WorldWideScience

Sample records for control mercury emissions

  1. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  2. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    selenium and mercury, the majority of trace elements are well controlled due to their association with the particulate phase of flue gas. Reflecting the current focus of the US EPA and state environmental agencies on mercury as a potential candidate for regulation, the project specifically targets the measurement and control of mercury species. This paper discusses the results of testing on the quantity and species distribution of mercury while firing Ohio high-sulfur coal to assess the mercury emissions control potential of conventional SO 2 and particulate control systems. Results from recent AECDP tests are presented and two alternative mercury speciation methods are compared. The AECDP results clearly show that higher total mercury control efficiency can be achieved with a wet FGD scrubber than recently reported in the interim final US EPA report on HAP emissions from fossil-fired electric utility steam generating units

  3. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  4. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  5. Waterbury, Conn., Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission control equipment to limit the discharge of mercury pollution to the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by the City of Waterbury, Conn., according to a proposed agreement between the city and federal government.

  6. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  7. Chemical mechanisms in mercury emission control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.; Laumb, J.D.; Benson, S.A.; Dunham, G.E.; Sharma, R.K.; Mibeck, B.A.; Miller, S.J.; Holmes, M.J.; Pavlish, J.H. [University of North Dakota, Energy and Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The emission of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-burning power plants is a major environmental concern. Control technologies utilizing activated carbon show promise and are currently under intense review. Oxidation and capture of elemental mercury on activated carbon was extensively investigated in a variety of flue gas atmospheres. Extensive parametric testing with individual and a variety of combinations and concentrations of reactive flue gas components and spectroscopic examination of the sulfur and chlorine forms present before and after breakthrough have led to an improved model to explain the kinetic and capacity results. The improved model delineates the independent Lewis acid oxidation site as well as a zig-zag carbene site on the carbon edge that performs as a Lewis base in reacting with both the oxidized mercury formed at the oxidation site and with the acidic flue gas components in competing reactions to form organochlorine, sulfinate, and sulfate ester moieties on the carbon edge.

  8. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  9. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  10. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  11. Carbon bed mercury emissions control for mixed waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2010-11-01

    Mercury has various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so it is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Compliance with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include (1) the depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests; (2) MERSORB carbon can sorb mercury up to 19 wt % of the carbon mass; and (3) the spent carbon retained almost all (98.3-99.99%) of the mercury during Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Procedure (TCLP) tests, but when even a small fraction of the total mercury dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high mercury concentrations.

  12. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  13. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  14. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  15. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  16. Estimating mercury emissions from a zinc smelter in relation to China's mercury control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.X.; Song, J.X.; Li, G.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Wan, Q.; Streets, D.G.; Chin, Conrad K.; Hao, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations of flue gas at inlet/outlet of the flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, reclaiming tower, acid plant, and mercury contents in zinc concentrate and by-products were measured in a hydrometallurgical zinc smelter. The removal efficiency of flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, mercury reclaiming and acid plant was about 17.4%, 30.3%, 87.9% and 97.4% respectively. Flue gas cleaning and electrostatic demister captured 11.7% and 25.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate, respectively. The mercury reclaiming tower captured 58.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate. About 4.2% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was captured by the acid plant. Consequently, only 0.8% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. The atmospheric mercury emission factor was 0.5 g t -1 of zinc produced for the tested smelter, indicating that this process offers the potential to effectively reduce mercury emissions from zinc smelting. - Modern scale production equipped with acid plant and Hg reclaiming tower will significantly reduce Hg emissions from zinc smelters in China.

  17. Carbon Bed Mercury Emissions Control For Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB(reg s ign) carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98-99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as 'bed hot spots.' Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed

  18. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  20. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY AND MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of both powdered activated carbon (PAC) and multipollutant control technologies that may be useful in controlling mercury emissions. Based on currently available data, cost estimates for PAC injection range are 0.03-3.096 ...

  1. Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav D. Vidic

    1999-03-01

    In addition to naturally occurring mercury sources, anthropogenic activities increase the mercury loading to the environment. Although not all produced mercury is dissipated directly into the environment, only minor portions of the total production are stocked or recycled, and the rest of the mercury and its compounds is finally released in some way into atmosphere, surface waters and soil, or ends in landfills dumps, and refuse. Since mercury and its compounds are highly toxic, their presence in the environment constitutes potential impact on all living organisms, including man. The first serious consequence of industrial mercury discharges causing neurological disorder even death occurred in Minimata, Japan in 1953. Systematic studies showed that mercury poisoning is mainly found in fish-eating populations. However, various levels of mercury are also found in food other than fish. During the past several decades, research has been conducted on the evaluation of risks due to exposure to mercury and the development of control technologies for mercury emissions. In 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendments listed mercury, along with 10 other metallic species, as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). This has further stimulated research for mercury control during the past several years. The impact of mercury on humans, sources of mercury in the environment, current mercury control strategies and the objective of this research are discussed in this section.

  2. Naugatuck, Conn. Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions Under Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment to limit the amount of mercury pollution sent into the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by Naugatuck, Conn., if an agreement between the USEPA, the U.S. Department of Justice, the Borough of Naugatuck...

  3. Effectiveness of Emission Controls to Reduce the Atmospheric Concentrations of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mark S; Sherwell, John

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants in the United States are required to reduce their emissions of mercury (Hg) into the atmosphere to lower the exposure of Hg to humans. The effectiveness of power-plant emission controls on the atmospheric concentrations of Hg in the United States is largely unknown because there are few long-term high-quality atmospheric Hg data sets. Here, we present the atmospheric concentrations of Hg and sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured from 2006 to 2015 at a relatively pristine location in western Maryland that is several (>50 km) kilometers downwind of power plants in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Annual average atmospheric concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), SO2, fine particulate mercury (PBM2.5), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) declined by 75%, 75%, 43%, and 13%, respectively, and were strongly correlated with power-plant Hg emissions from the upwind states. These results provide compelling evidence that reductions in Hg emissions from power plants in the United States had their intended impact to reduce regional Hg pollution.

  4. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  5. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  6. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  7. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  8. Economic evaluation of health benefits of mercury emission controls for China and the neighboring countries in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhen, Gengchong; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Li, Ying; Ye, Xuejie; Tong, Yindong; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Xuejun

    2017-01-01

    Globally, coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is a major source of mercury. China is developing its first National Implementation Plan on Mercury Control, which priorities the control of emissions from CFPPs. While social benefits play an important role in designing environmental policies in China, the benefits associated with mercury control are not yet understood, mainly due to the scientific challenges to trace mercury's emissions-to-impacts path. This study evaluates the benefits of mercury reductions in China's CFPPs for China and its three neighboring countries in East Asia. Four policy scenarios are analyzed following the policies-to-impacts path, which links a global atmospheric model to health benefit analysis models to estimate the economic gains from avoided mercury-related adverse health outcomes under each scenario, and take into account key uncertainties in the path. Under the most stringent scenario, the benefits of mercury reduction by 2030 are projected to be $432 billion (95% CI: $166–941 billion), with the benefits for China and the neighboring countries accounting for 96% and 4% of the total benefits, respectively. Policy scenario analysis indicates that coal washing generates the greatest benefits in the near term, whereas upgrading air pollution control devices maximizes health benefits in the long term. - Highlights: • Benefits of mercury controls for China and neighboring countries are analyzed. • Policy analysis shows that coal washing generates the largest benefits in near term. • Upgrading air pollution control devices maximizes health benefits in long term. • For mercury controls, local policies contribute most to local benefits.

  9. Controls on boreal peat combustion and resulting emissions of carbon and mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg, Andrew J.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Thompson, Dan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Warming in the boreal forest region has already led to changes in the fire regime. This may result in increasing fire frequency or severity in peatlands, which could cause these ecosystems to shift from a net sink of carbon (C) to a net source of C to the atmosphere. Similar to C cycling, peatlands serve as a net sink for mercury (Hg), which binds strongly to organic matter and accumulates in peat over time. This stored Hg is also susceptible to re-release to the atmosphere during peat fires. Here we investigate the physical properties that influence depth of burn in experimental peat columns and the resulting emissions of CO, CO2, CH4, and gaseous and particulate Hg. As expected, bulk density and soil moisture content were important controls on depth of burn, CO2 emissions, and CO emissions. However, our results show that CH4 and Hg emissions are insensitive to combustion temperature or fuel moisture content. Emissions during the burning of peat, across a wide range of moisture conditions, were associated with low particulate Hg and high gaseous Hg release. Due to strong correlations between total Hg and CO emissions and because high Hg emissions occurred despite incomplete combustion of total C, our results suggest that Hg release during peat burning is governed by the thermodynamics of Hg reduction more so than by the release of Hg associated with peat combustion. Our measured emissions ratios, particularly for CH4:CO2, are higher than values typically used in the upscaling of boreal forest or peatland fire emissions. These emission ratios have important implications not only for our understanding of smouldering chemistry, but also for potential influences of peat fires on the Earth’s climate system.

  10. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: AN UPDATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with controlling mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants using either powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection or multipollutant control in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and ne...

  11. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-02

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential).

  12. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emissions in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee; Melanen; Ekqvist; Verta

    2000-10-02

    This paper is part of the study of atmospheric emissions of heavy metals conducted by the Finnish Environment Institute in collaboration with the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) under the umbrella of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment. The scope of our study is limited solely to anthropogenic mercury that is emitted directly to the atmosphere. This article addresses emission factors and trends of atmospheric mercury emissions during the 1990s and is based mainly on the database of the Finnish Environmental Administration. In addition, data based on the measurements taken by the VTT regarding emission factors have been used to estimate emissions of mercury from the incineration of waste. The study indicates that the total emission of mercury has decreased from 1140 kg in 1990 to 620 kg in 1997, while industrial and energy production have been on the increase simultaneously. The 45% emission reduction is due to improved gas cleaning equipment, process changes, automation, the installation of flue gas desulfurization process in coal-fired power plants and strict pollution control laws. In the past, some authors have estimated a higher mercury emission in Finland. In this study, it is also observed that there are no big changes in the quality of raw materials. Estimated emission factors can be of great help to management for estimating mercury emissions and also its risk assessment.

  13. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  14. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  15. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali...-5] RIN 2060-AN99 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental...

  16. Mercury emission from a temperate lake during autumn turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, Jennifer L.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes in temperate regions stratify during summer and winter months, creating distinct layers of water differentiated by their physical and chemical characteristics. When lakes mix in autumn and spring, mercury cycling may be affected by the chemical changes that occur during mixing. Sampling was conducted in Lake Lacawac, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA, throughout the autumn of 2007 to characterize changes in emission of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from the lake surface and dissolved mercury profiles in the water column during mixing. Water chemistry and weather parameters were also measured, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), iron, and solar radiation which have been shown to interact with mercury species. Results indicate that emission of Hg 0 from the lake to the atmosphere during turnover was controlled both by solar radiation and by surface water mercury concentration. As autumn turnover progressed through the months of October and November, higher mercury concentration water from the hypolimnion mixed with epilimnetic water, increasing mercury concentration in epilimnetic waters. Dissolved absorbance was significantly correlated with mercury concentrations and with iron, but DOC concentrations were essentially constant throughout the study period and did not exhibit a relationship with either dissolved mercury concentrations or emission rates. Positive correlations between dissolved mercury and iron and manganese also suggest a role for these elements in mercury transport within the lake, but iron and manganese did not demonstrate a relationship with emission rates. This research indicates that consideration of seasonal processes in lakes is important when evaluating mercury cycling in aquatic systems

  17. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takaoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters. Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  18. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  19. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  20. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M. [AGH University of Science & Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Energy & Fuels

    2011-01-15

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  1. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  2. Gaseous elemental mercury emissions and CO2 respiration rates in terrestrial soils under controlled aerobic and anaerobic laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrist, Daniel; Fain, Xavier; Berger, Carsen

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in terrestrial soils are linked to the presence of organic carbon (C). Carbon pools are highly dynamic and subject to mineralization processes, but little is known about the fate of Hg during decomposition. This study evaluated relationships between gaseous Hg emissions from soils and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) respiration under controlled laboratory conditions to assess potential losses of Hg to the atmosphere during C mineralization. Results showed a linear correlation (r 2 = 0.49) between Hg and CO 2 emissions in 41 soil samples, an effect unlikely to be caused by temperature, radiation, different Hg contents, or soil moisture. Stoichiometric comparisons of Hg/C ratios of emissions and underlying soil substrates suggest that 3% of soil Hg was subject to evasion. Even minute emissions of Hg upon mineralization, however, may be important on a global scale given the large Hg pools sequestered in terrestrial soils and C stocks. We induced changes in CO 2 respiration rates and observed Hg flux responses, including inducement of anaerobic conditions by changing chamber air supply from N 2 /O 2 (80% and 20%, respectively) to pure N 2 . Unexpectedly, Hg emissions almost quadrupled after O 2 deprivation while oxidative mineralization (i.e., CO 2 emissions) was greatly reduced. This Hg flux response to anaerobic conditions was lacking when repeated with sterilized soils, possibly due to involvement of microbial reduction of Hg 2+ by anaerobes or indirect abiotic effects such as alterations in soil redox conditions. This study provides experimental evidence that Hg volatilization, and possibly Hg 2+ reduction, is related to O 2 availability in soils from two Sierra Nevada forests. If this result is confirmed in soils from other areas, the implication is that Hg volatilization from terrestrial soils is partially controlled by soil aeration and that low soil O 2 levels and possibly low soil redox potentials lead to increased Hg volatilization from soils.

  3. Micrometeorological methods for measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Hanson, P.J.; Owens, J.; Myers, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger study involving development and application of field and laboratory methods (micrometeorological, dynamic enclosure chamber, and controlled laboratory chamber methods) to measure the air/surface exchange of Hg vapor, we performed a series of preliminary measurements over contaminated soils. From March--April 1993, we used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method to measure emission rates of mercury over a floodplain contaminated with mercury near Oak Ridge, TN. The mercury emission rates measured from contaminated EFPC soils using the MBR method during early spring show that (1) in all cases, the contaminated soils acted as a source of mercury to the atmosphere with source strengths ranging from 17 to 160 ng m -2 h -1 ; and (2) the strengths of mercury emissions can be greatly influenced by the combined effects of surface soil temperature, residence time of air masses over the source area, and turbulence conditions. The mercury fluxes measured in a controlled flow chamber indicate that contaminated soils can exhibit up to an order of magnitude higher emission rates of Hg under conditions of elevated soil temperature, soil structure disturbance, and high turbulence. Mercury emissions from contaminated soils exceeded emissions from background soils by one to two orders of magnitude

  4. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  5. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  6. Bounding estimate of DWPF mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Purges required for H2 flammability control and verification of elevated Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC) exit temperatures due to NO x reactions have lead to significant changes in Chemical Process Cell (CPC) operating conditions. Accordingly, mercury emissions estimates have been updated based upon the new operating requirements, IDMS (Integrated DWPF Melter System) experience, and development of an NO x /FAVC model which predicts FAVC exit temperatures. Using very conservative assumptions and maximum purge rates, the maximum calculated Hg emissions is approximately 130 lbs/yr. A range of 100 to 120 lbs/yr is conservatively predicted for other operating conditions. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) permitted Hg emissions are 175 lbs/yr (0.02 lbs/hr annual average)

  7. Controlling mercury and selenium emissions from coal-fired combustors using a novel regenerable natural product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlager, R.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Roberts, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This program successfully demonstrated the key components that are needed for a practical, regenerable sorption process for removing and recovering mercury from flue gas streams: (1) a proprietary natural product removed mercuric chloride from synthetic flue gas, (2) several new noble metal sorbents were shown to capture elemental gas-phase mercury from synthetic coal combustion flue gas, and (3) both the natural product and the noble metal sorbents could be regenerated in the laboratory (chemical method for the natural product, thermal method for noble metal sorbents). Several sorbents were tested for their ability to collect selenium oxide during the program. These tests, however, were not definitive due to inconclusive analytical results. If follow-on testing is funded, the ability of the proposed sorbents to collect selenium and other metals will be evaluated during the field testing phase of the program. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that the cost of the process appears to be substantially less than the cost of the state-of-the-art method, namely injection of activated carbon, and it also appears to cost less than using noble metal sorbents alone

  8. Controlling mercury and selenium emissions from coal-fired combustors using a novel regenerable natural product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Roberts, D.L. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This program successfully demonstrated the key components that are needed for a practical, regenerable sorption process for removing and recovering mercury from flue gas streams: (1) a proprietary natural product removed mercuric chloride from synthetic flue gas, (2) several new noble metal sorbents were shown to capture elemental gas-phase mercury from synthetic coal combustion flue gas, and (3) both the natural product and the noble metal sorbents could be regenerated in the laboratory (chemical method for the natural product, thermal method for noble metal sorbents). Several sorbents were tested for their ability to collect selenium oxide during the program. These tests, however, were not definitive due to inconclusive analytical results. If follow-on testing is funded, the ability of the proposed sorbents to collect selenium and other metals will be evaluated during the field testing phase of the program. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that the cost of the process appears to be substantially less than the cost of the state-of-the-art method, namely injection of activated carbon, and it also appears to cost less than using noble metal sorbents alone.

  9. Bounding estimate of DWPF mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Two factors which have substantial impact on predicted Mercury emissions are the air flows in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and the exit temperature of the Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC). The discovery in the IDMS (Integrated DWPF Melter System) of H 2 generation by noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition and the resultant required dilution air flow has increased the expected instantaneous CPC air flow by as much as a factor of four. In addition, IDMS has experienced higher than design (10 degrees C) FAVC exit temperatures during certain portions of the operating cycle. These temperatures were subsequently attributed to the exothermic reaction of NO to NO 2 . Moreover, evaluation of the DWPF FAVC indicated it was undersized and unless modified or replaced, routine exit temperatures would be in excess of design. Purges required for H 2 flammability control and verification of elevated FAVC exit temperatures due to NO x reactions have lead to significant changes in CPC operating conditions. Accordingly, mercury emissions estimates have been updated based upon the new operating requirements, IDMS experience, and development of an NO x /FAVC model which predicts FAVC exit temperatures. Using very conservative assumptions and maximum purge rates, the maximum calculated Hg emissions is approximately 130 lbs/yr. A range of 100 to 120 lbs/yr is conservatively predicted for other operating conditions. The peak emission rate calculated is 0.027 lbs/hr. The estimated DWPF Hg emissions for the construction permit are 175 lbs/yr (0.02 lbs/hr annual average)

  10. Mercury enrichment and its effects on atmospheric emissions in cement plants of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2014-08-01

    The cement industry is one of the most significant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study of three typical Chinese cement plants, mercury in kiln flue gas was sampled using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM), and solid samples were analyzed. Particulate matter recycling, preheating of raw materials, and the use of coal and flue gas desulfurization derived gypsum contributed to emissions of Hg in the air and to accumulation in cement. Over 90% of the mercury input was emitted into the atmosphere. Mercury emission factors were 0.044-0.072 g/t clinker for the test plants. The major species emitted into the atmosphere from cement plants is oxidized mercury, accounting for 61%-91% of the total mercury in flue gas. The results of this study help improve the accuracy of the mercury emission inventory in China and provide useful information for developing mercury controls.

  11. Landfill is an important atmospheric mercury emission source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xinbin; TANG Shunlin; LI Zhonggen; WANG Shaofeng; LIANG Lian

    2004-01-01

    Since municipal wastes contain refuses with high mercury contents, incineration of municipal wastes becomes the major anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission source. In China, landfills are however the main way to dispose of municipal wastes. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in landfill gas of Gaoyan sanitary landfill located in suburb of Guiyang City were monitored using a high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer, and mono-methylmercury (MMHg) and dimethylmercury (DMHg) concentrations in landfill gas were also measured using GC coupled with the cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) method. Meanwhile, the TGM exchange fluxes between exposed waste and air and the soil surface of the landfill and air, were measured using low Hg blank quartz flux chamber coupled with high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer technique. TGM concentrations in landfill gas from half year filling area averaged out at 665.52±291.25 ng/m3, which is comparable with TGM concentrations from flue gas of a small coal combustion boiler in Guiyang. The average MMHg and DMHg concentrations averaged out at 2.06±1.82 ng/m3 and 9.50±5.18 ng/m3, respectively. It is proven that mercury emission is the predominant process at the surfaces of both exposed wastes and soil of landfill. Landfills are not only TGM emission source, but also methylmercury emission source to the ambient air. There are two ways to emit mercury to the air from landfills, one is with the landfill gas through landfill gas duct, and the other through soil/air exchange. The Hg emission processes from landfills are controlled by meteorological parameters.

  12. Diminished Mercury Emission From Water Surfaces by Duckweed (Lemna minor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, J. L.; Peters, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    Aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (generally referred to as duckweeds) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and decreases the amount of exposed water surface. These two factors would be expected to reduce mercury emission by limiting a) direct photoreduction of Hg(II), b) indirect reduction via coupled DOC photooxidation-Hg(II) reduction, and c) gas diffusion across the water-air interface. Conversely, previous studies have demonstrated transpiration of Hg(0) by plants, so it is therefore possible that the floating vegetative mat would enhance emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether duckweed limits mercury flux to the atmosphere by shading and the formation of a physical barrier to diffusion, or whether it enhances emission from aquatic systems via transpiration of Hg(0). Deionized water was amended with mercury to achieve a final concentration of approximately 35 ng/L and allowed to equilibrate prior to the experiment. Experiments were conducted in rectangular polystyrene flux chambers with measured UV-B transmittance greater than 60% (spectral cutoff approximately 290 nm). Light was able to penetrate the flux chamber from the sides as well as the top throughout the experiment, limiting the effect of shading by duckweed on the water surface. Flux chambers contained 8L of water with varying percent duckweed cover, and perforated plastic sheeting was used as an abiotic control. Exposures were conducted outside on days with little to no cloud cover. Real time mercury flux was measured using atomic absorption (Mercury Instruments UT-3000). Total solar and ultraviolet radiation, as well as a suite of meteorological parameters, were also measured. Results indicate that duckweed diminishes mercury emission from the water surface

  13. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda L. Garnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016. Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the highest contributors to mercury emissions in South Africa. A major factor affecting the amount of mercury emitted into the atmosphere is the type and efficiency of emission abatement equipment at a power station. Eskom employs particulate emission control technology at all its coal-fired power stations, and new power stations will also have sulphur dioxide abatement technology. A co-beneficial reduction of mercury emissions exists as a result of emission control technology. The amount of mercury emitted from each of Eskom’s coal-fired power stations is calculated, based on the amount of coal burnt and the mercury content in the coal. Emission Reduction Factors (ERF’s from two sources are taken into consideration to reflect the co-benefit received from the emission control technologies at the stations. Between 17 and 23 tons of mercury is calculated to have been emitted from Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in 2015. On completion of Eskom’s emission reduction plan, which includes fabric filter plant retrofits at two and a half stations and a flue gas desulphurisation retrofit at one power station, total mercury emissions from the fleet will potentially be reduced by 6-13% by 2026 relative to the baseline. Mercury emission reduction is perhaps currently not the most pressing air quality problem in South Africa. While the focus should then be on reducing emissions of other pollutants which have a greater impact on human health, mercury emission reduction

  14. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  15. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  17. Anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1980 to 2012 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Deng, Meihua; Li, Tingqiang; Japenga, Jan; Chen, Qianqian; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2017-07-01

    China was considered the biggest contributor for airborne mercury in the world but the amount of mercury emission in effluents and solid wastes has not been documented. In this study, total national and regional mercury emission to the environment via exhaust gases, effluents and solid wastes were accounted with updated emission factors and the amount of goods produced and/or consumed. The national mercury emission in China increased from 448 to 2151 tons during the 1980-2012 period. Nearly all of the emissions were ended up as exhaust gases and solid wastes. The proportion of exhaust gases decreased with increasing share of solid wastes and effluents. Of all the anthropogenic sources, coal was the most important contributor in quantity, followed by mercury mining, gold smelting, nonferrous smelting, iron steel production, domestic wastes, and cement production, with accounting for more than 90% of the total emission. There was a big variation of regional cumulative mercury emission during 1980-2012 in China, with higher emissions occurred in eastern areas and lower values in the western and far northern regions. The biggest cumulative emission occurred in GZ (Guizhou), reaching 3974 t, while the smallest cumulative emission was lower than 10 t in XZ (Tibet). Correspondingly, mercury accumulation in soil were higher in regions with larger emissions in unit area. Therefore, it is urgent to reduce anthropogenic mercury emission and subsequent impact on ecological functions and human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Response of Freshwater Systems to Local and Global Changes in Mercury Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and other waterways, and the biota in those waterways, receiving their mercury burden primarily via atmospheric deposition can be expected to exhibit responses to changes in deposition over an extended time period. A projected control strategy for power plant emissions of mercury was imposed on modeled U.S. plants, while international emissions were modeled for two Chinese emission scenarios: a “business-as-usual” scenario and an “expedited controls” scenario. Levels of mercury in fish were simulated in a New England lake located close to a large U.S. power plant. Results indicated that fish responses to mercury emissions changes were spread over several years, and that even severe reductions in U.S. emissions were masked by non-U.S. emissions growth.

  19. Product-related emissions of Mercury to Air in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, Karin; Munthe, John

    2007-06-15

    Mercury emissions to air from the use of mercury in products have been estimated for the EU for the year 2005. The consumption of mercury in the EU in 2005 was amounted to 125 tonnes in technical products. Estimates of emissions of mercury from dental amalgam were derived from information on cremations in European countries and average contents of amalgam fillings. Annual emissions of mercury to air from product use in EU27 have been estimated to be in the range 10-18 tonnes (best estimate 14 tonnes) from technical products and to 2-5 tonnes from cremation, in total 12-23 tonnes. Of the mercury consumed in technical products, 11% was calculated to be emitted to air, 31% to end up in safe storage while 58% would still be accumulated in society or disposed of in landfills. From the share still accumulated in society, as well as from the already land filled amounts, further emissions of mercury to air may occur in the longer term. Emissions from technical products are calculated based on the consumption of mercury in 2005. Emissions occurring in the same year but caused by consumption in the previous 10 years were derived using the consumption in 2005 and assuming the same patterns of distribution and emissions. The latest available estimates of total anthropogenic emissions of mercury in EU27 refer to the year 2000 and are in the order of 140-190 tonnes, probably to have declined to 2005. Based on these figures the contribution to anthropogenic mercury emissions to air in EU from product use and cremation in 2005 is at least 6-16%. In a previous report product related air emissions of 72 tonnes were estimated for Europe in the mid 1990s, corresponding to 18% of the total air emissions. A significant decrease of emissions has thus occurred which is in line with a decreasing use of mercury in technical products, more efficient collection of remaining products and better emission control. However, the calculations show that the use of mercury in products still

  20. Assessment of the mercury emissions from burning mining waste dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Białecka

    2016-04-01

    occur and to which the environment and local inhabitants can be exposed, it is important to define the size of the emission of mercury compounds from these objects. Despite the potential threats so far no measurements of mercury concentration which would a llow quantifying this phenomenon have been done. The analyses presented in this article fill this gap. Additionally, initial calculation of annual mercury emissions from burning coal mining waste dumps in Poland is presented.

  1. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  2. The centralized control of elemental mercury emission from the flue gas by a magnetic rengenerable Fe-Ti-Mn spinel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yong; Xiong, Shangchao; Dang, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Shijian; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-12-15

    A magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed to adsorb gaseous Hg(0) in our previous study. However, it is currently extremely restricted in the control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas for at least three reasons: sorbent recovery, sorbent regeneration and the interference of the chemical composition in the flue gas. Therefore, the effect of SO2 and H2O on the adsorption of gaseous Hg(0) on the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel and the regeneration of spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were investigated in this study. Meanwhile, the procedure of the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas by the magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel has been analyzed for industrial application. The spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be regenerated by water washing followed by the thermal treatment at 450 °C with no obvious decrease of its ability for Hg(0) capture. Meanwhile, gaseous Hg(0) in the flue gas can be remarkably concentrated during the regeneration, facilitating its safe disposal. Initial pilot test demonstrated that gaseous Hg(0) in the real flue gas can be concentrated at least 100 times by the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel. Therefore, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was a novel magnetic regenerable sorbent, which can be used for the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  4. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  5. Characteristics of mercury emission from linear type of spent fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee; Choi, Hyo-Hyun; Park, Hun-Su

    2014-06-01

    In order to recycle the linear type of SFL (spent fluorescent lamp), mercury from SFL should be controlled to prevent leaking into the environment. For mercury emission from SFL, mercury concentration is estimated in the parts of SFL such as glass tube, phosphor powder, and base cap using the end-cutting unit. It is also evaluated mercury emission in the effluent gas in the end-cutting unit with changing flow rate. From the results of mercury emission from SFLs, phosphor powder has greater than 80% of mercury amount in SFL and about 15% of mercury amount contained in glass tube. The initial mercury concentration in vapor phase is almost decreased linearly with increasing airflow rate from 0.7 L/min to 1.3 L/min. It is desirable that airflow rate should be high until the concentration of mercury vapor will be stable because the stabilized concentration becomes to be low and the stabilized time goes to be short as increased airflow rate. From KET and TCLP results, finally, phosphor powder should be managed as a hazardous waste but base-cap and glass are not classified as hazardous wastes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Air Contamination by Mercury, Emissions and Transformations-a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Baczewska, Aneta H; Brągoszewska, Paulina; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Wrzosek-Jakubowska, Justyna

    2017-01-01

    The present and future air contamination by mercury is and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. This publication presents a review of the literature dealing with the issues related to air contamination by mercury and its transformations as well as its natural and anthropogenic emissions. The assessment of mercury emissions into the air poses serious methodological problems. It is particularly difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic emissions and re-emissions from lands and oceans, including past emissions. At present, the largest emission sources include fuel combustion, mainly that of coal, and "artisanal and small-scale gold mining" (ASGM). The distinctly highest emissions can be found in South and South-East Asia, accounting for 45% of the global emissions. The emissions of natural origin and re-emissions are estimated at 45-66% of the global emissions, with the largest part of emissions originating in the oceans. Forecasts on the future emission levels are not unambiguous; however, most forecasts do not provide for reductions in emissions. Ninety-five percent of mercury occurring in the air is Hg 0 -GEM, and its residence time in the air is estimated at 6 to 18 months. The residence times of its Hg II -GOM and that in Hg p -TPM are estimated at hours and days. The highest mercury concentrations in the air can be found in the areas of mercury mines and those of ASGM. Since 1980 when it reached its maximum, the global background mercury concentration in the air has remained at a relatively constant level.

  7. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  8. Gaseous elemental mercury emissions and CO{sub 2} respiration rates in terrestrial soils under controlled aerobic and anaerobic laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrist, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.obrist@dri.edu [Desert Research Institute, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada, 89512 (United States); Fain, Xavier; Berger, Carsen [Desert Research Institute, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada, 89512 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in terrestrial soils are linked to the presence of organic carbon (C). Carbon pools are highly dynamic and subject to mineralization processes, but little is known about the fate of Hg during decomposition. This study evaluated relationships between gaseous Hg emissions from soils and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) respiration under controlled laboratory conditions to assess potential losses of Hg to the atmosphere during C mineralization. Results showed a linear correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.49) between Hg and CO{sub 2} emissions in 41 soil samples, an effect unlikely to be caused by temperature, radiation, different Hg contents, or soil moisture. Stoichiometric comparisons of Hg/C ratios of emissions and underlying soil substrates suggest that 3% of soil Hg was subject to evasion. Even minute emissions of Hg upon mineralization, however, may be important on a global scale given the large Hg pools sequestered in terrestrial soils and C stocks. We induced changes in CO{sub 2} respiration rates and observed Hg flux responses, including inducement of anaerobic conditions by changing chamber air supply from N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (80% and 20%, respectively) to pure N{sub 2}. Unexpectedly, Hg emissions almost quadrupled after O{sub 2} deprivation while oxidative mineralization (i.e., CO{sub 2} emissions) was greatly reduced. This Hg flux response to anaerobic conditions was lacking when repeated with sterilized soils, possibly due to involvement of microbial reduction of Hg{sup 2+} by anaerobes or indirect abiotic effects such as alterations in soil redox conditions. This study provides experimental evidence that Hg volatilization, and possibly Hg{sup 2+} reduction, is related to O{sub 2} availability in soils from two Sierra Nevada forests. If this result is confirmed in soils from other areas, the implication is that Hg volatilization from terrestrial soils is partially controlled by soil aeration and that low soil O{sub 2} levels and possibly low soil redox

  9. Mercury emissions from coal combustion in Silesia, analysis using geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasina, Damian; Zawadzki, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    Data provided by the UNEP's report on mercury [1] shows that solid fuel combustion in significant source of mercury emission to air. Silesia, located in southwestern Poland, is notably affected by mercury emission due to being one of the most industrialized Polish regions: the place of coal mining, production of metals, stone mining, mineral quarrying and chemical industry. Moreover, Silesia is the region with high population density. People are exposed to severe risk of mercury emitted from both: industrial and domestic sources (i.e. small household furnaces). Small sources have significant contribution to total emission of mercury. Official and statistical analysis, including prepared for international purposes [2] did not provide data about spatial distribution of the mercury emitted to air, however number of analysis on Polish public power and energy sector had been prepared so far [3; 4]. The distribution of locations exposed for mercury emission from small domestic sources is interesting matter merging information from various sources: statistical, economical and environmental. This paper presents geostatistical approach to distibution of mercury emission from coal combustion. Analysed data organized in 2 independent levels: individual, bottom-up approach derived from national emission reporting system [5; 6] and top down - regional data calculated basing on official statistics [7]. Analysis, that will be presented, will include comparison of spatial distributions of mercury emission using data derived from sources mentioned above. Investigation will include three voivodeships of Poland: Lower Silesian, Opole (voivodeship) and Silesian using selected geostatistical methodologies including ordinary kriging [8]. References [1] UNEP. Global Mercury Assessment 2013: Sources, Emissions, Releases and Environmental Transport. UNEP Chemicals Branch, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [2] NCEM. Poland's Informative Inventory Report 2014. NCEM at the IEP-NRI, 2014. http

  10. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  11. Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Senior, Connie L.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant. In its elemental form, gaseous mercury has a long residence time in the atmosphere, up to a year, allowing it to be transported long distances from emission sources. Mercury can be emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes, or from anthropogenic sources, such as coal-fired powerplants. In addition, all sources of mercury on the Earth's surface can re-emit it from land and sea back to the atmosphere, from which it is then redeposited. Mercury in the atmosphere is present in such low concentrations that it is not considered harmful. Once mercury enters the aquatic environment, however, it can undergo a series of biochemical transformations that convert a portion of the mercury originally present to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury that accumulates in fish and birds. Many factors contribute to creation of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems, including mercury availability, sediment and nutrient load, bacterial influence, and chemical conditions. In the United States, consumption of fish with high levels of methylmercury is the most common pathway for human exposure to mercury, leading the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue fish consumption advisories in every State. The EPA estimates that 50 percent of the mercury entering the atmosphere in the United States is emitted from coal-burning utility powerplants. An EPA rule, known as MATS (for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards), to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from powerplants, was signed in December 2011. The rule, which is currently under review, specifies limits for mercury and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel. MATS also places limits on emission of harmful acid gases, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. These standards are the result of a 2010 detailed nationwide program by the EPA to sample stack emissions and thousands of shipments of coal to coal-burning powerplants. The United

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operating limits: If you demonstrate compliance with applicable mercury and/or total selected metals... applicable emission limits for mercury and/or total selected metals. 2. Fabric filter control a. Install and... applicable emission limits for mercury and/or total selected metals. 4. Dry scrubber or carbon injection...

  13. [Characteristic of Mercury Emissions and Mass Balance of the Typical Iron and Steel Industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-hui; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ding-yong; Luo, Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    To preliminarily discuss the mercury emission characteristics and its mass balance in each process of the iron and steel production, a typical iron and steel enterprise was chosen to study the total mercury in all employed materials and estimate the input and output of mercury during the steel production process. The results showed that the mercury concentrations of input materials in each technology ranged 2.93-159.11 µg · kg⁻¹ with the highest level observed in ore used in blast furnace, followed by coal of sintering and blast furnace. The mercury concentrations of output materials ranged 3.09-18.13 µg · kg⁻¹ and the mercury concentration of dust was the highest, followed by converter slag. The mercury input and the output in the coking plant were 1346.74 g · d⁻¹ ± 36.95 g · d⁻¹ and 177.42 g · d⁻¹ ± 13.73 g · d⁻¹, respectively. In coking process, mercury mainly came from the burning of coking coal. The sintering process was the biggest contributor for mercury input during the iron and steel production with the mercury input of 1075. 27 g · d⁻¹ ± 60.89 g · d⁻¹ accounting for 68.06% of the total mercury input during this production process, and the ore powder was considered as the main mercury source. For the solid output material, the output in the sintering process was 14.15 g · d⁻¹ ± 0.38 g · d⁻¹, accounting for 22.61% of the total solid output. The mercury emission amount from this studied iron and steel enterprise was estimated to be 553.83 kg in 2013 with the emission factor of 0.092 g · t⁻¹ steel production. Thus, to control the mercury emissions, iron and steel enterprises should combine with production practice, further reduce energy consumption of coking and sintering, or improve the quality of raw materials and reduce the input of mercury.

  14. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  15. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  16. [Study on mercury re-emissions during fly ash utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Wang, Shu-Xiao

    2012-09-01

    The amount of fly ash produced during coal combustion is around 400 million tons per year in China. About 65%-68% of fly ash is used in building material production, road construction, architecture and agriculture. Some of these utilization processes include high temperature procedures, which may lead to mercury re-emissions. In this study, experiments were designed to simulate the key process in cement production and steam-cured brick production. A temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method was used to study the mercury transformation in the major utilization processes. Mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization in China was estimated based on the experimental results. It was found that mercury existed as HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2), HgS and HgO in the fly ash. During the cement production process, more than 98% of the mercury in fly ash was re-emitted. In the steam-curing brick manufacturing process, the average mercury re-emission percentage was about 28%, which was dominated by the percentage of HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2). It is estimated that the mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization have increased from 4.07 t in 2002 to 9.18 t in 2008, of which cement industry contributes about 96.6%.

  17. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  18. Influence of emissions on regional atmospheric mercury concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieser J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a global pollutant that is rapidly transported in the atmosphere. Unlike the majority of air pollutants the background concentrations of mercury play a major role for the atmospheric concentrations on a hemispheric scale. In this study the influence of regional anthropogenic emissions in comparison to the global emissions on mercury concentrations over Europe are investigated. For this purpose an advanced threedimensional model system is used that consists of three components. The emission model SMOKE-EU, the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, and the chemistry transport model (CTM CMAQ. A variety of sensitivity runs is performed in order to determine the influence of different driving factors (i.e. boundary conditions, anthropogenic and natural emissions, emission factors, meteorological fields on the atmoshperic concentrations of different mercury species. This study is part of the European FP7 project GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System. The aim is to identify the most important drivers for atmospheric mercury in order to optimize future regional modelling studies in the course of the GMOS project. Moreover, the model results are used to determine areas of interest for air-plane based in-situ measurements which are also part of GMOS.

  19. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  20. Mercury emissions and coal-fired power plants: Understanding the problems and identifying solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Electric utility emissions contribute to an array of air quality concerns, most notably ground-level ozone, acid deposition, global warming, and fine particulate pollution. More recently, electric utility emissions of air toxics such as mercury have been linked to serious ecological health effects, especially in fish-eating birds. Another issue that is gaining attention is that of eutrophication in marine waters from nitrogen oxide emissions. Coal-fired power plants warrant special consideration, particularly in regards to mercury. Coal-fired power plants currently represent over 30% of controllable anthropogenic emissions in the US and are expected to emit nearly half of all anthropogenic emissions in the US by 2010. However, because the human health threshold for mercury is not known with certainty and mercury control technologies such as activated carbon injection are extremely expensive, mercury emissions from electric utilities have not been addressed in the US through either regulation or voluntary initiatives. The Center is beginning to evaluate the viability of no- or low-regrets measures that may be more consistent with the current state of the science on human and ecological health effects. The Center is also looking at options to reduce eutophication. Specifically, the Center has: hosted a workshop to assess the viability of low-cost mercury control options for electric utilities, developed a proposal to undertake a mercury banking initiative, worked to reduce compliance costs associated with multiple and conflicting regulations, and investigated the potential benefits and workability of NOx trading between air and water sources These activities are described in greater detail in the Center's paper

  1. UNEP Demonstrations of Mercury Emission Reduction at Two Coal-fired Power Plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozewicz W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP partnership area “Mercury releases from coal combustion” (The UNEP Coal Partnership has initiated demonstrations of mercury air emission reduction at two coal-fired power plants in Russia. The first project has modified the wet particulate matter (PM scrubber installed in Toliatti thermal plant to allow for addition of chemical reagents (oxidants into the closedloop liquid spray system. The addition of oxidant resulted in significant improvement of mercury capture from 20% total mercury removal (without the additive up to 60% removal (with the additive. It demonstrates the effectiveness of sorbent injection technologies in conjunction with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. ESPs are installed at 60%, while wet PM scrubbers are installed at 30% of total coal-fired capacity in Russia. Thus, the two UNEP Coal Partnership projects address the majority of PM emission control configurations occurring in Russia.

  2. Comparison of pollutant emission control strategies for cadmium and mercury in urban water systems using substance flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revitt, D. M.; Lundy, L.; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires Member States to protect inland surface and groundwater bodies but does not directly stipulate how the associated environmental quality standards should be achieved. This paper develops and assesses the performance of a series...... to be particularly effective for Cd with the potential to further lower the overall emissions by between 16% and 27%. The most efficient protection of the receiving surface water environment is strongly influenced by the city characteristics with the introduction of stormwater treatment practices being particularly...... effective for one city (59% reduction of Hg; 39% reduction of Cd) and the other city being most influenced by the presence of efficient advanced wastewater treatment processes (63% reduction of Hg; 43% reduction of Cd). These reductions in receiving water loads are necessarily accompanied by either...

  3. Mercury emissions from polish pulverized coalfired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichliński Michał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the research results carried out at one of Polish power plants at a pulverized hard coal-fired 225 MW unit. The research was carried out at full load of the boiler (100% MCR and focused on analysis of mercury content in the input fuel and limestone sorbent for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD system, as well as investigation of mercury content in the combustion products, i.e. fly ash, slag, FGD product (gypsum and FGD effluents (waste. Within the framework of the present study the concentration of mercury vapor in the exhaust gas was also investigated. The analysis was performed using Lumex RA-915+ spectrometer with an attachment (RP-91C. The measurements were carried out at three locations, i.e. before the electrostatic precipitator (ESP, downstream the ESP, and downstream the wet FGD plant. Design of the measurement system allowed to determine both forms of mercury in the flue gas (Hg0 and Hg2+ at all measurement locations.Based on the measurement results the balance of mercury for a pulverized coal (PC boiler was calculated and the amount of mercury was assessed both in the input solids (fuel and sorbent, as well as the gaseous and solids products (flue gas, slag, ash, gypsum and FGD waste.

  4. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  5. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control

  6. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  7. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO

  8. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  9. Apparatus for control of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  10. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay C. Almlie

    2004-01-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-FC26-01NT41184 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy and Environmental Research Center as the main contractor; W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid(trademark) filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the original five-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included benchscale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task was to

  11. Deconvolution of Thermal Emissivity Spectra of Mercury to their Endmember Counterparts measured in Simulated Mercury Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, I.; D'Amore, M.; Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Hiesinger, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (MERTIS) payload of ESA/JAXA Bepicolombo mission to Mercury will map the thermal emissivity at wavelength range of 7-14 μm and spatial resolution of 500 m/pixel [1]. Mercury was also imaged at the same wavelength range using the Boston University's Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii with the minimum spatial coverage of 400-600km/spectra which blends all rocks, minerals, and soil types [2]. Therefore, the study [2] used quantitative deconvolution algorithm developed by [3] for spectral unmixing of this composite thermal emissivity spectrum from telescope to their respective areal fractions of endmember spectra; however, the thermal emissivity of endmembers used in [2] is the inverted reflectance measurements (Kirchhoff's law) of various samples measured at room temperature and pressure. Over a decade, the Planetary Spectroscopy Laboratory (PSL) at the Institute of Planetary Research (PF) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) facilitates the thermal emissivity measurements under controlled and simulated surface conditions of Mercury by taking emissivity measurements at varying temperatures from 100-500°C under vacuum conditions supporting MERTIS payload. The measured thermal emissivity endmember spectral library therefore includes major silicates such as bytownite, anorthoclase, synthetic glass, olivine, enstatite, nepheline basanite, rocks like komatiite, tektite, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (1A), and synthetic powdered sulfides which includes MgS, FeS, CaS, CrS, TiS, NaS, and MnS. Using such specialized endmember spectral library created under Mercury's conditions significantly increases the accuracy of the deconvolution model results. In this study, we revisited the available telescope spectra and redeveloped the algorithm by [3] by only choosing the endmember spectral library created at PSL for unbiased model

  12. Mercury Study Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Report to Congress on Mercury provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies.

  13. Emission and speciation of mercury from waste incinerators with mass distribution investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Pudasainee, Deepak; Yoon, Young-Sik; Jung, Seung Jae; Bhatta, Dhruba

    2010-01-01

    In this paper mercury emission and removal characteristics in municipal wastes incinerators (MWIs), hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) and hospital medical and infectious waste incinerators (HMIWIs) with mercury mass distribution within the system are presented. Mercury speciation in flue gas at inlet and outlet of each air pollution control devices (APCDs) were sampled and analyzed by Ontario Hydro Method. Solid and liquid samples were analyzed by U.S. EPA method 7470A and 7471A, respectively. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for analysis. On an average, Hg emission concentrations in flue gas from MWIs ranged 173.9 to 15.3 μg Sm -3 at inlet and 10.5 to 3.8 μg Sm -3 at outlet of APCDs respectively. Mercury removal efficiency ranged 50 to 95% in MWIs, 7.2 to 59.9% in HWIs as co-beneficial results of APCDs for removing other air pollutants like particulate matter, dioxin and acidic gases. In general, mercury in incineration facilities was mainly distributed in fly ash followed by flue gas and bottom ash. In MWIs 94.4 to 74% of Hg were distributed in fly ash. In HWIs with dry type APCDs, Hg removal was less and 70.6% of mercury was distributed in flue gas. The variation of Hg concentration, speciation and finally the distribution in the tested facilities was related to the non-uniform distribution of Hg in waste combined with variation in waste composition (especially Cl, S content), operating parameters, flue gas components, fly ash properties, operating conditions, APCDs configuration. Long term data incorporating more number of tests are required to better understand mercury behavior in such sources and to apply effective control measures. (author)

  14. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1°×1° latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg emissions and its three main chemical species: elemental gaseous Hg, divalent gaseous Hg, and particle-associated Hg are presented. The main emissions occur in southeast Asia (particularly in China), South Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Eastern United States. These are the regions where coal combustion is the main source of electricity and heat production. Waste incineration adds to these emissions in the Eastern United States. Emissions of total Hg and its three species are quite similar in terms of their (global) spatial distributions. They reflect the worldwide distribution of coal consumption in large power plants, industrial burners, and small combustion units, such as residential and commercial furnaces.

  15. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study

  16. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  17. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-01-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot-Scale. The project team will include the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor, W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner, and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a

  18. Study on emission of hazardous trace elements in a 350 MW coal-fired power plant. Part 1. Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shilin; Duan, Yufeng; Chen, Lei; Li, Yaning; Yao, Ting; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Meng; Lu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Hazardous trace elements (HTEs), especially mercury, emitted from coal-fired power plants had caused widespread concern worldwide. Field test on mercury emissions at three different loads (100%, 85%, 68% output) using different types of coal was conducted in a 350 MW pulverized coal combustion power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitator and fabric filter (ESP + FF), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The Ontario Hydro Method was used for simultaneous flue gas mercury sampling for mercury at the inlet and outlet of each of the air pollutant control device (APCD). Results showed that mercury mass balance rates of the system or each APCD were in the range of 70%-130%. Mercury was mainly distributed in the flue gas, followed by ESP + FF ash, WFGD wastewater, and slag. Oxidized mercury (Hg 2+ ) was the main form of mercury form in the flue gas emitted to the atmosphere, which accounted for 57.64%-61.87% of total mercury. SCR was favorable for elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) removal, with oxidation efficiency of 50.13%-67.68%. ESP + FF had high particle-bound mercury (Hg p ) capture efficiency, at 99.95%-99.97%. Overall removal efficiency of mercury by the existing APCDs was 58.78%-73.32%. Addition of halogens or oxidants for Hg 0 conversion, and inhibitors for Hg 0 re-emission, plus the installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) was a good way to improve the overall removal efficiency of mercury in the power plants. Mercury emission factor determined in this study was from 0.92 to 1.17 g/10 12 J. Mercury concentration in the emitted flue gas was much less than the regulatory limit of 30 μg/m 3 . Contamination of mercury in desulfurization wastewater should be given enough focus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Enhanced Control of Mercury and other HAPs by Innovative Modifications to Wet FGD Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O.W.; Carey, T.R.; Richardson, C.F.; Skarupa, R.C.; Meserole, F.B.; Rhudy, R.G.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to learn more about controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from coal-fired power plants that are equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project was included by FETC as a Phase I project in its Mega-PRDA program. Phase I of this project focused on three research areas. These areas in order of priority were: (1) Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; (2) Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and (3) Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. Mercury can exist in two forms in utility flue gas--as elemental mercury and as oxidized mercury (predominant form believed to be HgCl 2 ). Previous test results have shown that wet scrubbers effectively remove the oxidized mercury from the gas but are ineffective in removing elemental mercury. Recent improvements in mercury speciation techniques confirm this finding. Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury is of interest in cases where a wet scrubber exists or is planned for SO 2 control. If a loW--cost process could be developed to oxidize all of the elemental mercury in the flue gas, then the maximum achievable mercury removal across the existing or planned wet scrubber would increase. Other approaches for improving control of HAPs included a method for improving particulate removal across the FGD process and the use of additives to increase mercury solubility. This paper discusses results related only to catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury

  20. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  1. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1degrees x 1degrees latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg

  2. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  3. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate the rate and effect of mercury emissions in the atmosphere and technologies to control the emissions. The US DOE sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate health risks of mercury emissions from coal combustion. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the compound predominantly responsible for human exposure to atmospheric mercury in the United States, through fish ingestion. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single large power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized are near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms (paresthesia) was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L.

    1995-01-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate the rate and effect of mercury emissions in the atmosphere and technologies to control the emissions. The US DOE sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate health risks of mercury emissions from coal combustion. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the compound predominantly responsible for human exposure to atmospheric mercury in the United States, through fish ingestion. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single large power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized are near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms (paresthesia) was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Mercury emission to the atmosphere from municipal solid waste landfills: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Dai, Shijin; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is regarded as an important emission source of atmospheric mercury (Hg), which is associated with potential health and environmental risks, as outlined by the Minamata Convention on Hg. This review presents the current state of knowledge with regards to landfill Hg sources, Hg levels in MSW and cover soils, Hg emission to the atmosphere, available Hg biogeochemical transformations, research methods for Hg emission, and important areas for future research. In addition, strategies for controlling landfill Hg emissions are considered, including reducing the Hg load in landfill and in situ controls. These approaches mainly focus on Hg source reduction, Hg recycling programs, public education, and in situ technology such as timely soil cover, vegetation, and end-of-pipe technology for controlling Hg emission from landfill gas.

  6. Mercury depletion as a way of changing the emission spectrum of a fluorescent lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2000-01-01

    We present a promising option for changing the emission spectrum of a fluorescent lamp. In a neon/mercury discharge, neon radiation is produced when the mercury density is sufficiently low. Under certain discharge conditions, radial cathaphoresis causes depletion of mercury atoms in the center of

  7. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  8. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important

  9. Benefits of mercury controls for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Amanda; Selin, Noelle E

    2016-01-12

    Mercury pollution poses risks for both human and ecosystem health. As a consequence, controlling mercury pollution has become a policy goal on both global and national scales. We developed an assessment method linking global-scale atmospheric chemical transport modeling to regional-scale economic modeling to consistently evaluate the potential benefits to the United States of global (UN Minamata Convention on Mercury) and domestic [Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS)] policies, framed as economic gains from avoiding mercury-related adverse health endpoints. This method attempts to trace the policies-to-impacts path while taking into account uncertainties and knowledge gaps with policy-appropriate bounding assumptions. We project that cumulative lifetime benefits from the Minamata Convention for individuals affected by 2050 are $339 billion (2005 USD), with a range from $1.4 billion to $575 billion in our sensitivity scenarios. Cumulative economy-wide benefits to the United States, realized by 2050, are $104 billion, with a range from $6 million to $171 billion. Projected Minamata benefits are more than twice those projected from the domestic policy. This relative benefit is robust to several uncertainties and variabilities, with the ratio of benefits (Minamata/MATS) ranging from ≈1.4 to 3. However, we find that for those consuming locally caught freshwater fish from the United States, rather than marine and estuarine fish from the global market, benefits are larger from US than global action, suggesting domestic policies are important for protecting these populations. Per megagram of prevented emissions, our domestic policy scenario results in US benefits about an order of magnitude higher than from our global scenario, further highlighting the importance of domestic action.

  10. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, N.; Costa, P.; Pacyna, J. M.; Ferrara, R.

    This report discusses past, current and projected mercury emissions to the atmosphere from major industrial sources, and presents a first assessment of the contribution to the regional mercury budget from selected natural sources. Emissions (1995 estimates) from fossil fuels combustion (29.8 t yr -1) , cement production (28.8 t yr -1) and incineration of solid wastes (27.6 t yr -1) , all together account for about 82% of the regional anthropogenic total (105.7 t yr -1) . Other industrial sources in the region are smelters (4.8 t yr -1) , iron-steel plants (4.8 t yr -1) and other minor sources (chlor-alkali plants, crematoria, chemicals production) that have been considered together in the miscellaneous category (9.6 t yr -1) . Regional emissions from anthropogenic sources increased at a rate of 3% yr-1 from 1983 to 1995 and are projected to increase at a rate of 1.9% yr-1 in the next 25 years, if no improvement in emission control policy occurs. On a country-by-country basis, France is the leading emitter country with 22.6 t yr -1 followed by Turkey (16.1 t yr -1) , Italy (11.4 t yr -1) , Spain (9.1 t yr -1) , the former Yugoslavia 7.9 ( t yr -1) , Morocco (6.9 t yr -1) , Bulgaria (6.8 t yr -1) , Egypt (6.1 t yr -1) , Syria (3.6 t yr -1) , Libya (2.9 t yr -1) , Tunisia (2.8 t yr -1) and Greece (2.7 t yr -1) , whereas the remaining countries account for less than 7% of the regional total. The annual emission from natural sources is 110 t yr -1, although this figure only includes the volatilisation of elemental mercury from surface waters and emissions from volcanoes, whereas the contribution due to the degassing of mercury from top soil and vegetation has not been included in this first assessment. Therefore, natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region release annually about 215 t of mercury, which represents a significant contribution to the total mercury budget released in Europe and to the global atmosphere.

  11. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  12. Mercury Production and Use in Colonial Andean Silver Production: Emissions and Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Colonial cinnabar mining and refining began in Huancavelica, Peru, in 1564. With a local source of mercury, the amalgamation process was adopted to refine silver in Potosí, Bolivia, in the early 1570s. As a result, large quantities of mercury were released into the environment. Objectives: We used archival, primary, and secondary sources to develop the first estimate of mercury emissions from cinnabar refining in Huancavelica and to revise previous estimates of emissions from silver refining in Potosí during the colonial period (1564–1810). Discussion: Although other estimates of historical mercury emissions have recognized Potosí as a significant source, Huancavelica has been overlooked. In addition, previous estimates of mercury emissions from silver refining under-estimated emissions because of unrecorded (contra-band) production and volatilization of mercury during processing and recovery. Archival descriptions document behavioral and health issues during the colonial period that are consistent with known effects of mercury intoxication. Conclusions: According to our calculations, between 1564 and 1810, an estimated 17,000 metric tons of mercury vapor were emitted from cinnabar smelting in Huancavelica, and an estimated 39,000 metric tons were released as vapor during silver refining operations in Potosí. Huancavelica and Potosí combined contributed > 25% of the 196,000 metric tons of mercury vapor emissions in all of Latin America between 1500 and 1800. The historical record is laden with evidence of mercury intoxication consistent with effects recognized today. Our estimates serve as the foundation of investigations of present-day contamination in Huancavelica and Potosí resulting from historical emissions of mercury. PMID:22334094

  13. Potential mercury emissions from fluorescent lamps production and obsolescence in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Quanyin; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The use of fluorescent lamps has expanded rapidly all over the world in recent years, because of their energy-saving capability. Consequently, however, mercury emissions from production, breakage, and discard of the lamps are drawing increasing concern from the public. This article focuses on evaluating the amount of mercury used for fluorescent lamp production, as well as the potential mercury emissions during production and breakage, in mainland China. It is expected to provide a comprehensive understanding about the risks present in the mercury from fluorescent lamps, and to know about the impacts of the policies on fluorescent lamps after their implementation. It is estimated that, in 2020, mercury consumption will be about 11.30-15.69 tonnes, a significant reduction of 34.9%-37.4% from that used in 2013, owing to improvement in mercury dosing dosage technology and tighter limitations on mercury content in fluorescent lamps. With these improvements, the amount of mercury remaining in fluorescent lamps and released during production is estimated to be 10.71-14.86 and 0.59-0.83 tonnes, respectively; the mercury released from waste fluorescent lamps is estimated to be about 5.37-7.59 tonnes. Also, a significant reduction to the mercury emission can be expected when a collection and treatment system is well established and conducted in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S.; Aydin, Adnan; Wong, Ming H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on environmental mercury emissions in Asia and elaborates its probable trend in the future and associated implications given the anticipated socioeconomic outlook and other macro-environmental factors. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg, responsible for over half of the global emission. In the next few decades, a significant increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia is likely owing to rapid economic and industrial development, unless drastic measures are taken. In particular, the dominance of Asia in some Hg-emitting industries, such as coal combustion, steel production and gold mining, provokes a serious environmental concern over their potential contributions of incidental Hg in the region. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of electrical and electronic manufacturing industry as a user and a contributor of Hg in Asia is also worrying. Specifically, disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic wastes represents a phenomenon increasingly encountered in Asia. In addition to escalating anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia, associated environmental and health implications may also exacerbate in the region for the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. high population density). Hence, much effort is still needed to understand the role of Asia in global Hg cycle and associated environmental and health effects in the region

  15. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Coby S C; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Aydin, Adnan; Wong, Ming H

    2006-09-15

    This paper focuses on environmental mercury emissions in Asia and elaborates its probable trend in the future and associated implications given the anticipated socioeconomic outlook and other macro-environmental factors. Among the various regions, Asia has become the largest contributor of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg, responsible for over half of the global emission. In the next few decades, a significant increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia is likely owing to rapid economic and industrial development, unless drastic measures are taken. In particular, the dominance of Asia in some Hg-emitting industries, such as coal combustion, steel production and gold mining, provokes a serious environmental concern over their potential contributions of incidental Hg in the region. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of electrical and electronic manufacturing industry as a user and a contributor of Hg in Asia is also worrying. Specifically, disposal of obsolete electrical and electronic wastes represents a phenomenon increasingly encountered in Asia. In addition to escalating anthropogenic Hg emissions in Asia, associated environmental and health implications may also exacerbate in the region for the probable effects of a unique combination of climatic (e.g. subtropical climate), environmental (e.g. acid rain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. high population density). Hence, much effort is still needed to understand the role of Asia in global Hg cycle and associated environmental and health effects in the region.

  16. Fate of trace element haps when applying mercury control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, Carolyn M.; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Zhuang, Ye; Pavlish, John H. [University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center 15 North 23rd Street, Stop 9018, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202-9018 (United States); Brickett, Lynn; Pletcher, Sara [U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road, PO Box 10940, MS 922-273C, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    During the past several years, and particularly since the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated in June of 2005, the electric utility industry, product vendors, and the research community have been working diligently to develop and test Hg control strategies for a variety of coal types and plant configurations. Some of these strategies include sorbent injection and chemical additives designed to increase mercury capture efficiency in particulate control devices. These strategies have the potential to impact the fate of other inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), which typically include As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Sb. To evaluate this impact, flue gas samples using EPA Method 29, along with representative coal and ash samples, were collected during recent pilot-scale and field test projects that were evaluating Hg control technologies. These test programs included a range of fuel types with varying trace element concentrations, along with different combustion systems and particulate control devices. The results show that the majority of the trace element HAPs are associated with the particulate matter in the flue gas, except for Se. However, for five of the six projects, Se partitioning was shifted to the particulate phase and total emissions reduced when Hg control technologies were applied. (author)

  17. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed.

  18. Mercury controls for coal-fired power plants - status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offen, G.; Shick, N.; Chang, R.; Chu, P.; Dene, C.; Rhudy, R. [EPRI, Palo Alto (US)

    2005-05-01

    Although the US Environmental Protection Agency has issued its mercury rule, setting limits for emissions from new power plants and placing an eventual cap on emissions from all plants, mercury control technologies offering sustainable performance and known applicability, impact, and cost are still in the future. Co-operative funding for long-term, full-scale tests of technologies in advanced stages of development, and support for emerging ones, promises to close the gap. The goal is to learn how to tailor control technologies to flue gas environments at individual power plants. In this paper the authors describe the current performance of mercury control technologies and outline the research needed to demonstrate their easiness for commercial deployment. 4 figs.

  19. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  20. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  1. Atmospheric mercury emissions in Australia from anthropogenic, natural and recycled sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter F.; Morrison, Anthony L.; Malfroy, Hugh J.; Cope, Martin; Lee, Sunhee; Hibberd, Mark L.; Meyer, C. P. (Mick); McGregor, John

    2012-12-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has begun a process of developing a legally binding instrument to manage emissions of mercury from anthropogenic sources. The UNEP Governing Council has concluded that there is sufficient evidence of significant global adverse impacts from mercury to warrant further international action; and that national, regional and global actions should be initiated as soon as possible to identify populations at risk and to reduce human generated releases. This paper describes the development of, and presents results from, a comprehensive, spatially and temporally resolved inventory of atmospheric mercury emissions from the Australian landmass. Results indicate that the best estimate of total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere in 2006 was 15 ± 5 tonnes. Three industrial sectors contribute substantially to Australian anthropogenic emissions: gold smelting (˜50%, essentially from a single site/operation), coal combustion in power plants (˜15%) and alumina production from bauxite (˜12%). A diverse range of other sectors contribute smaller proportions of the emitted mercury, but industrial emissions account for around 90% of total anthropogenic mercury emissions. The other sectors include other industrial sources (mining, smelting, and cement production) and the use of products containing mercury. It is difficult to determine historical trends in mercury emissions given the large uncertainties in the data. Estimates for natural and re-emitted emissions from soil, water, vegetation and fires are made using meteorological models, satellite observations of land cover and soil and vegetation type, fuel loading, fire scars and emission factors which account for the effects of temperature, insolation and other environmental variables. These natural and re-emitted sources comfortably exceed the anthropogenic emissions, and comprise 4-12 tonnes per year from vegetation, 70-210 tonnes per year from soils, and 21-63 tonnes

  2. Were mercury emission factors for Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters overestimated? Evidence from onsite measurements in six smelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Wang Shuxiao; Wu Qingru; Meng Yang; Yang Hai; Wang Fengyang; Hao Jiming

    2012-01-01

    Non-ferrous metal smelting takes up a large proportion of the anthropogenic mercury emission inventory in China. Zinc, lead and copper smelting are three leading sources. Onsite measurements of mercury emissions were conducted for six smelters. The mercury emission factors were 0.09–2.98 g Hg/t metal produced. Acid plants with the double-conversion double-absorption process had mercury removal efficiency of over 99%. In the flue gas after acid plants, 45–88% was oxidized mercury which can be easily scavenged in the flue gas scrubber. 70–97% of the mercury was removed from the flue gas to the waste water and 1–17% to the sulfuric acid product. Totally 0.3–13.5% of the mercury in the metal concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. Therefore, acid plants in non-ferrous metal smelters have significant co-benefit on mercury removal, and the mercury emission factors from Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters were probably overestimated in previous studies. - Highlights: ► Acid plants in smelters provide significant co-benefits for mercury removal (over 99%). ► Most of the mercury in metal concentrates for smelting ended up in waste water. ► Previously published emission factors for Chinese metal smelters were probably overestimated. - Acid plants in smelters have high mercury removal efficiency, and thus mercury emission factors for Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters were probably overestimated.

  3. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  4. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implications of mercury emission sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particle-bound mercury (PBM were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China, from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74, 10.1 ± 18.8 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m−3, respectively, about 2–20 times higher than the background concentration of the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in northern China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations, with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m−3 and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m−3. In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed, with peak levels in the late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the the temperature inversion that increases in depth as the night proceeds. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from the east and southwest of the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF model indicate that the atmospheric transport

  5. Assessment of PCDD/F and PBDD/F Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants during Injection of Brominated Activated Carbon for Mercury Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the injection of brominated powdered activated carbon (Br-PAC) on the emission of brominated and chlorinated dioxins and furans in coal combustion flue gas has been evaluated. The tests were performed at two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration sites where ...

  6. Mercury emission and dispersion models from soils contaminated by cinnabar mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Willians; Kocman, David; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena

    2011-12-01

    The laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) and dispersion models were used to investigate the kinetics of mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentration (26-9770 μg g(-1)) surrounding a decommissioned mercury-mining area (Las Cuevas Mine), and a former mercury smelter (Cerco Metalúrgico de Almadenejos), in the Almadén mercury mining district (South Central Spain), were collected. Altogether, 14 samples were analyzed to determine the variation in mercury emission flux (MEF) versus distance from the sources, regulating two major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the fraction of the water-soluble mercury in these samples was determined in order to assess how MEF from soil is related to the mercury in the aqueous soil phase. Measured MEFs ranged from less than 140 to over 10,000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from contaminated soils adjacent to point sources. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. Strong positive effects of both temperature and solar radiation on MEF was observed. Moreover, MEF was found to occur more easily in soils with higher proportions of soluble mercury compared to soils where cinnabar prevails. Based on the calculated Hg emission rates and with the support of geographical information system (GIS) tools and ISC AERMOD software, dispersion models for atmospheric mercury were implemented. In this way, the gaseous mercury plume generated by the soil-originated emissions at different seasons was modeled. Modeling efforts revealed that much higher emissions and larger mercury plumes are generated in dry and warm periods (summer), while the plume is smaller and associated with lower concentrations of atmospheric mercury during colder periods with higher wind activity (fall). Based on the calculated emissions and the model implementation, yearly emissions from

  7. Updated atmospheric speciated mercury emissions from iron and steel production in China during 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and steel production (ISP is one of the significant atmospheric Hg emission sources in China. Atmospheric mercury (Hg emissions from ISP during 2000–2015 were estimated by using a technology-based emission factor method. To support the application of this method, databases of Hg concentrations in raw materials, technology development trends, and Hg removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs were constructed through national sampling and literature review. Hg input to ISP increased from 21.6 t in 2000 to 94.5 t in 2015. In the various types of raw materials, coking coal and iron concentrates contributed 35–46 and 25–32 % of the total Hg input. Atmospheric Hg emissions from ISP increased from 11.5 t in 2000 to 32.7 t in 2015 with a peak of 35.6 t in 2013. Pollution control promoted the increase in average Hg removal efficiency, from 47 % in 2000 to 65 % in 2015. During the study period, sinter/pellet plants and blast furnaces were the largest two emission processes. However, emissions from roasting plants and coke ovens cannot be ignored, which accounted for 22–34 % of ISP's emissions. Overall, Hg speciation shifted from 50/44/6 (gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0/gaseous oxidized Hg (HgII/particulate-bound Hg (Hgp in 2000 to 40/59/1 in 2015, which indicated a higher proportion of Hg deposition around the emission points. Future emissions of ISP were expected to decrease based on the comprehensive consideration crude-steel production, steel scrap utilization, energy saving, and pollution control measures.

  8. Updated atmospheric speciated mercury emissions from iron and steel production in China during 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingru; Gao, Wei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-09-01

    Iron and steel production (ISP) is one of the significant atmospheric Hg emission sources in China. Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions from ISP during 2000-2015 were estimated by using a technology-based emission factor method. To support the application of this method, databases of Hg concentrations in raw materials, technology development trends, and Hg removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs) were constructed through national sampling and literature review. Hg input to ISP increased from 21.6 t in 2000 to 94.5 t in 2015. In the various types of raw materials, coking coal and iron concentrates contributed 35-46 and 25-32 % of the total Hg input. Atmospheric Hg emissions from ISP increased from 11.5 t in 2000 to 32.7 t in 2015 with a peak of 35.6 t in 2013. Pollution control promoted the increase in average Hg removal efficiency, from 47 % in 2000 to 65 % in 2015. During the study period, sinter/pellet plants and blast furnaces were the largest two emission processes. However, emissions from roasting plants and coke ovens cannot be ignored, which accounted for 22-34 % of ISP's emissions. Overall, Hg speciation shifted from 50/44/6 (gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0)/gaseous oxidized Hg (HgII)/particulate-bound Hg (Hgp)) in 2000 to 40/59/1 in 2015, which indicated a higher proportion of Hg deposition around the emission points. Future emissions of ISP were expected to decrease based on the comprehensive consideration crude-steel production, steel scrap utilization, energy saving, and pollution control measures.

  9. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  10. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara; Mazzolai; Lanzillotta; Nucaro; Pirrone

    2000-10-02

    Emissions from volcanoes, fumaroles and solfataras as well as contributions from widespread geological anomalies could represent an important source of mercury released to the atmosphere in the Mediterranean basin. Volcanoes located in this area (Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano) are the most active in Europe; therefore, it is extremely important to know their mercury contributions to the regional atmospheric budget. Two main methods are used for the evaluation of volcanic mercury flux: a direct determination of the flux (by measuring in the plume) and an indirect one derived from the determination of the Hg/SO2 (or Hg/S) ratio value, as SO2 emissions are constantly monitored by volcanologists. An attempt to estimate mercury flux from the Vulcano volcano and to establish the Hg/S ratio value has been made along three field campaigns carried out in October 1998, in February and May 1999 sampling several fumaroles. Traditional sampling methods were used to collect both total Hg and S. The average Hg/S ratio value resulted to be 1.2 x 10(-7). From the Hg/S value we derived the Hg/SO2 value, and by assuming that all the volcanoes located in this area have the same Hg/SO2 ratio, mercury emissions from Vulcano and Stromboli were estimated to be in the range 1.3-5.5 kg/year and 7.3-76.6 kg/year respectively, while for Etna mercury flux ranged from 61.8 to 536.5 kg/year. Data reported in literature appear to be overestimated (Fitzgerald WF. Mercury emission from volcanos. In: 4th International conference on mercury as a global pollutant, August 4-8 1996, Hamburg, Germany), volcanic mercury emission does not constitute the main natural source of the metal.

  11. Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanxu Zhang,; Daniel J. Jacob,; Hannah M. Horowitz,; Long Chen,; Helen M. Amos,; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Franz Slemr,; Vincent L. St. Louis,; Elsie M. Sunderland,

    2015-01-01

    Observations of elemental mercury (Hg0) at sites in North America and Europe show large decreases (∼1–2% y−1) from 1990 to present. Observations in background northern hemisphere air, including Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) aircraft flights, show weaker decreases (inventories indicating flat or increasing emissions over that period. However, the inventories have three major flaws: (i) they do not account for the decline in atmospheric release of Hg from commercial products; (ii) they are biased in their estimate of artisanal and small-scale gold mining emissions; and (iii) they do not properly account for the change in Hg0/HgII speciation of emissions from coal-fired utilities after implementation of emission controls targeted at SO2 and NOx. We construct an improved global emission inventory for the period 1990 to 2010 accounting for the above factors and find a 20% decrease in total Hg emissions and a 30% decrease in anthropogenic Hg0 emissions, with much larger decreases in North America and Europe offsetting the effect of increasing emissions in Asia. Implementation of our inventory in a global 3D atmospheric Hg simulation [GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System-Chemistry)] coupled to land and ocean reservoirs reproduces the observed large-scale trends in atmospheric Hg0 concentrations and in HgII wet deposition. The large trends observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of Hg from commercial products as well as the cobenefit from SO2 and NOx emission controls on coal-fired utilities.

  12. Characterization of Mercury Emissions from ASGM Goldshop Activities in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg), used in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) practices, is recognized as a significant source of Hg release to the environment and is a major area of focus of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Global Mercury Partnership. Hg is used to bind (form a...

  13. Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Mulit-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Derenne; Robin Stewart

    2009-09-30

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project was based on a cooperative agreement between We Energies and the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to design, install, evaluate, and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} air pollution control process. Project partners included Cummins & Barnard, ADA-ES, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary goal of this project was to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Additional goals were to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter emissions; allow reuse and sale of fly ash; advance commercialization of the technology; demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use at power plants; and demonstrate recovery of mercury from the sorbent. Mercury was controlled by injection of activated carbon upstream of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse, which achieved more than 90% removal on average over a 44-month period. During a two-week test involving trona injection, SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 70%, although no coincident removal of NOx was achieved. The TOXECON{trademark} baghouse also provided enhanced particulate control, particularly during startup of the boilers. On this project, mercury CEMs were developed and tested in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific, resulting in a reliable CEM that could be used in the power plant environment and that could measure mercury as low as 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Sorbents were injected downstream of the primary particulate collection device, allowing for continued sale and beneficial use of captured fly ash. Two methods for recovering mercury using thermal desorption on the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture were successfully tested during this program. Two methods for using the TOXECON

  14. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  15. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  16. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit

  17. Deposition and cycling of sulfur controls mercury accumulation in Isle Royale fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul E. Drevnick; Donald E. Canfield; Patrick R. Gorski (and others) [Miami University, Oxford, OH (United States). Department of Zoology

    2007-11-01

    Mercury contamination of fish is a global problem. Consumption of contaminated fish is the primary route of methylmercury exposure in humans and is detrimental to health. Newly mandated reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions aim to reduce atmospheric mercury deposition and thus mercury concentrations in fish. However, factors other than mercury deposition are important for mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In the lakes of Isle Royale, U.S.A., reduced rates of sulfate deposition since the Clean Air Act of 1970 have caused mercury concentrations in fish to decline to levels that are safe for human consumption, even without a discernible decrease in mercury deposition. Therefore, reductions in anthropogenic sulfur emissions may provide a synergistic solution to the mercury problem in sulfate-limited freshwaters. 71 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT. OVERALL STUDY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a detailed emissions measurement campaign that was conducted over a 9-day period within a mercury (Hg) cell chlor-alkali plant in the southeastern United States (U.S.). The principal focus of this study was to measure fugitive (non-ducted) airborne Hg emission...

  19. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Andrew P. Rutter (1) * *, James J, Schauer (1,2) *, Martin M. Shafer(1,2), Michael R. Olson (1), Michael Robinson (1), Peter Vanderveer (3), Joel Creswell (1), Justin L. Mallek (1), Andrew M. Parman (1) (1) Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 660 N. Park St, Madison, WI 53705. (2) Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718. (3) Biotron, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2115 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 * Correspond author(jjschauer@wisc.edu) * *Presenting author (aprutter@wisc.edu) Abstract Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the predominant component of atmospheric mercury outside of arctic depletion events, and locations where anthropogenic point sources are not influencing atmospheric concentrations. GEM constitutes greater than 99% of the mercury mass in most rural and remote locations. While dry and wet deposition of atmospheric mercury is thought to be dominated by oxidized mercury (a.k.a. reactive mercury), only small GEM uptake to environmental surfaces could impact the input of mercury to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Dry deposition and subsequent re-emission of gaseous elemental mercury is a pathway from the atmosphere that remains only partially understood from a mechanistic perspective. In order to properly model GEM dry deposition and re-emission an understanding of its dependence on irradiance, temperature, and relative humidity must be measured and parameterized for a broad spectrum of environmental surfaces colocated with surrogate deposition surfaces used to make field based dry deposition measurements. Measurements of isotopically enriched GEM dry deposition were made with a variety of environmental surfaces in a controlled environment room at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. The experimental set up allowed dry deposition components which are not easily separated in the field to be decoupled. We were able to isolate surface transfer processes from variabilities caused by

  20. Radio-interferometric imaging of the subsurface emissions from the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. O.; Zeilik, M.; Gisler, G. R.; Borovsky, J. E.; Baker, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of total and polarized intensities from Mercury's subsurface layers have been mapped using VLA observations. The first detection of a hot pole along the Hermean equator is reported and modeled as black-body reradiation from preferential diurnal heating. These observations appear to rule out any internal sources of heat within Mercury. Polarized emission from the limb of the planet is also found, and is understood in terms of the dielectric properties of the Hermean surface.

  1. Mercury pollution control in industrial area in Rosignano Marittimo (Italy) during last twenty years (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertani, R.

    1995-01-01

    Author takes into account some papers dealing with mercury environmental pollution, appeared in different scientific journals over the last twenty years, in the aim of defining a homogeneous frame for the comprehension of the environmental situation development. Data relating to air, marine water, sediments, animal and vegetal organisms, show a consistent decreasing of mercury emissions with the passing of time. Nevertheless, author fearfully points out the environmental fate of the mercury which has been heavily released from the plant in the past years and to whom he wishes to turn attention for the assessment of an adequate control procedure

  2. Mercury emissions and stable isotopic compositions at Vulcano Island (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambardi, T.; Sonke, J. E.; Toutain, J. P.; Sortino, F.; Shinohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling and analyses methods for determining the stable isotopic compositions of Hg in an active volcanic system were tested and optimized at the volcanic complex of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 and plume particulate Hg (p)II were obtained at fumaroles F0, F5, F11, and FA. The average total Hg emissions, based on Hg T/SO 2 in condensed fumarolic gases and plumes, range from 2.5 to 10.1 kg y - 1 , in agreement with published values [Ferrara, R., Mazzolai, B., Lanzillotta, E., Nucaro, E., Pirrone, N., 2000. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean Basin. Sci. Total Environ. 259(1-3), 115-121; Aiuppa, A., Bagnato, E., Witt, M.L.I., Mather, T.A., Parello, F., Pyle, D.M., Martin, R.S., 2007. Real-time simultaneous detection of volcanic Hg and SO 2 at La Fossa Crater, Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Sicily). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(L21307).]. Plume Hg (p)II increases with distance from the fumarole vent, at the expense of Hg (g)0 and indicates significant in-plume oxidation and condensation of fumarole Hg (fum)T. Relative to the NIST SRM 3133 Hg standard, the stable isotopic compositions of Hg are δ 202Hg (fum)T = - 0.74‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, δ 202Hg (g)0 = - 1.74‰ ± 0.36 (2SD, n = 1) for plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 at the F0 fumarole, and δ 202Hg (p)II = - 0.11‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for plume particulate Hg (p)II. The enrichment of Hg (p)II in the heavy isotopes and Hg (g)0 in the light isotopes relative to the total condensed fumarolic Hg (fum)T gas complements the speciation data and demonstrates a gas-particle fractionation occurring after the gas expulsion in ambient T° atmosphere. A first order Rayleigh equilibrium condensation isotope fractionation model yields a fractionation factor α cond-gas of 1.00135 ± 0.00058.

  3. Statistical estimate of mercury removal efficiencies for air pollution control devices of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Kida, Akiko; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2010-10-15

    Although representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for air pollution control devices (APCDs) are important to prepare more reliable atmospheric emission inventories of mercury, they have been still uncertain because they depend sensitively on many factors like the type of APCDs, gas temperature, and mercury speciation. In this study, representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for several types of APCDs of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) were offered using a statistical method. 534 data of mercury removal efficiencies for APCDs used in MSWI were collected. APCDs were categorized as fixed-bed absorber (FA), wet scrubber (WS), electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and fabric filter (FF), and their hybrid systems. Data series of all APCD types had Gaussian log-normality. The average removal efficiency with a 95% confidence interval for each APCD was estimated. The FA, WS, and FF with carbon and/or dry sorbent injection systems had 75% to 82% average removal efficiencies. On the other hand, the ESP with/without dry sorbent injection had lower removal efficiencies of up to 22%. The type of dry sorbent injection in the FF system, dry or semi-dry, did not make more than 1% difference to the removal efficiency. The injection of activated carbon and carbon-containing fly ash in the FF system made less than 3% difference. Estimation errors of removal efficiency were especially high for the ESP. The national average of removal efficiency of APCDs in Japanese MSWI plants was estimated on the basis of incineration capacity. Owing to the replacement of old APCDs for dioxin control, the national average removal efficiency increased from 34.5% in 1991 to 92.5% in 2003. This resulted in an additional reduction of about 0.86Mg emission in 2003. Further study using the methodology in this study to other important emission sources like coal-fired power plants will contribute to better emission inventories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  5. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G.

    1995-01-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments' requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200 degrees and 400 degrees F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy ampersand Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature

  6. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  7. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntean, Marilena, E-mail: marilena.muntean@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy); Janssens-Maenhout, Greet [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy); Song, Shaojie; Selin, Noelle E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Olivier, Jos G.J. [PBL Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Guizzardi, Diego [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy); Maas, Rob [RIVM National Institute for Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Dentener, Frank [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources in the database. With an average annual growth rate of 1.3% since 1970, EDGARv4 estimates that the global mercury emissions reached 1287 tonnes in 2008. Specifically, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (Hg{sup 0}) accounted for 72% of the global total emissions, while gaseous oxidised mercury (GOM) (Hg{sup 2+}) and particle bound mercury (PBM) (Hg-P) accounted for only 22% and 6%, respectively. The less reactive form, i.e., Hg{sup 0}, has a long atmospheric residence time and can be transported long distances from the emission sources. The artisanal and small-scale gold production, accounted for approximately half of the global Hg{sup 0} emissions in 2008 followed by combustion (29%), cement production (12%) and other metal industry (10%). Given the local-scale impacts of mercury, special attention was given to the spatial distribution showing the emission hot-spots on gridded 0.1° × 0.1° resolution maps using detailed proxy data. The comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry over four decades indicates reductions of 46% and 93%, respectively. Combined, the improved technologies and mitigation measures in these sectors accounted for 401.7 tonnes of avoided mercury emissions in 2008. A comparison shows that EDGARv4 anthropogenic emissions are nearly equivalent to the lower estimates of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)'s mercury emissions inventory for 2005 for most sectors. An evaluation of the EDGARv4 global mercury emission inventory, including mercury speciation, was performed using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D mercury model. The

  8. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntean, Marilena; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Song, Shaojie; Selin, Noelle E.; Olivier, Jos G.J.; Guizzardi, Diego; Maas, Rob; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources in the database. With an average annual growth rate of 1.3% since 1970, EDGARv4 estimates that the global mercury emissions reached 1287 tonnes in 2008. Specifically, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (Hg 0 ) accounted for 72% of the global total emissions, while gaseous oxidised mercury (GOM) (Hg 2+ ) and particle bound mercury (PBM) (Hg-P) accounted for only 22% and 6%, respectively. The less reactive form, i.e., Hg 0 , has a long atmospheric residence time and can be transported long distances from the emission sources. The artisanal and small-scale gold production, accounted for approximately half of the global Hg 0 emissions in 2008 followed by combustion (29%), cement production (12%) and other metal industry (10%). Given the local-scale impacts of mercury, special attention was given to the spatial distribution showing the emission hot-spots on gridded 0.1° × 0.1° resolution maps using detailed proxy data. The comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry over four decades indicates reductions of 46% and 93%, respectively. Combined, the improved technologies and mitigation measures in these sectors accounted for 401.7 tonnes of avoided mercury emissions in 2008. A comparison shows that EDGARv4 anthropogenic emissions are nearly equivalent to the lower estimates of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)'s mercury emissions inventory for 2005 for most sectors. An evaluation of the EDGARv4 global mercury emission inventory, including mercury speciation, was performed using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D mercury model. The model can

  9. Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanxu Zhang,; Daniel J. Jacob,; Hannah M. Horowitz,; Long Chen,; Helen M. Amos,; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Franz Slemr,; Vincent L. St. Louis,; Elsie M. Sunderland,

    2015-01-01

    Observations of elemental mercury (Hg0) at sites in North America and Europe show large decreases (∼1–2% y−1) from 1990 to present. Observations in background northern hemisphere air, including Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) aircraft flights, show weaker decreases (Asia. Implementation of our inventory in a global 3D atmospheric Hg simulation [GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System-Chemistry)] coupled to land and ocean reservoirs reproduces the observed large-scale trends in atmospheric Hg0 concentrations and in HgII wet deposition. The large trends observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of Hg from commercial products as well as the cobenefit from SO2 and NOx emission controls on coal-fired utilities.

  10. Emissions, dispersion and human exposure of mercury from a Swedish chlor-alkali plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wängberg, I.; Barregard, L.; Sällsten, G.; Haeger-Eugensson, M.; Munthe, J.; Sommar, J.

    Mercury in air near a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in Sweden has been measured within the EU-project EMECAP. Based on the measurements and modelling the annual distributions of GEM and RGM have been calculated for the local area around the plant. The average concentration of GEM in residential areas near the plant was found to be 1-3.5 ng m -3 higher in comparison to the background concentration in this part of Sweden. The emission of RGM (0.55 kg year -1) results in elevated RGM concentrations close to the plant. The greatest impact on the local area is due to wet deposition of RGM. However, only a small fraction (0.4%) of all mercury being emitted was found to be deposited in the local area. No impact on urinary mercury could be demonstrated in the population living close to the plant.

  11. Atmospheric emission of mercury due to combustion of steam coal and domestic coal in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2017-08-01

    To study the mercury emission due to the combustion of steam coal and domestic coal in China, we analyzed the mercury contents of coal, fly ash, bottom ash and sluicing water in thermal power plants, steam boilers as well as domestic coal-stoves, in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong and Yunnan Provinces. This study conduct an estimate of the Hg emission rates from steam coal and domestic coal combustion based on the method of mass distribution ratio of fly ash and bottom ash. The results show that the Hg emission rate of coal combustion in thermal power plants is about 50.21% (electrostatic precipitators + wet flue gas desulfurization), and that in heating boilers is about 67.23%, and 92.28% in industrial boilers without flue gas desulphurisation equipment. Furthermore, Hg emission rate is 83.61% due to domestic coal combustion in coal-stoves. The Hg emission amount into the atmosphere from power and heat generation, industrial boilers, domestic coal-stoves and spontaneous combustion of coal gangue is roughly estimated to be 133 ± 4, 100 ± 17, 11 ± 0.1 and 47 ± 26 tons in China in 2014, respectively, and the total Hg emission amount from this paper is estimated at 292 tons. The trends of Hg emission in China from 1991 to 2014 show an accelerating growth after 2002. The proportion of mercury emission due to thermal power, heating generation and industrial energy utilization continuously increased. The atmospheric emission of mercury due to combustion of steam coal, domestic coal and coal gangue accounts nearly 50% in total anthropogenic Hg emissions in China, indicating one of the largest sources of Hg emission in China which should draw more public and scientific attention in the future.

  12. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens. top How does mercury affect children? Very young ... billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum ...

  13. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  14. Mapping the spatial distribution of global anthropogenic mercury atmospheric emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon J.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.

    This paper describes the procedures employed to spatially distribute global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, prepared by Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J.M., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S. [2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.041], and briefly discusses the results of this work. A new spatially distributed global emission inventory for the (nominal) year 2000, and a revised version of the 1995 inventory are presented. Emissions estimates for total mercury and major species groups are distributed within latitude/longitude-based grids with a resolution of 1×1 and 0.5×0.5°. A key component in the spatial distribution procedure is the use of population distribution as a surrogate parameter to distribute emissions from sources that cannot be accurately geographically located. In this connection, new gridded population datasets were prepared, based on the CEISIN GPW3 datasets (CIESIN, 2004. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 3. Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). GPW3 data are available at http://beta.sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/index.jsp). The spatially distributed emissions inventories and population datasets prepared in the course of this work are available on the Internet at www.amap.no/Resources/HgEmissions/

  15. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning and impact on resulting deposition: a modelling assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, ...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME II. APPENDICES F-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT: STUDY ORGANIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the organization and implementation of a detailed emissions measurement campaign conducted over a 2-week period at the Olin Corporation's mercury chlor-alkali plant in Augusta, GA. (NOTE: Since data analysis is continuing, study results will be provided later...

  18. Observation of a physical matrix effect during cold vapour generation measurement of mercury in emissions samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard J.C., E-mail: richard.brown@npl.co.uk; Webb, William R.; Goddard, Sharon L.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A matrix effect for CV-AFS measurement of mercury in emissions samples is reported. • This results from the different efficiencies of liberation of reduced mercury. • There is a good correlation between solution density and the size of the effect. • Several methods to overcome the bias are presented and discussed. - Abstract: The observation of a physical matrix effect during the cold vapour generation–atomic fluorescence measurement of mercury in emissions samples is reported. The effect is as a result of the different efficiencies of liberation of reduced mercury from solution as the matrix of the solution under test varies. The result of this is that peak area to peak height ratios decease as matrix concentration increases, passing through a minimum, before the ratio then increases as matrix concentration further increases. In the test matrices examined – acidified potassium dichromate and sodium chloride solutions – the possible biases caused by differences between the calibration standard matrix and the test sample matrix were as large as 2.8% (relative) representing peak area to peak height ratios for calibration standards and matrix samples of 45 and 43.75, respectively. For the system considered there is a good correlation between the density of the matrix and point of optimum liberation of dissolved mercury for both matrix types. Several methods employing matrix matching and mathematical correction to overcome the bias are presented and their relative merits discussed; the most promising being the use of peak area, rather than peak height, for quantification.

  19. Quality control of analyses of mercury in hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, B.; Friberg, L.; Bigras, L.; Kirkbride, J.; Kennedy, P.; Kjellstroem, T.

    1988-01-01

    A quality control programme for mercury determinations in hair was developed within a study of 'Mental effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure in New Zealand children'. Hair was obtained from seven females with a mercury concentration of about 0.5-4 μg Hg/g. The hair was cut into 1-5 cm pieces and pulverized by liquid nitrogen grinding using a ring mill. In order to obtain a series of QC samples with varying Hg concentrations, different amounts of powder from all the samples and a reference sample of pulverized hair (11.2 μg Hg/g) were mixed. The mercury concentrations in the original samples and the mixtures were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). In total four laboratories participated in the interlaboratory comparison. All laboratories used the cold vapor AAS technique and Hg monitor model 1235, LDC for determinations after wet digestion of the samples. (orig./RB)

  20. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  1. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  2. Identification of mercury emissions from forest fires, lakes, regional and local sources using measurements in Milwaukee and an inverse method

    OpenAIRE

    B. de Foy; C. Wiedinmyer; J. J. Schauer

    2012-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury is a global pollutant that can lead to serious health concerns via deposition to the biosphere and bio-accumulation in the food chain. Hourly measurements between June 2004 and May 2005 in an urban site (Milwaukee, WI) show elevated levels of mercury in the atmosphere with numerous short-lived peaks as well as longer-lived episodes. The measurements are analyzed with an inverse model to obtain information about mercury emissions. The model is based on high res...

  3. Mercury sodium exospheric emission as a proxy for solar perturbations transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, S.; Mangano, V.; Milillo, A.; Plainaki, C.; Mura, A.; Raines, J. M.; Laurenza, M.; De Angelis, E.; Rispoli, R.; Lazzarotto, F.; Aronica, A.

    2017-12-01

    The first evidence at Mercury of direct relation between ICME transit and Na exosphere dynamics is presented, suggesting that Na emission, observed from ground, could be a proxy of planetary space weather at Mercury. The link existing between the dayside exosphere Na patterns and the solar wind-magnetosphere-surface interactions is investigated. This goal is pursued by analyzing the Na intensity hourly images, as observed by the ground-based THEMIS solar telescope (Mangano et al., 2015*) during 10 selected periods between 2012 and 2013 (with seeing, σ 10.1016/j.pss.2015.04.001, 2015.

  4. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  5. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2003-05-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and

  6. Emission Control Technologies for Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihalani, S. A.; Mishra, Y.; Juremalani, J.

    2018-03-01

    Coal thermal power plants are one of the primary sources of artificial air emissions, particularly in a country like India. Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed draft regulation for emission standards in coal-fired power plants. This includes significant reduction in sulphur-dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and mercury emissions. The first step is to evaluate the technologies which represent the best selection for each power plant based on its configuration, fuel properties, performance requirements, and other site-specific factors. This paper will describe various technology options including: Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), Circulating Dry Scrubber (CDS), Limestone-based Wet FGD, Low NOX burners, Selective Non Catalytic Reduction, Electrostatic Precipitator, Bag House Dust Collector, all of which have been evaluated and installed extensively to reduce SO2, NOx, PM and other emissions. Each control technology has its advantages and disadvantages. For each of the technologies considered, major features, potential operating and maintenance cost impacts, as well as key factors that contribute to the selection of one technology over another are discussed here.

  7. Evaluation of mercury speciation and removal through air pollution control devices of a 190 MW boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengli; Cao, Yan; Dong, Zhongbing; Cheng, Chinmin; Li, Hanxu; Pan, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control devices (APCDs) are installed at coal-fired power plants for air pollutant regulation. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have the co-benefits of air pollutant and mercury removal. Configuration and operational conditions of APCDs and mercury speciation affect mercury removal efficiently at coal-fired utilities. The Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used to determine mercury speciation simultaneously at five sampling locations through SCR-ESP-FGD at a 190 MW unit. Chlorine in coal had been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas; and low-chlorine coal was purported to produce less oxidized mercury (Hg2+) and more elemental mercury (Hg0) at the SCR inlet compared to higher chlorine coal. SCR could oxidize elemental mercury into oxidized mercury when SCR was in service, and oxidation efficiency reached 71.0%. Therefore, oxidized mercury removal efficiency was enhanced through a wet FGD system. In the non-ozone season, about 89.5%-96.8% of oxidized mercury was controlled, but only 54.9%-68.8% of the total mercury was captured through wet FGD. Oxidized mercury removal efficiency was 95.9%-98.0%, and there was a big difference in the total mercury removal efficiencies from 78.0% to 90.2% in the ozone season. Mercury mass balance was evaluated to validate reliability of OHM testing data, and the ratio of mercury input in the coal to mercury output at the stack was from 0.84 to 1.08.

  8. Study of elemental mercury re-emission through a lab-scale simulated scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Li Wu; Yan Cao; Cheng-Chun He; Zhong-Bing Dong; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2010-08-15

    This paper describes a lab-scale simulated scrubber that was designed and built in the laboratory at Western Kentucky University's Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology. A series of tests on slurries of CaO, CaSO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4}/CaSO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} were carried out to simulate recirculating slurries in different oxidation modes. Elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) re-emission was replicated through the simulated scrubber. The relationship between the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the slurries and the Hg0 re-emissions was evaluated. Elemental mercury re-emission occurred when Hg{sup 2+} that was absorbed in the simulated scrubber was converted to Hg{sup 0}; then, Hg{sup 0} was emitted from the slurry together with the carrier gas. The effects of both the reagents and the operational conditions (including the temperature, pH, and oxygen concentrations in the carrier gas) on the Hg{sup 0} re-emission rates in the simulated scrubber were investigated. The results indicated that as the operational temperature of the scrubber and the pH value of the slurry increased, the Hg{sup 0} concentrations that were emitted from the simulated scrubber increased. The Hg{sup 0} re-emission rates decreased as the O{sub 2} concentration in the carrier gas increased. In addition, the effects of additives to suppress Hg{sup 0} re-emission were evaluated in this paper. Sodium tetrasulfide, TMT 15, NaHS and HI were added to the slurry, while Hg{sup 2+}, which was absorbed in the slurry, was retained in the slurry as mercury precipitates. Therefore, there was a significant capacity for the additives to suppress Hg{sup 0} re-emission. 11 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  10. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  11. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  12. Subtask 4.8 - Fate and Control of Mercury and Trace Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlish, John; Lentz, Nicholas; Martin, Christopher; Ralston, Nicholas; Zhuang, Ye; Hamre, Lucinda

    2011-12-31

    The Center for Air Toxic Metals® (CATM®) Program at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) continues to focus on vital basic and applied research related to the fate, behavior, measurement, and control of trace metals, especially mercury, and the impact that these trace metals have on human health and the environment. For years, the CATM Program has maintained an international perspective, performing research and providing results that apply to both domestic and international audiences, with reports distributed in the United States and abroad. In addition to trace metals, CATM’s research focuses on other related emissions and issues that impact trace metal releases to the environment, such as SOx, NOx, CO2, ash, and wastewater streams. Of paramount interest and focus has been performing research that continues to enable the power and industrial sectors to operate in an environmentally responsible manner to meet regulatory standards. The research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) through CATM has allowed significant strides to be made to gain a better understanding of trace metals and other emissions, improve sampling and measurement techniques, fill data gaps, address emerging technical issues, and develop/test control technologies that allow industry to cost-effectively meet regulatory standards. The DOE NETL–CATM research specifically focused on the fate and control of mercury and trace elements in power systems that use CO2 control technologies, such as oxycombustion and gasification systems, which are expected to be among those technologies that will be used to address climate change issues. In addition, research addressed data gaps for systems that use conventional and multipollutant control technologies, such as electrostatic precipitators, selective catalytic reduction units, flue gas desulfurization systems, and flue gas

  13. Global health impacts and costs due to mercury emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Joseph V; Rabl, Ari

    2008-06-01

    Since much of the emission is in the form of metallic Hg whose atmospheric residence time is long enough to cause nearly uniform mixing in the hemisphere, much of the impact is global. This article presents a first estimate of global average neurotoxic impacts and costs by defining a comprehensive transfer factor for ingestion of methyl-Hg as ratio of global average dose rate and global emission rate. For the dose-response function (DRF) we use recent estimates of IQ decrement as function of Hg concentration in blood, as well as correlations between blood concentration and Hg ingestion. The cost of an IQ point is taken as $18,000 in the United States and applied in other countries in proportion to per capita GDP, adjusted for purchase power parity. The mean estimate of the global average of the marginal damage cost per emitted kg of Hg is about $1,500/kg, if one assumes a dose threshold of 6.7 mug/day of methyl-Hg per person, and $3,400/kg without threshold. The average global lifetime impact and cost per person at current emission levels are 0.02 IQ points lost and $78 with and 0.087 IQ points and $344 without threshold. These results are global averages; for any particular source and emission site the impacts can be quite different. An assessment of the overall uncertainties indicates that the damage cost could be a factor 4 smaller or larger than the median estimate (the uncertainty distribution is approximately log normal and the ratio median/mean is approximately 0.4).

  14. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  15. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of

  16. New insight into atmospheric mercury emissions from zinc smelters using mass flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingru; Wang, Shuxiao; Hui, Mulin; Wang, Fengyang; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Lei; Luo, Yao

    2015-03-17

    The mercury (Hg) flow paths from three zinc (Zn) smelters indicated that a large quantity of Hg, approximately 38.0-57.0% of the total Hg input, was stored as acid slag in the landfill sites. Approximately 15.0-27.1% of the Hg input was emitted into water or stored as open-dumped slags, and 3.3-14.5% of the Hg input ended in sulfuric acid. Atmospheric Hg emissions, accounting for 1.4-9.6% of the total Hg input, were from both the Zn production and waste disposal processes. Atmospheric Hg emissions from the waste disposal processes accounted for 40.6, 89.6, and 94.6% of the total atmospheric Hg emissions of the three studied smelters, respectively. The Zn production process mainly contributed to oxidized Hg (Hg2+) emissions, whereas the waste disposal process generated mostly elemental Hg (Hg0) emissions. When the emissions from these two processes are considered together, the emission proportion of the Hg2+ mass was 51, 46, and 29% in smelters A, B, and C, respectively. These results indicated that approximately 10.8±5.8 t of atmospheric Hg emissions from the waste disposal process were ignored in recent inventories. Therefore, the total atmospheric Hg emissions from the Zn industry of China should be approximately 50 t.

  17. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions estimated for South Africa during 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masekoameng, K.E.; Leaner, J.; Dabrowski, J. [CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-08-15

    Recent studies suggest an increase in mercury (Hg) emissions to the global environment, particularly as a result of anthropogenic activities. This has prompted many countries to complete Hg emission inventories, based on country-specific Hg sources. In this study, information on annual coal consumption and Hg-containing commodities produced in South Africa, was used to estimate Hg emissions during 2000-2006. Based on the information, the UNEP toolkit was used to estimate the amount of Hg released to air and general waste from each activity; using South Africa specific and toolkit based emission factors. In both atmospheric and solid waste releases, coal-fired power plants were estimated to be the largest contributors of Hg emissions, viz. 27.1 to 38.9 tonnes y{sup -1} in air, and 5.8 to 7.4 tonnes y{sup -1} in waste. Cement production was estimated to be the second largest atmospheric Hg emission contributor (2.2-3.9 tonnes y{sup -1}), while coal gasification was estimated to be the second largest Hg contributor in terms of general waste releases (2.9-4.2 tonnes y{sup -1}). Overall, there was an increase in total atmospheric Hg emissions from all activities, estimated at ca. 34 tonnes in 2000, to 50 tonnes in 2006, with some fluctuations between the years. Similarly, the total Hg emissions released to general waste was estimated to be 9 tonnes in 2000, with an increase to 12 tonnes in 2006.

  18. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  19. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  20. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  1. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2005-03-17

    Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest

  2. Quarter 9 Mercury information clearinghouse final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.; Ralston, N.; Dunham, G.; Weber, G.

    2005-12-15

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. A total of eight reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. Selected topics were discussed in detail in each quarterly report. Issues related to mercury from coal-fired utilities include the general areas of measurement, control, policy, and transformations. Specific topics that have been addressed in previous quarterly reports include the following: Quarterly 1 - Sorbent Control Technologies for Mercury Control; Quarterly 2 - Mercury Measurement; Quarterly 3 - Advanced and Developmental Mercury Control Technologies; Quarterly 4 - Prerelease of Mercury from Coal Combustion By-Products; Quarterly 5 - Mercury Fundamentals; Quarterly 6 - Mercury Control Field Demonstrations; Quarterly 7 - Mercury Regulations in the United States: Federal and State; and Quarterly 8 - Commercialization Aspects of Sorbent Injection Technologies in Canada. In this last of nine quarterly reports, an update of these mercury issues is presented that includes a summary of each topic, with recent information pertinent to advances made since the quarterly reports were originally presented. In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. 86 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Mercury emissions inventory for 2014 in Costa Rica using the PNUMA Toolkit to a N2 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Murillo-Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Minamata Convention was signed in October 2013 to protect human health and the environment from releases and anthropogenic emissions of elemental mercury and compounds containing this element.  When Costa Rica ratified this instrument, the country committed to develop and keep updated an inventory of emissions from the relevant sources of mercury. In the present work, the tool proposed by UNEP was used to generate the first mercury inventory at the N2 level of the country, which considers releases of mercury in air, water, soil, product and waste matrices. Taking 2014 as the reference year, the estimated mercury emission for Costa Rica was recorded at 5 052 kg, with an uncertainty interval between 2 675 kg and 10 525 kg; and the most important sectors in terms of the total emission were the extraction of gold with amalgamation (42 %, informal burning of waste (15 % and use of dental amalgams (10 %. The most impacted matrices were air (29 %, water (28 % and soil (21 %, respectively.

  4. Estimation of mercury emissions from forest fires, lakes, regional and local sources using measurements in Milwaukee and an inverse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury is a global pollutant that can lead to serious health concerns via deposition to the biosphere and bio-accumulation in the food chain. Hourly measurements between June 2004 and May 2005 in an urban site (Milwaukee, WI show elevated levels of mercury in the atmosphere with numerous short-lived peaks as well as longer-lived episodes. The measurements are analyzed with an inverse model to obtain information about mercury emissions. The model is based on high resolution meteorological simulations (WRF, hourly back-trajectories (WRF-FLEXPART and a chemical transport model (CAMx. The hybrid formulation combining back-trajectories and Eulerian simulations is used to identify potential source regions as well as the impacts of forest fires and lake surface emissions. Uncertainty bounds are estimated using a bootstrap method on the inversions. Comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory (NEI and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI shows that emissions from coal-fired power plants are properly characterized, but emissions from local urban sources, waste incineration and metal processing could be significantly under-estimated. Emissions from the lake surface and from forest fires were found to have significant impacts on mercury levels in Milwaukee, and to be underestimated by a factor of two or more.

  5. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, L., E-mail: l.fantozzi@iia.cnr.it [CNR-Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research, c/o: UNICAL-Polifunzionale, 87036 Rende (Italy); Ferrara, R., E-mail: romano.ferrara@pi.ibf.cnr.it [CNR-Institute of Biophysics, San Cataldo Research Area, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Dini, F., E-mail: fdiniprotisti@gmail.com [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Via A. Volta 4, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Tamburello, L., E-mail: ltamburello@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Via Derna 1, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F. [CNR-Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research, c/o: UNICAL-Polifunzionale, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ► Mercury air/surface exchange

  6. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, L.; Ferrara, R.; Dini, F.; Tamburello, L.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m −2 h −1 ) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m −2 h −1 ) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m −2 h −1 , which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ► Mercury air/surface exchange from grass covered soil is

  7. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  8. Mercury stable isotope signatures of world coal deposits and historical coal combustion emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruoyu; Sonke, Jeroen E; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Belkin, Harvey E; Liu, Guijian; Shome, Debasish; Cukrowska, Ewa; Liousse, Catherine; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Streets, David G

    2014-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal combustion contribute approximately half of anthropogenic Hg emissions to the atmosphere. With the implementation of the first legally binding UNEP treaty aimed at reducing anthropogenic Hg emissions, the identification and traceability of Hg emissions from different countries/regions are critically important. Here, we present a comprehensive world coal Hg stable isotope database including 108 new coal samples from major coal-producing deposits in South Africa, China, Europe, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, former USSR, and the U.S. A 4.7‰ range in δ(202)Hg (-3.9 to 0.8‰) and a 1‰ range in Δ(199)Hg (-0.6 to 0.4‰) are observed. Fourteen (p coal Hg emissions tracing. A revised coal combustion Hg isotope fractionation model is presented, and suggests that gaseous elemental coal Hg emissions are enriched in the heavier Hg isotopes relative to oxidized forms of emitted Hg. The model explains to first order the published δ(202)Hg observations on near-field Hg deposition from a power plant and global scale atmospheric gaseous Hg. Yet, model uncertainties appear too large at present to permit straightforward Hg isotope source identification of atmospheric forms of Hg. Finally, global historical (1850-2008) coal Hg isotope emission curves were modeled and indicate modern-day mean δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values for bulk coal emissions of -1.2 ± 0.5‰ (1SD) and 0.05 ± 0.06‰ (1SD).

  9. Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLouth, Lawrence D.

    2002-03-25

    This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

  10. Estimating mercury emissions resulting from wildfire in forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jackson; Kane, Tyler J.; Obrist, Daniel; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the emissions of mercury (Hg) from wildfires is important for quantifying the global atmospheric Hg sources. Emissions of Hg from soils resulting from wildfires in the Western United States was estimated for the 2000 to 2013 period, and the potential emission of Hg from forest soils was assessed as a function of forest type and soil-heating. Wildfire released an annual average of 3100 ± 1900 kg-Hg y− 1 for the years spanning 2000–2013 in the 11 states within the study area. This estimate is nearly 5-fold lower than previous estimates for the study region. Lower emission estimates are attributed to an inclusion of fire severity within burn perimeters. Within reported wildfire perimeters, the average distribution of low, moderate, and high severity burns was 52, 29, and 19% of the total area, respectively. Review of literature data suggests that that low severity burning does not result in soil heating, moderate severity fire results in shallow soil heating, and high severity fire results in relatively deep soil heating ( wood > foliage > litter > branches.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME I. REPORT AND APPENDICES A-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE CELL BUILDING AT A U.S. CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses an extensive measurement campaign that was conducted of the fugitive (non-ducted) airborne elemental mercury [Hg(0)] emissions from the cell building of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to ...

  13. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SITE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT USING OPEN-PATH UV-DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In December 2003, the EPA promulgated the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for mercury cell chlor-alkali plants. In February 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council filed petitions on the final rule in U.S. district court citing, among other issues, th...

  14. Mercury in products - a source of transboundary pollutant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J; Kindbom, K [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize current knowledge on product-related emissions of mercury to air on a European scale, and to estimate the contribution from mercury contained in products, to the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air and transboundary transport of mercury in Europe. Products included in this study are batteries, measuring and control instruments, light sources and electrical equipment, all intentionally containing mercury. The main result of this study is that product-related emission of mercury can contribute significantly to total emissions and transboundary transport of mercury in the European region and that measures to limit the use of mercury in products can contribute to an overall decrease of the environmental input of mercury in Europe. It is concluded that: -Mercury contained in products may be emitted to air during consumption, after disposal when incinerated or when volatilized from landfill. Mercury may also be emitted to air during recycling of scrap metal or when accumulated (stored) in society. -The amount of mercury consumed in batteries and in measuring and control instruments had decreased since the late 1980`s. The total use of mercury in light sources and electrical equipment has not changed significantly during the same time period. The contribution to total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in Europe in the mid 1990`s is estimated to be: for batteries 4%; for measuring and control instruments 3%; for lighting and electrical equipment 11%. -Mercury in products leads to significant wet deposition input in Scandinavia. The relative amount of the total deposition flux attributable to products is estimated to be 10-14% 26 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  15. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report

  16. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alexander Maxwell

    Full Text Available Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP dynamic flux chamber (DFC in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from -4.47 ng m(-2 hr(-1 to 9.89 ng m(-2 hr(-1. For most sample periods, daytime GEM flux was strongly correlated with solar radiation. The average nighttime GEM flux was slightly negative and was not well correlated with any of the measured meteorological variables. Preliminary, empirical models were developed to estimate GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York. These models suggest that most, if not all, of the Hg deposited with and to snow is reemitted to the atmosphere.

  17. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J Alexander; Holsen, Thomas M; Mondal, Sumona

    2013-01-01

    Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) dynamic flux chamber (DFC) in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg) vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from -4.47 ng m(-2) hr(-1) to 9.89 ng m(-2) hr(-1). For most sample periods, daytime GEM flux was strongly correlated with solar radiation. The average nighttime GEM flux was slightly negative and was not well correlated with any of the measured meteorological variables. Preliminary, empirical models were developed to estimate GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York. These models suggest that most, if not all, of the Hg deposited with and to snow is reemitted to the atmosphere.

  18. MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2002-06-01

    The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

  19. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kocman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4–417 μg g−1 and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m−2 h−1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  20. New processes for the reduction and capture of mercury emissions in the exhaust gas treatment; Neue Verfahren zur Minderung und Erfassung von Quecksilber-Emissionen in der Abgasbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boness, Michael [Sick Maihak GmbH, Meersburg (Germany); Kanefke, Rico [Currenta GmbH und Co. OHG, Leverkusen (Germany). Sonderabfallverbrennung Leverkusen; Vosteen, Bernhard W. [Vosteen Consulting GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The highly volatile heavy metal mercury is deemed to be very toxic. There exist a lot of natural as well as anthropogenic sources for the pollution of the environment with mercury such as the coal-fired power generation, the electrolytic production of chlorine, the cement burning including the release of mercury from the cement raw meal, the waste incineration and the artisanal production of gold by amalgamation with liquid mercury. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on new procedures for the reduction and capture of mercury emissions in the exhaust gas treatment. The bromine supported precipitation of mercury in the exhaust gas treatment is an efficient and economic process which takes account of the future requirements of lower limit values for mercury. Simultaneously, a new measurement technique for a continuous capture of mercury with new standards on detection sensitivity, accuracy and reliability in connection with a more simple and cost-effective maintenance is developed. The bromine supported precipitation as well as the continuous capture of mercury are trendsetters and are actually the best available technologies for the reduction of mercury emissions.

  1. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  3. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0

  4. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  5. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  6. A Comparison of Urinary Mercury between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Control Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Pearce, Helen; Allgar, Victoria; Miles, Jeremy; Whitton, Clare; Leon, Irene; Jardine, Jenny; McCaffrey, Nicola; Smith, Rob; Holbrook, Ian; Lewis, John; Goodall, David; Alderson-Day, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary mercury concentrations are used in research exploring mercury exposure. Some theorists have proposed that autism is caused by mercury toxicity. We set out to test whether mercury concentrations in the urine of children with autism were significantly increased or decreased compared to controls or siblings. Methods Blinded cohort analyses were carried out on the urine of 56 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to their siblings (n = 42) and a control sample of children without ASD in mainstream (n = 121) and special schools (n = 34). Results There were no statistically significant differences in creatinine levels, in uncorrected urinary mercury levels or in levels of mercury corrected for creatinine, whether or not the analysis is controlled for age, gender and amalgam fillings. Conclusions This study lends no support for the hypothesis of differences in urinary mercury excretion in children with autism compared to other groups. Some of the results, however, do suggest further research in the area may be warranted to replicate this in a larger group and with clear measurement of potential confounding factors. PMID:22355303

  7. A comparison of urinary mercury between children with autism spectrum disorders and control children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Wright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary mercury concentrations are used in research exploring mercury exposure. Some theorists have proposed that autism is caused by mercury toxicity. We set out to test whether mercury concentrations in the urine of children with autism were significantly increased or decreased compared to controls or siblings. METHODS: Blinded cohort analyses were carried out on the urine of 56 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD compared to their siblings (n = 42 and a control sample of children without ASD in mainstream (n = 121 and special schools (n = 34. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in creatinine levels, in uncorrected urinary mercury levels or in levels of mercury corrected for creatinine, whether or not the analysis is controlled for age, gender and amalgam fillings. CONCLUSIONS: This study lends no support for the hypothesis of differences in urinary mercury excretion in children with autism compared to other groups. Some of the results, however, do suggest further research in the area may be warranted to replicate this in a larger group and with clear measurement of potential confounding factors.

  8. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical note describes a United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) measurement project to determine elemental mercury (Hg0) emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali (MCCA) facility in the southeastern U.S. during a 53-day monitoring campaign in the fall of...

  9. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  10. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  11. Methods for measuring specific rates of mercury methylation and degradation and their use in determining factors controlling net rates of mercury methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramlal, P.S.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Hecky, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate specific rates of demethylation of methyl mercury in aquatic samples by measuring the volatile 14 C end products of 14 CH 3 HgI demethylation. This method was used in conjuction with a 203 Hg 2+ radiochemical method which determines specific rates of mercury methylation. Together, these methods enabled us to examine some factors controlling the net rate of mercury methylation. The methodologies were field tested, using lake sediment samples from a recently flooded reservoir in the Southern Indian Lake system which had developed a mercury contamination problem in fish. Ratios of the specific rates of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation were calculated. The highest ratios of methylation/demethylation occurred in the flooded shorelines of Southern Indian Lake. These results provide an explanation for the observed increases in the methyl mercury concentrations in fish after flooding

  12. METAALICUS : mercury experiment to assess atmospheric loading in Canada and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, J.W.M.; Kelly, C.A. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Freshwater Inst.; Branfireun, B. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Gilmour, C.; Heyes, A. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Harris, R. [Tetra Tech Inc., Pasadena, CA (United States); Hintelmann, H. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Hurley, J.P. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Water Resources Inst.; Krabenhoft, D.P. [U.S. Geological Survey (United States); Lindberg, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); St Louis, V.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Scott, K.J. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology

    2000-07-01

    Mercury emitted from coal-fired utilities is one of the major sources of anthropogenic mercury in the environment. Recently proposed control strategies for these emissions are expected to cost several billion dollars per year for North America alone. The major objective in controlling mercury emissions is to decrease levels of mercury in fish consumed by humans. However, since the actual relationship between atmospheric mercury deposition and fish mercury is still unknown, a unique whole-ecosystem study was conducted to address this issue. During the course of this study at the experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, the load of mercury in a small lake was increased by a factor of four to simulate the atmospheric loadings to lakes in northeastern North America. The mercury was added as three different stable isotopes to determine the most important sources of mercury to fish. The isotopes also made it possible to compare the availability of newly deposited mercury with old mercury stored in lake sediments and soils by analyzing mercury isotope patterns in biota. The response time in a catchment area to an increase in the rate of atmospheric deposition of mercury was calculated to determine if newly deposited mercury behaves in the same way as mercury that has accumulated in upland soils over many years.

  13. Subcellular controls of mercury trophic transfer to a marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Fei; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Different behaviors of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer along the marine food chain have been widely reported, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The bioavailability of ingested mercury, quantified by assimilation efficiency (AE), was investigated in a marine fish, the grunt Terapon jarbua, based on mercury subcellular partitioning in prey and purified subcellular fractions of prey tissues. The subcellular distribution of Hg(II) differed substantially among prey types, with cellular debris being a major (49-57% in bivalves) or secondary (14-19% in other prey) binding pool. However, MeHg distribution varied little among prey types, with most MeHg (43-79%) in heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction. The greater AEs measured for MeHg (90-94%) than for Hg(II) (23-43%) confirmed the findings of previous studies. Bioavailability of each purified subcellular fraction rather than the proposed trophically available metal (TAM) fraction could better elucidate mercury assimilation difference. Hg(II) associated with insoluble fraction (e.g. cellular debris) was less bioavailable than that in soluble fraction (e.g. HSP). However, subcellular distribution was shown to be less important for MeHg, with each fraction having comparable MeHg bioavailability. Subcellular distribution in prey should be an important consideration in mercury trophic transfer studies.

  14. Subcellular controls of mercury trophic transfer to a marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-09-15

    Different behaviors of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer along the marine food chain have been widely reported, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The bioavailability of ingested mercury, quantified by assimilation efficiency (AE), was investigated in a marine fish, the grunt Terapon jarbua, based on mercury subcellular partitioning in prey and purified subcellular fractions of prey tissues. The subcellular distribution of Hg(II) differed substantially among prey types, with cellular debris being a major (49-57% in bivalves) or secondary (14-19% in other prey) binding pool. However, MeHg distribution varied little among prey types, with most MeHg (43-79%) in heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction. The greater AEs measured for MeHg (90-94%) than for Hg(II) (23-43%) confirmed the findings of previous studies. Bioavailability of each purified subcellular fraction rather than the proposed trophically available metal (TAM) fraction could better elucidate mercury assimilation difference. Hg(II) associated with insoluble fraction (e.g. cellular debris) was less bioavailable than that in soluble fraction (e.g. HSP). However, subcellular distribution was shown to be less important for MeHg, with each fraction having comparable MeHg bioavailability. Subcellular distribution in prey should be an important consideration in mercury trophic transfer studies.

  15. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zhang; S. X. Wang; Q. R. Wu; F. Y. Wang; C.-J. Lin; L. M. Zhang; M. L. Hui; J. M. Hao

    2015-01-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C t...

  16. Mercury risk from fluorescent lamps in China: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2012-09-01

    Energy-efficient lighting is one of the key measures for addressing electric power shortages and climate change mitigation, and fluorescent lamps are expected to dominate the lighting market in China over the next several years. This review presents an overview on the emissions and risk of mercury from fluorescent lamps during production and disposal, and discusses measures for reducing the mercury risk through solid waste management and source reduction. Fluorescent lamps produced in China used to contain relatively large amounts of mercury (up to 40 mg per lamp) due to the prevalence of liquid mercury dosing, which also released significant amounts of mercury to the environment. Upgrade of the mercury dosing technologies and manufacturing facilities had significantly reduced the mercury contents in fluorescent lamps, with most of them containing less than 10 or 5mg per lamp now. Occupational hygiene studies showed that mercury emissions occurred during fluorescent lamp production, particularly in the facilities using liquid mercury dosing, which polluted the environmental media at and surrounding the production sites and posed chronic health risk to the workers by causing neuropsychological and motor impairments. It is estimated that spent fluorescent lamps account for approximately 20% of mercury input in the MSW in China. Even though recycling of fluorescent lamps presents an important opportunity to capture the mercury they contain, it is difficult and not cost-effective at reducing the mercury risk under the broader context of mercury pollution control in China. In light of the significant mercury emissions associated with electricity generation in China, we propose that reduction of mercury emissions and risk associated with fluorescent lamps should be achieved primarily through lowering their mercury contents by the manufacturers while recycling programs should focus on elemental mercury-containing waste products instead of fluorescent lamps to recapture

  17. Emissions control for sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Gorgon project needs almost no introduction. Located off the north-west coast of Western Australia, it is one of the world's largest natural gas projects, set on the environmentally sensitive Barrow Island. To protect the island's unique habitats, stringent environmental conditions have been imposed in terms of air, noise and light emissions, making the emission control system critical to the project's viability. Luhr Filter, specialists in dust and fume control solutions, were chosen by KMH Environmental to supply an emission control system for a waste incinerator facility serving the LNG processing plant on Barrow Island. KMH's preference was for a 'one stop' supplier of the entire pollution control system. This included a heat exchanger which had the added benefit of a compact build to fit in the limited real estate. The solution put forward was tailored to the unique environmental requirements of the Gorgon project. It was very much about collaboration and innovation to achieve the requisite results. KMH were also keen to limit the number of sub-contractors they had to deal with, and Luhr offered them a turn-key plant for the gas cleaning, integrating design and supply of all the equipment. Among the environmental requirements was that all putrescible waste created on-site - from the accommodation camps during the construction and, eventually, production phases - had to be incinerated rather than sent to landfill. The flue gas from the incinerators had to be treated in order to meet world-class environmental standards for emission of particulate, acid gases, metals and dioxins. KMH designed an incinerator system with primary and secondary combustion chambers in modular units to minimise labour requirements on site. The dry absorption system integrates Luhr's unique technologies for heat exchangers, absorption reactors, utilisation of the absorbent and the baghouse style filters with reverse pulse bag cleaning

  18. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During

  19. Mercury emissions from flooded soils and sediments in Germany are an underestimated problem: challenges for reliable risk assessments and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinklebe J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by mercury is a world-wide problem. Particularly floodplain ecosystems are frequently affected. One example is the Elbe River in Germany and its catchment areas; large amounts of Hg from a range of anthropogenic and geogenic sources have been accumulated in the soils of these floodplains. They serve as sink for Hg originating from the surface water of adjacent river. Today, the vastly elevated Hg contents of the floodplain soils at the Elbe River often exceed even the action values of the German Soil Conservation Law. This is especially important as Hg polluted areas at the Elbe River achieve several hundred square kilometres. Thus, authorities are coerced by law to conduct an appropriate risk assessment and to implement practical actions to eliminate or reduce environmental problems. A reliable risk assessment particularly with view to organisms (vegetation as green fodder and hay production, grazing and wild animals to avoid the transfer of Hg into the human food chain, requires an authentic determination of Hg fluxes and their dynamics since gaseous emissions from soil to atmosphere are an important pathway of Hg. However, reliable estimates of Hg fluxes from the highly polluted floodplain soils at the Elbe River and its tributaries, and its influencing factors are scarce. For this purpose, we have developed a new method to determine mercury emissions from soils at various sites. Our objectives were i to quantify seasonal variations of total gaseous mercury (TGM fluxes for floodplain soils at the Elbe River, ii to provide insights into physico-chemical processes regulating these TGM fluxes, and iii to quantify the impacts of the controlling factors soil temperature and soil water content on Hg volatilization from a typical contaminated floodplain soil within soil microcosm experiments under various controlled temperature and moisture conditions. Our study provides insight into TGM emissions from highly Hg

  20. Solid phase microextraction capillary gas chromatography combined with furnace atomization plasma emission spectrometry for speciation of mercury in fish tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, Patricia; Campos, Reinaldo C.; Mester, Zoltan; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of solid phase microextraction in conjunction with tandem gas chromatography-furnace atomization plasma emission spectrometry (SPME-GC-FAPES) was evaluated for the determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in fish tissue. Samples were digested with methanolic potassium hydroxide, derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate and extracted by SPME. After the SPME extraction, species were separated by GC and detected by FAPES. All experimental parameters were optimized for best separation and analytical response. A repeatability precision of typically 2% can be achieved with long-term (3 months) reproducibility precision of 4.3%. Certified Reference Materials DORM-2, DOLT-2 and TORT-2 from the National Research Council of Canada were analyzed to verify the accuracy of this technique. Detection limits of 1.5 ng g -1 for methylmercury and 0.7 ng g -1 for inorganic mercury in biological tissues were obtained

  1. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gase...

  2. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near......Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from materials is traditionally determined from tests carried out in small-scale test chambers. However, a difference in scale may lead to a difference in the measured emission rate in a small-scale test chamber and the actual emission rate in a full...

  3. THE LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK. PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OF MARCH 2003 - MARCH 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.D.MORRIS,S.M.

    2003-05-01

    This report presents a follow-up to previous assessments of the health risks of mercury that BNL performed for the Department of Energy. Methylmercury is an organic form of mercury that has been implicated as the form of mercury that impacts human health. A comprehensive risk assessment report was prepared (Lipfert et al., 1994) that led to several journal articles and conference presentations (Lipfert et al. 1994, 1995, 1996). In 2001, a risk assessment of mercury exposure from fish consumption was performed for 3 regions of the U.S (Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest) identified by the EPA as regions of higher impact from coal emissions (Sullivan, 2001). The risk assessment addressed the effects of in utero exposure to children through consumption of fish by their mothers. Two population groups (general population and subsistence fishers) were considered. Three mercury levels were considered in the analysis, current conditions based on measured data, and hypothetical reductions in Hg levels due to a 50% and 90% reduction in mercury emissions from coal fired power plants. The findings of the analysis suggested that a 90% reduction in coal-fired emissions would lead to a small reduction in risk to the general population (population risk reduction on the order of 10{sup -5}) and that the population risk is born by less than 1% of the population (i.e. high end fish consumers). The study conducted in 2001 focused on the health impacts arising from regional deposition patterns as determined by measured data and modeling. Health impacts were assessed on a regional scale accounting for potential percent reductions in mercury emissions from coal. However, quantitative assessment of local deposition near actual power plants has not been attempted. Generic assessments have been performed, but these are not representative of any single power plant. In this study, general background information on the mercury cycle, mercury emissions from coal plants, and risk assessment are

  4. Mercury Sodium Exospheric Emission as a Proxy for Solar Perturbations Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, S.; Mangano, V.; Milillo, A.; Plainaki, C.; Mura, A.; Raines, J. M.; Laurenza, M.; De Angelis, E.; Rispoli, R.; Lazzarotto, F.; Aronica, A.

    2018-05-01

    We report about recent results published on Scientific Reports @nature.com showing the first evidence of direct relationship between exosphere Na dynamics observed from ground and ICME transit at Mercury, as detected by MESSENGER.

  5. Calls to Florida Poison Control Centers about mercury: Trends over 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Matthew O; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Stephan, Wendy B; Hunter, Candis M; Weisman, Richard S

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this analysis was to contrast trends in exposure-report calls and informational queries (a measure of public interest) about mercury to the Florida Poison Control Centers over 2003-2013. Poison-control specialists coded calls to Florida Poison Control Centers by substance of concern, caller demographics, and whether the call pertained to an exposure event or was an informational query. For the present study, call records regarding mercury were de-identified and provided along with daily total number of calls for statistical analysis. We fit Poisson models using generalized estimating equations to summarize changes across years in counts of daily calls to Florida Poison Control Centers, adjusting for month. In a second stage of analysis, we further adjusted for the total number of calls each day. We also conducted analyses stratified by age of the exposed. There was an overall decrease over 2003-2013 in the number of total calls about mercury [Ratio per year: 0.89, 95% CI: (0.88, 0.90)], and calls about mercury exposure [Ratio per year: 0.84, 95% CI: (0.83, 0.85)], but the number of informational queries about mercury increased over this time [Ratio per year: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.18)]. After adjusting for the number of calls of that type each day (e.g., call volume), the associations remained similar: a ratio of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.89) per year for total calls, 0.85 (0.83, 0.86) for exposure-related calls, and 1.17 (1.14, 1.21) for informational queries. Although, the number of exposure-related calls decreased, informational queries increased over 2003-2013. This might suggest an increased public interest in mercury health risks despite a decrease in reported exposures over this time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interpretation of the source-specific substantive control measures of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2015-02-01

    Being persistent, toxic, and bio-accumulative, Mercury (Hg) seriously affects the environment and human health. Due to Hg's attribute of long-range environmental transport across national borders, especially through atmospheric transport, no country can fully protect its environment and human health with its own efforts, without global cooperation. The Minamata Convention on Mercury, which was formally adopted and opened for signature in October 2013, is the only global environmental regime on the control of Hg pollution. Its main substantive control measures are source-specific: its phasing-out, phasing-down, and other main substantive requirements all direct to specific categories of pollution sources through the regulation of specific sectors of the economy and social life. This Convention does not take a national quota approach to quantify the Parties' nationwide total allowable consumption or discharge of Hg or Hg compounds, nor does it quantify their nationwide total reduction requirements. This paper attempts to find the underlying reasons for this source-specific approach and offers two interpretations. One possible interpretation is that Hg might be a non-threshold pollutant, i.e., a pollutant without a risk-free value of concentration. The existence of a reference dose (RfD), reference concentration (RfC), provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), minimal risk level (MRL) or other similar reference values of Hg does not necessarily mean that Hg cannot be regarded as non-threshold because such reference values have scientific uncertainties and may also involve policy considerations. Another interpretation is that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity. There is evidence that negotiators might have treated Hg as non-threshold, or at least accepted that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity: (1) The negotiators were informed about the serious situations of the current emissions, releases, and legacy deposition; (2

  7. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  8. Results from Mobile Lab Measurements Obtained in the Barnett Shale with Emphasis on Methane and Gaseous Mercury Emissions (Fort Worth, TX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, P. L.; Lan, X.; Anderson, D.; Talbot, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Our work is part of a comprehensive analysis conducted through a collaboration of ground based measurements and airborne measurements with several research groups in order to gain a better understanding of methane and mercury emissions in the Barnett Shale. It's a vast rock formation that sits in the 5,000 square miles surrounding the Fort Worth area. To get the gas to market requires an underground highway of pipelines and compression stations. Texas state records show that since 2000 the number of gas compressors in the Barnett Shale has tripled (from a few hundred to 1,300), and they're ever infringing on populated areas. Recent preliminary data reported by Pétron et al. and Tollefson et al. (from the natural-gas operations in Denver-Julesburg Basin) point to CH4 loss from the process of 4-8%, not including additional losses in the pipeline and distribution system. Additionally, Howarth et al. have conducted a comprehensive analysis of greenhouse gases (methane, in particular) emitted from shale gas as a result of hydraulic fracturing and they estimate up to 8% of all natural gas mined from shale formations leaks to the atmosphere. Not only is this cause for alarm due to the global warming potential of methane, but we would expect similar losses of additional (potentially harmful) gases, i.e., atmospheric Hg, from the extraction systems. These preliminary findings are higher than the current U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) leakage estimate of 2.3 percent. Our strategy employs the use of our mobile laboratory, a four door Chevrolet Silverado pickup truck with a camper shell, outfitted with trace gas instrumentation including a Picarro G2132i and a Tekran 2537 mercury analyzer. The Picarro cavity ring down instrument has high precision and accuracy H2O, CO2, CH4, and 13δC in CH4 and CO2 with very little drift due to precise temperature and pressure controls. The Tekran mercury analyzer allows for accurate total gaseous mercury measurements via

  9. The dosage of mercury vapours in air. Application to an atmospheric control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, H.; Vettier, M.C.; Moser, Y.

    1961-01-01

    The authors have studied a technique making it possible to trap completely the mercury vapours in the atmosphere and to analyse them with precision; their object is an application to an atmospheric control. The analytical method used is particularly sensitive and makes possible the determination of 1 micro-gram of mercury in a 1000 litre sample of air with an accuracy of 2 per cent. The total time for the operation can be estimated to be about 2 1/2 hours, including the analysis. The operations are straightforward and can be carried out by specialised personnel after a short training. (author) [fr

  10. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury

  11. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  12. Mercury regulation, fate, transport, transformation, and abatement within cement manufacturing facilities: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Joel K; Alleman, James E; Ong, Say Kee; Wheelock, Thomas D

    2011-09-15

    The USEPA's 2010 mercury rule, which would reduce emissions from non-hazardous waste burning cement manufacturing facilities by an estimated 94%, represents a substantial regulatory challenge for the industry. These regulations, based on the performance of facilities that benefit from low concentrations of mercury in their feedstock and fuel inputs (e.g., limestone concentration was less than 25 ppb at each facility), will require non-compliant facilities to develop innovative controls. Control development is difficult because each facility's emissions must be assessed and simple correlation to mercury concentrations in limestone or an assumption of 'typically observed' mercury concentrations in inputs are unsupported by available data. Furthermore, atmospheric emissions are highly variable due to an internal control mechanism that captures and loops mercury between the high-temperature kiln and low-temperature raw materials mill. Two models have been reported to predict emissions; however, they have not been benchmarked against data from the internal components that capture mercury and do not distinguish between mercury species, which have different sorption and desorption properties. Control strategies include technologies applied from other industries and technologies developed specifically for cement facilities. Reported technologies, listed from highest to lowest anticipated mercury removal, include purge of collected dust or raw meal, changes in feedstocks and fuels, wet scrubbing, cleaning of mercury enriched dust, dry sorbent injection, and dry and semi-dry scrubbing. The effectiveness of these technologies is limited by an inadequate understanding of sorption, desorption, and mercury species involved in internal loop mercury control. To comply with the mercury rule and to improve current mercury control technologies and practices, research is needed to advance fundamental knowledge regarding mercury species sorption and desorption dynamics on materials

  13. Environmental Assessment for Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control, Presque Isle Power Plant, Marquette, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2003-09-25

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates environmental issues associated with constructing and operating an integrated emissions control system proposed by We Energies and its project partners with cost-shared funding support by DOE. The proposed project would be demonstrated at the existing 90-MW Units 7, 8, and 9 of We Energies' coal-fired Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. The commercial-scale demonstrate would allow utilities to make decisions regarding the integrated emissions control system as a viable commercial option. DOE's share of the funding for the 5-year demonstration project would be about $25 million, while $25 million would also be provided by We Energies and its project partners. This project was selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) for negotiation of a cooperative agreement to demonstrate the integration of technologies to reduce emissions of mercury (Hg) and particulate matter, as well as potentially control sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) emissions. DOE's decision is whether or not to fund the project. The EA evaluates the principal environmental issues, including air quality, waste management, and traffic, that could result from construction and operation of the proposed project. The EA also considers two reasonably foreseeable scenarios that could result from the no-action alternative in which DOE would not provide cost-shared funding for the proposed project. Key findings include that potential air quality impacts resulting from the proposed project would generally be beneficial because plantwide air emissions would decrease or continue at the same level. The decrease in stack exit temperature would decrease the plume rise, which could result in increased downwind ground-level concentrations of those air pollutants experience little or no decrease in stack emissions. However, results of air dispersion modeling indicated that no

  14. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  15. Mercury balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  16. Surface-Air Mercury Fluxes Across Western North America: A Synthesis of Spatial Trends and Controlling Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, C.; Tate, M.; Lin, C. J.; Gustin, M. S.; Dent, S.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Lutz, M.; Wickland, K.; Wang, B.; Gray, J.; Edwards, G. C.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Smith, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This presentation focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere.

  17. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, Chris S.; Tate, Michael T.; Lin, Che-Jen; Gustin, Mae S.; Dent, Stephen; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Lutz, Michelle A; Wickland, Kimberly; Wang, Bronwen; Gray, John E.; Edwards, Grant; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere.

  18. Measurement of cesium and mercury emissions from the vitrification of simulated high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site, it is desired to measure non-radioactive cesium in the offgas system from the glass melter. From a pilot scale melter system, offgas particulate samples were taken on filter paper media and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS method proved to be sufficiently sensitive to measure cesium quantities as low as 0.135 μg, with the sensitivity being limited by the background cesium present in the filter paper. This sensitivity allowed determination of cesium decontamination factors for four of the five major components of the offgas system. In addition, total particulate measurements were also made. Measurements of mercury decontamination factors were made on the same equipment; the results indicate that most of the mercury in the offgas system probably exists as elemental mercury and HgCl 2 , with some HgO and Hg 2 Cl 2 . The decontamination factors determined for cesium, total particulate, and mercury all compared favorably with the design values

  19. Mercury's complex exosphere: results from MESSENGER's third flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J; McClintock, William E; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Anderson, Brian J; Burger, Matthew H; Bradley, E Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2010-08-06

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal altitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere.

  20. Mercury's Complex Exosphere: Results from MESSENGER's Third Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Anderson, Brian J.; Burger, Matthew H.; Bradley, E. Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal attitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere,

  1. Geoecological controls on net mercury retention in northern peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, R.; Rydberg, J.

    2010-12-01

    Peatlands, which receive much or all of their element inputs (e.g. nutrients or trace metals) via the atmosphere, are considered an ideal archive for studying past changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. These archives potentially contain information not only on important anthropogenic contributions to the environment over the past few centuries, but also on the natural antecedent conditions over the past several millennia. However, the assumption that Hg accumulation rates in peat represent an absolute record of past atmospheric deposition has proved problematic. In on-going studies of Hg retention in northern peatlands (bogs and oligotrophic fens) we find that net Hg accumulation is influenced by a range of geoecological factors in addition to actual changes in atmospheric deposition. Factors that influence the interception and net retention of Hg include differences in vegetation and microtopography - both of which may enhance dry deposition, and properties and processes within the peat such as decomposition that might influence long-term retention. Wetness, too, may play an important role in net retention in the surface peat through increased evasive losses of Hg. Differences between Hg concentrations in vascular plants and mosses are well established (at our site: 5-15 ng/g for leaves/needles of cottongrass, heather, Labrador tea and pine; 15-45 ng/g for mosses Sphagnum centrale and S. rubellum), but we also measured significant differences between different mosses within the same plots (S. rubellum, 24±3 ng/g; S. centrale, 18±2 ng/g). Further differences in Hg concentrations occur for single moss species in different settings; for example, Hg concentrations in S. centrale in open Sphagnum-only plots relative to plots including a mixture of vascular plants that form a field-layer canopy are 18±2 and 32±6 ng/g, respectively. As a result, sampling sites consisting of both Sphagnum and vascular plants have long-term cumulative inventories of mercury in the peat

  2. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  3. Control, synchronization, and enhanced reliability of aperiodic oscillations in the Mercury Beating Heart system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Parmananda, P.

    2018-04-01

    Experiments involving the Mercury Beating Heart (MBH) oscillator, exhibiting irregular (aperiodic) dynamics, are performed. In the first set of experiments, control over irregular dynamics of the MBH oscillator was obtained via a superimposed periodic voltage signal. These irregular (aperiodic) dynamics were recovered once the control was switched off. Subsequently, two MBH oscillators were coupled to attain synchronization of their aperiodic oscillations. Finally, two uncoupled MBH oscillators were subjected, repeatedly, to a common stochastic forcing, resulting in an enhancement of their mutual phase correlation.

  4. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000 to 2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  5. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2002-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  6. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin coal

  7. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  8. GNAQPMS-Hg v1.0, a global nested atmospheric mercury transport model: model description, evaluation and application to trans-boundary transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. S.; Wang, Z. F.; Li, J.; Tang, X.; Ge, B. Z.; Wu, X. L.; Wild, O.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant and can be transported over the whole globe due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. For the purpose of assessing Hg hemispheric transport and better characterizing regional Hg pollution, a global nested atmospheric Hg transport model (GNAQPMS-Hg - Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System for Hg) has been developed. In GNAQPMS-Hg, the gas- and aqueous-phase Hg chemistry representing the transformation among three forms of Hg: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), divalent mercury (Hg(II)), and primary particulate mercury (Hg(P)) are calculated. A detailed description of the model, including mercury emissions, gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, and dry and wet deposition is given in this study. Worldwide observations including extensive data in China have been collected for model evaluation. Comparison results show that the model reasonably simulates the global mercury budget and the spatiotemporal variation of surface mercury concentrations and deposition. Overall, model predictions of annual total gaseous mercury (TGM) and wet deposition agree with observations within a factor of 2, and within a factor of 5 for oxidized mercury and dry deposition. The model performs significantly better in North America and Europe than in East Asia. This can probably be attributed to the large uncertainties in emission inventories, coarse model resolution and to the inconsistency between the simulation and observation periods in East Asia. Compared to the global simulation, the nested simulation shows improved skill at capturing the high spatial variability of surface Hg concentrations and deposition over East Asia. In particular, the root mean square error (RMSE) of simulated Hg wet deposition over East Asia is reduced by 24 % in the nested simulation. Model sensitivity studies indicate that Chinese primary anthropogenic emissions account for 30 and 62 % of surface mercury concentrations and deposition over China, respectively

  9. Mercury from combustion sources: a review of the chemical species emitted and their transport in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Different species of mercury have different physical/chemical properties and thus behave quite differentially in air pollution control equipment and in the atmosphere. In general, emission of mercury from coal combustion sources are approximately 20-50% elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and 50-80% divalent mercury (Hg(II)), which may be predominantly HgCl 2 . Emissions of mercury from waste incinerators are approximately 10-20% Hg 0 and 75-85% Hg(II). The partitioning of mercury in flue gas between the elemental and divalent forms may be dependent on the concentration of particulate carbon, HCl and other pollutants in the stack emissions. The emission of mercury from combustion facilities depends on the species in the exhaust stream and the type of air pollution control equipment used at the source. Air pollution control equipment for mercury removal at combustion facilities includes activated carbon injection, sodium sulfide injection and wet lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization. White Hg(II) is water-soluble and may be removed form the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition close to the combustion sources, the combination of a high vapor pressure and low water-solubility facilitate the long-range transport of Hg 0 in the atmosphere. Background mercury in the atmosphere is predominantly Hg 0 . Elemental mercury is eventually removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition onto surfaces and by wet deposition after oxidation to water-soluble, divalent mercury. 62 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. A novel approach to mitigating sulphur dioxide emissions and producing a mercury sorbent material using oil-sands fluid coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.; Jia, C.Q.; Tong, S.

    2008-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical smelting operations are a major source of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) which is a precursor to acid rain and increased levels of UV-B penetration in boreal lakes. Mercury is also released in copper smelter off-gas, which can bioaccumulate and cause neurological disorders and death in humans. Fluid coke is produced in massive quantities as a by-product of bitumen upgrading at Syncrude Canada's facility in Fort McMurray, Alberta. Oilsands fluid coke can be used to reduce SO 2 and produce elemental sulphur as a co-product. This process was dubbed SOactive. The reaction physically activates the fluid coke to produce a sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) which is known as ECOcarbon. Some studies have indicated that SIAC is well suited for the removal of vapour phase mercury, mainly due to the formation of stable mercuric sulphide species. This paper discussed the findings made to date in relation to the SOactive process and the characterization of ECOcarbons. The paper discussed the use of fluid coke for reducing SO 2 emissions while producing elemental sulphur as well as coke-SO 2 -oxygen (O 2 ) and coke-SO 2 -water (H 2 O) systems. The paper also examined the production of SIAC products for use in capturing vapour phase mercury. The paper presented the materials and methodology, including an illustration of the apparatus used in reduction of SO 2 and activation of fluid coke. It was concluded that more work is still needed to analyse the effect of O 2 and SO 2 reduction and SIAC properties under smelter flue gas conditions. 10 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  11. Mitigation of gaseous Mercury Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Hg-Oxidation Pathways in Presence of Fly Ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    Roč. 206, JAN 15 ( 2018 ), s. 276-283 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * emission * waste incineration Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  12. Mitigation of gaseous Mercury Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Hg-Oxidation Pathways in Presence of Fly Ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 206, JAN 15 (2018), s. 276-283 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * emission * waste incineration Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  13. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system

  14. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system.

  15. [Characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Ai, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zi-Qi

    2013-02-01

    Jiapigou gold mine, located in the upper Songhua River, was once the largest mine in China due to gold output, where gold extraction with algamation was widely applied to extract gold resulting in severe mercury pollution to ambient environmental medium. In order to study the characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control, sampling sites were selected in equal distances along the slope which is situated in the typical hill-valley terrain unit. Mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere was determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber and in all sampling sites the atmosphere concentration from 0 to 150 cm near to the earth in the vertical direction was measured. Furthermore, the impact factors including synchronous meteorology, the surface characteristics under the snow retention and snow melting control and the mercury concentration in vertical direction were also investigated. The results are as follows: During the period of snow retention and melting the air mercury tends to gather towards valley bottom along the slope and an obvious deposit tendency process was found from air to the earth's surface under the control of thermal inversion due to the underlying surface of cold source (snow surface). However, during the period of snow melting, mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere on the surface of the earth with the snow being melted demonstrates alternative deposit and release processes. As for the earth with snow covered, the deposit level of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere is lower than that during the period of snow retention. The relationship between mercury exchange flux and impact factors shows that in snow retention there is a remarkable negative linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and air mercury concentration as well as between the former and the air temperature. In addition, in snow melting mercury exchange

  16. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  17. Environmental management control systems for carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Di Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to focus on a global consulting company and examine how it struggled to establish an effective environmental management control system for carbon emissions for its employees’ air travel. The organisation was motivated to reduce its carbon emissions both to comply with regulation and to enhance or maintain corporate reputation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a case study approach, examining internal and external documents as well as conducting interviews with senior staff. Findings – The case study investigates how Beta’s management implemented a system to reduce carbon emissions. The organisation focused on air travel, but the study finds that employee travel preferences did not radically change. Rather than reduction in carbon emissions, as planned by head office, air travel carbon emissions actually increased during the period, and, as a consequence, the reported reduction targets were significantly adjusted downwards to meet the new realities. Practical implications – The study has implications for both policy and practice for organisations seeking to improve their sustainability performance. Originality/value – The study responds to calls in the literature to undertake research to identify how management practices might reduce negative sustainability impacts, as there is little evidence of what management practices and accounting tools are being adopted, particularly in relation to carbon emissions from air travel. The paper adds to the creation of new accounting, giving visibility to carbon emission management through case study analysis.

  18. Mercury in the environment : a primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourie, B; Glenn, W [ed.; Ogilvie, K; Everhardus, E; Friesen, K; Rae, S

    2003-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the occurrence and effects of mercury in the environment and its impacts on human health. Low levels of mercury occur naturally everywhere in the environment in plants, animals, rocks and air. Incidental emissions occur when natural mercury is released to the environment through human activity. In Canada, coal burning and metal processing are the two largest point sources of atmospheric mercury emissions. Energy facilities have the option to invest in expensive control technologies for coal plants, or they can generate electricity from alternative energy sources. Energy conservation, however, offers the greatest overall benefits for the environment and the public. Mercury can also be released when products containing mercury (such as electrical switches, thermostats, dental amalgam, and thermometers) are broken while in use, or when they are crushed in garbage trucks and dumped in landfills. Source separation is the best way to reduce waste-related emissions. Once mercury is released to the natural environment, it can be transported long distances through air or watercourses. It is volatile, therefore evaporates readily to the atmosphere where it may do one of three things: it may fall out near the point where it was emitted; it may be transported long distances to some point downwind; or, it may enter the global atmospheric mercury pool where it will circle the globe for a year or more within the Earth's major weather systems before being deposited. Data from Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory indicates that mercury releases and transfers total 28,674 kg per year. The most critical component of the mercury cycle is the conversion of inorganic forms of mercury to the organic compound methylmercury which is more toxic to humans. Most concern about mercury focuses on lakes and other aquatic ecosystems. Fish in hydroelectric reservoirs have been found to contain elevated methylmercury levels because natural mercury in the

  19. A vegetation control on seasonal variations in global atmospheric mercury concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Martin; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Obrist, Daniel; Bieser, Johannes; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo; Wängberg, Ingvar; Kyllönen, Katriina; Worthy, Doug; Martin, Lynwill G.; Labuschagne, Casper; Mkololo, Thumeka; Ramonet, Michel; Magand, Olivier; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    Anthropogenic mercury emissions are transported through the atmosphere as gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) before they are deposited to Earth's surface. Strong seasonality in atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere has been explained by two factors: anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions are thought to peak in winter due to higher energy consumption, and atmospheric oxidation rates of Hg(0) are faster in summer. Oxidation-driven Hg(0) seasonality should be equally pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere, which is inconsistent with observations of constant year-round Hg(0) levels. Here, we assess the role of Hg(0) uptake by vegetation as an alternative mechanism for driving Hg(0) seasonality. We find that at terrestrial sites in the Northern Hemisphere, Hg(0) co-varies with CO2, which is known to exhibit a minimum in summer when CO2 is assimilated by vegetation. The amplitude of seasonal oscillations in the atmospheric Hg(0) concentration increases with latitude and is larger at inland terrestrial sites than coastal sites. Using satellite data, we find that the photosynthetic activity of vegetation correlates with Hg(0) levels at individual sites and across continents. We suggest that terrestrial vegetation acts as a global Hg(0) pump, which can contribute to seasonal variations of atmospheric Hg(0), and that decreasing Hg(0) levels in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 20 years can be partly attributed to increased terrestrial net primary production.

  20. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any

  1. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  2. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  3. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  4. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  5. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, includimg uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  6. Trans-boundary movement of mercury in the Northeast Asian region predicted by CAMQ-Hg from anthropogenic emissions distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin-Ho; Roy, Debananda; Oh, Joo-Sung; Back, Seung-Ki; Jang, Ha-Na; Kim, Seong-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Chong Bum; Han, Young-Ji

    2018-05-01

    The percentage contribution of trans-boundary mercury (Hg) from China at different locations in South Korea was estimated from Hg anthropogenic emission distributions using the Hg dispersion model, CMAQ-Hg. This investigation quantifies the trans-boundary Hg emissions as contribution ratios. In addition, the long-range transportation frequency is also calculated, to verify inflow cases from China. The seasonal distribution of the Hg contribution ratio was found to be highest in winter (40%), followed by fall (16%). Seasonal observations of Hg inflow frequencies were estimated as 40%, 25%, 21%, and 4% in winter, fall, summer, and spring, respectively, at the same location. Such results would be produced by the wind generally blowing from the west and north-west with a speed of 5.0 m/s and 4.5 m/s, respectively, during winter and fall, around the study area. This study made an effort to quantify the trans-boundary Hg transport and to plot Hg anthropogenic emissions distribution in the region.

  7. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  8. A strategy of cost control for Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John R.; Downhower, Walter J.

    1994-01-01

    The spacecraft launched by NASA on November 3, 1973 to explore Venus and Mercury proved a notable success as a development project both in space and on the ground. This article on the development points our management approaches and techniques that kept schedules and controlled costs, the intent being to stimulate thought about how to do the same with future spacecraft and payloads. The Mariner Venus/Mercury '73 (MVM '73) project kept within its originally established goals for schedule, performance, and cost. Underlying this development success was the availability of the Mariner technology. But meeting the goals demanded management determination, planning, and discipline to make optimum use of state-of-the-art technology--on the part of people at NASA, JPL, and The Boeing Co. (the contractor).

  9. Mercury from wildfires: Global emission inventories and sensitivity to 2000-2050 global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Wu, Shiliang; Huang, Yaoxian; Liao, Hong; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the global Hg wildfire emissions for the 2000s and the potential impacts from the 2000-2050 changes in climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions by combining statistical analysis with global data on vegetation type and coverage as well as fire activities. Global Hg wildfire emissions are estimated to be 612 Mg year-1. Africa is the dominant source region (43.8% of global emissions), followed by Eurasia (31%) and South America (16.6%). We find significant perturbations to wildfire emissions of Hg in the context of global change, driven by the projected changes in climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions. 2000-2050 climate change could increase Hg emissions by 14% globally and regionally by 18% for South America, 14% for Africa and 13% for Eurasia. Projected changes in land use by 2050 could decrease the global Hg emissions from wildfires by 13% mainly driven by a decline in African emissions due to significant agricultural land expansion. Future land cover changes could lead to significant increases in Hg emissions over some regions (+32% North America, +14% Africa, +13% Eurasia). Potential enrichment of terrestrial ecosystems in 2050 in response to changes in Hg anthropogenic emissions could increase Hg wildfire emissions globally (+28%) and regionally (+19% North America, +20% South America, +24% Africa, +41% Eurasia). Our results indicate that the future evolution of climate, land use and land cover and Hg anthropogenic emissions are all important factors affecting Hg wildfire emissions in the coming decades.

  10. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  11. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  12. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg196 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg 196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment

  13. Flow Injection Photochemical Vapor Generation Coupled with Miniaturized Solution-Cathode Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometry for Determination and Speciation Analysis of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jiamei; Li, Qing; Guo, Xiaohong; Zhang, Guoxia; Wang, Zheng

    2017-10-03

    A novel, compact, and green method was developed for the determination and speciation analysis of mercury, based on flow injection photochemical vapor generation (PVG) coupled with miniaturized solution cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectroscopy (SCGD-AES). The SCGD was generated between a miniature hollow titanium tube and a solution emerging from a glass capillary. Cold mercury vapor (Hg(0)) was generated by PVG and subsequently delivered to the SCGD for excitation, and finally the emission signals were recorded by a miniaturized spectrograph. The detection limits (DLs) of Hg(II) and methylmercury (MeHg) were both determined to be 0.2 μg L -1 . Moreover, mercury speciation analysis could also be performed by using different wavelengths and powers from the UV lamp and irradiation times. Both Hg(II) and MeHg can be converted to Hg(0) for the determination of total mercury (T-Hg) with 8 W/254 nm UV lamp and 60 s irradiation time; while only Hg(II) can be reduced to Hg(0) and determined selectively with 4 W/365 nm UV lamp and 20 s irradiation time. Then, the concentration of MeHg can be calculated by subtracting the Hg(II) from the T-Hg. Because of its similar sensitivity and DL at 8 W/254 nm, the simpler and less toxic Hg(II) was used successfully as a primary standard for the quantification of T-Hg. The novel PVG-SCGD-AES system provides not only a 365-fold improvement in the DL for Hg(II) but also a nonchromatographic method for the speciation analysis of mercury. After validating its accuracy, this method was successfully used for mercury speciation analysis of water and biological samples.

  14. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckley, Chris S., E-mail: eckley.chris@epa.gov [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region-10, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Tate, Mike T. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Lin, Che-Jen [Center for Advances on Water and Air quality, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Gustin, Mae [Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Dent, Stephen [CDM Smith, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Eagles-Smith, Collin [US Geological Survey, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Lutz, Michelle A. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Wickland, Kimberly P. [US Geological Survey Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Wang, Bronwen [US Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Gray, John E. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Edwards, Grant C. [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Krabbenhoft, Dave P. [US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Smith, David B. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Soil-air Hg fluxes are an important component of the

  15. Surface-air mercury fluxes across Western North America: A synthesis of spatial trends and controlling variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckley, Chris S.; Tate, Mike T.; Lin, Che-Jen; Gustin, Mae; Dent, Stephen; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Lutz, Michelle A.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Wang, Bronwen; Gray, John E.; Edwards, Grant C.; Krabbenhoft, Dave P.; Smith, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission and deposition can occur to and from soils, and are an important component of the global atmospheric Hg budget. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing surface-air Hg flux data collected throughout the Western North American region and is part of a series of geographically focused Hg synthesis projects. A database of existing Hg flux data collected using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) approach from almost a thousand locations was created for the Western North America region. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to identify the important variables controlling Hg fluxes and to allow spatiotemporal scaling. The results indicated that most of the variability in soil-air Hg fluxes could be explained by variations in soil-Hg concentrations, solar radiation, and soil moisture. This analysis also identified that variations in DFC methodological approaches were detectable among the field studies, with the chamber material and sampling flushing flow rate influencing the magnitude of calculated emissions. The spatiotemporal scaling of soil-air Hg fluxes identified that the largest emissions occurred from irrigated agricultural landscapes in California. Vegetation was shown to have a large impact on surface-air Hg fluxes due to both a reduction in solar radiation reaching the soil as well as from direct uptake of Hg in foliage. Despite high soil Hg emissions from some forested and other heavily vegetated regions, the net ecosystem flux (soil flux + vegetation uptake) was low. Conversely, sparsely vegetated regions showed larger net ecosystem emissions, which were similar in magnitude to atmospheric Hg deposition (except for the Mediterranean California region where soil emissions were higher). The net ecosystem flux results highlight the important role of landscape characteristics in effecting the balance between Hg sequestration and (re-)emission to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Soil-air Hg fluxes are an important component of the

  16. Analytical quality control in studies of environmental exposure to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Prosenc, N.; Smerke, J.; Horvat, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work of the laboratory for quality control in this co-ordinated project for the period from November 1993 to June 1994 is presented. The major effort was devoted to assisting in establishing the homogeneity and total methylmercury levels in two new hair reference materials prepared as control materials for the project, numbered 085 (spiked) and 086 (natural level). Results for some hair materials from participants are also given. (author)

  17. Atmospheric mercury dispersion modelling from two nearest hypothetical point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Razi, Khandakar Md Habib; Hiroshi, Moritomi; Shinji, Kambara [Environmental and Renewable Energy System (ERES), Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido, Gifu City, 501-1193 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The Japan coastal areas are still environmentally friendly, though there are multiple air emission sources originating as a consequence of several developmental activities such as automobile industries, operation of thermal power plants, and mobile-source pollution. Mercury is known to be a potential air pollutant in the region apart from SOX, NOX, CO and Ozone. Mercury contamination in water bodies and other ecosystems due to deposition of atmospheric mercury is considered a serious environmental concern. Identification of sources contributing to the high atmospheric mercury levels will be useful for formulating pollution control and mitigation strategies in the region. In Japan, mercury and its compounds were categorized as hazardous air pollutants in 1996 and are on the list of 'Substances Requiring Priority Action' published by the Central Environmental Council of Japan. The Air Quality Management Division of the Environmental Bureau, Ministry of the Environment, Japan, selected the current annual mean environmental air quality standard for mercury and its compounds of 0.04 ?g/m3. Long-term exposure to mercury and its compounds can have a carcinogenic effect, inducing eg, Minamata disease. This study evaluates the impact of mercury emissions on air quality in the coastal area of Japan. Average yearly emission of mercury from an elevated point source in this area with background concentration and one-year meteorological data were used to predict the ground level concentration of mercury. To estimate the concentration of mercury and its compounds in air of the local area, two different simulation models have been used. The first is the National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology Atmospheric Dispersion Model for Exposure and Risk Assessment (AIST-ADMER) that estimates regional atmospheric concentration and distribution. The second is the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) that estimates the atmospheric

  18. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions estimated for South Africa during 2000-2006

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masekoameng, KE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available and general waste from each activity; using South Africa specific and toolkit based emission factors. In both atmospheric and solid waste releases, coal-fired power plants were estimated to be the largest contributors of Hg emissions, viz. 27.1 to 38.9 tonnes...

  19. Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

  20. NOx and N2O emission control with catalyst's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the increasingly stringent emission regulations, new technologies are needed to be developed for improving emission control in circulating fluidized-bed boilers. The objective of this project is to test the concept of using catalysts for NO x and N 2 O emission control. N 2 O emission is in the range of 30 - 100 ppm from fluidized bed combustors burning coal. Since it is a greenhouse gas an effective means of controlling N 2 O emission is needed

  1. Patterns and controls of mercury accumulation in sediments from three thermokarst lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Samantha M.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Koch, Joshua C.; Swanson, Heidi K.

    2018-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of mercury will be influenced by climate change, particularly at higher latitudes. Investigations of historical mercury accumulation in lake sediments inform future predictions as to how climate change might affect mercury biogeochemistry; however, in regions with a paucity of data, such as the thermokarst-rich Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska (ACP), the trajectory of mercury accumulation in lake sediments is particularly uncertain. Sediment cores from three thermokarst lakes on the ACP were analyzed to understand changes in, and drivers of, Hg accumulation over the past ~ 100 years. Mercury accumulation in two of the three lakes was variable and high over the past century (91.96 and 78.6 µg/m2/year), and largely controlled by sedimentation rate. Mercury accumulation in the third lake was lower (14.2 µg/m2/year), more temporally uniform, and was more strongly related to sediment Hg concentration than sedimentation rate. Sediment mercury concentrations were quantitatively related to measures of sediment composition and VRS-inferred chlorophyll a, and sedimentation rates were related to various catchment characteristics. These results were compared to data from 37 previously studied Arctic and Alaskan lakes. Results from the meta-analysis indicate that thermokarst lakes have significantly higher and more variable Hg accumulation rates than non-thermokarst lakes, suggesting that certain properties (e.g., thermal erosion, thaw slumping, low hydraulic conductivity) likely make lakes prone to high and variable Hg accumulation rates. Differences and high variability in Hg accumulation among high latitude lakes highlight the complexity of predicting future climate-related change impacts on mercury cycling in these environments.

  2. Radiological control for 203Hg radiotracer determinations of mercury inventories at chlor-alkali plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J E; Lee, C

    2001-11-01

    20Hg has been used safely to determine mercury inventories in large electrochemical process cells in the chlorine industry by a process of isotopic dilution. Laboratory conversion and processing of irradiated HgO can be done in closed systems with non-detectable releases to work areas or the environment and with exposure to whole body <0.25 mSv (25 mrem) and <3 mSv (300 mrem) to extremities. Personnel exposures during plant operations are controlled to non-detectable levels for whole body exposure and <0.3 mSv (30 mrem) to extremities for the operator; exposures for other plant personnel are non-detectable.

  3. Controlling Factors of Mercury Wet Deposition and Precipitation Concentrations in Upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Mao, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) at Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF) suggested that a significant decline in Hg concentrations in precipitation was linked to Hg emission decreases in the United States, especially in the Northeast and Midwest, and yet Hg wet deposition has remained fairly constant over the past two decades. The present study was aimed to investigate how climatic, terrestrial, and anthropogenic factors had influenced the Hg wet deposition flux in upstate New York (NY). To achieve this, an improved Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was employed, which included state-of-the-art Hg and halogen chemistry mechanisms. A base simulation and five sensitivity simulations were conducted. The base simulation used 2010 meteorology, U.S. EPA NEI 2011, and GEOS-Chem output as initial and boundary conditions (ICs and BCs). The five sensitivity runs each changed one condition at the time as follows: 1-3) 2004, 2005, and 2007 meteorology instead of 2010, 4) NEI 2005 Hg anthropogenic emission out of NYS instead of NEI 2011, and 5) no in-state Hg anthropogenic emission. The study period of all the simulations was March - November 2010, and the domain covered the northeastern United States at 12 km resolution. As a result, compared with rural areas in NYS, Hg wet deposition and ambient Hg concentrations in urban areas were affected more significantly by in-state anthropogenic Hg emission. The in-state anthropogenic Hg emissions contributed up to 20% of Hg wet deposition at urban sites and cloud height, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and relative humidity, among which precipitation had the largest effects in most areas. Diluting effects were found in non-convective precipitation, which contributed 31-48% to changes in Hg concentration in precipitation.

  4. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  5. Laboratory-scale evaluation of various sampling and analytical methods for determining mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Bochan, A.J.; Clements, J.L. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Comparative bench-scale mercury sampling method tests were performed at the Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) laboratories for EPA Method 101A, EPA Method 29 and the Ontario Hydro Method. Both blank and impinger spiking experiments were performed. The experimental results show that the ambient level of mercury in the ATS laboratory is at or below the detection limit (10 ng Hg) as measured by a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) which was used to analyze the mercury samples. From the mercury spike studies, the following observations and findings were made. (a) The recovery of mercury spikes using EPA Method 101A was 104%. (b) The Ontario Hydro Method retains about 90% of mercury spikes in the first absorbing solution but has a total spike retention of 106%. As a result, the test data shows possible migration of spiked mercury from the first impinger solution (KCI) to the permanganate impingers. (c) For the EPA Method 29 solutions, when only the peroxide impingers were spiked, mercury recoveries were 65.6% for the peroxide impingers, 0.1% for the knockout impinger and 32.8% for the permanganate impingers with an average total mercury recovery of 98.4%. At press time, data was still being obtained for both the peroxide and permanganate impinger solution spikes. This and other data will be available at the presentation.

  6. Evaluation of mercury speciation by EPA (Draft) Method 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, D.L.; Heidt, M.K. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Nott, B. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with mercury emissions. Also, the law requires a separate assessment of health risks posed by the emission of 189 tract chemicals (including mercury) for electric utility steam-generating units. In order to conduct a meaningful assessment of health and environmental effects, we must have, among other things, a reliable and accurate method to measure mercury emissions. In addition, the rate of mercury deposition and the type of control strategies used may depend upon the type of mercury emitted (i.e., whether it is in the oxidized or elemental form). It has been speculated that EPA (Draft) Method 29 can speciate mercury by selective absorption; however, this claim has yet to be proven. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at University of North Dakota to evaluate EPA (Draft) Method 29 at the pilot-scale level. The objective of the work is to determine whether EPA (Draft) Method 29 can reliably quantify and speciate mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers.

  7. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  8. Determination of mercury and copper in water samples by activation analysis using preconcentration on emission spectroscopic carbon powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsuka, Sumiko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    A simple preconcentration procedure for mercury and copper was examined in the activation analysis of water samples. The preconcentration using pure activated carbon has been reported in several papers. The authors found that the carbon powder for emission spectroscopic analysis showed the high purity equivalent to pure activated carbon. The influence of various parameters in adsorption conditions was studied by radioactive tracers 197 Hg and 64 Cu. It was confirmed that 100% of these elements were adsorbed on carbon powders as pyrrolidine dithiocarbonate complexes at an acidity of pH 6 - 8, the temperature of 50 0 C and the stirring time of 30 minutes. This method was applied to the activation analysis of the river water samples taken from the upper stream area of the Arakawa river and the ground water samples taken from the wells of the environs of Tokyo Megalopolis. The carbon powders which adsorbed these elements were filtered, dried and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The Hg concentrations of 0.01 - 0.1 ppb in river water and 0.03 - 1.4 ppb in ground water were obtained as well as the Cu concentrations of 0.3 - 3.0 ppb in ground water. The limits of determination of this method are 0.01 ppb Hg and 0.2 ppb Cu in the case of 1.1 sample of fresh water. (auth.)

  9. Applicability of the Mercury Controlled Volatilization Technique in the Cerco Minero de Almadenejos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, L.; Sierra, M. J.; Millan, R.

    2013-01-01

    This work study the case of the Cerco Minero de Almadenejos (Ciudad Real), that is an important archaeological mine site in the region. In this place, different contamination levels can be finding in the soil and installations. The recovery of this site it will be of interest for the socio-economic development of the area. A preliminary study of the site has been carried out, in order to evaluate the possibility of the application of an in situ controlled mercury volatilization process as an alternative remediation technique. In case of reaching the established legal mercury levels, it could be possible to change the land use of the site. The proposed methodology includes the possibility of control the time required for a complete treatment as a function of the initial contamination level, in this way, the soil and installations decontamination process is performed by a non-destructive way. Finally, the proposed technology respects the old metallurgical plant where cinnabar was treated and burned, having the furnaces an elevated historical value whose restoration and conservation is important for the future use of the site. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of fungi in the Helsinki area and in unpolluted control areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuusi, T.; Liukkonen-Lilja, H.; Piepponen, S.; Laaksovirta, K.; Lodenius, M.

    1981-10-01

    More than 40 species of wild-growing fungi in Finland have been investigated with regard to their contents of lead, cadmium and mercury. A total of 326 samples was studied, 242 being from the urban area of Helsinki and 84 from unpolluted rural areas. The lead content ranged from < 0.5 to 78 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.5 to 13 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.5 to 16.8 mg/kg. The cadmium content ranged from < 0.2 to 101 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.2 to 16.8 mg/kg, and in the urban area from < 0.2 to 17.3 mg/kg. The mercury content ranged from < 0.01 to 95 mg/kg of dry matter. In the rural areas the mean contents for the diferent species ranged from 0.03 to 4.2 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.02 to 14.1 mg/kg. In conclusion, consumption of those fungi that grow in unpolluted rural areas carries no risk, particularly when they belong to mycorrhizal species. In urban areas the risk is somewhat greater. The Agaricus species show the highest contents of the metals studied and their use as food requires caution.

  11. Savannah River Plant airborne emissions and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) was established to produce special nuclear materials, principally plutonium and tritium, for national defense needs. Major operating facilities include three nuclear reactors, two chemical separations plants, a fuel and target fabrication plant, and a heavy-water rework plant. An extensive environmental surveillance program has been maintained continuously since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200-square-mile area centered on the plant, and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. This report provides data on SRP emissions, controls systems, and airborne radioactive releases. The report includes descriptions of current measurement technology. 10 references, 14 figures, 9 tables

  12. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  13. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  14. Sequential cloud point extraction for the speciation of mercury in seafood by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yingjie [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2007-10-15

    A novel nonchromatographic speciation technique for the speciation of mercury by sequential cloud point extraction (CPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The method based on Hg{sup 2+} was complexed with I{sup -} to form HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and the HgI{sub 4}{sup 2-} reacted with the methyl green (MG) cation to form hydrophobic ion-associated complex, and the ion-associated complex was then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase of the non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114), which are subsequently separated from methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}) in the initial solution by centrifugation. The surfactant-rich phase containing Hg(II) was diluted with 0.5 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} for ICP-OES determination. The supernatant is also subjected to the similar CPE procedure for the preconcentration of MeHg{sup +} by the addition of a chelating agent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), in order to form water-insolvable complex with MeHg{sup +}. The MeHg{sup +} in the micelles was directly analyzed after disposal as describe above. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency was 93.5% for Hg(II) and 51.5% for MeHg{sup +} with the enrichment factor of 18.7 for Hg(II) and 10.3 for MeHg{sup +}, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) were 56.3 ng L{sup -1} for Hg(II) and 94.6 ng L{sup -1} for MeHg{sup +} (as Hg) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.6% for Hg(II) and 4.5% for MeHg{sup +} (C = 10 {mu}g L{sup -1}, n = 7), respectively. The developed technique was applied to the speciation of mercury in real seafood samples and the recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 93.2-108.7%. For validation, a certified reference material of DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) was analyzed and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values.

  15. Sequential cloud point extraction for the speciation of mercury in seafood by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingjie; Hu Bin

    2007-01-01

    A novel nonchromatographic speciation technique for the speciation of mercury by sequential cloud point extraction (CPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The method based on Hg 2+ was complexed with I - to form HgI 4 2- , and the HgI 4 2- reacted with the methyl green (MG) cation to form hydrophobic ion-associated complex, and the ion-associated complex was then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase of the non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114), which are subsequently separated from methylmercury (MeHg + ) in the initial solution by centrifugation. The surfactant-rich phase containing Hg(II) was diluted with 0.5 mol L -1 HNO 3 for ICP-OES determination. The supernatant is also subjected to the similar CPE procedure for the preconcentration of MeHg + by the addition of a chelating agent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), in order to form water-insolvable complex with MeHg + . The MeHg + in the micelles was directly analyzed after disposal as describe above. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency was 93.5% for Hg(II) and 51.5% for MeHg + with the enrichment factor of 18.7 for Hg(II) and 10.3 for MeHg + , respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) were 56.3 ng L -1 for Hg(II) and 94.6 ng L -1 for MeHg + (as Hg) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.6% for Hg(II) and 4.5% for MeHg + (C = 10 μg L -1 , n = 7), respectively. The developed technique was applied to the speciation of mercury in real seafood samples and the recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 93.2-108.7%. For validation, a certified reference material of DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) was analyzed and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values

  16. Speciation of mercury compounds by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection. Simultaneous optimization of a headspace solid-phase microextraction and derivatization procedure by use of chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carro, A.M.; Neira, I.; Rodil, R.; Lorenzo, R. A. [Univ. Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2003-06-01

    A method is proposed for the extraction and determination of organomercury compounds and Hg(II) in seawater samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with capillary gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The mercury species were derivatized with sodium tetraphenylborate, sorbed on a polydimethylsiloxane-coated fused-silica fibre, and desorbed in the injection port of the GC, in splitless mode. Experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the effect of six HS-SPME-derivatization variables: sample volume, NaBPh{sub 4} volume, pH, sorption time, extraction-derivatization temperature, and rate of stirring. Use of a multicriterion decision-making approach, with the desirability function, enabled determination of the optimum working conditions of the procedure for simultaneous analysis of three mercury species. (orig.)

  17. Lake variability: Key factors controlling mercury concentrations in New York State fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonin, Howard A.; Loukmas, Jefferey J.; Skinner, Lawrence C.; Roy, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    A 4 year study surveyed 131 lakes across New York State beginning in 2003 to improve our understanding of mercury and gather information from previously untested waters. Our study focused on largemouth and smallmouth bass, walleye and yellow perch, common piscivorous fish shown to accumulate high mercury concentrations and species important to local fisheries. Fish from Adirondack and Catskill Forest Preserve lakes generally had higher mercury concentrations than those from lakes in other areas of the state. Variability between nearby individual lakes was observed, and could be due to differences in water chemistry, lake productivity or the abundance of wetlands in the watershed. We found the following factors impact mercury bioaccumulation: fish length, lake pH, specific conductivity, chlorophyll a, mercury concentration in the water, presence of an outlet dam and amount of contiguous wetlands. - Lake water chemistry variables, dams, and wetlands play major roles in determining fish mercury concentrations

  18. Emissions of forest floor and mineral soil carbon, nitrogen and mercury pools and relationships with fire severity for the Pagami Creek Fire in the Boreal Forest of northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian R. Sturtevant; Jessica R. Miesel; Aditya Singh; Peter T. Wolter; Shawn Fraver; Thomas M. DeSutter; Phil A. Townsend

    2017-01-01

    Forest fires cause large emissions of C (carbon), N (nitrogen) and Hg (mercury) to the atmosphere and thus have important implications for global warming (e.g. via CO2 and N2O emissions), anthropogenic fertilisation of natural ecosystems (e.g. via N deposition), and bioaccumulation of harmful metals in aquatic and...

  19. The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    This article introduces a predictive capability for Hg retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given mercury (Hg) speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections clearly signal that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO2 absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO2 capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O2 levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO2 capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl2, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO3 levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg(O) but only for inlet O2 levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs.

  20. EURISOL-DS METEX: Cooling and Temperature Control of the Mercury Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Joray

    The cooling of the mercury loop is described on pages two, three and four. The gaps in the water jackets of the heat exchangers are too large and the cooling water capacity is too low. Convection from the wall into water is bad. The mercury temperature is too high. On page five is a proposal how the mercury temperature can be kept low and constant.

  1. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  2. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI - , F - , and SO 4 = . We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements

  3. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  4. Mercury-impacted scrap metal: Source and nature of the mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Molly E; Raymond, Michelle R; Scofield, Marcienne A; Smith, Karen P

    2015-09-15

    The reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes such as scrap metal is supported and encouraged both internationally and domestically, especially when such wastes can be used as substitutes for raw material. However, scrap metal processing facilities, such as mini-mills, have been identified as a source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. This research aims to better define some of the key issues related to the source and nature of mercury in the scrap metal waste stream. Overall, it is difficult to pinpoint the key mercury sources feeding into scrap metal recycling facilities, quantify their associated mercury concentrations, or determine which chemical forms are most significant. Potential sources of mercury in scrap metal include mercury switches from discarded vehicles, electronic-based scrap from household appliances and related industrial systems, and Hg-impacted scrap metal from the oil and gas industry. The form of mercury associated with scrap metal varies and depends on the source type. The specific amount of mercury that can be adsorbed and retained by steel appears to be a function of both metallurgical and environmental factors. In general, the longer the steel is in contact with a fluid or condensate that contains measurable concentrations of elemental mercury, the greater the potential for mercury accumulation in that steel. Most mercury compounds are thermally unstable at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 350 °C). As such, the mercury associated with impacted scrap is expected to be volatilized out of the metal when it is heated during processing (e.g., shredding or torch cutting) or melted in a furnace. This release of fugitive gas (Hg vapor) and particulates, as well as Hg-impacted bag-house dust and control filters, could potentially pose an occupational exposure risk to workers at a scrap metal processing facility. Thus, identifying and characterizing the key sources of Hg-impacted scrap, and understanding the nature and extent

  5. Trade-Induced Atmospheric Mercury Deposition over China and Implications for Demand-Side Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Meng, Jing; Liang, Sai; Zhang, Haoran; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Wang, Huanhuan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Shu, Jiong

    2018-02-20

    Mercury (Hg) is of global concern because of its adverse effects on humans and the environment. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, Hg emissions can be geographically relocated through economic trade. Here, we investigate the effect of China's interregional trade on atmospheric Hg deposition over China, using an atmospheric transport model and multiregional input-output analysis. In general, total atmospheric Hg deposition over China is 408.8 Mg yr -1 , and 32% of this is embodied in China's interregional trade, with the hotspots occurring over Gansu, Henan, Hebei, and Yunnan provinces. Interprovincial trade considerably redistributes atmospheric Hg deposition over China, with a range in deposition flux from -104% to +28%. Developed regions, such as the Yangtze River Delta (Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang) and Guangdong, avoid Hg deposition over their geographical boundaries, instead causing additional Hg deposition over developing provinces. Bilateral interaction among provinces is strong over some regions, suggesting a need for joint mitigation, such as the Jing-Jin-Ji region (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei) and the Yangtze River Delta. Transferring advanced technology from developed regions to their developing trade partners would be an effective measure to mitigate China's Hg pollution. Our findings are relevant to interprovincial efforts to reduce trans-boundary Hg pollution in China.

  6. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  7. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued

  8. What are the Connections between Mercury and CFLs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small amounts of mercury vapor can be released when CFLs break or are improperly disposed of. Despite these emissions, the use of CFLs actually helps reduce total mercury emissions in the U.S. because of their significant energy savings.

  9. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  10. FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCURY SPECIATION AND CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the progress of an experimental investigation of the speciation of mercury in simulated coal combustion flue gasses. The effects of flue gas parameters and coal fly ash on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo) in the presence of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in ...

  11. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  12. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  13. Emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In 1990, little was known about the emissions of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands, notably those of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. Uncertainties included the causes, the emissions factors and the regional distribution of emissions. The main objectives of the project at that time were formulated as follows: (a) provide information for prioritizing greenhouse gas emissions research in the Netherlands; (b) provide input data for global models (later shifted to the EDGAR-project); and (c) support national and international policy development. The emphasis of the project was on non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases, notably methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). While state-of-the-art information from international research would be used and analyzed, the focus of the project was on the Dutch emissions and their causes. Information was drawn from literature research, discussions with national and international experts, and experimental information from several projects. 2 figs., 12 refs.

  14. MERCURY IN FISHERY PRODUCTS FROM CENTRAL ADRIATIC SEA (OFFICIAL CONTROLS FROM 1995 TO 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ciccarelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its properties, methylmercury is the most bioavailable form of mercury compounds. In fact, it causes the most toxic effects on the immune, cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems, in particular the fetal brain. Seafood consumption is recognized as being the largest environmental mercury source to most human populations. So, fishery products are the most important source of methylmercury exposure in human. As the mercury burden of fish increases for transference to upper trophic levels (biomagnification, piscivors have the potential to accumulate extremely high mercury loads, in the methylated form, 70 to 100% in the muscular tissues. Reg. CE 1881/2006 sets, lastly, allowed maximum levels of mercury in seafood. Several authors found out an increase of mercury levels with size of carnivorous fishes. But this relationship strictly depends on fish species, and is a result of the interaction between environmental and physiological effects. This paper describes the results of a monitoring of mercury levels in fishery products, from 1995 to 2009, before they were sold by auction in the Wholesale Fish Market in the town of San Benedetto del Tronto. The authors’aim was to set a correlation between increasing fish size (weight and loads of the metal up to maximum levels by law.

  15. Vertical Distribution of Total Mercury and Mercury Methylation in a Landfill Site in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a neurotoxin, with certain organic forms of the element being particularly harmful to humans. The Minamata Convention was adopted to reduce the intentional use and emission of mercury. Because mercury is an element, it cannot be decomposed. Mercury-containing products and mercury used for various processes will eventually enter the waste stream, and landfill sites will become a mercury sink. While landfill sites can be a source of mercury pollution, the behavior of mercury in solid waste within a landfill site is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the depth profile of mercury, the levels of methyl mercury (MeHg, and the factors controlling methylation in an old landfill site that received waste for over 30 years. Three sampling cores were selected, and boring sampling was conducted to a maximum depth of 18 m, which reached the bottom layer of the landfill. Total mercury (THg and MeHg were measured in the samples to determine the characteristics of mercury at different depths. Bacterial species were identified by 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing, because the methylation process is promoted by a series of genes. It was found that the THg concentration was 19–975 ng/g, with a geometric mean of 298 ng/g, which was slightly less than the 400 ng/g concentration recorded 30 years previously. In some samples, MeHg accounted for up to 15–20% of THg, which is far greater than the general level in soils and sediments, although the source of MeHg was unclear. The genetic data indicated that hgcA was present mostly in the upper and lower layers of the three cores, merA was almost as much as hgcA, while the level of merB was hundreds of times less than those of the other two genes. A significant correlation was found between THg and MeHg, as well as between MeHg and MeHg/THg. In addition, a negative correlation was found between THg and merA. The coexistence of the three genes indicated that both

  16. Biomass fueled fluidized bed combustion: atmospheric emissions, emission control devices and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, S.W.; Jenkins, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustors have become the technological choice for power generation from biomass fuels in California. Atmospheric emission data obtained during compliance tests are compared for five operating 18 to 32 MW fluidized bed combustion power plants. The discussion focuses on the impact of fuel properties and boiler design criteria on the emission of pollutants, the efficiency of pollution control devices, and regulations affecting atmospheric emissions. Stack NO x emission factors are shown not to vary substantially among the five plants which burn fuels with nitrogen concentrations between 0.3 and 1.1% dry weight. All facilities use at least one particular control device, but not all use limestone injection or other control techniques for sulfur and chlorine. The lack of control for chlorine suggests the potential for emission of toxic species due to favorable temperature conditions existing in the particulate control devices, particularly when burning fuels containing high concentrations of chlorine. (Author)

  17. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  18. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Determination of mercury in plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, J A; Martin, J T

    1960-07-01

    An analytical procedure used for the determination of traces of mercury in plant material is described. The conditions of combustion of organic matter are controlled to avoid loss of mercury and EDTA is used to reduce the values for apparent mercury on uncontaminated samples. Satisfactory recoveries of mercury added to apples, tomatoes and coffee are obtained. 10 references, 1 table.

  20. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  1. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  2. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  3. The method of determination of mercury adsorption from flue gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several recent years Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow conduct intensive studies on the occurrence of mercury contained in thermal and coking coals, as well as on the possible reduction of fossil-fuel mercury emissions. This research focuses, among others, on application of sorbents for removal of mercury from flue gases. In this paper we present the methodology for testing mercury adsorption using various types of sorbents, in laboratory conditions. Our model assumes burning a coal sample, with a specific mercury content, in a strictly determined time period and temperature conditions, oxygen or air flow rates, and the flow of flue gases through sorbent in a specific temperature. It was developed for particular projects concerning the possibilities of applying different sorbents to remove mercury from flue gases. Test stand itself is composed of a vertical pipe furnace inside which a quartz tube was mounted for sample burning purposes. At the furnace outlet, there is a heated glass vessel with a sorbent sample through which flue gases are passing. Furnace allows burning at a defined temperature. The exhaust gas flow path is heated to prevent condensation of the mercury vapor prior to contact with a sorbent. The sorbent container is positioned in the heating element, with controlled and stabilized temperature, which allows for testing mercury sorption in various temperatures. Determination of mercury content is determined before (coal and sorbent, as well as after the process (sorbent and ash. The mercury balance is calculated based on the Hg content determination results. This testing method allows to study sorbent efficiency, depending on sorption temperature, sorbent grain size, and flue-gas rates.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  5. Emissions control techniques applied to industrial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B.

    2004-12-15

    As emission standards for industrial vehicles become increasingly stringent, many research projects are seeking to develop after-treatment systems. These systems will have to combine efficiency, durability and low operating cost.

  6. Control of volatile organic compound emissions: the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, M.; Marlowe, I.

    1989-11-01

    This review paper outlines the problems caused by the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are causing increasing concern because of their part in the formation of photochemical oxidation that causes damage to crops and vegetation and because of the toxic and climatic effects. It briefly summarises current knowledge of VOC emissions and their effects and then suggests options for abatement of VOC emissions in the UK and the EEC. A comparison of anthropogenic VOC emission in the UK and the EEC from various sources is given. Further information is needed on current emissions, on the costs and efficiencies of control technologies and on the effects of control on industry before decisions can be made on the suitability, extent and strategy to control VOC emissions in the UK. The report was prepared for the UK Department of Trade and Industry (Headquarters).

  7. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  8. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  9. Retrofit acid gas emission control for municipal waste incineration application of dry sorbent injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmuda, J.T.; Smith, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Dry sorbent injection (DSI) has been successfully demonstrated on coal fired boiler applications as a means of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions. More recently, the dry sorbent injection process was applied to an existing municipal waste incinerator to provide acid gas emission controls. The results obtained from the successful demonstration of the sorbent injection system on an existing municipal incinerator are presented. Removal efficiencies of compounds such as HCl, SO 2 , SO 3 , mercury, and others by the use of sorbent injection are shown. Effects of the DSI system on downstream equipment, such as electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, ash handling systems, and waste management is included. The impacts of the DSI system on the furnace is also discussed. In this paper a discussion of dry sorbent injection as a means of reducing acid gas and other emissions from existing municipal waste incinerators which may be affected by the regulations is presented. An application case study will outline typical exhaust conditions, expected pollution reductions, capital and operating costs, and type of available sorbents and their costs

  10. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  11. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  12. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  13. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  14. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; van Schijndel, J.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  15. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  16. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  17. Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  18. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B.; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35–50% of THg concentration and 50–70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. - Highlights: • China's anthropogenic mercury emission was 643.1 t in 2007. • GEOS-Chem model well reproduces the background Hg concentrations. • Anthropogenic emissions contribute 35–50% of Hg concentrations in polluted regions. • The priorities for mercury control in polluted regions are identified. - Anthropogenic Hg emissions are updated and their impacts on atmospheric mercury concentrations and depositions are quantified for China

  19. Controls on stream water dissolved mercury in three mid-Appalachian forested headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riscassi, Ami L.; Scanlon, Todd M.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the controls on dissolved mercury (HgD) transport is necessary to improve estimations of export from unmonitored watersheds and to forecast responses to changes in deposition and other environmental forcings. Stream water HgD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were evaluated over a range of discharge conditions in three streams within Shenandoah National Park, VA. Watersheds are distinguished by stream water pH (ranging from neutral to acidic) and soil size fractioning (ranging from clays to sands). At all sites, discharge was a significant but poor predictor of HgD concentrations (r2 from 0.13-0.52). HgD was strongly coupled with DOC at all sites (r2 from 0.74-0.89). UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), a proxy for DOC quantity and quality, slightly improved the predictions of HgD. Mean DOC quality differed between streams, with less aromatic DOC mobilized from the more acidic watershed. The site with less aromatic DOC and sandy soils mobilized more Hg to the stream for the same quantity and quality of DOC, likely due to the reduced capacity of the larger-grained soils to retain Hg, leaving a greater fraction associated with the organic matter. A similar amount of 0.54 ng HgD/mg DOC is transported at all sites, suggesting the less aromatic DOC transports less Hg per unit DOC, offsetting the effects of soil type. This research demonstrates that soil composition and DOC quality influence HgDexport. We also provide evidence that soil organic carbon is a primary control on Hg-DOC ratios (0.12-1.4 ng mg-1) observed across the U.S. and Sweden.

  20. Strategies to control vehicular emissions: Indian scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virupaksha, T. [Central Institute of Road Transport, Pune (India)

    2002-07-01

    The paper presents a common urban transport policy framework to protect the local and global environment and a state-of-the-art review of recommendations and measures suggested by the local administration in Indian cities from time to time. The measures to combat pollution in urban areas is identified by different cities but there is no cohesive strategy for implementing them. The pursuit of some of these measures are that the haphazard and piecemeal measures have not helped to gain optimum benefit possible or to make a discernible impact on mobility demand and vehicular emissions. A more practical strategy is required to reduce both emission and congestion, using a mixed set of instruments. The instruments are taxes on fuels, vehicles, and parking, incentives and regulations affecting vehicle ownership, usage and movement, traffic management more importantly encouraging non-motorized transport like bicycles by providing suitable lanes. Some of the policy measures seriously needed to be implemented to reduce ongoing pollution menace are enforcing higher maintenance standards, introducing vehicles designed to meet stricter emission standards, retrofitting vehicles to use other kinds of clean fuel, reducing urban congestion through transport management measures, scrapping highly polluting and high usage vehicles, and strengthening institutional links and regulatory issues. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  2. Biogeochemical and Hydrological Controls on Mercury and Methylmercury in First Order Coastal Plain Watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, A.; Gilmour, C. C.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 7 years we made use of the long-term research site at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) in central Maryland to study the fluxes of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in three small first-order mid-Atlantic coastal plain watersheds. One watershed is entirely forested, one watershed is primarily agriculture with a forested stream buffer, and one watershed is mixed land use but contains a beaver produced wetland pond. Our initial goals were to assess watershed Hg yields in the mid-Atlantic and to establish a baseline prior to implementation of Hg emissions controls. All three studied watersheds produced relatively high yields of Hg, with the greatest yield coming from the forested watershed. Our initial evaluation of three watersheds showed that MeHg production and flux could also be high, but varied dramatically among watersheds and across years and seasons. During each year we observed episodic MeHg production in the spring and sometimes during prolonged high-flow storm events in the fall. The observed spring maxima of MeHg release coincided with development of anoxia in riparian groundwater. MeHg accumulation in riparian groundwater began once nitrate was depleted and either iron accumulation or sulfate depletion of groundwater began. We propose the presence of nitrate was modulating MeHg production through the suppression of sulfate and iron reducers and perhaps methanogens. As sulfate is not limiting in any of the watersheds owing to the sediments marine origin, we hypothesize the depletion of nitrate allows sulfate reducing bacteria to now utilize available carbon. Although wetlands are generally thought of as the primary zones of MeHg production in watersheds, shallow riparian groundwaters very close to the stream appear to play that role in SERC Coastal Plain watersheds. We hypothesize that the balance between nitrate, sulfate and other microbial electron acceptors in watersheds is a major control on MeHg production. Land

  3. VOC from Vehicular Evaporation Emissions: Status and Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Tschantz, Michael; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-15

    Vehicular evaporative emissions is an important source of volatile organic carbon (VOC), however, accurate estimation of emission amounts and scientific evaluation of control strategy for these emissions have been neglected outside of the United States. This study provides four kinds of basic emission factors: diurnal, hot soak, permeation, and refueling. Evaporative emissions from the Euro 4 vehicles (1.6 kg/year/car) are about four times those of U.S. vehicles (0.4 kg/year/car). Closing this emissions gap would have a larger impact than the progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 tailpipe HC emission controls. Even in the first 24 h of parking, China's current reliance upon the European 24 h diurnal standard results in 508 g/vehicle/year emissions, higher than 32 g/vehicle/year from Tier 2 vehicles. The U.S. driving cycle matches Beijing real-world conditions much better on both typical trip length and average speed than current European driving cycles. At least two requirements should be added to the Chinese emissions standards: an onboard refueling vapor recovery to force the canister to be sized sufficiently large, and a 48-h evaporation test requirement to ensure that adequate purging occurs over a shorter drive sequence.

  4. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  5. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  6. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  7. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  8. Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael J; Owen, Susan M; Possell, Malcolm; Hartwell, James; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Vickers, Claudia; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2006-09-01

    The emission of isoprene from the biosphere to the atmosphere has a profound effect on the Earth's atmospheric system. Until now, it has been assumed that the primary short-term controls on isoprene emission are photosynthetically active radiation and temperature. Here we show that isoprene emissions from a tropical tree (oil palm, Elaeis guineensis) are under strong circadian control, and that the circadian clock is potentially able to gate light-induced isoprene emissions. These rhythms are robustly temperature compensated with isoprene emissions still under circadian control at 38 degrees C. This is well beyond the acknowledged temperature range of all previously described circadian phenomena in plants. Furthermore, rhythmic expression of LHY/CCA1, a genetic component of the central clock in Arabidopsis thaliana, is still maintained at these elevated temperatures in oil palm. Maintenance of the CCA1/LHY-TOC1 molecular oscillator at these temperatures in oil palm allows for the possibility that this system is involved in the control of isoprene emission rhythms. This study contradicts the accepted theory that isoprene emissions are primarily light-induced.

  9. Factors Controlling the Distribution of Atmospheric Mercury in the East Asian Free Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, G.; Lee, C.; Lin, N.; Wang, J.; Ouyang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Taiwan is located to the downwind side of both East and Southeast Asia, which are the major anthropogenic mercury (Hg) source region worldwide. Also, it has been suggested that mountain-top monitoring sites, which are frequently in the free troposphere, are essential to the understanding of the global Hg transport. Accordingly, continuous measurements of atmospheric Hg have been conducting at Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 2862 m a.s.l.) in Taiwan since April 13, 2006 to study the trans-boundary transport and transformation of Hg in the free troposphere. Three types of atmospheric Hg, including gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (PHg), are measured using the Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 speciation system. Diurnal variations in the concentrations of GEM, RGM, ozone, and water vapor (WV) mixing ratio indicated the influence of boundary layer air in daytime and the subsidence of free tropospheric air masses from higher altitudes at night. Seasonal variation in GEM concentrations was evident with elevated concentrations usually observed between fall and spring when air masses were more or less under the influence of Asian continent. Low summer GEM values were associated with marine air masses. Spikes of RGM were frequently detected between midnight and early morning with concurrent decreases in GEM and WV mixing ratio and increases in ozone concentrations, suggesting the oxidation of GEM and formation of RGM in free troposphere. Concentrations of PHg were usually low; however, elevated concentrations were detected in spring when the Southeast Asian biomass burning plumes affected the LABS. Analysis of the collected data indicate that at LABS the distribution of atmospheric Hg is dynamically controlled by background atmosphere, exchange and mixing of free troposphere/boundary layer air, chemical transformation, and long-range transport from East and Southeast Asia.

  10. Controlling nitrous oxide emissions from grassland livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gebauer, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Sapek, A.; Jarvis, S.C.; Corré, W.J.; Yamulki, S.

    1998-01-01

    There is growing awareness that grassland livestock production systems are major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Controlling these emissions requires a thorough understanding of all sources and controlling factors at the farm level. This paper examines the various controlling factors and proposes

  11. Legal and planning framework for the control of noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An examination is offered of the statutory basis for the control of noise emissions. Principal pieces of legislation and some advisory notes have been produced within appendices. The paper briefly examines the controls in other EC countries before discussing the way in which planning controls relate to the jurisdiction of the court. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs (a)(1...

  13. Emission control by cyclone combustor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syred, N; Styles, A C; Sahatimehr, A

    1983-09-01

    Recent work carried out on a multi-inlet gas-fired cyclone combustor has shown that NO formation is reduced to negligible proportions when operated at mixture ratios 1.5 < PHI < 2.2 with combustion occurring under fully premixed fuel conditions. Elimination of hot spots, common to partial premixed systems, has been achieved with mean temperatures below 1300 C, thereby reducing NO emissions (1.5 ppm) by preventing the onset of Zeldovich and prompt mechanisms. The low NO levels are therefore dependent on a combination of low flame front temperature (about 1100 C) and premixed combustion conditions. Owing to the operating mode of combustion, heat transfer at the walls plays an important role in flame stability. Insulation of the cyclone chamber by refractory has been found to extend the operating range to higher mixture ratios. Conversely, it is expected that heat removal from the walls would enable the combustor to operate at mixture ratios nearer to stoichiometric, whilst still giving rise to low levels of NO emission. 17 references.

  14. Diesel Catalytic Converters As Emission Control Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banna, S.; El Deen, O.N.

    2004-01-01

    Internal combustion engines are devices that generate work from combustion reactions. Combustion products under high pressure produce work by expansion through a turbine or piston. The combustion reactions inside these engines are not necessarily neutralizing or complete and air pollutants are produced. There are three major types of internal combustion engine(l) in use today: I) the spark ignition engine, which is used primarily in automobiles; 2) the diesel engine, which is used in large vehicles and industrial systems where cycle efficiency offers advantages over the more compact and lighter-weight spark ignition engine and; 3) the gas turbine, which is used in aircraft due to its high power/weight ratio and is also used for stationary power generation. Each of these types of engine is an important source of atmospheric pollutants. Automobiles are the one of the major source of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Probably more than any other combustion system, the design of automobile engines is now being guided by requirements to reduce emissions of these pollutants. While substantial progress has been made in emission reduction, automobiles remain important sources of air pollutants

  15. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  16. Mercury, phthalates, and ionizing radiations in neonatal intensive care controls. Adverse effects and preventive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarlenga, Mercedes; Somaruga, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Studies realized by important institutions in the world have demonstrated that the load of illnesses associated with environmental and occupational conditions are affected by the current generation, especially to the most vulnerable populations as are the newborn babies. In the present work, the effects of the mercury, the phthalates and the ionizing radiations on the neonates health are described [es

  17. Mercury in the environment : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Both geogenic and anthropogenic sources are responsible for the input of mercury into the environment. However, mercury comes mostly from geogenic sources and is found naturally in air, water and soil. Crustal degassing results in emission of mercury into the atmosphere. Mercury in water and soil is due mostly to input from sedimentary rocks. Mercury in lake sediments is related mainly to input by country rock and anthropogenic activities such as agriculture. The mercury content of coal is similar to or less than the amount found in the earths crust. Natural charcoal is also able to capture mercury at low temperature combustion. The amount of mercury emitted from the stack of coal-fired power plants is related to the nature of the milled coal and its mineralogical and elemental content. Mercury emissions originating from the combustion of coal from electric utility power plants are considered to be among the greatest contributors to global mercury air emissions. In order to quantify the impact the electric power industry has on the environment, information regarding mercury concentrations in coal and their speciation is needed. For this reason the author examined the behaviour of mercury in three coal samples ashed at increasing temperatures. Mercury removal from coal-fired power plants ranges from 10 to 50 per cent by fabric filters and 20 to 95 per cent by FGD systems. This data will help in regulating emissions of hazardous air pollutants from electric utility steam generating units and will potentially provide insight into the industry's contribution to the global mercury burden. 50 refs

  18. Control strategies for vehicular NOx emissions in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Min; Zhang Yuanhang; Raufer, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Guangzhou is a city in southern China that has experienced very rapid economic development in recent years. The city's air has very high concentrations of various pollutants, including sulphur dioxide (SO 2 , oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone (O 3 ) and particulate. This paper reviews the changes in air quality in the city over the past 15 years, and notes that a serious vehicular-related emissions problem has been superimposed on the traditional coal-burning problem evident in most Chinese cities. As NOx concentrations have increased, oxidants and photochemical smog now interact with the traditional SO 2 and particulate pollutants, leading to increased health risks and other environmental concerns. Any responsible NOx control strategy for the city must include vehicle emission control measures. This paper reviews control strategies designed to abate vehicle emissions to fulfill the city's air quality improvement target in 2010. A cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that, while NOx emission control is expensive, vehicular emission standards could achieve a relatively sizable emissions reduction at reasonable cost. To achieve the 2010 air quality target of NOx, advanced implementation of EURO3 standards is recommended, substituting for the EURO2 currently envisioned in the national regulations Related technical options, including fuel quality improvements and inspection/maintenance (I/M) upgrades (ASM or IM240) are assessed as well. (author)

  19. Modeling of Control Costs, Emissions, and Control Retrofits for Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about EPA’s use of the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to develop estimates of SO2 and NOx emission control costs, projections of futureemissions, and projections of capacity of future control retrofits, assuming controls on EGUs.

  20. A plasma process controlled emissions off-gas demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battleson, D.; Kujawa, S.T.; Leatherman, G.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal technologies are currently identified as playing an important role in the treatment of many DOE waste streams, and emissions from these processes will be scrutinized by the public, regulators, and stakeholders. For some time, there has been a hesitancy by the public to accept thermal treatment of radioactive contaminated waste because of the emissions from these processes. While the technology for treatment of emissions from these processes is well established, it is not possible to provide the public complete assurance that the system will be in compliance with air quality regulations 100% of the operating time in relation to allowing noncompliant emissions to exit the system. Because of the possibility of noncompliant emissions and the public's concern over thermal treatment systems, it has been decided that the concept of a completely controlled emissions off-gas system should be developed and implemented on Department of Energy (DOE) thermal treatment systems. While the law of conservation of mass precludes a completely closed cycle system, it is possible to apply the complete control concept to emissions

  1. Controlling the emission current from a plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaev, S.P.; Gushenets, V.I.; Schanin, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The processes determining the time and amplitude characteristics of the grid-controlled electron emission from the plasma of an arc discharge have been analyzed. It has been shown that by applying to the grid confining the plasma emission boundary of a modulated voltage it is possible to form current pulse of up to 1 kA with nanosecond risetimes and falltimes and a pulse repetitive rate of 100 kHz

  2. Process control with optical emission spectroscopy in triode ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenoja, K.; Korhonen, A.S.; Sulonen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques used to prepare, e.g., hard TiN, HfN, or ZrN coatings include a great variety of processes ranging from reactive evaporation to sputtering and ion plating. In ion plating one effective way to enhance ionization is to use a negatively biased hot filament. The use of an electron emitting filament brings an extra variable to be taken into account in developing the process control. In addition, proper control of the evaporation source is critical in ensuring reproducible results. With optical emission spectroscopy (OES) it should be possible to control the coating process more accurately. The stoichiometry and the composition of the growing coating may then be ensured effectively in subsequent runs. In this work the application of optical emission spectroscopy for process control in triode ion plating is discussed. The composition of the growing coating is determined experimentally using the relative intensities of specific emission lines. Changes in the evaporation rate and the gas flow can be seen directly from emission line intensities. Even the so-called poisoning of the evaporation source with reactive gas can be detected. Several experimental runs were carried out and afterwards the concentration profiles of the deposited coatings were checked with the nuclear resonance broadening (NRB) method. The results show the usefulness of emission spectroscopy in discharge control

  3. Environmental emissions control programs at Lambton TGS [Thermal Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's air emissions control programs at Lambton thermal generating station, both committed and planned, are reviewed, and their potential impacts on emissions, effluents and wastes are discussed. Control technologies examined include flue gas conditioning, wet limestone scrubbing, combustion process modifications, urea injection, and selective catalytic reduction. The implementation of these technologies has the potential to create new solid and liquid waste disposal problems, the full extent of which is often not realized at the process selection stage. For example, selective noncatalytic reduction using urea injection can lead to increased CO emissions, escape of unreacted ammonia from the stack at levels of 5-50 ppM, increase in N 2 O emissions, contamination of fly ash, gypsum and waste water with ammonia, and an increase in CO 2 emissions of less than 0.4% due to increased power consumption. Optimum performance of the air emissions control systems, with minimum negative impact on the environment, requires consideration of the impact of these systems on all waste streams. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  5. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei; Xing, Jia; Larssen, Thorjorn; Nielsen, Chris P; Hao, Jiming

    2009-11-01

    Facing challenges of increased energy consumption and related regional air pollution, China has been aggressively implementing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and phasing out small inefficient units in the power sector in order to achieve the national goal of 10% reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions from 2005 to 2010. In this paper, the effect of these measures on soil acidification is explored. An integrated methodology is used, combining emission inventory data, emission forecasts, air quality modeling, and ecological sensitivities indicated by critical load. National emissions of SO(2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), particulate matter (PM), and ammonia (NH(3)) in 2005 were estimated to be 30.7, 19.6, 31.3, and 16.6 Mt, respectively. Implementation of existing policy will lead to reductions in SO(2) and PM emissions, while those of NO(X) and NH(3) will continue to rise, even under tentatively proposed control measures. In 2005, the critical load for soil acidification caused by sulfur (S) deposition was exceeded in 28% of the country's territory, mainly in eastern and south-central China. The area in exceedance will decrease to 26% and 20% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, given implementation of current plans for emission reductions. However, the exceedance of the critical load for nitrogen (N, combining effects of eutrophication and acidification) will double from 2005 to 2020 due to increased NO(X) and NH(3) emissions. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the benefits of SO(2) reductions during 2005-2010 will almost be negated by increased N emissions. Therefore abatement of N emissions (NO(X) and NH(3)) and deposition will be a major challenge to China, requiring policy development and technology investments. To mitigate acidification in the future, China needs a multipollutant control strategy that integrates measures to reduce S, N, and PM.

  6. A Plasma Based OES-CRDS Dual-mode Portable Spectrometer for Trace Element Detection: Emission and Ringdown Measurements of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan; Wang, Chuji

    2012-10-01

    Design and development of a plasma based optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode portable spectrometer for in situ monitoring of trace elements is described. A microwave plasma torch (MPT) has been utilized, which serves both as an atomization and excitation source for the two modes, viz. OES and CRDS, of the spectrometer. Operation of both modes of the instrument is demonstrated with initial measurements of elemental mercury (Hg). A detection limit of 44 ng mL-1 for Hg at 253.65 nm was determined with the emission mode of the instrument. Severe radiation trapping of 253.65 nm line hampers the measurement of Hg in higher concentration region (> 50 μg ml-1). Therefore, a different wavelength, 365.01 nm, is suggested to measure Hg in that region. Ringdown measurements of the metastable 6s6p ^3P0 state of Hg in the plasma using a 404.65 nm palm size diode laser was conducted to demonstrate the CRDS mode of the instrument. Along with being portable, dual-mode, and self-calibrated, the instrument is capable of measuring a wide range of concentration ranging from sub ng mL-1 to several μg ml-1 for a number of elements.

  7. Air pollution emission under control?; Luchtverontreinigende emissies onder controle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Smokers, R. [TNO Mobility / Sustainable Transport and Logistics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The air-polluting emissions of lorries and inland shipping needs to adhere to increasingly strict requirements. As a result, the emissions of new vehicles and vessels in 2020 will only be a fraction of the emissions of for example 1990. How does it work out in practice? Is it useful to switch to alternative fuels in the coming years, such as for example natural gas and biofuels? Or will all air-polluting emission problems have been solved in the near future, allowing for full focus on energy use and CO2 reduction?. [Dutch] De luchtverontreinigende emissies van vrachtauto's en binnenvaartschepen moeten aan steeds strengere eisen voldoen. Daardoor zullen de emissies van nieuwe voer- en vaartuigen in 2020 nog maar een fractie zijn in vergelijking tot bijvoorbeeld 1990. Werkt het allemaal goed in de praktijk? En heeft het de komende jaren nog zin om over te stappen naar alternatieve brandstoffen zoals aardgas en biobrandstoffen? Of zijn alle problemen rond de luchtverontreinigende emissies straks van de baan en kunnen we de focus geheel richten op energieverbruik en CO2-reductie?.

  8. Emission and thermal performance upgrade through advanced control backfit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Reducing emission and improving thermal performance of currently operating power plants is a high priority. A majority of these power plants are over 20 years old with old control systems. Upgrading the existing control systems with the latest technology has many benefits, the most cost beneficial are the reduction of emission and improving thermal performance. The payback period is usually less than two years. Virginia Power is installing Stone & Webster`s NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor and Advanced Steam Temperature Control systems on Possum Point Units 3 and 4 to achieve near term NO{sub x} reductions while maintaining high thermal performance. Testing has demonstrated NO{sub x} reductions of greater than 20 percent through the application of NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor on these units. The Advanced Steam Temperature Control system which has been operational at Virginia Power`s Mt. Storm Unit 1 has demonstrated a signification improvement in unit thermal performance and controllability. These control systems are being combined at Units 3 and 4 to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and achieve improved unit thermal performance and control response with the existing combustion hardware. Installation has been initiated and is expected to be completed by the spring of 1995. Possum Point Power Station Units 3 and 4 are pulverized coal, tangentially fired boilers producing 107 and 232 MW and have a distributed control system and a PC based performance monitoring system. The installation of the advanced control and automation system will utilize existing control equipment requiring the addition of several PCs and PLC.

  9. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease: a nested case-control study in the PREDIMED (PREvention with MEDiterranean Diet) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Mary K; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Gea, Alfredo; Stampfer, Meir; Warnberg, Julia; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Bullo, Monica; Sorli, Jose V; Muñoz, Miguel A; García-Rodriguez, Antonio; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique

    2017-01-05

    Substantial evidence suggests that consuming 1-2 servings of fish per week, particularly oily fish (e.g., salmon, herring, sardines) is beneficial for cardiovascular health due to its high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. However, there is some concern that the mercury content in fish may increase cardiovascular disease risk, but this relationship remains unclear. The PREDIMED trial included 7477 participants who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease at baseline. In this study, we evaluated associations between mercury exposure, fish consumption and cardiovascular disease. We randomly selected 147 of the 288 cases diagnosed with cardiovascular disease during follow-up and matched them on age and sex to 267 controls. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to assess toenail mercury concentration. In-person interviews, medical record reviews and validated questionnaires were used to assess fish consumption and other covariates. Information was collected at baseline and updated yearly during follow-up. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations in the total nested case-control study, and unconditional logistic regression for population subsets. Mean (±SD) toenail mercury concentrations (μg per gram) did not significantly differ between cases (0.63 (±0.53)) and controls (0.67 (±0.49)). Mercury concentration was not associated with cardiovascular disease in any analysis, and neither was fish consumption or n-3 fatty acids. The fully-adjusted relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartile of mercury concentration were 0.71 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.34, 1.14; p trend  = 0.37) for the nested case-control study, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.32, 1.76; p trend  = 0.43) within the Mediterranean diet intervention group, and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.13, 1.96; p trend  = 0.41) within the control arm of the trial. Associations remained null when mercury was jointly assessed with fish consumption at baseline and during follow

  10. Integrated criteria document mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, W.; Beelan, P. van; Annema, J.A.; Janus, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains a systematic review and a critical evaluation of the most relevant data on the priority substance mercury for the purpose of effect-oriented environmental policy. Chapter headings are: properties and existing standards; production, application, sources and emissions (natural sources, industry, energy, households, agriculture, dental use, waste); distribution and transformation (cinnabar; Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , elemental mercury, methylmercury, behavior in soil, water, air, biota); concentrations and fluxes in the environment and exposure levels (sampling and measuring methods, occurrence in soil, water, air etc.); effects (toxicity to humans and aquatic and terrestrial systems); emissions reduction (from industrial sources, energy, waste processing etc.); and evaluation (risks, standards, emission reduction objectives, measuring strategies). 395 refs

  11. Mercury transformations in resuspended contaminated sediment controlled by redox conditions, chemical speciation and sources of organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Song, Yu; Adediran, Gbotemi A.; Jiang, Tao; Reis, Ana T.; Pereira, Eduarda; Skyllberg, Ulf; Björn, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contaminated sediments can be significant sources of Hg in aquatic ecosystems and, through re-emission processes, to the atmosphere. Transformation and release of Hg may be enhanced by various sediment perturbation processes, and controlling biogeochemical factors largely remain unclear. We investigated how rates of Hg transformations in pulp-fiber enriched sediment contaminated by Hg from chlor-alkali industry were controlled by (i) transient redox-changes in sulfur and iron chemistry, (ii) the chemical speciation and solubility of Hg, and (iii) the sources and characteristics of organic matter (OM). Sediment-bottom water microcosm systems were exposed to four combinations of air and nitrogen gas for a total time of 24 h. The treatments were: 24 h N2, 0.5 h air + 23.5 h N2, 4 h air + 20 h N2 and 24 h of air exposure. As a result of these treatments, microcosms spanned a wide range of redox potential, as reflected by the dissolved sulfide concentration range of ≤0.3-97 μM. Four different chemical species of inorganic divalent Hg (HgII) and methyl mercury (MeHg), enriched in different Hg isotope tracers, were added to the microcosms: 201Hg(NO3)2(aq), 202HgII adsorbed to OM (202HgII-OM(ads)), 198HgII as microcrystalline metacinnabar (β-198HgS(s)) and Me204HgCl(aq). Microcosm systems were composed of bottom water mixed with sediment taken at 0-2, 0-5 and 0-10 cm depth intervals. The composition of OM varied with sediment depth such that compared to deeper sediment, the 0-2 cm depth-interval had a 2-fold higher contribution of labile OM originating from algal and terrestrial inputs, serving as metabolic electron-donors for microorganisms. The potential methylation rate constant (kmeth) of Hg tracers and net formation of ambient MeHg (MeHg/THg molar ratio) increased up to 50% and 400%, respectively at intermediate oxidative conditions, likely because of an observed 2-fold increase in sulfate concentration stimulating the activity of sulfate reducing

  12. Emissions inventories and options for control. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C.

    1995-10-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project `Social causes of the greenhouse effect, emissions inventories and options for control`. The objectives of the project, that started in 1990, were to support the development of a comprehensive Dutch climate policy and to identify gaps in the knowledge about sources of greenhouse gases. The four phases of the project are summarized. In the first phase, a first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions was made, capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the ozone precursors carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In the second phase, the acquired expertise was used to support the development of Guidelines for National Emissions Inventories by the joint OECD/IPCC programme through workshop organization and participation in the international planning group. In the third phase, a detailed analysis was performed of the sources of methane, its current and future emissions and the options for control. Finally, a similar analysis was performed for nitrous oxide. In these studies, it was found that policies not specifically aiming at mitigating climate change, would help to control the emissions of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. While for methane, national emissions would even decrease because of measures in the livestock management and waste disposal sectors, for nitrous oxide the reductions in agricultural emissions would be outweighed by increases, especially in the transportation sector. The project shows that the application of more detailed information leads to differences with the Guidelines, both because of the limited number of source categories in the Guidelines and because of different, locally specific emissions factors. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  13. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  14. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  15. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:28085104

  17. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  18. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  19. A novel high efficiency fine particulate and mercury control device. Final report for the Department of Energy Contract Number DE-FG02-95ER81968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-05

    This Phase II SBIR program was conducted to demonstrate the ability of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) of flyash to cause particle agglomeration and consequent reduction in the quantity of fine particulate emissions from the system. Another objective was to show that carbon addition to the bed would result in the removal of mercury compounds from the flue gas at carbon utilization levels significantly better than duct injection of activated carbon. The pilot-scale testing was carried out in 1997. The pilot-scale fluid bed reactor was a 1000 CFM system, drawing gas from a slipstream of the exhaust of a 325 MW coal-fired boiler. Flue gas for the pilot unit was drawn downstream of the air preheater and returned to the same unit. Particle agglomeration testing was carried out for which the parameters of gas flow rate and water evaporation rate were varied, and the particle size distribution leaving the fluid bed system was monitored. The bed was able to cause a reduction in total particulate concentration by a factor of 10 and in fine particulate concentration by a factor of 5, and it was found that the best agglomeration of particles was obtained with simultaneous water spray evaporation. Tests were then carried out in which activated carbon was added to the fluid bed for mercury adsorption. Carbon addition in the bed was shown to yield both higher Hg removal and higher carbon utilization than normal carbon addition with the bed. The fluid bed fly ash alone, without the injection of activated carbon, will capture 50% of the inlet Hg vapor. A total of 80% removal of Hg vapor is achieved with the addition to the bed of 1000 g iodine impregnated activated carbon per gram of inlet Hg. The ability of the fluid bed to capture SO{sub 2} and HCl was also evaluated, using hydrated lime added to the bed. It was found that the fluid bed alone, without lime injection, removed 16% of the SO{sub 2}. Complete utilization of hydrated lime is achieved for SO{sub 2} removal at mole

  20. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  1. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  2. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  3. Mercury emission and distribution: Potential environmental risks at a small-scale gold mining operation, Phichit Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataranawat, Poranee; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination was assessed in environment near an amalgamation gold recovery operation located at a small scale mining operation (Phanom Pha) in Phichit Province, Thailand. Total mercury (THg) concentrations was determined in water, sediment, bivalves in the aquatic environment and as dry deposition or atmospheric fallout on surface soil and leaves of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) near the mining operation. THg in surface soil, Neem flowers (edible part) and rice grain in surrounding terrestrial habitat and with distance from the mining area were also evaluated for possible contamination. Potential environmental risks were evaluated using the hazard quotient equation. Hg analyses conducted in the aquatic habitat showed that THg in water, sediment and bivalves (Scabies cripata Gould) ranged from 0.4 to 4 microg L(-1), 96 to 402 microg kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 15 to 584 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. High concentrations of THg in water, sediment and bivalves were observed in the receiving stream near the mining operation which was located near the Khao Chet Luk Reservoir. Whereas the THg concentration in water, sediment and bivalves from monitoring stations outside the gold mining operation (upstream and downstream), were considerably lower with the values of 0.4-0.8 microg L(-1), 96-140 microg kg(-1) dw and 88-658 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. The elevated concentration of Hg found in the sediment near the mining operation was consistent with Hg accumulation measured in bivalves. The elevated Hg levels found in living bivalves collected from highly contaminated sites suggested that the sediment bound Hg was bioavailable. THg in surface soils, brown rice grain (Jasmine rice #105) and Neem flowers of terrestrial habitats were in the range of 16 to 180 microg kg(-1) dw, 190 to 300 microg kg(-1) dw, and 622 to 2150 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated concentrations of mercury were found in Neem flowers

  4. Probe-Hole Field Emission Microscope System Controlled by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunming; Zeng, Haishan

    1991-09-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope system, controlled by an Apple II computer, has been developed and operated successfully for measuring the work function of a single crystal plane. The work functions on the clean W(100) and W(111) planes are measured to be 4.67 eV and 4.45 eV, respectively.

  5. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  6. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  7. Parameters influencing the variation in mercury emissions from an Alberta power plant burning high inertinite coal over thirty-eight weeks period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Reyes, J. [Environmental Studies, Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary, 3303-33rd Street N.W., Calgary, Alberta (Canada T2L 2A7); Schulz, J.; Hollman, D. [EPCOR 10065 Jasper Ave Edmonton, Alberta (Canada T5J 3B1); Rose, D. [Air Pollution Prevention Directorate Environment Canada, 315 St-Joseph Blvd Hull, Quebec (Canada K1A 0H3)

    2006-01-03

    Feed coals and fly ashes from a coal-fired power station burning Alberta subbituminous coal were examined for a period of thirty-eight weeks to determine the variation in emitted mercury. Feed coal samples were analyzed for proximate, calorific value and Hg content, while fly ash samples were examined for C and Hg contents. The maceral content of the feed coal was also determined. The emitted mercury was calculated and compared to mercury emitted from the stack according to a mass-balance calculation from a previous study for the same station. Mercury contents ranged from 0.029 to 0.066 mg/kg for feed coal, and from 0.069 to 0.112 mg/kg for fly ash. The carbon/char in fly ash was separated into reactive (vitrinitic/bimacerate) and less reactive (inertinitic) chars using ZnBr{sub 2} at specific gravities of 1.7, 2.0, and 2.25 to 2.4. The result shows that there is a positive correlation between the carbon and mercury content of the fly ash. The reactive char particles in the fly ash may be responsible for the capture mercury in fly ash. The percentage of estimated captured mercury by fly ash increases with increasing carbon content (%) in fly ash. The percentage of emitted mercury for the period of 38 weeks is estimated to be within the range of 49% to 76% of the total input of mercury. (author)

  8. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  9. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to

  10. Coherent control of atto-second emission from aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutu, W; Haessler, S; Merdji, H; Breger, P; Monchicourt, P; Carre, B; Salieres, P [CEA Saclay, DSM, Serv Photons Atomes Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Waters, G [Univ Reading, JJ Thomson Phys Lab, Reading RG6 6AF, Berks, (United Kingdom); Stankiewicz, M [Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Phys, PL-30059 Krakow, (Poland); Frasinski, L J [Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol and Med, Blackett Lab, London SW7 2BW, (United Kingdom); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Matiere Rayonnement, F-75231 Paris 05, (France); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [LCPMR, UMR 7614, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Controlling atto-second electron wave packets and soft X-ray pulses represents a formidable challenge of general implication to many areas of science. A strong laser field interacting with atoms or molecules drives ultrafast intra-atomic/molecular electron wave packets on a sub femtosecond timescale, resulting in the emission of atto-second bursts of extreme-ultraviolet light. Controlling the intra-atomic/molecular electron dynamics enables steering of the atto-second emission. Here, we carry out a coherent control in linear molecules, where the interaction of the laser-driven electron wave packet with the core leads to quantum interferences. We demonstrate that these interferences can be finely controlled by turning the molecular axis relative to the laser polarization, that is, changing the electron re-collision angle. The wave-packet coulombic distortion modifies the spectral phase jump measured in the extreme-ultraviolet emission. Our atto-second control of the interference results in atto-second pulse shaping, useful for future applications in ultrafast coherent control of atomic and molecular processes. (authors)

  11. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, July 1, 1996--September 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Smith, J. [and others

    1996-11-06

    The overall objective of this two phase program is to investigate the use of dry carbon-based sorbents for mercury control. This information is important to the utility industry in anticipation of pending regulations. During Phase I, a bench-scale field test device that can be configured as an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet baghouse, or a reverse-gas baghouse has been designed, built and integrated with an existing pilot-scale facility at PSCo`s Comanche Station. Up to three candidate sorbents will be injected into the flue gas stream upstream of the test device to and mercury concentration measurements will be made to determine the mercury removal efficiency for each sorbent. During the Phase II effort, component integration for the most promising dry sorbent technology shall be tested at the 5000 acfm pilot-scale.

  12. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Zhenchuan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Xiaoshan, E-mail: zhangxsh@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zhangwei, E-mail: wangzhw@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Ci Zhijia [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. - Highlights: > Hg accumulation in crop organs was studied by OTCs and soil Hg enriched experiments. > Hg accumulation in foliages and roots was mainly from air and soil, respectively. > Air Hg had stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. > Foliar Hg concentrations showed the trend of increase over growth stages. - Capsule Mercury accumulated in the aboveground organs of crop was mainly from the air.

  13. Controls on mercury and methylmercury deposition for two watersheds in Acadia National Park, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K B; Haines, T A; Kahl, J S; Norton, S A; Amirbahman, Aria; Sheehan, K D

    2007-03-01

    Throughfall and bulk precipitation samples were collected for two watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, from 3 May to 16 November 2000, to determine which landscape factors affected mercury (Hg) deposition. One of these watersheds, Cadillac Brook, burned in 1947, providing a natural experimental design to study the effects of forest type on deposition to forested watersheds. Sites that face southwest received the highest Hg deposition, which may be due to the interception of cross-continental movement of contaminated air masses. Sites covered with softwood vegetation also received higher Hg deposition than other vegetation types because of the higher scavenging efficiency of the canopy structure. Methyl mercury (MeHg) deposition was not affected by these factors. Hg deposition, as bulk precipitation and throughfall was lower in Cadillac Brook watershed (burned) than in Hadlock Brook watershed (unburned) because of vegetation type and watershed aspect. Hg and MeHg inputs were weighted by season and vegetation type because these two factors had the most influence on deposition. Hg volatilization was not determined. The total Hg deposition via throughfall and bulk precipitation was 9.4 microg/m(2)/year in Cadillac Brook watershed and 10.2 microg/m(2)/year in Hadlock Brook watershed. The total MeHg deposition via throughfall and bulk precipitation was 0.05 microg/m(2)/year in Cadillac Brook watershed and 0.10 microg/m(2)/year in Hadlock Brook watershed.

  14. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Zhenchuan; Zhang Xiaoshan; Wang Zhangwei; Ci Zhijia

    2011-01-01

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. - Highlights: → Hg accumulation in crop organs was studied by OTCs and soil Hg enriched experiments. → Hg accumulation in foliages and roots was mainly from air and soil, respectively. → Air Hg had stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. → Foliar Hg concentrations showed the trend of increase over growth stages. - Capsule Mercury accumulated in the aboveground organs of crop was mainly from the air.

  15. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  16. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  17. Autometallographic tracing of mercury in frog liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loumbourdis, N.S.; Danscher, G.

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda with the autometallographic method was investigated. The mercury specific autometallographic (HgS/Se AMG ) technique is a sensitive histochemical approach for tracing mercury in tissues from mercury-exposed organisms. Mercury accumulates in vivo as mercury sulphur/mercury selenium nanocrystals that can be silver-enhanced. Thus, only a fraction of the Hg can be visualized. Six animals were exposed for one day and another group of six animals for 6 days in 1 ppm mercury (as HgCI 2 ) dissolved in fresh water. A third group of six animals, served as controls, were sacrificed the day of arrival at the laboratory. First, mercury appears in the blood plasma and erythrocytes. Next, mercury moves to hepatocytes and in the apical part of the cells, that facing bile canaliculi. In a next step, mercury appears in the endothelial and Kupffer cells. It seems likely that, the mercury of hepatocytes moves through bile canaliculi to the gut, most probably bound to glutathione and/or other similar ligands. Most probably, the endothelial and Kupffer cells comprise the first line of defense against metal toxicity. - Frogs can be good bioindicators of mercury

  18. Evaluation of slurry preparation procedures for the determination of mercury by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using on-line cold vapor generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Eder Jose dos; Herrmann, Amanda Beatriz; Antunes Vieira, Mariana; Azzolin Frescura, Vera Lucia; Curtius, Adilson Jose

    2005-01-01

    Five different slurry preparation procedures were tested, after grinding the solid samples to a particle size ≤53 μm: (1) using aqua regia plus HF, 30 min of sonication, standing time of 24 h followed by another 30 min of sonication; (2) same as the previous one, except that the standing time and the second ultrasound treatment were omitted; (3) same as the previous one, except that HF was not used; (4) same as the previous one, except that the aqua regia was replaced by nitric acid; (5) same as the previous one, except that the acid nitric was replaced by tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The Hg vapor was generated on-line, and the emission signal intensity measured at 253.652 nm by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Initially, four experimental conditions were optimized using a multivariate factorial analysis: the concentrations of HCl and of the reducing agent, NaBH 4 , used in the cold vapor generation, and two instrumental parameters, the plasma radiofrequency power and the carrier gas flow rate. The radiofrequency power was statistically significant, but limited to 1.2 kW for practical reasons. The procedures were applied to 11 biological and environmental materials. Both, the slurries and the filtrates were analyzed, using calibration solutions in the same medium as in the slurries. The first three procedures produced results in agreement with the certified values. The two last procedures, using nitric acid or TMHA could not be used for quantitative analysis. For practical reasons, Procedure 3, with a detection limit (3s, n=10) of 0.06 μg g -1 for a sample mass of 20 mg in a final volume of 15 mL is recommended. The relative standard deviations for mercury in the investigated materials, using the recommended procedure, were lower than 12.5%, indicating a good precision for slurry sampling. The recommended procedure is simple, rapid and robust

  19. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    control the chemical speciation, electrochemical state, transport, and aboveground binding of mercury in order to manage this toxicant.

  20. Current understanding of the driving mechanisms for spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury (Hg is a global pollutant and thought to be the main source of mercury in oceanic and remote terrestrial systems, where it becomes methylated and bioavailable; hence, atmospheric mercury pollution has global consequences for both human and ecosystem health. Understanding of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury can advance our knowledge of mercury cycling in various environments. This review summarized spatiotemporal variations of total gaseous mercury or gaseous elemental mercury (TGM/GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM, and particulate-bound mercury (PBM in various environments including oceans, continents, high elevation, the free troposphere, and low to high latitudes. In the marine boundary layer (MBL, the oxidation of GEM was generally thought to drive the diurnal and seasonal variations of TGM/GEM and GOM in most oceanic regions, leading to lower GEM and higher GOM from noon to afternoon and higher GEM during winter and higher GOM during spring–summer. At continental sites, the driving mechanisms of TGM/GEM diurnal patterns included surface and local emissions, boundary layer dynamics, GEM oxidation, and for high-elevation sites mountain–valley winds, while oxidation of GEM and entrainment of free tropospheric air appeared to control the diurnal patterns of GOM. No pronounced diurnal variation was found for Tekran measured PBM at MBL and continental sites. Seasonal variations in TGM/GEM at continental sites were attributed to increased winter combustion and summertime surface emissions, and monsoons in Asia, while those in GOM were controlled by GEM oxidation, free tropospheric transport, anthropogenic emissions, and wet deposition. Increased PBM at continental sites during winter was primarily due to local/regional coal and wood combustion emissions. Long-term TGM measurements from the MBL and continental sites indicated an overall declining trend. Limited measurements suggested TGM

  1. Current understanding of the driving mechanisms for spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huiting; Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant and thought to be the main source of mercury in oceanic and remote terrestrial systems, where it becomes methylated and bioavailable; hence, atmospheric mercury pollution has global consequences for both human and ecosystem health. Understanding of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury can advance our knowledge of mercury cycling in various environments. This review summarized spatiotemporal variations of total gaseous mercury or gaseous elemental mercury (TGM/GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) in various environments including oceans, continents, high elevation, the free troposphere, and low to high latitudes. In the marine boundary layer (MBL), the oxidation of GEM was generally thought to drive the diurnal and seasonal variations of TGM/GEM and GOM in most oceanic regions, leading to lower GEM and higher GOM from noon to afternoon and higher GEM during winter and higher GOM during spring-summer. At continental sites, the driving mechanisms of TGM/GEM diurnal patterns included surface and local emissions, boundary layer dynamics, GEM oxidation, and for high-elevation sites mountain-valley winds, while oxidation of GEM and entrainment of free tropospheric air appeared to control the diurnal patterns of GOM. No pronounced diurnal variation was found for Tekran measured PBM at MBL and continental sites. Seasonal variations in TGM/GEM at continental sites were attributed to increased winter combustion and summertime surface emissions, and monsoons in Asia, while those in GOM were controlled by GEM oxidation, free tropospheric transport, anthropogenic emissions, and wet deposition. Increased PBM at continental sites during winter was primarily due to local/regional coal and wood combustion emissions. Long-term TGM measurements from the MBL and continental sites indicated an overall declining trend. Limited measurements suggested TGM/GEM increasing from the

  2. 21 CFR 880.2920 - Clinical mercury thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical mercury thermometer. 880.2920 Section 880... Devices § 880.2920 Clinical mercury thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical mercury thermometer is a... mercury. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  3. Assessment of furnaces including fuel storage facilities according to the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance (BImSchV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensler, G.; Ott, H.; Wunderlich, O.; Mair, K.

    1990-01-01

    Existing quantities of substances pursuant to Annex II of the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance in furnaces or in fuel storage facilities do not present a general hazard for fireplaces fired with coal, wood, heavy and light fuel oil within the meaning of the Accident Ordinance. In case of a fire in a storage facility for black coal, brown coal, untreated wood, light and heavy fuel oil, a general hazard on account of the release of developed substances is obviously excluded. Dispersion calculations pursuant to VDI 3783 have shown that concentrations of beryllium, arsenic, nickel, cobalt and mercury compounds in the vicinity of the fire source are so small that a general hazard can be excluded. (orig./DG) [de

  4. Mercury speciation and fine particle size distribution on combustion of Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Joint Lab. of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Daukoru, Michael; Torkamani, Sarah; Biswas, Pratim [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Aerosol and Air Quality Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    Coal combustion is the dominant anthropogenic mercury emission source of the world. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) can remove almost all the particulate mercury (Hg{sub p}), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) can retain a large part of the gaseous oxidized mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). Only a small percentage of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) can be abated by the air pollution control devices (APCDs). Therefore, the mercury behavior across APCDs largely depends on the mercury speciation in the flue gas exhausting from the coal combustor. To better understand the formation process of three mercury species, i.e. Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sub p}, in gaseous phase and fine particles, bench-scale measurements for the flue gas exhausting from combustion of different types of coal in a drop-tube furnace set-up, were carried out. It was observed that with the limitation of reaction kinetics, higher mercury concentration in flue gas will lead to lower Hg{sup 2+} proportion. The concentration of chlorine has the opposite effect, not as significantly as that of mercury though. With the chlorine concentration increasing, the proportion of Hg{sup 2+} increases. Combusting the finer coal powder results in the formation of more Hg{sup 2+}. Mineral composition of coal and coal particle size has a great impact on fine particle formation. Al in coal is in favor of finer particle formation, while Fe in coal can benefit the formation of larger particles. The coexistence of Al and Si can strengthen the particle coagulation process. This process can also be improved by the feeding of more or finer coal powder. The oxy-coal condition can make for both the mercury oxidation process and the metal oxidation in the fine particle formation process.

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of mercury accumulation in lake sediments of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevnick, Paul; Cooke, Colin A.; Barraza, Daniella; Blais, Jules M.; Coale, Kenneth; Cumming, Brian F.; Curtis, Chris; Das, Biplob; Donahue, William F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Fitzgerald, William F.; Furl, Chad V.; Gray, John R.; Hall, Roland I.; Jackson, Togwell A.; Laird, Kathleen R.; Lockhart, W. Lyle; Macdonald, Robie W.; Mast, M. Alisa; Mathieu, Callie; Muir, Derek C.G.; Outridge, Peter; Reinemann, Scott; Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Ruiz-Fernandex, Ana Carolina; St. Louis, V.L.; Sanders, Rhea; Sanei, Hamed; Skierszkan, Elliott; Van Metre, Peter C.; Veverica, Timothy; Wiklund, Johan A.; Wolfe, Brent B.

    2016-01-01

    For the Western North America Mercury Synthesis, we compiled mercury records from 165 dated sediment cores from 138 natural lakes across western North America. Lake sediments are accepted as faithful recorders of historical mercury accumulation rates, and regional and sub-regional temporal and spatial trends were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Mercury accumulation rates in sediments have increased, on average, four times (4×) from 1850 to 2000 and continue to increase by approximately 0.2 μg/m2 per year. Lakes with the greatest increases were influenced by the Flin Flon smelter, followed by lakes directly affected by mining and wastewater discharges. Of lakes not directly affected by point sources, there is a clear separation in mercury accumulation rates between lakes with no/little watershed development and lakes with extensive watershed development for agricultural and/or residential purposes. Lakes in the latter group exhibited a sharp increase in mercury accumulation rates with human settlement, stabilizing after 1950 at five times (5×) 1850 rates. Mercury accumulation rates in lakes with no/little watershed development were controlled primarily by relative watershed size prior to 1850, and since have exhibited modest increases (in absolute terms and compared to that described above) associated with (regional and global) industrialization. A sub-regional analysis highlighted that in the ecoregion Northwestern Forest Mountains, mercury deposited to watersheds is delivered to lakes. Research is warranted to understand whether mountainous watersheds act as permanent sinks for mercury or if export of “legacy” mercury (deposited in years past) will delay recovery when/if emissions reductions are achieved.

  6. Global Mercury Pathways in the Arctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoutifard, N.; Lean, D.

    2003-12-01

    The sudden depletions of atmospheric mercury which occur during the Arctic spring are believed to involve oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), rendering it less volatile and more soluble. The Hg(II) oxidation product(s) are more susceptible to deposition, consistent with the observation of dramatic increases in snow mercury levels during depletion events. Temporal correlations with ozone depletion events and the proliferation of BrO radicals support the hypothesis that oxidation of Hg(0) occurs in the gas phase and results in its conversion to RGM (Reactive Gaseous Mercury). The mechanisms of Hg(0) oxidation and particularly Hg(II) reduction are as yet unproven. In order to evaluate the feasibility of proposed chemical processes involving mercury in the Arctic atmosphere and its pathway after deposition on the snow from the air, we investigated mercury speciation in air and snow pack at Resolute, Nunavut, Canada (latitude 75° N) prior to and during snow melt during spring 2003. Quantitative, real-time information on emission, air transport and deposition were combined with experimental studies of the distribution and concentrations of different mercury species, methyl mercury, anions, total organic carbon and total inorganic carbon in snow samples. The effect of solar radiation and photoreductants on mercury in snow samples was also investigated. In this work, we quantify mercury removed from the air, and deposited on the snow and the transformation to inorganic and methyl mercury.

  7. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  8. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  9. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from a Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants can emit significant quantities of fugitive elemental mercury vapor to the air as part of production operations and maintenance activities. In the fall of 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a measurement project at a ch...

  10. Uniaxial creep as a control on mercury intrusion capillary pressure in consolidating rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leigh, Christi D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The nature of geologic disposal of nuclear waste in salt formations requires validated and verified two - phase flow models of transport of brine and gas through intact, damaged, and consolidating crushed salt. Such models exist in oth er realms of subsurface engineering for other lithologic classes (oil and gas, carbon sequestration etc. for clastics and carbonates) but have never been experimentally validated and parameterized for salt repository scenarios or performance assessment. Mo dels for waste release scenarios in salt back - fill require phenomenological expressions for capillary pressure and relative permeability that are expected to change with degree of consolidation, and require experimental measurement to parameterize and vali date. This report describes a preliminary assessment of the influence of consolidation (i.e. volume strain or porosity) on capillary entry pressure in two phase systems using mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP). This is to both determine the potent ial usefulness of the mercury intrusion porosimetry method, but also to enable a better experimental design for these tests. Salt consolidation experiments are performed using novel titanium oedometers, or uniaxial compression cells often used in soil mech anics, using sieved run - of - mine salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as starting material. Twelve tests are performed with various starting amounts of brine pore saturation, with axial stresses up to 6.2 MPa (%7E900 psi) and temperatures to 90 o C. This corresponds to UFD Work Package 15SN08180211 milestone "FY:15 Transport Properties of Run - of - Mine Salt Backfill - Unconsolidated to Consolidated". Samples exposed to uniaxial compression undergo time - dependent consolidation, or creep, to various deg rees. Creep volume strain - time relations obey simple log - time behavior through the range of porosities (%7E50 to 2% as measured); creep strain rate increases with temperature and applied stress as

  11. Plasma control of the emission spectrum of mercury-noble-gas discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    For certain applications, it would be convenient to be able to change the colour temperature and the luminous flux of artificial lighting independently. A promising candidate for this purpose is the fluorescent lamp. This thesis describes the investigation of two variable colour fluorescent lamps.

  12. Nanosecond barrier discharge in a krypton/helium mixture containing mercury dibromide: Optical emission and plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinina, A. A.; Starikovskaya, S. M.; Malinin, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral and electrical characteristics of atmospheric-pressure nanosecond barrier discharge plasma in a HgBr2/Kr/He mixture have been investigated. The discharge was initiated by positive 10-kV voltage pulses with a rise time of 4 ns and a half-amplitude duration of 28 ns. Emission from exciplex HgBr ( B 2Σ{1/2/+} - X 2Σ{1/2/+}) and KrBr ( B 2Σ{1/2/+} - X 2Σ{1/2/+}, C3/2-AΠ1/2, D1/2-AΠ1/2) molecules have been studied. From the time evolution of the B-X transition spectra of the HgBr molecule (502 nm) and KrBr molecule (207 nm), a mechanism of the formation of the exciplex molecules in the nanosecond discharge has been deduced. The distributions of the energies and rates of the processes responsible for emission from HgBr and KrBr molecules have been analyzed by numerically solving the Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function. Experiments have confirmed the possibility of optimizing the voltage supply pulse for maximizing the efficiency of simultaneous emission in the UV and visible (green) spectral ranges from atmospheric-pressure discharge in the HgBr2/Kr/He mixture.

  13. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Spatial variation of mercury bioaccumulation in bats of Canada linked to atmospheric mercury deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chételat, John; Hickey, M Brian C; Poulain, Alexandre J; Dastoor, Ashu; Ryjkov, Andrei; McAlpine, Donald; Vanderwolf, Karen; Jung, Thomas S; Hale, Lesley; Cooke, Emma L L; Hobson, Dave; Jonasson, Kristin; Kaupas, Laura; McCarthy, Sara; McClelland, Christine; Morningstar, Derek; Norquay, Kaleigh J O; Novy, Richard; Player, Delanie; Redford, Tony; Simard, Anouk; Stamler, Samantha; Webber, Quinn M R; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Zanuttig, Michelle

    2018-06-01

    Wildlife are exposed to neurotoxic mercury at locations distant from anthropogenic emission sources because of long-range atmospheric transport of this metal. In this study, mercury bioaccumulation in insectivorous bat species (Mammalia: Chiroptera) was investigated on a broad geographic scale in Canada. Fur was analyzed (n=1178) for total mercury from 43 locations spanning 20° latitude and 77° longitude. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in fur were positively correlated with concentrations in internal tissues (brain, liver, kidney) for a small subset (n=21) of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), validating the use of fur to indicate internal mercury exposure. Brain methylmercury concentrations were approximately 10% of total mercury concentrations in fur. Three bat species were mainly collected (little brown bats, big brown bats, and northern long-eared bats [M. septentrionalis]), with little brown bats having lower total mercury concentrations in their fur than the other two species at sites where both species were sampled. On average, juvenile bats had lower total mercury concentrations than adults but no differences were found between males and females of a species. Combining our dataset with previously published data for eastern Canada, median total mercury concentrations in fur of little brown bats ranged from 0.88-12.78μg/g among 11 provinces and territories. Highest concentrations were found in eastern Canada where bats are most endangered from introduced disease. Model estimates of atmospheric mercury deposition indicated that eastern Canada was exposed to greater mercury deposition than central and western sites. Further, mean total mercury concentrations in fur of adult little brown bats were positively correlated with site-specific estimates of atmospheric mercury deposition. This study provides the largest geographic coverage of mercury measurements in bats to date and indicates that atmospheric

  15. Mercury Flow Through the Mercury-Containing Lamp Sector of the Economy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This Scientific Investigations Report examines the flow of mercury through the mercury-containing lamp sector of the U.S. economy in 2001 from lamp manufacture through disposal or recycling. Mercury-containing lamps illuminate commercial and industrial buildings, outdoor areas, and residences. Mercury is an essential component in fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps (high-pressure sodium, mercury-vapor, and metal halide). A typical fluorescent lamp is composed of a phosphor-coated glass tube with electrodes located at either end. Only a very small amount of the mercury is in vapor form. The remainder of the mercury is in the form of either liquid mercury metal or solid mercury oxide (mercury oxidizes over the life of the lamp). When voltage is applied, the electrodes energize the mercury vapor and cause it to emit ultraviolet energy. The phosphor coating absorbs the ultraviolet energy, which causes the phosphor to fluoresce and emit visible light. Mercury-containing lamps provide more lumens per watt than incandescent lamps and, as a result, require from three to four times less energy to operate. Mercury is persistent and toxic within the environment. Mercury-containing lamps are of environmental concern because they are widely distributed throughout the environment and are easily broken in handling. The magnitude of lamp sector mercury emissions, estimated to be 2.9 metric tons per year (t/yr), is small compared with the estimated mercury losses of the U.S. coal-burning and chlor-alkali industries, which are about 70 t/yr and about 90 t/yr, respectively.

  16. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  17. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: high efficiency preparation; advanced physical coal cleaning; superclean emission systems; air toxics and mercury measurement and control workshop; and mercury measurement and control workshop. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Effects of liming and ash recycling on the outflow of mercury from forest soils - a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Arne; Nilsson, Ingvar

    1994-01-01

    In this report, a theoretical review is made of the probable effects that spreading of lime and woodash in forests will have on the turnover of mercury in soil and on the outflow of mercury into water systems. As a result of historic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, a large proportion of Swedish forest land has significantly increased concentrations of mercury, which is gradually leaching into lakes and watercourses. If an increased application of lime or woodash to forest soils were to result in a major change in the outflow of mercury, it could in time have a considerable effect on the mercury concentrations in lake fish. The fish in a large number of lakes in the southern part of Sweden already have mercury concentrations which are so high as to make them unsuitable for use as food. In conclusion, the theoretical assessment indicates in general that any effects on the mercury situation in lakes as a result of liming or woodash treatment of forest land are marginal or towards the positive side. It is not likely that these treatments increases the outflow of organic matter from soil. Any worsening of the mercury situation in lakes and watercourses will therefore hardly be the result of soil changes, but rather of processes in lakes and streams. Most of the evidence, however suggests that liming/ash treatment has predominantly positive effects with regard to the lake processes that control mercury levels in fish. At this juncture, available experience indicates that the mercury situation in the environment is in no way a decisive factor in determining where and how lime or ash should be applied to forest land. 64 refs, 2 figs

  19. Post combustion methods for control of NOx emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, H S; Curran, L M; Slack, A V; Ando, J; Oxley, J H

    1980-01-01

    Review of stack gas treatment methods for the control of NOx emissions. Particular emphasis is placed on status of development and factors affecting the performance of the processes. Catalytic, noncatalytic, and scrubbing processes are compared on a uniform engineering basis. Most of the active process development work is taking place in Japan. The three leading stack gas treatment techniques for NOx control are catalytic reduction with ammonia, noncatalytic reduction with ammonia, and direct scrubbing of NO with simultaneous absorption of SO2. The wet processes are much less developed than the dry processes.

  20. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Evaluation of the characteristics of a field emission cathode for use in a Mercury ion trap frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The performance is reported of a field emission array characterized for the purpose of replacing the filament in a trapped ion frequency standard. This dark electron emitter eliminates the need for the interference filter currently used in the trapped ion standard. While reducing the filament's unwanted light, this filter causes a significant reduction in the signal. The magnetic field associated with the filament is also eliminated, thus potentially improving the present stability of the trapped ion standard. The operation of the filament in the present system is described, as well as the associated concerns. The cathode considered for the filament's replacement is then described along with the experimental system. Experimental results, observations, and conclusions are presented.

  2. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-10-11

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  3. Application of secondary ion emission to impurity control in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The extent to which high Z impurities enter the plasma of a magnetic confinement fusion device depends on the kinetic energy, angle of emission, and very importantly, the charge state of the ejected material. We have been studying both the fundamental process of secondary ion emission and possible techniques for producing surfaces which give rise to high ion fractions during sputtering, with a view to assessing the potential of this approach to impurity control in tokamaks. By carefully choosing materials exposed to fusion plasmas and by properly modifying the surface it may be possible to insure that nearly all the impurities are ejected as ions. As long as certain gas blanket configurations are avoided and especially if a divertor is used, it should then be possible to remove the impurities before they reach the plasma. The relative merits of a variety of materials are considered with regard to this application

  4. Environmental controls on the speciation and distribution of mercury in surface sediments of a tropical estuary, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Babu, P.V. Raghunadh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Physico-chemical parameters of water column control Hg speciation in sediments. • Sediments from the middle of the estuary were contaminated by Hg. • Concentrations of Hg were less during the monsoon and post monsoon period. • Salinity, pH of water column may change Hg speciation of the bottom sediments. • TOC in sediments control Hg partitioning in the system. - Abstract: Distribution and speciation of mercury (Hg) in the sediments from a tropical estuary (Godavari estuary) was influenced by the changing physico-chemical parameters of the overlying water column. The sediments from the upstream and downstream of the estuary were uncontaminated but the sediments from the middle of the estuary were contaminated by Hg. The concentrations of Hg became considerably less during the monsoon and post monsoon period. Total Hg concentrations and its speciation (at the middle of the estuary) were dependent on the salinity of the overlying water column. However, salinity had little or no effect on Hg association with organic phases in the sediments at downstream. Increasing pH of the overlying water column corresponded with an increase in the total Hg content in the sediments. Total organic carbon in the sediments played an important role in controlling Hg partitioning in the system. Uncomplexed Hg binding ligands were available in the sediments

  5. Mercury determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold vapor capacitively coupled plasma microtorch atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentiu, Tiberiu; Mihaltan, Alin I.; Ponta, Michaela; Darvasi, Eugen; Frentiu, Maria; Cordos, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use of a miniaturized analytical system with microtorch plasma for Hg determination. → Determination of Hg in non- and biodegradable materials using cold vapor generation. → Figures of merit and advantages of the miniaturized system for Hg determination. - Abstract: A new analytical system consisting of a low power capacitively coupled plasma microtorch (20 W, 13.56 MHz, 150 ml min -1 Ar) and a microspectrometer was investigated for the Hg determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold-vapor generation, using SnCl 2 reductant, and atomic emission spectrometry. The investigated miniaturized system was used for Hg determination in recyclable plastics from electronic equipments and biodegradable materials (shopping bags of 98% biodegradable polyethylene and corn starch) with the advantages of easy operation and low analysis costs. Samples were mineralized in HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 mixture in a high-pressure microwave system. The detection limits of 0.05 ng ml -1 or 0.08 μg g -1 in solid sample were compared with those reported for other analytical systems. The method precision was 1.5-9.4% for Hg levels of 1.37-13.9 mg kg -1 , while recovery in two polyethylene certified reference materials in the range 98.7 ± 4.5% (95% confidence level).

  6. Mercury determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold vapor capacitively coupled plasma microtorch atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentiu, Tiberiu; Mihaltan, Alin I; Ponta, Michaela; Darvasi, Eugen; Frentiu, Maria; Cordos, Emil

    2011-10-15

    A new analytical system consisting of a low power capacitively coupled plasma microtorch (20 W, 13.56 MHz, 150 ml min(-1) Ar) and a microspectrometer was investigated for the Hg determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold-vapor generation, using SnCl(2) reductant, and atomic emission spectrometry. The investigated miniaturized system was used for Hg determination in recyclable plastics from electronic equipments and biodegradable materials (shopping bags of 98% biodegradable polyethylene and corn starch) with the advantages of easy operation and low analysis costs. Samples were mineralized in HNO(3)-H(2)SO(4) mixture in a high-pressure microwave system. The detection limits of 0.05 ng ml(-1) or 0.08 μg g(-1) in solid sample were compared with those reported for other analytical systems. The method precision was 1.5-9.4% for Hg levels of 1.37-13.9 mg kg(-1), while recovery in two polyethylene certified reference materials in the range 98.7 ± 4.5% (95% confidence level). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold vapor capacitively coupled plasma microtorch atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frentiu, Tiberiu, E-mail: ftibi@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mihaltan, Alin I., E-mail: alinblaj2005@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ponta, Michaela, E-mail: mponta@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Darvasi, Eugen, E-mail: edarvasi@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Frentiu, Maria, E-mail: frentiu.maria@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cordos, Emil, E-mail: emilcordos@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Use of a miniaturized analytical system with microtorch plasma for Hg determination. {yields} Determination of Hg in non- and biodegradable materials using cold vapor generation. {yields} Figures of merit and advantages of the miniaturized system for Hg determination. - Abstract: A new analytical system consisting of a low power capacitively coupled plasma microtorch (20 W, 13.56 MHz, 150 ml min{sup -1} Ar) and a microspectrometer was investigated for the Hg determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold-vapor generation, using SnCl{sub 2} reductant, and atomic emission spectrometry. The investigated miniaturized system was used for Hg determination in recyclable plastics from electronic equipments and biodegradable materials (shopping bags of 98% biodegradable polyethylene and corn starch) with the advantages of easy operation and low analysis costs. Samples were mineralized in HNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} mixture in a high-pressure microwave system. The detection limits of 0.05 ng ml{sup -1} or 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1} in solid sample were compared with those reported for other analytical systems. The method precision was 1.5-9.4% for Hg levels of 1.37-13.9 mg kg{sup -1}, while recovery in two polyethylene certified reference materials in the range 98.7 {+-} 4.5% (95% confidence level).

  8. Use of continuous mercury monitors at coal-fired utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, Dennis L.; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Pavlish, John H. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, PO Box 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, PO Box 10940 MS 922-273C, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 (United States); Chu, Paul [EPRI, 3412 Hillview Avenue, PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, CA 94303 (United States)

    2004-06-15

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice of its determination that regulation of coal-fired utilities for mercury is appropriate and necessary as part of the hazardous air pollutant emission regulation for electric utility steam-generating units. To aid in the determination of mercury emissions from these sources, on-line mercury semicontinuous emission monitors (Hg SCEMs) have been developed and tested in recent years. Although Hg SCEMs have shown promise during these previous tests, rigorous field or long-term testing has not been done. In the past year, commercially available and prototype Hg SCEMs have been used by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and others at several power plants. As part of the EERC work, Hg SCEMs were operated at a range of conditions and locations. In addition, the Hg SCEMs were operated for up to 1 month. The use of Hg SCEMs at these plants allowed for near-real-time data to be collected under changing plant conditions, as well as during normal ranges of operating conditions. Mercury emission data were obtained from different plants with different configurations. The plant configurations incorporated various pollution control technologies, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction, ammonium sulfate injection for flue gas conditioning, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The particulate control devices included electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), a fabric filter (FF), and a venturi scrubber. The testing at these sites included the operation of Hg SCEMs before and after particulate control devices, in wet and dry stack conditions, and at high temperatures (343 C). The results from these field measurements have provided data that have been evaluated to determine the reliability, variability, biases, and overall capability of Hg SCEMs for monitoring mercury at coal-fired utilities. Even under the best conditions, operation of Hg SCEMs is by no

  9. The effect of mercury deposition to ecosystem around coal-power plants in Tan-An peninsular, S. Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Song, K.; Shin, S.; Han, J.; Hong, E.; Jung, G.

    2009-12-01

    According to UNEP’s Report in 2008, Korea is one of the largest mercury emitting country with emission amount of 32 tones and the contribution of stationary coal combustion is estimated around 59%, as one of major mercury emission sources. There are growing needs of ecosystem mercury monitoring to evaluate the effectiveness on mercury emission controls by regulations. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the useful monitoring indicators by comparing mercury levels of various environmental matrices in different ecosystems. Tae-an coal power plant, located on the west coastal of Korea is selected for study sites since it is one of the largest coal power plant in Korea with 4000 MW capacities. We chose 2 reservoirs near to Tae-an coal power plant and 2 others in An-myeon and Baeg-ryeong island for control study. Total gaseous mercury of ambient air was 3.6, 4.5 and 1.2 ng/m3 for Tae-an, An-myeon and Baeg-ryeong sites, respectively. From these results, we investigated and compared total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface water, soil, sediment, leaves and freshwater fish between reservoirs, which were known for the indicators of mercury atmospheric deposition. Estimates for the potential rates of methylation and activities of sulfur reducing bacteria were also made by injection radioactive isotopes of 203Hg and 35S. Potential methylation rate and acid volatile sulfide formation potential were dramatically changed by depth and maximum values were found in the top sediment section.

  10. Environmental costs of mercury pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Goodsite, Michael E. [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Research Group, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2500 and 1.1 million US$ kg{sup -1} Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 1060.102 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What permeation emission control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.102 What permeation...

  12. 40 CFR 1060.103 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel tanks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What permeation emission control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.103 What permeation...

  13. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What air emissions control information... Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air emission control equipment subject to 40 CFR part 264, subpart CC, you must keep the following information...

  14. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  15. A synthesis of rates and controls on elemental mercury evasion in the Great Lakes Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkenberger, Joseph S.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Eckley, Chris S.; Cohen, Mark; Selvendiran, Pranesh

    2012-01-01

    Rates of surface-air elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) fluxes in the literature were synthesized for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). For the majority of surfaces, fluxes were net positive (evasion). Digital land-cover data were combined with representative evasion rates and used to estimate annual Hg 0 evasion for the GLB (7.7 Mg/yr). This value is less than our estimate of total Hg deposition to the area (15.9 Mg/yr), suggesting the GLB is a net sink for atmospheric Hg. The greatest contributors to annual evasion for the basin are agricultural (∼55%) and forest (∼25%) land cover types, and the open water of the Great Lakes (∼15%). Areal evasion rates were similar across most land cover types (range: 7.0–21.0 μg/m 2 -yr), with higher rates associated with urban (12.6 μg/m 2 -yr) and agricultural (21.0 μg/m 2 -yr) lands. Uncertainty in these estimates could be partially remedied through a unified methodological approach to estimating Hg 0 fluxes. - Highlights: ► Considerable variability exists across spatial/temporal scales in Hg 0 evasion rates. ► Methodological approaches vary for estimating and reporting gaseous Hg 0 fluxes. ► Hg 0 evasion from the Great Lakes Basin is estimated at 7.7 Mg/yr (10.2 μg/m 2 -yr). ► Hg flux estimates suggest region is a net sink for atmospheric Hg. ► 95% of Hg 0 evasion in the region is from agriculture, forest, and the Great Lakes. - A synthesis of Hg evasion was conducted and this information was used to develop an estimate of Hg evasion for the Great Lakes Basin.

  16. A review of global environmental mercury processes in response to human and natural perturbations: Changes of emissions, climate, and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Kirk, Jane L; Zhang, Lei; Sunderland, Elsie M; Jiskra, Martin; Selin, Noelle E

    2018-03-01

    We review recent progress in our understanding of the global cycling of mercury (Hg), including best estimates of Hg concentrations and pool sizes in major environmental compartments and exchange processes within and between these reservoirs. Recent advances include the availability of new global datasets covering areas of the world where environmental Hg data were previously lacking; integration of these data into global and regional models is continually improving estimates of global Hg cycling. New analytical techniques, such as Hg stable isotope characterization, provide novel constraints of sources and transformation processes. The major global Hg reservoirs that are, and continue to be, affected by anthropogenic activities include the atmosphere (4.4-5.3 Gt), terrestrial environments (particularly soils: 250-1000 Gg), and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., oceans: 270-450 Gg). Declines in anthropogenic Hg emissions between 1990 and 2010 have led to declines in atmospheric Hg 0 concentrations and Hg II wet deposition in Europe and the US (- 1.5 to - 2.2% per year). Smaller atmospheric Hg 0 declines (- 0.2% per year) have been reported in high northern latitudes, but not in the southern hemisphere, while increasing atmospheric Hg loads are still reported in East Asia. New observations and updated models now suggest high concentrations of oxidized Hg II in the tropical and subtropical free troposphere where deep convection can scavenge these Hg II reservoirs. As a result, up to 50% of total global wet Hg II deposition has been predicted to occur to tropical oceans. Ocean Hg 0 evasion is a large source of present-day atmospheric Hg (approximately 2900 Mg/year; range 1900-4200 Mg/year). Enhanced seawater Hg 0 levels suggest enhanced Hg 0 ocean evasion in the intertropical convergence zone, which may be linked to high Hg II deposition. Estimates of gaseous Hg 0 emissions to the atmosphere over land, long considered a critical Hg source, have been revised downward, and

  17. Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material, with one resonant frequency near the edge of the PBG. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This non-zero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the PBG provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations. A detailed literature survey on the nature, fabrication and applications of PBG materials is presented to provide context for this research. (phd tutorial)

  18. Controlling fugitive dust emissions in material handling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooker, G E

    1992-05-01

    The primary mechanism of fugitive dust generation in bulk material handling transfer operations is by dispersion of dust in turbulent air induced to flow with falling or projected material streams. This paper returns to basic theories of particle dynamics and fluid mechanics to quantify the dust generating mechanism by rational analysis. Calculations involving fluid mechanisms are made easier by the availability of the personal computer and the many math manipulating programs. Rational analysis is much more cost effective when estimating collection air volumes to control fugitive emissions; especially in enclosed material handling transfers transporting large volumes of dusty material. Example calculations, using a typical enclosed conveyor-to-conveyor transfer operation are presented to illustrate and highlight the key parameters that determine the magnitude of induced air flow that must be controlled. The methods presented in this paper for estimating collection air volumes apply only enclosed material handling transfers, exhausted to a dust collector. Since some assistance to the control of dust emissions must be given by the material handling transfer chute design, a discussion of good transfer chute design practice is presented. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The UK market for gaseous emissions control equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The report analyses the changes in demand for gaseous emissions control equipment in the United Kingdom over the next 5 years. It discusses the factors affecting demand such as legislation reporting of environmental performance, and economic factors. It looks at environmental expenditure by UK industry. Markets are examined, for VOC abatement systems; thermal incinerators; adsorption equipment; catalytic oxidisers; absorption equipment; biological treatments; cryogenic equipment; SO{sub x} abatement equipment; wet FGD; wet dry FGD, dry scrubbers; NOx abatement systems; selective catalytic reduction; and selective non-catalytic reduction. Profiles are given of 16 leading suppliers.

  20. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  1. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  2. EM TASK 24 - DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN SITU INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING MERCURY IN A GAS STREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudal, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    As part of its overall Environmental Management Program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed thermal and incineration processes for treating hazardous mixed wastes. These mixed wastes often contain mercury that is released into the atmosphere during the incineration process. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as many states, clearly views mercury emissions from incinerators and combustion systems as a potential human health problem (1). Although validated batch measurement methods such as EPA Method 29, the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method, and EPA Method 101A exist for total and specialted mercury, they are difficult and costly to perform. In addition, the data are not available for use until several days later. Continuous emission monitors (CEMs) are a very attractive option because the data are in near real-time, allowing the data to be used as feedback control for mercury control strategies. Also, a properly designed analyzer should require minimal operator input. However, based on the current state of the art, mercury CEMs are not without problems, as demonstrated in recent field tests (2). In addition, they are often bulky and costly to purchase. Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) was contracted by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (formerly the Federal Energy Technology Center [FETC]) to develop a prototype instrument for thermal treatment process continuous emission monitoring applications. The work by SRD for DOE on the mercury CEM was conducted under two different contracts. Work under the first contract began October 1, 1997, and ended June 2000, with a second contract continuing until June 2001. The SRD process has the potential to be the basis for a very low-cost mercury CEM. The initial cost estimates provided by SRD are an order of magnitude lower than any other proposed mercury CEM. Although the instrument will be low-cost, it still has the potential to detect low limits of mercury

  3. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  4. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  5. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  6. Daily atmospheric radionuclide observations and health impact estimation before and after the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident: Five-year trends by Canadian monitoring stations - Ten-year trends of atmospheric lead-210 and the correlation to atmospheric mercury in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weihua; Chen, Jing; Ungar, Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Rd. Ottawa, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is a global threat to human and environmental health. Anthropogenic emissions of mercury have been larger than natural emissions since the start of the industrial age about 200 years ago. In the past decades, many studies have focused on monitoring and controlling anthropogenic emissions of mercury and their transport and transformation in the environment. In October 2013, the Minamata Convention on Mercury was formally adopted as international law. The new treaty aims to further cut mercury emissions and releases; it is the first global convention on environment and health. Coal burning for power generation and industrial use is one of the major sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions to the air. However, coal combustion processes produce significant quantities of dust containing not only mercury but also natural radionuclides that are released into the atmosphere. Like the case of mercury, those radionuclides can be transported over long distances, deposited on soil and oceans and accumulated in Arctic biota. Exposure to elevated levels of radiation is a health concern. This study analyses long-term trends of atmospheric lead-210 from Health Canada's radiological monitoring stations in the Arctic. Results are compared with ten-year records of atmospheric mercury reported by Environment Canada. A discussion is given on the correlation of long-range atmospheric transport of lead-210 and mercury from industrial sources, such as coal burning. It is expected that continuous decline of atmospheric mercury in the Arctic, especially with more and more countries signing the Minamata Convention, will result in a deceasing trend of atmospheric lead-210 from industrial sources as well. (authors)

  7. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  8. Direct emission of chirality controllable femtosecond LG01 vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, S.; Yang, H.; Xie, J.; Jiang, S.; Feng, G.; Zhou, S.

    2018-05-01

    Direct emission of a chirality controllable ultrafast LG01 mode vortex optical beam from a conventional z-type cavity design SESAM (SEmiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror) mode locked LD pumped Yb:Phosphate laser has been demonstrated. A clean 360 fs vortex beam of ˜45.7 mW output power has been achieved. A radial shear interferometer has been built to determine the phase singularity and the wavefront helicity of the ultrafast output laser. Theoretically, it is found that the LG01 vortex beam is obtained via the combination effect of diagonal HG10 mode generation by off-axis pumping and the controllable Gouy phase difference between HG10 and HG01 modes in the sagittal and tangential planes. The chirality of the LG01 mode can be manipulated by the pump position to the original point of the laser cavity optical axis.

  9. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  10. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  11. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black ca