is a classical problem in controls. The inherit instabilities in the setup make it a natural target for a control system. Inverted pendulum robot is suitable to use for investigation and verification of various control methods for dynamic systems. Maintaining an equilibrium position of the pendulum pointing up is a challenge as this equilibrium position is unstable. As the inverted pendulum robot system is nonlinear it is well-suited to be controlled by fuzzy logic. In this paper, Lagrange method has been applied to develop the mathematical model of the system. The objective of the simulation to be shown using the fuzzy control method can stabilize the nonlinear system of inverted pendulum robot.

  6. of different weed control methods on Weed infestation, growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    This weed control method also resulted in significantly better growth and ... proper management, it is possible to obtain 2,500 kg ha-1 (Onwueme and Sinha, 1991). ... however, time consuming, labour – intensive, strenuous and generally ...

  7. Surface control alloy substrates and methods of manufacture therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Mendon, MA); Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Annavarapu, Suresh (Brookline, MA); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-05-04

    Methods and articles for controlling the surface of an alloy substrate for deposition of an epitaxial layer. The invention includes the use of an intermediate layer to stabilize the substrate surface against oxidation for subsequent deposition of an epitaxial layer.

  8. Traditional methods of social control in Afikpo north local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional methods of social control in Afikpo north local government area, Ebonyi state south eastern Nigeria. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... simple percentage was used in presenting and interpreting the quantitative data.

  9. Power control method for load-frequency control operation in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ie, Shin-ichiroo; Ohgo, Yu-kiharu; Itou, Tetsuo; Shida, Tooichi

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design of an advanced power control method for fast load-following [load frequency control (LFC)] maneuvers in a boiling water reactor (BWR) is described in this paper. Application of a multivariable control method using an optimal linear quadratic (LQ) regulator theory effectively improves control system performance when system variables have significant interactions such as in BWRs. The control problem, however, demands strict constraints on system variable from the standpoint of plant operation. These constraints require the control system to have a nonlinear property for better improvement. Therefore, the effectiveness of LQ control is limited by these constraints, because it is based on a linear model. A new method is needed to compensate for the nonlinear property. In this study, the authors propose a new method using fuzzy reasoning with LQ control to achieve nonlinear compensation

  10. Management systems, control and motivation methods used at enterprises groups

    OpenAIRE

    Leugaudaitė, Dalia

    2017-01-01

    MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, CONTROL AND MOTIVATION METHODS USED AT ENTERPRISES GROUPS 69 pages, 3 tables, 25 pictures, 39 literature references. The aim of the Master's paper is to determine the implementation impact of the motivation and controlling methods to achieve efficiency in management systems. As a result of the scientific literature analysis, the advantages and disadvantages of the management systems were selected. These statements were used for the primary survey of the initial group of co...

  11. Method for controlling incineration in combustor for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoku, Y.; Uehara, A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for controlling incineration in a combustor for low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, it relates to a method for economizing in the consumption of supplemental fuel while maintaining a stable incineration state by controlling the amount of fuel and of radioactive wastes fed to the combustor. The amount of fuel supplied is determined by the outlet gas temperature of the combustor. (L.L.)

  12. Influence of control algorithms parameters on an electromechanical converter with a secondary discrete part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuimov Denis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative configuration of a device with a secondary discrete part using a magnetic system of a similar multi-phase inductor machine and concentrated windings without an internal rotor is proposed. An algorithm of sensorless control of a motion process of a secondary discrete part is proposed. The analysis of the distribution nature of the magnetic field for various switching algorithms is carried out to reduce negative influence of the “dead” zones of the first and second order. The features of the movement process of the secondary discrete part in the working chamber of the device are considered. The results of in the electromagnetic force change affecting a ferromagnetic working element are presented, and recommendations for the application of switching algorithms are given.

  13. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  14. Operation safety of control systems. Principles and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubry, J.F.; Chatelet, E.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the main operation safety methods that can be implemented to design safe control systems taking into account the behaviour of the different components with each other (binary 'operation/failure' behaviours, non-consistent behaviours and 'hidden' failures, dynamical behaviours and temporal aspects etc). To take into account these different behaviours, advanced qualitative and quantitative methods have to be used which are described in this article: 1 - qualitative methods of analysis: functional analysis, preliminary risk analysis, failure mode and failure effects analyses; 2 - quantitative study of systems operation safety: binary representation models, state space-based methods, event space-based methods; 3 - application to the design of control systems: safe specifications of a control system, qualitative analysis of operation safety, quantitative analysis, example of application; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  15. Process control and optimization with simple interval calculation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomerantsev, A.; Rodionova, O.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2006-01-01

    for the quality improvement in the course of production. The latter is an active quality optimization, which takes into account the actual history of the process. The advocate approach is allied to the conventional method of multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) as it also employs the historical process......Methods of process control and optimization are presented and illustrated with a real world example. The optimization methods are based on the PLS block modeling as well as on the simple interval calculation methods of interval prediction and object status classification. It is proposed to employ...... the series of expanding PLS/SIC models in order to support the on-line process improvements. This method helps to predict the effect of planned actions on the product quality and thus enables passive quality control. We have also considered an optimization approach that proposes the correcting actions...

  16. ProMES: A method for "accepted control loops"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    ProMES, a method for the measurement and feedback of performance data is related to the concepts of goal setting and feedback (Locke, 1991; Locke and Latham, 1990), and to the concept of self-control (Bandura, 1991). The result is a model for self-management: the "accepted control loop". Whether

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Aflatoxin Control Methods: Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sectors in U.S. crop industries – growers, elevators, handlers/shellers, processors, distributors, and consumers – are affected by aflatoxin contamination of commodities, and have the potential to control it. Aflatoxin control methods at both preharvest and postharvest levels have been dev...

  18. Adaptive decoupled power control method for inverter connected DG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    an adaptive droop control method based on online evaluation of power decouple matrix for inverter connected distributed generations in distribution system. Traditional decoupled power control is simply based on line impedance parameter, but the load characteristics also cause the power coupling, and alter...

  19. Digital Resonant Controller based on Modified Tustin Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonant controllers are used in power converter voltage and current control due to their simplicity and accuracy. However, digital implementation of resonant controllers introduces problems related to zero and pole mapping from the continuous to the discrete time domain. Namely, some discretization methods introduce significant errors in the digital controller resonant frequency, resulting in the loss of the asymptotic AC reference tracking, especially at high resonant frequencies. The delay compensation typical for resonant controllers can also be compromised. Based on the existing analysis, it can be concluded that the Tustin discretization with frequency prewarping represents a preferable choice from the point of view of the resonant frequency accuracy. However, this discretization method has a shortcoming in applications that require real-time frequency adaptation, since complex trigonometric evaluation is required for each frequency change. In order to overcome this problem, in this paper the modified Tustin discretization method is proposed based on the Taylor series approximation of the frequency prewarping function. By comparing the novel discretization method with commonly used two-integrator-based proportional-resonant (PR digital controllers, it is shown that the resulting digital controller resonant frequency and time delay compensation errors are significantly reduced for the novel controller.

  20. New Principles of Process Control in Geotechnics by Acoustic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Leššo, I.; Flegner, P.; Pandula, B.; Horovčák, P.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution describes the new solution of the control of rotary drilling process as some elementary process in geotechnics. The article presents the first results of research on the utilization of acoustic methods in identification process by optimal control of rotary drilling.

  1. New Principles of Process Control in Geotechnics by Acoustic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leššo, I.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution describes the new solution of the control of rotary drilling process as some elementary process in geotechnics. The article presents the first results of research on the utilization of acoustic methods in identification process by optimal control of rotary drilling.

  2. DC Microgrids–Part I: A Review of Control Strategies and Stabilization Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Lu, Xiaonan; Vasquez, Juan; Guerrero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of control strategies, stability analysis, and stabilization techniques for dc microgrids (MGs). Overall control is systematically classified into local and coordinated control levels according to respective functionalities in each level. As opposed to local control, which relies only on local measurements, some line of communication between units needs to be made available in order to achieve the coordinated control. Depending on the communication method, three basic coordinated control strategies can be distinguished, i.e., decentralized, centralized, and distributed control. Decentralized control can be regarded as an extension of the local control since it is also based exclusively on local measurements. In contrast, centralized and distributed control strategies rely on digital communication technologies. A number of approaches using these three coordinated control strategies to achieve various control objectives are reviewed in this paper. Moreover, properties of dc MG dynamics and stability are discussed. This paper illustrates that tightly regulated point-of-load converters tend to reduce the stability margins of the system since they introduce negative impedances, which can potentially oscillate with lightly damped power supply input filters. It is also demonstrated that how the stability of the whole system is defined by the relationship of the source and load impedances, referred to as the minor loop gain. Several prominent specifications for the minor loop gain are reviewed. Finally, a number of active stabilization techniques are presented.

  3. Dimensional metrology for process and part quality control in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gasparin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available measurement technologies appear not sufficient. New solutions for measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration are necessary if micro......Micro manufacturing has gained interest over the last decade as the demand for micro mechanical components has increased. The need for dimensional metrology at micro scale is evident both in terms of quality assurance of components and products and in terms of process control. As critical...... manufacturing is to develop into industrial manufacturing solutions. In this paper the application of dimensional precision metrology to both component and process quality control will be demonstrated. The parts investigated are micro injection moulded polymer parts, typical for the field of micro manufacturing....

  4. Quality control and process capability assessment for injection-moulded micro mechanical parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Quality control of micro components is an increasing challenge. Smaller mechanical parts are characterized by smaller tolerance to be verified. This paper focuses on the dimensional verification of micro injection-moulded components selected from an industrial application. These parts are measured...... using an optical coordinate measuring machine, which guarantees fast surface scans suitable for inline quality control. The uncertainty assessment of the measurements is calculated and three analyses are carried out and discussed in order to investigate the influence parameters in optical coordinate...... metrology. The estimation of the total variability of the optical measurements and the instrument repeatability are reported; moreover, the measurement system capability is evaluated according to the measurement system capability indices Cg and Cgk....

  5. Tunable, Flexible and Efficient Optimization of Control Pulses for Superconducting Qubits, part II - Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    AsséMat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    In part I, we presented the theoretic foundations of the GOAT algorithm for the optimal control of quantum systems. Here in part II, we focus on several applications of GOAT to superconducting qubits architecture. First, we consider a control-Z gate on Xmons qubits with an Erf parametrization of the optimal pulse. We show that a fast and accurate gate can be obtained with only 16 parameters, as compared to hundreds of parameters required in other algorithms. We present numerical evidences that such parametrization should allow an efficient in-situ calibration of the pulse. Next, we consider the flux-tunable coupler by IBM. We show optimization can be carried out in a more realistic model of the system than was employed in the original study, which is expected to further simplify the calibration process. Moreover, GOAT reduced the complexity of the optimal pulse to only 6 Fourier components, composed with analytic wrappers.

  6. Main formulations of the finite element method for the problems of structural mechanics. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat’ev Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available The author offers a classification of Finite Element formulations, which allows orienting in a great number of the published and continuing to be published works on the problem of raising the efficiency of this widespread numerical method. The second part of the article offers examination of straight formulations of FEM in the form of displacement approach, area method and classical mixed-mode method. The question of solution convergence according to FEM in the form of classical mixed-mode method is considered on the example of single-input single-output system of a beam in case of finite element grid refinement. The author draws a conclusion, that extinction of algebraic equations system of FEM in case of passage to the limit is not a peculiar feature of this method in general, but manifests itself only in some particular cases. At the same time the obtained results prove that FEM in mixed-mode form provides obtaining more stable results in case of finite element grid refinement in comparison with FEM in the form of displacement approach. It is quite obvious that the same qualities will appear also in two-dimensional systems.

  7. The analytic method for calculating the control rod worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Gon; Lee, Byeong Ho; Chang, Soon Heung

    1989-01-01

    We calculated the control rod worth in this paper. To avoid complexity, we did not consider burnable poisons and soluble boron. The system was localized within one assembly. The control rod was treated as not an absorber but an another boundary. Thus all of the group constants were unchanged before and after control rod insertion. And we discussed the method for calculation of the reactivity of the whole core

  8. Manufacturing method for parts opposed to plasmas and manufacturing device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for manufacturing heat insulation parts which are opposed to plasmas, such as parts in the inside of a thermonuclear reactor, which less suffer from defects such as crackings and peelings in the vicinity of the joining portion of the parts. Namely, when an armour and a heat sink are cooled to a room temperature after joining them, the upper surface of the armour and the bottom of the heat sink are pressurized. Then after restricting the convex deformation at the upper surface of the armour and the concave deformation at the bottom of the heat sink, the heat sink bottom are extended at from 600degC to a room temperature or at a room temperature. When a heat resistant material with a small heat expansion coefficient is joined with a cooling material with a large heat expansion coefficient and then cooled, deformation and residual stresses are generated by the difference of the shrinking amount. But deformation and the residual stresses can be reduced by gradually cooling them while restricting them by using a joining device compared with a case of not restricting them. As a result, occurrence of crackings and peelings in the vicinity of the joining portion can be prevented. (I.S.)

  9. Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A novel control mixer method for recon¯gurable control designs is developed. The proposed method extends the matrix-form of the conventional control mixer concept into a LTI dynamic system-form. The H_inf control technique is employed for these dynamic module designs after an augmented control...... system is constructed through a model-matching strategy. The stability, performance and robustness of the reconfigured system can be guaranteed when some conditions are satisfied. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a robot system subjected to failures is used to demonstrate...

  10. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 2: Implementation and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Part 1 of the study described the development of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) based programme and accompanying handbook for the control of mastitis. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of customised HACCP-based programmes, which were developed from the handbook and assessed on six Irish dairy farms. Both quantitative and qualitative (action research) research methodologies were used to measure the success of implementation and efficacy of control of sub-clinical mastitis as measured by Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and the degree of compliance by farmers in adopting and maintaining recommendations throughout the course of the study period. No overall differences in SCC before and during the implementation of the study were found when all six farms were considered together. Three of the six study farms experienced a significant decrease in herd milk recorded SCC during the implementation of the control programme. An essential part of the study was achieving initial agreement on recommendations as well as ongoing monitoring of compliance during the study. This pilot study shows that HACCP can be implemented on farms as a means of working towards the control of mastitis and that farmer attitude, and understanding of mastitis are crucial in terms of motivation irrespective of practical approaches used to manage mastitis. PMID:21777494

  11. Export Control Guide: Loose Parts Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, Donald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes a typical LPMS, emphasizing its application to the RCS of a modern NPP. The report also examines the versatility of AE monitoring technology by describing several nuclear applications other than loose parts monitoring, as well as some non-nuclear applications. In addition, LPMS implementation requirements are outlined, and LPMS suppliers are identified. Finally, U.S. export controls applicable to LPMSs are discussed.

  12. Clearance measurements on activated parts of accelerators by combined methods; Verfahrenskombinierte Freigabemessung aktivierter Beschleunigerteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, S.; Friedemann, S. [VKTA, Dresden (Germany); Enghardt, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay

    2016-07-01

    The process of clearance of radioactive materials according to paragraph 29 StrlSchV contents the comparison of activity to mass and surface of the material. To avoid a borderless assessment of activity of activation it is often necessary to use combined measurement methods: For clearance of collimators of a medical proton accelerator (energy range up to 200 MeV) it needs to know the nuclide composition. The energetical and geometrical calibration was fixed by experiments. The clearance based on measurements of activity distribution, gammaspectroscopy verification of nuclide composition and gamma-counting detectors. Parts of medical electron-accelerators achieved its clearance by combination of abovementioned methods and in-situ-gammaspectroscopy. Activated und contaminated lead stones achieved its clearance by measurements of fluence, laboratory evaluation of samples, in-situ-gammaspectroscopy and wipe tests.

  13. Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular deviation of a light ray imposed by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens and canopies. The results are uncontaminated by the effects of lateral displacement, and the procedure may be performed in a relatively short optical path length. This is not intended as a referee standard. It is one convenient method for measuring angular deviations through transparent windows. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  15. Tobacco control and gender in Southeast Asia. Part I: Malaysia and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-09-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study discusses issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analyses developments in Malaysia and the Philippines. Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries, gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking, and in Malaysia and the Philippines was highly significant in cigarette promotion. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made in Part II.

  16. Methods for preparation of mixtures of gases in air at the parts-per-billion to parts-per-million concentration range for calibration of monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpas, Z.; Melloul, S.; Pollevoy, Y.; Matmor, A.

    1992-05-01

    Static and dynamic methods for generating mixture of gases and vapors in air at the parts-per-billion (ppb) to parts-per-million (ppm) concentration range were surveyed. The dynamic methods include: a dynamic flow and mixing system; injection of samples into large volumes of air; exponential dilution; permeation and diffusion tubes; and generation of the target gas by chemical reaction or electrolysis. The static methods include preparation of mixtures by weighing the components, by volumetric mixing and by partial pressure method. The principles governing the utilization of these methods for the appropriate applications were discussed, and examples in which they were used to calibrate an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) were given. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of email alerts in practice: Part 2. Validation of the information assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland M; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique; Bambrick, Tara; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig

    2010-12-01

    The information assessment method (IAM) permits health professionals to systematically document the relevance, cognitive impact, use and health outcomes of information objects delivered by or retrieved from electronic knowledge resources. The companion review paper (Part 1) critically examined the literature, and proposed a 'Push-Pull-Acquisition-Cognition-Application' evaluation framework, which is operationalized by IAM. The purpose of the present paper (Part 2) is to examine the content validity of the IAM cognitive checklist when linked to email alerts. A qualitative component of a mixed methods study was conducted with 46 doctors reading and rating research-based synopses sent on email. The unit of analysis was a doctor's explanation of a rating of one item regarding one synopsis. Interviews with participants provided 253 units that were analysed to assess concordance with item definitions. The content relevance of seven items was supported. For three items, revisions were needed. Interviews suggested one new item. This study has yielded a 2008 version of IAM. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Use of the Tax Prism Method When Forming Tax Part of the Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verovska Ludmila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax prism method is developed for the assessment of tax part of the budget as well as for forecasting the influence of tax optimisation on it. There are certain trends in global practice. Developing and transition economies are characterised by low tax burden. Economically developed countries with a high level of social security of population are characterised by high tax burden. The analytical and graphic-analytical research for the purpose of determination of optimum size of the taxation using the tax prism has been conducted. In addition to the concept of ‘tax prism’, concepts such as static and dynamic tax prisms have been introduced, allowing to consider changes in the part of the budget of interest in connection with a possibility of taxation subjects to reduce the size of a tax burden by various methods of tax optimisation, and also to consider the influence of other factors on it. The use of this approach helps effectively to enhance the tax legislation by modelling high-quality and quantitative consequences of one or another changes and innovations.

  19. Rock sampling. [method for controlling particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, P. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A method for sampling rock and other brittle materials and for controlling resultant particle sizes is described. The method involves cutting grooves in the rock surface to provide a grouping of parallel ridges and subsequently machining the ridges to provide a powder specimen. The machining step may comprise milling, drilling, lathe cutting or the like; but a planing step is advantageous. Control of the particle size distribution is effected primarily by changing the height and width of these ridges. This control exceeds that obtainable by conventional grinding.

  20. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise; part II: control development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. The controller, based on an inverse three-element phenomenological model and adaptive nonlinear control, allows the system to operate as a type of haptic device. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator was developed (as described in Part I of this work) so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. Tracking error results indicate that the control system is effective at producing PMA displacement and resistance necessary for a scaled, simulated neuromuscular actuator to maintain low-velocity isokinetic movement during simulated concentric and eccentric knee extension.

  1. Tuning method for multi-variable control system with PID controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Toshitaka

    1983-01-01

    Control systems, including thermal and nuclear power plants, generally and mainly use PID controllers consisting of proportional, integral and differential actions. These systems consist of multiple control loops which interfere with each other. Therefore, it is present status that the fine control of the system is carried out by the trial and error method because the adjusting procedure for a single control loop cannot be applied to a multi-loop system in most cases. In this report, a method to effectively adjust PID controller parameters in a short time in a control system which consists of multi-loops that interfere with each other. This method makes adjustment by using the control area as the evaluation function, which is the time-dependent integration of control deviation, the input to the PID controllers. In other words, the evaluation function is provided for each control result for every parameter (gain constant, reset rate, and differentiation time), and all parameters are simultaneously changed in the direction of minimizing the values of these evaluation functions. In the report, the principle of tuning method, the evaluation function for each of three parameters, and the adjusting system configuration for separately using for actual plant tuning and for control system design are described. It also shows the examples of application to the actual tuning of the control system for a thermal power plant and to a control system design. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Adaptive control method for core power control in TRIGA Mark II reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri Minhat, Mohd; Selamat, Hazlina; Subha, Nurul Adilla Mohd

    2018-01-01

    The 1MWth Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) Mark II type has undergone more than 35 years of operation. The existing core power control uses feedback control algorithm (FCA). It is challenging to keep the core power stable at the desired value within acceptable error bands to meet the safety demand of RTP due to the sensitivity of nuclear research reactor operation. Currently, the system is not satisfied with power tracking performance and can be improved. Therefore, a new design core power control is very important to improve the current performance in tracking and regulate reactor power by control the movement of control rods. In this paper, the adaptive controller and focus on Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) and Self-Tuning Control (STC) were applied to the control of the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, adaptive controller model, and control rods selection programming. The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on point kinetics model, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The adaptive control model was presented using Lyapunov method to ensure stable close loop system and STC Generalised Minimum Variance (GMV) Controller was not necessary to know the exact plant transfer function in designing the core power control. The performance between proposed adaptive control and FCA will be compared via computer simulation and analysed the simulation results manifest the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed control method for core power control.

  3. Experiments study on attitude coupling control method for flexible spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Li, Dongxu

    2018-06-01

    High pointing accuracy and stabilization are significant for spacecrafts to carry out Earth observing, laser communication and space exploration missions. However, when a spacecraft undergoes large angle maneuver, the excited elastic oscillation of flexible appendages, for instance, solar wing and onboard antenna, would downgrade the performance of the spacecraft platform. This paper proposes a coupling control method, which synthesizes the adaptive sliding mode controller and the positive position feedback (PPF) controller, to control the attitude and suppress the elastic vibration simultaneously. Because of its prominent performance for attitude tracking and stabilization, the proposed method is capable of slewing the flexible spacecraft with a large angle. Also, the method is robust to parametric uncertainties of the spacecraft model. Numerical simulations are carried out with a hub-plate system which undergoes a single-axis attitude maneuver. An attitude control testbed for the flexible spacecraft is established and experiments are conducted to validate the coupling control method. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the method discussed above can effectively decrease the stabilization time and improve the attitude accuracy of the flexible spacecraft.

  4. Partly Duffing Oscillator Stochastic Resonance Method and Its Application on Mechanical Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the slight fault signals in early failure of mechanical system are usually submerged in heavy background noise, it is unfeasible to extract the weak fault feature via the traditional vibration analysis. Stochastic resonance (SR, as a method of utilizing noise to amplify weak signals in nonlinear dynamical systems, can detect weak signals overwhelmed in the noise. However, based on the analysis of the impact of noise intensity on SR effect, it is concluded that the detection results are dramatically limited by the noise intensity of measured signals, especially for incipient fault feature of mechanical system with poor working environment. Therefore, this paper proposes a partly Duffing oscillator SR method to extract the fault feature of mechanical system. In this method, to locate the appearance of weak fault feature and decrease noise intensity, the permutation entropy index is constructed to select the measured signals for the input of Duffing oscillator system. Then, according to the regulation of system parameters, a reasonable match between the selected signals and Duffing oscillator model is achieved to produce a SR phenomenon and realize the fault diagnosis of mechanical system. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a better effect on the fault diagnosis of mechanical system.

  5. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  6. Deterministic methods for multi-control fuel loading optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Fariz B. Abdul

    We have developed a multi-control fuel loading optimization code for pressurized water reactors based on deterministic methods. The objective is to flatten the fuel burnup profile, which maximizes overall energy production. The optimal control problem is formulated using the method of Lagrange multipliers and the direct adjoining approach for treatment of the inequality power peaking constraint. The optimality conditions are derived for a multi-dimensional multi-group optimal control problem via calculus of variations. Due to the Hamiltonian having a linear control, our optimal control problem is solved using the gradient method to minimize the Hamiltonian and a Newton step formulation to obtain the optimal control. We are able to satisfy the power peaking constraint during depletion with the control at beginning of cycle (BOC) by building the proper burnup path forward in time and utilizing the adjoint burnup to propagate the information back to the BOC. Our test results show that we are able to achieve our objective and satisfy the power peaking constraint during depletion using either the fissile enrichment or burnable poison as the control. Our fuel loading designs show an increase of 7.8 equivalent full power days (EFPDs) in cycle length compared with 517.4 EFPDs for the AP600 first cycle.

  7. Control of cast iron and casts manufacturing by Inmold method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of cast iron spheroidizing process in mould control by ATD method as well as by ultrasonic method were presented. Structure of instrumentation needed for control form performance of cast iron spheroidizing by Inmold method was illustrated. Author, pointed out that amount of magnesium master alloy should obtain 0,8 ÷ 1,0% of mass in form at all. Such quantity of preliminary alloy assure of obtain of nodular graphite in cast iron. In consequence of this, is reduce the cast iron liquidus temperature and decrease of recalescence temperature of graphite-eutectic crystallization in compare with initial cast iron. Control of casts can be carried out by ultrasonic method. In plain cast iron, ferritic-pearlitic microstructure is obtaining. Additives of 1,5% Cu ensure pearlitic structure.

  8. Use of statistic control of the process as part of a quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, S.; Lewis, C.

    2013-01-01

    One of the technical requirements of the standard IRAM ISO 17025 for the accreditation of testing laboratories, is the assurance of the quality of the results through the control and monitoring of the factors influencing the reliability of them. The grade the factors contribute to the total measurement uncertainty, determines which of them should be considered when developing a quality assurance plan. The laboratory of environmental measurements of strontium-90 in the accreditation process, performs most of its determinations in samples with values close to the detection limit. For this reason the correct characterization of the white, is a critical parameter and is verified through a letter for statistical process control. The scope of the present work is concerned the control of whites and so it was collected a statistically significant amount of data, for a period of time that is covered of different conditions. This allowed consider significant variables in the process, such as temperature and humidity, and build a graph of white control, which forms the basis of a statistical process control. The data obtained were lower and upper limits for the preparation of the charter white control. In this way the process of characterization of white was considered to operate under statistical control and concludes that it can be used as part of a plan of insurance of the quality

  9. Tutorial on Feedback Control of Flows, Part I: Stabilization of Fluid Flows in Channels and Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole M. Aamo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of flow control has picked up pace over the past decade or so, on the promise of real-time distributed control on turbulent scales being realizable in the near future. This promise is due to the micromachining technology that emerged in the 1980s and developed at an amazing speed through the 1990s. In lab experiments, so called micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS that incorporate the entire detection-decision-actuation process on a single chip, have been batch processed in large numbers and assembled into flexible skins for gluing onto body-fluid interfaces for drag reduction purposes. Control of fluid flows span a wide variety of specialities. In Part I of this tutorial, we focus on the problem of reducing drag in channel and pipe flows by stabilizing the parabolic equilibrium profile using boundary feedback control. The control strategics used for this problem include classical control, based on the Nyquist criteria, and various optimal control techniques (H2, H-Infinity, as well as applications of Lyapunov stability theory.

  10. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  11. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  12. Robust Economic Control Decision Method of Uncertain System on Urban Domestic Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kebai; Ma, Tianyi; Wei, Guo

    2018-03-31

    As China quickly urbanizes, urban domestic water generally presents the circumstances of both rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. A robust economic control decision method for dynamic uncertain systems is proposed in this paper. It is developed based on the internal model principle and pole allocation method, and it is applied to an urban domestic water supply system with rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. To achieve this goal, first a multiplicative model is used to describe the urban domestic water demand. Then, a capital stock and a labor stock are selected as the state vector, and the investment and labor are designed as the control vector. Next, the compensator subsystem is devised in light of the internal model principle. Finally, by using the state feedback control strategy and pole allocation method, the multivariable robust economic control decision method is implemented. The implementation with this model can accomplish the urban domestic water supply control goal, with the robustness for the variation of parameters. The methodology presented in this study may be applied to the water management system in other parts of the world, provided all data used in this study are available. The robust control decision method in this paper is also applicable to deal with tracking control problems as well as stabilization control problems of other general dynamic uncertain systems.

  13. The Design of Optimal PID Control Method for Quadcopter Movement Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanum Arrosida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, quadcopter motion control has become a popular research topic because of its versatile ability as an unmanned aircraft can be used to alleviate human labor and also be able to reach dangerous areas or areas which is unreachable to humans. On the other hand, the Optimal PID control method, which incorporates PID and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR control methods, has also been widely used in industry and research field because it has advantages that are easy to operate, easy design, and a good level of precision. In the PID control method, the main problem to be solved is the accuracy of the gain value Kp, Ki, and Kd because the inappropriateness of those value will result in an imprecise control action. Based on these problems and referring to the previous study, the optimal PID control method was developed by using PID controller structure with tuning gain parameter of PID through Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR method. Through the integration of these two control methods, the optimum solutions can be obtained: easier controller design process for quadcopter control when crossing the determined trajectories, steady state error values less than 5% and a stable quadcopter movement with roll and pitch angle stabilization at position 0 radians with minimum energy function.

  14. Method and apparatus for automatic control of a humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot having a plurality of joints adapted for force control with respect to an object acted upon by the robot, a graphical user interface (GUI) for receiving an input signal from a user, and a controller. The GUI provides the user with intuitive programming access to the controller. The controller controls the joints using an impedance-based control framework, which provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot in response to the input signal. A method for controlling the robotic system includes receiving the input signal via the GUI, e.g., a desired force, and then processing the input signal using a host machine to control the joints via an impedance-based control framework. The framework provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot, and allows for functional-based GUI to simplify implementation of a myriad of operating modes.

  15. Control method for biped locomotion robots based on ZMP information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Etsuo

    1994-01-01

    The Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP) started as a ten year program of Computing and Information Systems Center (CISC) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 1987. A mechanical design study of biped locomotion robots for patrol and inspection in nuclear facilities is being performed as an item of the research scope. One of the goals of our research is to design a biped locomotion robot for practical use in nuclear facilities. So far, we have been studying for several dynamic walking patterns. In conventional control methods for biped locomotion robots, the program control is used based on preset walking patterns, so it dose not have the robustness such as a dynamic change of walking pattern. Therefore, a real-time control method based on dynamic information of the robot states is necessary for the high performance of walking. In this study a new control method based on Zero Moment Point (ZMP) information is proposed as one of real-time control methods. The proposed method is discussed and validated based on the numerical simulation. (author)

  16. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  17. Part load performance of air-cooled centrifugal chillers with variable speed condenser fan control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, F.W.; Chan, K.T. [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-11-15

    Air-cooled centrifugal chillers are commonly used in commercial buildings but their performance analysis is lacking. This paper investigates the part load performance of the chillers via a thermodynamic model. The model was validated using a wide range of operating data from an existing chiller with specific settings of outdoor temperature and condensing pressure in controlling the condensing temperature. The validated model was developed specifically to ascertain the maximum coefficient of performance of chiller (COP) together with the strategy for optimizing the condensing temperature under various operating conditions. It is found that the highest COP occurs at a part load ratio (PLR) of 0.71-0.84, depending on the outdoor temperature and the control of condensing temperature, rather than at full load. Yet the chillers operating at such part load conditions will cause extra energy used for the early staging of chilled water pumps. To minimize the overall chiller plant energy consumption, it is still preferable to implement chiller sequencing based on the full load condition than on the aforementioned PLRs. The results of this paper present criteria for implementing low-energy strategies for operating air-cooled chillers satisfying a given building cooling load profile. (author)

  18. A multiparameter chaos control method based on OGY approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza de Paula, Aline; Amorim Savi, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Chaos control is based on the richness of responses of chaotic behavior and may be understood as the use of tiny perturbations for the stabilization of a UPO embedded in a chaotic attractor. Since one of these UPO can provide better performance than others in a particular situation the use of chaos control can make this kind of behavior to be desirable in a variety of applications. The OGY method is a discrete technique that considers small perturbations promoted in the neighborhood of the desired orbit when the trajectory crosses a specific surface, such as a Poincare section. This contribution proposes a multiparameter semi-continuous method based on OGY approach in order to control chaotic behavior. Two different approaches are possible with this method: coupled approach, where all control parameters influences system dynamics although they are not active; and uncoupled approach that is a particular case where control parameters return to the reference value when they become passive parameters. As an application of the general formulation, it is investigated a two-parameter actuation of a nonlinear pendulum control employing coupled and uncoupled approaches. Analyses are carried out considering signals that are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model using experimentally identified parameters. Results show that the procedure can be a good alternative for chaos control since it provides a more effective UPO stabilization than the classical single-parameter approach.

  19. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekhuis-Gibbon Lies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd.

  20. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuis-Gibbon, Lies; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Doherty, Michael L

    2011-03-31

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs) and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd.

  1. Legendre-tau approximation for functional differential equations. Part 2: The linear quadratic optimal control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K.; Teglas, R.

    1984-01-01

    The numerical scheme based on the Legendre-tau approximation is proposed to approximate the feedback solution to the linear quadratic optimal control problem for hereditary differential systems. The convergence property is established using Trotter ideas. The method yields very good approximations at low orders and provides an approximation technique for computing closed-loop eigenvalues of the feedback system. A comparison with existing methods (based on averaging and spline approximations) is made.

  2. Comparison of DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity control methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    A method to reduce the fuel composition heterogeneity effect on the core performance parameters has been studied for the DUPIC fuel which is made of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels by a dry refabrication process. This study focuses on the reactivity control method which uses either slightly enriched, depleted, or natural uranium to minimize the cost rise effect on the manufacturing of DUPIC fuel, when adjusting the excess reactivity of the spent PWR fuel. In order to reduce the variation of isotopic composition of the DUPIC fuel, the inter-assembly mixing operation was taken three times. Then, three options have been considered: reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, reactivity control by natural uranium for high reactivity spent PWR fuels, and reactivity control by natural uranium for linear reactivity spent PWR fuels. The results of this study have shown that the reactivity of DUPIC fuel can be tightly controlled with the minimum amount of fresh uranium feed. For the reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, all the spent PWR fuels can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel and the fraction of fresh uranium feed is 3.4% on an average. For the reactivity control by natural uranium, about 88% of spent PWR fuel can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel when the linear reactivity spent PWR fuels are used, and the amount of natural uranium feed needed to control the DUPIC fuel reactivity is negligible. 13 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  3. A model of methods for influencing prescribing: Part I. A review of prescribing models, persuasion theories, and administrative and educational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisch, D W

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to develop a model of methods to be used to influence prescribing. Four bodies of literature were identified as being important for developing the model: (1) Theoretical prescribing models furnish information concerning factors that affect prescribing and how prescribing decisions are made. (2) Theories of persuasion provide insight into important components of educational communications. (3) Research articles of programs to improve prescribing identify types of programs that have been found to be successful. (4) Theories of human inference describe how judgments are formulated and identify errors in judgment that can play a role in prescribing. This review is presented in two parts. This article reviews prescribing models, theories of persuasion, studies of administrative programs to control prescribing, and sub-optimally designed studies of educational efforts to influence drug prescribing.

  4. On Overfitting in Analysis of Symmetrically Predicted Endogenous Subgroups from Randomized Experimental Samples: Part Three of a Method Note in Three Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvill, Eleanor L.; Peck, Laura R.; Bell, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    Using exogenous characteristics to identify endogenous subgroups, the approach discussed in this method note creates symmetric subsets within treatment and control groups, allowing the analysis to take advantage of an experimental design. In order to maintain treatment--control symmetry, however, prior work has posited that it is necessary to use…

  5. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  6. A Mathematical Formulation of the SCOLE Control Problem. Part 2: Optimal Compensator Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1988-01-01

    The study initiated in Part 1 of this report is concluded and optimal feedback control (compensator) design for stability augmentation is considered, following the mathematical formulation developed in Part 1. Co-located (rate) sensors and (force and moment) actuators are assumed, and allowing for both sensor and actuator noise, stabilization is formulated as a stochastic regulator problem. Specializing the general theory developed by the author, a complete, closed form solution (believed to be new with this report) is obtained, taking advantage of the fact that the inherent structural damping is light. In particular, it is possible to solve in closed form the associated infinite-dimensional steady-state Riccati equations. The SCOLE model involves associated partial differential equations in a single space variable, but the compensator design theory developed is far more general since it is given in the abstract wave equation formulation. The results thus hold for any multibody system so long as the basic model is linear.

  7. Optimization and control methods in industrial engineering and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in optimization and control methods with applications to industrial engineering and construction management. It consists of 15 chapters authored by recognized experts in a variety of fields including control and operation research, industrial engineering, and project management. Topics include numerical methods in unconstrained optimization, robust optimal control problems, set splitting problems, optimum confidence interval analysis, a monitoring networks optimization survey, distributed fault detection, nonferrous industrial optimization approaches, neural networks in traffic flows, economic scheduling of CCHP systems, a project scheduling optimization survey, lean and agile construction project management, practical construction projects in Hong Kong, dynamic project management, production control in PC4P, and target contracts optimization.   The book offers a valuable reference work for scientists, engineers, researchers and practitioners in industrial engineering and c...

  8. Optimal control methods for rapidly time-varying Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzoi, F.; Merkel, S. T.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Gambetta, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we develop a numerical method to find optimal control pulses that accounts for the separation of timescales between the variation of the input control fields and the applied Hamiltonian. In traditional numerical optimization methods, these timescales are treated as being the same. While this approximation has had much success, in applications where the input controls are filtered substantially or mixed with a fast carrier, the resulting optimized pulses have little relation to the applied physical fields. Our technique remains numerically efficient in that the dimension of our search space is only dependent on the variation of the input control fields, while our simulation of the quantum evolution is accurate on the timescale of the fast variation in the applied Hamiltonian.

  9. Problems of Mathematical Finance by Stochastic Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, Łukasz

    The purpose of this paper is to present main ideas of mathematics of finance using the stochastic control methods. There is an interplay between stochastic control and mathematics of finance. On the one hand stochastic control is a powerful tool to study financial problems. On the other hand financial applications have stimulated development in several research subareas of stochastic control in the last two decades. We start with pricing of financial derivatives and modeling of asset prices, studying the conditions for the absence of arbitrage. Then we consider pricing of defaultable contingent claims. Investments in bonds lead us to the term structure modeling problems. Special attention is devoted to historical static portfolio analysis called Markowitz theory. We also briefly sketch dynamic portfolio problems using viscosity solutions to Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, martingale-convex analysis method or stochastic maximum principle together with backward stochastic differential equation. Finally, long time portfolio analysis for both risk neutral and risk sensitive functionals is introduced.

  10. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.

  11. Radiation process control, study and acceptance of dosimetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radak, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    The methods of primary dosimetric standardization and the calibration of dosimetric monitors suitable for radiation process control were outlined in the form of a logical pattern in which they are in current use on industrial scale in Yugoslavia. The reliability of the process control of industrial sterilization of medical supplies for the last four years was discussed. The preparatory works for the intermittent use of electron beams in cable industry were described. (author)

  12. Matters of Cost: Part I. Jones Learns about Balance Sheets: Part II. A Look at Budgetary Control: Part III. The Supervisor's "Do-It-Yourself" Series 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E.; And Others

    This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with costing, balance sheets, and budgetary control. The first section, "Matters of Cost" by J. E. and J. F. Smith, deals with the following topics: profits and productivity, principles of costing, cost control and cost reduction, fixed and…

  13. Spectral radiative property control method based on filling solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.; Liu, L.H.; Hsu, P.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling thermal radiation by tailoring spectral properties of microstructure is a promising method, can be applied in many industrial systems and have been widely researched recently. Among various property tailoring schemes, geometry design of microstructures is a commonly used method. However, the existing radiation property tailoring is limited by adjustability of processed microstructures. In other words, the spectral radiative properties of microscale structures are not possible to change after the gratings are fabricated. In this paper, we propose a method that adjusts the grating spectral properties by means of injecting filling solution, which could modify the thermal radiation in a fabricated microstructure. Therefore, this method overcomes the limitation mentioned above. Both mercury and water are adopted as the filling solution in this study. Aluminum and silver are selected as the grating materials to investigate the generality and limitation of this control method. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used to investigate the spectral radiative properties of these filling solution grating structures. A magnetic polaritons mechanism identification method is proposed based on LC circuit model principle. It is found that this control method could be used by different grating materials. Different filling solutions would enable the high absorption peak to move to longer or shorter wavelength band. The results show that the filling solution grating structures are promising for active control of spectral radiative properties. -- Highlights: • A filling solution grating structure is designed to adjust spectral radiative properties. • The mechanism of radiative property control is studied for engineering utilization. • Different grating materials are studied to find multi-functions for grating

  14. Pendulation control system and method for rotary boom cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Groom, Kenneth N.; Feddema, John T.; Parker, Gordon G.

    2002-01-01

    A command shaping control system and method for rotary boom cranes provides a way to reduce payload pendulation caused by real-time input signals, from either operator command or automated crane maneuvers. The method can take input commands and can apply a command shaping filter to reduce contributors to payload pendulation due to rotation, elevation, and hoisting movements in order to control crane response and reduce tangential and radial payload pendulation. A filter can be applied to a pendulation excitation frequency to reduce residual radial pendulation and tangential pendulation amplitudes.

  15. A mathematical method for boiling water reactor control rod programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumasu, S.; Hiranuma, H.; Ozawa, M.; Yokomi, M.

    1985-01-01

    A new mathematical programming method has been developed and utilized in OPROD, an existing computer code for automatic generation of control rod programs as an alternative inner-loop routine for the method of approximate programming. The new routine is constructed of a dual feasible direction algorithm, and consists essentially of two stages of iterative optimization procedures Optimization Procedures I and II. Both follow almost the same algorithm; Optimization Procedure I searches for feasible solutions and Optimization Procedure II optimizes the objective function. Optimization theory and computer simulations have demonstrated that the new routine could find optimum solutions, even if deteriorated initial control rod patterns were given

  16. The frequency-independent control method for distributed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderi, Siamak; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Gao, Wenzhong David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel frequency-independent control method suitable for distributed generation (DG) is presented. This strategy is derived based on the . abc/. αβ transformation and . abc/. dq transformation of the ac system variables. The active and reactive currents injected by the DG are contr......In this paper a novel frequency-independent control method suitable for distributed generation (DG) is presented. This strategy is derived based on the . abc/. αβ transformation and . abc/. dq transformation of the ac system variables. The active and reactive currents injected by the DG...

  17. Practical methods for exposure control/management at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twiggs, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure management/reduction is very important to Duke Power Company. Practical exposure control/reduction techniques applied to their reactor vessel head disassembly outage activity have consistently reduced personnel exposure for this task. The following exposure control methods have worked for use and will be the industry's direction for the 1990's. A summary of these methods includes: (a) move the responsibility of exposure management from the Radiation Protection group to the Maintenance group; (b) reduce area source term by removal of source; (c) improve working environments in radiation areas by minimizing protective clothing usage; and (d) maximize the use of electronic instruments to allow remote monitoring

  18. The simplex method for nonlinear sliding mode control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolini G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available General nonlinear control systems described by ordinary differential equations with a prescribed sliding manifold are considered. A method of designing a feedback control law such that the state variable fulfills the sliding condition in finite time is based on the construction of a suitable simplex of vectors in the tangent space of the manifold. The convergence of the method is proved under an obtuse angle condition and a way to build the required simplex is indicated. An example of engineering interest is presented.

  19. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, D.S.

    2004-10-03

    This paper covers the basics of the implementation of the control volume method in the context of the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM)(T/H) code using the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. This primer uses the advection equation as a template. The discussion will cover the basic equations of the control volume portion of the course in the primer, which includes the advection equation, numerical methods, along with the implementation of the various equations via FORTRAN into computer programs and the final result for a three equation HEM code and its validation.

  20. [Analysis of chondroitin sulfate content of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum with different processing methods and different parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui-Ze; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Yin-Shi

    2018-02-01

    The differences and the variations of chondroitin sulfate content in different parts of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum(CCP) with different processing methods were investigated. The chondroitin sulfate from velvet was extracted by dilute alkali-concentrated salt method. Next, the chondroitin sulfate was digested by chondroitinase ABC.The contents of total chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate A, B and C in the samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with freeze-drying processing is 14.13,11.99,1.74,0.32 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with boiling processing is 10.71,8.97,2.21,1.40 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP without blood is 12.47,9.47,2.64,0.07 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. And the content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with blood is 8.22,4.39,0.87,0.28 g·kg⁻¹ respectively. The results indicated that the chondroitin sulfate content in different processing methods was significantly different.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP with freeze-drying is higher than that in CCP with boiling processing.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP without blood is higher than that in CCP with blood. The chondroitin sulfate content in differerent paris of the velvet with the same processing methods was arranged from high to low as: wax slices, powder, gauze slices, bone slices. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Active vibration control using state space LQG and internal model control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob; Elliott, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Two ways of designing discrete time robust H2-controllers for feedback broadband active vibration control are compared through computer simulations. The methods are based on different models of disturbance and plant transfer functions, but yield controllers with identical properties. Two simple...... ways of introducing robustness into the H2-design are compared, and finally an efficient way of designing a practical IIR-controller is proposed....

  2. 30 CFR 90.301 - Respirable dust control plan; approval by District Manager; copy to part 90 miner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... District Manager; copy to part 90 miner. 90.301 Section 90.301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... control plan; approval by District Manager; copy to part 90 miner. (a) The District Manager will approve... District Manager shall consider whether: (1) The respirable dust control measures would be likely to...

  3. Application of AI methods to aircraft guidance and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Mcmanus, John W.

    1988-01-01

    A research program for integrating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques with tools and methods used for aircraft flight control system design, development, and implementation is discussed. The application of the AI methods for the development and implementation of the logic software which operates with the control mode panel (CMP) of an aircraft is presented. The CMP is the pilot control panel for the automatic flight control system of a commercial-type research aircraft of Langley Research Center's Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) program. A mouse-driven color-display emulation of the CMP, which was developed with AI methods and used to test the AI software logic implementation, is discussed. The operation of the CMP was enhanced with the addition of a display which was quickly developed with AI methods. The display advises the pilot of conditions not satisfied when a mode does not arm or engage. The implementation of the CMP software logic has shown that the time required to develop, implement, and modify software systems can be significantly reduced with the use of the AI methods.

  4. Comparison of three control methods for an autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Anup; Mathur, Kovid; Hall, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    The desirability and challenge of developing a completely autonomous vehicle and the rising need for more efficient use of energy by automobiles motivate this research- a study for an optimum solution to computer control of energy efficient vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to compare three control methods - mechanical, hydraulic and electric that have been used to convert an experimental all terrain vehicle to drive by wire which would eventually act as a test bed for conducting research on various technologies for autonomous operation. Computer control of basic operations in a vehicle namely steering, braking and speed control have been implemented and will be described in this paper. The output from a 3 axis motion controller is used for this purpose. The motion controller is interfaced with a software program using WSDK (Windows Servo Design Kit) as an intermediate tuning layer for tuning and parameter settings in autonomous operation. The software program is developed in C++. The voltage signal sent to the motion controller can be varied through the control program for desired results in controlling the steering motor, activating the hydraulic brakes and varying the vehicle's speed. The vehicle has been tested for its basic functionality which includes testing of street legal operations and also a 1000 mile test while running in a hybrid mode. The vehicle has also been tested for control when it is interfaced with devices such as a keyboard, joystick and sensors under full autonomous operation. The vehicle is currently being tested in various safety studies and is being used as a test bed for experiments in control courses and research studies. The significance of this research is in providing a greater understanding of conventional driving controls and the possibility of improving automobile safety by removing human error in control of a motor vehicle.

  5. An Extended Role Based Access Control Method for XML Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiao-feng; LUO Dao-feng; OU Jian-bo

    2004-01-01

    As XML has been increasingly important as the Data-change format of Internet and Intranet, access-control-on-XML-properties rises as a new issue.Role-based access control (RBAC) is an access control method that has been widely used in Internet, Operation System and Relation Data Base these 10 years.Though RBAC is already relatively mature in the above fields, new problems occur when it is used in XML properties.This paper proposes an integrated model to resolve these problems, after the fully analysis on the features of XML and RBAC.

  6. Modeling of Methods to Control Heat-Consumption Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsynaeva, E. A.; Tsynaeva, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, consideration has been given to thermophysical processes in automated heat consumption control systems (AHCCSs) of buildings, flow diagrams of these systems, and mathematical models describing the thermophysical processes during the systems' operation; an analysis of adequacy of the mathematical models has been presented. A comparison has been made of the operating efficiency of the systems and the methods to control the efficiency. It has been determined that the operating efficiency of an AHCCS depends on its diagram and the temperature chart of central quality control (CQC) and also on the temperature of a low-grade heat source for the system with a heat pump.

  7. Control and Driving Methods for LED Based Intelligent Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    of the diode is controlled either by varying the magnitude of the current or by driving the LED with a pulsed current and regulate the width of the pulse. It has been shown previously, that these two methods yield different effects on diode's efficacy and colour point. A hybrid dimming strategy has been...... proposed where two variable quantities control the intensity of the diode. This increases the controllability of the diode giving new optimisation possibilities. It has been shown that it is possible to compensate for temperature drift of white diode's colour point using hybrid dimming strategy. Also...

  8. Advanced Control Methods for Optimization of Arc Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J. S.

    Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is a proces used for joining pieces of metal. Probably, the GMAW process is the most successful and widely used welding method in the industry today. A key issue in welding is the quality of the welds produced. The quality of a weld is influenced by several factors...... in the overall welding process; one of these factors are the ability of the welding machine to control the process. The internal control algorithms in GMAW machines are the topic of this PhD project. Basically, the internal control includes an algorithm which is able to keep the electrode at a given distance...

  9. Brain-controlled body movement assistance devices and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuthardt, Eric C.; Love, Lonnie J.; Coker, Rob; Moran, Daniel W.

    2017-01-10

    Methods, devices, systems, and apparatus, including computer programs encoded on a computer storage medium, for brain-controlled body movement assistance devices. In one aspect, a device includes a brain-controlled body movement assistance device with a brain-computer interface (BCI) component adapted to be mounted to a user, a body movement assistance component operably connected to the BCI component and adapted to be worn by the user, and a feedback mechanism provided in connection with at least one of the BCI component and the body movement assistance component, the feedback mechanism being configured to output information relating to a usage session of the brain-controlled body movement assistance device.

  10. El reduccionismo científico y el control de las conciencias. Parte II

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Viniegra Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    En esta segunda parte se analizan los vínculos de subordinación del quehacer científico con lo que se designa como la lógica del poder y la dominación, a través de dar prioridad absoluta a los hechos sobre las ideas y favorecer el conocimiento capitalizable por la innovación tecnológica, la cual es decisiva en la rentabilidad y competitividad de las grandes empresas (los intereses de lucro que gobiernan el planeta), y base de los mecanismos de control político-social de las conciencias y de l...

  11. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  12. Impact of Admission Control Methods to the Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chamraz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission control methods (AC in IMS networks (IP multimedia subsystem as one of the elements that help ensure QoS (Quality of service. In the paper we are trying to choose the best AC method for selected IMS network node to allow access to the greatest number of users. Of the large number of methods that were tested and considered good we chose two. The paper compares Gaussian approximation method and one of the measurement based method, specifically „Measured Sum“. Both methods estimate effective bandwidth to allow access for the greatest number of users/devices and allow them access to prepaid services or multimedia content.

  13. Gas Analysis and Control Methods for Thermal Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    when using highly efficient microporous thermal insulation packages. An easily implemented method of H2 gas removal from vendor thermal batteries is... microporous thermal insulation packages (1, 4, 5) or reduce volume requirements significantly. More rigorous gas control methods combined with...measured from the DCM pressures and known internal volumes of the 3 GHS that were measured using the ideal gas law with a 10-cc internal volume SS

  14. Method of plasma impurity control without magnetic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schivell, J.F.

    1977-06-01

    A method is proposed for controlling impurity generation in a tokomak by skimming and pumping the scrape-off. This method avoids many of the complications of a magnetic divertor, such as specially configured magnetic fields, toroidal symmetry, and inefficient use of toroidal field volume. Estimates are given for operating parameters. Impurity reductions of as much as a factor of 10 should be achievable. The necessary high-capacity pump would employ either titanium gettering or cryocondensation

  15. Ergonomic requirements to control room design - evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.

    1985-01-01

    The method of evaluation introduced is the result of work carried out by the sub-committee 'Control Room Design' of the Engineering Standards Committee in DIN Standards, Ergonomy. This committee compiles standards for the design of control rooms (instrumentation and control) for the monitoring and operation of process engineering cycles. With the agreement of the committee - whom we wish to take the opportunity of thanking at this point for their constructive collaboration - a planned partial standard will be introduced thematically in the following, in order that knowledge gained from the discussion can be included in further work on the subject. The matter in question is a procedure for the qualitative evaluation of the duties to be performed under the control of operators in order that an assessment can be made of existing control concepts or such concepts as are to be found in the draft phase. (orig./GL) [de

  16. Engineering models and methods for industrial cell control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the engineering, i.e. the designing and making, of industrial cell control systems. The focus is on automated robot welding cells in the shipbuilding industry. The industrial research project defines models and methods for design and implemen-tation of computer based...... SHIPYARD.It is concluded that cell control technology provides for increased performance in production systems, and that the Cell Control Engineering concept reduces the effort for providing and operating high quality and high functionality cell control solutions for the industry....... control and monitor-ing systems for production cells. The project participants are The Danish Academy of Technical Sciences, the Institute of Manufacturing Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark and ODENSE STEEL SHIPYARD Ltd.The manufacturing environment and the current practice...

  17. Comparison of DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    1999-08-01

    A method to reduce the fuel composition heterogeneity effect on the core performance parameters has been studied for the DUPIC fuel which is made of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels by a dry refabrication process. This study focuses on the reactivity control method which uses either slightly enriched, depleted, or natural uranium to minimize the cost rise effect on the manufacturing of DUPIC fuel, when adjusting the excess reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, reactivity control by natural uranium for high reactivity spent PWR fuels, and reactivity control by natural uranium for linear reactivity spent PWR fuels. The results of this study have shown that the reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, all the spent PWR fuels can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel and the fraction of fresh uranium feed is 3.4% on an average. For the reactivity control by natural uranium, about 88% of spent PWR fuel can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel when the linear reactivity spent PWR fuels are used, and the amount of natural uranium feed needed to control the DUPIC fuel reactivity is negligible. (author). 13 refs., 16 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Device and method of cooling control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Hidetoshi; Mase, Noriaki; Matsumura, Yuichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the generation of local temperature rise depending on the reactor core position of the control rod drives and control the temperature to an averaged state in BWR type reactors. Method: Control rod drives having a large charging length of the housing in the pressure vessel involve such a factor that the temperature of the control rod drives is increased by the synergistic effect due to the radiation heat from the reactor core and to the unevenness of the cooling water flow rate, which renders an appropriate temperature control difficult for the reactor core position. A cooling water flow rate controlling device having a restriction mechanism is disposed on the cooling water feed path for each of the hydraulic control units of the control rod drives, so that flow rate to the control rod drives is increased at the center of the reactor core and decreased at the periphery thereof. As a result, average temperature state can be set, temperature increase due to cloggings can be prevented and the thermal effect can be eliminated to thereby improve the reliability. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.

  20. Control of very heavy water inrush from sinkholes connecting with Ordovician limestone. Part 1. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the comprehensive water control methods used in Fangezhuang Colliery: water drainage; cutting off of water; and sealing off the water. For water drainage, 20 large-sized submarine pumps were used in Lujiatuo and Fangezhuang collieries with a delivery of 300 m/sup 3//min to control the rising of water level. For cutting off the water, a three-section horizontal injection method and 8 grouting techniques were applied to cut off the water in 3 roadways at the boundary between Lujiatuo and Fangezhuang with water flowing at an average rate of 300 m/sup 3//min. For sealing off the water, a radio perspective instrument was used to detect the shape of No. 2171 sinkhole in Fangezhuang, and computers were employed to process the hydrogeological data. The three section vertical grouting method was introduced, and the inrush water source was sealed off with a success of over 99%.

  1. An hp symplectic pseudospectral method for nonlinear optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haijun; Wang, Xinwei; Li, Mingwu; Chen, Biaosong

    2017-01-01

    An adaptive symplectic pseudospectral method based on the dual variational principle is proposed and is successfully applied to solving nonlinear optimal control problems in this paper. The proposed method satisfies the first order necessary conditions of continuous optimal control problems, also the symplectic property of the original continuous Hamiltonian system is preserved. The original optimal control problem is transferred into a set of nonlinear equations which can be solved easily by Newton-Raphson iterations, and the Jacobian matrix is found to be sparse and symmetric. The proposed method, on one hand, exhibits exponent convergence rates when the number of collocation points are increasing with the fixed number of sub-intervals; on the other hand, exhibits linear convergence rates when the number of sub-intervals is increasing with the fixed number of collocation points. Furthermore, combining with the hp method based on the residual error of dynamic constraints, the proposed method can achieve given precisions in a few iterations. Five examples highlight the high precision and high computational efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. [Improved methods for researching isolated carotid sinus baroreceptors automatically controlling for sinus pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua; Zhao, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ping; Huang, Hai-Xia; Wang, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Suo; Niu, Wei-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    To develop a system for automatically controlling carotid sinus pressure in the study on baroreceptors. The preparation containing carotid sinus with parts of the connected vessels and carotid sinus nerve (CS-CSN) were isolated and perfused. A critical pressure controlling component (PRE-U, Hoerbiger, Deutschland) dictated by a computer was integrated into the system to clamp the intrasinus pressure. The pressure command and the relevant intrasinus pressure were compared to evaluate the validity of the pressure controlling system. A variety of sinus pressure-controlling patterns, including pulsation, ramp and step pressures, could be achieved accurately by using the system, and the pressure-dependent discharge activities of sinus nerve were confirmed. This system for clamping carotid sinus pressure could realize multiple pressure-controlling patterns and is a useful and flexible pressure controlling method that could applied in the study on mechano-electric transduction of baroreceptors.

  3. Fundamentals in Biostatistics for Investigation in Pediatric Dentistry: Part II -Biostatistical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo

    The main purpose of the second part of this series was to provide the reader with some basic aspects of the most common biostatistical methods employed in health sciences, in order to better understand the validity, significance and reliability of the results from any article on Pediatric Dentistry. Currently, as mentioned in the first paper, Pediatric Dentists need basic biostatistical knowledge to be able to apply it when critically appraise a dental article during the Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD) process, or when participating in the development of a clinical study with dental pediatric patients. The EBD process provides a systematic approach of collecting, review and analyze current and relevant published evidence about oral health care in order to answer a particular clinical question; then this evidence should be applied in everyday practice. This second report describes the most commonly used statistical methods for analyzing and interpret collected data, and the methodological criteria to be considered when choosing the most appropriate tests for a specific study. These are available to Pediatric Dentistry practicants interested in reading or designing original clinical or epidemiological studies.

  4. ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of different part of Channa striata prepared by various cooking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasanah, E.; Budiari, S.; Thenawijaya, M.; Palupi, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    Channa striata (snakehead) extract has been known possessing positive activity, one of which is the ability to inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro. Aims of this study were to determine the effect of cooking and parts of C. striata, i.e. meat/fillet, gonad, skin, gill against the ACE inhibition activity and antioxidant activity in vitro. Heat processing methods used were direct boiling and indirect boiling and steamed at 100 °C for 10 min. ACE inhibition activity was analyzed using hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) as substrate and antioxidant activity was analyzed using DPPH method. The result shows that the higher the concentration of the extract (5 %, 20 %, 35 % and 50 %), the higher the antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by gonad followed by meat extract, skin, and gill. Cooking treatment affected antioxidant activity, being the detrimental treatment were steam and direct boiling. The egg/gonad of C. striata showed the highest capability to inhibit ACE activity followed by meat/fillet, gill and skin. In concentration of 10 mg, extract of C. striata gonad was comparable to captopril, a commercial hypertension drug. While uncooked fillet showed the highest ACE inhibition activity followed by indirect boiling, direct boiling and steaming.

  5. Method of controlling the operation of a feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemaru, Koichi; Omori, Takashi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: At the time of pump trip at upstream, to maintain a good operating characteristic without stopping a pump at the downstream. Structure: In the event that one of pumps at the upstream (for example, a condenser pump) is tripped, interlock is activated to forcibly open a circulating valve for a condensation booster pump to partly return the flow rate of discharge to a pump suction part, thus preventing a decrease in suction pressure. In this case, in order to control suction pressure to a suitable level of pressure more than a net suction water head as required, a pressure adjusting meter for the condensation booster pump is provided on a pipe line on the side of suction so that the flow rate of circulation may be changed by the pressure adjusting valve to maintain the suction pressure in constant. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 3: State of Practiceof Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2004-02-01

    In this report, the third in a series, we provide an evaluation of several products that exemplify the current state of practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems (EMCIS). The available features for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the federal sector. The first report [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. The second report [2] serves as a basic reference for building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and includes an assessment of current approaches to open communications. Part 4 of this series will discuss applications software from a user's perspective. It is important for energy managers in the Federal sector to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex energy management systems. This series of reports provides energy practitioners with some basic informational and educational tools to help make decisions relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential.

  7. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  8. Application of capability indices and control charts in the analytical method control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabres Martinez, Matías

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the usefulness of control charts in combination with the process capability indices, C pm and C pk , in the control strategy of an analytical method. The traditional X-chart and moving range chart were used to monitor the analytical method over a 2-year period. The results confirmed that the analytical method is in-control and stable. Different criteria were used to establish the specifications limits (i.e. analyst requirements) for fixed method performance (i.e. method requirements). If the specification limits and control limits are equal in breadth, the method can be considered "capable" (C pm  = 1), but it does not satisfy the minimum method capability requirements proposed by Pearn and Shu (2003). Similar results were obtained using the C pk index. The method capability was also assessed as a function of method performance for fixed analyst requirements. The results indicate that the method does not meet the requirements of the analytical target approach. A real-example data of a SEC with light-scattering detection method was used as a model whereas previously published data were used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A design method of compensators for multi-variable control system with PID controllers 'CHARLY'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Toshitaka; Yamada, Katsumi

    1985-01-01

    A systematic design method of compensators for a multi-variable control system having usual PID controllers in its loops is presented in this paper. The method itself is able: to determine the main manipulating variable corresponding to each controlled variable with a sensitivity analysis in the frequency domain. to tune PID controllers sufficiently to realize adequate control actions with a searching technique of minimum values of cost functionals. to design compensators improving the control preformance and to simulate a total system for confirming the designed compensators. In the phase of compensator design, the state variable feed-back gain is obtained by means of the OPTIMAL REGULATOR THEORY for the composite system of plant and PID controllers. The transfer function type compensators the configurations of which were previously given are, then, designed to approximate the frequency responces of the above mentioned state feed-back system. An example is illustrated for convenience. (author)

  10. A decentralized control method for direct smart grid control of refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    . No model information is required in this method. The temperature limits/constraints are respected. A novel adaptive saturation filter is also proposed to increase the system flexibility in storing and delivering the energy. The proposed control strategy is applied to a simulation benchmark that fairly......A decentralized control method is proposed to govern the electrical power consumption of supermarket refrigeration systems (SRS) for demand-side management in the smart grid. The control structure is designed in a supervisory level to provide desired set-points for distributed level controllers...

  11. Wake characterization methods of a circulation control wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed Mohamed, Y.; Semaan, R.; Sattler, S.; Radespiel, R.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a three-pronged methodology to characterise the wake behind a circulation control wing. The study relies on time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements in a water tunnel for a range of blowing intensities. The first method is the well-known proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The second tool is a new implementation of the power spectrum. Finally, a modified Q-criterion vortex detection and quantification method is presented. The results show the complementary advantage of the three methods in analysing wake flows with varying conditions.

  12. The development and validation of control rod calculation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, J.L.; Sweet, D.W.; Franklin, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Fission rate distributions have been measured in the zero power critical facility, ZEBRA, for a series of eight different arrays of boron carbide control rods. Diffusion theory calculations have been compared with these measurements. The normalised fission rates differ by up to about 30% in some regions, between the different arrays, and these differences are well predicted by the calculations. A development has been made to a method used to produce homogenised cross sections for lattice regions containing control rods. Calculations show that the method also reproduces the reaction rate within the rod and the fission rate dip at the surface of the rod in satisfactory agreement with the more accurate calculations which represent the fine structure of the rod. A comparison between diffusion theory and transport theory calculations of control rod reactivity worths in the CDFR shows that for the standard design method the finite mesh approximation and the difference between diffusion theory and transport theory (the transport correction) tend to cancel and result in corrections to be applied to the standard mesh diffusion theory calculations of about +- 2% or less. This result applies for mesh centred finite difference diffusion theory codes and for the arrays of natural boron carbide control rods for which the calculations were made. Improvements have also been made to the effective diffusion coefficients used in diffusion theory calculations for control rod followers and these give satisfactory agreement with transport theory calculations. (U.K.)

  13. Fractional Programming for Communication Systems—Part I: Power Control and Beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaiming; Yu, Wei

    2018-05-01

    This two-part paper explores the use of FP in the design and optimization of communication systems. Part I of this paper focuses on FP theory and on solving continuous problems. The main theoretical contribution is a novel quadratic transform technique for tackling the multiple-ratio concave-convex FP problem--in contrast to conventional FP techniques that mostly can only deal with the single-ratio or the max-min-ratio case. Multiple-ratio FP problems are important for the optimization of communication networks, because system-level design often involves multiple signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio terms. This paper considers the applications of FP to solving continuous problems in communication system design, particularly for power control, beamforming, and energy efficiency maximization. These application cases illustrate that the proposed quadratic transform can greatly facilitate the optimization involving ratios by recasting the original nonconvex problem as a sequence of convex problems. This FP-based problem reformulation gives rise to an efficient iterative optimization algorithm with provable convergence to a stationary point. The paper further demonstrates close connections between the proposed FP approach and other well-known algorithms in the literature, such as the fixed-point iteration and the weighted minimum mean-square-error beamforming. The optimization of discrete problems is discussed in Part II of this paper.

  14. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  15. Control rod computer code IAMCOS: general theory and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.

    1982-11-01

    IAMCOS is a computer code for the description of mechanical and thermal behavior of cylindrical control rods for fast breeders. This code version was applied, tested and modified from 1979 to 1981. In this report are described the basic model (02 version), theoretical definitions and computation methods [fr

  16. Handbook of engineering control methods for occupational radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orn, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation are widely used in industrial, medical, military, and other applications. In the workplace, the task of assuring the safety of workers exposed to radiation sources is generally assigned to the safety professional, industrial hygienist, or an engineer in some other discipline. Rarely do employers outside the nuclear industry have the luxury of a staff health physicist in the workplace. Consultants may be called in to provide initial assessments of the hazards and to assist with complex problems, but the day-to-day problem solving is usually a function of the safety professional or other professional with the responsibility for safety. The primary purpose of this book is to provide a practical reference for safety professionals that addresses the application of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation protection standards and the quantitative methods for evaluating and designing engineering controls to meet those standards. Although the emphasis of this book is on control methods, it is necessary to understand the physical nature of the radiation exposure, its units of measure, and its biological effects in order to apply the appropriate control methods. Consequently, a brief treatment of these topics precedes the discussion of control methods for each type of radiation exposure

  17. Methods to control for unmeasured confounding in pharmacoepidemiology : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, Md Jamal; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Ali, Mohammed Sanni; de Boer, Anthonius; Roes, Kit C B; Chowdhury, Muhammad A B; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unmeasured confounding is one of the principal problems in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Several methods have been proposed to detect or control for unmeasured confounding either at the study design phase or the data analysis phase. Aim of the Review To provide an overview of commonly

  18. Automated model fit method for diesel engine control development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.L.J.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  19. Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and planting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and planting pattern on growth and yield attributes of maize (Zea mays l.) in the northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. M.S. Bature, D.B. Ishaya, M.A Mahadi, A.I Sharifai, A.A Muhammed, A.H Hassan, H.J Jibril, L Goma, G.M Munir ...

  20. Benefits of EMU Participation : Estimates using the Synthetic Control Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, Loes; van Groezen, Bas; Meijdam, Lex

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates quantitatively the benefits from participation in the Economic and Monetary Union for individual Euro area countries. Using the synthetic control method, we estimate how real GDP per capita would have developed for the EMU member states, if those countries had not joined the

  1. An active vibration control method of bridge structures by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 'Linearization of Feedback Gain Matrix' (LFGM) method proposed by the author to achieve this objective is obtained by activating some useful components of the Riccati matrix while others are strongly attenuated according to the expected output-results and requirements of control mechanism. The present algorithm is ...

  2. Improvement of high resolution borehole seismics. Part 1: Development of processing methods for VSP surveys. Part 2: Piezoelectric signal transmitter for seismic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.; Pekonen, S.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the high resolution borehole seismics project has been to improve the reliability and resolution of seismic methods in the particular environment of nuclear waste repository sites. The results obtained, especially the data processing and interpretation methods developed, are applicable also to other geophysical methods (e.g. Georadar). The goals of the seismic development project have been: the development of processing and interpretation techniques for mapping fractured zones, and the design and construction of a seismic source complying with the requirements of repository site characterization programs. Because these two aspects of the work are very different in nature, we have structured the report as two self contained parts. Part 1 describes the development of interpretive techniques. We have used for demonstrating the effect of different methods a VSP data set collected at the SCV site during Stage 1 of the project. Five techniques have been studied: FK-filtering, three versions of Tau-p filtering and a new technique that we have developed lately, Image Space filtering. Part 2 refers to the construction of the piezoelectric source. Earlier results obtained over short distances with low energy piezoelectric transmitters let us believe that the same principle could be applied for seismic signal transmitters, if solutions for higher energy and lower frequency output were found. The instrument which we have constructed is a cylindrical unit which can be placed in a borehole and is able to produce a radial strain when excited axially. The minimum borehole diameter is 56 mm. (au)

  3. Application of blocking diagnosis methods to general circulation models. Part I: a novel detection scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriopedro, D. [Universidade de Lisboa, CGUL-IDL, Faculdade de Ciencias, Ed. C-8, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidad de Extremadura, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Herrera, R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra II, Facultad de C.C. Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Trigo, R.M. [Universidade de Lisboa, CGUL-IDL, Faculdade de Ciencias, Ed. C-8, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    to General Circulation Models where observational thresholds may be unsuitable due to the presence of model bias. Part II of this study deals with a specific implementation of this novel method to simulations of the ECHO-G global climate model. (orig.)

  4. Survey of sterile admixture practices in canadian hospital pharmacies: part 1. Methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-03-01

    The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its "General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations", which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies, personnel, raw materials, storage and handling

  5. Navigation Algorithm Using Fuzzy Control Method in Mobile Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cviklovič Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of navigation methods is being continuously developed globally. The aim of this article is to test the fuzzy control algorithm for track finding in mobile robotics. The concept of an autonomous mobile robot EN20 has been designed to test its behaviour. The odometry navigation method was used. The benefits of fuzzy control are in the evidence of mobile robot’s behaviour. These benefits are obtained when more physical variables on the base of more input variables are controlled at the same time. In our case, there are two input variables - heading angle and distance, and two output variables - the angular velocity of the left and right wheel. The autonomous mobile robot is moving with human logic.

  6. Method for rudder roll stabilization control by maintaining ship speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiquan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship navigating on the surface of the water may experience greater resistance, adversely affect-ing its speed and leading to energy loss. The added resistance of surface ships in both still water and waves are investigated, and the computation method of total speed loss is presented. An autopilot system is intro-duced to constrain the speed loss, and course keeping and rudder roll stabilization sliding mode control laws are proposed according to a compact control strategy. The two working conditions of "heading" and "heading plus anti-roll" are discussed, including roll stabilization, heading error, speed maintenance and rudder abrasion. The results show that the speed can be effectively maintained using this method, and from a commercial point of view, the fin-rudder roll stabilization control is not recommended for vessels equipped with both fins and rudders.

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROL CARDS AND SUPPORTING METHOD IN PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WOLNOWSKA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were presented chosen method associated with statistical control of production processes. Mainly focused on control cards and Pareto‐Lorenz analysis. Showed method were implemented to analysis production process stability of hearing aids in X company (the brand name don’t give because date of production is secret. Researches were made few months after new assembly lines starts‐up. Main aim of researches was defects types identification occurred in production process and determine the scale of effect. Finally received results were satisfactory, i.e. despite of occurred errors, control cards analysis showed that production process of BTE‐type (Behind‐The‐Ear hearing aids was stable.

  8. A multidimensional pseudospectral method for optimal control of quantum ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruths, Justin; Li, Jr-Shin

    2011-01-01

    In our previous work, we have shown that the pseudospectral method is an effective and flexible computation scheme for deriving pulses for optimal control of quantum systems. In practice, however, quantum systems often exhibit variation in the parameters that characterize the system dynamics. This leads us to consider the control of an ensemble (or continuum) of quantum systems indexed by the system parameters that show variation. We cast the design of pulses as an optimal ensemble control problem and demonstrate a multidimensional pseudospectral method with several challenging examples of both closed and open quantum systems from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in liquid. We give particular attention to the ability to derive experimentally viable pulses of minimum energy or duration.

  9. A GPS-Based Decentralized Control Method for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golsorkhi, Mohammad; Lu, Dylan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated control of distributed energy resources (DER) is essential for the operation of islanded microgrids (MGs). Conventionally, such coordination is achieved by drooping the frequency of the reference voltage versus active (or reactive) power. The conventional droop method ensures synchron......Coordinated control of distributed energy resources (DER) is essential for the operation of islanded microgrids (MGs). Conventionally, such coordination is achieved by drooping the frequency of the reference voltage versus active (or reactive) power. The conventional droop method ensures......, GPS timing technology is utilized to synchronize the DERs to a common reference frame, rotating at nominal frequency. In addition, an adaptive Q-f droop controller is introduced as a backup to ensure stable operation during GPS signal interruptions. In the context of the common reference frame, even...

  10. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA

    2011-12-06

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  11. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  12. Method for fault diagnosis of digital control systems in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Nagaoka, Yukio; Ohga, Yukiharu; Ito, Tetsuo

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a method for localizing faulty components of control systems by replaceable parts such as print boards and cables, in a large scale plant like a nuclear power plant. Most of today's control systems form a distributed configuration including many digital controllers interconnected by data communication networks. Usually, to localize the faulty components in nuclear plant control systems, suspected faulty components are narrowed down by executing manual tests to examine whether the objects are normal or abnormal based on design documents and personnel know-how, besides the uses of self-diagnosis functions built into the control systems. In the present method, procedures of various tests including the know-how and checking of self-diagnosis functions are provided as knowledge of tests. The tests to be executed is determined by considering failure probabilities of objects, and easiness and effectiveness of testing. Then, the suspects are narrowed down sequentially based on the test result. In checking feasibility of this diagnosis method for a simulated control system, intended faults are satisfactorily localized. This method is confirmed to be practicable for diagnosis of large scale digital control systems. (author)

  13. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  14. Prevention methods for pest control and their use in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. THE CONTROL OF PESTS IN ECOSYSTEMS BY UNCHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H BUNESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important way to control the pests is to not use chemicals, preventing the environmental pollution in the different ecosystems. We proposed to study and apply the unchemical methods according to ecological pest management, to control some pesticide resistant pests. The research has been oriented to the physical methods: the use of the light radiation reflected by different materials (supports, directly applied on the hostplant leaves or on the ground, which remove the insects from the damaged zone; the use of visual traps (coloured panels and coloured plates, which attract and capture the insects. The researches were carried out in 2002, with five experiences organised in two ecosystems (orchard and mountain grazing. The both categories of methods were very effective.

  16. Statistical disclosure control for microdata methods and applications in R

    CERN Document Server

    Templ, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    This book on statistical disclosure control presents the theory, applications and software implementation of the traditional approach to (micro)data anonymization, including data perturbation methods, disclosure risk, data utility, information loss and methods for simulating synthetic data. Introducing readers to the R packages sdcMicro and simPop, the book also features numerous examples and exercises with solutions, as well as case studies with real-world data, accompanied by the underlying R code to allow readers to reproduce all results. The demand for and volume of data from surveys, registers or other sources containing sensible information on persons or enterprises have increased significantly over the last several years. At the same time, privacy protection principles and regulations have imposed restrictions on the access and use of individual data. Proper and secure microdata dissemination calls for the application of statistical disclosure control methods to the data before release. This book is in...

  17. Task analysis methods applicable to control room design review (CDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moray, N.P.; Senders, J.W.; Rhodes, W.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a research study conducted in support of the human factors engineering program of the Atomic Energy Control Board in Canada. It contains five products which may be used by the Atomic Enegy Control Board in relation to Task Analysis of jobs in CANDU nuclear power plants: 1. a detailed method for preparing for a task analysis; 2. a Task Data Form for recording task analysis data; 3. a detailed method for carrying out task analyses; 4. a guide to assessing alternative methods for performing task analyses, if such are proposed by utilities or consultants; and 5. an annotated bibliography on task analysis. In addition, a short explanation of the origins, nature and uses of task analysis is provided, with some examples of its cost effectiveness. 35 refs

  18. Review of control rod calibration methods for irradiated AGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telford, A. R.R.

    1975-10-15

    Methods of calibrating control rods with particular reference to irradiated CAGR are surveyed. Some systematic spatial effects are found and an estimate of their magnitude made. It is concluded that control rod oscillation provides a promising method of calibrating rods at power which is as yet untried on CAGR. Also the rod drop using inverse kinetics provides a rod calibration but spatial effects may be large and these would be difficult to correct theoretically. The pulsed neutron technique provides a calibration route with small errors due to spatial effects provided a suitable K-tube can be developed. The xenon transient method is shown to have spatial effects which have not needed consideration in earlier reactors but which in CAGR would need very careful evaluation.

  19. Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.

  20. A Comparison of the Essential Amino Acid Content and the Retention Rate by Chicken Part according to Different Cooking Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Honggyun; Do, Hyun Wook; Chung, Heajung

    2017-01-01

    This study set out to identify the changes in the nutrient contents during the chicken cooking process as basic data for the establishment of a national health nutrition policy. Samples were produced using 3 chicken parts (wing, breast, and leg) and 7 cooking methods (boiling, pancooking, pan-frying, deep-frying, steaming, roasting, and microwaving), and the essential amino acid contents, principal components, and retention rates were analyzed. Weight loss was observed in all chicken parts with all cooking methods. The protein and essential amino acid contents of the chicken samples differed significantly according to the part and the cooking method ( p chicken parts showed ranges of 16.81-32.36 and 0.44-2.45, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) clearly demonstrated that the cooking methods and chicken parts produced similar trends for the essential amino acid contents. The retention rates of the chicken parts varied with the cooking methods, yielding a minimum value of 83% for isoleucine in a roasted wing, 91% for protein in a steamed breast, and 77% for isoleucine and lysine in a roasted leg. Therefore, the protein and amino acid contents of the roasted breast were higher than those of the other cooked chicken parts.

  1. Optimization of control parameters of a hot cold controller by means of Simplex type methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, C.; Caron-Poussin, M.; Carot, S.; Couriol, C.; Moreno, M. Martin; Delacroix, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a hot/cold controller for regulating crystallization operations. The system was identified with a common method (the Broida method) and the parameters were obtained by the Ziegler-Nichols method. The paper shows that this empirical method will only allow a qualitative approach to regulation and that, in some instances, the parameters obtained are unreliable and therefore cannot be used to cancel variations between the set point and the actual values. Optimization methods were used to determine the regulation parameters and solve this identcation problem. It was found that the weighted centroid method was the best one. PMID:18924791

  2. Notification: Notification Memo for Evaluation of Management Controls for Alternative Asbestos Control Method Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY12-0011, February 27, 2012. This memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is initiating an evaluation on the Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) experiments.

  3. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  4. The modular design method for digital control systems in Japanese BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Motomura, A.

    1998-01-01

    Digital technology is being applied to control systems in nuclear power plants. Especially in Japanese BWRs, control systems are being digitized both in constructing plant and in retrofit of operating plants. Digital technology has many advantages compared with analog technology. However, its high performance and flexibility may result in too complicated software structure, which will cause long design time and long testing time and increase cost. In introduction of digital technology, it is most important to restrict unnecessary flexibility of software. The function of control systems can be divided in standard part and variable part. Standard function may be common to every plant while variable function should be designed for each plant. Even in current design, standard design is preserved to be reused in next application. However, this design approach is not always effective because standard function may be changed by customer and nothing is considered for variable part even if it is large. To keep reliability and reduce cost by software reuse, Toshiba adopts modular design of control software, where standard part is designed as a set of standard functional modules and variable function is designed as a complex of standard functional modules and plant unique modules. Toshiba firstly applied modular design method to fuel handling machine control system. In this application the design work has been reduced to 30 percent by reusing of functional module which was first developed in former applications. This remarkable reduction of design work has enhanced reliability with less cost. In addition, software, has been produced and tested according to the functional module. These qualified software modules will be applied to next system and will realize highest reliability and least cost. Toshiba is now planning the application of this modular design method for every digital control system. (author)

  5. The Quadrotor Dynamic Modeling and Indoor Target Tracking Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable nonlinear dynamic model of the quadrotor is presented. The nonlinear dynamic model includes actuator dynamic and aerodynamic effect. Since the rotors run near a constant hovering speed, the dynamic model is simplified at hovering operating point. Based on the simplified nonlinear dynamic model, the PID controllers with feedback linearization and feedforward control are proposed using the backstepping method. These controllers are used to control both the attitude and position of the quadrotor. A fully custom quadrotor is developed to verify the correctness of the dynamic model and control algorithms. The attitude of the quadrotor is measured by inertia measurement unit (IMU. The position of the quadrotor in a GPS-denied environment, especially indoor environment, is estimated from the downward camera and ultrasonic sensor measurements. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed dynamic model and control algorithms are demonstrated by experimental results. It is shown that the vehicle achieves robust vision-based hovering and moving target tracking control.

  6. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part II. Results and discussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work rheological studies of the gelling process were carried out. We have developed a measuring system for studying the rheology of the gelation process. It consisted of several measuring cells of the Weiler-Rebinder type, system for automatic regulation of the composition of the medium and thermostabilization system. This complex is designed to measure the dependence of the value of the ultimate shear stress as a function of time, from the start of the sol-gel transition to the complete conversion of the sol to the gel. The developed device has a wide range of measured values of critical shear stresses τ0 = (0,05÷50000 Dyne/cm2. Using the developed instrument, it was possible to establish the shape of the initial section of the curve τ0 = f(t and develop a methodology for more accurate determination of gelation time. The developed method proved that the classical method for determining the start time of the sol-gel transition using the point of intersection of the tangent to the linear part of the rheological curve τ0 = f(t, gives significantly distorted results. A new phenomenon has been discovered: the kinetic curves in the coordinates of the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation have an inflection point which separates the kinetic curve into two parts, the initial and the final. It was found that the constant k in the Avrami–Erofeev–Bogolyubov equation does not depend on the temperature and is the same for both the initial and final parts of the kinetic curve. It depends only on the chemical nature of the reacting system. It was found that for the initial section of the kinetic curves, the value of the parameter n in the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation was n = 23,4±2,8 and, unlike the final section of the rheological curve, does not depend on temperature. A large value of this parameter can be interpreted as the average number of directions of growth of a fractal aggregate during its growth. The value of this parameter

  7. Nuclear reactor control method for maintaining an appreciably constant axial distribution of power with load variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Toshio.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor control method is described in which the power variations of the reactor are controlled partly by varying the concentration of the neutron absorbing element and partly by varying the positions of the control rods, in order to maintain the axial distribution of power appreciably symmetrical during the normal operation of the reactor. The control points are located in the upper and lower halves of the core. The controls are operated to maintain the output power difference between the upper and lower halves of the core, based on the total output power (axial deviation) significantly equal to a predetermined optimum figure during the entire running of the reactor, including when there are power variations. The optimum value is obtained by determining the axial deviation at full power with the xenon in balance and all the control rods withdrawn from the fuel area of the core. This optimum value is recalculated after a period appreciably equal to that of a month's operation at full power. This method applies in particular to PWR type reactors [fr

  8. Phase-ambiguity resolution for QPSK modulation systems. Part 2: A method to resolve offset QPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Manh

    1989-01-01

    Part 2 presents a new method to resolve the phase-ambiguity for Offset QPSK modulation systems. When an Offset Quaternary Phase-Shift-Keyed (OQPSK) communications link is utilized, the phase ambiguity of the reference carrier must be resolved. At the transmitter, two different unique words are separately modulated onto the quadrature carriers. At the receiver, the recovered carrier may have one of four possible phases, 0, 90, 180, or 270 degrees, referenced to the nominally correct phase. The IF portion of the channel may cause a phase-sense reversal, i.e., a reversal in the direction of phase rotation for a specified bit pattern. Hence, eight possible phase relationships (the so-called eight ambiguous phase conditions) between input and output of the demodulator must be resolved. Using the In-phase (I)/Quadrature (Q) channel reversal correcting property of an OQPSK Costas loop with integrated symbol synchronization, four ambiguous phase conditions are eliminated. Thus, only four possible ambiguous phase conditions remain. The errors caused by the remaining ambiguous phase conditions can be corrected by monitoring and detecting the polarity of the two unique words. The correction of the unique word polarities results in the complete phase-ambiguity resolution for the OQPSK system.

  9. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  10. Process control monitoring systems, industrial plants, and process control monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorpik, James R [Kennewick, WA; Gosselin, Stephen R [Richland, WA; Harris, Joe C [Kennewick, WA

    2010-09-07

    A system comprises a valve; a plurality of RFID sensor assemblies coupled to the valve to monitor a plurality of parameters associated with the valve; a control tag configured to wirelessly communicate with the respective tags that are coupled to the valve, the control tag being further configured to communicate with an RF reader; and an RF reader configured to selectively communicate with the control tag, the reader including an RF receiver. Other systems and methods are also provided.

  11. Horizontal and Vertical Rule Bases Method in Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Aminifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concept of horizontal and vertical rule bases is introduced. Using this method enables the designers to look for main behaviors of system and describes them with greater approximations. The rules which describe the system in first stage are called horizontal rule base. In the second stage, the designer modulates the obtained surface by describing needed changes on first surface for handling real behaviors of system. The rules used in the second stage are called vertical rule base. Horizontal and vertical rule bases method has a great roll in easing of extracting the optimum control surface by using too lesser rules than traditional fuzzy systems. This research involves with control of a system with high nonlinearity and in difficulty to model it with classical methods. As a case study for testing proposed method in real condition, the designed controller is applied to steaming room with uncertain data and variable parameters. A comparison between PID and traditional fuzzy counterpart and our proposed system shows that our proposed system outperforms PID and traditional fuzzy systems in point of view of number of valve switching and better surface following. The evaluations have done both with model simulation and DSP implementation.

  12. State of the art of the welding method for sealing spent nuclear fuel canister made of copper. Part 2 - EBW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, T.

    2014-05-01

    This report consist the results of the development of the electron beam welding (EBW) method for sealing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister. This report has been used as background material for selection of the sealing method for the SNF canister. Report contains the state of the art knowledge of the EBW method and research and development (R and D) results done by Posiva. Relevant R and D results of EB-welds done by SKB are also reviewed in this report. Requirements set for the welding and weld are present. These requirements are based on the long term safety and also some part of requirements are set by other processes like non-destructive testing (NDT) and manufacturing processes of components. Initial state of the weld is described in this report. Initial state has significant effect on the long term safety issues like corrosion resistance and creep ductility. Also short and long term mechanical properties as well as corrosion properties are described. Microstructure and residual stresses of the weld is represented in this report. Report consists also imperfections of the weld and statistical analysis of the evaluation of the probability of the largest defect size on the weld. Results of corrosion and creep tests of EB-welds are reviewed in this report. EBW process and machine are described. Preliminary designing of the EBW-machine has been done including component handling equipments. Preliminary welding procedure specification (pWPS) has drawn up and qualification of the personnel is described briefly. In-line process and quality control system including seam tracking system is implemented in modern EBW machine. Also NDT methods for inspection of the weld are described in this report. Concerning the results from the research and development work it can be concluded that EB welding method is suitable method for sealing SNF canister. Weld material fulfils requirements set by the long term safety. The welding system is robust and reliable and it is based

  13. Transactive System: Part I: Theoretical Underpinnings of Payoff Functions, Control Decisions, Information Privacy, and Solution Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-01-17

    new transactive energy system design with demonstrable guarantees on stability and performance. Specifically, the goals are to (1) establish a theoretical basis for evaluating the performance of different transactive systems, (2) devise tools to address canonical problems that exemplify challenges and scenarios of transactive systems, and (3) provide guidelines for design of future transactive systems. This report, Part 1 of a two part series, advances the above-listed research objectives by reviewing existing transactive systems and identifying a theoretical foundation that integrates payoff functions, control decisions, information privacy, and mathematical solution concepts.

  14. Methods of detecting and controlling mucoid Pseudomonas biofilm production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei D. (Inventor); Qiu, Dongru (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Compositions and methods for detecting and controlling the conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are disclosed. The present invention provides for detecting the switch from nonmucoid to mucoid state of P. aeruginosa by measuring mucE expression or MucE protein levels. The interaction between MucE and AlgW controls the switch to mucoidy in wild type P. aeruginosa. Also disclosed is an alginate biosynthesis heterologous expression system for use in screening candidate substances that inhibit conversion to mucoidy.

  15. Post combustion methods for control of NOx emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, H S; Curran, L M; Slack, A V; Ando, J; Oxley, J H

    1980-01-01

    Review of stack gas treatment methods for the control of NOx emissions. Particular emphasis is placed on status of development and factors affecting the performance of the processes. Catalytic, noncatalytic, and scrubbing processes are compared on a uniform engineering basis. Most of the active process development work is taking place in Japan. The three leading stack gas treatment techniques for NOx control are catalytic reduction with ammonia, noncatalytic reduction with ammonia, and direct scrubbing of NO with simultaneous absorption of SO2. The wet processes are much less developed than the dry processes.

  16. Collaborative simulation method with spatiotemporal synchronization process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yisheng; Ding, Guofu; Zhang, Weihua; Zhang, Jian; Qin, Shengfeng; Tan, John Kian

    2016-10-01

    When designing a complex mechatronics system, such as high speed trains, it is relatively difficult to effectively simulate the entire system's dynamic behaviors because it involves multi-disciplinary subsystems. Currently,a most practical approach for multi-disciplinary simulation is interface based coupling simulation method, but it faces a twofold challenge: spatial and time unsynchronizations among multi-directional coupling simulation of subsystems. A new collaborative simulation method with spatiotemporal synchronization process control is proposed for coupling simulating a given complex mechatronics system across multiple subsystems on different platforms. The method consists of 1) a coupler-based coupling mechanisms to define the interfacing and interaction mechanisms among subsystems, and 2) a simulation process control algorithm to realize the coupling simulation in a spatiotemporal synchronized manner. The test results from a case study show that the proposed method 1) can certainly be used to simulate the sub-systems interactions under different simulation conditions in an engineering system, and 2) effectively supports multi-directional coupling simulation among multi-disciplinary subsystems. This method has been successfully applied in China high speed train design and development processes, demonstrating that it can be applied in a wide range of engineering systems design and simulation with improved efficiency and effectiveness.

  17. Method for depleting BWRs using optimal control rod patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsiao, M.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Control rod (CR) programming is an essential core management activity for boiling water reactors (BWRs). After establishing a core reload design for a BWR, CR programming is performed to develop a sequence of exposure-dependent CR patterns that assure the safe and effective depletion of the core through a reactor cycle. A time-variant target power distribution approach has been assumed in this study. The authors have developed OCTOPUS to implement a new two-step method for designing semioptimal CR programs for BWRs. The optimization procedure of OCTOPUS is based on the method of approximation programming and uses the SIMULATE-E code for nucleonics calculations

  18. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  19. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  20. Size Controlled Synthesis of Starch Nanoparticles by a Microemulsion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Fun Chin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controllable particles sizes of starch nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation in water-in-oil microemulsion approach. Microemulsion method offers the advantages of ultralow interfacial tension, large interfacial area, and being thermodynamically stable and affords monodispersed nanoparticles. The synthesis parameters such as stirring rates, ratios of oil/cosurfactant, oil phases, cosurfactants, and ratios of water/oil were found to affect the mean particle size of starch nanoparticles. Starch nanoparticles with mean particles sizes of 109 nm were synthesized by direct nanoprecipitation method, whereas by using precipitation in microemulsion approach, starch nanoparticles with smaller mean particles sizes of 83 nm were obtained.

  1. Method of operating control rods for BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the danger such as fuel element failures due to rapid power increase and form a control rod pattern for obtaining a required power level in a relatively short time. Method: Control rods are disposed so as to vertically enter into and retract from the central region of each four fuel assemblies adjacent to each other respectively. Upon operation of the control rods, every other control rods in the lateral and longitudinal directions among the entire control rods that are inserted completely are extracted completely at the lower flow limit of coolants. Then, the control rods completely inserted are divided into groups inserted deeply and groups inserted less deeply. The less deeply inserted groups are extracted just before the excess of thermal limit value successively in the lower flow limit of the coolants and then the deeply inserted groups are extracted successively till a predetermined power level in the same manner. Therefore, the coolant flow to the reactor core is increased and the power level is raised. (Furukawa, Y.)

  2. Review of nonchemical methods for controlling stored products pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fumigation of stored products with methyl bromide has been an important means of limiting the loss of quality and quantity of these commodities that are subject to attack by cosmopolitan stored product pests. Methyl bromide was identified as a substance depleting ozone, and is expected to be withdrawn from production, importation, and use in Poland and other countries soon after 2000. Based on the current knowledge, most of alternatives to methyl bromide (controlled atmospheres, heat, cold, irradiation, biotechnical methods, inert dusts, biological methods, sanitation) have researchable gaps or other constraints. None of these alternatives used alone will replace methyl bromide. Successful pest control in the absence of methyl bromide will require the development of sophisticated pest monitoring and decision support systems to enable the use of integrated pest management strategies. (author)

  3. THE CONTROL VARIATIONAL METHOD FOR ELASTIC CONTACT PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Sofonea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multivalued equation of the form Ay + F(y = fin a real Hilbert space, where A is a linear operator and F represents the (Clarke subdifferential of some function. We prove existence and uniqueness results of the solution by using the control variational method. The main idea in this method is to minimize the energy functional associated to the nonlinear equation by arguments of optimal control theory. Then we consider a general mathematical model describing the contact between a linearly elastic body and an obstacle which leads to a variational formulation as above, for the displacement field. We apply the abstract existence and uniqueness results to prove the unique weak solvability of the corresponding contact problem. Finally, we present examples of contact and friction laws for which our results work.

  4. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  5. Research on LQR optimal control method of active engine mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Xie; Yu, Duan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the LQR control method is applied to the active mount of the engine, and a six-cylinder engine excitation model is established. Through the joint simulation of AMESim and MATLAB, the vibration isolation performance of the active mount system and the passive mount system is analyzed. Excited by the multi-engine operation, the simulation results of the vertical displacement, acceleration and dynamic deflection of the vehicle body show that the vibration isolation capability of the active mount system is superior to that of the passive mount system. It shows that compared with the passive mount, LQR active mount can greatly improve the vibration isolation performance, which proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the LQR control method.

  6. Water hammer prediction and control: the Green's function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Li-Jun; Mao, Feng; Wu, Jie-Zhi

    2012-04-01

    By Green's function method we show that the water hammer (WH) can be analytically predicted for both laminar and turbulent flows (for the latter, with an eddy viscosity depending solely on the space coordinates), and thus its hazardous effect can be rationally controlled and minimized. To this end, we generalize a laminar water hammer equation of Wang et al. (J. Hydrodynamics, B2, 51, 1995) to include arbitrary initial condition and variable viscosity, and obtain its solution by Green's function method. The predicted characteristic WH behaviors by the solutions are in excellent agreement with both direct numerical simulation of the original governing equations and, by adjusting the eddy viscosity coefficient, experimentally measured turbulent flow data. Optimal WH control principle is thereby constructed and demonstrated.

  7. Quality control for digital mammography: Part II recommendations from the ACRIN DMIST trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffe, Martin J.; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.

    2006-01-01

    The Digital Mammography Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), conducted under the auspices of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN), is a clinical trial designed to compare the accuracy of digital versus screen-film mammography in a screening population [E. Pisano et al., ACRIN 6652--Digital vs. Screen-Film Mammography, ACRIN (2001)]. Part I of this work described the Quality Control program developed to ensure consistency and optimal operation of the digital equipment. For many of the tests, there were no failures during the 24 months imaging was performed in DMIST. When systems failed, they generally did so suddenly rather than through gradual deterioration of performance. In this part, the utility and effectiveness of those tests are considered. This suggests that after verification of proper operation, routine extensive testing would be of minimal value. A recommended set of tests is presented including additional and improved tests, which we believe meet the intent and spirit of the Mammography Quality Standards Act regulations to ensure that full-field digital mammography systems are functioning correctly, and consistently producing mammograms of excellent image quality

  8. Advances in methods of commercial FBR core characteristics analyses. Investigations of a treatment of the double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Kazuteru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Iwai, Takehiko

    1998-07-01

    A standard data base for FBR core nuclear design is under development in order to improve the accuracy of FBR design calculation. As a part of the development, we investigated an improved treatment of double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections in a commercial reactor geometry, for the betterment of the analytical accuracy of commercial FBR core characteristics. As an improvement in the treatment of double-heterogeneity, we derived a new method (the direct method) and compared both this and conventional methods with continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations. In addition, we investigated the applicability of the reaction rate ratio preservation method as a advanced method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections. The present studies gave the following information: (1) An improved treatment of double-heterogeneity: for criticality the conventional method showed good agreement with Monte-Carlo result within one sigma standard deviation; the direct method was consistent with conventional one. Preliminary evaluation of effects in core characteristics other than criticality showed that the effect of sodium void reactivity (coolant reactivity) due to the double-heterogeneity was large. (2) An advanced method to calculate homogenize control rod cross sections: for control rod worths the reaction rate ratio preservation method agreed with those produced by the calculations with the control rod heterogeneity included in the core geometry; in Monju control rod worth analysis, the present method overestimated control rod worths by 1 to 2% compared with the conventional method, but these differences were caused by more accurate model in the present method and it is considered that this method is more reliable than the conventional one. These two methods investigated in this study can be directly applied to core characteristics other than criticality or control rod worth. Thus it is concluded that these methods will

  9. [Three methods for controlling presacral massive bleeding during pelvic operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Shangkui; Ren, Donglin; Wu, Yin'ai

    2017-12-25

    To evaluate three different methods for controlling presacral massive bleeding during pelvic operations. Clinical data of 11 patients with presacral massive bleeding during pelvic operation at The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and 157 Branch Hospital of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command from January 2001 to January 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Hemostasis methods for presacral massive bleeding during operation included gauze packing (whole pressure), drawing pin (local pressure) and absorbable gauze (absorbable gauze was adhered to bleeding position with medical glue after local pressure). Efficacy of these 3 methods for controlling bleeding was evaluated and compared. Ten patients were male and 1 was female with average age of 65.2 (40 to 79) years old. Eight cases were rectal cancer, 2 were presacral malignancies and 1 was rectal benign lesion. Bleeding volume during operation was 300 to 2 500 (median 800) ml. From 2001 to 2012, 4 cases received gauze packing, of whom, 3 cases were scheduled Dixon resection before operation and then had to be referred to Hartman resection; 3 cases died of systemic failure due to postoperative chronic errhysis and infection, and 1 underwent re-operation. At the same time from 2001 to 2012, 5 cases received drawing pin, of whom, bleeding of 3 cases was successfully controlled and Dixon resection was completed. In other 2 cases with hemostasis failure, 1 case underwent re-operation following the use of gauze packing, and another 1 case received absorbable gauze hemostasis. All the 5 patients were healing. From 2013 to 2016, 2 cases completed scheduled anterior resection of rectum after successful hemostasis with absorbable gauze and were healing and discharged. Gauze packing hemostasis is a basic method for controlling presacral massive bleeding. Drawing pin and absorbable gauze hemostasis are more precise and may avoid the change of surgical procedure. But drawing pin has the

  10. Method and apparatus for controlling gas evolution from chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorpik, James R.; Dodson, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward monitoring a thermally driven gas evolving chemical reaction with an acoustic apparatus. Signals from the acoustic apparatus are used to control a heater to prevent a run-away condition. A digestion module in combination with a robotic arm further automate physical handling of sample material reaction vessels. The invention is especially useful for carrying out sample procedures defined in EPA Methods SW-846.

  11. Method and apparatus for controlled condensation isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.A.; Lee, J.T. Jr.; Kim, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a method for producing controlled homogeneous condensation of a molecular feed gas containing several isotopes. The feed gas flows at supersonic rates through an expansion nozzle under conditions at which the gas would normally condense. The gas is irradiated with laser radiation of a wavelength that selectively excites those molecules in the feed gas that contain a particular isotope, thus preventing their condensation. Condensate particles may be aerodynamically separated from the flowing gas stream

  12. Efficient solution method for optimal control of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.; Chambre, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    To improve the utilization of existing fuel sources, the use of optimization techniques is becoming more important. A technique for solving systems of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial, boundary, and/or intermediate conditions is given. This method has a number of inherent advantages over existing techniques as well as being efficient in terms of computer time and space requirements. An example of computing the optimal control for a spatially dependent reactor model with and without temperature feedback is given. 10 refs

  13. Apparatus and method for controlling a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musick, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    A control system and method for a nuclear steam supply system for calculating the appropriate operating limits of the system based on the system's design limits are described. The control system monitors the appropriate parameters of the nuclear steam supply system, modifies one of the parameters, and calculates the desired operating limit on the basis of the unmodified and modified parameters. The parameter selected to be modified is adjusted in such a way as to account for the possible occurrence of all anticipated operational occurrences. The degree of adjustment encompasses the factors of the possibility of the occurrence of a worst case accident; axial power distribution; and the delay times of the protection system which include sensing, calculating, and activation time delays. The operating limit thus generated includes a margin which allows sufficient time for the termination of operation or for control of the system such that the design limits are not violated

  14. New Concepts and methods for developing shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen; Bilberg, Arne; Alting, Leo

    1998-01-01

    concept reduces the effort for providing and operating high quality and high functionality cell control solutions for the industry. The plans for the next generation industrial shop floor and cell controllers are to develop new concepts based on more distributed systems, which are more robust and agile...... with respect to changing demands, technological advances and daily operations. The scope of these systems are a network of co-operating cells as opposed to individually operated cells which are co-ordinated in a traditionally (hierarchical planning) manner. This new approach raises new demands......An industrial research project defines models and methods for design and implementation of computer based control and monitoring systems for production cells. This is primarily documented within automated robot welding cells in the shipbuilding industry. In order to support engineering of cell...

  15. Import control of irradiated foods by the thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.; Autio, T.; Niemi, E.; Pensala, O.

    1993-01-01

    A thermoluminescence (TL) method was applied for the import control of irradiated foods. The method is based on the determination of the TL of mineral contaminants in foods. Detection of irradiation was incorporated in official Finnish control procedures in spring 1990. For foodstuffs with a reduced microbe content and in which no fumigant residues are found, possible irradiation is investigated by the TL method. The minerals are separated from the foods in different ways: picking is used for spices; water rinsing for herbs, spices, berries and mushrooms; high-density liquid to separate the organic material from the mineral fraction in seafood; and carbon tetrachloride for foods forming gels with water. To date about 140 food samples have been analysed for control purposes: 50 samples of herbs and spices, 25 samples of berries and mushrooms and 65 samples of seafood. Of these, 14 samples of herbs and spices and 5 samples of seafood were shown to have been irradiated. Differences in TL intensity between irradiated and unirradiated samples were at least 1 and usually 3-4 orders of magnitude. (orig.)

  16. Improved Statistical Method For Hydrographic Climatic Records Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourrion, J.; Szekely, T.

    2016-02-01

    Climate research benefits from the continuous development of global in-situ hydrographic networks in the last decades. Apart from the increasing volume of observations available on a large range of temporal and spatial scales, a critical aspect concerns the ability to constantly improve the quality of the datasets. In the context of the Coriolis Dataset for ReAnalysis (CORA) version 4.2, a new quality control method based on a local comparison to historical extreme values ever observed is developed, implemented and validated. Temperature, salinity and potential density validity intervals are directly estimated from minimum and maximum values from an historical reference dataset, rather than from traditional mean and standard deviation estimates. Such an approach avoids strong statistical assumptions on the data distributions such as unimodality, absence of skewness and spatially homogeneous kurtosis. As a new feature, it also allows addressing simultaneously the two main objectives of a quality control strategy, i.e. maximizing the number of good detections while minimizing the number of false alarms. The reference dataset is presently built from the fusion of 1) all ARGO profiles up to early 2014, 2) 3 historical CTD datasets and 3) the Sea Mammals CTD profiles from the MEOP database. All datasets are extensively and manually quality controlled. In this communication, the latest method validation results are also presented. The method has been implemented in the latest version of the CORA dataset and will benefit to the next version of the Copernicus CMEMS dataset.

  17. Parallel efficient rate control methods for JPEG 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-del-Amor, Miguel Á.; Bruns, Volker; Sparenberg, Heiko

    2017-09-01

    Since the introduction of JPEG 2000, several rate control methods have been proposed. Among them, post-compression rate-distortion optimization (PCRD-Opt) is the most widely used, and the one recommended by the standard. The approach followed by this method is to first compress the entire image split in code blocks, and subsequently, optimally truncate the set of generated bit streams according to the maximum target bit rate constraint. The literature proposes various strategies on how to estimate ahead of time where a block will get truncated in order to stop the execution prematurely and save time. However, none of them have been defined bearing in mind a parallel implementation. Today, multi-core and many-core architectures are becoming popular for JPEG 2000 codecs implementations. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze how some techniques for efficient rate control can be deployed in GPUs. In order to do that, the design of our GPU-based codec is extended, allowing stopping the process at a given point. This extension also harnesses a higher level of parallelism on the GPU, leading to up to 40% of speedup with 4K test material on a Titan X. In a second step, three selected rate control methods are adapted and implemented in our parallel encoder. A comparison is then carried out, and used to select the best candidate to be deployed in a GPU encoder, which gave an extra 40% of speedup in those situations where it was really employed.

  18. Blasting vibrations control: The shortcomings of traditional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuillaume, P.M.; Kiszlo, M. [Institut National de l`Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Bernard, T. [Compagnie Nouvelle de Scientifiques, Nice (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the context of its studies for the French ministry of the environment and for the French national coal board, INERIS (the French institute for the industrial environment and hazards, formerly CERCHAR) has made a complete critical survey of the methods generally used to reduce the levels of blasting vibrations. It is generally acknowledged that the main parameter to control vibrations is the so-called instantaneous charge, or charge per delay. This should be reduced as much as possible in order to diminish vibration levels. On account of this, the use of a new generation of blasting devices, such as non-electric detonators or electronic sequential timers has been developed since the seventies. INERIS has collected data from about 900 blasts in 2 quarries and 3 open pit mines. These data include input parameters such as borehole diameter, burden, spacing, charge per hole, charge per delay, total fired charge, etc ... They also include output measurements, such as vibration peak particle velocities, and main frequencies. These data have been analyzed with the help of multi variable statistical tools. Blasting tests were undertaken to evaluate new methods of vibrations control, such as the superposition of vibration signals. These methods appear to be accurate in many critical cases, but certainly would be highly improved with a better accuracy of firing delays. The development of electronic detonators seems to be the way of the future for a better blasting control.

  19. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  20. Population control methods in stochastic extinction and outbreak scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Segura

    Full Text Available Adaptive limiter control (ALC and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural resources. Here, we consider population models that include biological mechanisms characteristic for causing extinctions on the one hand and pest outbreaks on the other hand. These models include Allee effects and the impact of natural enemies (as is typical of forest defoliating insects. We study the impacts of noise and different levels of biological parameters in three extinction and two outbreak scenarios. Our results show that ALC and ATH have an effect on extinction and outbreak risks only for sufficiently large control intensities. Moreover, there is a clear disparity between the two control methods: in the extinction scenarios, ALC can be effective and ATH can be counterproductive, whereas in the outbreak scenarios the situation is reversed, with ATH being effective and ALC being potentially counterproductive.

  1. Population control methods in stochastic extinction and outbreak scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Juan; Hilker, Frank M; Franco, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive limiter control (ALC) and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH) are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural resources. Here, we consider population models that include biological mechanisms characteristic for causing extinctions on the one hand and pest outbreaks on the other hand. These models include Allee effects and the impact of natural enemies (as is typical of forest defoliating insects). We study the impacts of noise and different levels of biological parameters in three extinction and two outbreak scenarios. Our results show that ALC and ATH have an effect on extinction and outbreak risks only for sufficiently large control intensities. Moreover, there is a clear disparity between the two control methods: in the extinction scenarios, ALC can be effective and ATH can be counterproductive, whereas in the outbreak scenarios the situation is reversed, with ATH being effective and ALC being potentially counterproductive.

  2. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. The aim of this paper is to examine if it is beneficial for individuals on sick leave due to MSDs to be on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave. A sample of 1,170 employees from the RFV-LS (register) database of the Social Insurance Agency of Sweden is used. The effect of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave is estimated for the probability of returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity. A two-stage recursive bivariate probit model is used to deal with the endogeneity problem. The results indicate that employees assigned to part-time sick leave do recover to full work capacity with a higher probability than those assigned to full-time sick leave. The average treatment effect of part-time sick leave is 25 percentage points. Considering that part-time sick leave may also be less expensive than assigning individuals to full-time sick leave, this would imply efficiency improvements from assigning individuals, when possible, to part-time sick leave.

  3. A novel method to fabricate TiAl intermetallic alloy 3D parts using additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.S. Dilip

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the feasibility of fabricating porous 3D parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy directly from Ti–6Al–4V and Al powders. This approach uses a binder jetting additive manufacturing process followed by reactive sintering. The results demonstrate that the present approach is successful for realizing parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy.

  4. Global asymptotic stability of a passive juggling strategy: A possible parts-feeding method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanson P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate that a passive vibration strategy can bring a one-degree-of-freedom ball to a specified periodic trajectory from all initial conditions. We draw motivation from the problem of parts feeding in sensorless assembly. We provide simulation results suggesting the relevance of our analysis to the parts feeding problem.

  5. Means, methods and performances of the AREVA's HTR compact controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchet, J.; Guillermier, P.; Tisseur, D.; Vitali, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    In the AREVA's HTR development program, the reactor plant is composed of a prismatic core containing graphite cylindrical fuel elements, called compacts, where TRISO particles are dispersed. Starting from its past compacting process, the latter being revamped through the use of state of the art equipments, CERCA, 100% AREVA NP's subsidiary, was able to recover the quality of past compacts production. The recovered compacting process is composed of the following manufacturing steps: graphite matrix granulation, mix between the obtained granulates and particles, compacting and calcining at low pressure and temperature. To adapt this past process to new manufacturing equipments, non destructive examination tests were carried out to assess the compact quality, the latter being assessed via in house developed equipments and methods at each step of the design of experiments. As for the manufacturing process, past quality control methods were revamped to measure compact dimensional features (diameter, perpendicularity and cone effect), visual aspect, SiC layer failure fraction (via anodic disintegration and burn leach test) and homogeneity via 2D radiography coupled to ceramography. Although meeting quality requirements, 2D radiography method could not provide a quantified specification for compact homogeneity characterization. This limitation yielded the replacement of this past technique by a method based on X-Ray tomography. Development was conducted on this new technique to enable the definition of a criterion to quantify compact homogeneity, as well as to provide information about the distances in between particles. This study also included a comparison between simulated and real compacts to evaluate the accuracy of the technique as well as the influence of particle packing fraction on compact homogeneity. The developed quality control methods and equipments guided the choices of manufacturing parameters adjustments at the development stage and are now applied for

  6. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  7. Sustainable refurbishment of exterior walls and building facades. Final report, Part A - Methods and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkinen, T. (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    This report is the final report of Sustainable refurbishment of building facades and exterior walls (SUSREF). SUSREF project was a collaborative (small/medium size) research project within the 7th Framework Programme of the Commission and it was financed under the theme Environment (including climate change) (Grant agreement no. 226858). The project started in October 1st 2009 and ended in April 30th 2012. The project included 11 partners from five countries. SUSREF developed sustainable concepts and technologies for the refurbishment of building facades and external walls. This report together with SUSREF Final report Part B and SUSREF Final Report Part C introduce the main results of the project. Part A focuses on methodological issues. The descriptions of the concepts and the assessment results of the developed concepts are presented in SUSREF Final report part B (generic concepts) and SUSREF Final report Part C (SME concepts). (orig.)

  8. Design method of control system for HTGR fuel handling process with control Petri net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zandong; Luo Sheng; Liu Jiguo

    2008-01-01

    As a complex mechanical system,the fuel handling system (FHS) of pebble-bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is with the features of complicated structure, numerous control devices and strict working scheduling. It is very important to precisely describe the function of FHS and effectively design its control system. A design method of control system based on control Petri net (CPN) is introduced in this paper. By associating outputs and operations with places, associating inputs and conditions with transitions, and introducing macro-places and macro-actions, the CPN realizes hierarchy design of complex control system. Based on the analysis of basic functions and working flow of FHS, its control system is described and designed by CPN. According to the firing regulation of transition,the designed CPN can be easily converted into LAD program of PLC, which can be implemented on the FHS simulating control test-bed. Application illuminates that proposed method has the advantages of clear design structure, exact description power and effective design ability of control program, which can meet the requirements of FHS control sys-tem design. (authors)

  9. Proceedings of the 2004 NASA/ONR Circulation Control Workshop, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory S. (Editor); Joslin, Ronald D. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    This conference proceeding is comprised of papers that were presented at the NASA/ONR Circulation Control Workshop held 16-17 March 2004 at the Radisson-Hampton in Hampton, VA. Over two full days, 30 papers and 4 posters were presented with 110 scientists and engineers in attendance, representing 3 countries. As technological advances influence the efficiency and effectiveness of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic applications, designs, and operations, this workshop was intended to address the technologies, systems, challenges and successes specific to Coanda driven circulation control in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. A major goal of this workshop was to determine the state-of-the-art in circulation control and to assess the future directions and applications for circulation control. The 2004 workshop addressed applications, experiments, computations, and theories related to circulation control, emphasizing fundamental physics, systems analysis, and applied research. The workshop consisted of single session oral presentations, posters, and written papers that are documented in this unclassified conference proceeding. The format of this written proceeding follows the agenda of the workshop. Each paper is followed with the presentation given at the workshop. the editors compiled brief summaries for each effort that is at the end of this proceeding. These summaries include the paper, oral presentation, and questions or comments that occurred during the workshop. The 2004 Circulation Control Workshop focused on applications including Naval vehicles (Surface and Underwater vehicles), Fixed Wing Aviation (general aviation, commercial, cargo, and business aircraft); V/STOL platforms (helicopters, military aircraft, tilt rotors); propulsion systems (propellers, jet engines, gas turbines), and ground vehicles (automotive, trucks, and other); wind turbines, and other nontraditional applications (e.g., vacuum cleaner, ceiling fan). As part of the CFD focus area of the 2004 CC

  10. 3-D conformal radiation therapy - Part II: Computer-controlled 3-D treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedick, A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This course will describe the use of computer-controlled treatment delivery techniques for treatment of patients with sophisticated conformal therapy. In particular, research and implementation issues related to clinical use of computer-controlled conformal radiation therapy (CCRT) techniques will be discussed. The possible/potential advantages of CCRT techniques will be highlighted using results from clinical 3-D planning studies. Materials and Methods: In recent years, 3-D treatment planning has been used to develop and implement 3-D conformal therapy treatment techniques, and studies based on these conformal treatments have begun to show the promise of conformal therapy. This work has been followed by the development of commercially-available multileaf collimator and computer control systems for treatment machines. Using these (and other) CCRT devices, various centers are beginning to clinically use complex computer-controlled treatments. Both research and clinical CCRT treatment techniques will be discussed in this presentation. General concepts and requirements for CCRT will be mentioned. Developmental and clinical experience with CCRT techniques from a number of centers will be utilized. Results: Treatment planning, treatment preparation and treatment delivery must be approached in an integrated fashion in order to clinically implement CCRT treatment techniques, and the entire process will be discussed. Various CCRT treatment methodologies will be reviewed from operational, dosimetric, and technical points of view. The discussion will concentrate on CCRT techniques which are likely to see rather wide dissemination over the next several years, including particularly the use of multileaf collimators (MLC), dynamic and segmental conformal therapy, conformal field shaping, and other related techniques. More advanced CCRT techniques, such as the use of individualized intensity modulation of beams or segments, and the use of computer-controlled

  11. Method of laser beam coding for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałys, Tomasz; Arciuch, Artur; Walczak, Andrzej; Murawski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the method of encoding a laser beam for control systems. The experiments were performed using a red laser emitting source with a wavelength of λ = 650 nm and a power of P ≍ 3 mW. The aim of the study was to develop methods of modulation and demodulation of the laser beam. Results of research, in which we determined the effect of selected camera parameters, such as image resolution, number of frames per second on the result of demodulation of optical signal, is also shown in the paper. The experiments showed that the adopted coding method provides sufficient information encoded in a single laser beam (36 codes with the effectiveness of decoding at 99.9%).

  12. A nuclear reactor power controller using a receding horizon control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Sim, Young Rok

    2001-01-01

    A receding horizon control method is applied to design a fully automatic controller for thermal power in a reactor core. The basic concept of the receding horizon control is to solve an optimization problem for a finite future at current time and to implement as the current control input the first optimal control input among the solutions of the finite time steps. The procedure is then repeated at each subsequent instant. The receding horizon controller is designed so that the difference between the output and the desired output is minimized and the variation of the control rod position is small. The nonlinear PWR plant model (nonlinear point kinetics equation with six delayed neutron groups and the lumped thermal-hydraulic balance equations) was used to verify the proposed controller of reactor power. And a controller design model used for designing the receding horizon controller was obtained by applying a parameter estimation algorithm. From numerical simulation results, the performances of this controller for the 5%/min ramp increase or decrease of a desired load and its 10% step increase or decrease which are design requirements are proved to be excellent

  13. A Study of Active Rotor-Blade Vibration Control using Electro-Magnetic Actuation - Part II: Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    . The remaining two sets of actuators are applied to act directly onto the hub, working as an active radial bearing controlling the rotor lateral movement. The rig is equipped with sensors measuring blade and rotor vibrations. Actuators and sensors are connected to a digital signal processor running the control......This is the second paper in a two-part study on active rotor-blade vibration control. This part presents an experimental contribution into the work of active controller design for rotor-blade systems. The primary aim is to give an experimental validation and show the applicability...... algorithm. Measurement signals and actuator control signals from the sensors and actuators fixed in the rotating disc are transmitted to the control unit through a slip-ring device. Various measured responses of both the controlled and the non-controlled system with identical blades and with deliberately...

  14. Mycobacterium bovis infections in domesticated non-bovine mammalian species. Part 2: A review of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughan, J M; Crawshaw, T R; Downs, S H; Brewer, J; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2013-11-01

    Despite the large host range of Mycobacterium bovis, ante-mortem diagnostic tests for the infection mostly lack sensitivity/specificity and/or remain unvalidated in non-bovine species. The epidemiology and importance of M. bovis infection in these species are discussed in the first part of this two-part review. This second part focuses on the diagnostic options available to identify infected species such as sheep, goats, dogs, cats, and camelids, and highlights the significant challenges posed, both in establishing estimates of disease prevalence and in controlling infections in these species, in the absence of fully validated tests. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced methods of quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoufriev, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Under pressure of current economic and electricity market situation utilities implement more demanding fuel utilization schemes including higher burn ups and thermal rates, longer fuel cycles and usage of Mo fuel. Therefore, fuel vendors have recently initiated new R and D programmes aimed at improving fuel quality, design and materials to produce robust and reliable fuel. In the beginning of commercial fuel fabrication, emphasis was given to advancements in Quality Control/Quality Assurance related mainly to product itself. During recent years, emphasis was transferred to improvements in process control and to implementation of overall Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes. In the area of fuel quality control, statistical control methods are now widely implemented replacing 100% inspection. This evolution, some practical examples and IAEA activities are described in the paper. The paper presents major findings of the latest IAEA Technical Meetings (TMs) and training courses in the area with emphasis on information received at the TM and training course held in 1999 and other latest publications to provide an overview of new developments in process/quality control, their implementation and results obtained including new approaches to QC

  16. Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control (part II): teamwork strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom; Kirwan, Barry

    2010-07-01

    Team performance has been studied in many safety-critical organizations including aviation, nuclear power plant, offshore oil platforms and health organizations. This study looks into teamwork strategies that air traffic controllers employ to manage emergencies and abnormal situations. Two field studies were carried out in the form of observations of simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios of novices and experienced controllers. Teamwork strategies covered aspects of team orientation and coordination, information exchange, change management and error handling. Several performance metrics were used to rate the efficiency of teamwork and test the construct validity of a prototype model of teamwork. This is a companion study to an earlier investigation of taskwork strategies in the same field (part I) and contributes to the development of a generic model for Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Suggestions are made on how to use T(2)EAM to develop training programs, assess team performance and improve mishap investigations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1988, Part -2, Annex 2c, Environmental radioactivity control, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Zaric, M.; Adamovic, M.; Stevanovic, M.

    1988-01-01

    During 1988, meteorology measurements were continued as a part of the environmental control of the Vinca Institute. This report covers the period from November 1984 - November 1985. Part of the meteorology measurements and data analysis is adapted to the needs of the Institute, i.e. RA reactor and some Laboratories. The objective of these activities is forming the data base for solving everyday and special problems related to control, protection and safety of Institute environment [sr

  18. Controlling chaos in a nonlinear pendulum using an extended time-delayed feedback control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza de Paula, Aline; Savi, Marcelo Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Chaos control is employed for the stabilization of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in chaotic attractors. The extended time-delayed feedback control uses a continuous feedback loop incorporating information from previous states of the system in order to stabilize unstable orbits. This article deals with the chaos control of a nonlinear pendulum employing the extended time-delayed feedback control method. The control law leads to delay-differential equations (DDEs) that contain derivatives that depend on the solution of previous time instants. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with linear interpolation on the delayed variables is employed for numerical simulations of the DDEs and its initial function is estimated by a Taylor series expansion. During the learning stage, the UPOs are identified by the close-return method and control parameters are chosen for each desired UPO by defining situations where the largest Lyapunov exponent becomes negative. Analyses of a nonlinear pendulum are carried out by considering signals that are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model using experimentally identified parameters. Results show the capability of the control procedure to stabilize UPOs of the dynamical system, highlighting some difficulties to achieve the stabilization of the desired orbit.

  19. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. However, to date only few studies have estimated the effect of using part-time sick leave in contrast to full-time sick leave. In thi...

  20. Decreasing inventory of a cement factory roller mill parts using reliability centered maintenance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witantyo; Rindiyah, Anita

    2018-03-01

    According to data from maintenance planning and control, it was obtained that highest inventory value is non-routine components. Maintenance components are components which procured based on maintenance activities. The problem happens because there is no synchronization between maintenance activities and the components required. Reliability Centered Maintenance method is used to overcome the problem by reevaluating maintenance activities required components. The case chosen is roller mill system because it has the highest unscheduled downtime record. Components required for each maintenance activities will be determined by its failure distribution, so the number of components needed could be predicted. Moreover, those components will be reclassified from routine component to be non-routine component, so the procurement could be carried out regularly. Based on the conducted analysis, failure happens in almost every maintenance task are classified to become scheduled on condition task, scheduled discard task, schedule restoration task and no schedule maintenance. From 87 used components for maintenance activities are evaluated and there 19 components that experience reclassification from non-routine components to routine components. Then the reliability and need of those components were calculated for one-year operation period. Based on this invention, it is suggested to change all of the components in overhaul activity to increase the reliability of roller mill system. Besides, the inventory system should follow maintenance schedule and the number of required components in maintenance activity so the value of procurement will be decreased and the reliability system will increase.