WorldWideScience

Sample records for control hardware human

  1. ZEUS hardware control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, R.; Erhard, P.; Ficenec, J.; Gather, K.; Heath, G.; Iacovacci, M.; Kehres, J.; Mobayyen, M.; Notz, D.; Orr, R.; Orr, R.; Sephton, A.; Stroili, R.; Tokushuku, K.; Vogel, W.; Whitmore, J.; Wiggers, L.

    1989-12-01

    The ZEUS collaboration is building a system to monitor, control and document the hardware of the ZEUS detector. This system is based on a network of VAX computers and microprocessors connected via ethernet. The database for the hardware values will be ADAMO tables; the ethernet connection will be DECNET, TCP/IP, or RPC. Most of the documentation will also be kept in ADAMO tables for easy access by users.

  2. ZEUS hardware control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveless, R.; Erhard, P.; Ficenec, J.; Gather, K.; Heath, G.; Iacovacci, M.; Kehres, J.; Mobayyen, M.; Notz, D.; Orr, R.; Sephton, A.; Stroili, R.; Tokushuku, K.; Vogel, W.; Whitmore, J.; Wiggers, L.

    1989-01-01

    The ZEUS collaboration is building a system to monitor, control and document the hardware of the ZEUS detector. This system is based on a network of VAX computers and microprocessors connected via ethernet. The database for the hardware values will be ADAMO tables; the ethernet connection will be DECNET, TCP/IP, or RPC. Most of the documentation will also be kept in ADAMO tables for easy access by users. (orig.)

  3. Human Centered Hardware Modeling and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian Damon; Lawrence, Brad; Stelges, Katrine; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    In order to collaborate engineering designs among NASA Centers and customers, to in clude hardware and human activities from multiple remote locations, live human-centered modeling and collaboration across several sites has been successfully facilitated by Kennedy Space Center. The focus of this paper includes innovative a pproaches to engineering design analyses and training, along with research being conducted to apply new technologies for tracking, immersing, and evaluating humans as well as rocket, vehic le, component, or faci lity hardware utilizing high resolution cameras, motion tracking, ergonomic analysis, biomedical monitoring, wor k instruction integration, head-mounted displays, and other innovative human-system integration modeling, simulation, and collaboration applications.

  4. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  5. MFTF supervisory control and diagnostics system hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butner, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a multiprocessor minicomputer system designed so that for most single-point failures, the hardware may be quickly reconfigured to provide continued operation of the experiment. The system is made up of nine Perkin-Elmer computers - a mixture of 8/32's and 7/32's. Each computer has ports on a shared memory system consisting of two independent shared memory modules. Each processor can signal other processors through hardware external to the shared memory. The system communicates with the Local Control and Instrumentation System, which consists of approximately 65 microprocessors. Each of the six system processors has facilities for communicating with a group of microprocessors; the groups consist of from four to 24 microprocessors. There are hardware switches so that if an SCDS processor communicating with a group of microprocessors fails, another SCDS processor takes over the communication

  6. Environmental Control System Software & Hardware Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    ECS hardware: (1) Provides controlled purge to SLS Rocket and Orion spacecraft. (2) Provide mission-focused engineering products and services. ECS software: (1) NASA requires Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs); fixed-length identifier used to identify information items. (2) CUI structure; composed of nine semantic fields that aid the user in recognizing its purpose.

  7. Open Hardware for CERN's accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bij, E van der; Serrano, J; Wlostowski, T; Cattin, M; Gousiou, E; Sanchez, P Alvarez; Boccardi, A; Voumard, N; Penacoba, G

    2012-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be upgraded and many electronics modules such as analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules are being redesigned. The new developments are based on the FPGA Mezzanine Card, PCI Express and VME64x standards while the Wishbone specification is used as a system on a chip bus. To attract partners, the projects are developed in an 'Open' fashion. Within this Open Hardware project new ways of working with industry are being evaluated and it has been proven that industry can be involved at all stages, from design to production and support.

  8. Open Hardware For CERN's Accelerator Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    van der Bij, E; Ayass, M; Boccardi, A; Cattin, M; Gil Soriano, C; Gousiou, E; Iglesias Gonsálvez, S; Penacoba Fernandez, G; Serrano, J; Voumard, N; Wlostowski, T

    2011-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be renovated and many electronics modules will be redesigned as the modules they will replace cannot be bought anymore or use obsolete components. The modules used in the control systems are diverse: analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules. Overall around 120 modules are supported that are used in systems such as beam instrumentation, cryogenics and power converters. Only a small percentage of the currently used modules are commercially available, while most of them had been specifically designed at CERN. The new developments are based on VITA and PCI-SIG standards such as FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card), PCI Express and VME64x using transition modules. As system-on-chip interconnect, the public domain Wishbone specification is used. For the renovation, it is considered imperative to have for each board access to the full hardware design and its firmware so that problems could quickly be resolved by CERN engineers or its ...

  9. Hardware control system using modular software under RSX-11D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittell, R.S.; Helland, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A modular software system used to control extensive hardware is described. The development, operation, and experience with this software are discussed. Included are the methods employed to implement this system while taking advantage of the Real-Time features of RSX-11D. Comparisons are made between this system and an earlier nonmodular system. The controlled hardware includes magnet power supplies, stepping motors, DVM's, and multiplexors, and is interfaced through CAMAC. 4 figures

  10. Logistics hardware and services control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromilas, A.; Miller, K.; Lamb, T.

    1973-01-01

    Software system permits onsite direct control of logistics operations, which include spare parts, initial installation, tool control, and repairable parts status and control, through all facets of operations. System integrates logistics actions and controls receipts, issues, loans, repairs, fabrications, and modifications and assets in predicting and allocating logistics parts and services effectively.

  11. Hardware controls for the STAR experiment at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichhold, D.; Bieser, F.; Bordua, M.; Cherney, M.; Chrin, J.; Dunlop, J.C.; Ferguson, M.I.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gross, J.; Harper, G.; Howe, M.; Jacobson, S.; Klein, S.R.; Kravtsov, P.; Lewis, S.; Lin, J.; Lionberger, C.; LoCurto, G.; McParland, C.; McShane, T.; Meier, J.; Sakrejda, I.; Sandler, Z.; Schambach, J.; Shi, Y.; Willson, R.; Yamamoto, E.; Zhang, W.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR detector sits in a high radiation area when operating normally; therefore it was necessary to develop a robust system to remotely control all hardware. The STAR hardware controls system monitors and controls approximately 14,000 parameters in the STAR detector. Voltages, currents, temperatures, and other parameters are monitored. Effort has been minimized by the adoption of experiment-wide standards and the use of pre-packaged software tools. The system is based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) . VME processors communicate with subsystem-based sensors over a variety of field busses, with High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) being the most prevalent. Other features of the system include interfaces to accelerator and magnet control systems, a web-based archiver, and C++-based communication between STAR online, run control and hardware controls and their associated databases. The system has been designed for easy expansion as new detector elements are installed in STAR

  12. Available hardware for automated entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Automated entry control has become an increasingly important issue at facilities where budget constraints are limiting options for manned entry control points. Ongoing work at Sandia National Laboratories is attempting to establish a data base for use by facility security managers working the problem of how to maintain security on a limited budget. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a performance test of the following biometric verifiers: (1) voice verifier by Alpha Microsystems of Santa Ana, California; (2) signature dynamics verifier by Autosig Systems of Irving, Texas; (3) voice verifier by Ecco Industries of Danvers, Massachusetts (now International Electronics); (4) retinal pattern verifier by EyeDentify of Portland, Oregon; (5) fingerprint verifier by Identix of Sunnyvale, California; and (6) hand geometry verifier by Recognition Systems of San Jose, California

  13. Optimized hardware design for the divertor remote handling control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Hannu [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland)], E-mail: hannu.saarinen@tut.fi; Tiitinen, Juha; Aha, Liisa; Muhammad, Ali; Mattila, Jouni; Siuko, Mikko; Vilenius, Matti [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Jaervenpaeae, Jorma [VTT Systems Engineering, Tekniikankatu 1, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Irving, Mike; Damiani, Carlo; Semeraro, Luigi [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    A key ITER maintenance activity is the exchange of the divertor cassettes. One of the major focuses of the EU Remote Handling (RH) programme has been the study and development of the remote handling equipment necessary for divertor exchange. The current major step in this programme involves the construction of a full scale physical test facility, namely DTP2 (Divertor Test Platform 2), in which to demonstrate and refine the RH equipment designs for ITER using prototypes. The major objective of the DTP2 project is the proof of concept studies of various RH devices, but is also important to define principles for standardizing control hardware and methods around the ITER maintenance equipment. This paper focuses on describing the control system hardware design optimization that is taking place at DTP2. Here there will be two RH movers, namely the Cassette Multifuctional Mover (CMM), Cassette Toroidal Mover (CTM) and assisting water hydraulic force feedback manipulators (WHMAN) located aboard each Mover. The idea here is to use common Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS), measurement and control IO-cards etc. for all maintenance devices and to standardize sensors and control components as much as possible. In this paper, new optimized DTP2 control system hardware design and some initial experimentation with the new DTP2 RH control system platform are presented. The proposed new approach is able to fulfil the functional requirements for both Mover and Manipulator control systems. Since the new control system hardware design has reduced architecture there are a number of benefits compared to the old approach. The simplified hardware solution enables the use of a single software development environment and a single communication protocol. This will result in easier maintainability of the software and hardware, less dependence on trained personnel, easier training of operators and hence reduced the development costs of ITER RH.

  14. Accelerating epistasis analysis in human genetics with consumer graphics hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancare Fabio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human geneticists are now capable of measuring more than one million DNA sequence variations from across the human genome. The new challenge is to develop computationally feasible methods capable of analyzing these data for associations with common human disease, particularly in the context of epistasis. Epistasis describes the situation where multiple genes interact in a complex non-linear manner to determine an individual's disease risk and is thought to be ubiquitous for common diseases. Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR is an algorithm capable of detecting epistasis. An exhaustive analysis with MDR is often computationally expensive, particularly for high order interactions. This challenge has previously been met with parallel computation and expensive hardware. The option we examine here exploits commodity hardware designed for computer graphics. In modern computers Graphics Processing Units (GPUs have more memory bandwidth and computational capability than Central Processing Units (CPUs and are well suited to this problem. Advances in the video game industry have led to an economy of scale creating a situation where these powerful components are readily available at very low cost. Here we implement and evaluate the performance of the MDR algorithm on GPUs. Of primary interest are the time required for an epistasis analysis and the price to performance ratio of available solutions. Findings We found that using MDR on GPUs consistently increased performance per machine over both a feature rich Java software package and a C++ cluster implementation. The performance of a GPU workstation running a GPU implementation reduces computation time by a factor of 160 compared to an 8-core workstation running the Java implementation on CPUs. This GPU workstation performs similarly to 150 cores running an optimized C++ implementation on a Beowulf cluster. Furthermore this GPU system provides extremely cost effective

  15. Accelerating epistasis analysis in human genetics with consumer graphics hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Greene, Casey S; Cancare, Fabio; Moore, Jason H

    2009-07-24

    Human geneticists are now capable of measuring more than one million DNA sequence variations from across the human genome. The new challenge is to develop computationally feasible methods capable of analyzing these data for associations with common human disease, particularly in the context of epistasis. Epistasis describes the situation where multiple genes interact in a complex non-linear manner to determine an individual's disease risk and is thought to be ubiquitous for common diseases. Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) is an algorithm capable of detecting epistasis. An exhaustive analysis with MDR is often computationally expensive, particularly for high order interactions. This challenge has previously been met with parallel computation and expensive hardware. The option we examine here exploits commodity hardware designed for computer graphics. In modern computers Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have more memory bandwidth and computational capability than Central Processing Units (CPUs) and are well suited to this problem. Advances in the video game industry have led to an economy of scale creating a situation where these powerful components are readily available at very low cost. Here we implement and evaluate the performance of the MDR algorithm on GPUs. Of primary interest are the time required for an epistasis analysis and the price to performance ratio of available solutions. We found that using MDR on GPUs consistently increased performance per machine over both a feature rich Java software package and a C++ cluster implementation. The performance of a GPU workstation running a GPU implementation reduces computation time by a factor of 160 compared to an 8-core workstation running the Java implementation on CPUs. This GPU workstation performs similarly to 150 cores running an optimized C++ implementation on a Beowulf cluster. Furthermore this GPU system provides extremely cost effective performance while leaving the CPU available for other

  16. Hardware interface unit for control of shuttle RMS vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Thomas S.; Hansen, Joseph M.; Manouchehri, Davoud; Forouhar, Kamran

    1994-01-01

    Vibration of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) increases the time for task completion and reduces task safety for manipulator-assisted operations. If the dynamics of the manipulator and the payload can be physically isolated, performance should improve. Rockwell has developed a self contained hardware unit which interfaces between a manipulator arm and payload. The End Point Control Unit (EPCU) is built and is being tested at Rockwell and at the Langley/Marshall Coupled, Multibody Spacecraft Control Research Facility in NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  17. Simple Approach For Induction Motor Control Using Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József VÁSÁRHELYI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with rotor-field-oriented vector control structures for the induction motor drives fed by the so-called tandem frequency converter. It is composed of two different types of DC-link converters connected in parallel arrangement. The larger-power one has current-source character and is operating synchronized in time and in amplitude with the stator currents. The other one has voltage-source character and it is the actuator of the motor control system. The drive is able to run also with partial-failed tandem converter, if the control strategy corresponds to the actual operating mode. A reconfigurable hardware implemented in configurable logic cells ensures the changing of the vector-control structure. The proposed control schemes were tested by simulation based on Matlab-Simulink model.

  18. Reconfigurable ATCA hardware for plasma control and data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, B.B., E-mail: bernardo@ipfn.ist.utl.p [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-15

    The IST/EURATOM Association is developing a new generation of control and data acquisition hardware for fusion experiments based on the ATCA architecture. This emerging open standard offers a significantly higher data throughput over a reliable High Availability (HA) mechanical and electrical platform. One of this ATCA boards has 32 galvanically isolated ADC channels (18 bit) each mounted on a swappable plug-in card, 8 DAC channels (16 bit), 8 digital I/O channels and embeds a high performance XILINX Virtex 4 family field programmable gate array (FPGA). The specific modular and configurable hardware design enables adaptable utilization of the board in dissimilar applications. The first configuration, specially developed for tokamak plasma Vertical Stabilization, consists of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) controller that is capable of feedback loops faster than 1 ms using a multitude of input signals fed from different boards communicating through the Aurora{sup TM} point-to-point protocol. Massive parallel algorithms can be implemented on the FPGA either with programmed digital logic, using a HDL hardware description language, or within its internal silicon PowerPC{sup TM} running a full fledged real-time operating system. The second board configuration is dedicated for transient recording of the entire 32 channels at 2 MSamples/s to the on-board 512 MB DDR2 memory. Signal data retrieval is accelerated by a DMA-driven PCI Express{sup TM} x1 Interface to the ATCA system controller, providing an overall throughput in excess of 100 MB/s. This paper illustrates these developments and discusses possible configurations for foreseen applications.

  19. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  20. PCI hardware support in LIA-2 control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkhovityanov, D.; Cheblakov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The control system of the LIA-2 accelerator is built on cPCI crates with *86- compatible processor boards running Linux. Slow electronics is connected via CAN-bus, while fast electronics (4 MHz and 200 MHz fast ADCs and 200 MHz timers) are implemented as cPCI/PMC modules. Several ways to drive PCI control electronics in Linux were examined. Finally a user-space drivers approach was chosen. These drivers communicate with hardware via a small kernel module, which provides access to PCI BARs and to interrupt handling. This module was named USPCI (User-Space PCI access). This approach dramatically simplifies creation of drivers, as opposed to kernel drivers, and provides high reliability (because only a tiny and thoroughly-debugged piece of code runs in kernel). LIA-2 accelerator was successfully commissioned, and the solution chosen has proven adequate and very easy to use. Besides, USPCI turned out to be a handy tool for examination and debugging of PCI devices direct from command-line. In this paper available approaches to work with PCI control hardware in Linux are considered, and USPCI architecture is described. (authors)

  1. Using EPICS enabled industrial hardware for upgrading control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkland, Eric A.; Veeramani, Arun; Debelle, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with National Instruments (NI) and Cosy lab to implement EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) software that runs directly on NI CompactRIO Real Time Controller (RTC) and communicates with NI LabVIEW through a shared memory interface. In this presentation, we will discuss our current progress in upgrading the control system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre (LANSCE) and what we have learned about integrating CompactRIO into large experimental physics facilities. We will also discuss the implications of using Channel Access Server for LabVIEW which will enable more commercial hardware platforms to be used in upgrading existing facilities or in commissioning new ones.

  2. Functional modelling for integration of human-software-hardware in complex physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, M.

    1996-01-01

    A framework describing the properties of complex physical systems composed of human-software-hardware interactions in terms of their functions is described. It is argued that such a framework is domain-general, so that functional primitives present a language that is more general than most other modeling methods such as mathematical simulation. The characteristics and types of functional models are described. Examples of uses of the framework in modeling physical systems composed of human-software-hardware (hereby we refer to them as only physical systems) are presented. It is concluded that a function-centered model of a physical system provides a capability for generating a high-level simulation of the system for intelligent diagnostic, control or other similar applications

  3. Hardware replacements and software tools for digital control computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.A.P.; Wang, B-C.; Fung, J.

    1996-01-01

    Technological obsolescence is an on-going challenge for all computer use. By design, and to some extent good fortune, AECL has had a good track record with respect to the march of obsolescence in CANDU digital control computer technology. Recognizing obsolescence as a fact of life, AECL has undertaken a program of supporting the digital control technology of existing CANDU plants. Other AECL groups are developing complete replacement systems for the digital control computers, and more advanced systems for the digital control computers of the future CANDU reactors. This paper presents the results of the efforts of AECL's DCC service support group to replace obsolete digital control computer and related components and to provide friendlier software technology related to the maintenance and use of digital control computers in CANDU. These efforts are expected to extend the current lifespan of existing digital control computers through their mandated life. This group applied two simple rules; the product, whether new or replacement should have a generic basis, and the products should be applicable to both existing CANDU plants and to 'repeat' plant designs built using current design guidelines. While some exceptions do apply, the rules have been met. The generic requirement dictates that the product should not be dependent on any brand technology, and should back-fit to and interface with any such technology which remains in the control design. The application requirement dictates that the product should have universal use and be user friendly to the greatest extent possible. Furthermore, both requirements were designed to anticipate user involvement, modifications and alternate user defined applications. The replacements for hardware components such as paper tape reader/punch, moving arm disk, contact scanner and Ramtek are discussed. The development of these hardware replacements coincide with the development of a gateway system for selected CANDU digital control

  4. RF control hardware design for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Pengzhan; Wei, Junyi; Xing, Jiansheng; Wang, Chuan

    2015-11-21

    The Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility project is being constructed by BRIF division of China Institute of Atomic Energy. In this project, a 100 MeV high intensity compact proton cyclotron is built for multiple applications. The first successful beam extraction of CYCIAE-100 cyclotron was done in the middle of 2014. The extracted proton beam energy is 100 MeV and the beam current is more than 20 μA. The RF system of the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron includes two half-wavelength cavities, two 100 kW tetrode amplifiers and power transmission line systems (all above are independent from each other) and two sets of Low Level RF control crates. Each set of LLRF control includes an amplitude control unit, a tuning control unit, a phase control unit, a local Digital Signal Process control unit and an Advanced RISC Machines based EPICS IOC unit. These two identical LLRF control crates share one common reference clock and take advantages of modern digital technologies (e.g. DSP and Direct Digital Synthesizer) to achieve closed loop voltage and phase regulations of the dee-voltage. In the beam commission, the measured dee-voltage stability of RF system is better than 0.1% and phase stability is better than 0.03°. The hardware design of the LLRF system will be reviewed in this paper.

  5. Hardware design of a microcomputer controlled diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) has been designed and built to control and monitor the pumps, valves and gauges which comprise a diagnostic vacuum system. The DVC is a microcomputer based self-contained controller with battery backup which may be controlled manually from front panel controls or remotely via CICADA. The DVC implements all pump and valve sequencing and provides protection against incorrect operation. There are presently two versions of the DVC operating on TFTR and a third version being used on the S-1 machine

  6. HiCAT Software Infrastructure: Safe hardware control with object oriented Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Christopher; Brooks, Keira; Soummer, Remi

    2018-01-01

    High contrast imaging for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT) is a testbed designed to demonstrate coronagraphy and wavefront control for segmented on-axis space telescopes such as envisioned for LUVOIR. To limit the air movements in the testbed room, software interfaces for several different hardware components were developed to completely automate operations. When developing software interfaces for many different pieces of hardware, unhandled errors are commonplace and can prevent the software from properly closing a hardware resource. Some fragile components (e.g. deformable mirrors) can be permanently damaged because of this. We present an object oriented Python-based infrastructure to safely automate hardware control and optical experiments. Specifically, conducting high-contrast imaging experiments while monitoring humidity and power status along with graceful shutdown processes even for unexpected errors. Python contains a construct called a “context manager” that allows you define code to run when a resource is opened or closed. Context managers ensure that a resource is properly closed, even when unhandled errors occur. Harnessing the context manager design, we also use Python’s multiprocessing library to monitor humidity and power status without interrupting the experiment. Upon detecting a safety problem, the master process sends an event to the child process that triggers the context managers to gracefully close any open resources. This infrastructure allows us to queue up several experiments and safely operate the testbed without a human in the loop.

  7. The hardware control system for WEAVE at the William Herschel telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado Hernandez, Jose M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis F.; Cano Infantes, Diego; Martin, Carlos; Bevil, Craige; Picó, Sergio; Dee, Kevin M.; Abrams, Don Carlos; Lewis, Ian J.; Pragt, Johan; Stuik, Remko; Tromp, Niels; Dalton, Gavin; L. Aguerri, J. Alfonso; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Middleton, Kevin F.; Trager, Scott C.

    This work describes the hardware control system of the Prime Focus Corrector (PFC) and the Spectrograph, two of the main parts of WEAVE, a multi-object fiber spectrograph for the WHT Telescope. The PFC and Spectrograph control system hardware is based on the Allen Bradley's Programmable Automation

  8. Hardware detection and parameter tuning method for speed control system of PMSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhengqiang; Yang, Huiling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the development of permanent magnet synchronous motor AC speed control system is taken as an example, aiming to expound the principle and parameter setting method of the system hardware, and puts forward the method of using software or hardware to eliminate the problem.

  9. A Modular Framework for Modeling Hardware Elements in Distributed Engine Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.

    2015-01-01

    Progress toward the implementation of distributed engine control in an aerospace application may be accelerated through the development of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system for testing new control architectures and hardware outside of a physical test cell environment. One component required in an HIL simulation system is a high-fidelity model of the control platform: sensors, actuators, and the control law. The control system developed for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) provides a verifiable baseline for development of a model for simulating a distributed control architecture. This distributed controller model will contain enhanced hardware models, capturing the dynamics of the transducer and the effects of data processing, and a model of the controller network. A multilevel framework is presented that establishes three sets of interfaces in the control platform: communication with the engine (through sensors and actuators), communication between hardware and controller (over a network), and the physical connections within individual pieces of hardware. This introduces modularity at each level of the model, encouraging collaboration in the development and testing of various control schemes or hardware designs. At the hardware level, this modularity is leveraged through the creation of a SimulinkR library containing blocks for constructing smart transducer models complying with the IEEE 1451 specification. These hardware models were incorporated in a distributed version of the baseline C-MAPSS40k controller and simulations were run to compare the performance of the two models. The overall tracking ability differed only due to quantization effects in the feedback measurements in the distributed controller. Additionally, it was also found that the added complexity of the smart transducer models did not prevent real-time operation of the distributed controller model, a requirement of an HIL system.

  10. Intrinsic Hardware Evolution for the Design and Reconfiguration of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a second generation Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA2). The performance of an evolved controller is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. It is shown that hardware evolution is able to create a compact design that provides good performance, while using considerably less functional electronic components than the conventional design. Additionally, the use of hardware evolution to provide fault tolerance by reconfiguring the design is explored. Experimental results are presented showing that significant recovery of capability can be made in the face of damaging induced faults.

  11. Control/interlock/display system for EBT-P using commercially-available hardware and firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    For the EBT-P project, alternative commercially-available hardware, software and firmware have been employed for control, interlock and data display functions. This paper describes the criteria and rationale used to select that commercial equipment and discusses the important features of the equipment chosen, especially programmable controllers. Additional discussion is centered on interface problems which are encountered upon attempts to integrate equipment from several vendors. Some solutions to these problems are discussed. Details of software and hardware performance during tests are presented. The extent to which the EBT-P hardware and software configuration addresses and resolves various issues is discussed. Several areas have been uncovered in which relatively slight improvements/modifications of commercial programmable controller firmware would significantly improve the capability of this type of hardware in fusion control applications. These improvements are discussed in detail

  12. The Application of Hardware in the Loop Testing for Distributed Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George L.; Culley, Dennis E.; Brand, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The essence of a distributed control system is the modular partitioning of control function across a hardware implementation. This type of control architecture requires embedding electronics in a multitude of control element nodes for the execution of those functions, and their integration as a unified system. As the field of distributed aeropropulsion control moves toward reality, questions about building and validating these systems remain. This paper focuses on the development of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test techniques for distributed aero engine control, and the application of HIL testing as it pertains to potential advanced engine control applications that may now be possible due to the intelligent capability embedded in the nodes.

  13. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the design of analog speed controllers for DC motors on aerospace systems. The presentation includes an overview of controller evolution, evolvable controller configuration, an emphasis on proportion integral (PI) controllers, schematic diagrams, and experimental results.

  14. An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned from Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned in Human and Hardware Behavior" on August 16, 2011. With more than 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. This presentation focused on lessons learned in human and hardware behavior. During his many years in the industry, McMann observed that the hardware development process was intertwined with human influences, which impacted the outcome of the product.

  15. Hardware design for new instrumentation and control system of RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2010-01-01

    The design for New Instrumentation and Control system of RTP are proposed. Physical system is modular-based, comprise of several cabinets such as Reactor Protection System 1 and 2, Control Console, Information Console 1 and 2 as well as Communication Console. Reactor Protection System automatically will shut-down reactor whenever safety limit setting was approach. Control console is where the reactor operator actually controls the reactor with control the movement of control rods. Information Consoles using Liquid Crystal Display to monitor the reactor parameters. Communication Console is where the communication tools such as telephone and intercom are located. This new system will incorporated analog, digital and computer-based. Reactor Protection System will use all analog system. Reactor Control System and Reactor Monitoring System will use analog as well as computer-based system. Wide-range channel will use digital signal processor as a main component. Controlling control rod movement is using control rod button via microprocessor-based control rod controller. Automatic Flux Controller is using embedded computer for flexibility of programming. Data Acquisition System is using Programmable Logic Controller and Industrial Computer. The main software for this system will be developed using WinCC software. (author)

  16. Hardware and Software Integration in Project Development of Automated Controller System Using LABVIEW FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairulezwan Abd Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    The Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a semiconductor device that can be programmed after manufacturing. Instead of being restricted to any predetermined hardware function, an FPGA allows user to program product features and functions, adapt to new standards, and reconfigure hardware for specific applications even after the product has been installed in the field, hence the name field-programmable. This project developed a control system using LabVIEW FPGA. LabVIEW FPGA is easier where it is programmed by using drag and drop icon. Then it will be integrated with the hardware input and output. (author)

  17. The hardware of the ATLAS Pixel Detector Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henss, T; Andreani, A; Boek, J; Boyd, G; Citterio, M; Einsweiler, K; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Lantzsch, K; Latorre, S; Maettig, P; Meroni, C; Sabatini, F; Schultes, J

    2007-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) experiment, which is currently under construction at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), will be a silicon pixel detector comprised of 1744 individual detector modules. To operate these modules, the readout electronics, and other detector components, a complex power supply and control system is necessary. The specific powering and control requirements, as well as the custom made components of our power supply and control systems, are described. These include remotely programmable regulator stations, the power supply system for the optical transceivers, several monitoring units, and the Interlock System. In total, this comprises the Pixel Detector Control System (DCS)

  18. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for the Automatic Power Control System of Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fikry, R.M.; Shehata, S.A.; Elaraby, S.M.; Mahmoud, M.I.; Elbardini, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Designing and testing digital control system for any nuclear research reactor can be costly and time consuming. In this paper, a rapid, low-cost proto typing and testing procedure for digital controller design is proposed using the concept of Hardware-In- The-Loop (HIL). Some of the control loop components are real hardware components and thc others are simulated. First, the whole system is modeled and tested by Real- Time Simulation (RTS) using conventional simulation techniques such as MATLAB / SIMULINK. Second the Hardware-in-the-Ioop simulation is tested using Real-Time Windows Target in MATLAB and Visual C++. The control parts are included as hardware components which are the reactor control rod and its drivers. Two kinds of controllers are studied, Proportional derivative (PD) and Fuzzy controller, An experimental setup for the hardware used in HIL concept for the control of the nuclear research reactor has been realized. Experimental results are obtained and compared with the simulation results. The experimental results indicate the validation of HIL method in this domain

  19. Software-Controlled Dynamically Swappable Hardware Design in Partially Reconfigurable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chun-Hsian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose two basic wrapper designs and an enhanced wrapper design for arbitrary digital hardware circuit designs such that they can be enhanced with the capability for dynamic swapping controlled by software. A hardware design with either of the proposed wrappers can thus be swapped out of the partially reconfigurable logic at runtime in some intermediate state of computation and then swapped in when required to continue from that state. The context data is saved to a buffer in the wrapper at interruptible states, and then the wrapper takes care of saving the hardware context to communication memory through a peripheral bus, and later restoring the hardware context after the design is swapped in. The overheads of the hardware standardization and the wrapper in terms of additional reconfigurable logic resources and the time for context switching are small and generally acceptable. With the capability for dynamic swapping, high priority hardware tasks can interrupt low-priority tasks in real-time embedded systems so that the utilization of hardware space per unit time is increased.

  20. Development of a hardware-in-loop attitude control simulator for a CubeSat satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsawat, Wittawat; Sangpet, Teerawat; Kuntanapreeda, Suwat

    2018-01-01

    Attitude control is an important part in satellite on-orbit operation. It greatly affects the performance of satellites. Testing of an attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) is very challenging since it might require attitude dynamics and space environment in the orbit. This paper develops a low-cost hardware-in-loop (HIL) simulator for testing an ADCS of a CubeSat satellite. The simulator consists of a numerical simulation part, a hardware part, and a HIL interface hardware unit. The numerical simulation part includes orbital dynamics, attitude dynamics and Earth’s magnetic field. The hardware part is the real ADCS board of the satellite. The simulation part outputs satellite’s angular velocity and geomagnetic field information to the HIL interface hardware. Then, based on this information, the HIL interface hardware generates I2C signals mimicking the signals of the on-board rate-gyros and magnetometers and consequently outputs the signals to the ADCS board. The ADCS board reads the rate-gyro and magnetometer signals, calculates control signals, and drives the attitude actuators which are three magnetic torquers (MTQs). The responses of the MTQs sensed by a separated magnetometer are feedback to the numerical simulation part completing the HIL simulation loop. Experimental studies are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the simulator.

  1. Wireless Plug and Play Control Systems: Hardware, Networks, and Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports the result of efforts to identify and solve the problems that arise when a control system is to be designed for various industrial case studies of the Plug and Play Process Control (P3C) project that require autonomous addition/removal of sensors, actuators and subsystems...... in only one of the P3C case studies where all of the nodes of the wireless networked control system are placed underground and should be able to transmit data among themselves. It is not a trivial problem because the well known radio frequency electromagnetic waves face serious difficulties penetrating...... is recommended for wireless plug and play control systems. Formation and maintenance of clusters of nodes are directly linked to the top level application layer via a novel application-based routing metric. The proposed routing metric facilitates implementation of the networking topology in accordance...

  2. Wetware, Hardware, or Software Incapacitation: Observational Methods to Determine When Autonomy Should Assume Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2014-01-01

    Control-theoretic modeling of human operator's dynamic behavior in manual control tasks has a long, rich history. There has been significant work on techniques used to identify the pilot model of a given structure. This research attempts to go beyond pilot identification based on experimental data to develop a predictor of pilot behavior. Two methods for pre-dicting pilot stick input during changing aircraft dynamics and deducing changes in pilot behavior are presented This approach may also have the capability to detect a change in a subject due to workload, engagement, etc., or the effects of changes in vehicle dynamics on the pilot. With this ability to detect changes in piloting behavior, the possibility now exists to mediate human adverse behaviors, hardware failures, and software anomalies with autono-my that may ameliorate these undesirable effects. However, appropriate timing of when au-tonomy should assume control is dependent on criticality of actions to safety, sensitivity of methods to accurately detect these adverse changes, and effects of changes in levels of auto-mation of the system as a whole.

  3. Fermilab 200 MeV linac control system hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    This report is a description of the present Linac distributed control system that replaces the original Xerox computer and interface electronics with a network of 68000-based stations. In addition to replacing the obsolete Xerox equipment, goals set for the new system were to retain the fast response and interactive nature of the original system, to improve reliability, to ease maintenance, and to provide 15 Hz monitoring of all Linac parameters. Our previous experience with microcomputer installations showed that small, stand-alone control systems are rather straightforward to implement and have been proven to be reliable in operation, even in the severe environment of the 750-keV preaccelerator. The overall design of the Linac system incorporates the concept of many relatively small, stand-alone control systems networked together using an intercomputer communication network. Each station retains its local control system character but takes advantage of the network to allow an operator to interact with the entire Linac from any local console. At the same time, a link to the central computer system allows Host computers to also access parameters in the Linac

  4. Fermilab 200 MeV linac control system hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    This report is a description of the present Linac distributed control system that replaces the original Xerox computer and interface electronics with a network of 68000-based stations. In addition to replacing the obsolete Xerox equipment, goals set for the new system were to retain the fast response and interactive nature of the original system, to improve reliability, to ease maintenance, and to provide 15 Hz monitoring of all Linac parameters. Our previous experience with microcomputer installations showed that small, stand-alone control systems are rather straightforward to implement and have been proven to be reliable in operation, even in the severe environment of the 750-keV preaccelerator. The overall design of the Linac system incorporates the concept of many relatively small, stand-alone control systems networked together using an intercomputer communication network. Each station retains its local control system character but takes advantage of the network to allow an operator to interact with the entire Linac from any local console. At the same time, a link to the central computer system allows Host computers to also access parameters in the Linac.

  5. A High-Availability, Distributed Hardware Control System Using Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessner, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Two independent coronagraph experiments that require 24/7 availability with different optical layouts and different motion control requirements are commanded and controlled with the same Java software system executing on many geographically scattered computer systems interconnected via TCP/IP. High availability of a distributed system requires that the computers have a robust communication messaging system making the mix of TCP/IP (a robust transport), and XML (a robust message) a natural choice. XML also adds the configuration flexibility. Java then adds object-oriented paradigms, exception handling, heavily tested libraries, and many third party tools for implementation robustness. The result is a software system that provides users 24/7 access to two diverse experiments with XML files defining the differences

  6. Intelligent vibration control of ELTs and large AO hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, J.-U.; Kürster, M.; Trowitzsch, J.; Borelli, J.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Herbst, T.; Böhm, M.; Keck, A.; Ruppel, T.; Sawodny, O.

    2012-07-01

    MPIA leads the construction of the LINC-NIRVANA instrument, the MCAO-supported Fizeau imager for the LBT, serves as pathfinder for future ELT-AO imagers in terms of size and technology. In this contribution, we review recent results and significant progress made on the development of key items of our stratgey to achieve a piston stability of up to 100nm during a science exposure. We present an overview of our vibration control strategies for optical path and tip-tilt stabilization, involving accelerometer based real-time vibration measurements, vibration sensitive active control of actuators, and the development of a dynamical model of the LBT. MPIA also co-develops the E-ELT first-light NIR imager MICADO (both SCAO and MCAO assisted). Our experiences, made with LINC-NIRVANA, will be fed into the MICADO structural AO design to reach highest on-sky sensitivity.

  7. Survey of hardware supported by the Control System at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.; Nawrocki, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial control System (EPICS) has been under development at Los Alamos and Argonne National Laboratories for over six years. A wide variety of instrumentation is now supported. This presentation will give an overview of the types of hardware and subsystems which are currently supported and will discuss future plans for addressing additional hardware requirements at the APS. Supported systems to be discussed include: motion control, vacuum pump control and system monitoring, standard laboratory instrumentation (ADCs, DVMs, pulse generators, etc.), image processing, discrete binary and analog I/O, and standard temperature, pressure and flow monitoring

  8. A Heterogeneous Multi-core Architecture with a Hardware Kernel for Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; Guan, Wei; Sierszecki, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a demand for improved embedded control systems with features such as predictability, high processing performance and low power consumption. Software kernel implementation on a single processor is becoming more difficult to satisfy those constraints....... This paper presents a multi-core architecture incorporating a hardware kernel on FPGAs, intended for high performance applications in control engineering domain. First, the hardware kernel is investigated on the basis of a component-based real-time kernel HARTEX (Hard Real-Time Executive for Control Systems...

  9. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  10. X-Window for process control in a mixed hardware environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, M.; Rehlich, K.

    1992-01-01

    X-Window is a common standard for display purposes on the current workstations. The possibility to create more than one window on a single screen enables the operators to gain more information about the process. Multiple windows from different control systems using mixed hardware is one of the problems this paper will describe. The experience shows that X-Window is a standard per definition, but not in any case. But it is an excellent tool to separate data-acquisition and display from each other over long distances using different types of hardware and software for communications and display. Our experience with X-Window displays for the cryogenic control system and the vacuum control system at HERA on DEC and SUN hardware will be described. (author)

  11. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for Digital Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Kwon, Park In; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    of the power electronics hardware are not included in the RTDS. Instead, the control algorithms are coded using the native C code and downloaded to the dedicated digital signal processor (DSP)/microcontrollers. The two experimental applications illustrate the effectiveness of the HIL controller testing...

  12. The NUCLARR databank: Human reliability and hardware failure data for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was developed to provide human reliability and hardware failure data to analysts in the nuclear power industry. This IBM-compatible databank is contained on a set of floppy diskettes which include data files and a menu-driven system for locating, reviewing, sorting, and retrieving the data. NUCLARR contains over 2500 individual data records, drawn from more, than 60 sources. The system is upgraded annually, to include additional human error and hardware component failure data and programming enhancements (i.e., increased user-friendliness). NUCLARR is available from the NRC through project staff at the INEL

  13. Conceptual Design Approach to Implementing Hardware-based Security Controls in Data Communication Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad Salah; Jung, Jaecheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the Korean Advanced Power Reactor (APR1400), safety control systems network is electrically isolated and physically separated from non-safety systems data network. Unidirectional gateways, include data diode fiber-optic cabling and computer-based servers, transmit the plant safety critical parameters to the main control room (MCR) for control and monitoring processes. The data transmission is only one-way from safety to non-safety. Reverse communication is blocked so that safety systems network is protected from potential cyberattacks or intrusions from non-safety side. Most of commercials off-the-shelf (COTS) security devices are software-based solutions that require operating systems and processors to perform its functions. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer digital hardware solutions to implement security controls such as data packet filtering and deep data packet inspection. This paper presents a conceptual design to implement hardware-based network security controls for maintaining the availability of gateway servers. A conceptual design of hardware-based network security controls was discussed in this paper. The proposed design is aiming at utilizing the hardware-based capabilities of FPGAs together with filtering and DPI functions of COTS software-based firewalls and intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS). The proposed design implemented a network security perimeter between the DCN-I zone and gateway servers zone. Security control functions are to protect the gateway servers from potential DoS attacks that could affect the data availability and integrity.

  14. Conceptual Design Approach to Implementing Hardware-based Security Controls in Data Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad Salah; Jung, Jaecheon

    2016-01-01

    In the Korean Advanced Power Reactor (APR1400), safety control systems network is electrically isolated and physically separated from non-safety systems data network. Unidirectional gateways, include data diode fiber-optic cabling and computer-based servers, transmit the plant safety critical parameters to the main control room (MCR) for control and monitoring processes. The data transmission is only one-way from safety to non-safety. Reverse communication is blocked so that safety systems network is protected from potential cyberattacks or intrusions from non-safety side. Most of commercials off-the-shelf (COTS) security devices are software-based solutions that require operating systems and processors to perform its functions. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer digital hardware solutions to implement security controls such as data packet filtering and deep data packet inspection. This paper presents a conceptual design to implement hardware-based network security controls for maintaining the availability of gateway servers. A conceptual design of hardware-based network security controls was discussed in this paper. The proposed design is aiming at utilizing the hardware-based capabilities of FPGAs together with filtering and DPI functions of COTS software-based firewalls and intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS). The proposed design implemented a network security perimeter between the DCN-I zone and gateway servers zone. Security control functions are to protect the gateway servers from potential DoS attacks that could affect the data availability and integrity

  15. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors

  16. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  17. Improving plasma shaping accuracy through consolidation of control model maintenance, diagnostic calibration, and hardware change control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggest, D.S.; Rothweil, D.A.; Pang, S.

    1995-12-01

    With the advent of more sophisticated techniques for control of tokamak plasmas comes the requirement for increasingly more accurate models of plasma processes and tokamak systems. Development of accurate models for DIII-D power systems, vessel, and poloidal coils is already complete, while work continues in development of general plasma response modeling techniques. Increased accuracy in estimates of parameters to be controlled is also required. It is important to ensure that errors in supporting systems such as diagnostic and command circuits do not limit the accuracy of plasma parameter estimates or inhibit the ability to derive accurate plasma/tokamak system models. To address this issue, we have developed more formal power systems change control and power system/magnetic diagnostics calibration procedures. This paper discusses our approach to consolidating the tasks in these closely related areas. This includes, for example, defining criteria for when diagnostics should be re-calibrated along with required calibration tolerances, and implementing methods for tracking power systems hardware modifications and the resultant changes to control models

  18. Hardware simulation of automatic braking system based on fuzzy logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Cholis Basjaruddin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In certain situations, a moving or stationary object can be a barrier for a vehicle. People and vehicles crossing could potentially get hit by a vehicle. Objects around roads as sidewalks, road separator, power poles, and railroad gates are also a potential source of danger when the driver is inattentive in driving the vehicle. A device that can help the driver to brake automatically is known as Automatic Braking System (ABS. ABS is a part of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS, which is a device designed to assist the driver in driving the process. This device was developed to reduce human error that is a major cause of traffic accidents. This paper presents the design of ABS based on fuzzy logic which is simulated in hardware by using a remote control car. The inputs of fuzzy logic are the speed and distance of the object in front of the vehicle, while the output of fuzzy logic is the intensity of braking. The test results on the three variations of speed: slow-speed, medium-speed, and high-speed shows that the design of ABS can work according to design.

  19. Research on control technology of hardware parallelism for marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Luo, Xianhu; Zhao, Qingxian; Chen, Kai; Jing, Jianen

    2018-02-01

    The marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been recognized as an effective exploration method of shallow hydrocarbons around the world. We developed our own underwater marine CSEM transmitter that consisted of many functional modules with various response times. We previously adopted a centralized software-control technology to design the transmitter circuit topological structure. That structure probably generated a control disorder or malfunction. These undesirable conditions could lead to repeated recovery and deployment of the transmitter, which not only consumed time but also affected data continuity and establishment of stable and continuous CSEM field. We developed an instrument design concept named ‘control technology of hardware parallelism’. In this design, a noteworthy innovation of our new technology is to solve the above-mentioned problems at the physical and fundamental levels. We used several self-contained control-units to simultaneously accomplish the predetermined functions of the transmitter. The new solution relies on two technologies: multi-core embedded technology and multi-channel parallel optical-fiber data transmission technology. The first technology depends on many independent microcontrollers. Every microcontroller is only used to achieve a customized function. The second one relies on several multiple optical-fiber transmission channels realized by a complex programmable logic device and two optical-fiber conversion devices, which are used to establish a communication link between the shipboard monitoring and control-unit and underwater transmitter. We have conducted some marine experiments to verify the reliability and stability of the new method. In particular, the new technology used in the transmitter system could help us obtain more useful measured data in a limited time, improve real-time efficiency, and support the establishment of a stable CSEM field.

  20. Development of a Hardware-In-Loop (HIL Simulator for Spacecraft Attitude Control Using Momentum Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohee Kim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Hardware-In-the-Loop simulator to simulate attitude control of spacecraft using momentum wheels is developed. The simulator consists of a spherical air bearing system allowing rotation and tilt in all three axes, three momentum wheels for actuation, and an AHRS (Attitude Heading Reference System. The simulator processes various types of data in PC104 and wirelessly communicates with a host PC using TCP/IP protocol. A simple low-cost momentum wheel assembly set and its drive electronics are also developed. Several experiments are performed to test the performance of the momentum wheels. For the control performance test of the simulator, a PID controller is implemented. The results of experimental demonstrations confirm the feasibility and validity of the Hardware-In-the-Loop simulator developed in the current study.

  1. Real time hardware-in-loop simulation of ESMO satellite attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Finnset

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies attitude control of the ESMO satellite using six reaction thrusters. Bang-bang control with dead-zone and Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM for the modulation of the on-time of the thrusters are treated. Closed loop hardware-in-loop simulations, using themicrocontroller unit (MCU Microchip PIC18F452 for implementation of attitude control and MatLab in a standard PC for simulating satellite dynamics, are carried out. Results for real time simulation are compared with autonomous simulations. The controller gives a satisfactory performance in the real time environment.

  2. Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware: For Human Spaceflight. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Karen S.; Kujala, Rod; Fogt, Vince; Romine, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the structural requirements for human-rated spaceflight hardware including launch vehicles, spacecraft and payloads. These requirements are applicable to Government Furnished Equipment activities as well as all related contractor, subcontractor and commercial efforts. These requirements are not imposed on systems other than human-rated spacecraft, such as ground test articles, but may be tailored for use in specific cases where it is prudent to do so such as for personnel safety or when assets are at risk. The requirements in this document are focused on design rather than verification. Implementation of the requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each structural item for the applicable requirements. The SVP may also document unique verifications that meet or exceed these requirements with NASA Technical Authority approval.

  3. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) Test of Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Zimmermann, K.; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test of the demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR). The HIL test refers to a test in which parts of a pure simulation have been replaced by actual physical components. It is used to understand the behavior of a new device or controller....... The DFR has been tested by offline simulations to illustrate the efficacy of this technology. The DFR control logics have been implemented in the SmartBox. The HIL was conducted by having the SmartBox connected to the real time simulations and the performance of the SmartBox was tested with difference...

  4. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Hardware Commonality for Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn; Anderson, Molly

    2012-01-01

    In August 2011, the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) technical community, along with associated stakeholders, held a workshop to review NASA s plans for Exploration missions and vehicles with two objectives: revisit the Exploration Atmospheres Working Group (EAWG) findings from 2006, and discuss preliminary ECLSS architecture concepts and technology choices for Exploration vehicles, identifying areas for potential common hardware or technologies to be utilized. Key considerations for selection of vehicle design total pressure and percent oxygen include operational concepts for extravehicular activity (EVA) and prebreathe protocols, materials flammability, and controllability within pressure and oxygen ranges. New data for these areas since the 2006 study were presented and discussed, and the community reached consensus on conclusions and recommendations for target design pressures for each Exploration vehicle concept. For the commonality study, the workshop identified many areas of potential commonality across the Exploration vehicles as well as with heritage International Space Station (ISS) and Shuttle hardware. Of the 36 ECLSS functions reviewed, 16 were considered to have strong potential for commonality, 13 were considered to have some potential commonality, and 7 were considered to have limited potential for commonality due to unique requirements or lack of sufficient heritage hardware. These findings, which will be utilized in architecture studies and budget exercises going forward, are presented in detail.

  5. A Heterogeneous Multi-core Architecture with a Hardware Kernel for Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; Guan, Wei; Sierszecki, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a demand for improved embedded control systems with features such as predictability, high processing performance and low power consumption. Software kernel implementation on a single processor is becoming more difficult to satisfy those constraints. This pa......Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a demand for improved embedded control systems with features such as predictability, high processing performance and low power consumption. Software kernel implementation on a single processor is becoming more difficult to satisfy those constraints......). Second, a heterogeneous multi-core architecture is investigated, focusing on its performance in relation to hard real-time constraints and predictable behavior. Third, the hardware implementation of HARTEX is designated to support the heterogeneous multi-core architecture. This hardware kernel has...... several advantages over a similar kernel implemented in software: higher-speed processing capability, parallel computation, and separation between the kernel itself and the applications being run. A microbenchmark has been used to compare the hardware kernel with the software kernel, and compare...

  6. Development of a hardware-in- loop simulation platform for NPP main control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pengfei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation technology of the nuclear power plant are gradually applying to the nuclear power industry. However, most of the research on nuclear power plant simulation system only focus on pure computerized simulation at present, and it is difficult to fully display the characteristics of the simulating objects. In order to simulate the response characteristics of control system more really, a hardware-in-loop simulation platform of main control systems in the nuclear power plant has been developed in this paper. This simulation platform consists of thermal-hydraulic model, control and protection system model, physical DCS system and real-time interactive database. A physical industrial DCS system has been coupled to this platform to simulate the main control systems in the NPP, which makes the simulation result much closer to the actual control systems. The devoloped simulation platform has been validated by some steady and transient cases in this paper. This hardware-in-loop simulation platform can be used in the simulation and optimal design of NPP control systems. Furthermore, it can be used in the failure mode and effect analysis of the instrumentation and control systems in the nuclear power plant.

  7. Human performance interfaces in air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yeh, Chung-Hsing

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how human performance factors in air traffic control (ATC) affect each other through their mutual interactions. The paper extends the conceptual SHEL model of ergonomics to describe the ATC system as human performance interfaces in which the air traffic controllers interact with other human performance factors including other controllers, software, hardware, environment, and organisation. New research hypotheses about the relationships between human performance interfaces of the system are developed and tested on data collected from air traffic controllers, using structural equation modelling. The research result suggests that organisation influences play a more significant role than individual differences or peer influences on how the controllers interact with the software, hardware, and environment of the ATC system. There are mutual influences between the controller-software, controller-hardware, controller-environment, and controller-organisation interfaces of the ATC system, with the exception of the controller-controller interface. Research findings of this study provide practical insights in managing human performance interfaces of the ATC system in the face of internal or external change, particularly in understanding its possible consequences in relation to the interactions between human performance factors.

  8. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the EAST PF converter for PF control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaojiao, E-mail: chenxj@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP), P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui Province 230031 (China); Chinese University of Science and Technology, Hefei, Anhui Province 230022 (China); Fu, Peng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP), P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui Province 230031 (China); Chinese University of Science and Technology, Hefei, Anhui Province 230022 (China); Huang, Liansheng, E-mail: huangls@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP), P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui Province 230031 (China); Gao, Ge; He, Shiying [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP), P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui Province 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The hardware in the loop simulation of the EAST PF system is presented. • The control functions and the protection logic have been tested and verified. • The major faults could be avoided and commissioning time could be saved on site. - Abstract: The EAST poloidal field (PF) control system was upgraded in 2015 and the new system has been in use for the 2015 EAST campaign. This paper presents the implementation of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation platform of the EAST PF converter system based on the RT-LAB simulation environment, which was used to improve and evaluate the performance of the real controller. The EAST PF power supply system and its operational modes are presented in this paper. The experiments on HIL simulation platform show that the control algorithms and the over current protection of the controller meet the design requirements well. In addition, the effectiveness of the designed control system has been verified by actual application during the EAST campaign at 2015 for six months.

  9. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the EAST PF converter for PF control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaojiao; Fu, Peng; Huang, Liansheng; Gao, Ge; He, Shiying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The hardware in the loop simulation of the EAST PF system is presented. • The control functions and the protection logic have been tested and verified. • The major faults could be avoided and commissioning time could be saved on site. - Abstract: The EAST poloidal field (PF) control system was upgraded in 2015 and the new system has been in use for the 2015 EAST campaign. This paper presents the implementation of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation platform of the EAST PF converter system based on the RT-LAB simulation environment, which was used to improve and evaluate the performance of the real controller. The EAST PF power supply system and its operational modes are presented in this paper. The experiments on HIL simulation platform show that the control algorithms and the over current protection of the controller meet the design requirements well. In addition, the effectiveness of the designed control system has been verified by actual application during the EAST campaign at 2015 for six months.

  10. Contamination Control and Hardware Processing Solutions at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.

  11. System Function Evaluation due to Hardware Failure of NSSS Control Systems in the APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Juyoung; Ahn, Myunghoon; Kim, Woogoon; Yim, Hyeongsoon

    2016-01-01

    As the performance and failure modes of the control systems may affect the plant response to accidents or disturbances, an evaluation is done to identify potential control system failure modes resulting from single hardware failures. These failure modes are for use in the analytical evaluations that will be performed to assess the plant responses to various disturbances from the viewpoint of postulated system malfunctions. Failure modes that fall into any of the above categories will affect the performance of the control system and should be considered in the analytical evaluation of the NSSS responses to disturbances. An evaluation was performed to identify the failure modes of the NSSS Control Systems, caused by a hardware component, a common sensing device, and a common power supply. The multiple failure modes across the NSSS control Systems are limited by the improved design features, redundancy within each systems, and segmentation between systems. Also, the effects from the failure modes are expected to be acceptably terminated by the Plant Protection System. The failure modes derived through this evaluation will be further considered in the analytical evaluation of the NSSS responses to disturbances in order to identify the single failures which could create the most adverse conditions during a given transient

  12. Hardware-in-the-Loop environment for testing and commissioning of space controllers; Hardware-in-the-Loop Umgebung zum Test und zur Inbetriebnahme von Raumreglern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlhoch, Alexander; Becker, Martin [Hochschule Biberach (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Energiesysteme

    2012-07-01

    The energy-efficient and optimal functioning of room controllers in terms of indoor air climates is influenced mainly by the control algorithm and the optimal adjustment of the parameters of controllers used in terms of space requirements. In the practical operation, deficits in the function or parameters of the controller are hardly or only with great effort metrological detectable, but have a significant impact on the energy consumption and / or the indoor climate comfort. In a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environment, room controllers can be examined in terms of the function under defined conditions, and different controllers can be evaluated comparatively. It is also possible to adjust the parameters of the controller before the commissioning. The HiL environment presented in the contribution under consideration consists of a model of the controlled system, a hardware coupler and a real controller to be tested. Among the spatial models, it can be selected from a plurality of different types of space which in turn can be assigned by means of different spatial parameters and environmental models. These combinations enable a replication of a test scenario corresponding to the later application. The hardware coupler provides a selection of physical inputs and outputs as well as interfaces to different bus systems (for example KNX, LON, EnOcean) for connecting different types of controllers. The construction and operation of a HIL test stand for space controller is presented based on first practical control tests. At this, the focus is on the suitability of this test environment for a variety of different controllers as well as development assistance and assistance for the adjustment of parameters. The HiL environments developed in the joint research project HiL RHK1 for the testing of space controllers, controllers for HVAC systems and refrigeration technology controllers have been developed so that the HiL environments can be coupled to a multi-HIL environment. This

  13. Hardware-in-the-loop-based development methods for mechatronic light control; Hardware-in-the-loop basierte Entwicklungsmethodik fuer eine mechatronische Leuchtweiteregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opgen-Rhein, P.

    2005-07-01

    A hardware-in-the-loop solution is presented which in the system integration phase takes account of the process of functional property validation of mechatronic light control systems. The method is not tested on the road but on a test rig with defined boundary conditions. This test stand, combined with objective assessment criteria developed for the specific requirements, helps to minimize the number of costly road tests still required. Using the example of an adaptive filter of a light control system, the author shows how filter paramaters are applied on the test stand, and how the subjective judgement of the driver is taken into account as well in the evaluations. (orig.)

  14. Design and Control of Compliant Tensegrity Robots Through Simulation and Hardware Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwaerts, Ken; Despraz, Jeremie; Iscen, Atil; Sabelhaus, Andrew P.; Bruce, Jonathan; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Sunspiral, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of tensegrity structures in biological systems and their application to robotics, the Dynamic Tensegrity Robotics Lab at NASA Ames Research Center has developed and validated two different software environments for the analysis, simulation, and design of tensegrity robots. These tools, along with new control methodologies and the modular hardware components developed to validate them, are presented as a system for the design of actuated tensegrity structures. As evidenced from their appearance in many biological systems, tensegrity ("tensile-integrity") structures have unique physical properties which make them ideal for interaction with uncertain environments. Yet these characteristics, such as variable structural compliance, and global multi-path load distribution through the tension network, make design and control of bio-inspired tensegrity robots extremely challenging. This work presents the progress in using these two tools in tackling the design and control challenges. The results of this analysis includes multiple novel control approaches for mobility and terrain interaction of spherical tensegrity structures. The current hardware prototype of a six-bar tensegrity, code-named ReCTeR, is presented in the context of this validation.

  15. Re-configurable ATCA Hardware for Plasma Control and Data Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, B.; Batista, A.; Correia, M.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    The IST/EURATOM Association is developing a new generation of control and data acquisition hardware for fusion experiments based on the ATCA architecture. This emerging open standard offers a significantly higher data throughput over a reliable High Availability (HA) mechanical and electrical platform. One of this ATCA boards, has 32 galvanic isolated ADC channels (18 bit) each mounted on a exchangeable plug-in card, 8 DAC channels (16 bit), 8 digital I/O channels and embeds a high performance XILINX Virtex 4 family field programmable gate array (FPGA). The specific modular hardware design enables adaptable utilization of the board in dissimilar applications. The first configuration, specially developed for tokamak plasma Vertical Stabilization, consists of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) controller that is capable of feedback loops faster than 1 ms, using a multitude of input signals fed from different boards communicating through the Aurora point-to-point protocol. Massive parallel algorithms can be implemented inside the FPGA either with programmed digital logic, using a HDL hardware description language, or inside the two included silicon PowerPCs running a full fledged real-time operating system. The second board configuration is dedicated for transient recording of the entire 32 channels at 2 MSamples/s to the built-in 512 MBDDR2 memory. Signal data retrieval is accelerated by a DMA-driven PCI Express-x1 Interface to the ATCA system controller providing an overall throughput in excess of 250 MB/s. This paper illustrates these developments and discusses possible configurations for foreseen applications. (authors)

  16. Strategy and Evaluation of Vehicle Collision Avoidance Control via Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Li Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel control approach for vehicle collision avoidance of urban vehicles. For safe driving in urban environments, this paper presents both one-dimensional and two-dimensional solutions, which can be applied to the collision avoidance via steering assistance, automatic braking, and warning of collision. Strategies are verified under the software CarSim, and the experimental evaluations are carried out under the combination of CarSim with a hardware-in-the-loop platform. The results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on vehicle collision avoidance.

  17. Precision Time Protocol support hardware for ATCA control and data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Miguel, E-mail: miguelfc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Rodrigues, António P.; Combo, Álvaro M.; Pereira, Rita C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ATCA based control and data acquisition subsystem has been developed at IPFN. • PTP and time stamping were implemented with VHDL and PTP daemon (PTPd) codes. • The RTM (…) provides PTP synchronization with an external GMC. • The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer at the GMII. • IPFN's upgrade consistently exhibited jitter values below 25 ns RMS. - Abstract: An in-house, Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) based control and data acquisition (C&DAQ) subsystem has been developed at Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), aiming for compliance with the ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC). Timing and synchronization for the ATCA modules connects to ITER Control, Data Access and Communication (CODAC) through the Timing Communication Network (TCN), which uses IEEE 1588-2008 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to synchronize devices to a Grand Master Clock (GMC). The TCN infrastructure was tested for an RMS jitter under the limit of 50 ns. Therefore, IPFN's hardware, namely the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hub-module, which is in charge of timing and synchronization distribution for all subsystem endpoints, shall also perform within this jitter limit. This paper describes a relevant upgrade, applied to the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hardware, to comply with these requirements – in particular, the integration of an add-on module “RMC-TMG-1588” on its Rear Transition Module (RTM). This add-on is based on a commercial FPGA-based module from Trenz Electronic, using the ZHAW “PTP VHDL code for timestamping unit and clock”, which features clock offset and drift correction and hardware-assisted time stamping. The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer, at the Gigabit Ethernet Media Independent Interface (GMII), avoiding the timing uncertainties accumulated through the upper layers. PTP code and user software run in a MicroBlaze™ soft-core CPU with Linux in the

  18. Precision Time Protocol support hardware for ATCA control and data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Miguel; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Rodrigues, António P.; Combo, Álvaro M.; Pereira, Rita C.; Correia, Carlos M.B.A.; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ATCA based control and data acquisition subsystem has been developed at IPFN. • PTP and time stamping were implemented with VHDL and PTP daemon (PTPd) codes. • The RTM (…) provides PTP synchronization with an external GMC. • The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer at the GMII. • IPFN's upgrade consistently exhibited jitter values below 25 ns RMS. - Abstract: An in-house, Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) based control and data acquisition (C&DAQ) subsystem has been developed at Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), aiming for compliance with the ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC). Timing and synchronization for the ATCA modules connects to ITER Control, Data Access and Communication (CODAC) through the Timing Communication Network (TCN), which uses IEEE 1588-2008 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to synchronize devices to a Grand Master Clock (GMC). The TCN infrastructure was tested for an RMS jitter under the limit of 50 ns. Therefore, IPFN's hardware, namely the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hub-module, which is in charge of timing and synchronization distribution for all subsystem endpoints, shall also perform within this jitter limit. This paper describes a relevant upgrade, applied to the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hardware, to comply with these requirements – in particular, the integration of an add-on module “RMC-TMG-1588” on its Rear Transition Module (RTM). This add-on is based on a commercial FPGA-based module from Trenz Electronic, using the ZHAW “PTP VHDL code for timestamping unit and clock”, which features clock offset and drift correction and hardware-assisted time stamping. The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer, at the Gigabit Ethernet Media Independent Interface (GMII), avoiding the timing uncertainties accumulated through the upper layers. PTP code and user software run in a MicroBlaze™ soft-core CPU with Linux in the same FPGA

  19. A video imaging system and related control hardware for nuclear safeguards surveillance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whichello, J.V.

    1987-03-01

    A novel video surveillance system has been developed for safeguards applications in nuclear installations. The hardware was tested at a small experimental enrichment facility located at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The system uses digital video techniques to store, encode and transmit still television pictures over the public telephone network to a receiver located in the Australian Safeguards Office at Kings Cross, Sydney. A decoded, reconstructed picture is then obtained using a second video frame store. A computer-controlled video cassette recorder is used automatically to archive the surveillance pictures. The design of the surveillance system is described with examples of its operation

  20. Hardware And Software Architectures For Reconfigurable Time-Critical Control Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Piłat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most popular configuration of the controlled laboratory test-rigs is the personalcomputer (PC equipped with the I/O board. The dedicated software components allowsto conduct a wide range of user-defined tasks. The typical configuration functionality canbe customized by PC hardware components and their programmable reconfiguration. Thenext step in the automatic control system design is the embedded solution. Usually, thedesign process of the embedded control system is supported by the high-level software. Thededicated programming tools support multitasking property of the microcontroller by selectionof different sampling frequencies of algorithm blocks. In this case the multi-layer andmultitasking control strategy can be realized on the chip. The proposed solutions implementrapid prototyping approach. The available toolkits and device drivers integrate system-leveldesign environment and the real-time application software, transferring the functionality ofMATLAB/Simulink programs to PCs or microcontrolers application environment.

  1. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform for prototyping and testing of wind generator controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquin, J.N.; Dufour, C.; Belanger, J. [OPAL-RT Technologies Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Engineers from different specialized fields need to be involved in meeting the growing demand for integrated renewable energy sources into existing power grids. The integration of distributed generation (DG) sources significantly changes the characteristics of an entire network and requires analysis of power quality, transient response to fault occurrences, protection coordination studies and controller interaction studies. Power electronic converters are a considerable challenge. Accurately simulating fast switching devices requires the use of very small time steps to solve the system's equations. Off-line simulation is often used in the field. However, it is time consuming if no precision compromise has been made on models. In addition, off-line simulation tools do not offer the wide range of possibilities available with state-of-the-art distributed real-time simulators that combine the efforts of control engineers and specialists from wind turbine manufacturers, who need to test their controllers using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), together with those of network planning engineers from public utilities, who will conduct interconnection, interaction and protection studies. This paper focused on the prototyping and testing of DG controllers using hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The model was described and consisted of a 10-turbine wind farm connected to a single feeder, simulated using an eMEGAsim real-time simulator equipped with 8-processor cores. One of the wind turbines was controlled using an externally emulated controller. It was modeled and simulated using a dual-processor core real-time simulator, which interacted with the plant model via analog and fast digital inputs and outputs. The effectiveness of the technology was demonstrated by comparing fully numerical simulation results with an HIL-connected DFIG controller simulation. The sampling effect of the digital simulator was correctly compensated for. The simulator could be driven directly by real

  2. Humans vs Hardware: The Unique World of NASA Human System Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, W.; Havenhill, M.; Overton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spaceflight risks to crew health and performance is a crucial aspect of preparing for exploration missions in the future. The research activities of the Human Research Program (HRP) provide substantial evidence to support most risk reduction work. The Human System Risk Board (HSRB), acting on behalf of the Office of Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), assesses these risks and assigns likelihood and consequence ratings to track progress. Unfortunately, many traditional approaches in risk assessment such as those used in the engineering aspects of spaceflight are difficult to apply to human system risks. This presentation discusses the unique aspects of risk assessment from the human system risk perspective and how these limitations are accommodated and addressed in order to ensure that reasonable inputs are provided to support the OCHMO's overall risk posture for manned exploration missions.

  3. A hybrid intelligent controller for a twin rotor MIMO system and its hardware implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jih-Gau; Liu, Wen-Kai; Lin, Ren-Wei

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy PID control scheme with a real-valued genetic algorithm (RGA) to a setpoint control problem. The objective of this paper is to control a twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS) to move quickly and accurately to the desired attitudes, both the pitch angle and the azimuth angle in a cross-coupled condition. A fuzzy compensator is applied to the PID controller. The proposed control structure includes four PID controllers with independent inputs in 2-DOF. In order to reduce total error and control energy, all parameters of the controller are obtained by a RGA with the system performance index as a fitness function. The system performance index utilized the integral of time multiplied by the square error criterion (ITSE) to build a suitable fitness function in the RGA. A new method for RGA to solve more than 10 parameters in the control scheme is investigated. For real-time control, Xilinx Spartan II SP200 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is employed to construct a hardware-in-the-loop system through writing VHDL on this FPGA. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Versatile synchronized real-time MEG hardware controller for large-scale fast data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Limin; Han, Menglai; Pratt, Kevin; Paulson, Douglas; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2017-05-01

    Versatile controllers for accurate, fast, and real-time synchronized acquisition of large-scale data are useful in many areas of science, engineering, and technology. Here, we describe the development of a controller software based on a technique called queued state machine for controlling the data acquisition (DAQ) hardware, continuously acquiring a large amount of data synchronized across a large number of channels (>400) at a fast rate (up to 20 kHz/channel) in real time, and interfacing with applications for real-time data analysis and display of electrophysiological data. This DAQ controller was developed specifically for a 384-channel pediatric whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, but its architecture is useful for wide applications. This controller running in a LabVIEW environment interfaces with microprocessors in the MEG sensor electronics to control their real-time operation. It also interfaces with a real-time MEG analysis software via transmission control protocol/internet protocol, to control the synchronous acquisition and transfer of the data in real time from >400 channels to acquisition and analysis workstations. The successful implementation of this controller for an MEG system with a large number of channels demonstrates the feasibility of employing the present architecture in several other applications.

  5. Communication and synchronization aspects of a mixed hardware control and data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, V.; Flor, G.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Piacentini, I.E.; Vitturi, S.; Hemming, O.N.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with some specific aspects of the control and data acquisition system of the RFX nuclear fusion experiment, at present under construction in Padova, Italy. This system is built around a local area network which connects programmable controllers, minicomputers with CAMAC front-end, and personal computers as operator consoles. These three types of nodes use compatible software which contain a set of low level routines according to levels one to four of the ISO OSI recommendations. The paper describes in detail how the overall system synchronization is achieved. Another aspect described in the paper is the proposed solution for the precision timing and waveform generation (which uses commercial CAMAC hardware) and its integration with the overall system synchronization

  6. National Spherical Torus Experiment Real Time Plasma Control Data Acquisition Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Marsala; J. Schneider

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is currently providing researchers data on low aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. NSTX's Plasma Control System adjusts the firing angles of thyristor rectifier power supplies, in real time, to control plasma position, shape and density. A Data Acquisition system comprised of off-the-shelf and custom hardware provides the magnetic diagnostics data required in calculating firing angles. This VERSAmodule Eurocard (VME) bus-based system utilizes Front Panel Data Port (FPDP) for high-speed data transfer. Data coming from physically different locations is referenced to several different ground potentials necessitating the need for a custom FPDP multiplexer. This paper discusses the data acquisition system configuration, the in-house designed 4-to-1 FPDP Input Multiplexing Module (FIMM), and future expansion plans

  7. High Performance Motion-Planner Architecture for Hardware-In-the-Loop System Based on Position-Based-Admittance-Control

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco La Mura; Giovanni Todeschini; Hermes Giberti

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on a Hardware-In-the-Loop application developed from the advanced energy field project LIFES50+. The aim is to replicate, inside a wind gallery test facility, the combined effect of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads on a floating wind turbine model for offshore energy production, using a force controlled robotic device, emulating floating substructure’s behaviour. In addition to well known real-time Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) issues, the particular application presented ...

  8. IPbus A flexible Ethernet-based control system for xTCA hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Thomas Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The ATCA and uTCA standards include industry-standard data pathway technologies such as Gigabit Ethernet which can be used for control communication, but no specific hardware control protocol is defined. The IPbus suite of software and firmware implements a reliable high-performance control link for particle physics electronics, and has successfully replaced VME control in several large projects. In this paper, we outline the IPbus system architecture, and describe recent developments in the reliability, scalability and performance of IPbus systems, carried out in preparation for deployment of uTCA-based CMS upgrades before the LHC 2015 run. We also discuss plans for future development of the IPbus suite.SUMMARY IPbus will be used for controlling the uTCA electronics in the CMS HCAL, TCDS, Pixel and Level-1 trigger upgrades. IPbus control has already been extensively used in the work of these upgrade projects so far, and final uTCA systems will be deployed in the experiment starting from Autumn 2014. IPbus is...

  9. ATCA digital controller hardware for vertical stabilization of plasmas in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, A. J. N.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    2006-01-01

    The efficient vertical stabilization (VS) of plasmas in tokamaks requires a fast reaction of the VS controller, for example, after detection of edge localized modes (ELM). For controlling the effects of very large ELMs a new digital control hardware, based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture trade mark sign (ATCA), is being developed aiming to reduce the VS digital control loop cycle (down to an optimal value of 10 μs) and improve the algorithm performance. The system has 1 ATCA trade mark sign processor module and up to 12 ATCA trade mark sign control modules, each one with 32 analog input channels (12 bit resolution), 4 analog output channels (12 bit resolution), and 8 digital input/output channels. The Aurora trade mark sign and PCI Express trade mark sign communication protocols will be used for data transport, between modules, with expected latencies below 2 μs. Control algorithms are implemented on a ix86 based processor with 6 Gflops and on field programmable gate arrays with 80 GMACS, interconnected by serial gigabit links in a full mesh topology

  10. Systematic development of industrial control systems using Software/Hardware Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.P.M.; van der Putten, P.H.A.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Milligan, P.; Corr, P.

    1997-01-01

    SHE (Software/Hardware Engineering) is a new object-oriented analysis, specification and design method for complex reactive hardware/software systems. SHE is based on the formal specification language POOSL and a design framework guiding analysis and design activities. This paper reports on the

  11. Hardware random number generator base on monostable multivibrators dedicated for distributed measurement and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernik, Pawel

    2013-10-01

    The hardware random number generator based on the 74121 monostable multivibrators for applications in cryptographically secure distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources was presented. This device was implemented on the basis of the physical electronic vibration generator in which the circuit is composed of two "loop" 74121 monostable multivibrators, D flip-flop and external clock signal source. The clock signal, witch control D flip-flop was generated by a computer on one of the parallel port pins. There was presented programmed the author's acquisition process of random data from the measuring system to a computer. The presented system was designed, builded and thoroughly tested in the term of cryptographic security in our laboratory, what there is the most important part of this publication. Real cryptographic security was tested based on the author's software and the software environment called RDieHarder. The obtained results was here presented and analyzed in detail with particular reference to the specificity of distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources.

  12. A computer control system for the PNC high power cw electron linac. Concept and hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T.; Hirano, K.; Takei, Hayanori; Nomura, Masahiro; Tani, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kato, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.

    1998-06-01

    Design and construction of a high power cw (Continuous Wave) electron linac for studying feasibility of nuclear waste transmutation was started in 1989 at PNC. The PNC accelerator (10 MeV, 20 mA average current, 4 ms pulse width, 50 Hz repetition) is dedicated machine for development of the high current acceleration technology in future need. The computer control system is responsible for accelerator control and supporting the experiment for high power operation. The feature of the system is the measurements of accelerator status simultaneously and modularity of software and hardware for easily implemented for modification or expansion. The high speed network (SCRAM Net {approx} 15 MB/s), Ethernet, and front end processors (Digital Signal Processor) were employed for the high speed data taking and control. The system was designed to be standard modules and software implemented man machine interface. Due to graphical-user-interface and object-oriented-programming, the software development environment is effortless programming and maintenance. (author)

  13. Digital Controller Development Methodology Based on Real-Time Simulations with LabVIEW FPGA Hardware-Software Toolset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caldognetto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we exemplify the use of NI Lab-VIEW FPGA as a rapid prototyping environment for digital controllers. In our power electronics laboratory, it has been successfully employed in the development, debugging, and test of different power converter controllers for microgrid applications.The paper shows how this high level programming language,together with its target hardware platforms, including CompactRIO and Single Board RIO systems, allows researchers and students to develop even complex applications in reasonable times. The availability of efficient drivers for the considered hardware platforms frees the users from the burden of low level programming. At the same time, the high level programming approach facilitates software re-utilization, allowing the laboratory know-how to steadily grow along time. Furthermore, it allows hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulation, that proved to be effective, and safe, in debugging even complex hardware and software co-designed controllers. To illustrate the effectiveness of these hardware-software toolsets and of the methodology based upon them, two case studies are

  14. Hardware stream cipher with controllable chaos generator for colour image encryption

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.; Mansingka, Abhinav S.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents hardware realisation of chaos-based stream cipher utilised for image encryption applications. A third-order chaotic system with signum non-linearity is implemented and a new post processing technique is proposed to eliminate

  15. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Control Development and Validation in a Controller-Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabakar, Kumaraguru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shirazi, Mariko [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, Akanksha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Penetration levels of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on the electric grid have increased in recent years. In the past, most PV installations have not included grid-support functionalities. But today, standards such as the upcoming revisions to IEEE 1547 recommend grid support and anti-islanding functions-including volt-var, frequency-watt, volt-watt, frequency/voltage ride-through, and other inverter functions. These functions allow for the standardized interconnection of distributed energy resources into the grid. This paper develops and tests low-level inverter current control and high-level grid support functions. The controller was developed to integrate advanced inverter functions in a systematic approach, thus avoiding conflict among the different control objectives. The algorithms were then programmed on an off-the-shelf, embedded controller with a dual-core computer processing unit and field-programmable gate array (FPGA). This programmed controller was tested using a controller-hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) test bed setup using an FPGA-based real-time simulator. The CHIL was run at a time step of 500 ns to accommodate the 20-kHz switching frequency of the developed controller. The details of the advanced control function and CHIL test bed provided here will aide future researchers when designing, implementing, and testing advanced functions of PV inverters.

  16. Software and Hardware control of a hybrid robot for switching between leg-type and wheel-type modes

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Wagner Tanaka; Okada, Tokuji; Mahmoud, Abeer; Shimizu, Toshimi

    2011-01-01

    One of the objectives of the paper is to describe the hybrid robot PEOPLER-II (Perpendicularly Oriented Planetary Legged Robot) with regard to switching between leg-type and wheel-type. Our robot has an easier design and control system than other hybrid robots. The software and hardware control in the process of performing five robot tasks are considered. These are the walking, rolling, switching, turning and spinning. In the switching task, we show the control method based on minimization of...

  17. Interplay between requirements, software architecture, and hardware constraints in the development of a home control user interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, M.S.; Nielsen, S.S.; Nørskov, Kim

    2012-01-01

    is to propose the hardware platform as a third Twin Peaks element that must be given attention in projects such as the one described in this paper. Specifically, we discuss how the presence of severe hardware constraints exacerbates making trade-offs between requirements and architecture.......We have developed a new graphical user interface for a home control device for a large industrial customer. In this industrial case study, we first present our approaches to requirements engineering and to software architecture; we also describe the given hardware platform. Then we make two...... contributions. Our first contribution is to provide a specific example of a real-world project in which a Twin Peaks-compliant approach to software development has been used, and to describe and discuss three examples of interplay between requirements and software architecture decisions. Our second contribution...

  18. PL-DA-PS: A hardware architecture and software toolbox for neurophysiology requiring complex visual stimuli and online behavioral control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler M. Eastman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving primates (both human and nonhuman primates have focused with increasing scrutiny on the temporal relationship between neural signals and behaviors. Consequently, laboratories are often faced with the problem of developing experimental equipment that can support data recording with high temporal precision and also be flexible enough to accommodate a wide variety of experimental paradigms. To this end, we have developed an architecture that integrates several modern pieces of equipment, but still grants experimenters a high degree of flexibility. Our hardware architecture and software tools take advantage of three popular and powerful technologies: the PLexon apparatus for neurophysiological recordings (Plexon, Inc., Dallas TX, a DAtapixx box (Vpixx Technologies, Saint-Bruno, QC, Canada for analog, digital, and video signal input-output control, and the PSychtoolbox MATLAB toolbox for stimulus generation (Brainard, 1997. The PL-DA-PS (Platypus system is designed to support the study of the visual systems of awake, behaving primates during multi-electrode neurophysiological recordings, but can be easily applied to other related domains. Despite its wide range of capabilities and support for cutting-edge video displays and neural recording systems, the PLDAPS system is simple enough for someone with basic MATLAB programming skills to design their own experiments.

  19. Diseño hardware de una tarjeta de control y comunicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Salvador, David

    2017-01-01

    En la actualidad convivimos con infinidad de sistemas electrónicos, desde pequeños weareables como las pulseras inteligentes a grandes equipos como radares, pasando por equipos sin ningún tipo de lógica programada como una radio. Estos dispositivos electrónicos se desarrollan en base a un software generalmente, obviando la diferencia de complejidad según la aplicación, pero todos ellos se crean sobre un hardware. Dicho hardware puede ser una PCB sencilla con algunos componentes o un conjunto ...

  20. Simulation and RTDS Hardware Implementation of SHAF for Mitigation of Current Harmonics with p-q and Id-Iq Control Strategies Using PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Panda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Control strategies for extracting the three-phase reference currents for shunt active power filters are compared, evaluating their performance under different source conditions in MATLAB/Simulink environment and also with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS Hardware. When the supply voltages are balanced and sinusoidal, the two control strategies are converging to the same compensation characteristics but when the supply voltages are distorted and/or un-balanced sinusoidal, these control strategies result in different degrees of compensation in harmonics. The p-q control strategy is unable to yield an adequate solution when source voltages are not ideal. Extensive Simulations are carried out with PI controller for both p-q and Id-Iq control strategies for different voltage conditions and adequate results were presented. The 3-ph 4-wire SHAF system is also implemented on RTDS Hardware to further verify its effectiveness. The detailed simulation and RTDS Hardware results are included.

  1. Utilization of a hardware-in-the-loop-system for controlling the speed of an eddy current brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, V; Brauneis, P; Schmidt, K; Mishra, R

    2012-01-01

    Rapid prototyping with a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) system significantly reduces the development time for controller-type testing and is widely used in various fields of engineering. In this discussion, a controller is developed for a speed control application utilizing a magnetic brake. A mathematical model is presented first that has been implemented in Matlab/ Simulink. The controller development steps are described that will form the basis of a control system for a wind turbine. A test is carried out that simulates the wind turbine inertial load.

  2. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0015: Open Control Platform (OCP) Software Enabled Control (SEC) Hardware in the Loop Simulation - OCP Hardware Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paunicka, James L

    2005-01-01

    ...) project sponsored by the DARPA Software Enabled Control (SEC) Program. The purpose of this project is to develop the capability to be an OCP test-bed and to evaluate the OCP controls and simulation environment for a specific test case...

  3. Human wound photogrammetry with low-cost hardware based on automatic calibration of geometry and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Abin; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan; Brandenburg, Vincent; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Photographic documentation and image-based wound assessment is frequently performed in medical diagnostics, patient care, and clinical research. To support quantitative assessment, photographic imaging is based on expensive and high-quality hardware and still needs appropriate registration and calibration. Using inexpensive consumer hardware such as smartphone-integrated cameras, calibration of geometry, color, and contrast is challenging. Some methods involve color calibration using a reference pattern such as a standard color card, which is located manually in the photographs. In this paper, we adopt the lattice detection algorithm by Park et al. from real world to medicine. At first, the algorithm extracts and clusters feature points according to their local intensity patterns. Groups of similar points are fed into a selection process, which tests for suitability as a lattice grid. The group which describes the largest probability of the meshes of a lattice is selected and from it a template for an initial lattice cell is extracted. Then, a Markov random field is modeled. Using the mean-shift belief propagation, the detection of the 2D lattice is solved iteratively as a spatial tracking problem. Least-squares geometric calibration of projective distortions and non-linear color calibration in RGB space is supported by 35 corner points of 24 color patches, respectively. The method is tested on 37 photographs taken from the German Calciphylaxis registry, where non-standardized photographic documentation is collected nationwide from all contributing trial sites. In all images, the reference card location is correctly identified. At least, 28 out of 35 lattice points were detected, outperforming the SIFT-based approach previously applied. Based on these coordinates, robust geometry and color registration is performed making the photographs comparable for quantitative analysis.

  4. Hardware stream cipher with controllable chaos generator for colour image encryption

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents hardware realisation of chaos-based stream cipher utilised for image encryption applications. A third-order chaotic system with signum non-linearity is implemented and a new post processing technique is proposed to eliminate the bias from the original chaotic sequence. The proposed stream cipher utilises the processed chaotic output to mask and diffuse input pixels through several stages of XORing and bit permutations. The performance of the cipher is tested with several input images and compared with previously reported systems showing superior security and higher hardware efficiency. The system is experimentally verified on XilinxVirtex 4 field programmable gate array (FPGA) achieving small area utilisation and a throughput of 3.62 Gb/s. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.

  5. Medium access control and hardware prototype designs for low-energy wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohvakka, M.

    2009-07-01

    A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology consisting of small, cheap, and ultra-low energy sensor nodes, which cooperatively monitor physical quantities, actuate, and perform data processing tasks. A deployment may comprise thousands of randomly distributed autonomous nodes, which must self-configure and create a multi-hop network topology.This thesis focuses on low-energy WSNs targeting to long network lifetime. The main research problem is the combination of adaptive and scalable multi-hop networking with constrained energy budget, processing power, and communication bandwidth. The research problem is approached by energy-efficient protocols and low-power sensor node platforms. The main contribution of this thesis is an energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) design for TUTWSN (Tampere University of Technology Wireless Sensor Network). The design comprises channel access and networking mechanisms, which specify data exchange, link synchronization, network self-configuration, and neighbor discovery operations. The second outcome are several low-power sensor node platforms, which have been designed and implemented to evaluate the performance of the MAC design and hardware components in real deployments. The third outcome are the performance models and analysis of several MAC designs including TUTWSN, IEEE 802.15.4, and the most essential research proposals.The results and conclusion of this Thesis indicate that it is possible to implement multi-hop WSNs in harsh and dynamic operation conditions with years of lifetime using current low-cost components and batteries. Energy analysis results indicate that the lowest energy consumption is achieved by using simple and high data-rate transceivers. It is also critical to minimize sleep mode power consumption of all components and to use accurate wake-up timers. However, the selection of components constitutes only a minor part of the solution, and an energy-efficient MAC layer design being able to

  6. HARDWARE ENVIRONMENT FACTOR FOR CONTROL SIGNAL TRANSFER TO A PLANT IN THE SYNTHESIS PROBLEM OF DISCRETE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Nuyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to revise certain provisions of the existing theory of discrete systems in the organization of hardware environment control signal transmission to a technical plant. It is known that the formation of a digital signal in discrete control problem of continuous plant is carried out by microcontroller or micro-computer and is represented by a parallel code, which dimension is determined by the hardware used. The parallel code for a digital clock cycle of the designed system is transmitted to the terminal device of a technical continuous plant, where the digital-to-analog conversion takes place. This kind of control signal transmission to the technical plant asserts its implementation by means of parallel buses. It is known that the length of a parallel bus is limited to an amount not exceeding half a meter due to the existing interference environment with modern standards of length. Thus, if the placement of the control signal and control plant is such that their connecting bus length exceeds more than half a meter, there is the inevitable transition from the parallel control signal to an allotted serial. The paper deals with the system factors arising in the transition from the parallel control signal to the serial by modern interfaces. Provisions of the paper are illustrated by an example. This paper is intended for system analytics and channel specialists. The resulting algorithm is applicable for control of plants (electric drive, in particular in the large industrial factories.

  7. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  8. An automated approach for generating and checking control logic for reversible hardware description language-based designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Robert; Keszocze, Oliver; Othmer, Lars

    2017-01-01

    to significantly different design challenges to be addressed. In this work, we consider problems that occur when describing a reversible control flow using Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). Here, the commonly used conditional statements must, in addition to the established if-condition for forward computation......, be provided with an additional fi-condition for backward computation. Unfortunately, deriving correct and consistent fi-conditions is often not obvious. Moreover, HDL descriptions exist which may not be realized with a reversible control flow at all. In this work, we propose automatic solutions, which...

  9. Hardware Demonstration of a Joint Human/Automated Upset Recovery System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For manned aircraft, loss of control in flight and controlled flight into terrain are two main causes for aviation accidents. Recently, the authors have developed...

  10. Hardware and Software of a Bipolar Current Source Controlled by PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Rajčić-Vujasinović

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a realization of a bipolar current source developed by the paper's authors. The source is intended for use in galvanic and other industrial plants, where a pulse-reverse current supply (with the desired shape in time is required. A prototype of the device, which provides the outcome current intensity up to ± 50 A, has been constructed. The hardware of the source consists of a Pentium IV PC, a commercial ADDA converter, an interface of authors’ original construction as well as a current regulator. The application software is developed using a commercial packet LabView as the basis.

  11. High Performance Motion-Planner Architecture for Hardware-In-the-Loop System Based on Position-Based-Admittance-Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco La Mura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a Hardware-In-the-Loop application developed from the advanced energy field project LIFES50+. The aim is to replicate, inside a wind gallery test facility, the combined effect of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads on a floating wind turbine model for offshore energy production, using a force controlled robotic device, emulating floating substructure’s behaviour. In addition to well known real-time Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL issues, the particular application presented has stringent safety requirements of the HIL equipment and difficult to predict operating conditions, so that extra computational efforts have to be spent running specific safety algorithms and achieving desired performance. To meet project requirements, a high performance software architecture based on Position-Based-Admittance-Control (PBAC is presented, combining low level motion interpolation techniques, efficient motion planning, based on buffer management and Time-base control, and advanced high level safety algorithms, implemented in a rapid real-time control architecture.

  12. Design of a Hardware-Implemented Phase Calculating System for Feedback Control in the LHCD Experiments on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Liang Hao; Zhou Yongzhao

    2009-01-01

    A fully hardware-implemented phase calculating system for the feedback control in the lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments is presented in this paper. By taking advantages of field programmable gate array (FPGA) chips with embedded digital signal processing (DSP) cores and the Matlab-aided design method, the phase calculating algorithm with a square root operation and parallel process are efficiently implemented in a single FPGA chip to complete the calculation of phase differences fast and accurately in the lower-hybrid wave (LHW) system on EAST. (fusion engineering)

  13. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Distribution System with Air Conditioners under Model Predictive Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lunacek, Monte S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Wesley B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wu, Hongyu [Kansas State University; Mittal, Saurabh [Mitre Corporation; Marks, Jesse [University of Missouri

    2017-08-01

    Many have proposed that responsive load provided by distributed energy resources (DERs) and demand response (DR) are an option to provide flexibility to the grid and especially to distribution feeders. However, because responsive load involves a complex interplay between tariffs and DER and DR technologies, it is challenging to test and evaluate options without negatively impacting customers. This paper describes a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation system that has been developed to reduce the cost of evaluating the impact of advanced controllers (e.g., model predictive controllers) and technologies (e.g., responsive appliances). The HIL simulation system combines large-scale software simulation with a small set of representative building equipment hardware. It is used to perform HIL simulation of a distribution feeder and the loads on it under various tariff structures. In the reported HIL simulation, loads include many simulated air conditioners and one physical air conditioner. Independent model predictive controllers manage operations of all air conditioners under a time-of-use tariff. Results from this HIL simulation and a discussion of future development work of the system are presented.

  14. Effect of spaceflight hardware on the skeletal properties of ground control mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Ted; Lloyd, Shane; Dunlap, Alex; Ferguson, Virginia; Simske, Steven; Stodieck, Louis; Livingston, Eric

    Introduction: Spaceflight experiments using mouse or rat models require habitats that are specifically designed for the microgravity environment. During spaceflight, rodents are housed in a specially designed stainless steel meshed cage with gravity-independent food and water delivery systems and constant airflow to push floating urine and feces towards a waste filter. Differences in the housing environment alone, not even considering the spaceflight environment itself, may lead to physiological changes in the animals contained within. It is important to characterize these cage differences so that results from spaceflight experiments can be more reliably compared to studies from other laboratories. Methods: For this study, we examined the effect of NASA's Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) spaceflight hardware on the skeletal properties of 8-week-old female C57BL/6J mice. This 13-day experiment, conducted on the ground, modeled the flight experiment profile of the CBTM-01 payload on STS-108, with standard vivarium-housed mice being compared to AEM-housed mice (n = 12/group). Functional differences were compared via mechanical testing, micro-hardness indentation, microcomputed tomography, and mineral/matrix composition. Cellular changes were examined by serum chemistry, histology, quantitative histomorphometry, and RT-PCR. A Student's t-test was utilized, with the level of Type I error set at 95 Results: There was no change in elastic, maximum, or fracture force mechanical properties at the femur mid-diaphysis, however, structural stiffness was -17.5 Conclusions: Housing mice in the AEM spaceflight hardware had minimal effects on femur cortical bone properties. However, trabecular bone at the proximal tibia in AEM mice experi-enced large increases in microarchitecture and mineral composition. Increases in bone density were accompanied by reductions in bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts, representing a general decline in bone turnover at this site

  15. James Webb Space Telescope Core 2 Test - Cryogenic Thermal Balance Test of the Observatorys Core Area Thermal Control Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Paul; Parrish, Keith; Thomson, Shaun; Marsh, James; Comber, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, will be the largest astronomical telescope ever sent into space. To observe the very first light of the early universe, JWST requires a large deployed 6.5-meter primary mirror cryogenically cooled to less than 50 Kelvin. Three scientific instruments are further cooled via a large radiator system to less than 40 Kelvin. A fourth scientific instrument is cooled to less than 7 Kelvin using a combination pulse-tube Joule-Thomson mechanical cooler. Passive cryogenic cooling enables the large scale of the telescope which must be highly folded for launch on an Ariane 5 launch vehicle and deployed once on orbit during its journey to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. Passive cooling of the observatory is enabled by the deployment of a large tennis court sized five layer Sunshield combined with the use of a network of high efficiency radiators. A high purity aluminum heat strap system connects the three instrument's detector systems to the radiator systems to dissipate less than a single watt of parasitic and instrument dissipated heat. JWST's large scale features, while enabling passive cooling, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone of most space missions' thermal verification plans. This paper describes the JWST Core 2 Test, which is a cryogenic thermal balance test of a full size, high fidelity engineering model of the Observatory's 'Core' area thermal control hardware. The 'Core' area is the key mechanical and cryogenic interface area between all Observatory elements. The 'Core' area thermal control hardware allows for temperature transition of 300K to approximately 50 K by attenuating heat from the room temperature IEC (instrument electronics) and the Spacecraft Bus. Since the flight hardware is not available for test, the Core 2 test uses high fidelity and flight-like reproductions.

  16. Quick EXAFS experiments using a now GDA eclipse RCP GUI with EPICS hardware control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolliscroft, R.J.; Coles, C.; Gerring, M.; Pearson, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Generic Data Acquisition (GDA) framework is an open source, Java and Eclipse RCP based, data acquisition software framework for synchrotron and neutron facilities. A new implementation of the GDA on the B18 X-ray beamline at the Diamond synchrotron will be discussed. This beamline performs energy scanning Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) experiments. It includes a continuous-scan mode of the monochromator synchronized with various detectors for Quick EXAFS (QEXAFS) experiments. XAS energy scans may now be performed in 30 s, where the equivalent step scans take approximately 40 minutes. A new generic perspective for the GDA client has been developed in which graphical editors are used to write XML files which hold experimental parameters. The XML files are marshalled by the GDA server to create Java beans used by Jython scripts which run on the GDA server. Underlying this, a new generic continuous scanning mechanism for the GDA has been developed. The new Eclipse RCP UI, the new continuous scanning mechanism, new hardware development and integration between the two systems shall be covered. (authors)

  17. Intersection points for the driving of applier processes of the hardware control of the ZEUS forward detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, T.

    1992-08-01

    The ZEUS forward detector is built of drift- and transition-radiation chambers which are supported by many peripheral devices. The resulting complex system has to be monitored and controlled continously to preserve safety and to achieve optimal performance. For this task a Hardware-Control-System (HWC) has been developed. Ten VME and OS9-based microprocessors which are connected by Ethernet and VME-bus are provided to run the control- and monitoring tasks. Special attention has been paid to the development of efficient user-interfaces: RDT, an object-oriented database-toolkit, serves as an interface to the data of the HWC. The concept and the usage of this interface are outlined. Finally special features that may be useful for other applications are discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. PI and Fuzzy Control Strategies for High Voltage Output DC-DC Boost Power Converter - Hardware Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Siano, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the control strategies by Proportional-Integral (P-I) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) for a DC-DC boost power converter for high output voltage configuration. Standard DC-DC converters are traditionally used for high voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission systems. But, lack its...... converter with inbuilt voltage-lift technique and overcome the aforementioned deficiencies. Further, the control strategy is adapted based on proportional-integral (P-I) and fuzzy logic, closed-loop controller to regulate the outputs and ensure the performances. Complete hardware prototype of EHV converter...... performances in terms of efficiency, reduced transfer gain and increased cost with sensor units. Moreover, the internal self-parasitic components reduce the output voltage and efficiency of classical high voltage converters (HVC). This investigation focused on extra high-voltage (EHV) DC-DC boost power...

  19. Hardware malware

    CERN Document Server

    Krieg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In our digital world, integrated circuits are present in nearly every moment of our daily life. Even when using the coffee machine in the morning, or driving our car to work, we interact with integrated circuits. The increasing spread of information technology in virtually all areas of life in the industrialized world offers a broad range of attack vectors. So far, mainly software-based attacks have been considered and investigated, while hardware-based attacks have attracted comparatively little interest. The design and production process of integrated circuits is mostly decentralized due to

  20. Present status of device controls and hardware interfaces for the RCNP ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Tamura, K.; Hosono, K.

    1994-01-01

    Since the first proton beam from the injector AVF cyclotron was injected to the ring cyclotron in 1991, the computer control system has been used for the beam acceleration of the ring cyclotron. Some device control modules have been updated, and computer configuration has been changed in 1992. Total control system performs basic facilities almost satisfactory under actual cyclotron operation. (author)

  1. Hardware and software architecture for the integration of the new EC waves launcher in FTU control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Centioli, C., E-mail: cristina.centioli@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Galperti, C.; Alessi, E.; Granucci, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR sulla Fusione – IFP-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi, 53 20125 Milano (Italy); Grosso, L.A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Marchetto, C. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR sulla Fusione – IFP-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi, 53 20125 Milano (Italy); Napolitano, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Nowak, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR sulla Fusione – IFP-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi, 53 20125 Milano (Italy); Panella, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Sozzi, C. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR sulla Fusione – IFP-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi, 53 20125 Milano (Italy); Tilia, B.; Vitale, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The integration of a new ECRH launcher to FTU legacy control system is reported. ► Fast control has been developed with a three-node RT cluster within MARTe framework. ► Slow control was implemented with a Simatic S7 PLC and an EPICS IOC-CA application. ► The first results have assessed the feasibility of the launcher control architecture. -- Abstract: The role of high power electron cyclotron (EC) waves in controlling magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in tokamaks has been assessed in several experiments, exploiting the physical effects induced by resonant heating and current drive. Recently a new EC launcher, whose main goal is controlling tearing modes and possibly preventing their onset, is being implemented on FTU. So far most of the components of the launcher control strategy have been realized and successfully tested on plasma experiments. Nevertheless the operations of the new launcher must be completely integrated into the existing one, and to FTU control system. This work deals with this final step, proposing a hardware and software architecture implementing up to date technologies, to achieve a modular and effective control strategy well integrated into a legacy system. The slow control system of the new EC launcher is based on a Siemens S7 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), integrated into FTU control system supervisor through an EPICS input output controller (IOC) and an in-house developed Channel Access client application creating an abstraction layer that decouples the IOC and the PLC from the FTU Supervisor software. This architecture could enable a smooth migration to an EPICS-only supervisory control system. The real time component of the control system is based on the open source MARTe framework relying on a Linux real time cluster, devoted to the detection of MHD instabilities and the calculation of the injection angles and the time reference for the radiofrequency power enable commands for the EC launcher.

  2. Hardware design of HIRFL-CSR EVMEbus controller based on ARM920T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Lan; Qian Weimin; Xu Yang; Ji Peng; Liu Caihong; Ma Yunhai

    2006-01-01

    The HIRFL-CSR EVMEbus controller is developed in IMP. The controller is based on AT91RM9200 (ARM9) microprocessor, which is in 0.8 mm BGA package. The controller runs LINUX OS, and can connect with standard VGA display, keyboard, and mouse. There are 10 M/100 M Ethernet, USB, RS-232, RS-485 and CANBUS interfaces on the board. Itr supports storage devices SD Card and CF Card. The backboard interface logic is programmed in VHDL and is programmed into an in-system configurable FPGA device. The bus can drive high current up to 64 mA. It is not only compliant to VME specification, but also has flexibility of the programmable signal definition. Being a key module in HIRFL-CSR control system, the controller can be used as a local controller and also a remote gateway controller. (authors)

  3. ORELA data acquisition system hardware. Vol 4. ORELA device controllers (Q-5098)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.W.; Wintenberg, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    A report is given describing the programming, word formats, control signals, voltage levels, connector layouts, ground isolation, and a theory of operation with a simplified logic diagram for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) Device Controllers. The ORELA Isolated Pulse Generators are also described

  4. ACTIVE FILTER HARDWARE DESIGN and PERFORMANCE FOR THE DIII-D PLASMA CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SELLERS, D.; FERRON, J.R; WALKER, M.L; BROESCH, J.D

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 The digital plasma control system (PCS), currently in operation on the DIII-D tokamak, requires inputs from a large number of sensors. Due to the nature of the digitizers and the relative noisy environment from which these signals are derived, each of the 32 signals must be conditioned via an active filter. Two different types of filters, Chebyshev and Bessel with fixed frequencies: 100 Hz Bessel was used for filtering the motional Stark effect diagnostic data. 800 Hz Bessel was designed to filter plasma control data and 1200 Hz Chebyshev is used with closed loop control of choppers. The performance of the plasma control system is greatly influenced by how well the actual filter responses match the software model used in the control system algorithms. This paper addresses the various issues facing the designer in matching the electrical design with the theoretical

  5. Floating-point-based hardware accelerator of a beam phase-magnitude detector and filter for a beam phase control system in a heavy-ion synchrotron application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samman, F.A.; Pongyupinpanich Surapong; Spies, C.; Glesner, M.

    2012-01-01

    A hardware implementation of an adaptive phase and magnitude detector and filter of a beam-phase control system in a heavy ion synchrotron application is presented in this paper. The main components of the hardware are adaptive LMS (Least-Mean-Square) filters and phase and magnitude detectors. The phase detectors are implemented by using a CORDIC (Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer) algorithm based on 32-bit binary floating-point arithmetic data formats. The floating-point-based hardware is designed to improve the precision of the past hardware implementation that were based on fixed-point arithmetics. The hardware of the detector and the adaptive LMS filter have been implemented on a programmable logic device (FPGA) for hardware acceleration purpose. The ideal Matlab/Simulink model of the hardware and the VHDL model of the adaptive LMS filter and the phase and magnitude detector are compared. The comparison result shows that the output signal of the floating-point based adaptive FIR filter as well as the phase and magnitude detector agree with the expected output signal of the ideal Matlab/Simulink model. (authors)

  6. Internal model control for industrial wireless plant using WirelessHART hardware-in-the-loop simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chung Duc; Ibrahim, Rosdiazli; Asirvadam, Vijanth Sagayan; Saad, Nordin; Sabo Miya, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    The emergence of wireless technologies such as WirelessHART and ISA100 Wireless for deployment at industrial process plants has urged the need for research and development in wireless control. This is in view of the fact that the recent application is mainly in monitoring domain due to lack of confidence in control aspect. WirelessHART has an edge over its counterpart as it is based on the successful Wired HART protocol with over 30 million devices as of 2009. Recent works on control have primarily focused on maintaining the traditional PID control structure which is proven not adequate for the wireless environment. In contrast, Internal Model Control (IMC), a promising technique for delay compensation, disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking has not been investigated in the context of WirelessHART. Therefore, this paper discusses the control design using IMC approach with a focus on wireless processes. The simulation and experimental results using real-time WirelessHART hardware-in-the-loop simulator (WH-HILS) indicate that the proposed approach is more robust to delay variation of the network than the PID. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  8. Simulation, hardware implementation and control of a multilevel inverter with simulated annealing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Chabni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic pollution is a very common issue in the field of power electronics, Harmonics can cause multiple problems for power converters and electrical loads alike, this paper introduces a modulation method called selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation (SHEPWM, this method allows the elimination of a specific order of harmonics and also control the amplitude of the fundamental component of the output voltage. In this work SHEPWM strategy is applied to a five level cascade inverter. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the total control provided by the SHEPWM strategy over any rank of harmonics using the simulated annealing optimization algorithm and also control the amplitude of the fundamental component at any desired value. Simulation and experimental results are presented in this work.

  9. Tricon hardware controller implementation of CANDU nuclear power plant shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the implementation of logic functions associated with the shutdown systems of CANDU nuclear power plants. The experimental aspects of this work include development of control program embedded in shutdown systems of CANDU based NPPs. A physical test environment is designed to simulate the measurements of in-core flux detector (ICFD) and ion chamber (I/C) signals. The programmable logic used in this experimentation provides Triple Modular Redundant (TMR) architecture as well as a voting mechanism used upon execution of control program on each independent channel. (author)

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis and Hardware Implementation of Control Strategies for High Output Voltage DC-DC Boost Power Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical DC-DC converters used in high voltage direct current (HVDC power transmission systems, lack in terms of efficiency, reduced transfer gain and increased cost with sensor (voltage/current numbers. Besides, the internal self-parasitic behavior of the power components reduces the output voltage and efficiency of classical HV converters. This paper deals with extra high-voltage (EHV dc-dc boost converter by the application of voltage-lift technique to overcome the aforementioned deficiencies. The control strategy is based on classical proportional-integral (P-I and fuzzy logic closed-loop controller to get high and stable output voltage. Complete hardware prototype of EHV is implemented and experimental tasks are carried out with digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F2812. The control algorithms P-I, fuzzy logic and the pulse-width modulation (PWM signals for N-channel MOSFET device are performed by the DSP. The experimental results provided show good conformity with developed hypothetical predictions. Additionally, the presented study confirms that the fuzzy logic controller provides better performance than classical P-I controller under different perturbation conditions.

  11. Software and hardware platform for testing of Automatic Generation Control algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliev Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and implementation of new Automatic Generation Control (AGC algorithms requires testing them on a model that adequately simulates primary energetic, information and control processes. In this article an implementation of a test platform based on HRTSim (Hybrid Real Time Simulator and SCADA CK-2007 (which is widely used by the System Operator of Russia is proposed. Testing of AGC algorithms on the test platform based on the same SCADA system that is used in operation allows to exclude errors associated with the transfer of AGC algorithms and settings from the test platform to a real power system. A power system including relay protection, automatic control systems and emergency control automatics can be accurately simulated on HRTSim. Besides the information commonly used by conventional AGC systems HRTSim is able to provide a resemblance of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU measurements (information about rotor angles, magnitudes and phase angles of currents and voltages etc.. The additional information significantly expands the number of possible AGC algorithms so the test platform is useful in modern AGC system developing. The obtained test results confirm that the proposed system is applicable for the tasks mentioned above.

  12. Benchmarking hardware architecture candidates for the NFIRAOS real-time controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    As a part of the trade study for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System, the adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope, we investigated the feasibility of performing real-time control computation using a Linux operating system and Intel Xeon E5 CPUs. We also investigated a Xeon Phi based architecture which allows higher levels of parallelism. This paper summarizes both the CPU based real-time controller architecture and the Xeon Phi based RTC. The Intel Xeon E5 CPU solution meets the requirements and performs the computation for one AO cycle in an average of 767 microseconds. The Xeon Phi solution did not meet the 1200 microsecond time requirement and also suffered from unpredictable execution times. More detailed benchmark results are reported for both architectures.

  13. Safety concepts and their implications with respect to systems, instrumentation (automatic) control and hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paziaud, A.; Walther, M.

    1982-01-01

    This overview of instrumentation and control in the French Nuclear Power Plants sets out the importance of safety requirements. As a matter of fact, the amount of equipment increases proportionally to the increase in safety requirements, resulting in higher costs in spite of the decrease in the prices of each component owing to the advance in electronics. However the improved reliability should improve the plant capacity factor and, as a consequence, improve both the power output and the safety which is often endangered by minor failures starting severe accidents. (orig.)

  14. Control by hardware of government systems for laser diodes with STM32F4 and Peltier cells; Control por hardware de sistemas de gobierno para diodos laser con STM32F4 y celdas Peltier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulloa Solano, Natalia Irina

    2013-07-01

    A low cost prototype of a government system is developed for laser diodes with STM32F4 microcontrollers and Peltier cooling. Commercial and homemade government system (with STM32F4 microcontrollers ) are investigated with the objective of adequately control the current of a laser diode. Characteristics of STM32F4 microcontrollers are described. The low cost platforms as the Arduino and Raspberry Pi are compared. A bibliographical and documentary compilation is realized for the preliminary study of the components and tools to use in the prototype. The theory related with the heat transfer between a laser diode and the outside, and a Peltier cell and outside is summarized. A heat dissipation model is proposed of a system formed by a laser diode and Peltier cell. A control system of current and fed back temperature is designed and implemented to allow adequately control laser diodes without and with photodiode (2 pickups and 3 pickups respectively). The viability of control with free software is studied and corroborated. The temperature control of the laser diode using a Peltier cell as cooler has been possible through a simple control of ON/OFF mode. The integration of devices such as ADC, DAC, timers and facilities of STM32F4 microcontroller, have allowed to optimize costs by hardware, save time and costs. Also, the incorporation of the Cortex-M4 processor has optimized the consumption of operational resources and has executed much of its instruction set of efficient way. Because of this, the project has complied with its maximum as to low cost is concerned [Spanish] Un prototipo de bajo costo de un sistema de gobierno es desarrollado para diodos laser con microcontroladores STM32F4 y enfriamiento con Peltier. Los sistemas de gobierno comerciales y caseros (con microcontroladores STM32F4) son investigados con el objetivo de controlar adecuadamente la corriente de un diodo laser. Las caracteristicas de los microcontroladores STM32F4 son descritas. Las plataformas de

  15. A distributed, hardware reconfigurable and packet switched real-time control and data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, A.J.N.; Combo, A.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The architecture of a synchronized event-based control and data acquisition system that aims to improve significantly the performance of actual systems is presented. The design explores recent developments in data transport, signal processing and system synchronization. Data transport between the acquisition, processing and storing devices and at backplane level will be performed by InfiniBand, a low latency packet switched network standard. Data processing algorithms will be performed in a mixture of digital signal processors and reconfigurable field programmable gate arrays. Both devices will be programmed from a descriptive high-level mathematical language. Acquisition synchronization, data stamping and event management will be performed through a specialized low latency synchronous optical network for the time critical signals

  16. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S.; Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. ► System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. ► Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. ► Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  17. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S., E-mail: awwal1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  18. Control by hardware of government systems for laser diodes with STM32F4 and Peltier cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa Solano, Natalia Irina

    2013-01-01

    A low cost prototype of a government system is developed for laser diodes with STM32F4 microcontrollers and Peltier cooling. Commercial and homemade government system (with STM32F4 microcontrollers ) are investigated with the objective of adequately control the current of a laser diode. Characteristics of STM32F4 microcontrollers are described. The low cost platforms as the Arduino and Raspberry Pi are compared. A bibliographical and documentary compilation is realized for the preliminary study of the components and tools to use in the prototype. The theory related with the heat transfer between a laser diode and the outside, and a Peltier cell and outside is summarized. A heat dissipation model is proposed of a system formed by a laser diode and Peltier cell. A control system of current and fed back temperature is designed and implemented to allow adequately control laser diodes without and with photodiode (2 pickups and 3 pickups respectively). The viability of control with free software is studied and corroborated. The temperature control of the laser diode using a Peltier cell as cooler has been possible through a simple control of ON/OFF mode. The integration of devices such as ADC, DAC, timers and facilities of STM32F4 microcontroller, have allowed to optimize costs by hardware, save time and costs. Also, the incorporation of the Cortex-M4 processor has optimized the consumption of operational resources and has executed much of its instruction set of efficient way. Because of this, the project has complied with its maximum as to low cost is concerned [es

  19. FY1995 evolvable hardware chip; 1995 nendo shinkasuru hardware chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This project aims at the development of 'Evolvable Hardware' (EHW) which can adapt its hardware structure to the environment to attain better hardware performance, under the control of genetic algorithms. EHW is a key technology to explore the new application area requiring real-time performance and on-line adaptation. 1. Development of EHW-LSI for function level hardware evolution, which includes 15 DSPs in one chip. 2. Application of the EHW to the practical industrial applications such as data compression, ATM control, digital mobile communication. 3. Two patents : (1) the architecture and the processing method for programmable EHW-LSI. (2) The method of data compression for loss-less data, using EHW. 4. The first international conference for evolvable hardware was held by authors: Intl. Conf. on Evolvable Systems (ICES96). It was determined at ICES96 that ICES will be held every two years between Japan and Europe. So the new society has been established by us. (NEDO)

  20. Hardware for soft computing and soft computing for hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nedjah, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Single and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Computation (MOEA),  Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Controllers (FCs), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant colony Optimization (ACO) are becoming omnipresent in almost every intelligent system design. Unfortunately, the application of the majority of these techniques is complex and so requires a huge computational effort to yield useful and practical results. Therefore, dedicated hardware for evolutionary, neural and fuzzy computation is a key issue for designers. With the spread of reconfigurable hardware such as FPGAs, digital as well as analog hardware implementations of such computation become cost-effective. The idea behind this book is to offer a variety of hardware designs for soft computing techniques that can be embedded in any final product. Also, to introduce the successful application of soft computing technique to solve many hard problem encountered during the design of embedded hardware designs. Reconfigurable em...

  1. Hardware for dynamic quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Colm A; Johnson, Blake R; Ristè, Diego; Donovan, Brian; Ohki, Thomas A

    2017-10-01

    We describe the hardware, gateware, and software developed at Raytheon BBN Technologies for dynamic quantum information processing experiments on superconducting qubits. In dynamic experiments, real-time qubit state information is fed back or fed forward within a fraction of the qubits' coherence time to dynamically change the implemented sequence. The hardware presented here covers both control and readout of superconducting qubits. For readout, we created a custom signal processing gateware and software stack on commercial hardware to convert pulses in a heterodyne receiver into qubit state assignments with minimal latency, alongside data taking capability. For control, we developed custom hardware with gateware and software for pulse sequencing and steering information distribution that is capable of arbitrary control flow in a fraction of superconducting qubit coherence times. Both readout and control platforms make extensive use of field programmable gate arrays to enable tailored qubit control systems in a reconfigurable fabric suitable for iterative development.

  2. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 2, Human factors research; Advanced I and C hardware and software; Severe accident research; Probabilistic risk assessment topics; Individual plant examination: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 2, present topics in human factors research, advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software, severe accident research, probabilistic risk assessment, and individual plant examination. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Testing of a controller for an ETO-based STATCOM through controller hardware-in-the-loop simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langston, J.; Qi, L.; Steurer, M.

    2009-01-01

    a large-scale digital real time electromagnetic transients simulator. The STATCOM controller is interfaced to the simulation, providing firing pulses to the simulated STATCOM and receiving feedback of system voltages and currents. Notional wind speed data is used to simulate realistic behavior of the wind...

  4. A Comparison of Algorithms for Controlling DSRs in a Control by Price Context Using Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2012-01-01

    , DSRs, are electric loads whose power consumption can be shifted without having a big impact on the primary services they are supplying and they are suitable for being controlled according the needs of regulating power in the electric power system. In this paper the performances and the aggregate...... response of a real office building; the experimental results of using a model predictive controller for heating a real building in a variable price context are also presented. This study is part of the Flexpower project whose aim is investigating the possibility of creating an electric market......With future increasing of electric energy production from fluctuating sources, the need for regulating power will rise and conventional power plants - that today provide all power system ancillary services - could not have the capability and the flexibility of providing it. Demand Side Resource...

  5. Development of a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator for Control Moment Gyroscope-Based Attitude Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Leon, Linear Algebra with Applications, 5th ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2009. [25] Controller Area Network (CAN) Tutorial, National...as an elementary rotation when it is about a single principal axis in the reference frame. When successive rotations are implemented, a numerical...axis). The DCMs for elementary rotations are as follows [4]:  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 cos sin 0 sin cos C             (8)   22 122

  6. The CMS Trigger Supervisor: Control and Hardware Monitoring System of the CMS Level-1 Trigger at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ildefons Magrans de Abril

    2008-01-01

    The experiments CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) at the LargeHadron Collider (LHC) are the greatest exponents of the rising complexity in High Energy Physics (HEP) datahandling instrumentation. Tens of millions of readout channels, tens of thousands of hardware boards and thesame order of connections are figures of merit. However, the hardware volume is not the only complexitydimension, the unprecedented large number of research institutes and scientists that form the internationalcollaborations, and the long design, development, commissioning and operational phases are additional factorsthat must be taken into account.The Level-1 (L1) trigger decision loop is an excellent example of these difficulties. This system is based on apipelined logic destined to analyze without deadtime the data from each LHC bunch crossing occurring every25_ns, using special coarsely segmented trigger data from the detectors. The L1 trigger is responsible forreducing the rate of accepted crossings to...

  7. Introduction to Hardware Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yier Jin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hardware security has become a hot topic recently with more and more researchers from related research domains joining this area. However, the understanding of hardware security is often mixed with cybersecurity and cryptography, especially cryptographic hardware. For the same reason, the research scope of hardware security has never been clearly defined. To help researchers who have recently joined in this area better understand the challenges and tasks within the hardware security domain and to help both academia and industry investigate countermeasures and solutions to solve hardware security problems, we will introduce the key concepts of hardware security as well as its relations to related research topics in this survey paper. Emerging hardware security topics will also be clearly depicted through which the future trend will be elaborated, making this survey paper a good reference for the continuing research efforts in this area.

  8. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and Tiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292. which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are ''being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.''

  9. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and fiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292, which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are open-quotes being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.close quotes

  10. Development of intelligent instruments with embedded HTTP servers for control and data acquisition in a cryogenic setup—The hardware, firmware, and software implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Joby; Mathuria, D. S.; Datta, T. S.; Maity, Tanmoy

    2015-12-01

    The power of Ethernet for control and automation technology is being largely understood by the automation industry in recent times. Ethernet with HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is one of the most widely accepted communication standards today. Ethernet is best known for being able to control through internet from anywhere in the globe. The Ethernet interface with built-in on-chip embedded servers ensures global connections for crate-less model of control and data acquisition systems which have several advantages over traditional crate-based control architectures for slow applications. This architecture will completely eliminate the use of any extra PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) or similar control hardware in any automation network as the control functions are firmware coded inside intelligent meters itself. Here, we describe the indigenously built project of a cryogenic control system built for linear accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, known as "CADS," which stands for "Complete Automation of Distribution System." CADS deals with complete hardware, firmware, and software implementation of the automated linac cryogenic distribution system using many Ethernet based embedded cryogenic instruments developed in-house. Each instrument works as an intelligent meter called device-server which has the control functions and control loops built inside the firmware itself. Dedicated meters with built-in servers were designed out of ARM (Acorn RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Machine) and ATMEL processors and COTS (Commercially Off-the-Shelf) SMD (Surface Mount Devices) components, with analog sensor front-end and a digital back-end web server implementing remote procedure call over HTTP for digital control and readout functions. At present, 24 instruments which run 58 embedded servers inside, each specific to a particular type of sensor-actuator combination for closed loop operations, are now deployed and distributed across control LAN (Local

  11. Development of intelligent instruments with embedded HTTP servers for control and data acquisition in a cryogenic setup—The hardware, firmware, and software implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, Joby; Mathuria, D. S.; Datta, T. S.; Maity, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    The power of Ethernet for control and automation technology is being largely understood by the automation industry in recent times. Ethernet with HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is one of the most widely accepted communication standards today. Ethernet is best known for being able to control through internet from anywhere in the globe. The Ethernet interface with built-in on-chip embedded servers ensures global connections for crate-less model of control and data acquisition systems which have several advantages over traditional crate-based control architectures for slow applications. This architecture will completely eliminate the use of any extra PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) or similar control hardware in any automation network as the control functions are firmware coded inside intelligent meters itself. Here, we describe the indigenously built project of a cryogenic control system built for linear accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, known as “CADS,” which stands for “Complete Automation of Distribution System.” CADS deals with complete hardware, firmware, and software implementation of the automated linac cryogenic distribution system using many Ethernet based embedded cryogenic instruments developed in-house. Each instrument works as an intelligent meter called device-server which has the control functions and control loops built inside the firmware itself. Dedicated meters with built-in servers were designed out of ARM (Acorn RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Machine) and ATMEL processors and COTS (Commercially Off-the-Shelf) SMD (Surface Mount Devices) components, with analog sensor front-end and a digital back-end web server implementing remote procedure call over HTTP for digital control and readout functions. At present, 24 instruments which run 58 embedded servers inside, each specific to a particular type of sensor-actuator combination for closed loop operations, are now deployed and distributed across control LAN

  12. Development of intelligent instruments with embedded HTTP servers for control and data acquisition in a cryogenic setup—The hardware, firmware, and software implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Joby; Mathuria, D. S.; Datta, T. S. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Maity, Tanmoy [Department of MME, Indian School of Mines (ISM), Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2015-12-15

    The power of Ethernet for control and automation technology is being largely understood by the automation industry in recent times. Ethernet with HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is one of the most widely accepted communication standards today. Ethernet is best known for being able to control through internet from anywhere in the globe. The Ethernet interface with built-in on-chip embedded servers ensures global connections for crate-less model of control and data acquisition systems which have several advantages over traditional crate-based control architectures for slow applications. This architecture will completely eliminate the use of any extra PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) or similar control hardware in any automation network as the control functions are firmware coded inside intelligent meters itself. Here, we describe the indigenously built project of a cryogenic control system built for linear accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, known as “CADS,” which stands for “Complete Automation of Distribution System.” CADS deals with complete hardware, firmware, and software implementation of the automated linac cryogenic distribution system using many Ethernet based embedded cryogenic instruments developed in-house. Each instrument works as an intelligent meter called device-server which has the control functions and control loops built inside the firmware itself. Dedicated meters with built-in servers were designed out of ARM (Acorn RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Machine) and ATMEL processors and COTS (Commercially Off-the-Shelf) SMD (Surface Mount Devices) components, with analog sensor front-end and a digital back-end web server implementing remote procedure call over HTTP for digital control and readout functions. At present, 24 instruments which run 58 embedded servers inside, each specific to a particular type of sensor-actuator combination for closed loop operations, are now deployed and distributed across control LAN

  13. Development of intelligent instruments with embedded HTTP servers for control and data acquisition in a cryogenic setup--The hardware, firmware, and software implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Joby; Mathuria, D S; Datta, T S; Maity, Tanmoy

    2015-12-01

    The power of Ethernet for control and automation technology is being largely understood by the automation industry in recent times. Ethernet with HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is one of the most widely accepted communication standards today. Ethernet is best known for being able to control through internet from anywhere in the globe. The Ethernet interface with built-in on-chip embedded servers ensures global connections for crate-less model of control and data acquisition systems which have several advantages over traditional crate-based control architectures for slow applications. This architecture will completely eliminate the use of any extra PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) or similar control hardware in any automation network as the control functions are firmware coded inside intelligent meters itself. Here, we describe the indigenously built project of a cryogenic control system built for linear accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, known as "CADS," which stands for "Complete Automation of Distribution System." CADS deals with complete hardware, firmware, and software implementation of the automated linac cryogenic distribution system using many Ethernet based embedded cryogenic instruments developed in-house. Each instrument works as an intelligent meter called device-server which has the control functions and control loops built inside the firmware itself. Dedicated meters with built-in servers were designed out of ARM (Acorn RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Machine) and ATMEL processors and COTS (Commercially Off-the-Shelf) SMD (Surface Mount Devices) components, with analog sensor front-end and a digital back-end web server implementing remote procedure call over HTTP for digital control and readout functions. At present, 24 instruments which run 58 embedded servers inside, each specific to a particular type of sensor-actuator combination for closed loop operations, are now deployed and distributed across control LAN (Local

  14. PLDAPS: A Hardware Architecture and Software Toolbox for Neurophysiology Requiring Complex Visual Stimuli and Online Behavioral Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Kyler M; Huk, Alexander C

    2012-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving primates (both human and non-human) have focused with increasing scrutiny on the temporal relationship between neural signals and behaviors. Consequently, laboratories are often faced with the problem of developing experimental equipment that can support data recording with high temporal precision and also be flexible enough to accommodate a wide variety of experimental paradigms. To this end, we have developed a MATLAB toolbox that integrates several modern pieces of equipment, but still grants experimenters the flexibility of a high-level programming language. Our toolbox takes advantage of three popular and powerful technologies: the Plexon apparatus for neurophysiological recordings (Plexon, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA), a Datapixx peripheral (Vpixx Technologies, Saint-Bruno, QC, Canada) for control of analog, digital, and video input-output signals, and the Psychtoolbox MATLAB toolbox for stimulus generation (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997; Kleiner et al., 2007). The PLDAPS ("Platypus") system is designed to support the study of the visual systems of awake, behaving primates during multi-electrode neurophysiological recordings, but can be easily applied to other related domains. Despite its wide range of capabilities and support for cutting-edge video displays and neural recording systems, the PLDAPS system is simple enough for someone with basic MATLAB programming skills to design their own experiments.

  15. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0008: Open Control Platform (OCP) Software Enabled Control (SEC) Hardware in the Loop Simulation Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Portilla, Eric

    2004-01-01

    ...) contract awarded to Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC). The OCP HITL program developed a Hardware-in-the Loop facility for demonstrating and evaluating High-Confidence Software and Systems (HCSS...

  16. FY1995 evolvable hardware chip; 1995 nendo shinkasuru hardware chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This project aims at the development of 'Evolvable Hardware' (EHW) which can adapt its hardware structure to the environment to attain better hardware performance, under the control of genetic algorithms. EHW is a key technology to explore the new application area requiring real-time performance and on-line adaptation. 1. Development of EHW-LSI for function level hardware evolution, which includes 15 DSPs in one chip. 2. Application of the EHW to the practical industrial applications such as data compression, ATM control, digital mobile communication. 3. Two patents : (1) the architecture and the processing method for programmable EHW-LSI. (2) The method of data compression for loss-less data, using EHW. 4. The first international conference for evolvable hardware was held by authors: Intl. Conf. on Evolvable Systems (ICES96). It was determined at ICES96 that ICES will be held every two years between Japan and Europe. So the new society has been established by us. (NEDO)

  17. Control strategy and hardware implementation for DC–DC boost power circuit based on proportional–integral compensator for high voltage application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For high-voltage (HV applications, the designers mostly prefer the classical DC–DC boost converter. However, it lacks due to the limitation of the output voltage by the gain transfer ratio, decreased efficiency and its requirement of two sensors for feedback signals, which creates complex control scheme with increased overall cost. Furthermore, the output voltage and efficiency are reduced due to the self-parasitic behavior of power circuit components. To overcome these drawbacks, this manuscript provides, the theoretical development and hardware implementation of DC–DC step-up (boost power converter circuit for obtaining extra output-voltage high-performance. The proposed circuit substantially improves the high output-voltage by voltage-lift technology with a closed loop proportional–integral controller. This complete numerical model of the converter circuit including closed loop P-I controller is developed in simulation (Matlab/Simulink software and the hardware prototype model is implemented with digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F2812. A detailed performance analysis was carried out under both line and load regulation conditions. Numerical simulation and its verification results provided in this paper, prove the good agreement of the circuit with theoretical background.

  18. Life Cycle V and V Process for Hardware Description Language Programs of Programmable Logic Device-based Instrumentation and Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable Logic Device (PLD), especially Complex PLD (CPLD) or Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA), has been growing in interest in nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) applications. PLD has been applied to replace an obsolete analog device or old-fashioned microprocessor, or to develop digital controller, subsystem or overall system on hardware aspects. This is the main reason why the PLD-based I and C design provides higher flexibility than the analog-based one, and the PLD-based I and C systems shows better real-time performance than the processor-based I and C systems. Due to the development of the PLD-based I and C systems, their nuclear qualification has been issued in the nuclear industry. Verification and Validation (V and V) is one of necessary qualification activities when a Hardware Description Language (HDL) is used to implement functions of the PLD-based I and C systems. The life cycle V and V process, described in this paper, has been defined as satisfying the nuclear V and V requirements, and it has been applied to verify Correctness, Completeness, and Consistency (3C) among design outputs in a safety-grade programmable logic controller and a safety-critical data communication system. Especially, software engineering techniques such as the Fagan Inspection, formal verification, simulated verification and automated testing have been defined for the life cycle V and V tasks of behavioral, structural, and physical design in VHDL

  19. Open Hardware Business Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the September issue of the Open Source Business Resource, Patrick McNamara, president of the Open Hardware Foundation, gave a comprehensive introduction to the concept of open hardware, including some insights about the potential benefits for both companies and users. In this article, we present the topic from a different perspective, providing a classification of market offers from companies that are making money with open hardware.

  20. Open Hardware Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In the September issue of the Open Source Business Resource, Patrick McNamara, president of the Open Hardware Foundation, gave a comprehensive introduction to the concept of open hardware, including some insights about the potential benefits for both companies and users. In this article, we present the topic from a different perspective, providing a classification of market offers from companies that are making money with open hardware.

  1. APROPRIAÇÃO INTELECTUAL DA TECNOLOGIA (SOFTWARE E HARDWARE DO CONTROLE DE QUALIDADE DA CADEIA INDUSTRIAL DE MEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Dantas Linhares

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as propriedades intelectuais resultantes do desenvolvimento do aporte tecnológico, que agrega hardware e software, denomindado BIPP (Bloco Inteligente do Processo de Produção, desenvolvidos com funcionalidades que garantem o registro de dados e características naturais do processo produtivo da cadeia do mel, somado a capacidade de processamento de informações sobre os indicadores que influenciam a sua qualidade, como a cor do mel, umidade relativa do ar, umidade do mel, temperatura ambiente, temperatura de armazenamento e presença de HMF (Hidroximetilfurfural. Portanto, este trabalho documenta as descrições, assim como, os impactos de tais tecnologias, com o objetivo de demonstrar a importância do processamento em Big Data no gerenciamento da cadeia produtiva e, principalmente, prever a iminência dos fatores de risco durante a produção do referido alimento. Os registros de propriedade intelectual foram solicitados juntos ao INPI – Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Intelectual.

  2. Aplicación de las técnicas de hardware reconfigurable en un sistema digital de control dinámico. Aplicación práctica Parte II; Application of Programmable Hardware Techniques of Digital Control System Development. Workable Application. Second Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Arce López

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la aplicación práctica del diseño electrónico en el desarrollo de un sistema de control dinámicode un servomotor lo cual es una novedad científico-técnica en el campo de la energética y en la defensanacional. En el trabajo se expone la funcionalidad y estructura del hardware programable, así como losresultados parciales de la simulación. This paper describes the design of a dynamic control system for servomotor making use of new electronicdevelopment techniques, and represents a novelty on energetic field and national defence. Also describesstructure and functionality of programmable hardware, and partial results of simulation.

  3. Automatic control system of a linear actuator for positioning samples to neutron irradiation using low cost open-hardware boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunya, Eduardo; Chan, Renzo; Pacheco, Adison

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design criteria and implementation of an automatic control system based on embedded electronic circuits (microcontrollers) of different architectures (RISC, ARM) and open source framework software CanFestival, to develop user applications. Electronic devices are autonomous and support the functionality required for communication and remote control of the linear actuator. (author)

  4. Hardware description ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP as designed in a remotely controlled digital CW Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. E.; Robinson, S. H.

    A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployed, and remotely controlled. The heart of this system is a DSP/control board using Analog Devices ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor. Two 18-bit audio A/D converters provide digital input to the DSP/controller board for near real time target detection. Program memory for the DSP is dual ported with an Intel 87C51 microcontroller allowing DSP code to be up-loaded or down-loaded from a central controlling computer. The 87C51 provides overall system control for the remote radar and includes a time-of-day/day-of-year real time clock, system identification (ID) switches, and input/output (I/O) expansion by an Intel 82C55 I/O expander.

  5. Evaluation of the performance of indirect control of many DSRs using hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2012-01-01

    Controlling the power consumption of many Demand Side Resources, DSRs, will be required in the future power system where a big share of the electric energy will be produced using stochastic renewable sources and the conventional power plants might not have the flexibility of providing all...... the regulating power. Indirect control of demand side resources is supposed to shift the electric power consumption of each single unit through broadcasting of a control signal; the flexibility in the aggregated power consumption can be used for supplying balancing power to the electric power system. Indirect......-time power readings from the units can be performed. The aim of the paper is to discuss the performance of an emulated closed loop control using an estimator for predicting the aggregate power response and a regulator. By using these components it is possible to produce a control signal to broadcast...

  6. A comprehensive analysis and hardware implementation of control strategies for high output voltage DC-DC boost power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Grandi, Gabriele; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    voltage and efficiency of classical HV converters. This paper deals with extra high-voltage (EHV) dc-dc boost converter by the application of voltage-lift technique to overcome the aforementioned deficiencies. The control strategy is based on classical proportional-integral (P-I) and fuzzy logic closed...... are performed by the DSP. The experimental results provided show good conformity with developed hypothetical predictions. Additionally, the presented study confirms that the fuzzy logic controller provides better performance than classical P-I controller under different perturbation conditions....

  7. Platform for real-time simulation of dynamic systems and hardware-in-the-loop for control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Isaac D T; Silva, Sergio N; Teles, Rafael M; Fernandes, Marcelo A C

    2014-10-15

    The development of new embedded algorithms for automation and control of industrial equipment usually requires the use of real-time testing. However, the equipment required is often expensive, which means that such tests are often not viable. The objective of this work was therefore to develop an embedded platform for the distributed real-time simulation of dynamic systems. This platform, called the Real-Time Simulator for Dynamic Systems (RTSDS), could be applied in both industrial and academic environments. In industrial applications, the RTSDS could be used to optimize embedded control algorithms. In the academic sphere, it could be used to support research into new embedded solutions for automation and control and could also be used as a tool to assist in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching related to the development of projects concerning on-board control systems.

  8. Justification and choice of hardware for automatic control system by technical means at the garage consumer cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnykh V.Yu.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the main system requirements of software of finished products for implementation of an automatic control system by technical means at the garage consumer cooperative.

  9. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for the virtual application of control functions for a coordination of the interaction between a gasoline engine and the 14V-power electrical system; Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation fuer die virtuelle Applikation von Steuerungsfunktionen zur Motor-Energiebordnetz-Koordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    The development of advanced engine management systems increasingly is supported by model-based development tools. Thereby the hardware-in-the-loop simulation is one of these tools. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on an extension of the capabilities of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation from the classic functional testing and safety tests up to the model-based application. Using the control functions for the coordination of the interaction between a gasoline engine and the 14V-power electrical system as an example, the practical application of hardware-in-the-loop systems is presented. Here, the author reviews on the state of technology for the real-time modeling of internal combustion engines and wiring systems.

  10. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Multiple Photovoltaic Inverters' Volt-Var Control with Real-Time Grid Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Nelson, Austin; Hoke, Anderson

    2016-12-12

    Traditional testing methods fall short in evaluating interactions between multiple smart inverters providing advanced grid support functions due to the fact that such interactions largely depend on their placements on the electric distribution systems with impedances between them. Even though significant concerns have been raised by the utilities on the effects of such interactions, little effort has been made to evaluate them. In this paper, power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) based testing was utilized to evaluate autonomous volt-var operations of multiple smart photovoltaic (PV) inverters connected to a simple distribution feeder model. The results provided in this paper show that depending on volt-var control (VVC) parameters and grid parameters, interaction between inverters and between the inverter and the grid is possible in some extreme cases with very high VVC slopes, fast response times and large VVC response delays.

  11. The Acquisition and Control Design for Vacuum Unit of an Electron Beam Machine Using Remote Manual, Software and Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto; Prajitno

    2002-01-01

    The Acquisition and Control design for vacuum unit of an Electron Beam Machine using Remote manual, Software and Hardwire have been done. For Remote Manual system open/close of pneumatic valves can be done by using 220 Vac/12 Vdc relay equipped with long cable and switches on the control panel. An indicator lamp mentioning ready/not ready status of the vacuum unit would be the main indicator in making decisions to open/close the pneumatic valves. On the software method the acquisition and controlled would be done by using the Distributed Control System which have already been developed recently. The references voltage on he vacuum level of 10 -2 Torr and 10 -6 Torr would be proceeded by using ADC techniques of PCL-718 and recorded on the software system as a references data base in making an open/closed pneumatic decision. On the Hardwire method, on/off controlling of the pneumatic valves could be done by using voltage comparison by using logic circuitry where the vacuum references level of 10 -2 Torr and 10 -6 Torr have already been taken, monitored by penning gauge. The hardwire method is the fastest in response time than the others. (author)

  12. Patterned control of human locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-01-01

    There is much experimental evidence for the existence of biomechanical constraints which simplify the problem of control of multi-segment movements. In addition, it has been hypothesized that movements are controlled using a small set of basic temporal components or activation patterns, shared by several different muscles and reflecting global kinematic and kinetic goals. Here we review recent studies on human locomotion showing that muscle activity is accounted for by a combination of few basic patterns, each one timed at a different phase of the gait cycle. Similar patterns are involved in walking and running at different speeds, walking forwards or backwards, and walking under different loading conditions. The corresponding weights of distribution to different muscles may change as a function of the condition, allowing highly flexible control. Biomechanical correlates of each activation pattern have been described, leading to the hypothesis that the co-ordination of limb and body segments arises from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle activations need only intervene during limited time epochs to force intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. PMID:22411012

  13. Patterned control of human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-05-15

    There is much experimental evidence for the existence of biomechanical constraints which simplify the problem of control of multi-segment movements. In addition, it has been hypothesized that movements are controlled using a small set of basic temporal components or activation patterns, shared by several different muscles and reflecting global kinematic and kinetic goals. Here we review recent studies on human locomotion showing that muscle activity is accounted for by a combination of few basic patterns, each one timed at a different phase of the gait cycle. Similar patterns are involved in walking and running at different speeds, walking forwards or backwards, and walking under different loading conditions. The corresponding weights of distribution to different muscles may change as a function of the condition, allowing highly flexible control. Biomechanical correlates of each activation pattern have been described, leading to the hypothesis that the co-ordination of limb and body segments arises from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle activations need only intervene during limited time epochs to force intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost.

  14. Open Hardware at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Knowledge Transfer Group

    2015-01-01

    CERN is actively making its knowledge and technology available for the benefit of society and does so through a variety of different mechanisms. Open hardware has in recent years established itself as a very effective way for CERN to make electronics designs and in particular printed circuit board layouts, accessible to anyone, while also facilitating collaboration and design re-use. It is creating an impact on many levels, from companies producing and selling products based on hardware designed at CERN, to new projects being released under the CERN Open Hardware Licence. Today the open hardware community includes large research institutes, universities, individual enthusiasts and companies. Many of the companies are actively involved in the entire process from design to production, delivering services and consultancy and even making their own products available under open licences.

  15. Hardware description languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  16. Hardware protection through obfuscation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Tehranipoor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various threats faced during design and fabrication by today’s integrated circuits (ICs) and systems. The authors discuss key issues, including illegal manufacturing of ICs or “IC Overproduction,” insertion of malicious circuits, referred as “Hardware Trojans”, which cause in-field chip/system malfunction, and reverse engineering and piracy of hardware intellectual property (IP). The authors provide a timely discussion of these threats, along with techniques for IC protection based on hardware obfuscation, which makes reverse-engineering an IC design infeasible for adversaries and untrusted parties with any reasonable amount of resources. This exhaustive study includes a review of the hardware obfuscation methods developed at each level of abstraction (RTL, gate, and layout) for conventional IC manufacturing, new forms of obfuscation for emerging integration strategies (split manufacturing, 2.5D ICs, and 3D ICs), and on-chip infrastructure needed for secure exchange o...

  17. Hardware standardization for embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.K.; Kalra, Mohit; Patil, M.B.; Mohanty, Ashutos; Ganesh, G.; Biswas, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Reactor Control Division (RCnD) has been one of the main designers of safety and safety related systems for power reactors. These systems have been built using in-house developed hardware. Since the present set of hardware was designed long ago, a need was felt to design a new family of hardware boards. A Working Group on Electronics Hardware Standardization (WG-EHS) was formed with an objective to develop a family of boards, which is general purpose enough to meet the requirements of the system designers/end users. RCnD undertook the responsibility of design, fabrication and testing of boards for embedded systems. VME and a proprietary I/O bus were selected as the two system buses. The boards have been designed based on present day technology and components. The intelligence of these boards has been implemented on FPGA/CPLD using VHDL. This paper outlines the various boards that have been developed with a brief description. (author)

  18. LHCb: Hardware Data Injector

    CERN Multimedia

    Delord, V; Neufeld, N

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb High Level Trigger and Data Acquisition system selects about 2 kHz of events out of the 1 MHz of events, which have been selected previously by the first-level hardware trigger. The selected events are consolidated into files and then sent to permanent storage for subsequent analysis on the Grid. The goal of the upgrade of the LHCb readout is to lift the limitation to 1 MHz. This means speeding up the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or technologies and might also need new networking protocols: a customized TCP or proprietary solutions. A test module is being presented, which integrates in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a 10-Gigabit traffic generator, flexible enough to generate LHCb's raw data packets using dummy data or simulated data. These data are seen as real data coming from sub-detectors by the DAQ. The implementation is based on an FPGA using 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface. This module is integrated in the experiment control system. The architecture, ...

  19. A Novel Supervisory Control Algorithm to Improve the Performance of a Real-Time PV Power-Hardware-In-Loop Simulator with Non-RTDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Jin Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A programmable direct current (DC power supply with Real-time Digital Simulator (RTDS-based photovoltaic (PV Power Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL simulators has been used to improve the control algorithm and reliability of a PV inverter. This paper proposes a supervisory control algorithm for a PV PHIL simulator with a non-RTDS device that is an alternative solution to a high-cost PHIL simulator. However, when such a simulator with the conventional algorithm which is used in an RTDS is connected to a PV inverter, the output is in the transient state and it makes it impossible to evaluate the performance of the PV inverter. Therefore, the proposed algorithm controls the voltage and current target values according to constant voltage (CV and constant current (CC modes to overcome the limitation of the Computing Unit and DC power supply, and it also uses a multi-rate system to account for the characteristics of each component of the simulator. A mathematical model of a PV system, programmable DC power supply, isolated DC measurement device, and Computing Unit are integrated to form a real-time processing simulator. Performance tests are carried out with a commercial PV inverter and prove the superiority of this proposed algorithm against the conventional algorithm.

  20. Qualification of software and hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossner, S.; Schueller, H.; Gloee, G.

    1987-01-01

    The qualification of on-line process control equipment is subdivided into three areas: 1) materials and structural elements; 2) on-line process-control components and devices; 3) electrical systems (reactor protection and confinement system). Microprocessor-aided process-control equipment are difficult to verify for failure-free function owing to the complexity of the functional structures of the hardware and to the variety of the software feasible for microprocessors. Hence, qualification will make great demands on the inspecting expert. (DG) [de

  1. Object and Facial Recognition in Augmented and Virtual Reality: Investigation into Software, Hardware and Potential Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erin

    2017-01-01

    As augmented and virtual reality grows in popularity, and more researchers focus on its development, other fields of technology have grown in the hopes of integrating with the up-and-coming hardware currently on the market. Namely, there has been a focus on how to make an intuitive, hands-free human-computer interaction (HCI) utilizing AR and VR that allows users to control their technology with little to no physical interaction with hardware. Computer vision, which is utilized in devices such as the Microsoft Kinect, webcams and other similar hardware has shown potential in assisting with the development of a HCI system that requires next to no human interaction with computing hardware and software. Object and facial recognition are two subsets of computer vision, both of which can be applied to HCI systems in the fields of medicine, security, industrial development and other similar areas.

  2. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  3. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  4. Intermittent control: a computational theory of human control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Lakie, Martin; Gollee, Henrik

    2011-02-01

    The paradigm of continuous control using internal models has advanced understanding of human motor control. However, this paradigm ignores some aspects of human control, including intermittent feedback, serial ballistic control, triggered responses and refractory periods. It is shown that event-driven intermittent control provides a framework to explain the behaviour of the human operator under a wider range of conditions than continuous control. Continuous control is included as a special case, but sampling, system matched hold, an intermittent predictor and an event trigger allow serial open-loop trajectories using intermittent feedback. The implementation here may be described as "continuous observation, intermittent action". Beyond explaining unimodal regulation distributions in common with continuous control, these features naturally explain refractoriness and bimodal stabilisation distributions observed in double stimulus tracking experiments and quiet standing, respectively. Moreover, given that human control systems contain significant time delays, a biological-cybernetic rationale favours intermittent over continuous control: intermittent predictive control is computationally less demanding than continuous predictive control. A standard continuous-time predictive control model of the human operator is used as the underlying design method for an event-driven intermittent controller. It is shown that when event thresholds are small and sampling is regular, the intermittent controller can masquerade as the underlying continuous-time controller and thus, under these conditions, the continuous-time and intermittent controller cannot be distinguished. This explains why the intermittent control hypothesis is consistent with the continuous control hypothesis for certain experimental conditions.

  5. The VMTG Hardware Description

    CERN Document Server

    Puccio, B

    1998-01-01

    The document describes the hardware features of the CERN Master Timing Generator. This board is the common platform for the transmission of General Timing Machine required by the CERN accelerators. In addition, the paper shows the various jumper options to customise the card which is compliant to the VMEbus standard.

  6. The LASS hardware processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of data analysis with hardware processors are reviewed and a description is given of a programmable processor. This processor, the 168/E, has been designed for use in the LASS multi-processor system; it has an execution speed comparable to the IBM 370/168 and uses the subset of IBM 370 instructions appropriate to the LASS analysis task. (Auth.)

  7. CERN Neutrino Platform Hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    My summer research was broadly in CERN's neutrino platform hardware efforts. This project had two main components: detector assembly and data analysis work for ICARUS. Specifically, I worked on assembly for the ProtoDUNE project and monitored the safety of ICARUS as it was transported to Fermilab by analyzing the accelerometer data from its move.

  8. RRFC hardware operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhold, M.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Walton, G.

    1996-05-01

    The Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) system was developed to assay the 235 U content in spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) type fuel elements underwater in a spent fuel pool. RRFC assays the 235 U content using active neutron coincidence counting and also incorporates an ion chamber for gross gamma-ray measurements. This manual describes RRFC hardware, including detectors, electronics, and performance characteristics

  9. The ELSA control system hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nietzel, Ch.; Schillo, M.; Welt, H.J.; Wermelskirchen, C.

    1984-01-01

    ELSA is an Electron Stretcher and Acclerator ring fed by the Bonn 2.5 GeV Electron Synchrotron and has been designed to provide electron and bremsstrahlung beams with high duty cycle. In stretcher mode operation electron pulses from the synchrotron are injected into ELSA with a maximum rate of 50 Hz. The electrons are then ejected from ELSA at a constant rate within 20 msec or more. The duty cycle will be of the order of 95%. When used as a post accelerator to yield up to 3.5 GeV electrons ELSA is fed with 1.75 GeV electrons from the synchrotron. Times for ramping up and down are both fixed to 150 msec. With a maximum length of the high energy flat top of 500 msec and a 20 msec injection plateau a duty cycle of up to 60% will be achieved. ELSA is planned to operate in the stretcher mode at the end of 1985 and as a post accelerator about one year later

  10. Efficiency and hardware comparison of analog control-based and digital control-based 70 W two-stage power factor corrector and DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of an analog and a digital controller driven 70 W two-stage power factor corrector converter is presented. Both controllers are operated in average current-mode-control for the PFC and peak current control for the DC-DC converter. Digital controller design and converter modeling...... is described. Results show that digital control can compete with the analog one in efficiency, PFC and THD....

  11. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  12. Integrated application of human factors to a power plant control room information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, H.C. Jr.; Gutierrez, R.

    1988-01-01

    The human factors plan was developed as a methodology to apply human factors from the conceptual design of the EPIC system to the functional verification conducted at the plant. An integral part of the Human Factors Plan was the Functional Verification Plan. Developed in parallel, this second plan and its resultant programs verified functional appropriateness of the SPDS display, NSSS displays, EOP displays, man-machine interfaces (MMI), and workstation designs. The functional verification process was performed at the hardware/software developer's factory and at the JAFNPP, following installation of the EPIC system. Because the EPIC system replaces existing control room equipment, it is important that human factors be applied in a systematic manner consistent with other control room displays and controls. To ensure that this goal was met, a human factors plan was developed

  13. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  14. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-01-01

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists

  15. Sterilization of space hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  16. Hardware characteristic and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Dong Hyeon

    1990-03-01

    The contents of this book are system board on memory, performance, system timer system click and specification, coprocessor such as programing interface and hardware interface, power supply on input and output, protection for DC output, Power Good signal, explanation on 84 keyboard and 101/102 keyboard,BIOS system, 80286 instruction set and 80287 coprocessor, characters, keystrokes and colors, communication and compatibility of IBM personal computer on application direction, multitasking and code for distinction of system.

  17. Control system oriented human interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.

    1976-11-01

    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor

  18. The human factors of CRT displays for nuclear power plant control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchak, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) can be used to effectively present information to the operator rather than just data. The capabilities of the human as a sensing and information processing subsystem are discussed with CRT displays in mind. The display system is described in terms of its hardware and functioning. The interface between the two is examined by providing substantive guidelines for the effective design of CRT displays for nuclear power plant control. Alphanumeric displays, graphic displays, and representational displays are treated. The design of CRT displays for nuclear power plant control requires an extensive knowledge of cognitive psychology, computer display systems and the process being controlled

  19. 8-channel, FPGA based, DSP integrated cavity simulator and controller for VUV-FEL. SIMCON 3.0 Ver. 3.0. rev. 1, 06.2005 - Hardware manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozniak, K.T.; Czarski, T.; Koprek, W.; Giergusiewicz, W.; Romaniuk, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The note describes integrated, eight channel system of hardware controller and simulator of the resonant superconducting, narrowband niobium cavity, originally considered for the TTF and TESLA in DESY, Hamburg (now tested for the VUV FEL and developed for X-Ray FEL). The controller bases on a programmable circuit Xilinx VirtexII V4000. The solution uses DSP EMBEDDED BOARD module positioned on a Modular LLRF Control Platform. The algorithm and FPGA circuit configuration was done in the VHDL language. The internal hardware multiplication components, present in Virtex II chips, were used, to improve the floating point calculation efficiency. The implementation was achieved of a device working in the real time, according to the demands of the LLRF control system for the TESLA Test Facility (now associated with the VUV FEL machine). The device under consideration will be referred to as superconducting cavity (SCCav) SIMCON throughout this work. The manual describes hardware features of SIMCON, ver. 3.0 in modular solution. The following components are described here in detail: functional layer, parameter programming, foundations of control of particular blocks and monitoring of the real time processes. This note is accompanied by the one describing the multichannel DOOCS interface for the described hardware system. The interface was prepared in DOOCS for Solaris and in Windows. The hardware and software of 8-channel SIMCON was tested in CHECIA and ACC1 module of VUV FEL linac. The measurements results are presented. While giving all necessary technical details required to understand the work of the integrated hardware controller and simulator and to enable its practical copying, this document is a unity with other TESLA technical notes published by the same team on the subject. Thus, some modeling and other subjects were omitted, as they were addressed in detail in the quoted references. Keywords: Super conducting cavity, cavity simulator, CAVITIES CONTROLLER, SIMCON

  20. Biofeedback, voluntary control, and human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P

    1986-03-01

    This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.

  1. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  2. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  3. Foundations of hardware IP protection

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the design of security-hardened, hardware intellectual property (IP). Readers will learn how IP can be threatened, as well as protected, by using means such as hardware obfuscation/camouflaging, watermarking, fingerprinting (PUF), functional locking, remote activation, hidden transmission of data, hardware Trojan detection, protection against hardware Trojan, use of secure element, ultra-lightweight cryptography, and digital rights management. This book serves as a single-source reference to design space exploration of hardware security and IP protection. · Provides readers with a comprehensive overview of hardware intellectual property (IP) security, describing threat models and presenting means of protection, from integrated circuit layout to digital rights management of IP; · Enables readers to transpose techniques fundamental to digital rights management (DRM) to the realm of hardware IP security; · Introduce designers to the concept of salutar...

  4. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  5. Automation Hardware & Software for the STELLA Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M.; Granzer, Th.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    The STELLA telescope (a joint project of the AIP, Hamburger Sternwarte and the IAC) is to operate in fully robotic mode, with no human interaction necessary for regular operation. Thus, the hardware must be kept as simple as possible to avoid unnecessary failures, and the environmental conditions must be monitored accurately to protect the telescope in case of bad weather. All computers are standard PCs running Linux, and communication with specialized hardware is done via a RS232/RS485 bus system. The high level (java based) control software consists of independent modules to ease bug-tracking and to allow the system to be extended without changing existing modules. Any command cycle consists of three messages, the actual command sent from the central node to the operating device, an immediate acknowledge, and a final done message, both sent back from the receiving device to the central node. This reply-splitting allows a direct distinction between communication problems (no acknowledge message) and hardware problems (no or a delayed done message). To avoid bug-prone packing of all the sensor-analyzing software into a single package, each sensor-reading and interaction with other sensors is done within a self-contained thread. Weather-decision making is therefore totally decoupled from the core control software to avoid dead-locks in the core module.

  6. Human rights and conventionality control in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azul América Aguiar-Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The protection of human rights in Mexico has, de jure, suffered an important change in the last years, given a new judicial interpretation delivered by the National Supreme Court of Justice that allows the use of conventionality control, which means, that it allows federal and state judges to verify the conformity of domestic laws with those established in the Inter-American Convention of Human Rights. To what extent domestic actors are protecting human rights using this new legal tool called conventionality control? In this article I explore whom and how is conventionality control being used in Mexico. Using N-Vivo Software I reviewed concluded decisions delivered by intermediate level courts (Collegiate Circuit Courts in three Mexican states. The evidence points that conventionality control is a very useful tool especially to defenders, who appear in sentences claiming compliance with the commitments Mexico has acquired when this country ratified the Convention.

  7. Human factors engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, M.P.; Banks, W.W.

    1980-12-01

    The information presented here represents preliminary findings related to an ongoing human engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Control Room. Although many of the problems examined in this report have been previously noted by ATR operations personnel, the systematic approach used in this investigation produced many new insights. While many violations of Human Engineering military standards (MIL-STD) are noted, and numerous recommendations made, the recommendations should be examined cautiously. The reason for our suggested caution lies in the fact that many ATR operators have well over 10-years experience in operating the controls, meters, etc. Hence, it is assumed adaptation to the existing system is quite developed and the introduction of hardware/control changes, even though the changes enhance the system, may cause short-term (or long-term, depending upon the amount of operator experience and training) adjustment problems for operators adapting to the new controls/meters and physical layout

  8. Hardware Support for Embedded Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The general Java runtime environment is resource hungry and unfriendly for real-time systems. To reduce the resource consumption of Java in embedded systems, direct hardware support of the language is a valuable option. Furthermore, an implementation of the Java virtual machine in hardware enables...... worst-case execution time analysis of Java programs. This chapter gives an overview of current approaches to hardware support for embedded and real-time Java....

  9. HARDWARE TROJAN IDENTIFICATION AND DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Moein; Fayez Gebali; T. Aaron Gulliver; Abdulrahman Alkandari

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of techniques developed to detect hardware trojans are based on specific attributes. Further, the ad hoc approaches employed to design methods for trojan detection are largely ineffective. Hardware trojans have a number of attributes which can be used to systematically develop detection techniques. Based on this concept, a detailed examination of current trojan detection techniques and the characteristics of existing hardware trojans is presented. This is used to dev...

  10. Hardware assisted hypervisor introspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiangyong; Yang, Yuexiang; Tang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce hypervisor introspection, an out-of-box way to monitor the execution of hypervisors. Similar to virtual machine introspection which has been proposed to protect virtual machines in an out-of-box way over the past decade, hypervisor introspection can be used to protect hypervisors which are the basis of cloud security. Virtual machine introspection tools are usually deployed either in hypervisor or in privileged virtual machines, which might also be compromised. By utilizing hardware support including nested virtualization, EPT protection and #BP, we are able to monitor all hypercalls belongs to the virtual machines of one hypervisor, include that of privileged virtual machine and even when the hypervisor is compromised. What's more, hypercall injection method is used to simulate hypercall-based attacks and evaluate the performance of our method. Experiment results show that our method can effectively detect hypercall-based attacks with some performance cost. Lastly, we discuss our furture approaches of reducing the performance cost and preventing the compromised hypervisor from detecting the existence of our introspector, in addition with some new scenarios to apply our hypervisor introspection system.

  11. Hardware descriptions of the I and C systems for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Kwon; Oh, In Suk; Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Dong Hoon; Han, Jae Bok; Shin, Jae Whal; Kim, Young Bak

    2003-09-01

    The hardware specifications for I and C Systems of SNPP(Standard Nuclear Power Plant) are reviewed in order to acquire the hardware requirement and specification of KNICS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System). In the study, we investigated hardware requirements, hardware configuration, hardware specifications, man-machine hardware requirements, interface requirements with the other system, and data communication requirements that are applicable to SNP. We reviewed those things of control systems, protection systems, monitoring systems, information systems, and process instrumentation systems. Through the study, we described the requirements and specifications of digital systems focusing on a microprocessor and a communication interface, and repeated it for analog systems focusing on the manufacturing companies. It is expected that the experience acquired from this research will provide vital input for the development of the KNICS

  12. CAMAC high energy physics electronics hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, I.F.

    1977-01-01

    CAMAC hardware for high energy physics large spectrometers and control systems is reviewed as is the development of CAMAC modules at the High Energy Laboratory, JINR (Dubna). The total number of crates used at the Laboratory is 179. The number of CAMAC modules of 120 different types exceeds 1700. The principles of organization and the structure of developed CAMAC systems are described. (author)

  13. Secure coupling of hardware components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Joosten, H.J.M.; Knobbe, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    A method and a system for securing communication between at least a first and a second hardware components of a mobile device is described. The method includes establishing a first shared secret between the first and the second hardware components during an initialization of the mobile device and,

  14. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  15. High exposure rate hardware ALARA plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1996-10-01

    This as low as reasonably achievable review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure and to control contamination levels and airborne radioactivity concentrations. HERH waste is hardware found in the N-Fuel Storage Basin, which has a contact dose rate greater than 1 R/hr and used filters. This waste will be collected in the fuel baskets at various locations in the basins

  16. Expert System analysis of non-fuel assembly hardware and spent fuel disassembly hardware: Its generation and recommended disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all of the effort being expended on radioactive waste disposal in the United States is being focused on the disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, with little consideration for other areas that will have to be disposed of in the same facilities. one area of radioactive waste that has not been addressed adequately because it is considered a secondary part of the waste issue is the disposal of the various Non-Fuel Bearing Components of the reactor core. These hardware components fall somewhat arbitrarily into two categories: Non-Fuel Assembly (NFA) hardware and Spent Fuel Disassembly (SFD) hardware. This work provides a detailed examination of the generation and disposal of NFA hardware and SFD hardware by the nuclear utilities of the United States as it relates to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. All available sources of data on NFA and SFD hardware are analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Characteristics Data Base developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the characterization work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Rochester Gas ampersand Electric. An Expert System developed as a portion of this work is used to assist in the prediction of quantities of NFA hardware and SFD hardware that will be generated by the United States' utilities. Finally, the hardware waste management practices of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan are studied for possible application to the disposal of domestic hardware wastes. As a result of this work, a general classification scheme for NFA and SFD hardware was developed. Only NFA and SFD hardware constructed of zircaloy and experiencing a burnup of less than 70,000 MWD/MTIHM and PWR control rods constructed of stainless steel are considered Low-Level Waste. All other hardware is classified as Greater-ThanClass-C waste

  17. Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-08-13

    Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

  18. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C.; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans. PMID:24333646

  19. A Novel Real-Time Path Servo Control of a Hardware-in-the-Loop for a Large-Stroke Asymmetric Rod-Less Pneumatic System under Variable Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ting Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to develop a novel large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system of a hardware-in-the-loop for path tracking control under variable loads based on the MATLAB Simulink real-time system. High pressure compressed air provided by the air compressor is utilized for the pneumatic proportional servo valve to drive the large stroke asymmetric rod-less pneumatic actuator. Due to the pressure differences between two chambers, the pneumatic actuator will operate. The highly nonlinear mathematical models of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic system were analyzed and developed. The functional approximation technique based on the sliding mode controller (FASC is developed as a controller to solve the uncertain time-varying nonlinear system. The MATLAB Simulink real-time system was a main control unit of a hardware-in-the-loop system proposed to establish driver blocks for analog and digital I/O, a linear encoder, a CPU and a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic rod-less system. By the position sensor, the position signals of the cylinder will be measured immediately. The measured signals will be viewed as the feedback signals of the pneumatic servo system for the study of real-time positioning control and path tracking control. Finally, real-time control of a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system with measuring system, a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system, data acquisition system and the control strategy software will be implemented. Thus, upgrading the high position precision and the trajectory tracking performance of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system will be realized to promote the high position precision and path tracking capability. Experimental results show that fifth order paths in various strokes and the sine wave path are successfully implemented in the test rig. Also, results of variable loads under the different angle were implemented experimentally.

  20. A Novel Real-Time Path Servo Control of a Hardware-in-the-Loop for a Large-Stroke Asymmetric Rod-Less Pneumatic System under Variable Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Ting

    2017-06-04

    This project aims to develop a novel large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system of a hardware-in-the-loop for path tracking control under variable loads based on the MATLAB Simulink real-time system. High pressure compressed air provided by the air compressor is utilized for the pneumatic proportional servo valve to drive the large stroke asymmetric rod-less pneumatic actuator. Due to the pressure differences between two chambers, the pneumatic actuator will operate. The highly nonlinear mathematical models of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic system were analyzed and developed. The functional approximation technique based on the sliding mode controller (FASC) is developed as a controller to solve the uncertain time-varying nonlinear system. The MATLAB Simulink real-time system was a main control unit of a hardware-in-the-loop system proposed to establish driver blocks for analog and digital I/O, a linear encoder, a CPU and a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic rod-less system. By the position sensor, the position signals of the cylinder will be measured immediately. The measured signals will be viewed as the feedback signals of the pneumatic servo system for the study of real-time positioning control and path tracking control. Finally, real-time control of a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system with measuring system, a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system, data acquisition system and the control strategy software will be implemented. Thus, upgrading the high position precision and the trajectory tracking performance of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system will be realized to promote the high position precision and path tracking capability. Experimental results show that fifth order paths in various strokes and the sine wave path are successfully implemented in the test rig. Also, results of variable loads under the different angle were implemented experimentally.

  1. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  2. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computers are an integral part of modern radiology practice. They are used in different radiology modalities to acquire, process, and postprocess imaging data. They have had a dramatic influence on contemporary radiology practice. Their impact has extended further with the emergence of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS, Radiology information system (RIS technology, and Teleradiology. A basic overview of computer hardware relevant to radiology practice is presented here. The key hardware components in a computer are the motherboard, central processor unit (CPU, the chipset, the random access memory (RAM, the memory modules, bus, storage drives, and ports. The personnel computer (PC has a rectangular case that contains important components called hardware, many of which are integrated circuits (ICs. The fiberglass motherboard is the main printed circuit board and has a variety of important hardware mounted on it, which are connected by electrical pathways called "buses". The CPU is the largest IC on the motherboard and contains millions of transistors. Its principal function is to execute "programs". A Pentium® 4 CPU has transistors that execute a billion instructions per second. The chipset is completely different from the CPU in design and function; it controls data and interaction of buses between the motherboard and the CPU. Memory (RAM is fundamentally semiconductor chips storing data and instructions for access by a CPU. RAM is classified by storage capacity, access speed, data rate, and configuration.

  3. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, A

    2010-01-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology practice. They are used in different radiology modalities to acquire, process, and postprocess imaging data. They have had a dramatic influence on contemporary radiology practice. Their impact has extended further with the emergence of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), Radiology information system (RIS) technology, and Teleradiology. A basic overview of computer hardware relevant to radiology practice is presented here. The key hardware components in a computer are the motherboard, central processor unit (CPU), the chipset, the random access memory (RAM), the memory modules, bus, storage drives, and ports. The personnel computer (PC) has a rectangular case that contains important components called hardware, many of which are integrated circuits (ICs). The fiberglass motherboard is the main printed circuit board and has a variety of important hardware mounted on it, which are connected by electrical pathways called “buses”. The CPU is the largest IC on the motherboard and contains millions of transistors. Its principal function is to execute “programs”. A Pentium ® 4 CPU has transistors that execute a billion instructions per second. The chipset is completely different from the CPU in design and function; it controls data and interaction of buses between the motherboard and the CPU. Memory (RAM) is fundamentally semiconductor chips storing data and instructions for access by a CPU. RAM is classified by storage capacity, access speed, data rate, and configuration

  4. Remote hardware-reconfigurable robotic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Estrada, Miguel; Torres-Huitzil, Cesar; Maya-Rueda, Selene E.

    2001-10-01

    In this work, a camera with integrated image processing capabilities is discussed. The camera is based on an imager coupled to an FPGA device (Field Programmable Gate Array) which contains an architecture for real-time computer vision low-level processing. The architecture can be reprogrammed remotely for application specific purposes. The system is intended for rapid modification and adaptation for inspection and recognition applications, with the flexibility of hardware and software reprogrammability. FPGA reconfiguration allows the same ease of upgrade in hardware as a software upgrade process. The camera is composed of a digital imager coupled to an FPGA device, two memory banks, and a microcontroller. The microcontroller is used for communication tasks and FPGA programming. The system implements a software architecture to handle multiple FPGA architectures in the device, and the possibility to download a software/hardware object from the host computer into its internal context memory. System advantages are: small size, low power consumption, and a library of hardware/software functionalities that can be exchanged during run time. The system has been validated with an edge detection and a motion processing architecture, which will be presented in the paper. Applications targeted are in robotics, mobile robotics, and vision based quality control.

  5. Flight Avionics Hardware Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert; McCabe, Mary; Paulick, Paul; Ruffner, Tim; Some, Rafi; Chen, Yuan; Vitalpur, Sharada; Hughes, Mark; Ling, Kuok; Redifer, Matt; hide

    2013-01-01

    As part of NASA's Avionics Steering Committee's stated goal to advance the avionics discipline ahead of program and project needs, the committee initiated a multi-Center technology roadmapping activity to create a comprehensive avionics roadmap. The roadmap is intended to strategically guide avionics technology development to effectively meet future NASA missions needs. The scope of the roadmap aligns with the twelve avionics elements defined in the ASC charter, but is subdivided into the following five areas: Foundational Technology (including devices and components), Command and Data Handling, Spaceflight Instrumentation, Communication and Tracking, and Human Interfaces.

  6. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  7. UPS9: Hardware Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.; Sanchez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The UPS9 printed circuit board is a power pulsed supply controlled by voltage that allow multiple output modes. Isolated output pulses of up to 200 V amplitude can be generated with either positive or negative polarity from a single 24 VDC power source. This circuit was designed and optimized for driving both solenoid and piezoelectric type gas valves. (Author)

  8. Microprocessor hardware reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R I

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based technology has had an impact in nearly every area of industrial electronics and many applications have important safety implications. Microprocessors are being used for the monitoring and control of hazardous processes in the chemical, oil and power generation industries, for the control and instrumentation of aircraft and other transport systems and for the control of industrial machinery. Even in the field of nuclear reactor protection, where designers are particularly conservative, microprocessors are used to implement certain safety functions and may play increasingly important roles in protection systems in the future. Where microprocessors are simply replacing conventional hard-wired control and instrumentation systems no new hazards are created by their use. In the field of robotics, however, the microprocessor has opened up a totally new technology and with it has created possible new and as yet unknown hazards. The paper discusses some of the design and manufacturing techniques which may be used to enhance the reliability of microprocessor based systems and examines the available reliability data on lsi/vlsi microcircuits. 12 references.

  9. Fuel cell hardware-in-loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M.; Randolf, G.; Virji, M. [University of Hawaii, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Hauer, K.H. [Xcellvision (Germany)

    2006-11-08

    Hardware-in-loop (HiL) methodology is well established in the automotive industry. One typical application is the development and validation of control algorithms for drive systems by simulating the vehicle plus the vehicle environment in combination with specific control hardware as the HiL component. This paper introduces the use of a fuel cell HiL methodology for fuel cell and fuel cell system design and evaluation-where the fuel cell (or stack) is the unique HiL component that requires evaluation and development within the context of a fuel cell system designed for a specific application (e.g., a fuel cell vehicle) in a typical use pattern (e.g., a standard drive cycle). Initial experimental results are presented for the example of a fuel cell within a fuel cell vehicle simulation under a dynamic drive cycle. (author)

  10. Analysis and optimization of the battery energy storage systems for frequency control in autonomous microgrids, by means of hardware-in-the-loop simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Marinescu, C.

    2012-01-01

    . The focus is on autonomous MGs that dynamically should perform similarly to the conventional power systems. During MG autonomous operation, the generators should accomplish the frequency control process, by means of their automatic generation control. However, RES-based generators have poor controllability...

  11. Social Bots: Human-Like by Means of Human Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Christian; Preuss, Mike; Adam, Lena; Trautmann, Heike

    2017-12-01

    Social bots are currently regarded an influential but also somewhat mysterious factor in public discourse and opinion making. They are considered to be capable of massively distributing propaganda in social and online media, and their application is even suspected to be partly responsible for recent election results. Astonishingly, the term social bot is not well defined and different scientific disciplines use divergent definitions. This work starts with a balanced definition attempt, before providing an overview of how social bots actually work (taking the example of Twitter) and what their current technical limitations are. Despite recent research progress in Deep Learning and Big Data, there are many activities bots cannot handle well. We then discuss how bot capabilities can be extended and controlled by integrating humans into the process and reason that this is currently the most promising way to realize meaningful interactions with other humans. This finally leads to the conclusion that hybridization is a challenge for current detection mechanisms and has to be handled with more sophisticated approaches to identify political propaganda distributed with social bots.

  12. Human Homeostatic Control Matrix in Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kruglov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We undertook our research to study and systemize the relationship between hemodynamics and biochemical parameters of arterial and venous blood in healthy people. Hemodynamic and biochemical characteristics were obtained through a probe by using catheterization in various vascular areas (aorta, brain, heart, lungs, and liver. Correlation and factor analyses were conducted to study the relationship between the obtained characteristics of the regional and systemic blood flow. Due to the nature of the correlation analysis, the significant (p<0.05 relation signs (+, 0, - without regard to their power were considered. The obtained results suggested that there are sets of both intra-organ and system regulatory relationships between metabolic and hemodynamic characteristics. The complex of relationships among the studied parameters makes it possible to maintain the homeostatic equilibrium in the body. The psychophysiological control system includes the subsystems we described: 1 the cardiac-hepatic-pulmonary complex having properties of the metabolic and hemodynamic information field providing biological stability of the homeostasis; any significant imbalance of its elements triggers afferent information flows actualizing an afferent synthesis; 2 the mind forming gradient patterns of targeted behavior to eliminate metabolic imbalance, to achieve goals both as coded biological parameters and as the highest forms of behavior, to reach the ultimate goal: parametric, homeostatic equilibrium in the “biosphere” of the human body. By using the results of our research and the complex of dynamic relationships in human homeostasis, we built a homeostatic control matrix (HCM.

  13. The application of human engineering in control room of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shuchun; Shan Songlin

    2003-01-01

    The human-machine system for improving the working environment in the control room of HFETR is described. The reliability of the equipment, instruments and operation by human engineering is increased. The relations between human engineering and lowering human failure in HFETR are also discussed. It is concluded that the further application of human engineering can increase interaction of the human and machine in the control room and provide assurances for the safe and reliable operation of reactor. (authors)

  14. The application of human engineering in control room of HFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuchun, Yang; Songlin, Shan [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Chengdu (China)

    2003-07-01

    The human-machine system for improving the working environment in the control room of HFETR is described. The reliability of the equipment, instruments and operation by human engineering is increased. The relations between human engineering and lowering human failure in HFETR are also discussed. It is concluded that the further application of human engineering can increase interaction of the human and machine in the control room and provide assurances for the safe and reliable operation of reactor. (authors)

  15. Raspberry Pi hardware projects 1

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Learn how to take full advantage of all of Raspberry Pi's amazing features and functions-and have a blast doing it! Congratulations on becoming a proud owner of a Raspberry Pi, the credit-card-sized computer! If you're ready to dive in and start finding out what this amazing little gizmo is really capable of, this ebook is for you. Taken from the forthcoming Raspberry Pi Projects, Raspberry Pi Hardware Projects 1 contains three cool hardware projects that let you have fun with the Raspberry Pi while developing your Raspberry Pi skills. The authors - PiFace inventor, Andrew Robinson and Rasp

  16. Development of Hardware Dual Modality Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Zain

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the hardware development and performance of the Dual Modality Tomography (DMT system. DMT consists of optical and capacitance sensors. The optical sensors consist of 16 LEDs and 16 photodiodes. The Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT electrode design use eight electrode plates as the detecting sensor. The digital timing and the control unit have been developing in order to control the light projection of optical emitters, switching the capacitance electrodes and to synchronize the operation of data acquisition. As a result, the developed system is able to provide a maximum 529 set data per second received from the signal conditioning circuit to the computer.

  17. Commodity hardware and software summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbers, S.

    1997-04-01

    A review is given of the talks and papers presented in the Commodity Hardware and Software Session at the CHEP97 conference. An examination of the trends leading to the consideration of PC's for HEP is given, and a status of the work that is being done at various HEP labs and Universities is given

  18. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  19. BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED HARDWARE CELL ARCHITECTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a system comprising: - a reconfigurable hardware platform; - a plurality of hardware units defined as cells adapted to be programmed to provide self-organization and self-maintenance of the system by means of implementing a program expressed in a programming language defined as DNA...... language, where each cell is adapted to communicate with one or more other cells in the system, and where the system further comprises a converter program adapted to convert keywords from the DNA language to a binary DNA code; where the self-organisation comprises that the DNA code is transmitted to one...... or more of the cells, and each of the one or more cells is adapted to determine its function in the system; where if a fault occurs in a first cell and the first cell ceases to perform its function, self-maintenance is performed by that the system transmits information to the cells that the first cell has...

  20. Hardware-Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S.; Frank, R

    2005-01-01

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32-bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. The hardware accelerated solutions are accurate enough to enable scientists to explore the experimental design space with greater efficiency than the methods currently in use. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedral meshes that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester

  1. The principles of computer hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Principles of Computer Hardware, now in its third edition, provides a first course in computer architecture or computer organization for undergraduates. The book covers the core topics of such a course, including Boolean algebra and logic design; number bases and binary arithmetic; the CPU; assembly language; memory systems; and input/output methods and devices. It then goes on to cover the related topics of computer peripherals such as printers; the hardware aspects of the operating system; and data communications, and hence provides a broader overview of the subject. Its readable, tutorial-based approach makes it an accessible introduction to the subject. The book has extensive in-depth coverage of two microprocessors, one of which (the 68000) is widely used in education. All chapters in the new edition have been updated. Major updates include: powerful software simulations of digital systems to accompany the chapters on digital design; a tutorial-based introduction to assembly language, including many exam...

  2. Human factors issues in the use of artificial intelligence in air traffic control. October 1990 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, Stephen; Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to explore the role of human factors in facilitating the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) to advanced air traffic control (ATC) automation concepts. AI is an umbrella term which is continually expanding to cover a variety of techniques where machines are performing actions taken based upon dynamic, external stimuli. AI methods can be implemented using more traditional programming languages such as LISP or PROLOG, or they can be implemented using state-of-the-art techniques such as object-oriented programming, neural nets (hardware or software), and knowledge based expert systems. As this technology advances and as increasingly powerful computing platforms become available, the use of AI to enhance ATC systems can be realized. Substantial efforts along these lines are already being undertaken at the FAA Technical Center, NASA Ames Research Center, academic institutions, industry, and elsewhere. Although it is clear that the technology is ripe for bringing computer automation to ATC systems, the proper scope and role of automation are not at all apparent. The major concern is how to combine human controllers with computer technology. A wide spectrum of options exists, ranging from using automation only to provide extra tools to augment decision making by human controllers to turning over moment-by-moment control to automated systems and using humans as supervisors and system managers. Across this spectrum, it is now obvious that the difficulties that occur when tying human and automated systems together must be resolved so that automation can be introduced safely and effectively. The focus of the workshop was to further explore the role of injecting AI into ATC systems and to identify the human factors that need to be considered for successful application of the technology to present and future ATC systems.

  3. Hunting for hardware changes in data centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho dos Santos, M; Steers, I; Szebenyi, I; Xafi, A; Barring, O; Bonfillou, E

    2012-01-01

    With many servers and server parts the environment of warehouse sized data centres is increasingly complex. Server life-cycle management and hardware failures are responsible for frequent changes that need to be managed. To manage these changes better a project codenamed “hardware hound” focusing on hardware failure trending and hardware inventory has been started at CERN. By creating and using a hardware oriented data set - the inventory - with detailed information on servers and their parts as well as tracking changes to this inventory, the project aims at, for example, being able to discover trends in hardware failure rates.

  4. Performance comparison between ISCSI and other hardware and software solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gug, M

    2003-01-01

    We report on our investigations on some technologies that can be used to build disk servers and networks of disk servers using commodity hardware and software solutions. It focuses on the performance that can be achieved by these systems and gives measured figures for different configurations. It is divided into two parts : iSCSI and other technologies and hardware and software RAID solutions. The first part studies different technologies that can be used by clients to access disk servers using a gigabit ethernet network. It covers block access technologies (iSCSI, hyperSCSI, ENBD). Experimental figures are given for different numbers of clients and servers. The second part compares a system based on 3ware hardware RAID controllers, a system using linux software RAID and IDE cards and a system mixing both hardware RAID and software RAID. Performance measurements for reading and writing are given for different RAID levels.

  5. Diseño de un sistema de control gerencial de plantas avícolas utilizando redes de sensores inalámbricos con tecnología Open Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vásconez-Barrera, Fabián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of the automated control of a poultry plant using Open Hardware Arduino technology and how it was implemented in the Poultry Academic Plant of the Faculty of Animal Sciences of the Polytechnic School of Chimborazo, Ecuador is presented. Microcontroller to another designed for the connection of sensors and actuators is also illustrated. The sensors were selected based on the technical characteristics of broilers breeding process, used to measure temperature, humidity, light intensity, ammonia, carbon monoxide and flammable gases. According to the present study, this module should be placed at a height between 0.80 and 1.5 m. and out of direct influence of heaters or fans, this way; it is optimized to send measurements wirelessly, using ZigBee protocol to a computer that, using developed software, compares them with parameters considered normal. It was also developed a web application and implemented, for monitoring and control from anywhere. Using this system, a mortality rate of 0.2% and weight gain averages above 2600 g were obtained, which justifies the project and is an option to be considered by poultry, due to the savings of resources obtained.

  6. Inverse biomimetics: how robots can help to verify concepts concerning sensorimotor control of human arm and leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Seyfarth, André

    2009-01-01

    Simulation test, hardware test and behavioral comparison test are proposed to experimentally verify whether a technical control concept for limb movements is logically precise, physically sound, and biologically relevant. Thereby, robot test-beds may play an integral part by mimicking functional limb movements. The procedure is exemplarily demonstrated for human aiming movements with the forearm: when comparing competitive control concepts, these movements are described best by a spring-like operating muscular-skeletal device which is assisted by feedforward control through an inverse internal model of the limb--without regress to a forward model of the limb. In a perspective on hopping, the concept of exploitive control is addressed, and its comparison to concepts derived from classical control theory advised.

  7. An empirical study on the human error recovery failure probability when using soft controls in NPP advanced MCRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Jung, Wondea; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Many researchers have tried to understand human recovery process or step. • Modeling human recovery process is not sufficient to be applied to HRA. • The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. • Recovery failure probability in a soft control operation environment is investigated. • Recovery failure probability here would be important evidence for expert judgment. - Abstract: It is well known that probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) today consider not just hardware failures and environmental events that can impact upon risk, but also human error contributions. Consequently, the focus on reliability and performance management has been on the prevention of human errors and failures rather than the recovery of human errors. However, the recovery of human errors is as important as the prevention of human errors and failures for the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For this reason, many researchers have tried to find a human recovery process or step. However, modeling the human recovery process is not sufficient enough to be applied to human reliability analysis (HRA), which requires human error and recovery probabilities. In this study, therefore, human error recovery failure probabilities based on predefined human error modes were investigated by conducting experiments in the operation mockup of advanced/digital main control rooms (MCRs) in NPPs. To this end, 48 subjects majoring in nuclear engineering participated in the experiments. In the experiments, using the developed accident scenario based on tasks from the standard post trip action (SPTA), the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and predominant soft control tasks, which are derived from the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the excess steam demand event (ESDE), all error detection and recovery data based on human error modes were checked with the performance sheet and the statistical analysis of error recovery/detection was then

  8. Door Hardware and Installations; Carpentry: 901894.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in the selection, preparation, and installation of hardware for door assemblies. The course is divided into five blocks of instruction (introduction to doors and hardware, door hardware, exterior doors and jambs, interior doors and jambs, and a quinmester post-test) totaling…

  9. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  10. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHARA, J.; BROWN, W.; STUBLER, W.; HIGGINS, J.; WACHTEL, J.; PERSENSKY, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ''Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1

  11. Travel Software using GPU Hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Szalwinski, Chris M; Dimov, Veliko Atanasov; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    Travel is the main multi-particle tracking code being used at CERN for the beam dynamics calculations through hadron and ion linear accelerators. It uses two routines for the calculation of space charge forces, namely, rings of charges and point-to-point. This report presents the studies to improve the performance of Travel using GPU hardware. The studies showed that the performance of Travel with the point-to-point simulations of space-charge effects can be speeded up at least 72 times using current GPU hardware. Simple recompilation of the source code using an Intel compiler can improve performance at least 4 times without GPU support. The limited memory of the GPU is the bottleneck. Two algorithms were investigated on this point: repeated computation and tiling. The repeating computation algorithm is simpler and is the currently recommended solution. The tiling algorithm was more complicated and degraded performance. Both build and test instructions for the parallelized version of the software are inclu...

  12. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  13. Reconfigurable Hardware for Compressing Hyperspectral Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Namkung, Jeffrey; Villapando, Carlos; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, Matthew; Xie, Hua

    2010-01-01

    High-speed, low-power, reconfigurable electronic hardware has been developed to implement ICER-3D, an algorithm for compressing hyperspectral-image data. The algorithm and parts thereof have been the topics of several NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images (NPO-43239) and ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software (NPO-43238), which appear elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As described in more detail in those articles, the algorithm includes three main subalgorithms: one for computing wavelet transforms, one for context modeling, and one for entropy encoding. For the purpose of designing the hardware, these subalgorithms are treated as modules to be implemented efficiently in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The design takes advantage of industry- standard, commercially available FPGAs. The implementation targets the Xilinx Virtex II pro architecture, which has embedded PowerPC processor cores with flexible on-chip bus architecture. It incorporates an efficient parallel and pipelined architecture to compress the three-dimensional image data. The design provides for internal buffering to minimize intensive input/output operations while making efficient use of offchip memory. The design is scalable in that the subalgorithms are implemented as independent hardware modules that can be combined in parallel to increase throughput. The on-chip processor manages the overall operation of the compression system, including execution of the top-level control functions as well as scheduling, initiating, and monitoring processes. The design prototype has been demonstrated to be capable of compressing hyperspectral data at a rate of 4.5 megasamples per second at a conservative clock frequency of 50 MHz, with a potential for substantially greater throughput at a higher clock frequency. The power consumption of the prototype is less than 6.5 W. The reconfigurability (by means of reprogramming) of

  14. Human error mode identification for NPP main control room operations using soft controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaewhan; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    The operation environment of main control rooms (MCRs) in modern nuclear power plants (NPPs) has considerably changed over the years. Advanced MCRs, which have been designed by adapting digital and computer technologies, have simpler interfaces using large display panels, computerized displays, soft controls, computerized procedure systems, and so on. The actions for the NPP operations are performed using soft controls in advanced MCRs. Soft controls have different features from conventional controls. Operators need to navigate the screens to find indicators and controls and manipulate controls using a mouse, touch screens, and so on. Due to these different interfaces, different human errors should be considered in the human reliability analysis (HRA) for advanced MCRs. In this work, human errors that could occur during operation executions using soft controls were analyzed. This work classified the human errors in soft controls into six types, and the reasons that affect the occurrence of the human errors were also analyzed. (author)

  15. Hardware Support for Dynamic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; Karlsson, Sven; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, dynamic programming languages have enjoyed increasing popularity. For example, JavaScript has become one of the most popular programming languages on the web. As the complexity of web applications is growing, compute-intensive workloads are increasingly handed off to the client...... side. While a lot of effort is put in increasing the performance of web browsers, we aim for multicore systems with dedicated cores to effectively support dynamic languages. We have designed Tinuso, a highly flexible core for experimentation that is optimized for high performance when implemented...... on FPGA. We composed a scalable multicore configuration where we study how hardware support for software speculation can be used to increase the performance of dynamic languages....

  16. Human as the chief controller in the complex system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeonsub

    2012-01-01

    Due to accuracy of measurement and improvement of control logic, human beings are freed from time consuming and repeated task. When there are situations where the control logic cannot calculate the next state of system, human beings interrupt the system and steer the system manually. The most scope of human factors is focused on this interruption, and economists are concern how to present information cognitively and reliably. Fukushima nuclear accident has considered the role of human beings again. Human beings are forced to do something without proper knowledge, procedure, and process information. Thus post Fukushima actions should include how for human beings to be trained and how to get real time information. Finally because safety culture can determine behaviors of human beings, the method to cultivate safety culture should be considered

  17. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali; Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation

  18. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation.

  19. Human Information Processing and Supervisory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    errors (that is of the output of the human operator). There is growing evidence (Senders, personal communication; Norman , personal communication...relates to the relative tendency to depend on sensory information or to be more analytic and independent. Norman (personal communication) has referred...decision process model. Ergonomics, 12, 543-557. Senders, J., Elkid, J., Grignetti, M., & Smallwood , R. 1966. An investigation of the visual sampling

  20. Visual servo control for a human-following robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents work completed on the design of control and vision components for use in a monocular vision-based human-following robot. The use of vision in a controller feedback loop is referred to as vision-based or visual servo control...

  1. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  2. Plant Modeling for Human Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and its application for design of displays for the supervisory control of industrial plant. The problem of designing the inforrrzatian content of sacpervisory displays is discussed and plant representations like MFM using levels...

  3. CASPER: Embedding Power Estimation and Hardware-Controlled Power Management in a Cycle-Accurate Micro-Architecture Simulation Platform for Many-Core Multi-Threading Heterogeneous Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Ravindran

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promising performance improvement observed in emerging many-core architectures in high performance processors, high power consumption prohibitively affects their use and marketability in the low-energy sectors, such as embedded processors, network processors and application specific instruction processors (ASIPs. While most chip architects design power-efficient processors by finding an optimal power-performance balance in their design, some use sophisticated on-chip autonomous power management units, which dynamically reduce the voltage or frequencies of idle cores and hence extend battery life and reduce operating costs. For large scale designs of many-core processors, a holistic approach integrating both these techniques at different levels of abstraction can potentially achieve maximal power savings. In this paper we present CASPER, a robust instruction trace driven cycle-accurate many-core multi-threading micro-architecture simulation platform where we have incorporated power estimation models of a wide variety of tunable many-core micro-architectural design parameters, thus enabling processor architects to explore a sufficiently large design space and achieve power-efficient designs. Additionally CASPER is designed to accommodate cycle-accurate models of hardware controlled power management units, enabling architects to experiment with and evaluate different autonomous power-saving mechanisms to study the run-time power-performance trade-offs in embedded many-core processors. We have implemented two such techniques in CASPER–Chipwide Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, and Performance Aware Core-Specific Frequency Scaling, which show average power savings of 35.9% and 26.2% on a baseline 4-core SPARC based architecture respectively. This power saving data accounts for the power consumption of the power management units themselves. The CASPER simulation platform also provides users with complete support of SPARCV9

  4. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer: A ... Primary HPV prevention may be the key to reducing incidence and burden of cervical cancer ... Other resources included locally-published articles and additional internet ...

  5. Taking account of human factors in control-room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.

    1995-07-01

    Since the Three Mile Island accident two ways for improving the Human-Machine Interface have mainly been followed: the development of computerized operator aids in existing control-rooms and the design of advanced control-rooms. Insufficient attention paid to human factors in the design of operator aids has generally led to these aids being neglected or unused by their potential users. While for the design of advanced control-rooms efforts have been made for dealing with human factors in more extensive way. Based upon this experience, a general method for taking account of human factors in a control-room design has been devised and is described in this paper. (author)

  6. Constructing Hardware in a Scale Embedded Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-21

    Chisel is a new open-source hardware construction language developed at UC Berkeley that supports advanced hardware design using highly parameterized generators and layered domain-specific hardware languages. Chisel is embedded in the Scala programming language, which raises the level of hardware design abstraction by providing concepts including object orientation, functional programming, parameterized types, and type inference. From the same source, Chisel can generate a high-speed C++-based cycle-accurate software simulator, or low-level Verilog designed to pass on to standard ASIC or FPGA tools for synthesis and place and route.

  7. Open-source hardware for medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezen, Gerrit; Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Thimbleby, Harold

    2016-04-01

    Open-source hardware is hardware whose design is made publicly available so anyone can study, modify, distribute, make and sell the design or the hardware based on that design. Some open-source hardware projects can potentially be used as active medical devices. The open-source approach offers a unique combination of advantages, including reducing costs and faster innovation. This article compares 10 of open-source healthcare projects in terms of how easy it is to obtain the required components and build the device.

  8. Mechanics of human voice production and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-10-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed.

  9. Hardware Resource Allocation for Hardware/Software Partitioning in the LYCOS System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    as a designer's/design tool's aid to generate good hardware allocations for use in hardware/software partitioning. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool under the LYCOS system. The results show that the allocations produced by the algorithm come close to the best allocations obtained by exhaustive search.......This paper presents a novel hardware resource allocation technique for hardware/software partitioning. It allocates hardware resources to the hardware data-path using information such as data-dependencies between operations in the application, and profiling information. The algorithm is useful...

  10. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume 2. Human factors survey of control room design practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1979-11-01

    An earlier review of the control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading operator performance. As a result, the formal application of human factors principles was found to be needed. This report demonstrates the use of human factors in the design of power plant control rooms. The approaches shown in the report can be applied to operating power plants, as well as to those in the design stage. This study documents human factors techniques required to provide a sustained concern for the man-machine interface from control room concept definition to system implementation

  11. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  12. Modular control of limb movements during human locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Cappellini, Germana; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The idea that the CNS may control complex interactions by modular decomposition has received considerable attention. We explored this idea for human locomotion by examining limb kinematics. The coordination of limb segments during human locomotion has been shown to follow a planar law for walking at

  13. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  14. Carbonate fuel cell endurance: Hardware corrosion and electrolyte management status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

    1993-01-01

    Endurance tests of carbonate fuel cell stacks (up to 10,000 hours) have shown that hardware corrosion and electrolyte losses can be reasonably controlled by proper material selection and cell design. Corrosion of stainless steel current collector hardware, nickel clad bipolar plate and aluminized wet seal show rates within acceptable limits. Electrolyte loss rate to current collector surface has been minimized by reducing exposed current collector surface area. Electrolyte evaporation loss appears tolerable. Electrolyte redistribution has been restrained by proper design of manifold seals.

  15. Carbonate fuel cell endurance: Hardware corrosion and electrolyte management status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

    1993-05-01

    Endurance tests of carbonate fuel cell stacks (up to 10,000 hours) have shown that hardware corrosion and electrolyte losses can be reasonably controlled by proper material selection and cell design. Corrosion of stainless steel current collector hardware, nickel clad bipolar plate and aluminized wet seal show rates within acceptable limits. Electrolyte loss rate to current collector surface has been minimized by reducing exposed current collector surface area. Electrolyte evaporation loss appears tolerable. Electrolyte redistribution has been restrained by proper design of manifold seals.

  16. Hardware and software techniques for boiler operation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi (Hirakawa Iron Works, Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted on the requirements for easy-operable boiler from the view points of hardware and software technologies. Relation among efficiency, energy-saving, and economics, and control of total emission regarding low NOx operation, were explained, with suggestion of orientation to developed necessary hard- and soft- ware for the realization. 8 figs.

  17. PACE: A dynamic programming algorithm for hardware/software partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the PACE partitioning algorithm which is used in the LYCOS co-synthesis system for partitioning control/dataflow graphs into hardware and software parts. The algorithm is a dynamic programming algorithm which solves both the problem of minimizing system execution time...

  18. A hardware-software system for the automation of verification and calibration of oil metering units secondary equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarnikov, A. V.; Boyarnikova, L. V.; Kozhushko, A. A.; Sekachev, A. F.

    2017-08-01

    In the article the process of verification (calibration) of oil metering units secondary equipment is considered. The purpose of the work is to increase the reliability and reduce the complexity of this process by developing a software and hardware system that provides automated verification and calibration. The hardware part of this complex carries out the commutation of the measuring channels of the verified controller and the reference channels of the calibrator in accordance with the introduced algorithm. The developed software allows controlling the commutation of channels, setting values on the calibrator, reading the measured data from the controller, calculating errors and compiling protocols. This system can be used for checking the controllers of the secondary equipment of the oil metering units in the automatic verification mode (with the open communication protocol) or in the semi-automatic verification mode (without it). The peculiar feature of the approach used is the development of a universal signal switch operating under software control, which can be configured for various verification methods (calibration), which allows to cover the entire range of controllers of metering units secondary equipment. The use of automatic verification with the help of a hardware and software system allows to shorten the verification time by 5-10 times and to increase the reliability of measurements, excluding the influence of the human factor.

  19. Hardware upgrade for A2 data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrick, Michael; Gradl, Wolfgang; Otte, Peter-Bernd; Neiser, Andreas; Steffen, Oliver; Wolfes, Martin; Koerner, Tito [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The A2 Collaboration uses an energy tagged photon beam which is produced via bremsstrahlung off the MAMI electron beam. The detector system consists of Crystal Ball and TAPS and covers almost the whole solid angle. A frozen-spin polarized target allows to perform high precision measurements of polarization observables in meson photo-production. During the last summer, a major upgrade of the data acquisition system was performed, both on the hardware and the software side. The goal of this upgrade was increased reliability of the system and an improvement in the data rate to disk. By doubling the number of readout CPUs and employing special VME crates with a split backplane, the number of bus accesses per readout cycle and crate was cut by a factor of two, giving almost a factor of two gain in the readout rate. In the course of the upgrade, we also switched most of the detector control system to using the distributed control system EPICS. For the upgraded control system, some new tools were developed to make full use of the capabilities of this decentralised slow control and monitoring system. The poster presents some of the major contributions to this project.

  20. Hardware and software maintenance strategies for upgrading vintage computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.C.; Buijs, W.J.; Banting, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper focuses on the maintenance of the computer hardware and software for digital control computers (DCC). Specific design and problems related to various maintenance strategies are reviewed. A foundation was required for a reliable computer maintenance and upgrading program to provide operation of the DCC with high availability and reliability for 40 years. This involved a carefully planned and executed maintenance and upgrading program, involving complementary hardware and software strategies. The computer system was designed on a modular basis, with large sections easily replaceable, to facilitate maintenance and improve availability of the system. Advances in computer hardware have made it possible to replace DCC peripheral devices with reliable, inexpensive, and widely available components from PC-based systems (PC = personal computer). By providing a high speed link from the DCC to a PC, it is now possible to use many commercial software packages to process data from the plant. 1 fig

  1. Plutonium Protection System (PPS). Volume 2. Hardware description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, D.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Plutonium Protection System (PPS) is an integrated safeguards system developed by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security. The system is designed to demonstrate and test concepts for the improved safeguarding of plutonium. Volume 2 of the PPS final report describes the hardware elements of the system. The major areas containing hardware elements are the vault, where plutonium is stored, the packaging room, where plutonium is packaged into Container Modules, the Security Operations Center, which controls movement of personnel, the Material Accountability Center, which maintains the system data base, and the Material Operations Center, which monitors the operating procedures in the system. References are made to documents in which details of the hardware items can be found

  2. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yuan; Huang Ji-Ping

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  3. Statistical physics of human beings in games: Controlled experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2014-07-01

    It is important to know whether the laws or phenomena in statistical physics for natural systems with non-adaptive agents still hold for social human systems with adaptive agents, because this implies whether it is possible to study or understand social human systems by using statistical physics originating from natural systems. For this purpose, we review the role of human adaptability in four kinds of specific human behaviors, namely, normal behavior, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, and hedge behavior. The approach is based on controlled experiments in the framework of market-directed resource-allocation games. The role of the controlled experiments could be at least two-fold: adopting the real human decision-making process so that the system under consideration could reflect the performance of genuine human beings; making it possible to obtain macroscopic physical properties of a human system by tuning a particular factor of the system, thus directly revealing cause and effect. As a result, both computer simulations and theoretical analyses help to show a few counterparts of some laws or phenomena in statistical physics for social human systems: two-phase phenomena or phase transitions, entropy-related phenomena, and a non-equilibrium steady state. This review highlights the role of human adaptability in these counterparts, and makes it possible to study or understand some particular social human systems by means of statistical physics coming from natural systems.

  4. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Neichitailo, G. S.; Mashinski, A. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  6. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system

  7. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I ampersand C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I ampersand C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I ampersand C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab

  8. Human machine interface for research reactor instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sabri Minhat; Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha

    2010-01-01

    Most present design of Human Machine Interface for Research Reactor Instrumentation and Control System is modular-based, comprise of several cabinets such as Reactor Protection System, Control Console, Information Console as well as Communication Console. The safety, engineering and human factor will be concerned for the design. Redundancy and separation of signal and power supply are the main factor for safety consideration. The design of Operator Interface absolutely takes consideration of human and environmental factors. Physical parameters, experiences, trainability and long-established habit patterns are very important for user interface, instead of the Aesthetic and Operator-Interface Geometry. Physical design for New Instrumentation and Control System of RTP are proposed base on the state-of- the-art Human Machine Interface design. (author)

  9. Computer hardware description languages - A tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces hardware description languages (HDL) as useful tools for hardware design and documentation. The capabilities and limitations of HDLs are discussed along with the guidelines needed in selecting an appropriate HDL. The directions for future work are provided and attention is given to the implementation of HDLs in microcomputers.

  10. An evaluation of Skylab habitability hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, J.

    1974-01-01

    For effective mission performance, participants in space missions lasting 30-60 days or longer must be provided with hardware to accommodate their personal needs. Such habitability hardware was provided on Skylab. Equipment defined as habitability hardware was that equipment composing the food system, water system, sleep system, waste management system, personal hygiene system, trash management system, and entertainment equipment. Equipment not specifically defined as habitability hardware but which served that function were the Wardroom window, the exercise equipment, and the intercom system, which was occasionally used for private communications. All Skylab habitability hardware generally functioned as intended for the three missions, and most items could be considered as adequate concepts for future flights of similar duration. Specific components were criticized for their shortcomings.

  11. Comparative Modal Analysis of Sieve Hardware Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    The CMTB Thwacker hardware operates as a testbed analogue for the Flight Thwacker and Sieve components of CHIMRA, a device on the Curiosity Rover. The sieve separates particles with a diameter smaller than 150 microns for delivery to onboard science instruments. The sieving behavior of the testbed hardware should be similar to the Flight hardware for the results to be meaningful. The elastodynamic behavior of both sieves was studied analytically using the Rayleigh Ritz method in conjunction with classical plate theory. Finite element models were used to determine the mode shapes of both designs, and comparisons between the natural frequencies and mode shapes were made. The analysis predicts that the performance of the CMTB Thwacker will closely resemble the performance of the Flight Thwacker within the expected steady state operating regime. Excitations of the testbed hardware that will mimic the flight hardware were recommended, as were those that will improve the efficiency of the sieving process.

  12. Control room design and human engineering in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1982-01-01

    The concept for modern plant control rooms is primary influenced by: The automation of protection, binary control and closed loop control functions; organization employing functional areas; computer based information processing; human engineered design. Automation reduces the human work load. Employment of functional areas permits optimization of operational sequences. Computer based information processing makes it possible to output information in accordance with operating requirements. Design based on human engineering principles assures the quality of the interaction between the operator and the equipment. The degree to which these conceptional features play a role in design of power plant control rooms depends on the unit rating, the mode of operation and on the requirements respecting safety and availability of the plant. (orig.)

  13. Human performance: An essential element in materials control and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Allentuck, J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of the role of human performance in the successful and effective operation of many activities throughout many industries has been well documented. Most closely related to the materials control and accountability area is the work in human factors that has been ongoing in the U.S. nuclear industry since the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1979. Research related to the role of human reliability, human-system interface, and organization and management influences has been and is still being conducted to identify ways to enhance the safe and effective operation of nuclear facilities. This paper will discuss these human performance areas and how they relate to the materials control and accountability area. Particular attention will be focussed on the notion of open-quotes safety cultureclose quotes and how it can be defined and measured for understanding the values and attitudes held by individuals working in the materials control area. It is widely believed that the culture of an organization, which reflects the expectations and values of the management of an organization, is a key element to the operation of that organization. The human performance element is one which has not received a great deal of consideration in the materials control and accountability area and yet it will be demonstrated that it is an essential component to ensure the success of safeguards activities

  14. CT image reconstruction system based on hardware implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hamilton P. da; Evseev, Ivan; Schelin, Hugo R.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Milhoretto, Edney; Setti, Joao A.P.; Zibetti, Marcelo; Hormaza, Joel M.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The timing factor is very important for medical imaging systems, which can nowadays be synchronized by vital human signals, like heartbeats or breath. The use of hardware implemented devices in such a system has advantages considering the high speed of information treatment combined with arbitrary low cost on the market. This article refers to a hardware system which is based on electronic programmable logic called FPGA, model Cyclone II from ALTERA Corporation. The hardware was implemented on the UP3 ALTERA Kit. A partially connected neural network with unitary weights was programmed. The system was tested with 60 topographic projections, 100 points in each, of the Shepp and Logan phantom created by MATLAB. The main restriction was found to be the memory size available on the device: the dynamic range of reconstructed image was limited to 0 65535. Also, the normalization factor must be observed in order to do not saturate the image during the reconstruction and filtering process. The test shows a principal possibility to build CT image reconstruction systems for any reasonable amount of input data by arranging the parallel work of the hardware units like we have tested. However, further studies are necessary for better understanding of the error propagation from topographic projections to reconstructed image within the implemented method. (author)

  15. Control room human engineering influences on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, F.C.

    1977-01-01

    Three general groups of factors influence operator performance in fulfilling their responsibilities in the control room: (1) control room and control system design, informational data displays (operator inputs) as well as control board design (for operator output); (2) operator characteristics, including those skills, mental, physical, and emotional qualities which are functions of operator selection, training, and motivation; (3) job performance guides, the prescribed operating procedures for normal and emergency operations. This paper presents some of the major results of an evaluation of the effect of human engineering on operator performance in the control room. Primary attention is given to discussion of control room and control system design influence on the operator. Brief observations on the influences of operator characteristics and job performance guides (operating procedures) on performance in the control room are also given. Under the objectives of the study, special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of the control room-operator relationships for severe emergency conditions in the power plant. Consequently, this presentation is restricted largely to material related to emergency conditions in the control room, though it is recognized that human engineering of control systems is of equal (or greater) importance for many other aspects of plant operation

  16. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  17. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2010-01-01

    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  18. Everyday robotic action: Lessons from human action control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eDe Kleijn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally-extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  19. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  20. Sensing human hand motions for controlling dexterous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth A.; Churchill, Philip J.; Little, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dexterous Hand Master (DHM) system is designed to control dexterous robot hands such as the UTAH/MIT and Stanford/JPL hands. It is the first commercially available device which makes it possible to accurately and confortably track the complex motion of the human finger joints. The DHM is adaptable to a wide variety of human hand sizes and shapes, throughout their full range of motion.

  1. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  2. Transmission delays in hardware clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Ramanathan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Various methods, both with software and hardware, have been proposed to synchronize a set of physical clocks in a system. Software methods are very flexible and economical but suffer an excessive time overhead, whereas hardware methods require no time overhead but are unable to handle transmission delays in clock signals. The effects of nonzero transmission delays in synchronization have been studied extensively in the communication area in the absence of malicious or Byzantine faults. The authors show that it is easy to incorporate the ideas from the communication area into the existing hardware clock synchronization algorithms to take into account the presence of both malicious faults and nonzero transmission delays.

  3. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  4. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix

  5. Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTC has a suite of Hardware-in-the Loop facilities that include three operational facilities that provide performance assessment and production acceptance testing of...

  6. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  7. Implementation of Hardware Accelerators on Zynq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Jakob Kenn

    of the ARM Cortex-9 processor featured on the Zynq SoC, with regard to execution time, power dissipation and energy consumption. The implementation of the hardware accelerators were successful. Use of the Monte Carlo processor resulted in a significant increase in performance. The Telco hardware accelerator......In the recent years it has become obvious that the performance of general purpose processors are having trouble meeting the requirements of high performance computing applications of today. This is partly due to the relatively high power consumption, compared to the performance, of general purpose...... processors, which has made hardware accelerators an essential part of several datacentres and the worlds fastest super-computers. In this work, two different hardware accelerators were implemented on a Xilinx Zynq SoC platform mounted on the ZedBoard platform. The two accelerators are based on two different...

  8. Hardware realization of an SVM algorithm implemented in FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Bazydło, Grzegorz; Szcześniak, Paweł

    2017-08-01

    The paper proposes a technique of hardware realization of a space vector modulation (SVM) of state function switching in matrix converter (MC), oriented on the implementation in a single field programmable gate array (FPGA). In MC the SVM method is based on the instantaneous space-vector representation of input currents and output voltages. The traditional computation algorithms usually involve digital signal processors (DSPs) which consumes the large number of power transistors (18 transistors and 18 independent PWM outputs) and "non-standard positions of control pulses" during the switching sequence. Recently, hardware implementations become popular since computed operations may be executed much faster and efficient due to nature of the digital devices (especially concurrency). In the paper, we propose a hardware algorithm of SVM computation. In opposite to the existing techniques, the presented solution applies COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) method to solve the trigonometric operations. Furthermore, adequate arithmetic modules (that is, sub-devices) used for intermediate calculations, such as code converters or proper sectors selectors (for output voltages and input current) are presented in detail. The proposed technique has been implemented as a design described with the use of Verilog hardware description language. The preliminary results of logic implementation oriented on the Xilinx FPGA (particularly, low-cost device from Artix-7 family from Xilinx was used) are also presented.

  9. Hardware Approach for Real Time Machine Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tornow

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Image processing is an effective tool for the analysis of optical sensor information for driver assistance systems and controlling of autonomous robots. Algorithms for image processing are often very complex and costly in terms of computation. In robotics and driver assistance systems, real-time processing is necessary. Signal processing algorithms must often be drastically modified so they can be implemented in the hardware. This task is especially difficult for continuous real-time processing at high speeds. This article describes a hardware-software co-design for a multi-object position sensor based on a stereophotogrammetric measuring method. In order to cover a large measuring area, an optimized algorithm based on an image pyramid is implemented in an FPGA as a parallel hardware solution for depth map calculation. Object recognition and tracking are then executed in real-time in a processor with help of software. For this task a statistical cluster method is used. Stabilization of the tracking is realized through use of a Kalman filter. Keywords: stereophotogrammetry, hardware-software co-design, FPGA, 3-d image analysis, real-time, clustering and tracking.

  10. Cooperative communications hardware, channel and PHY

    CERN Document Server

    Dohler, Mischa

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating Cooperation for Wireless Systems Cooperative Communications: Hardware, Channel & PHY focuses on issues pertaining to the PHY layer of wireless communication networks, offering a rigorous taxonomy of this dispersed field, along with a range of application scenarios for cooperative and distributed schemes, demonstrating how these techniques can be employed. The authors discuss hardware, complexity and power consumption issues, which are vital for understanding what can be realized at the PHY layer, showing how wireless channel models differ from more traditional

  11. Designing Secure Systems on Reconfigurable Hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Huffmire, Ted; Brotherton, Brett; Callegari, Nick; Valamehr, Jonathan; White, Jeff; Kastner, Ryan; Sherwood, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The extremely high cost of custom ASIC fabrication makes FPGAs an attractive alternative for deployment of custom hardware. Embedded systems based on reconfigurable hardware integrate many functions onto a single device. Since embedded designers often have no choice but to use soft IP cores obtained from third parties, the cores operate at different trust levels, resulting in mixed trust designs. The goal of this project is to evaluate recently proposed security primitives for reconfigurab...

  12. IDD Archival Hardware Architecture and Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonsa, D; Nekoogar, F; Martz, H

    2008-10-09

    This document describes the functionality of every component in the DHS/IDD archival and storage hardware system shown in Fig. 1. The document describes steps by step process of image data being received at LLNL then being processed and made available to authorized personnel and collaborators. Throughout this document references will be made to one of two figures, Fig. 1 describing the elements of the architecture and the Fig. 2 describing the workflow and how the project utilizes the available hardware.

  13. Randomized controlled trials for influenza drugs and vaccines: a review of controlled human infection studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobana Balasingam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Controlled human infection studies are an important research tool in assessing promising influenza vaccines and antivirals. These studies are performed quickly and are cost-effective and safe, with a low incidence of serious adverse events.

  14. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  15. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  16. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms

  17. Magnetic qubits as hardware for quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, J.; Chudnovsky, E.; Barco, E. del

    2000-01-01

    We propose two potential realisations for quantum bits based on nanometre scale magnetic particles of large spin S and high anisotropy molecular clusters. In case (1) the bit-value basis states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1> are the ground and first excited spin states S z = S and S-1, separated by an energy gap given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. In case (2), when there is significant tunnelling through the anisotropy barrier, the qubit states correspond to the symmetric, vertical bar-0>, and antisymmetric, vertical bar-1>, combinations of the two-fold degenerate ground state S z = ± S. In each case the temperature of operation must be low compared to the energy gap, Δ, between the states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1>. The gap Δ in case (2) can be controlled with an external magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis of the molecular cluster. The states of different molecular clusters and magnetic particles may be entangled by connecting them by superconducting lines with Josephson switches, leading to the potential for quantum computing hardware. (author)

  18. Magnetic qubits as hardware for quantum computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejada, J.; Chudnovsky, E.; Barco, E. del [and others

    2000-07-01

    We propose two potential realisations for quantum bits based on nanometre scale magnetic particles of large spin S and high anisotropy molecular clusters. In case (1) the bit-value basis states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1> are the ground and first excited spin states S{sub z} = S and S-1, separated by an energy gap given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. In case (2), when there is significant tunnelling through the anisotropy barrier, the qubit states correspond to the symmetric, vertical bar-0>, and antisymmetric, vertical bar-1>, combinations of the two-fold degenerate ground state S{sub z} = {+-} S. In each case the temperature of operation must be low compared to the energy gap, {delta}, between the states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1>. The gap {delta} in case (2) can be controlled with an external magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis of the molecular cluster. The states of different molecular clusters and magnetic particles may be entangled by connecting them by superconducting lines with Josephson switches, leading to the potential for quantum computing hardware. (author)

  19. Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Kretly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new approach with details on the integrated platform and hardware architecture for nanorobots application in epidemic control, which should enable real time in vivo prognosis of biohazard infection. The recent developments in the field of nanoelectronics, with transducers progressively shrinking down to smaller sizes through nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, are expected to result in innovative biomedical instrumentation possibilities, with new therapies and efficient diagnosis methodologies. The use of integrated systems, smart biosensors, and programmable nanodevices are advancing nanoelectronics, enabling the progressive research and development of molecular machines. It should provide high precision pervasive biomedical monitoring with real time data transmission. The use of nanobioelectronics as embedded systems is the natural pathway towards manufacturing methodology to achieve nanorobot applications out of laboratories sooner as possible. To demonstrate the practical application of medical nanorobotics, a 3D simulation based on clinical data addresses how to integrate communication with nanorobots using RFID, mobile phones, and satellites, applied to long distance ubiquitous surveillance and health monitoring for troops in conflict zones. Therefore, the current model can also be used to prevent and save a population against the case of some targeted epidemic disease.

  20. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary session; Advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software; Human factors research; IPE and PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24--26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary session; Advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software; Human factors research; IPE and PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24--26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  2. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone controls mitochondrial biology in human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuever, Jana; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Gáspár, Erzsébet; Klinger, Matthias; Hellwig-Burgel, Thomas; Hardenbicker, Celine; Tóth, Balázs I; Bíró, Tamás; Paus, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondrial capacity and metabolic potential are under the control of hormones, such as thyroid hormones. The most proximal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, TRH, is the key hypothalamic integrator of energy metabolism via its impact on thyroid hormone secretion. Here, we asked whether TRH directly modulates mitochondrial functions in normal, TRH-receptor-positive human epidermis. Organ-cultured human skin was treated with TRH (5-100 ng/ml) for 12-48 h. TRH significantly increased epidermal immunoreactivity for the mitochondria-selective subunit I of respiratory chain complex IV (MTCO1). This resulted from an increased MTCO1 transcription and protein synthesis and a stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and TRH-enhanced mitochondrial DNA synthesis. TRH also significantly stimulated the transcription of several other mitochondrial key genes (TFAM, HSP60, and BMAL1), including the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α). TRH significantly enhanced mitochondrial complex I and IV enzyme activity and enhanced the oxygen consumption of human skin samples, which shows that the stimulated mitochondria are fully vital because the main source for cellular oxygen consumption is mitochondrial endoxidation. These findings identify TRH as a potent, novel neuroendocrine stimulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis in human epidermal keratinocytes in situ. Thus, human epidermis offers an excellent model for dissecting neuroendocrine controls of human mitochondrial biology under physiologically relevant conditions and for exploring corresponding clinical applications.

  3. Meaningful Human Control over Autonomous Systems: A Philosophical Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Santoni de Sio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Debates on lethal autonomous weapon systems have proliferated in the past 5 years. Ethical concerns have been voiced about a possible raise in the number of wrongs and crimes in military operations and about the creation of a “responsibility gap” for harms caused by these systems. To address these concerns, the principle of “meaningful human control” has been introduced in the legal–political debate; according to this principle, humans not computers and their algorithms should ultimately remain in control of, and thus morally responsible for, relevant decisions about (lethal military operations. However, policy-makers and technical designers lack a detailed theory of what “meaningful human control” exactly means. In this paper, we lay the foundation of a philosophical account of meaningful human control, based on the concept of “guidance control” as elaborated in the philosophical debate on free will and moral responsibility. Following the ideals of “Responsible Innovation” and “Value-sensitive Design,” our account of meaningful human control is cast in the form of design requirements. We identify two general necessary conditions to be satisfied for an autonomous system to remain under meaningful human control: first, a “tracking” condition, according to which the system should be able to respond to both the relevant moral reasons of the humans designing and deploying the system and the relevant facts in the environment in which the system operates; second, a “tracing” condition, according to which the system should be designed in such a way as to grant the possibility to always trace back the outcome of its operations to at least one human along the chain of design and operation. As we think that meaningful human control can be one of the central notions in ethics of robotics and AI, in the last part of the paper, we start exploring the implications of our account for the design and use of non

  4. Software for Managing Inventory of Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, John; Savage, Scott; Thomas, Shirman

    2003-01-01

    The Flight Hardware Support Request System (FHSRS) is a computer program that relieves engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of most of the non-engineering administrative burden of managing an inventory of flight hardware. The FHSRS can also be adapted to perform similar functions for other organizations. The FHSRS affords a combination of capabilities, including those formerly provided by three separate programs in purchasing, inventorying, and inspecting hardware. The FHSRS provides a Web-based interface with a server computer that supports a relational database of inventory; electronic routing of requests and approvals; and electronic documentation from initial request through implementation of quality criteria, acquisition, receipt, inspection, storage, and final issue of flight materials and components. The database lists both hardware acquired for current projects and residual hardware from previous projects. The increased visibility of residual flight components provided by the FHSRS has dramatically improved the re-utilization of materials in lieu of new procurements, resulting in a cost savings of over $1.7 million. The FHSRS includes subprograms for manipulating the data in the database, informing of the status of a request or an item of hardware, and searching the database on any physical or other technical characteristic of a component or material. The software structure forces normalization of the data to facilitate inquiries and searches for which users have entered mixed or inconsistent values.

  5. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  6. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hag Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who are in charge of internal control-related tasks (IC personnel from 2005 to 2008. We find that the number of IC personnel within a firm and several key departments increase with firm size, number of employees, complexity and for Chaebols, and decrease in rapidly growing firms. Additional analysis reveals that the factors influencing internal control systems have an accentuated effect on firms with relatively larger firm size.

  7. Human-Machine Systems concepts applied to Control Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Marangé , Pascale; Gellot , François; Riera , Bernard

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we interest us to Human-Machine Systems (HMS) concepts applied to Education. It is shown how the HMS framework enables to propose original solution in matter of education in the field of control engineering. We focus on practical courses on control of manufacturing systems. The proposed solution is based on an original use of real and large-scale systems instead of simulation. The main idea is to enable the student, whatever his/her level to control the ...

  8. When soft controls get slippery: User interfaces and human error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many types of products and systems that have traditionally featured physical control devices are now being designed with soft controls--input formats appearing on computer-based display devices and operated by a variety of input devices. A review of complex human-machine systems found that soft controls are particularly prone to some types of errors and may affect overall system performance and safety. This paper discusses the application of design approaches for reducing the likelihood of these errors and for enhancing usability, user satisfaction, and system performance and safety

  9. Binary Associative Memories as a Benchmark for Spiking Neuromorphic Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stöckel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale neuromorphic hardware platforms, specialized computer systems for energy efficient simulation of spiking neural networks, are being developed around the world, for example as part of the European Human Brain Project (HBP. Due to conceptual differences, a universal performance analysis of these systems in terms of runtime, accuracy and energy efficiency is non-trivial, yet indispensable for further hard- and software development. In this paper we describe a scalable benchmark based on a spiking neural network implementation of the binary neural associative memory. We treat neuromorphic hardware and software simulators as black-boxes and execute exactly the same network description across all devices. Experiments on the HBP platforms under varying configurations of the associative memory show that the presented method allows to test the quality of the neuron model implementation, and to explain significant deviations from the expected reference output.

  10. Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2016-03-01

    Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies.

  11. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  12. Parallel-Architecture Simulator Development Using Hardware Transactional Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Armejach Sanosa, Adrià

    2009-01-01

    To address the need for a simpler parallel programming model, Transactional Memory (TM) has been developed and promises good parallel performance with easy-to-write parallel code. Unlike lock-based approaches, with TM, programmers do not need to explicitly specify and manage the synchronization among threads. However, programmers simply mark code segments as transactions, and the TM system manages the concurrency control for them. TM can be implemented either in software (STM) or hardware (HT...

  13. VEG-01: Veggie Hardware Verification Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gary; Hummerick, Mary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The Veggie plant/vegetable production system is scheduled to fly on ISS at the end of2013. Since much of the technology associated with Veggie has not been previously tested in microgravity, a hardware validation flight was initiated. This test will allow data to be collected about Veggie hardware functionality on ISS, allow crew interactions to be vetted for future improvements, validate the ability of the hardware to grow and sustain plants, and collect data that will be helpful to future Veggie investigators as they develop their payloads. Additionally, food safety data on the lettuce plants grown will be collected to help support the development of a pathway for the crew to safely consume produce grown on orbit. Significant background research has been performed on the Veggie plant growth system, with early tests focusing on the development of the rooting pillow concept, and the selection of fertilizer, rooting medium and plant species. More recent testing has been conducted to integrate the pillow concept into the Veggie hardware and to ensure that adequate water is provided throughout the growth cycle. Seed sanitation protocols have been established for flight, and hardware sanitation between experiments has been studied. Methods for shipping and storage of rooting pillows and the development of crew procedures and crew training videos for plant activities on-orbit have been established. Science verification testing was conducted and lettuce plants were successfully grown in prototype Veggie hardware, microbial samples were taken, plant were harvested, frozen, stored and later analyzed for microbial growth, nutrients, and A TP levels. An additional verification test, prior to the final payload verification testing, is desired to demonstrate similar growth in the flight hardware and also to test a second set of pillows containing zinnia seeds. Issues with root mat water supply are being resolved, with final testing and flight scheduled for later in 2013.

  14. From Open Source Software to Open Source Hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Viseur , Robert

    2012-01-01

    Part 2: Lightning Talks; International audience; The open source software principles progressively give rise to new initiatives for culture (free culture), data (open data) or hardware (open hardware). The open hardware is experiencing a significant growth but the business models and legal aspects are not well known. This paper is dedicated to the economics of open hardware. We define the open hardware concept and determine intellectual property tools we can apply to open hardware, with a str...

  15. Control room design and human engineering in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    Automation reduces the human work load. Employment of functional areas permits optimization of operational sequences. Computer based information processing makes it possible to output information in accordance with operating requirements. Design based on human engineering principles assures the quality of the interaction between the operator and the equipment. The degree to which these conceptional features play a role in design of power plant control rooms depends on the unit rating, the mode of operation and on the requirements respecting safety and availability of the plant. (orig./RW)

  16. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...... to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... by muscle contraction to vasodilatory signals in the local vascular bed remains an important area of study....

  17. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  18. Reflex control of robotic gait using human walking data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Macleod

    Full Text Available Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation.

  19. Flight Hardware Virtualization for On-Board Science Data Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize Hardware Virtualization technology to benefit on-board science data processing by investigating new real time embedded Hardware Virtualization solutions and...

  20. New human-centered linear and nonlinear motion cueing algorithms for control of simulator motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telban, Robert J.

    While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. To address this, new human-centered motion cueing algorithms were developed. A revised "optimal algorithm" uses time-invariant filters developed by optimal control, incorporating human vestibular system models. The "nonlinear algorithm" is a novel approach that is also formulated by optimal control, but can also be updated in real time. It incorporates a new integrated visual-vestibular perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. A time-varying control law requires the matrix Riccati equation to be solved in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. As a result of unsatisfactory sensation, an augmented turbulence cue was added to the vertical mode for both the optimal and nonlinear algorithms. The relative effectiveness of the algorithms, in simulating aircraft maneuvers, was assessed with an eleven-subject piloted performance test conducted on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). Two methods, the quasi-objective NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and power spectral density analysis of pilot control, were used to assess pilot workload. TLX analysis reveals, in most cases, less workload and variation among pilots with the nonlinear algorithm. Control input

  1. Non-fuel bearing hardware melting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Battelle has developed a portable hardware melter concept that would allow spent fuel rod consolidation operations at commercial nuclear power plants to provide significantly more storage space for other spent fuel assemblies in existing pool racks at lower cost. Using low pressure compaction, the non-fuel bearing hardware (NFBH) left over from the removal of spent fuel rods from the stainless steel end fittings and the Zircaloy guide tubes and grid spacers still occupies 1/3 to 2/5 of the volume of the consolidated fuel rod assemblies. Melting the non-fuel bearing hardware reduces its volume by a factor 4 from that achievable with low-pressure compaction. This paper describes: (1) the configuration and design features of Battelle's hardware melter system that permit its portability, (2) the system's throughput capacity, (3) the bases for capital and operating estimates, and (4) the status of NFBH melter demonstration to reduce technical risks for implementation of the concept. Since all NFBH handling and processing operations would be conducted at the reactor site, costs for shipping radioactive hardware to and from a stationary processing facility for volume reduction are avoided. Initial licensing, testing, and installation in the field would follow the successful pattern achieved with rod consolidation technology

  2. Hardware architecture design of image restoration based on time-frequency domain computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Jiao, Zipeng

    2013-10-01

    The image restoration algorithms based on time-frequency domain computation is high maturity and applied widely in engineering. To solve the high-speed implementation of these algorithms, the TFDC hardware architecture is proposed. Firstly, the main module is designed, by analyzing the common processing and numerical calculation. Then, to improve the commonality, the iteration control module is planed for iterative algorithms. In addition, to reduce the computational cost and memory requirements, the necessary optimizations are suggested for the time-consuming module, which include two-dimensional FFT/IFFT and the plural calculation. Eventually, the TFDC hardware architecture is adopted for hardware design of real-time image restoration system. The result proves that, the TFDC hardware architecture and its optimizations can be applied to image restoration algorithms based on TFDC, with good algorithm commonality, hardware realizability and high efficiency.

  3. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  4. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung...... function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions.......0007), “irritative body perceptions” (p = 0.0127), “psychological/neurological effects” (p = 0.0075) and “weak inflammatory responses” (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating...

  5. Identification of the unstable human postural control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjae eHwang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining upright bipedal posture requires a control system that continually adapts to changing environmental conditions, such as different support surfaces. Behavioral changes associated with different support surfaces, such as the predominance of an ankle or hip strategy, is considered to reflect a change in the control strategy. However, tracing such behavioral changes to a specific component in a closed loop control system is challenging. Here we used the joint input-output (JIO method of closed-loop system identification to identify the musculoskeletal and neural feedback components of the human postural control loop. The goal was to establish changes in the control loop corresponding to behavioral changes observed on different support surfaces. Subjects were simultaneously perturbed by two independent mechanical and two independent sensory perturbations while standing on a normal or short support surface. The results show a dramatic phase reversal between visual input and body kinematics due to the change in surface condition from trunk leads legs to legs lead trunk with increasing frequency of the visual perturbation. Through decomposition of the control loop, we found that behavioral change is not necessarily due to a change in control strategy, but in the case of different support surfaces, is linked to changes in properties of the plant. The JIO method is an important tool to identify the contribution of specific components within a closed loop control system to overall postural behavior and may be useful to devise better treatment of balance disorders.

  6. A Hardware Abstraction Layer in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Korsholm, Stephan; Kalibera, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Embedded systems use specialized hardware devices to interact with their environment, and since they have to be dependable, it is attractive to use a modern, type-safe programming language like Java to develop programs for them. Standard Java, as a platform-independent language, delegates access...... to devices, direct memory access, and interrupt handling to some underlying operating system or kernel, but in the embedded systems domain resources are scarce and a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) without an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. The contribution of this article is a proposal...... for Java packages with hardware objects and interrupt handlers that interface to such a JVM. We provide implementations of the proposal directly in hardware, as extensions of standard interpreters, and finally with an operating system middleware. The latter solution is mainly seen as a migration path...

  7. Hardware Acceleration of Adaptive Neural Algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Conrad D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    As tradit ional numerical computing has faced challenges, researchers have turned towards alternative computing approaches to reduce power - per - computation metrics and improve algorithm performance. Here, we describe an approach towards non - conventional computing that strengthens the connection between machine learning and neuroscience concepts. The Hardware Acceleration of Adaptive Neural Algorithms (HAANA) project ha s develop ed neural machine learning algorithms and hardware for applications in image processing and cybersecurity. While machine learning methods are effective at extracting relevant features from many types of data, the effectiveness of these algorithms degrades when subjected to real - world conditions. Our team has generated novel neural - inspired approa ches to improve the resiliency and adaptability of machine learning algorithms. In addition, we have also designed and fabricated hardware architectures and microelectronic devices specifically tuned towards the training and inference operations of neural - inspired algorithms. Finally, our multi - scale simulation framework allows us to assess the impact of microelectronic device properties on algorithm performance.

  8. Human factors in aviation: Terminal control area boundary conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monan, William P.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air conflicts in the vicinity of Terminal Control Area (TCA) boundaries were studied to obtain a better understanding of the causal dynamics of these events with particular focus on human factor issues. The study dataset consisted of 381 Instrument Flight Rules/Visual Flight Rules (IFR/VFR) traffic conflicts in airspace layers above TCA ceiling and below TCA floors; 213 reports of incursions in TCA terminal airspace by VFR aircraft, of which 123 resulted in conflicts; and an additional set of reports describing problems with Air Traffic Control (ATC) services in and around TCAs. Results and conclusions are detailed.

  9. Determination of PBDEs in human milk. Analysis and quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paepke, O.; Herrmann, T. [Ergo Research, Hamburg (Germany); Vieth, B.; Ostermann, B. [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in polymer materials, textiles, electronic boards and various other materials. Technical PBDE preparations are produced as mixtures of mainly penta-, octa- or decabromobiphenyl ethers. PBDEs are structurally similar to other environmental pollutants, such as dioxins and PCBs. They are lipophilic and persistent compounds and widespread in the environment. For certain congeners, bioaccumulation has been observed. Recent findings of increasing levels in humans showed that more detailed investigations of human milk (or other suitable matrices) will be required in order to evaluate the general human exposure to this group of environmental contaminants. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany had been published. To fill the data gaps, in 2001 a controlled study was started to characterize the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. 103 samples were analyzed in this study so far including 10 hidden pool samples provided by Federal Institute for Risk Assessment to ERGO laboratory (total number of samples finally will be 157 (including 14 hidden pool samples)). This paper describes the analytical procedure applied and emphasizes on the quality control procedure.

  10. Studies in the Human Use of Controlled English

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Controlled English (CE) is intended to aid human problem solving processes when analysing data and generating high-value conclusions in collaboration...state of affairs. The second approach is to guide a user face-to-face to formulate free English sentences into CE to solve a logic problem. The paper describes both approaches and provides an informal analysis of the results to date.

  11. Engineering human factors into the Westinghouse advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    By coupling the work of the Riso Laboratory in Denmark on human behaviour with new digital computation and display technology, Westinghouse has developed a totally new control room design. This design features a separate, co-ordinated work station to support the systems management role in decision making, as well as robust alarm and display systems. This coupling of the functional and physical data presentation is now being implemented in test facilities. (author)

  12. Optimized design of embedded DSP system hardware supporting complex algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhua; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhou, Xinling

    2003-09-01

    The paper presents an optimized design method for a flexible and economical embedded DSP system that can implement complex processing algorithms as biometric recognition, real-time image processing, etc. It consists of a floating-point DSP, 512 Kbytes data RAM, 1 Mbytes FLASH program memory, a CPLD for achieving flexible logic control of input channel and a RS-485 transceiver for local network communication. Because of employing a high performance-price ratio DSP TMS320C6712 and a large FLASH in the design, this system permits loading and performing complex algorithms with little algorithm optimization and code reduction. The CPLD provides flexible logic control for the whole DSP board, especially in input channel, and allows convenient interface between different sensors and DSP system. The transceiver circuit can transfer data between DSP and host computer. In the paper, some key technologies are also introduced which make the whole system work efficiently. Because of the characters referred above, the hardware is a perfect flat for multi-channel data collection, image processing, and other signal processing with high performance and adaptability. The application section of this paper presents how this hardware is adapted for the biometric identification system with high identification precision. The result reveals that this hardware is easy to interface with a CMOS imager and is capable of carrying out complex biometric identification algorithms, which require real-time process.

  13. Secure Hardware Performance Analysis in Virtualized Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heng Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main obstacle in mass adoption of cloud computing for database operations is the data security issue. In this paper, it is shown that IT services particularly in hardware performance evaluation in virtual machine can be accomplished effectively without IT personnel gaining access to real data for diagnostic and remediation purposes. The proposed mechanisms utilized TPC-H benchmark to achieve 2 objectives. First, the underlying hardware performance and consistency is supervised via a control system, which is constructed using a combination of TPC-H queries, linear regression, and machine learning techniques. Second, linear programming techniques are employed to provide input to the algorithms that construct stress-testing scenarios in the virtual machine, using the combination of TPC-H queries. These stress-testing scenarios serve 2 purposes. They provide the boundary resource threshold verification to the first control system, so that periodic training of the synthetic data sets for performance evaluation is not constrained by hardware inadequacy, particularly when the resources in the virtual machine are scaled up or down which results in the change of the utilization threshold. Secondly, they provide a platform for response time verification on critical transactions, so that the expected Quality of Service (QoS from these transactions is assured.

  14. Web tools to monitor and debug DAQ hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desavouret, Eugene; Nogiec, Jerzy M.

    2003-01-01

    A web-based toolkit to monitor and diagnose data acquisition hardware has been developed. It allows for remote testing, monitoring, and control of VxWorks data acquisition computers and associated instrumentation using the HTTP protocol and a web browser. This solution provides concurrent and platform independent access, supplementary to the standard single-user rlogin mechanism. The toolkit is based on a specialized web server, and allows remote access and execution of select system commands and tasks, execution of test procedures, and provides remote monitoring of computer system resources and connected hardware. Various DAQ components such as multiplexers, digital I/O boards, analog to digital converters, or current sources can be accessed and diagnosed remotely in a uniform and well-organized manner. Additionally, the toolkit application supports user authentication and is able to enforce specified access restrictions

  15. Hardware Accelerated Sequence Alignment with Traceback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    in a timely manner. Known methods to accelerate alignment on reconfigurable hardware only address sequence comparison, limit the sequence length, or exhibit memory and I/O bottlenecks. A space-efficient, global sequence alignment algorithm and architecture is presented that accelerates the forward scan and traceback in hardware without memory and I/O limitations. With 256 processing elements in FPGA technology, a performance gain over 300 times that of a desktop computer is demonstrated on sequence lengths of 16000. For greater performance, the architecture is scalable to more processing elements.

  16. Quantum neuromorphic hardware for quantum artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    The development of machine learning methods based on deep learning boosted the field of artificial intelligence towards unprecedented achievements and application in several fields. Such prominent results were made in parallel with the first successful demonstrations of fault tolerant hardware for quantum information processing. To which extent deep learning can take advantage of the existence of a hardware based on qubits behaving as a universal quantum computer is an open question under investigation. Here I review the convergence between the two fields towards implementation of advanced quantum algorithms, including quantum deep learning.

  17. An Inverse Optimal Control Approach to Explain Human Arm Reaching Control Based on Multiple Internal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ozgur S; Zhou, Zhehua; Glasauer, Stefan; Wollherr, Dirk

    2018-04-03

    Human motor control is highly efficient in generating accurate and appropriate motor behavior for a multitude of tasks. This paper examines how kinematic and dynamic properties of the musculoskeletal system are controlled to achieve such efficiency. Even though recent studies have shown that the human motor control relies on multiple models, how the central nervous system (CNS) controls this combination is not fully addressed. In this study, we utilize an Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) framework in order to find the combination of those internal models and how this combination changes for different reaching tasks. We conducted an experiment where participants executed a comprehensive set of free-space reaching motions. The results show that there is a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics based controllers depending on the reaching task. In addition, this trade-off depends on the initial and final arm configurations, which in turn affect the musculoskeletal load to be controlled. Given this insight, we further provide a discomfort metric to demonstrate its influence on the contribution of different inverse internal models. This formulation together with our analysis not only support the multiple internal models (MIMs) hypothesis but also suggest a hierarchical framework for the control of human reaching motions by the CNS.

  18. Control of the exercise hyperpnoea in humans: a modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S A

    2000-09-01

    Models of the exercise hyperpnoea have classically incorporated elements of proportional feedback (carotid and medullary chemosensory) and feedforward (central and/or peripheral neurogenic) control. However, the precise details of the control process remain unresolved, reflecting in part both technical and interpretational limitations inherent in isolating putative control mechanisms in the intact human, and also the challenges to linear control theory presented by multiple-input integration, especially with regard to the ventilatory and gas-exchange complexities encountered at work rates which engender a metabolic acidosis. While some combination of neurogenic, chemoreflex and circulatory-coupled processes are likely to contribute to the control, the system appears to evidence considerable redundancy. This, coupled with the lack of appreciable error signals in the mean levels of arterial blood gas tensions and pH over a wide range of work rates, has motivated the formulation of innovative control models that reflect not only spatial interactions but also temporal interactions (i.e. memory). The challenge is to discriminate between robust competing control models that: (a) integrate such processes within plausible physiological equivalents; and (b) account for both the dynamic and steady-state system response over a range of exercise intensities. Such models are not yet available.

  19. The human factors specialist in nuclear control centre design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.; Beattie, J.D.

    The main focus at Ontario Hydro for man-machine interface design is in the design of control centres. Because the control of a nuclear generating unit is highly centralized there is an increasing need for effective information display and control layout. Control panel design innovations such as the use of CRT displays and the extended use of computerized control in the Darlington station have made it possible for Ontario Hydro to continue to have one first operator for each generating unit. The human factors specialist involved in control panel design must deal with people who know much more about the specific systems being controlled, and must become a generalist in all these systems as well. Designers have to use conceptual techniques such as task analysis, systems design, panel mock-ups, anthropometric data, and personal judgement based on experience as they design panels. They must find a balance between becoming locked into existing technology and methods, slavishly following the latest technological trends, and forgetting that real people will be using what they design

  20. Human regulatory B cells control the TFH cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Achouak; Simon, Quentin; Mohr, Audrey; Séité, Jean-François; Youinou, Pierre; Bendaoud, Boutahar; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Follicular helper T (T FH ) cells support terminal B-cell differentiation. Human regulatory B (Breg) cells modulate cellular responses, but their control of T FH cell-dependent humoral immune responses is unknown. We sought to assess the role of Breg cells on T FH cell development and function. Human T cells were polyclonally stimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IL-21 to generate T FH cells. They were cocultured with B cells to induce their terminal differentiation. Breg cells were included in these cultures, and their effects were evaluated by using flow cytometry and ELISA. B-cell lymphoma 6, IL-21, inducible costimulator, CXCR5, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions increased on stimulated human T cells, characterizing T FH cell maturation. In cocultures they differentiated B cells into CD138 + plasma and IgD - CD27 + memory cells and triggered immunoglobulin secretions. Breg cells obtained by Toll-like receptor 9 and CD40 activation of B cells prevented T FH cell development. Added to T FH cell and B-cell cocultures, they inhibited B-cell differentiation, impeded immunoglobulin secretions, and expanded Foxp3 + CXCR5 + PD-1 + follicular regulatory T cells. Breg cells modulated IL-21 receptor expressions on T FH cells and B cells, and their suppressive activities involved CD40, CD80, CD86, and intercellular adhesion molecule interactions and required production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Human Breg cells control T FH cell maturation, expand follicular regulatory T cells, and inhibit the T FH cell-mediated antibody secretion. These novel observations demonstrate a role for the Breg cell in germinal center reactions and suggest that deficient activities might impair the T FH cell-dependent control of humoral immunity and might lead to the development of aberrant autoimmune responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizing the human postural control system using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Blázquez, M.; Anguiano, Marta; de Saavedra, Fernando Arias; Lallena, Antonio M.; Carpena, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the behaviour of the time series of the position of the center of pressure, output from the activity of a human postural control system. The results suggest that these trajectories present a crossover in their scaling properties from persistent (for high frequencies, short-range time scale) to anti-persistent (for low frequencies, long-range time scale) behaviours. The values of the scaling exponent found for the persistent parts of the trajectories are very similar for all the cases analysed. The similarity of the results obtained for the measurements done with both eyes open and both eyes closed indicate either that the visual system may be disregarded by the postural control system, while maintaining quiet standing, or that the control mechanisms associated with each type of information (visual, vestibular and somatosensory) cannot be disentangled with this technique.

  2. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  3. Graph based communication analysis for hardware/software codesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a coarse grain CDFG (Control/Data Flow Graph) model suitable for hardware/software partitioning of single processes and demonstrate how it is necessary to perform various transformations on the graph structure before partitioning in order to achieve a structure that allows...... for accurate estimation of communication overhead between nodes mapped to different processors. In particular, we demonstrate how various transformations of control structures can lead to a more accurate communication analysis and more efficient implementations. The purpose of the transformations is to obtain...

  4. Enabling Open Hardware through FOSS tools

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Software developers often take open file formats and tools for granted. When you publish code on github, you do not ask yourself if somebody will be able to open it and modify it. We need the same freedom in the open hardware world, to make it truly accessible for everyone.

  5. Hardware and layout aspects affecting maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, V.N.; Surendar, Ch.

    1977-01-01

    It has been found from maintenance experience at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station that proper hardware and instrumentation layout can reduce maintenance and down-time on the related equipment. The problems faced in this connection and how they were solved is narrated. (M.G.B.)

  6. Design of hardware accelerators for demanding applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozwiak, L.; Jan, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on mastering the architecture development of hardware accelerators. It presents the results of our analysis of the main issues that have to be addressed when designing accelerators for modern demanding applications, when using as an example the accelerator design for LDPC decoding

  7. Building Correlators with Many-Core Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.

    2010-01-01

    Radio telescopes typically consist of multiple receivers whose signals are cross-correlated to filter out noise. A recent trend is to correlate in software instead of custom-built hardware, taking advantage of the flexibility that software solutions offer. Examples include e-VLBI and LOFAR. However,

  8. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  9. The fast Amsterdam multiprocessor (FAMP) system hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzberger, L.O.; Kieft, G.; Kisielewski, B.; Wiggers, L.W.; Engster, C.; Koningsveld, L. van

    1981-01-01

    The architecture of a multiprocessor system is described that will be used for on-line filter and second stage trigger applications. The system is based on the MC 68000 microprocessor from Motorola. Emphasis is paid to hardware aspects, in particular the modularity, processor communication and interfacing, whereas the system software and the applications will be described in separate articles. (orig.)

  10. Hardware for dynamic quantum computing experiments: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake; Ryan, Colm; Riste, Diego; Donovan, Brian; Ohki, Thomas

    Static, pre-defined control sequences routinely achieve high-fidelity operation on superconducting quantum processors. Efforts toward dynamic experiments depending on real-time information have mostly proceeded through hardware duplication and triggers, requiring a combinatorial explosion in the number of channels. We provide a hardware efficient solution to dynamic control with a complete platform of specialized FPGA-based control and readout electronics; these components enable arbitrary control flow, low-latency feedback and/or feedforward, and scale far beyond single-qubit control and measurement. We will introduce the BBN Arbitrary Pulse Sequencer 2 (APS2) control system and the X6 QDSP readout platform. The BBN APS2 features: a sequencer built around implementing short quantum gates, a sequence cache to allow long sequences with branching structures, subroutines for code re-use, and a trigger distribution module to capture and distribute steering information. The X6 QDSP features a single-stage DSP pipeline that combines demodulation with arbitrary integration kernels, and multiple taps to inspect data flow for debugging and calibration. We will show system performance when putting it all together, including a latency budget for feedforward operations. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office Contract No. W911NF-10-1-0324.

  11. Hibernation Control Mechanism and Possible Applications to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.

    Mammalian hibernation, characterized by the ability to survive temporarily at low body temperatures close to 0oC, has been reported to increase resistance to various lethal events such as low body temperature, severe ischemia, bacterial infection and irradiation, and to prolong the life span. The application of this physiological phenomenon to space life has been dreamed of. However, realization of this dream has been prevented by a poor understanding of the control mechanisms of hibernation. Recent findings of a novel and unique protein complex (HP) in the blood of chipmunks, a rodent hibernator, which is controlled by the endogenous circannual rhythm of hibernation, allowed new developments in understanding the molecular mechanism of hibernation and its physiological significance. From these studies, two hormones regulated by the brain were identified as promising candidate molecules controlling HP production in the liver, assuming that hibernation is controlled via the neuroendocrine system and regulated by the endogenous circannual rhythm in the brain. A circannual HP rhythm was observed in chipmunks maintaining euthermia under conditions of constant warmth, suggesting that the physiological control of hibernation progresses without a lowering of body temperature. Furthermore, the study of HP rhythm on longevity revealed that a circannual rhythm plays an essential role in the much longer life span of hibernators. The present progress in hibernation research may open a new pathway for manipulating a circannual rhythm controlling hibernation in humans. In the future, this will make it feasible to take advantage of hibernation in space life.

  12. Aspects of computer control from the human engineering standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.V.

    1979-03-01

    A Computer Control System includes data acquisition, information display and output control signals. In order to design such a system effectively we must first determine the required operational mode: automatic control (closed loop), computer assisted (open loop), or hybrid control. The choice of operating mode will depend on the nature of the plant, the complexity of the operation, the funds available, and the technical expertise of the operating staff, among many other factors. Once the mode has been selected, consideration must be given to the method (man/machine interface) by which the operator interacts with this system. The human engineering factors are of prime importance to achieving high operating efficiency and very careful attention must be given to this aspect of the work, if full operator acceptance is to be achieved. This paper will discuss these topics and will draw on experience gained in setting up the computer control system in Main Control Center for Stanford University's Accelerator Center (a high energy physics research facility)

  13. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  14. Human reliability analysis for advanced control room of KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung-Ro; Park, Seong-Kyu

    2000-01-01

    There are two purposes in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) which was performed during Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) Phase 2 research project. One is to present the human error probability quantification results for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and the other is to provide a list of the critical operator actions for Human Factor Engineering (HFE). Critical operator actions were identified from the KNGR HRA/RSA based on selection criteria and incorporated in the MMI Task Analysis, where they receive additional treatment. The use of HRA/PSA results in design, procedure development, and training was ensured by their incorporation in the MMI task analysis and MCR design such as fixed position alarms, displays and controls. Any dominant PSA sequence that takes credit for human performance to achieve acceptable results was incorporated in MMIS validation activities through the PSA-based critical operator actions. The integration of KNGR HRA into MMI design was sufficiently addressed all applicable review criteria of NUREG-0800, Chapter 18, Section 2 F and NUREG-0711. (S.Y.)

  15. Controlled human infection models for vaccine development: Zika virus debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2018-01-01

    An ethics panel, convened by the National Institute of Health and other research bodies in the USA, disallowed researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and University of Vermont from performing controlled human infection of healthy volunteers to develop a vaccine against Zika virus infection. The members published their ethical analysis and recommendations in February 2017. They have elaborated on the risks posed by human challenge with Zika virus to the volunteers and other uninvolved third parties and have systematically analysed the social value of such a human challenge experiment. They have also posited some mandatory ethical requirements which should be met before allowing the infection of healthy volunteers with the Zika virus. This commentary elaborates on the debate on the ethics of the human challenge model for the development of a Zika virus vaccine and the role of systematic ethical analysis in protecting the interests of research participants. It further analyses the importance of this debate to the development of a Zika vaccine in India.

  16. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  17. Ultra-low noise miniaturized neural amplifier with hardware averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweiri, Yazan M; Eggers, Thomas; McCallum, Grant; Durand, Dominique M

    2015-08-01

    Peripheral nerves carry neural signals that could be used to control hybrid bionic systems. Cuff electrodes provide a robust and stable interface but the recorded signal amplitude is small (concept of hardware averaging to nerve recordings obtained with cuff electrodes. An optimization procedure is developed to minimize noise and power simultaneously. The novel design was based on existing neural amplifiers (Intan Technologies, LLC) and is validated with signals obtained from the FINE in chronic dog experiments. We showed that hardware averaging leads to a reduction in the total recording noise by a factor of 1/√N or less depending on the source resistance. Chronic recording of physiological activity with FINE using the presented design showed significant improvement on the recorded baseline noise with at least two parallel operation transconductance amplifiers leading to a 46.1% reduction at N = 8. The functionality of these recordings was quantified by the SNR improvement and shown to be significant for N = 3 or more. The present design was shown to be capable of generating hardware averaging on noise improvement for neural recording with cuff electrodes, and can accommodate the presence of high source impedances that are associated with the miniaturized contacts and the high channel count in electrode arrays. This technique can be adopted for other applications where miniaturized and implantable multichannel acquisition systems with ultra-low noise and low power are required.

  18. Optimizing the human engineering design of control panels in nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, V.; Krehbiehl, T.; Hartfiel, H.D.; Mannhaupt, H.R.

    1986-12-01

    The study contains two parts. In the first part an analytical procedure is developed to logically and reproducibly subdivide the control room personnel tasks resulting in a list of the elements (operations) and the structure (operations scheme) of a task. The second part lists together all knowledge of and influences on human engineering which are known at this time and which should be taken into account in designing control rooms. The content of this catalogue can best be used and presented by using a personal computer. Two fundamental different ways are possible to use the catalogue. Designing new control rooms or new parts of control rooms the results of the task analysis which should be done first, should guide the search in the catalogue to find the right human engineering factors. For assessing existing control room panels the performance shaping factors which are establishing the table of content, permit a quick access to the catalogue. Both the specific procedure of the task analysis and the different ways of access to the catalogue of human engineering knowledge for designing nuclear power plant control rooms have been proven by experienced system engineers and safety experts. The results are presented. They have been considered in this version of the study. (orig.) [de

  19. The using of the control room automation against human errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, A.

    1993-01-01

    The control room automation has developed very strongly during the 80's in IVO (Imatran Voima Oy). The former work expanded strongly with building of the full scope training simulator to the Loviisa plant. The important milestones has been, for example the testing of the Critical Function Monitoring System, a concept developed by Combustion Eng. Inc., in Loviisa training simulator 1982, the replacing of the process and simulator computers in Loviisa 1989, and 1990 and the presenting the use of the computer based procedures in training of operators 1993. With developing of automation and procedures it is possible to minimize the probability of human error. However, it is not possible totally eliminate the risks caused by human errors. (orig.)

  20. Feasibility study of a XML-based software environment to manage data acquisition hardware devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcidiacono, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Brigljevic, V. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Bruno, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Cano, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Cittolin, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Erhan, S. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gigi, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Glege, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Gomez-Reino, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Gulmini, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Gutleber, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Jacobs, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kreuzer, P. [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Lo Presti, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Magrans, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) and Electronic Engineering Department, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: ildefons.magrans@cern.ch; Marinelli, N. [Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, Athens (Greece); Maron, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Meijers, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Meschi, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Murray, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Nafria, M. [Electronic Engineering Department, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Oh, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Orsini, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Pieri, M. [University of California, San Diago, San Diago, CA (United States); Pollet, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Racz, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Rosinsky, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Schwick, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sphicas, P. [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Varela, J. [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    A Software environment to describe configuration, control and test systems for data acquisition hardware devices is presented. The design follows a model that enforces a comprehensive use of an extensible markup language (XML) syntax to describe both the code and associated data. A feasibility study of this software, carried out for the CMS experiment at CERN, is also presented. This is based on a number of standalone applications for different hardware modules, and the design of a hardware management system to remotely access to these heterogeneous subsystems through a uniform web service interface.

  1. Feasibility study of a XML-based software environment to manage data acquisition hardware devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcidiacono, R.; Brigljevic, V.; Bruno, G.; Cano, E.; Cittolin, S.; Erhan, S.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Gulmini, M.; Gutleber, J.; Jacobs, C.; Kreuzer, P.; Lo Presti, G.; Magrans, I.; Marinelli, N.; Maron, G.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Murray, S.; Nafria, M.; Oh, A.; Orsini, L.; Pieri, M.; Pollet, L.; Racz, A.; Rosinsky, P.; Schwick, C.; Sphicas, P.; Varela, J.

    2005-01-01

    A Software environment to describe configuration, control and test systems for data acquisition hardware devices is presented. The design follows a model that enforces a comprehensive use of an extensible markup language (XML) syntax to describe both the code and associated data. A feasibility study of this software, carried out for the CMS experiment at CERN, is also presented. This is based on a number of standalone applications for different hardware modules, and the design of a hardware management system to remotely access to these heterogeneous subsystems through a uniform web service interface

  2. Human intestinal dendritic cells as controllers of mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are the most potent, professional antigen-presenting cells in the body; following antigen presentation they control the type (proinflammatory/regulatory of immune response that will take place, as well as its location. Given their high plasticity and maturation ability in response to local danger signals derived from innate immunity, dendritic cells are key actors in the connection between innate immunity and adaptive immunity responses. In the gut dendritic cells control immune tolerance mechanisms against food and/or commensal flora antigens, and are also capable of initiating an active immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. Dendritic cells are thus highly efficient in controlling the delicate balance between tolerance and immunity in an environment so rich in antigens as the gut, and any factor involving these cells may impact their function, ultimately leading to the development of bowel conditions such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we shall summarize our understanding of human intestinal dendritic cells, their ability to express and induce migration markers, the various environmental factors modulating their properties, their subsets in the gut, and the problems entailed by their study, including identification strategies, differences between humans and murine models, and phenotypical variations along the gastrointestinal tract.

  3. Stability and Control of Human Trunk Movement During Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Sepehri, N.; Thornton-Trump, A. B.; Alexander, M.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to study the control mechanisms of human trunk movement during walking. The trunk is modeled as a base-excited inverted pendulum with two-degrees of rotational freedom. The base point, corresponding to the bony landmark of the sacrum, can move in three-dimensional space in a general way. Since the stability of upright posture is essential for human walking, a controller has been designed such that the stability of the pendulum about the upright position is guaranteed. The control laws are developed based on Lyapunov's stability theory and include feedforward and linear feedback components. It is found that the feedforward component plays a critical role in keeping postural stability, and the linear feedback component, (resulting from viscoelastic function of the musculoskeletal system) can effectively duplicate the pattern of trunk movement. The mathematical model is validated by comparing the simulation results with those based on gait measurements performed in the Biomechanics Laboratory at the University of Manitoba.

  4. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindolia, Deepa K; Garcia, Andres J; Wesolowski, Amy; Smith, David L; Buckee, Caroline O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-06-18

    Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM) in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i) discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii) document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii) highlight where data gaps remain and (iv) briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  5. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pindolia Deepa K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii highlight where data gaps remain and (iv briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  6. Cardioprotection by controlling hyperamylinemia in a "humanized" diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despa, Sanda; Sharma, Savita; Harris, Todd R; Dong, Hua; Li, Ning; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Margulies, Kenneth B; Hammock, Bruce D; Despa, Florin

    2014-08-21

    Chronic hypersecretion of the pancreatic hormone amylin is common in humans with obesity or prediabetic insulin resistance and induces amylin aggregation and proteotoxicity in the pancreas. We recently showed that hyperamylinemia also affects the cardiovascular system. Here, we investigated whether amylin aggregates interact directly with cardiac myocytes and whether controlling hyperamylinemia protects the heart. By Western blot, we found abundant amylin aggregates in lysates of cardiac myocytes from obese patients, but not in controls. Aggregated amylin was elevated in failing hearts, suggesting a role in myocyte injury. Using rats overexpressing human amylin in the pancreas (HIP rats) and control myocytes incubated with human amylin, we show that amylin aggregation at the sarcolemma induces oxidative stress and Ca(2+) dysregulation. In time, HIP rats developed cardiac hypertrophy and left-ventricular dilation. We then tested whether metabolites with antiaggregation properties, such as eicosanoid acids, limit myocardial amylin deposition. Rats were treated with an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades endogenous eicosanoids. Treatment doubled the blood concentration of eicosanoids, which drastically reduced incorporation of aggregated amylin in cardiac myocytes and blood cells, without affecting pancreatic amylin secretion. Animals in the treated group showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and left-ventricular dilation. The cardioprotective mechanisms included the mitigation of amylin-induced cardiac oxidative stress and Ca(2+) dysregulation. The results suggest blood amylin as a novel therapeutic target in diabetic heart disease and elevating blood levels of antiaggregation metabolites as a pharmacological strategy to reduce amylin aggregation and amylin-mediated cardiotoxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature (t(eq)) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t(eq) from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t(eq). The results showed that the t(eq) values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  8. Monitoring and Hardware Management for Critical Fusion Plasma Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Paulo F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled nuclear fusion aims to obtain energy by particles collision confined inside a nuclear reactor (Tokamak. These ionized particles, heavier isotopes of hydrogen, are the main elements inside of plasma that is kept at high temperatures (millions of Celsius degrees. Due to high temperatures and magnetic confinement, plasma is exposed to several sources of instabilities which require a set of procedures by the control and data acquisition systems throughout fusion experiments processes. Control and data acquisition systems often used in nuclear fusion experiments are based on the Advanced Telecommunication Computer Architecture (AdvancedTCA® standard introduced by the Peripheral Component Interconnect Industrial Manufacturers Group (PICMG®, to meet the demands of telecommunications that require large amount of data (TB transportation at high transfer rates (Gb/s, to ensure high availability including features such as reliability, serviceability and redundancy. For efficient plasma control, systems are required to collect large amounts of data, process it, store for later analysis, make critical decisions in real time and provide status reports either from the experience itself or the electronic instrumentation involved. Moreover, systems should also ensure the correct handling of detected anomalies and identified faults, notify the system operator of occurred events, decisions taken to acknowledge and implemented changes. Therefore, for everything to work in compliance with specifications it is required that the instrumentation includes hardware management and monitoring mechanisms for both hardware and software. These mechanisms should check the system status by reading sensors, manage events, update inventory databases with hardware system components in use and maintenance, store collected information, update firmware and installed software modules, configure and handle alarms to detect possible system failures and prevent emergency

  9. Monitoring and Hardware Management for Critical Fusion Plasma Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo F.; Santos, Bruno; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro M.; Rodrigues, AntÓnio P.; Pereira, Rita C.; Fernandes, Ana; Cruz, Nuno; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Batista, AntÓnio J. N.; Correia, Carlos M. B. A.; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion aims to obtain energy by particles collision confined inside a nuclear reactor (Tokamak). These ionized particles, heavier isotopes of hydrogen, are the main elements inside of plasma that is kept at high temperatures (millions of Celsius degrees). Due to high temperatures and magnetic confinement, plasma is exposed to several sources of instabilities which require a set of procedures by the control and data acquisition systems throughout fusion experiments processes. Control and data acquisition systems often used in nuclear fusion experiments are based on the Advanced Telecommunication Computer Architecture (AdvancedTCA®) standard introduced by the Peripheral Component Interconnect Industrial Manufacturers Group (PICMG®), to meet the demands of telecommunications that require large amount of data (TB) transportation at high transfer rates (Gb/s), to ensure high availability including features such as reliability, serviceability and redundancy. For efficient plasma control, systems are required to collect large amounts of data, process it, store for later analysis, make critical decisions in real time and provide status reports either from the experience itself or the electronic instrumentation involved. Moreover, systems should also ensure the correct handling of detected anomalies and identified faults, notify the system operator of occurred events, decisions taken to acknowledge and implemented changes. Therefore, for everything to work in compliance with specifications it is required that the instrumentation includes hardware management and monitoring mechanisms for both hardware and software. These mechanisms should check the system status by reading sensors, manage events, update inventory databases with hardware system components in use and maintenance, store collected information, update firmware and installed software modules, configure and handle alarms to detect possible system failures and prevent emergency scenarios

  10. SYNTHESIS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR SMART HOUSE HARDWARE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikentyeva Olga Leonidovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: smart house maintenance requires taking into account a number of factors: resource-saving, reduction of operational expenditures, safety enhancement, providing comfortable working and leisure conditions. Automation of the corresponding engineering systems of illumination, climate control, security as well as communication systems and networks via utilization of contemporary technologies (e.g., IoT - Internet of Things poses a significant challenge related to storage and processing of the overwhelmingly massive volume of data whose utilization extent is extremely low nowadays. Since a building’s lifespan is large enough and exceeds the lifespan of codes and standards that take into account the requirements of safety, comfort, energy saving, etc., it is necessary to consider management aspects in the context of rational use of large data at the stage of information modeling. Research objectives: increase the efficiency of managing the subsystems of smart buildings hardware on the basis of a web-based information system that has a flexible multi-level architecture with several control loops and an adaptation model. Materials and methods: since a smart house belongs to man-machine systems, the cybernetic approach is considered as the basic method for design and research of information management system. Instrumental research methods are represented by set-theoretical modelling, automata theory and architectural principles of organization of information management systems. Results: a flexible architecture of information system for management of smart house hardware subsystems has been synthesized. This architecture encompasses several levels: client level, application level and data level as well as three layers: presentation level, actuating device layer and analytics layer. The problem of growing volumes of information processed by realtime message controller is attended by employment of sensors and actuating mechanisms with configurable

  11. Benchmarking Model Variants in Development of a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Kratz, Jonathan L.; Culley, Dennis E.; Thomas, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Distributed engine control architecture presents a significant increase in complexity over traditional implementations when viewed from the perspective of system simulation and hardware design and test. Even if the overall function of the control scheme remains the same, the hardware implementation can have a significant effect on the overall system performance due to differences in the creation and flow of data between control elements. A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system is under development at NASA Glenn Research Center that enables the exploration of these hardware dependent issues. The system is based on, but not limited to, the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k). This paper describes the step-by-step conversion from the self-contained baseline model to the hardware in the loop model, and the validation of each step. As the control model hardware fidelity was improved during HIL system development, benchmarking simulations were performed to verify that engine system performance characteristics remained the same. The results demonstrate the goal of the effort; the new HIL configurations have similar functionality and performance compared to the baseline C-MAPSS40k system.

  12. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  13. Contextual control of attentional allocation in human discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uengoer, Metin; Lachnit, Harald; Lotz, Anja; Koenig, Stephan; Pearce, John M

    2013-01-01

    In 3 human predictive learning experiments, we investigated whether the allocation of attention can come under the control of contextual stimuli. In each experiment, participants initially received a conditional discrimination for which one set of cues was trained as relevant in Context 1 and irrelevant in Context 2, and another set was relevant in Context 2 and irrelevant in Context 1. For Experiments 1 and 2, we observed that a second discrimination based on cues that had previously been trained as relevant in Context 1 during the conditional discrimination was acquired more rapidly in Context 1 than in Context 2. Experiment 3 revealed a similar outcome when new stimuli from the original dimensions were used in the test stage. Our results support the view that the associability of a stimulus can be controlled by the stimuli that accompany it.

  14. Remote controlled capsules in human drug absorption (HDA) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Ian R; Prior, David V

    2003-01-01

    The biopharmaceutical complexity of today's new drug candidates provides significant challenges for pharmaceutical scientists in terms of both candidate selection and optimizing subsequent development strategy. In addition, life cycle management of marketed drugs has become an important income stream for pharmaceutical companies, but the selection of least risk/highest benefit strategies is far from simple. The proactive adoption of human drug absorption (HDA) studies using remote controlled capsules offers the pharmaceutical scientist significant guidance for planning a route through the maze of product development. This review examines the position of HDA studies in drug development, using a variety of case histories and an insightful update on remote controlled capsules to achieve site-specific delivery.

  15. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  16. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  17. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  18. Effects of Probiotics on Human Obesity Control: An Unproven Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Arias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to review the different publications associated with probiotics and obesity, as well as to get some new insights regarding the role of the microbiome in diseases such as obesity. An extensive search for scientific publications (studies in animal models, cells, clinical trials and reviews was performed in the following specialist computer databases (PubMed central (PMC-NCBI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct to establish the current status of the potential effect of probiotics in the control of obesity in humans, as well as the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity. The intestinal microbiota and oral probiotics have a positive effect on human health, as they can regulate the immune functions and protect from infections and chronic inflammatory processes. Although divergent results have recently been reported, it has been shown but not confirmed that intestinal microbiota might play a role as a new factor associated with the regulation of body weight and obesity-related diseases. The international MetaHIT project has shown that human microbiome populations can be grouped into three different enterotypes. Two of these enterotypes (Bacteroides and Ruminococcus seem to encode functions related to obesity. Although the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity are not yet well established, the attempt to manipulate intestinal microbiota through diet is suggested as a new plausible approach to prevent, or modify the risk of, obesity and its related diseases.

  19. Structure, function, and control of the human musculoskeletal network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Murphy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a complex organism, the gross mechanical properties of which are enabled by an interconnected musculoskeletal network controlled by the nervous system. The nature of musculoskeletal interconnection facilitates stability, voluntary movement, and robustness to injury. However, a fundamental understanding of this network and its control by neural systems has remained elusive. Here we address this gap in knowledge by utilizing medical databases and mathematical modeling to reveal the organizational structure, predicted function, and neural control of the musculoskeletal system. We constructed a highly simplified whole-body musculoskeletal network in which single muscles connect to multiple bones via both origin and insertion points. We demonstrated that, using this simplified model, a muscle's role in this network could offer a theoretical prediction of the susceptibility of surrounding components to secondary injury. Finally, we illustrated that sets of muscles cluster into network communities that mimic the organization of control modules in primary motor cortex. This novel formalism for describing interactions between the muscular and skeletal systems serves as a foundation to develop and test therapeutic responses to injury, inspiring future advances in clinical treatments.

  20. Hardware and software status of QCDOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, P.A.; Chen, D.; Christ, N.H.; Clark, M.; Cohen, S.D.; Cristian, C.; Dong, Z.; Gara, A.; Joo, B.; Jung, C.; Kim, C.; Levkova, L.; Liao, X.; Liu, G.; Mawhinney, R.D.; Ohta, S.; Petrov, K.; Wettig, T.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2004-01-01

    QCDOC is a massively parallel supercomputer whose processing nodes are based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). This ASIC was custom-designed so that crucial lattice QCD kernels achieve an overall sustained performance of 50% on machines with several 10,000 nodes. This strong scalability, together with low power consumption and a price/performance ratio of $1 per sustained MFlops, enable QCDOC to attack the most demanding lattice QCD problems. The first ASICs became available in June of 2003, and the testing performed so far has shown all systems functioning according to specification. We review the hardware and software status of QCDOC and present performance figures obtained in real hardware as well as in simulation

  1. Advanced hardware design for error correcting codes

    CERN Document Server

    Coussy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This book provides thorough coverage of error correcting techniques. It includes essential basic concepts and the latest advances on key topics in design, implementation, and optimization of hardware/software systems for error correction. The book’s chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in this field. Topics include evolution of error correction techniques, industrial user needs, architectures, and design approaches for the most advanced error correcting codes (Polar Codes, Non-Binary LDPC, Product Codes, etc). This book provides access to recent results, and is suitable for graduate students and researchers of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. • Examines how to optimize the architecture of hardware design for error correcting codes; • Presents error correction codes from theory to optimized architecture for the current and the next generation standards; • Provides coverage of industrial user needs advanced error correcting techniques.

  2. A Scalable Approach for Hardware Semiformal Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Tomas; Lettnin, Djones; Hübner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The current verification flow of complex systems uses different engines synergistically: virtual prototyping, formal verification, simulation, emulation and FPGA prototyping. However, none is able to verify a complete architecture. Furthermore, hybrid approaches aiming at complete verification use techniques that lower the overall complexity by increasing the abstraction level. This work focuses on the verification of complex systems at the RT level to handle the hardware peculiarities. Our r...

  3. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko; Anthony A. Olaomi

    2014-01-01

    Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and elimina...

  4. Optimization Strategies for Hardware-Based Cofactorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenberger, Daniel; Putzka, Jens

    We use the specific structure of the inputs to the cofactorization step in the general number field sieve (GNFS) in order to optimize the runtime for the cofactorization step on a hardware cluster. An optimal distribution of bitlength-specific ECM modules is proposed and compared to existing ones. With our optimizations we obtain a speedup between 17% and 33% of the cofactorization step of the GNFS when compared to the runtime of an unoptimized cluster.

  5. Particle Transport Simulation on Heterogeneous Hardware

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    CPUs and GPGPUs. About the speaker Vladimir Koylazov is CTO and founder of Chaos Software and one of the original developers of the V-Ray raytracing software. Passionate about 3D graphics and programming, Vlado is the driving force behind Chaos Group's software solutions. He participated in the implementation of algorithms for accurate light simulations and support for different hardware platforms, including CPU and GPGPU, as well as distributed calculat...

  6. Trends in computer hardware and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, F M

    1993-04-01

    Previously identified and current trends in the development of computer systems and in the use of computers for health care applications are reviewed. Trends identified in a 1982 article were increasing miniaturization and archival ability, increasing software costs, increasing software independence, user empowerment through new software technologies, shorter computer-system life cycles, and more rapid development and support of pharmaceutical services. Most of these trends continue today. Current trends in hardware and software include the increasing use of reduced instruction-set computing, migration to the UNIX operating system, the development of large software libraries, microprocessor-based smart terminals that allow remote validation of data, speech synthesis and recognition, application generators, fourth-generation languages, computer-aided software engineering, object-oriented technologies, and artificial intelligence. Current trends specific to pharmacy and hospitals are the withdrawal of vendors of hospital information systems from the pharmacy market, improved linkage of information systems within hospitals, and increased regulation by government. The computer industry and its products continue to undergo dynamic change. Software development continues to lag behind hardware, and its high cost is offsetting the savings provided by hardware.

  7. Software error masking effect on hardware faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1999-01-01

    Based on the Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL), in this work, a simulation model for fault injection is developed to estimate the dependability of the digital system in operational phase. We investigated the software masking effect on hardware faults through the single bit-flip and stuck-at-x fault injection into the internal registers of the processor and memory cells. The fault location reaches all registers and memory cells. Fault distribution over locations is randomly chosen based on a uniform probability distribution. Using this model, we have predicted the reliability and masking effect of an application software in a digital system-Interposing Logic System (ILS) in a nuclear power plant. We have considered four the software operational profiles. From the results it was found that the software masking effect on hardware faults should be properly considered for predicting the system dependability accurately in operation phase. It is because the masking effect was formed to have different values according to the operational profile

  8. A Hardware Lab Anywhere At Any Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schubert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific technical courses are an important component in any student's education. These courses are usually characterised by the fact that the students execute experiments in special laboratories. This leads to extremely high costs and a reduction in the maximum number of possible participants. From this traditional point of view, it doesn't seem possible to realise the concepts of a Virtual University in the context of sophisticated technical courses since the students must be "on the spot". In this paper we introduce the so-called Mobile Hardware Lab which makes student participation possible at any time and from any place. This lab nevertheless transfers a feeling of being present in a laboratory. This is accomplished with a special Learning Management System in combination with hardware components which correspond to a fully equipped laboratory workstation that are lent out to the students for the duration of the lab. The experiments are performed and solved at home, then handed in electronically. Judging and marking are also both performed electronically. Since 2003 the Mobile Hardware Lab is now offered in a completely web based form.

  9. Instrument hardware and software upgrades at IPNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worlton, Thomas; Hammonds, John; Mikkelson, D.; Mikkelson, Ruth; Porter, Rodney; Tao, Julian; Chatterjee, Alok

    2006-01-01

    IPNS is in the process of upgrading their time-of-flight neutron scattering instruments with improved hardware and software. The hardware upgrades include replacing old VAX Qbus and Multibus-based data acquisition systems with new systems based on VXI and VME. Hardware upgrades also include expanded detector banks and new detector electronics. Old VAX Fortran-based data acquisition and analysis software is being replaced with new software as part of the ISAW project. ISAW is written in Java for ease of development and portability, and is now used routinely for data visualization, reduction, and analysis on all upgraded instruments. ISAW provides the ability to process and visualize the data from thousands of detector pixels, each having thousands of time channels. These operations can be done interactively through a familiar graphical user interface or automatically through simple scripts. Scripts and operators provided by end users are automatically included in the ISAW menu structure, along with those distributed with ISAW, when the application is started

  10. Benchmarking and Hardware-In-The-Loop Operation of a ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engine Performance evaluation in support of LD MTE. EPA used elements of its ALPHA model to apply hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) controls to the SKYACTIV engine test setup to better understand how the engine would operate in a chassis test after combined with future leading edge technologies, advanced high-efficiency transmission, reduced mass, and reduced roadload. Predict future vehicle performance with Atkinson engine. As part of its technology assessment for the upcoming midterm evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD vehicle GHG emissions regulation, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its ALPHA model

  11. 76 FR 35130 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... the Control Room Management/Human Factors regulations in order to realize the safety benefits sooner... FR 5536). By this amendment to the Control Room Management/Human Factors (CRM) rule, an operator must...

  12. Historical Overview, Current Status, and Future Trends in Human-Computer Interfaces for Process Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owre, Fridtjov

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 25 yr ago, the first computer-based process control systems, including computer-generated displays, appeared. It is remarkable how slowly the human-computer interfaces (HCI's) of such systems have developed over the years. The display design approach in those early days had its roots in the topology of the process. Usually, the information came from the piping and instrumentation diagrams. Later, some important additional functions were added to the basic system, such as alarm and trend displays. Today, these functions are still the basic ones, and the end-user displays have not changed much except for improved display quality in terms of colors, font types and sizes, resolution, and object shapes, resulting from improved display hardware.Today, there are two schools of display design competing for supremacy in the process control segment of the HCI community. One can be characterized by extension and integration of current practice, while the other is more revolutionary.The extension of the current practice approach can be described in terms of added system functionality and integration. This means that important functions for the plant operator - such as signal validation, plant overview information, safety parameter displays, procedures, prediction of future states, and plant performance optimization - are added to the basic functions and integrated in a total unified HCI for the plant operator.The revolutionary approach, however, takes as its starting point the design process itself. The functioning of the plant is described in terms of the plant goals and subgoals, as well as the means available to reach these goals. Then, displays are designed representing this functional structure - in clear contrast to the earlier plant topology representation. Depending on the design approach used, the corresponding displays have various designations, e.g., function-oriented, task-oriented, or ecological displays.This paper gives a historical overview of past

  13. Movement augmentation to evaluate human control of locomotor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey; Wu, Mengnan Mary; Huang, Felix C; Gordon, Keith E

    2017-07-01

    Controlling center of mass (COM) position and velocity within a dynamic base of support is essential for gait stability. This skill is often compromised following neurologic injury, creating a need to develop effective interventions to enhance gait stability. A movement augmentation paradigm applied to walking could potentially be used to improve control of COM dynamics. We have developed a cable robot system, the Agility Trainer, to apply continuous frontal-plane forces to the pelvis during treadmill walking. This cable robot system uses a set of series elastic actuators powered by linear motors to create bilateral forces. Here we use the Agility Trainer to create a negative viscosity force field proportional to the subject's lateral velocity. Two healthy young subjects performed two 10-minute walking trials, Baseline and Negative Viscosity. During the first minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field, participants' lateral COM motion became less controlled when compared to the rhythmic sinusoidal motion observed during Baseline walking. By the 10th minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field the participants had adapted their gait patterns, decreasing their variation in peak lateral COM speed each stride. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to use the Agility Trainer to apply a movement augmentation paradigm to human walking.

  14. Control System Architectures, Technologies and Concepts for Near Term and Future Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Richard; Overland, David

    2004-01-01

    Technologies that facilitate the design and control of complex, hybrid, and resource-constrained systems are examined. This paper focuses on design methodologies, and system architectures, not on specific control methods that may be applied to life support subsystems. Honeywell and Boeing have estimated that 60-80Y0 of the effort in developing complex control systems is software development, and only 20-40% is control system development. It has also been shown that large software projects have failure rates of as high as 50-65%. Concepts discussed include the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and design patterns with the goal of creating a self-improving, self-documenting system design process. Successful architectures for control must not only facilitate hardware to software integration, but must also reconcile continuously changing software with much less frequently changing hardware. These architectures rely on software modules or components to facilitate change. Architecting such systems for change leverages the interfaces between these modules or components.

  15. A photovoltaic source I/U model suitable for hardware in the loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stala Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel, low-complexity method of simulating PV source characteristics suitable for real-time modeling and hardware implementation. The application of the suitable model of the PV source as well as the model of all the PV system components in a real-time hardware gives a safe, fast and low cost method of testing PV systems. The paper demonstrates the concept of the PV array model and the hardware implementation in FPGAs of the system which combines two PV arrays. The obtained results confirm that the proposed model is of low complexity and can be suitable for hardware in the loop (HIL tests of the complex PV system control, with various arrays operating under different conditions.

  16. Open source hardware and software platform for robotics and artificial intelligence applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S. Ng; Tan, K. O.; Lai Clement, T. H.; Ng, S. K.; Mohammed, A. H. Ali; Mailah, Musa; Azhar Yussof, Wan; Hamedon, Zamzuri; Yussof, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    Recent developments in open source hardware and software platforms (Android, Arduino, Linux, OpenCV etc.) have enabled rapid development of previously expensive and sophisticated system within a lower budget and flatter learning curves for developers. Using these platform, we designed and developed a Java-based 3D robotic simulation system, with graph database, which is integrated in online and offline modes with an Android-Arduino based rubbish picking remote control car. The combination of the open source hardware and software system created a flexible and expandable platform for further developments in the future, both in the software and hardware areas, in particular in combination with graph database for artificial intelligence, as well as more sophisticated hardware, such as legged or humanoid robots.

  17. Open source hardware and software platform for robotics and artificial intelligence applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, S Ng; Tan, K O; Clement, T H Lai; Ng, S K; Mohammed, A H Ali; Mailah, Musa; Yussof, Wan Azhar; Hamedon, Zamzuri; Yussof, Zulkifli

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in open source hardware and software platforms (Android, Arduino, Linux, OpenCV etc.) have enabled rapid development of previously expensive and sophisticated system within a lower budget and flatter learning curves for developers. Using these platform, we designed and developed a Java-based 3D robotic simulation system, with graph database, which is integrated in online and offline modes with an Android-Arduino based rubbish picking remote control car. The combination of the open source hardware and software system created a flexible and expandable platform for further developments in the future, both in the software and hardware areas, in particular in combination with graph database for artificial intelligence, as well as more sophisticated hardware, such as legged or humanoid robots. (paper)

  18. Host control of human papillomavirus infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorbar, John

    2018-02-01

    Most human papillomaviruses cause inapparent infections, subtly affecting epithelial homeostasis, to ensure genome persistence in the epithelial basal layer. As with conspicuous papillomas, these self-limiting lesions shed viral particles to ensure population level maintenance and depend on a balance between viral gene expression, immune cell stimulation and immune surveillance for persistence. The complex immune evasion strategies, characteristic of high-risk HPV types, also allow the deregulated viral gene expression that underlies neoplasia. Neoplasia occurs at particular epithelial sites where vulnerable cells such as the reserve or cuboidal cells of the cervical transformation zone are found. Beta papillomavirus infection can also predispose an individual with immune deficiencies to the development of cancers. The host control of HPV infections thus involves local interactions between keratinocytes and the adaptive immune response. Effective immune detection and surveillance limits overt disease, leading to HPV persistence as productive microlesions or in a true latent state. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  20. Solar cooling in the hardware-in-the-loop test; Solare Kuehlung im Hardware-in-the-Loop-Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Sandra; Radosavljevic, Rada; Goebel, Johannes; Gottschald, Jonas; Adam, Mario [Fachhochschule Duesseldorf (Germany). Erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz E2

    2012-07-01

    The first part of the BMBF-funded research project 'Solar cooling in the hardware-in-the-loop test' (SoCool HIL) deals with the simulation of a solar refrigeration system using the simulation environment Matlab / Simulink with the toolboxes Stateflow and Carnot. Dynamic annual simulations and DoE supported parameter variations were used to select meaningful system configurations, control strategies and dimensioning of components. The second part of this project deals with hardware-in-the-loop tests using the 17.5 kW absorption chiller of the company Yazaki Europe Limited (Hertfordshire, United Kingdom). For this, the chiller is operated on a test bench in order to emulate the behavior of other system components (solar circuit with heat storage, recooling, buildings and cooling distribution / transfer). The chiller is controlled by a simulation of the system using MATLAB / Simulink / Carnot. Based on the knowledge on the real dynamic performance of the chiller the simulation model of the chiller can then be validated. Further tests are used to optimize the control of the chiller to the current cooling load. In addition, some changes in system configurations (for example cold backup) are tested with the real machine. The results of these tests and the findings on the dynamic performance of the chiller are presented.

  1. Hardware implementation of a GFSR pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, G. R.; Budinich, M.; Milotti, E.

    1989-12-01

    We describe the hardware implementation of a pseudo-random number generator of the "Generalized Feedback Shift Register" (GFSR) type. After brief theoretical considerations we describe two versions of the hardware, the tests done and the performances achieved.

  2. Human error recovery failure probability when using soft controls in computerized control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    Many literatures categorized recovery process into three phases; detection of problem situation, explanation of problem causes or countermeasures against problem, and end of recovery. Although the focus of recovery promotion has been on categorizing recovery phases and modeling recovery process, research related to human recovery failure probabilities has not been perform actively. On the other hand, a few study regarding recovery failure probabilities were implemented empirically. Summarizing, researches that have performed so far have several problems in terms of use in human reliability analysis (HRA). By adopting new human-system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies, the operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed from conventional MCRs to advanced MCRs. Because of the different interfaces between conventional and advanced MCRs, different recovery failure probabilities should be considered in the HRA for advanced MCRs. Therefore, this study carries out an empirical analysis of human error recovery probabilities under an advanced MCR mockup called compact nuclear simulator (CNS). The aim of this work is not only to compile a recovery failure probability database using the simulator for advanced MCRs but also to collect recovery failure probability according to defined human error modes to compare that which human error mode has highest recovery failure probability. The results show that recovery failure probability regarding wrong screen selection was lowest among human error modes, which means that most of human error related to wrong screen selection can be recovered. On the other hand, recovery failure probabilities of operation selection omission and delayed operation were 1.0. These results imply that once subject omitted one task in the procedure, they have difficulties finding and recovering their errors without supervisor's assistance. Also, wrong screen selection had an effect on delayed operation. That is, wrong screen

  3. Open Source Hardware for DIY Environmental Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hicks, S. D.; Damiano, S. G.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Arduino open source electronics platform has been very popular within the DIY (Do It Yourself) community for several years, and it is now providing environmental science researchers with an inexpensive alternative to commercial data logging and transmission hardware. Here we present the designs for our latest series of custom Arduino-based dataloggers, which include wireless communication options like self-meshing radio networks and cellular phone modules. The main Arduino board uses a custom interface board to connect to various research-grade sensors to take readings of turbidity, dissolved oxygen, water depth and conductivity, soil moisture, solar radiation, and other parameters. Sensors with SDI-12 communications can be directly interfaced to the logger using our open Arduino-SDI-12 software library (https://github.com/StroudCenter/Arduino-SDI-12). Different deployment options are shown, like rugged enclosures to house the loggers and rigs for mounting the sensors in both fresh water and marine environments. After the data has been collected and transmitted by the logger, the data is received by a mySQL-PHP stack running on a web server that can be accessed from anywhere in the world. Once there, the data can be visualized on web pages or served though REST requests and Water One Flow (WOF) services. Since one of the main benefits of using open source hardware is the easy collaboration between users, we are introducing a new web platform for discussion and sharing of ideas and plans for hardware and software designs used with DIY environmental sensors and data loggers.

  4. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computers are an integral part of modern radiology equipment. In the first half of this two-part article, we dwelt upon some fundamental concepts regarding computer hardware, covering components like motherboard, central processing unit (CPU, chipset, random access memory (RAM, and memory modules. In this article, we describe the remaining computer hardware components that are of relevance to radiology. "Storage drive" is a term describing a "memory" hardware used to store data for later retrieval. Commonly used storage drives are hard drives, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, and network drives. The capacity of a hard drive is dependent on many factors, including the number of disk sides, number of tracks per side, number of sectors on each track, and the amount of data that can be stored in each sector. "Drive interfaces" connect hard drives and optical drives to a computer. The connections of such drives require both a power cable and a data cable. The four most popular "input/output devices" used commonly with computers are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard. The "bus" is a built-in electronic signal pathway in the motherboard to permit efficient and uninterrupted data transfer. A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the (outdated ISA bus. "Ports" are the location at which external devices are connected to a computer motherboard. All commonly used peripheral devices, such as printers, scanners, and portable drives, need ports. A working knowledge of computers is necessary for the radiologist if the workflow is to realize its full potential and, besides, this knowledge will prepare the radiologist for the coming innovations in the ′ever increasing′ digital future.

  5. Computer hardware for radiologists: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, A

    2010-01-01

    Computers are an integral part of modern radiology equipment. In the first half of this two-part article, we dwelt upon some fundamental concepts regarding computer hardware, covering components like motherboard, central processing unit (CPU), chipset, random access memory (RAM), and memory modules. In this article, we describe the remaining computer hardware components that are of relevance to radiology. “Storage drive” is a term describing a “memory” hardware used to store data for later retrieval. Commonly used storage drives are hard drives, floppy drives, optical drives, flash drives, and network drives. The capacity of a hard drive is dependent on many factors, including the number of disk sides, number of tracks per side, number of sectors on each track, and the amount of data that can be stored in each sector. “Drive interfaces” connect hard drives and optical drives to a computer. The connections of such drives require both a power cable and a data cable. The four most popular “input/output devices” used commonly with computers are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard. The “bus” is a built-in electronic signal pathway in the motherboard to permit efficient and uninterrupted data transfer. A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the (outdated) ISA bus. “Ports” are the location at which external devices are connected to a computer motherboard. All commonly used peripheral devices, such as printers, scanners, and portable drives, need ports. A working knowledge of computers is necessary for the radiologist if the workflow is to realize its full potential and, besides, this knowledge will prepare the radiologist for the coming innovations in the ‘ever increasing’ digital future

  6. The Impact of Flight Hardware Scavenging on Space Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    For a given fixed launch vehicle capacity the logistics payload delivered to the moon may be only roughly 20 percent of the payload delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This is compounded by the much lower flight frequency to the moon and thus low availability of spares for maintenance. This implies that lunar hardware is much more scarce and more costly per kilogram than ISS and thus there is much more incentive to preserve hardware. The Constellation Lunar Surface System (LSS) program is considering ways of utilizing hardware scavenged from vehicles including the Altair lunar lander. In general, the hardware will have only had a matter of hours of operation yet there may be years of operational life remaining. By scavenging this hardware the program, in effect, is treating vehicle hardware as part of the payload. Flight hardware may provide logistics spares for system maintenance and reduce the overall logistics footprint. This hardware has a wide array of potential applications including expanding the power infrastructure, and exploiting in-situ resources. Scavenging can also be seen as a way of recovering the value of, literally, billions of dollars worth of hardware that would normally be discarded. Scavenging flight hardware adds operational complexity and steps must be taken to augment the crew s capability with robotics, capabilities embedded in flight hardware itself, and external processes. New embedded technologies are needed to make hardware more serviceable and scavengable. Process technologies are needed to extract hardware, evaluate hardware, reconfigure or repair hardware, and reintegrate it into new applications. This paper also illustrates how scavenging can be used to drive down the cost of the overall program by exploiting the intrinsic value of otherwise discarded flight hardware.

  7. LISA Pathfinder: hardware tests and their input to the mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Heather

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA-NASA mission for the first space-borne gravitational wave detector. LISA aims to detect sources in the 0.1mHz to 1Hz range, which include supermassive black holes and galactic binary stars. Core technologies required for the LISA mission, including drag-free test mass control, picometre interferometry and micro-Newton thrusters, cannot be tested on-ground. Therefore, a precursor satellite, LISA Pathfinder, has been developed as a technology demonstration mission. The preparations for the LISA Pathfinder mission have reached an exciting stage. Tests of the engineering model of the optical metrology system have recently been completed at the Albert Einstein Institute, Hannover, and flight model tests are now underway. Significantly, they represent the first complete integration and testing of the space-qualified hardware and are the first tests on system level. The results and test procedures of these campaigns will be utilised directly in the ground-based flight hardware tests, and subsequently within in-flight operations. In addition, they allow valuable testing of the data analysis methods using the MatLab based LTP data analysis toolbox. This contribution presents an overview of the test campaigns calibration, control and perfor-mance results, focusing on the implications for the Experimental Master Plan which provides the basis for the in-flight operations and procedures.

  8. Management of cladding hulls and fuel hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel from power reactors based on chop-leach technology produces a solid waste product of cladding hulls and other metallic residues. This report describes the current situation in the management of fuel cladding hulls and hardware. Information is presented on the material composition of such waste together with the heating effects due to neutron-induced activation products and fuel contamination. As no country has established a final disposal route and the corresponding repository, this report also discusses possible disposal routes and various disposal options under consideration at present

  9. Hardware for computing the integral image

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Berni, J.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel; Río, Rocío del; Carmona-Galán, R.

    2015-01-01

    La presente invención, según se expresa en el enunciado de esta memoria descriptiva, consiste en hardware de señal mixta para cómputo de la imagen integral en el plano focal mediante una agrupación de celdas básicas de sensado-procesamiento cuya interconexión puede ser reconfigurada mediante circuitería periférica que hace posible una implementación muy eficiente de una tarea de procesamiento muy útil en visión artificial como es el cálculo de la imagen integral en escenarios tales como monit...

  10. Fast Gridding on Commodity Graphics Hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Schaeffter, Tobias; Noe, Karsten Østergaard

    2007-01-01

    is the far most time consuming of the three steps (Table 1). Modern graphics cards (GPUs) can be utilised as a fast parallel processor provided that algorithms are reformulated in a parallel solution. The purpose of this work is to test the hypothesis, that a non-cartesian reconstruction can be efficiently...... implemented on graphics hardware giving a significant speedup compared to CPU based alternatives. We present a novel GPU implementation of the convolution step that overcomes the problems of memory bandwidth that has limited the speed of previous GPU gridding algorithms [2]....

  11. List search hardware for interpretive software

    CERN Document Server

    Altaber, Jacques; Mears, B; Rausch, R

    1979-01-01

    Interpreted languages, e.g. BASIC, are simple to learn, easy to use, quick to modify and in general 'user-friendly'. However, a critically time consuming process during interpretation is that of list searching. A special microprogrammed device for fast list searching has therefore been developed at the SPS Division of CERN. It uses bit- sliced hardware. Fast algorithms perform search, insert and delete of a six-character name and its value in a list of up to 1000 pairs. The prototype shows retrieval times of the order of 10-30 microseconds. (11 refs).

  12. Hardware trigger processor for the MDT system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)757787; The ATLAS collaboration; Hazen, Eric; Butler, John; Black, Kevin; Gastler, Daniel Edward; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Taffard, Anyes; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Ishino, Masaya; Okumura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We are developing a low-latency hardware trigger processor for the Monitored Drift Tube system in the Muon spectrometer. The processor will fit candidate Muon tracks in the drift tubes in real time, improving significantly the momentum resolution provided by the dedicated trigger chambers. We present a novel pure-FPGA implementation of a Legendre transform segment finder, an associative-memory alternative implementation, an ARM (Zynq) processor-based track fitter, and compact ATCA carrier board architecture. The ATCA architecture is designed to allow a modular, staged approach to deployment of the system and exploration of alternative technologies.

  13. Static Scheduling of Periodic Hardware Tasks with Precedence and Deadline Constraints on Reconfigurable Hardware Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikbel Belaid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Task graph scheduling for reconfigurable hardware devices can be defined as finding a schedule for a set of periodic tasks with precedence, dependence, and deadline constraints as well as their optimal allocations on the available heterogeneous hardware resources. This paper proposes a new methodology comprising three main stages. Using these three main stages, dynamic partial reconfiguration and mixed integer programming, pipelined scheduling and efficient placement are achieved and enable parallel computing of the task graph on the reconfigurable devices by optimizing placement/scheduling quality. Experiments on an application of heterogeneous hardware tasks demonstrate an improvement of resource utilization of 12.45% of the available reconfigurable resources corresponding to a resource gain of 17.3% compared to a static design. The configuration overhead is reduced to 2% of the total running time. Due to pipelined scheduling, the task graph spanning is minimized by 4% compared to sequential execution of the graph.

  14. Is Hardware Removal Recommended after Ankle Fracture Repair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Geun Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indications and clinical necessity for routine hardware removal after treating ankle or distal tibia fracture with open reduction and internal fixation are disputed even when hardware-related pain is insignificant. Thus, we determined the clinical effects of routine hardware removal irrespective of the degree of hardware-related pain, especially in the perspective of patients’ daily activities. This study was conducted on 80 consecutive cases (78 patients treated by surgery and hardware removal after bony union. There were 56 ankle and 24 distal tibia fractures. The hardware-related pain, ankle joint stiffness, discomfort on ambulation, and patient satisfaction were evaluated before and at least 6 months after hardware removal. Pain score before hardware removal was 3.4 (range 0 to 6 and decreased to 1.3 (range 0 to 6 after removal. 58 (72.5% patients experienced improved ankle stiffness and 65 (81.3% less discomfort while walking on uneven ground and 63 (80.8% patients were satisfied with hardware removal. These results suggest that routine hardware removal after ankle or distal tibia fracture could ameliorate hardware-related pain and improves daily activities and patient satisfaction even when the hardware-related pain is minimal.

  15. Use of Human Modeling Simulation Software in the Task Analysis of the Environmental Control and Life Support System Component Installation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation applications are becoming widespread in human task analysis. These programs have many benefits for the Human Factors Engineering field. Not only do creating and using virtual environments for human engineering analyses save money and time, this approach also promotes user experimentation and provides increased quality of analyses. This paper explains the human engineering task analysis performed on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) space station rack and its Distillation Assembly (DA) subsystem using EAI's human modeling simulation software, Jack. When installed on the International Space Station (ISS), ECLSS will provide the life and environment support needed to adequately sustain crew life. The DA is an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) that provides means of wastewater (primarily urine from flight crew and experimental animals) reclamation. Jack was used to create a model of the weightless environment of the ISS Node 3, where the ECLSS is housed. Computer aided drawings of the ECLSS rack and DA system were also brought into the environment. Anthropometric models of a 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female were used to examine the human interfaces encountered during various ECLSS and DA tasks. The results of the task analyses were used in suggesting modifications to hardware and crew task procedures to improve accessibility, conserve crew time, and add convenience for the crew. This paper will address some of those suggested modifications and the method of presenting final analyses for requirements verification.

  16. Thalamic control of human attention driven by memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bourbon-Teles, José; Bentley, Paul; Koshino, Saori; Shah, Kushal; Dutta, Agneish; Malhotra, Paresh; Egner, Tobias; Husain, Masud; Soto, David

    2014-05-05

    The role of the thalamus in high-level cognition-attention, working memory (WM), rule-based learning, and decision making-remains poorly understood, especially in comparison to that of cortical frontoparietal networks [1-3]. Studies of visual thalamus have revealed important roles for pulvinar and lateral geniculate nucleus in visuospatial perception and attention [4-10] and for mediodorsal thalamus in oculomotor control [11]. Ventrolateral thalamus contains subdivisions devoted to action control as part of a circuit involving the basal ganglia [12, 13] and motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortices [14], whereas anterior thalamus forms a memory network in connection with the hippocampus [15]. This connectivity profile suggests that ventrolateral and anterior thalamus may represent a nexus between mnemonic and control functions, such as action or attentional selection. Here, we characterize the role of thalamus in the interplay between memory and visual attention. We show that ventrolateral lesions impair the influence of WM representations on attentional deployment. A subsequent fMRI study in healthy volunteers demonstrates involvement of ventrolateral and, notably, anterior thalamus in biasing attention through WM contents. To further characterize the memory types used by the thalamus to bias attention, we performed a second fMRI study that involved learning of stimulus-stimulus associations and their retrieval from long-term memory to optimize attention in search. Responses in ventrolateral and anterior thalamic nuclei tracked learning of the predictiveness of these abstract associations and their use in directing attention. These findings demonstrate a key role for human thalamus in higher-level cognition, notably, in mnemonic biasing of attention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Feedforward neural control of toe walking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Hüche Larsen, Helle; Svane, Christian; Forman, Christian; Frisk, Rasmus; Farmer, Simon Francis; Kersting, Uwe; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2018-03-23

    Activation of ankle muscles at ground contact during toe walking is unaltered when sensory feedback is blocked or the ground is suddenly dropped. Responses in the soleus muscle to transcranial magnetic stimulation, but not peripheral nerve stimulation, are facilitated at ground contact during toe walking. We argue that toe walking is supported by feedforward control at ground contact. Toe walking requires careful control of the ankle muscles in order to absorb the impact of ground contact and maintain a stable position of the joint. The present study aimed to clarify the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved. Fifteen healthy adults walked on a treadmill (3.0 km h -1 ). Tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (Sol) EMG, knee and ankle joint angles, and gastrocnemius-soleus muscle fascicle lengths were recorded. Peripheral and central contributions to the EMG activity were assessed by afferent blockade, H-reflex testing, transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS) and sudden unloading of the planter flexor muscle-tendon complex. Sol EMG activity started prior to ground contact and remained high throughout stance. TA EMG activity, which is normally seen around ground contact during heel strike walking, was absent. Although stretch of the Achilles tendon-muscle complex was observed after ground contact, this was not associated with lengthening of the ankle plantar flexor muscle fascicles. Sol EMG around ground contact was not affected by ischaemic blockade of large-diameter sensory afferents, or the sudden removal of ground support shortly after toe contact. Soleus motor-evoked potentials elicited by TMS were facilitated immediately after ground contact, whereas Sol H-reflexes were not. These findings indicate that at the crucial time of ankle stabilization following ground contact, toe walking is governed by centrally mediated motor drive rather than sensory driven reflex mechanisms. These findings have implications for our understanding of the control of

  18. Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; McCarthy, James S; Good, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or by direct injection of sporozoites or parasitized erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of antimalarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development, where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early-phase proof-of-concept clinical studies, thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in areas where malaria is endemic. Controlled infections have also been used to immunize against malaria infection. Historically, CHMI studies have been restricted by the need for access to insectaries housing infected mosquitoes or suitable malaria-infected individuals. Evaluation of vaccine and drug candidates has been constrained in these studies by the availability of a limited number of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Recent advances have included cryopreservation of sporozoites, the manufacture of well-characterized and genetically distinct cultured malaria cell banks for blood-stage infection, and the availability of Plasmodium vivax -specific reagents. These advances will help to accelerate malaria vaccine and drug development by making the reagents for CHMI more widely accessible and also enabling a more rigorous evaluation with multiple parasite strains and species. Here we discuss the different applications of CHMI, recent advances in the use of CHMI, and ongoing challenges for consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  20. CASIS Fact Sheet: Hardware and Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Michael R.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    Vencore is a proven information solutions, engineering, and analytics company that helps our customers solve their most complex challenges. For more than 40 years, we have designed, developed and delivered mission-critical solutions as our customers' trusted partner. The Engineering Services Contract, or ESC, provides engineering and design services to the NASA organizations engaged in development of new technologies at the Kennedy Space Center. Vencore is the ESC prime contractor, with teammates that include Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Sierra Lobo, Nelson Engineering, EASi, and Craig Technologies. The Vencore team designs and develops systems and equipment to be used for the processing of space launch vehicles, spacecraft, and payloads. We perform flight systems engineering for spaceflight hardware and software; develop technologies that serve NASA's mission requirements and operations needs for the future. Our Flight Payload Support (FPS) team at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides engineering, development, and certification services as well as payload integration and management services to NASA and commercial customers. Our main objective is to assist principal investigators (PIs) integrate their science experiments into payload hardware for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), commercial spacecraft, suborbital vehicles, parabolic flight aircrafts, and ground-based studies. Vencore's FPS team is AS9100 certified and a recognized implementation partner for the Center for Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS

  1. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  2. Introduction to Hardware Security and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Cliff

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of a globalized, horizontal semiconductor business model raises a set of concerns involving the security and trust of the information systems on which modern society is increasingly reliant for mission-critical functionality. Hardware-oriented security and trust issues span a broad range including threats related to the malicious insertion of Trojan circuits designed, e.g.,to act as a ‘kill switch’ to disable a chip, to integrated circuit (IC) piracy,and to attacks designed to extract encryption keys and IP from a chip. This book provides the foundations for understanding hardware security and trust, which have become major concerns for national security over the past decade.  Coverage includes security and trust issues in all types of electronic devices and systems such as ASICs, COTS, FPGAs, microprocessors/DSPs, and embedded systems.  This serves as an invaluable reference to the state-of-the-art research that is of critical significance to the security of,and trust in, modern society�...

  3. Fast image processing on parallel hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, U.

    1988-01-01

    Current digital imaging modalities in the medical field incorporate parallel hardware which is heavily used in the stage of image formation like the CT/MR image reconstruction or in the DSA real time subtraction. In order to image post-processing as efficient as image acquisition, new software approaches have to be found which take full advantage of the parallel hardware architecture. This paper describes the implementation of two-dimensional median filter which can serve as an example for the development of such an algorithm. The algorithm is analyzed by viewing it as a complete parallel sort of the k pixel values in the chosen window which leads to a generalization to rank order operators and other closely related filters reported in literature. A section about the theoretical base of the algorithm gives hints for how to characterize operations suitable for implementations on pipeline processors and the way to find the appropriate algorithms. Finally some results that computation time and usefulness of medial filtering in radiographic imaging are given

  4. The monitoring and control of task sequences in human and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Desrochers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to plan and execute a series of tasks leading to a desired goal requires remarkable coordination between sensory, motor, and decision-related systems. Prefrontal cortex is thought to play a central role in this coordination, especially when actions must be assembled extemporaneously and cannot be programmed as a rote series of movements. A central component of this flexible behavior is the moment-by-moment allocation of working memory and attention. The ubiquity of sequence planning in our everyday lives belies the neural complexity that supports this capacity, and little is known about how frontal cortical regions orchestrate the monitoring and control of sequential behaviors. For example, it remains unclear if and how sensory cortical areas, which provide essential driving inputs for behavior, are modulated by the frontal cortex during these tasks. Here we review what is known about moment-to-moment monitoring as it relates to visually guided, rule-driven behaviors that change over time. We highlight recent human work that shows how the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC participates in monitoring during task sequences. Neurophysiological data from monkeys suggests that monitoring may be accomplished by neurons that respond to items within the sequence and may in turn influence the tuning properties of neurons in posterior sensory areas. Understanding the interplay between proceduralized or habitual acts and supervised control of sequences is key to our understanding of sequential task execution. A crucial bridge will be the use of experimental protocols that allow for the examination of the functional homology between monkeys and humans. We illustrate how task sequences may be parceled into components and examined experimentally, thereby opening future avenues of investigation into the neural basis of sequential monitoring and control.

  5. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A.; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G.; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K.; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-01

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  6. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-26

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  7. Digital Hardware Realization of Forward and Inverse Kinematics for a Five-Axis Articulated Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thi Hai Linh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When robot arm performs a motion control, it needs to calculate a complicated algorithm of forward and inverse kinematics which consumes much CPU time and certainty slows down the motion speed of robot arm. Therefore, to solve this issue, the development of a hardware realization of forward and inverse kinematics for an articulated robot arm is investigated. In this paper, the formulation of the forward and inverse kinematics for a five-axis articulated robot arm is derived firstly. Then, the computations algorithm and its hardware implementation are described. Further, very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL is applied to describe the overall hardware behavior of forward and inverse kinematics. Additionally, finite state machine (FSM is applied for reducing the hardware resource usage. Finally, for verifying the correctness of forward and inverse kinematics for the five-axis articulated robot arm, a cosimulation work is constructed by ModelSim and Simulink. The hardware of the forward and inverse kinematics is run by ModelSim and a test bench which generates stimulus to ModelSim and displays the output response is taken in Simulink. Under this design, the forward and inverse kinematics algorithms can be completed within one microsecond.

  8. Test Program for Stirling Radioisotope Generator Hardware at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Bolotin, Gary S.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    Stirling-based energy conversion technology has demonstrated the potential of high efficiency and low mass power systems for future space missions. This capability is beneficial, if not essential, to making certain deep space missions possible. Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-W radioisotope power system. A variety of flight-like hardware, including Stirling convertors, controllers, and housings, was designed and built under the ASRG flight development project. To support future Stirling-based power system development NASA has proposals that, if funded, will allow this hardware to go on test at the NASA Glenn Research Center. While future flight hardware may not be identical to the hardware developed under the ASRG flight development project, many components will likely be similar, and system architectures may have heritage to ASRG. Thus, the importance of testing the ASRG hardware to the development of future Stirling-based power systems cannot be understated. This proposed testing will include performance testing, extended operation to establish an extensive reliability database, and characterization testing to quantify subsystem and system performance and better understand system interfaces. This paper details this proposed test program for Stirling radioisotope generator hardware at NASA Glenn. It explains the rationale behind the proposed tests and how these tests will meet the stated objectives.

  9. Hardware-in-the-loop grid simulator system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, John Curtiss; Collins, Edward Randolph; Rigas, Nikolaos

    2017-05-16

    A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) electrical grid simulation system and method that combines a reactive divider with a variable frequency converter to better mimic and control expected and unexpected parameters in an electrical grid. The invention provides grid simulation in a manner to allow improved testing of variable power generators, such as wind turbines, and their operation once interconnected with an electrical grid in multiple countries. The system further comprises an improved variable fault reactance (reactive divider) capable of providing a variable fault reactance power output to control a voltage profile, therein creating an arbitrary recovery voltage. The system further comprises an improved isolation transformer designed to isolate zero-sequence current from either a primary or secondary winding in a transformer or pass the zero-sequence current from a primary to a secondary winding.

  10. Hardware in the loop platform development for hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, E. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Fowler, E.; Stevens, M.B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fraser, M.W. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper described a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation simulation system designed to evaluate hybrid control strategies. The system was designed to reduce development costs and improve the safety of hybrid vehicle control systems. Model-based design processes for power trains typically include a series of processes to assess the real time and physical limitations of control systems prior to in-vehicle testing. The study used a 70 kW nickel metal hydride battery; a 67 kW 3-phase induction traction motor; and, a high voltage DC-DC converter within a fuel cell Chevrolet Equinox. Two physical vehicle controllers were used to interface with the virtual vehicle simulation in real time. System performance was monitored with a supervisory computer. A software in the loop (SIL) process was conducted to assess torque control and regenerative braking algorithm validation. An analysis of the controller code showed that a Simulink-native integrator block was updating too slowly. A custom integration term calculation was written. The charge control was then validated and tuned. It was concluded that use of the HIL system mitigated the risk of component damage through the identification and correction of unstable control logic. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Hardware accelerator design for change detection in smart camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Dunga, Srinivasa Murali; Saini, Ravi; Mandal, A. S.; Shekhar, Chandra; Chaudhury, Santanu; Vohra, Anil

    2011-10-01

    Smart Cameras are important components in Human Computer Interaction. In any remote surveillance scenario, smart cameras have to take intelligent decisions to select frames of significant changes to minimize communication and processing overhead. Among many of the algorithms for change detection, one based on clustering based scheme was proposed for smart camera systems. However, such an algorithm could achieve low frame rate far from real-time requirements on a general purpose processors (like PowerPC) available on FPGAs. This paper proposes the hardware accelerator capable of detecting real time changes in a scene, which uses clustering based change detection scheme. The system is designed and simulated using VHDL and implemented on Xilinx XUP Virtex-IIPro FPGA board. Resulted frame rate is 30 frames per second for QVGA resolution in gray scale.

  12. An empirical study on the basic human error probabilities for NPP advanced main control room operation using soft control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Harbi, Mohamed Ali Salem Al; Lee, Seung Jun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. ► The operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. ► Different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered. ► BHEPs in a soft control operation environment are investigated empirically. ► This work will be helpful to verify if soft control has positive or negative effects. -- Abstract: By adopting new human–system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies, the operation environment of main control rooms (MCRs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has changed. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, soft controls, and so on, are called Advanced MCRs. Among the many features in Advanced MCRs, soft controls are an important feature because the operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. Using soft controls such as mouse control, touch screens, and so on, operators can select a specific screen, then choose the controller, and finally manipulate the devices. However, because of the different interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional type control, different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered in the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) for advanced MCRs. Although there are many HRA methods to assess human reliabilities, such as Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP), Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Human Event Repository and Analysis (HERA), Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR), Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM), and so on, these methods have been applied to conventional MCRs, and they do not consider the new features of advance MCRs such as soft controls. As a result, there is an insufficient database for assessing human reliabilities in advanced

  13. Multi-loop PWR modeling and hardware-in-the-loop testing using ACSL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.M.; Heibel, M.D.; Catullo, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an Advanced Digital Feedwater Control System (ADFCS) which is aimed at reducing feedwater related reactor trips through improved control performance for pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants. To support control system setpoint studies and functional design efforts for the ADFCS, an ACSL based model of the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a Westinghouse (PWR) was generated. Use of this plant model has been extended from system design to system testing through integration of the model into a Hardware-in-Loop test environment for the ADFCS. This integration includes appropriate interfacing between a Gould SEL 32/87 computer, upon which the plant model executes in real time, and the Westinghouse Distributed Processing family (WDPF) test hardware. A development program has been undertaken to expand the existing ACSL model to include capability to explicitly model multiple plant loops, steam generators, and corresponding feedwater systems. Furthermore, the program expands the ADFCS Hardware-in-Loop testing to include the multi-loop plant model. This paper provides an overview of the testing approach utilized for the ADFCS with focus on the role of Hardware-in-Loop testing. Background on the plant model, methodology and test environment is also provided. Finally, an overview is presented of the program to expand the model and associated Hardware-in-Loop test environment to handle multiple loops

  14. A hardware overview of the RHIC LLRF platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, T.; Smith, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    The RHIC Low Level RF (LLRF) platform is a flexible, modular system designed around a carrier board with six XMC daughter sites. The carrier board features a Xilinx FPGA with an embedded, hard core Power PC that is remotely reconfigurable. It serves as a front end computer (FEC) that interfaces with the RHIC control system. The carrier provides high speed serial data paths to each daughter site and between daughter sites as well as four generic external fiber optic links. It also distributes low noise clocks and serial data links to all daughter sites and monitors temperature, voltage and current. To date, two XMC cards have been designed: a four channel high speed ADC and a four channel high speed DAC. The new LLRF hardware was used to replace the old RHIC LLRF system for the 2009 run. For the 2010 run, the RHIC RF system operation was dramatically changed with the introduction of accelerating both beams in a new, common cavity instead of each ring having independent cavities. The flexibility of the new system was beneficial in allowing the low level system to be adapted to support this new configuration. This hardware was also used in 2009 to provide LLRF for the newly commissioned Electron Beam Ion Source.

  15. Proceedings of the 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    ' contains papers on digital systems reliability, digital I and C technology, control systems, and architectural configurations. 'Hardware and Communications' contains papers on advanced sensors and measurement techniques, cyber-security, wireless technology application, component aging, and environmental compatibility. 'Techniques' contains papers on reactor noise analysis, signal-processing methods, diagnostics, prognostics, predictive maintenance, and system analysis tools. 'Future and Applications' contains papers on educating the next generation of nuclear power ICHMI professionals, Generation IV and research reactor I and C, application of next-generation I and C systems, lessons learned in digital upgrades, and approaches to setpoints. 'Qualification and Regulation' contains papers on safety critical software, qualification issues in an evolving regulatory environment, current licensing issues for advanced I and C technologies, digital I and C assessment methodologies, and software quality assurance. The HMIT papers are organized into three tracks. 'Advances in Human-System Interfaces' contains papers dealing with topics such as advances in control room design, user interaction with automation, visualization technology, computerized procedure systems and other operator support technology, and new HMIT. 'Human Factors Engineering Design and Evaluation' focuses on recent developments, and paper topics include design and analysis tools, function-based approaches to control room design, use of knowledge capture and engineering, virtual reality, advances and challenges in human reliability analysis, and approaches to verification and validation. 'HMIT Operational Considerations' includes paper topics such as regulatory challenges and approaches to advanced systems, regulatory oversight and involvement in safety culture, and innovative approaches to training and training technologies

  16. Proceedings of the 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    . 'Systems' contains papers on digital systems reliability, digital I and C technology, control systems, and architectural configurations. 'Hardware and Communications' contains papers on advanced sensors and measurement techniques, cyber-security, wireless technology application, component aging, and environmental compatibility. 'Techniques' contains papers on reactor noise analysis, signal-processing methods, diagnostics, prognostics, predictive maintenance, and system analysis tools. 'Future and Applications' contains papers on educating the next generation of nuclear power ICHMI professionals, Generation IV and research reactor I and C, application of next-generation I and C systems, lessons learned in digital upgrades, and approaches to setpoints. 'Qualification and Regulation' contains papers on safety critical software, qualification issues in an evolving regulatory environment, current licensing issues for advanced I and C technologies, digital I and C assessment methodologies, and software quality assurance. The HMIT papers are organized into three tracks. 'Advances in Human-System Interfaces' contains papers dealing with topics such as advances in control room design, user interaction with automation, visualization technology, computerized procedure systems and other operator support technology, and new HMIT. 'Human Factors Engineering Design and Evaluation' focuses on recent developments, and paper topics include design and analysis tools, function-based approaches to control room design, use of knowledge capture and engineering, virtual reality, advances and challenges in human reliability analysis, and approaches to verification and validation. 'HMIT Operational Considerations' includes paper topics such as regulatory challenges and approaches to advanced systems, regulatory oversight and involvement in safety culture, and innovative approaches to training and training

  17. Is function-based control room design human-centered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, L.; Savioja, P.

    2006-01-01

    Function-based approaches to system interface design appears an appealing possibility in helping designers and operators to cope with the vast amount of information needed to control complex processes. In this paper we provide evidence of operator performance analyses showing that outcome-centered performance measures may not be sufficiently informative for design. We need analyses indicating habitual patterns of using information, operator practices. We argue that practices that portray functional orienting to the task support mastery of the process. They also create potential to make use of function-based information presentation. We see that functional design is not an absolute value. Instead, such design should support communication of the functional significance of the process information to the operators in variable situations. Hence, it should facilitate development of practices that focus to interpreting this message. Successful function-based design facilitates putting operations into their contexts and is human-centered in an extended sense: It aids making sense in the complex, dynamic and uncertain environment. (authors)

  18. Demonstration of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Virtualization Capability in the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL)/Sustaining Base Network Assurance Branch (SBNAB) US Army Cyber Analytics Laboratory (ACAL) SCADA Hardware Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    application ,1 while the simulated PLC software is the open source ModbusPal Java application . When queried using the Modbus TCP protocol, ModbusPal reports...and programmable logic controller ( PLC ) components. The HMI and PLC components were instantiated with software and installed in multiple virtual...creating and capturing HMI– PLC network traffic over a 24-h period in the virtualized network and inspect the packets for errors.  Test the

  19. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on human factor...

  20. Human Reliability Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment for Positive Train Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This report describes an approach to evaluating the reliability of human actions that are modeled in a probabilistic risk assessment : (PRA) of train control operations. This approach to human reliability analysis (HRA) has been applied in the case o...

  1. A Cost-Effective Approach to Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Hansen, M. R.; Ballebye, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for developing cost effective hardware-in-the- loop (HIL) simulation platforms for the use in controller software test and development. The approach is aimed at the many smaller manufacturers of e.g. mobile hydraulic machinery, which often do not have very advanced...... testing facilities at their disposal. A case study is presented where a HIL simulation platform is developed for the controller of a truck mounted loader crane. The total expenses in hardware and software is less than 10.000$....

  2. Hardware in the loop simulation test platform of fuel cell backup system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Tiancai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of voltage mechanistic model, a real-time simulation model of the proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell backup system is developed, and verified by the measurable experiment data. The method of online parameters identification for the model is also improved. Based on the software LabVIEW/VeriStand real-time environment and the PXI Express hardware system, the PEM fuel cell system controller hardware in the loop (HIL simulation plat-form is established. Controller simulation test results showed the accuracy of HIL simulation platform.

  3. Objective evaluation of human manual control adaptation boundaries using a cybernetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.

    2018-01-01

    Manual control tasks can be found everywhere in our daily activities, and the human ability to adapt in controlling many different vehicles such as cars and airplanes make it possible for us to travel farther, faster and higher. The human adaptation ability to changes in the controlled element

  4. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... 192 and 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2007-27954] RIN 2137-AE64 Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human... Control Room Management/Human Factors rule at 49 CFR 192.631 and 195.446. The NPRM proposes to expedite... rule and to engage in open discussions with the agency at PHMSA's Control Room Management...

  5. Handbook of hardware/software codesign

    CERN Document Server

    Teich, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This handbook presents fundamental knowledge on the hardware/software (HW/SW) codesign methodology. Contributing expert authors look at key techniques in the design flow as well as selected codesign tools and design environments, building on basic knowledge to consider the latest techniques. The book enables readers to gain real benefits from the HW/SW codesign methodology through explanations and case studies which demonstrate its usefulness. Readers are invited to follow the progress of design techniques through this work, which assists readers in following current research directions and learning about state-of-the-art techniques. Students and researchers will appreciate the wide spectrum of subjects that belong to the design methodology from this handbook. .

  6. Battery Management System Hardware Concepts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lelie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the hardware aspects of battery management systems (BMS for electric vehicle and stationary applications. The purpose is giving an overview on existing concepts in state-of-the-art systems and enabling the reader to estimate what has to be considered when designing a BMS for a given application. After a short analysis of general requirements, several possible topologies for battery packs and their consequences for the BMS’ complexity are examined. Four battery packs that were taken from commercially available electric vehicles are shown as examples. Later, implementation aspects regarding measurement of needed physical variables (voltage, current, temperature, etc. are discussed, as well as balancing issues and strategies. Finally, safety considerations and reliability aspects are investigated.

  7. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocki, G.

    1993-01-01

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module

  8. Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-04-13

    Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer, including defining within a tree network of the parallel computer two or more sets of non-overlapping test levels of compute nodes of the network that together include all the data communications links of the network, each non-overlapping test level comprising two or more adjacent tiers of the tree; defining test cells within each non-overlapping test level, each test cell comprising a subtree of the tree including a subtree root compute node and all descendant compute nodes of the subtree root compute node within a non-overlapping test level; performing, separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, an uplink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels; and performing, separately from the uplink tests and separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, a downlink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels.

  9. Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, John

    2009-01-01

    For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU chip designs contain many processor cores and significant firmware content. This talk will attempt to distill the lessons learned over the past ten years, discuss how they apply to today s problems, outline some future directions.

  10. Hardware implementation of stochastic spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Josep L; Canals, Vincent; Morro, Antoni; Oliver, Antoni

    2012-08-01

    Spiking Neural Networks, the last generation of Artificial Neural Networks, are characterized by its bio-inspired nature and by a higher computational capacity with respect to other neural models. In real biological neurons, stochastic processes represent an important mechanism of neural behavior and are responsible of its special arithmetic capabilities. In this work we present a simple hardware implementation of spiking neurons that considers this probabilistic nature. The advantage of the proposed implementation is that it is fully digital and therefore can be massively implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The high computational capabilities of the proposed model are demonstrated by the study of both feed-forward and recurrent networks that are able to implement high-speed signal filtering and to solve complex systems of linear equations.

  11. Communication Estimation for Hardware/Software Codesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a general high level estimation model of communication throughput for the implementation of a given communication protocol. The model, which is part of a larger model that includes component price, software driver object code size and hardware driver area, is intended...... to be general enough to be able to capture the characteristics of a wide range of communication protocols and yet to be sufficiently detailed as to allow the designer or design tool to efficiently explore tradeoffs between throughput, bus widths, burst/non-burst transfers and data packing strategies. Thus...... it provides a basis for decision making with respect to communication protocols/components and communication driver design in the initial design space exploration phase of a co-synthesis process where a large number of possibilities must be examined and where fast estimators are therefore necessary. The fill...

  12. The double Chooz hardware trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi; Beissel, Franz; Reinhold, Bernd; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The double Chooz neutrino experiment aims to improve the present knowledge on {theta}{sub 13} mixing angle using two similar detectors placed at {proportional_to}280 m and respectively 1 km from the Chooz power plant reactor cores. The detectors measure the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. The hardware trigger has to be very efficient for antineutrinos as well as for various types of background events. The triggering condition is based on discriminated PMT sum signals and the multiplicity of groups of PMTs. The talk gives an outlook to the double Chooz experiment and explains the requirements of the trigger system. The resulting concept and its performance is shown as well as first results from a prototype system.

  13. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition [and control] system (DACS) upgrade study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-10-22

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system.

  14. Objective Model Selection for Identifying the Human Feedforward Response in Manual Control

    OpenAIRE

    Drop, F.M.; Pool, D.M.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2017-01-01

    Realistic manual control tasks typically involve predictable target signals and random disturbances. The human controller (HC) is hypothesized to use a feedforward control strategy for target-following, in addition to feedback control for disturbance-rejection. Little is known about human feedforward control, partly because common system identification methods have difficulty in identifying whether, and (if so) how, the HC applies a feedforward strategy. In this paper, an identification proce...

  15. THOR3: Humans Are More Important Than Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    refrain from diving into detail about the adverse effects of dehydration. Instead it will discuss the pros and cons of water and other sports drinks, and...facility location, programs of interest to each unit, projected usage, and often utilized the SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats...75 96 3 Sleds 150 150 1 Functional Training Grids 230 450 1 Pro Bodyblade 199 230 3 Calf Rollers 50 199 5 30’ hurdles 80 150 10 12’ hurdles 10

  16. Metabolic profiles of pomalidomide in human plasma simulated with pharmacokinetic data in control and humanized-liver mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Mitsui, Marina; Shibata, Norio; Guengerich, F Peter; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    1. Pomalidomide has been shown to be potentially teratogenic in thalidomide-sensitive animal species such as rabbits. Screening for thalidomide analogs devoid of teratogenicity/toxicity - attributable to metabolites formed by cytochrome P450 enzymes - but having immunomodulatory properties is a strategic pathway towards development of new anticancer drugs. 2. In this study, plasma concentrations of pomalidomide, its primary 5-hydroxylated metabolite, and its glucuronide conjugate(s) were investigated in control and humanized-liver mice. Following oral administration of pomalidomide (100 mg/kg), plasma concentrations of 7-hydroxypomalidomide and 5-hydroxypomalidomide glucuronide were slightly higher in humanized-liver mice than in control mice. 3. Simulations of human plasma concentrations of pomalidomide were achieved with simplified physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models in both groups of mice in accordance with reported pomalidomide concentrations after low dose administration in humans. 4. The results indicate that pharmacokinetic profiles of pomalidomide were roughly similar between control mice and humanized-liver mice and that control and humanized-liver mice mediated pomalidomide 5-hydroxylation in vivo. Introducing one aromatic amino group into thalidomide resulted in less species differences in in vivo pharmacokinetics in control and humanized-liver mice.

  17. Open source hard- and software: Using Arduino boards to keep old hardware running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugel, Helmut; Bobkov, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak went into operation in 1991 with a proposed lifetime of 10 years. Due to major modifications ASDEX Upgrade is still in operation. Infrastructure like data acquisition, workstations, etc. is being modernized, interfaces like RS-232 are vanishing and new interfaces are being introduced. This leads to the necessity to adapt old hardware. Most of the microcontrollers used in the old hardware do not offer any support of the new interfaces and have to be replaced. A simple and efficient way is to replace them with open hardware microcontroller boards like the Arduino. These boards are based on 8-bit RISC microcontrollers and offer a software development environment with a large number of libraries. In this paper the use of Arduino boards for replacing the position unit, the stub tuner interface and its use controlling a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) with phase control capability are shown

  18. Open source hard- and software: Using Arduino boards to keep old hardware running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugel, Helmut [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Bobkov, Volodymyr [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak went into operation in 1991 with a proposed lifetime of 10 years. Due to major modifications ASDEX Upgrade is still in operation. Infrastructure like data acquisition, workstations, etc. is being modernized, interfaces like RS-232 are vanishing and new interfaces are being introduced. This leads to the necessity to adapt old hardware. Most of the microcontrollers used in the old hardware do not offer any support of the new interfaces and have to be replaced. A simple and efficient way is to replace them with open hardware microcontroller boards like the Arduino. These boards are based on 8-bit RISC microcontrollers and offer a software development environment with a large number of libraries. In this paper the use of Arduino boards for replacing the position unit, the stub tuner interface and its use controlling a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) with phase control capability are shown.

  19. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    test hypotheses they developed about how people walk. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to define Human Locomotor Control W911NF-14-R-0009...An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination...Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Report Title Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination across

  20. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  1. Human factors measurement for future air traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan-Fox, Janice; Sankey, Michael J; Canty, James M

    2009-10-01

    This article provides a critical review of research pertaining to the measurement of human factors (HF) issues in current and future air traffic control (ATC). Growing worldwide air traffic demands call for a radical departure from current ATC systems. Future systems will have a fundamental impact on the roles and responsibilities of ATC officers (ATCOs). Valid and reliable methods of assessing HF issues associated with these changes, such as a potential increase (or decrease) in workload, are of utmost importance for advancing theory and for designing systems, procedures, and training. We outline major aviation changes and how these relate to five key HF issues in ATC. Measures are outlined, compared, and evaluated and are followed by guidelines for assessing these issues in the ATC domain. Recommendations for future research are presented. A review of the literature suggests that situational awareness and workload have been widely researched and assessed using a variety of measures, but researchers have neglected the areas of trust, stress, and boredom. We make recommendations for use of particular measures and the construction of new measures. It is predicted that, given the changing role of ATCOs and profound future airspace requirements and configurations, issues of stress, trust, and boredom will become more significant. Researchers should develop and/or refine existing measures of all five key HF issues to assess their impact on ATCO performance. Furthermore, these issues should be considered in a holistic manner. The current article provides an evaluation of research and measures used in HF research on ATC that will aid research and ATC measurement.

  2. Performance/price estimates for cortex-scale hardware: a design space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Mazad S; Hammerstrom, Dan

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we revisit the concept of virtualization. Virtualization is useful for understanding and investigating the performance/price and other trade-offs related to the hardware design space. Moreover, it is perhaps the most important aspect of a hardware design space exploration. Such a design space exploration is a necessary part of the study of hardware architectures for large-scale computational models for intelligent computing, including AI, Bayesian, bio-inspired and neural models. A methodical exploration is needed to identify potentially interesting regions in the design space, and to assess the relative performance/price points of these implementations. As an example, in this paper we investigate the performance/price of (digital and mixed-signal) CMOS and hypothetical CMOL (nanogrid) technology based hardware implementations of human cortex-scale spiking neural systems. Through this analysis, and the resulting performance/price points, we demonstrate, in general, the importance of virtualization, and of doing these kinds of design space explorations. The specific results suggest that hybrid nanotechnology such as CMOL is a promising candidate to implement very large-scale spiking neural systems, providing a more efficient utilization of the density and storage benefits of emerging nano-scale technologies. In general, we believe that the study of such hypothetical designs/architectures will guide the neuromorphic hardware community towards building large-scale systems, and help guide research trends in intelligent computing, and computer engineering. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Telomerase levels control the lifespan of human T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, Alexander; Yssel, Hans; Pene, Jerome; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Schertzer, Mike; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Spits, Hergen; Luiten, Rosalie M.

    2003-01-01

    The loss of telomeric DNA with each cell division contributes to the limited replicative lifespan of human T lymphocytes. Although telomerase is transiently expressed in T lymphocytes upon activation, it is insufficient to confer immortality. We have previously shown that immortalization of human

  4. Multistage switching hardware and software implementations for student experiment purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A.; Suherman

    2018-02-01

    Current communication and internet networks are underpinned by the switching technologies that interconnect one network to the others. Students’ understanding on networks rely on how they conver the theories. However, understanding theories without touching the reality may exert spots in the overall knowledge. This paper reports the progress of the multistage switching design and implementation for student laboratory activities. The hardware and software designs are based on three stages clos switching architecture with modular 2x2 switches, controlled by an arduino microcontroller. The designed modules can also be extended for batcher and bayan switch, and working on circuit and packet switching systems. The circuit analysis and simulation show that the blocking probability for each switch combinations can be obtained by generating random or patterned traffics. The mathematic model and simulation analysis shows 16.4% blocking probability differences as the traffic generation is uniform. The circuits design components and interfacing solution have been identified to allow next step implementation.

  5. Magnetic Gimbal Proof-of-Concept Hardware performance results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Keith O.

    1993-01-01

    The Magnetic Gimbal Proof-of-Concept Hardware activities, accomplishments, and test results are discussed. The Magnetic Gimbal Fabrication and Test (MGFT) program addressed the feasibility of using a magnetic gimbal to isolate an Electro-Optical (EO) sensor from the severe angular vibrations induced during the firing of divert and attitude control system (ACS) thrusters during space flight. The MGFT effort was performed in parallel with the fabrication and testing of a mechanically gimballed, flex pivot based isolation system by the Hughes Aircraft Missile Systems Group. Both servo systems supported identical EO sensor assembly mockups to facilitate direct comparison of performance. The results obtained from the MGFT effort indicate that the magnetic gimbal exhibits the ability to provide significant performance advantages over alternative mechanically gimballed techniques.

  6. GNSS CORS hardware and software enabling new science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, P.

    2009-12-01

    GNSS CORS networks are enabling new opportunities for science and public and private sector business. This paper will explore how the newest geodetic monitoring software and GNSS receiver hardware from Trimble Navigation Ltd are enabling new science. Technology trends and science opportunities will be explored. These trends include the installation of active GNSS control, automation of observations and processing, and the advantages of multi-observable and multi-constellation observations, all performed with the use of off the shelf products and industry standard open-source data formats. Also the possibilities with moving science from an after-the-fact postprocessed model to a real-time epoch-by-epoch solution will be explored. This presentation will also discuss the combination of existing GNSS CORS networks with project specific installations used for monitoring. Experience is showing GNSS is able to provide higher resolution data than previous methods, providing new tools for science, decision makers and financial planners.

  7. TA-55 facility control system upgrade project - human-system interface functional requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.H.; Pope, N.G.; Turner, W.J.; Brown, R.E.

    1995-11-01

    The functional requirements for that part of the Technical Area (TA)-55 Operations Center Upgrade Project that involves the human-system interface (HSI) are described in this document. The upgrade project seeks to replace completely the center's existing computerized data acquisition and display system, which consists of the field multiplexer units, Data General computer systems, and associated peripherals and software. The upgrade project has two parts-the Facility Data Acquisition Interface System (FDAIS) and the HSI. The HSI comprises software and hardware to provide a high-level graphical operator interface to the data acquisition system, as well as data archiving, alarm annunciation, and logging. The new system will be built with modern, commercially available components; it will improve reliability and maintainability, and it can be expanded for future needs

  8. Control of a Robot Dancer for Enhancing Haptic Human-Robot Interaction in Waltz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbo Wang; Kosuge, K

    2012-01-01

    Haptic interaction between a human leader and a robot follower in waltz is studied in this paper. An inverted pendulum model is used to approximate the human's body dynamics. With the feedbacks from the force sensor and laser range finders, the robot is able to estimate the human leader's state by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce interaction force, two robot controllers, namely, admittance with virtual force controller, and inverted pendulum controller, are proposed and evaluated in experiments. The former controller failed the experiment; reasons for the failure are explained. At the same time, the use of the latter controller is validated by experiment results.

  9. Why Open Source Hardware matters and why you should care

    OpenAIRE

    Gürkaynak, Frank K.

    2017-01-01

    Open source hardware is currently where open source software was about 30 years ago. The idea is well received by enthusiasts, there is interest and the open source hardware has gained visible momentum recently, with several well-known universities including UC Berkeley, Cambridge and ETH Zürich actively working on large projects involving open source hardware, attracting the attention of companies big and small. But it is still not quite there yet. In this talk, based on my experience on the...

  10. Support for NUMA hardware in HelenOS

    OpenAIRE

    Horký, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to extend HelenOS operating system with the support for ccNUMA hardware. The text of the thesis contains a brief introduction to ccNUMA hardware, an overview of NUMA features and relevant features of HelenOS (memory management, scheduling, etc.). The thesis analyses various design decisions of the implementation of NUMA support -- introducing the hardware topology into the kernel data structures, propagating this information to user space, thread affinity to ...

  11. Human-FES cooperative control for wrist movement: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  12. Talking with a Virtual Human : Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these

  13. Reliable software for unreliable hardware a cross layer perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rehman, Semeen; Henkel, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    This book describes novel software concepts to increase reliability under user-defined constraints. The authors’ approach bridges, for the first time, the reliability gap between hardware and software. Readers will learn how to achieve increased soft error resilience on unreliable hardware, while exploiting the inherent error masking characteristics and error (stemming from soft errors, aging, and process variations) mitigations potential at different software layers. · Provides a comprehensive overview of reliability modeling and optimization techniques at different hardware and software levels; · Describes novel optimization techniques for software cross-layer reliability, targeting unreliable hardware.

  14. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  15. Effects of controlled element dynamics on human feedforward behavior in ramp-tracking tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurense, Vincent A; Pool, Daan M; Damveld, Herman J; van Paassen, Marinus René M; Mulder, Max

    2015-02-01

    In real-life manual control tasks, human controllers are often required to follow a visible and predictable reference signal, enabling them to use feedforward control actions in conjunction with feedback actions that compensate for errors. Little is known about human control behavior in these situations. This paper investigates how humans adapt their feedforward control dynamics to the controlled element dynamics in a combined ramp-tracking and disturbance-rejection task. A human-in-the-loop experiment is performed with a pursuit display and vehicle-like controlled elements, ranging from a single integrator through second-order systems with a break frequency at either 3, 2, or 1 rad/s, to a double integrator. Because the potential benefits of feedforward control increase with steeper ramp segments in the target signal, three steepness levels are tested to investigate their possible effect on feedforward control with the various controlled elements. Analyses with four novel models of the operator, fitted to time-domain data, reveal feedforward control for all tested controlled elements and both (nonzero) tested levels of ramp steepness. For the range of controlled element dynamics investigated, it is found that humans adapt to these dynamics in their feedforward response, with a close to perfect inversion of the controlled element dynamics. No significant effects of ramp steepness on the feedforward model parameters are found.

  16. Human-Inspired Eigenmovement Concept Provides Coupling-Free Sensorimotor Control in Humanoid Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Alexei V; Lippi, Vittorio; Mergner, Thomas; Frolov, Alexander A; Hettich, Georg; Husek, Dusan

    2017-01-01

    Control of a multi-body system in both robots and humans may face the problem of destabilizing dynamic coupling effects arising between linked body segments. The state of the art solutions in robotics are full state feedback controllers. For human hip-ankle coordination, a more parsimonious and theoretically stable alternative to the robotics solution has been suggested in terms of the Eigenmovement (EM) control. Eigenmovements are kinematic synergies designed to describe the multi DoF system, and its control, with a set of independent, and hence coupling-free , scalar equations. This paper investigates whether the EM alternative shows "real-world robustness" against noisy and inaccurate sensors, mechanical non-linearities such as dead zones, and human-like feedback time delays when controlling hip-ankle movements of a balancing humanoid robot. The EM concept and the EM controller are introduced, the robot's dynamics are identified using a biomechanical approach, and robot tests are performed in a human posture control laboratory. The tests show that the EM controller provides stable control of the robot with proactive ("voluntary") movements and reactive balancing of stance during support surface tilts and translations. Although a preliminary robot-human comparison reveals similarities and differences, we conclude (i) the Eigenmovement concept is a valid candidate when different concepts of human sensorimotor control are considered, and (ii) that human-inspired robot experiments may help to decide in future the choice among the candidates and to improve the design of humanoid robots and robotic rehabilitation devices.

  17. Use of the Human Centered Design concept when designing ergonomic NPP control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrehot, Petr A.; Houser, Frantisek; Riha, Radek; Tuma, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Human-Centered Design is a concept aimed at reconciling human needs on the one hand and limitations posed by the design disposition of the room being designed on the other hand. This paper describes the main aspects of application of the Human-Centered Design concept to the design of nuclear power plant control rooms. (orig.)

  18. Internet-based hardware/software co-design framework for embedded 3D graphics applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Weng-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in technology are making it possible to run three-dimensional (3D graphics applications on embedded and handheld devices. In this article, we propose a hardware/software co-design environment for 3D graphics application development that includes the 3D graphics software, OpenGL ES application programming interface (API, device driver, and 3D graphics hardware simulators. We developed a 3D graphics system-on-a-chip (SoC accelerator using transaction-level modeling (TLM. This gives software designers early access to the hardware even before it is ready. On the other hand, hardware designers also stand to gain from the more complex test benches made available in the software for verification. A unique aspect of our framework is that it allows hardware and software designers from geographically dispersed areas to cooperate and work on the same framework. Designs can be entered and executed from anywhere in the world without full access to the entire framework, which may include proprietary components. This results in controlled and secure transparency and reproducibility, granting leveled access to users of various roles.

  19. Multi-Disciplinary Design Support using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.M.; Groothuis, M.A.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation as a means for multidisciplinary design support. The method presented here, aims at supporting the design of heterogeneous embedded control systems. The method considers the implementation process as a stepwise refinement from

  20. DUL Radio: A light-weight, wireless toolkit for sketching in hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Lunding, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Lasse Steenbock

    2011-01-01

    -mobile prototyping where fast reaction is needed (e.g. in controlling sound). The target audiences include designers, students, artists etc. with minimal programming and hardware skills. This presentation covers our motivations for creating the toolkit, specifications, test results, comparison to related products...