WorldWideScience

Sample records for control devices visibility

  1. Ultraviolet-visible nanophotonic devices

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and the Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Ph. D.) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 130-141. Recently in semiconductor market, III-Nitride materials and devices are of much interest due to their mechanical strength, radiation resistance, working in the spectrum from visible down to the deep ultraviolet region and solar-blind device ...

  2. Controlled Growth of Ordered III-Nitride Core-Shell Nanostructure Arrays for Visible Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishinaramangalam, Ashwin K.; Ul Masabih, Saadat Mishkat; Fairchild, Michael N.; Wright, Jeremy B.; Shima, Darryl M.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Feezell, Daniel F.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the growth of ordered arrays of nonpolar core-shell nanowalls and semipolar core-shell pyramidal nanostripes on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates using selective-area epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure arrays are controllably patterned into LED mesa regions, demonstrating a technique to impart secondary lithography features into the arrays. We study the dependence of the nanostructure cores on the epitaxial growth conditions and show that the geometry and morphology are strongly influenced by growth temperature, V/III ratio, and pulse interruption time. We also demonstrate the growth of InGaN quantum well shells on the nanostructures and characterize the structures by using micro-photoluminescence and cross-section scanning tunneling electron microscopy.

  3. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  4. Multi-Functional UV-Visible-IR Nanosensors Devices and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0099 MULTI-FUNCTIONAL UV - VISIBLE -IR NANOSENSORS DEVICES AND STRUCTURES Michael Stroscio UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS Final Report 04/29...MULTI-FUNCTIONAL UV - VISIBLE -IR NANOSENSORS DEVICES AND STRUCTURES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0271 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...FUNCTIONAL UV - VISIBLE -IR NANOSENSORS DEVICES AND STRUCTURES," under Grant FA9550-11-1-0271, 1SEPTEMBER 2011 to 28 FEBRUARY 2015

  5. Infrared control coating of thin film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2017-02-28

    Systems and methods for creating an infrared-control coated thin film device with certain visible light transmittance and infrared reflectance properties are disclosed. The device may be made using various techniques including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, sputter deposition, and sol-gel processes. In particular, a pulsed energy microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process may be used. Production of the device may occur at speeds greater than 50 Angstroms/second and temperatures lower than 200.degree. C.

  6. Infrared control coating of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2017-02-28

    Systems and methods for creating an infrared-control coated thin film device with certain visible light transmittance and infrared reflectance properties are disclosed. The device may be made using various techniques including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, sputter deposition, and sol-gel processes. In particular, a pulsed energy microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process may be used. Production of the device may occur at speeds greater than 50 Angstroms/second and temperatures lower than 200.degree. C.

  7. Game theory-based mode cooperative selection mechanism for device-to-device visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Huang, Zhitong; Li, Wei; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-03-01

    Various patterns of device-to-device (D2D) communication, from Bluetooth to Wi-Fi Direct, are emerging due to the increasing requirements of information sharing between mobile terminals. This paper presents an innovative pattern named device-to-device visible light communication (D2D-VLC) to alleviate the growing traffic problem. However, the occlusion problem is a difficulty in D2D-VLC. This paper proposes a game theory-based solution in which the best-response dynamics and best-response strategies are used to realize a mode-cooperative selection mechanism. This mechanism uses system capacity as the utility function to optimize system performance and selects the optimal communication mode for each active user from three candidate modes. Moreover, the simulation and experimental results show that the mechanism can attain a significant improvement in terms of effectiveness and energy saving compared with the cases where the users communicate via only the fixed transceivers (light-emitting diode and photo diode) or via only D2D.

  8. Controlling Smart Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Milanič, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Smart devices make our lives easier. However, by delegating more and more tasks to smart devices our wellbeing becomes dependent on their correct functioning. This creates a need for monitoring home devices in a similar way as businesses already do. The thesis describes the steps required for building a monitoring system suited for smart home monitoring, from the initial design to the final implementation of the solution. The goal was to create a user friendly monitoring system, designed as m...

  9. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described. (LEW)

  10. Visible scintillation photodetector device incorporating chalcopyrite semiconductor crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold

    2017-04-04

    A photodetector device, including: a scintillator material operable for receiving incident radiation and emitting photons in response; a photodetector material coupled to the scintillator material operable for receiving the photons emitted by the scintillator material and generating a current in response, wherein the photodetector material includes a chalcopyrite semiconductor crystal; and a circuit coupled to the photodetector material operable for characterizing the incident radiation based on the current generated by the photodetector material. Optionally, the scintillator material includes a gamma scintillator material and the incident radiation received includes gamma rays. Optionally, the photodetector material is further operable for receiving thermal neutrons and generating a current in response. The circuit is further operable for characterizing the thermal neutrons based on the current generated by the photodetector material.

  11. UV-Visible optical photo-detection from porous silicon (PS) MSM device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, M.; Sarmah, S.; Sarkar, D.

    2017-01-01

    Si photodiodes have been in use as UV detectors and some compound semiconductors as visible detectors. However their implementation to the optoelectronic field is limited due to high fabrication cost and/or sophisticated prerequisites. The present article aims at fabricating porous silicon Metal-Semiconductor-Metal structure and its photodetection property for the UV wavelength range from 250 to 390 nm along with a portion of visible spectrum. PS thickness attained is ∼ 2 μm with uniform distribution of pores. It shows characteristic visible yellow/green luminescence under UV-Visible irradiation. The responsivities, obtained through photoconductivity measurement of the device, are obtained as 1.42 and 2.00 AW-1 for UV and visible ranges respectively, whereas the response times in corresponding ranges as 0.70 and 1.00 s. These results suggest superiority of the device as a UV-Visible detector compared to silicon or other semiconductor detectors. However, the device shows ageing effect due to slow oxidation of the PS layer.

  12. DeviceNet-based device-level control in SSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Leng Yong Bin; Lu Cheng Meng; Miao Hai Feng; Liu Song Qiang; Shen Guo Bao

    2002-01-01

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is an EPICS-based distributed system. One of the key techniques to construct the system is the device-level control. The author describes the design and implementation of the DeviceNet-based device controller. A prototype of the device controller was tested in the experiments of magnet power supply and the result showed a precision of 3 x 10 sup - sup 5

  13. Visible and near-infrared electroluminescence from TiO2/p+-Si heterostructured device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on visible and near-infrared (NIR electroluminescence (EL from the device based on the TiO2/p+-Si heterostructure, in which the TiO2 film is composed of anatase and rutile phases. As the device is applied with sufficiently high forward bias with the positive voltage connecting to p+-Si, the visible EL peaking at ∼600 nm along with the NIR EL centered at ∼810 nm occur simultaneously. It is proposed that the oxygen vacancies in the anatase TiO2 and Ti3+ defect states in the rutile TiO2 are the responsible centers for the visible and NIR EL, respectively.

  14. Automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell driven by visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Han, Yanchao; Xu, Miao; Zhang, Lingling; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    Inverted illumination compensation is important in energy-saving projects, artificial photosynthesis and some forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics. However, only a few illumination adjustments based on self-powered biodetectors that quantitatively detect the intensity of visible light have been reported. We constructed an automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PBFC) driven by visible light. The PBFC consisted of a glucose dehydrogenase modified bioanode and a p-type semiconductor cuprous oxide photocathode. The PBFC had a high power output of 161.4 μW cm-2 and an open circuit potential that responded rapidly to visible light. It adjusted the amount of illumination inversely irrespective of how the external illumination was changed. This rational design of utilizing PBFCs provides new insights into automatic light adjustable devices and may be of benefit to intelligent applications.Inverted illumination compensation is important in energy-saving projects, artificial photosynthesis and some forms of agriculture, such as hydroponics. However, only a few illumination adjustments based on self-powered biodetectors that quantitatively detect the intensity of visible light have been reported. We constructed an automatic illumination compensation device based on a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell (PBFC) driven by visible light. The PBFC consisted of a glucose dehydrogenase modified bioanode and a p-type semiconductor cuprous oxide photocathode. The PBFC had a high power output of 161.4 μW cm-2 and an open circuit potential that responded rapidly to visible light. It adjusted the amount of illumination inversely irrespective of how the external illumination was changed. This rational design of utilizing PBFCs provides new insights into automatic light adjustable devices and may be of benefit to intelligent applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00759g

  15. 25 CFR 226.36 - Control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control devices. 226.36 Section 226.36 Indians BUREAU OF... AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.36 Control devices. In drilling operations in fields... shall install an approved gate valve or other controlling device which is in proper working...

  16. Portable control device for networked mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, John T. (Albuquerque, NM); Byrne, Raymond H. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Jon R. (Edgewood, NM); Harrington, John J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gladwell, T. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A handheld control device provides a way for controlling one or multiple mobile robotic vehicles by incorporating a handheld computer with a radio board. The device and software use a personal data organizer as the handheld computer with an additional microprocessor and communication device on a radio board for use in controlling one robot or multiple networked robots.

  17. Aperiodic TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal: full-visible-spectrum solar light harvesting in photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-09-23

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Architecture, development and implementation of a SWIR to visible integrated up-conversion imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarusi, Gabby; Templeman, Tzvi; Hechster, Elad; Nissim, Nimrod; Vitenberg, Vladimir; Maman, Nitzan; Tal, Amir; Solodar, Assi; Makov, Guy; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim; Visoly-Fisher, Iris; Golan, Yuval

    2016-04-01

    A new concept of short wavelength infrared (SWIR) to visible upconversion integrated imaging device is proposed, modeled and some initial measured results are presented. The device is a hybrid inorganic-organic device that comprises six nano-metric scale sub-layers grown on n-type GaAs substrates. The first layer is a ~300nm thick PbSe nano-columnar absorber layer grown in (111) orientation to the substrate plan (100), with a diameter of 8- 10nm and therefore exhibit quantum confinement effects parallel to the substrate and bulk properties perpendicular to it. The advantage of this structure is the high oscillator strength and hence absorption to incoming SWIR photons while maintaining the high bulk mobility of photo-excited charges along the columns. The top of the PbSe absorber layer is coated with 20nm thick metal layer that serves as a dual sided mirror, as well as a potentially surface plasmon enhanced absorption in the PbSe nano-columns layer. The photo-excited charges (holes and electrons in opposite directions) are drifted under an external applied field to the OLED section (that is composed of a hole transport layer, an emission layer and an electron transport layer) where they recombine with injected electron from the transparent cathode and emit visible light through this cathode. Due to the high absorption and enhanced transport properties this architecture has the potential of high quantum efficiency, low cost and easy implementation in any optical system. As a bench-mark, alternative concept where InGaAs/InP heterojunction couple to liquid crystal optical spatial light modulator (OSLM) structure was built that shows a full upconversion to visible of 1550nm laser light.

  19. Effect of visible-light illumination on resistive switching characteristics in Ag/Ce2W3O12/FTO devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai; Li, Xiaoping; Liang, Dandan; Chen, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The resistive switching device is a fascinating candidate for next generation nonvolatile memories. In this Letter, we report a simple hydrothermal way to prepare Ce2W3O12 powder. Furthermore, we fabricated a resistive switching memory device with Ag/Ce2W3O12/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) structure. Moreover, we observed the effect of visible-light illumination on resistive switching memory behaviour in Ag/Ce2W3O12/FTO devices. This Letter is useful for exploring the new potential materials for resistive switching memory device, and provides the visible-light as a new control method for resistive switching random access memory (RRAM).

  20. Semiconductor diode laser material and devices with emission in visible region of the spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladany, I.; Kressel, H.

    1975-01-01

    Two alloy systems, (AlGa)As and (InGa)P, were studied for their properties relevant to obtaining laser diode operation in the visible region of the spectrum. (AlGa)As was prepared by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) and (InGa)P was prepared both by vapor-phase epitaxy and by liquid-phase epitaxy. Various schemes for LPE growth were applied to (InGa)P, one of which was found to be capable of producing device material. All the InGaP device work was done using vapor-phase epitaxy. The most successful devices were fabricated in (AlGa)As using heterojunction structures. At room temperature, the large optical cavity design yielded devices lasing in the red (7000 A). Because of the relatively high threshold due to the basic band structure limitation in this alloy, practical laser diode operation is presently limited to about 7300 A. At liquid-nitrogen temperature, practical continuous-wave operation was obtained at a wavelength of 6500 to 6600 A, with power emission in excess of 50 mW. The lowest pulsed lasing wavelength is 6280 A. At 223 K, lasing was obtained at 6770 A, but with high threshold currents. The work dealing with CW operation at room temperature was successful with practical operation having been achieved to about 7800 A.

  1. Predistortion control device and method, assembly including a predistortion control device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, André

    2005-01-01

    A predistortion control device (1). The device has a first predistortion control input connectable to a power amplifier output (21); a second predistortion control input (11) connectable to a signal contact of a predistortion device; and a predistortion control output (12) connectable to a control c

  2. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  3. Cursor Control Device Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, Aniko; Pace, John; Thompson, Shelby

    2013-01-01

    The test battery was developed to provide a standard procedure for cursor control device evaluation. The software was built in Visual Basic and consists of nine tasks and a main menu that integrates the set-up of the tasks. The tasks can be used individually, or in a series defined in the main menu. Task 1, the Unidirectional Pointing Task, tests the speed and accuracy of clicking on targets. Two rectangles with an adjustable width and adjustable center- to-center distance are presented. The task is to click back and forth between the two rectangles. Clicks outside of the rectangles are recorded as errors. Task 2, Multidirectional Pointing Task, measures speed and accuracy of clicking on targets approached from different angles. Twenty-five numbered squares of adjustable width are arranged around an adjustable diameter circle. The task is to point and click on the numbered squares (placed on opposite sides of the circle) in consecutive order. Clicks outside of the squares are recorded as errors. Task 3, Unidirectional (horizontal) Dragging Task, is similar to dragging a file into a folder on a computer desktop. Task 3 requires dragging a square of adjustable width from one rectangle and dropping it into another. The width of each rectangle is adjustable, as well as the distance between the two rectangles. Dropping the square outside of the rectangles is recorded as an error. Task 4, Unidirectional Path Following, is similar to Task 3. The task is to drag a square through a tunnel consisting of two lines. The size of the square and the width of the tunnel are adjustable. If the square touches any of the lines, it is counted as an error and the task is restarted. Task 5, Text Selection, involves clicking on a Start button, and then moving directly to the underlined portion of the displayed text and highlighting it. The pointing distance to the text is adjustable, as well as the to-be-selected font size and the underlined character length. If the selection does not

  4. Paper-Based Analytical Devices Relying on Visible-Light-Enhanced Glucose/Air Biofuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaiqing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhu; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-11-01

    A strategy that combines visible-light-enhanced biofuel cells (BFCs) and electrochemical immunosensor into paper-based analytical devices was proposed for sensitive detection of the carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). The gold nanoparticle modified paper electrode with large surface area and good conductibility was applied as an effective matrix for primary antibodies. The glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) modified gold-silver bimetallic nanoparticles were used as bioanodic biocatalyst and signal magnification label. Poly(terthiophene) (pTTh), a photoresponsive conducting polymer, served as catalyst in cathode for the reduction of oxygen upon illumination by visible light. In the bioanode, electrons were generated through the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GDH. The amount of electrons is determined by the amount of GDH, which finally depended on the amount of CA15-3. In the cathode, electrons from the bioanode could combine with the generated holes in the HOMO energy level of cathode catalysts pTTh. Meanwhile, the high energy level photoexcited electrons were generated in the LUMO energy level and involved in the oxygen reduction reaction, finally resulting in an increasing current and a decreasing overpotential. According to the current signal, simple and efficient detection of CA15-3 was achieved.

  5. Controlling the visible luminescence in hydrothermal ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lem, Laurent L.C.; Phillips, Matthew R.; Ton-That, Cuong, E-mail: Cuong.Ton-That@uts.edu.au

    2014-10-15

    Cathodoluminescence spectra have been measured in hydrothermal and hydrogen-doped ZnO at different excitation densities and temperatures to investigate the emission efficiencies of near-band-edge (NBE), green and yellow luminescence bands. The NBE intensity depends linearly on the electron beam excitation as expected for excitonic recombination character. The intensities of the green and yellow bands are highly dependent not only on the excitation density but also on temperature. At high excitation densities ZnO exhibits dominant green emission at room temperature; the intensity of the green band can be further controlled by doping ZnO with hydrogen, which passivates green luminescence centers. Conversely at small excitation densities (< 0.1 nA) and low temperatures the visible luminescence from ZnO is predominantly yellow due to the abundance of Li in hydrothermal ZnO. The results are explained by differences in the recombination kinetics and the relative concentrations of the green and yellow centers, and illustrate that single-color emission can be achieved in ZnO by adjusting the excitation power and temperature. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal ZnO crystals are analyzed by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. • Intensities of luminescence bands are highly dependent on excitation density. • Visible luminescence is influenced by temperature and hydrogen dopants. • Emission efficiencies are explained by recombination kinetics of defects.

  6. Control devices incorporated with shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Suduo; Li Xiongyan

    2007-01-01

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is a type of material that offers some unique characteristics for use in devices for vibration control applications. Based on SMA's material properties, four types of control devices that incorporate NiTi SMA wires are introduced in this paper, which include three types of dampers (SMA damper, SMA-MR damper and SMA-friction damper) and one kind of isolation bearing (SMA-rubber bearing). Mechanical models of these devices and their experimental verifications are presented. To investigate the control performance of these devices, the SMA-MR damper and SMA-rubber bearing are applied to structures. The results show that the control devices could be effective in reducing the seismic response of structures.

  7. Microfluidic Control Using Colloidal Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terray, Alex; Oakey, John; Marr, David W. M.

    2002-06-01

    By manipulating colloidal microspheres within customized channels, we have created micrometer-scale fluid pumps and particulate valves. We describe two positive-displacement designs, a gear and a peristaltic pump, both of which are about the size of a human red blood cell. Two colloidal valve designs are also demonstrated, one actuated and one passive, for the direction of cells or small particles. The use of colloids as both valves and pumps will allow device integration at a density far beyond what is currently achievable by other approaches and may provide a link between fluid manipulation at the macro- and nanoscale.

  8. Robotics and teleoperator-controlled devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meieran, H B

    1988-08-01

    This paper presents a rationale for and a summary of tasks and missions to which mobile and stationary robots and other teleoperator-controlled devices could be assigned in response to the accidental release of radioactive and other hazardous/toxic materials to the environment. Many of these vehicles and devices currently support operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and other nuclear industry facilities. This paper also discusses specific missions for these devices at the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant sites at the time of the accidents. Also discussed is the status of devices under development for future applications, as well as research on robotics.

  9. Unequal error control scheme for dimmable visible light communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Keyan; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Yi; Li, Huaan

    2017-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC), which has the advantages of a very large bandwidth, high security, and freedom from license-related restrictions and electromagnetic-interference, has attracted much interest. Because a VLC system simultaneously performs illumination and communication functions, dimming control, efficiency, and reliable transmission are significant and challenging issues of such systems. In this paper, we propose a novel unequal error control (UEC) scheme in which expanding window fountain (EWF) codes in an on-off keying (OOK)-based VLC system are used to support different dimming target values. To evaluate the performance of the scheme for various dimming target values, we apply it to H.264 scalable video coding bitstreams in a VLC system. The results of the simulations that are performed using additive white Gaussian noises (AWGNs) with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are used to compare the performance of the proposed scheme for various dimming target values. It is found that the proposed UEC scheme enables earlier base layer recovery compared to the use of the equal error control (EEC) scheme for different dimming target values and therefore afford robust transmission for scalable video multicast over optical wireless channels. This is because of the unequal error protection (UEP) and unequal recovery time (URT) of the EWF code in the proposed scheme.

  10. Volume control device for digital signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nuijten, Petrus A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    A digital volume control device comprises a logic unit for volume control of digital input signals. Successively supplied m-bits words with maximally k bits active, derived from the output signals of or supplied by a volume control (4) with a quantizer (5) element the filtered m-bits workds are

  11. FACTS device control strategy using PMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Tauseef Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The laying and commissioning of new transmission line is very difficult due to socio-economic problems, like environmental clearances, right of way, etc. Therefore, there is an emphasis on better utilization of available transmission infrastructure. FACTS devices can provide reactive power compensation, transmission capability enhancement, and voltage and stability improvement. FACTS devices operate under the command of system operator who analyses its demand by the data acquired through traditional SCADA system, state estimation algorithms and PMUs. SCADA together with PMU give accurate information about the operational state of power system. This paper proposes a scheme to automate the FACTS devices in collaboration with PMUs in a more efficient way. Highly precised data from PMUs can be fed to intelligent controllers for effective analyzing and automating the FACTS device through control command. Thus, this combination can provide real time control of reactive power, together with enhancement of power handling capability and stability improvement.

  12. Cortical control for prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew B.; Kipke, D. W.; Perepelkin, P. D.

    1996-05-01

    The work presented in this session is part of a project to develop an arm-control system based on neuronal activity recorded from the cerebral cortex. This will make it possible for amputees or paralyzed individuals to move a prosthetic arm or, using functional neural stimulation, their own limbs as effortlessly and with as much skill as intact individuals. We are developing and testing this system in monkeys and hope to have a prototype working in the next couple of years. This project has been made more feasible because we have been able, in the last 15 years to extract, from the brain, a signal that represents arm trajectory accurately. In this paper, we describe how this technique was developed and how we use this as the basis for our control signal. An alternative approach using a self-organizing feature map, an algorithm to deduce arm configuration given an endpoint trajectory and the development of a telemetry system to transmit the neuronal data is described in subsequent papers.

  13. Controlled Fluoroalkylation Reactions by Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Iqbal, Naeem; You, Youngmin; Cho, Eun Jin

    2016-10-18

    Owing to their unique biological, physical, and chemical properties, fluoroalkylated organic substances have attracted significant attention from researchers in a variety of disciplines. Fluoroalkylated compounds are considered particularly important in pharmaceutical chemistry because of their superior lipophilicity, binding selectivity, metabolic stability, and bioavailability to those of their nonfluoroalkylated analogues. We have developed various methods for the synthesis of fluoroalkylated substances that rely on the use of visible-light photoredox catalysis, a powerful preparative tool owing to its environmental benignity and mechanistic versatility in promoting a large number of synthetically important reactions with high levels of selectivity. In this Account, we describe the results of our efforts, which have led to the development of visible-light photocatalytic methods for the introduction of a variety of fluoroalkyl groups (such as, -CF3, -CF2R, -CH2CF3, -C3F7, and -C4F9) and arylthiofluoroalkyl groups (such as, -CF2SPh, -C2F4SAr, and -C4F8SAr) to organic substances. In these studies, electron-deficient carbon-centered fluoroalkyl radicals were successfully generated by the appropriate choice of fluoroalkyl source, photocatalyst, additives, and solvent. The redox potentials of the photocatalysts and the fluoroalkyl sources and the choice of sacrificial electron donor or acceptor as the additive affected the photocatalytic pathway, determining whether an oxidative or reductive quenching pathway was operative for the generation of key fluoroalkyl radicals. Notably, we have observed that additives significantly affect the efficiencies and selectivities of these reactions and can even change the outcome of the reaction by playing additional roles during its course. For instance, a tertiary amine as an additive in the reaction medium can act not only as a sacrificial electron donor in photoredox catalysis but also as a hydrogen atom source, an elimination

  14. 40 CFR 63.995 - Other control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other control devices. 63.995 Section... Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.995 Other control devices. (a) Other control device equipment and...

  15. DKIST visible tunable filter control software: connecting the DKIST framework to OPC UA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alexander; Halbgewachs, Clemens; Kentischer, Thomas J.; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar; Sigwarth, Michael; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a narrowband tunable filter system for imaging spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry based on large-format Fabry Perot interferometers that is currently built by the Kiepenheuer Institut fuer Sonnenphysik for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST). The control software must handle around 30 motorised drives, 3 etalons, a polarizing modulator, a helium neon laser for system calibration, temperature controllers and a multitude of sensors. The VTF is foreseen as one of the DKISTs first-light instruments and should become operational in 2019. In the design of the control software we strongly separate between the high-level part interfacing to the DKIST common services framework (CSF) and the low-level control system software which guarantees real-time performance and synchronization to precision time protocol (PTP) based observatory time. For the latter we chose a programmable logic controller (PLC) from Beckhoff Automation GmbH which supports a wide set of input and output devices as well as distributed clocks for synchronizing signals down to the sub-microsecond level. In this paper we present the design of the required control system software as well as our work on extending the DKIST CSF to use the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) standard which provides a cross-platform communication standard for process control and automation as an interface between the high-level software and the real-time control system.

  16. Voltage controlled spintronics device for logic applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S. D.; You, C.-Y.

    1999-09-03

    We consider logic device concepts based on our previously proposed spintronics device element whose magnetization orientation is controlled by application of a bias voltage instead of a magnetic field. The basic building block is the voltage-controlled rotation (VCR) element that consists of a four-layer structure--two ferromagnetic layers separated by both nanometer-thick insulator and metallic spacer layers. The interlayer exchange coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers oscillates as a function of applied voltage. We illustrate transistor-like concepts and re-programmable logic gates based on VCR elements.

  17. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  18. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  19. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  20. Practical design control implementation for medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Justiniano, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Bringing together the concepts of design control and reliability engineering, this book is a must for medical device manufacturers. It helps them meet the challenge of designing and developing products that meet or exceed customer expectations and also meet regulatory requirements. Part One covers motivation for design control and validation, design control requirements, process validation and design transfer, quality system for design control, and measuring design control program effectiveness. Part Two discusses risk analysis and FMEA, designing-in reliability, reliability and design verific

  1. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak.

  2. Boundary layer control device for duct silencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.

  3. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.

    2017-05-09

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  4. Design controls for the medical device industry

    CERN Document Server

    Teixeira, Marie B

    2013-01-01

    The second edition of a bestseller, Design Controls for the Medical Device Industry provides a comprehensive review of the latest design control requirements, as well as proven tools and techniques to ensure your company's design control program evolves in accordance with current industry practice. The text assists in the development of an effective design control program that not only satisfies the US FDA Quality System Regulation (QSR) and ISO 9001 and 13485 standards, but also meets today's third-party auditor/investigator expectations and saves you valuable time and money.The author's cont

  5. Device for controlling a wind motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenov, V.Ye.; Fedotov, V.Ye.; Khritonov, V.P.; Kuntsevich, P.A.; Ostrovskiy, A.S.; Terentyev, L.I.

    1982-01-01

    A block diagram is proposed of the device for preventing sharp turns of the head ''H'' of the wind unit when it is installed in the wind. The device contains a brake with electromagnetic drive. When the electromagnetic is engaged, the H is connected to the support tower through a shock absorber with damper, and with disengaged electromagnetic, the H can turn in relation to the vertical axis. The controlling signal to the electromagnetic drive is fed from the key element which has 3 inlets.

  6. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bao Zhang; Kang-Kang Meng; Mei-Yin Yang; Edmonds, K. W.; Hao Zhang; Kai-Ming Cai; Yu Sheng; Nan Zhang; Yang Ji; Jian-Hua Zhao; Hou-Zhi Zheng; Kai-You Wang

    2015-01-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the pie...

  7. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by an...

  8. Cavity filling water control below aerator devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱尚拓; 吴建华; 马飞; 徐建荣; 彭育; 汪振

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of high dam projects within China, the dragon-drop-tail spillway tunnel is introduced and widely used. In view of the high water head and the large flow velocity on the dragon-drop-tail section, aerator devices are usually placed for the cavitation damage control. For the device placed in its initial position, it is a serious concern to design a suitable flow regime of the cavity and to control the cavity filling water due to the large flow depth and the low Froude number through this aera-tor. In this study, the relationships between the geometries of the aerator device and the jet impact angle of the lower trajectory of the flow are theoretically analyzed with/without a local slope. Nine test cases with different geometries are designed, the effectiveness of the filling water control is experimentally investigated under different operation conditions, and two criteria of the local slope design are proposed. It is concluded that the cavity flow regime and the filling water can be improved if a small impact angle and some sui-table geometries of the local slope are designed.

  9. USB STORAGE DEVICE CONTROL IN LINUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar B. Kute

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The world of communication is moving towards standardization of hardware ports. All kind of communication is now using USB as the port as it is universally recognized hardware medium of communication. It is become flexible and easy to use kind of things with portable USB storage devices to copy data from one system to another system. It is possible to copy data within seconds with the help of portable USB flash memory devices. It has leaded insecurity of data storage on computer system. Various surveys has shown after network copy only USB data copy has made data insecure on computer . It is also the source of malwares in the system. To disable the USB ports is not the solution to this problem because almost all peripheral devices now uses the USB ports for communication. So, we have implemented a system which has complete USB storage enable and disable control for Linux operating system. The administrator will decide the storage devices connected to USB must be enabled or disabled .We experimented the algorithm on Linux kernel version 3.9 onwards on Debian based distributions. We have got 100% success rate of the said system with 0% performance degradation.

  10. Teaching medical device design using design control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Newman, Karen; Cornwall, G Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The design of medical devices requires an understanding of a large number of factors, many of which are difficult to teach in the traditional educational format. This subject benefits from using a challenge-based learning approach, which provides focused design challenges requiring students to understand important factors in the context of a specific device. A course was designed at San Diego State University (CA, USA) that applied challenge-based learning through in-depth design challenges in cardiovascular and orthopedic medicine, and provided an immersive field, needs-finding experience to increase student engagement in the process of knowledge acquisition. The principles of US FDA 'design control' were used to structure the students' problem-solving approach, and provide a format for the design documentation, which was the basis of grading. Students utilized a combination of lecture materials, industry guest expertise, texts and readings, and internet-based searches to develop their understanding of the problem and design their solutions. The course was successful in providing a greatly increased knowledge base and competence of medical device design than students possessed upon entering the course.

  11. Electronic 4-wheel drive control device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayato, S.; Takanori, S.; Shigeru, H.; Tatsunori, S.

    1984-01-01

    The internal rotation torque generated during operation of a 4-wheel drive vehicle is reduced using a control device whose clutch is attached to one part of the rear-wheel drive shaft. One torque sensor senses the drive torque associated with the rear wheel drive shaft. A second sensor senses the drive torque associated with the front wheel drive shaft. Revolution count sensors sense the revolutions of each drive shaft. By means of a microcomputer, the engagement of the clutch is changed to insure that the ratio of the torque sensors remains constant.

  12. Nanoscale Devices for Rectification of High Frequency Radiation from the Infrared through the Visible: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Miskovsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and viable method for optical rectification. This approach has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally and is the basis fot the development of devices to rectify radiation through the visible. This technique for rectification is based not on conventional material or temperature asymmetry as used in MIM (metal/insulator/metal or Schottky diodes, but on a purely sharp geometric property of the antenna. This sharp “tip” or edge with a collector anode constitutes a tunnel junction. In these devices the rectenna (consisting of the antenna and the tunnel junction acts as the absorber of the incident radiation and the rectifier. Using current nanofabrication techniques and the selective atomic layer deposition (ALD process, junctions of 1 nm can be fabricated, which allow for rectification of frequencies up to the blue portion of the spectrum. To assess the viability of our approach, we review the development of nanoantenna structures and tunnel junctions capable of operating in the visible region. In addition, we review the detailed process of rectification and present methodologies for analysis of diode data. Finally, we present operational designs for an optical rectenna and its fabrication and discuss outstanding problems and future work.

  13. Determination of the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectral Response of a Charge - Injection Device Array Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    spectroscopic systems. In contrast to these approaches the charge-injection device has several unique features. The CID * ensor consists of a discrete...Embassy University of California, San Diego APO San Francisco 96503 La Jolla, California Mr. James Kelley Dr. A. Zirino DT.R.C Code 2R03 Naval Undersea Center Annapolis, Maryland 21402 San Diego, California 92132 1

  14. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  15. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  16. Medical Devices; Cardiovascular Devices; Classification of the Steerable Cardiac Ablation Catheter Remote Control System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  17. Adaptive threshold device for detection of reflections based visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Changeez; Taherpour, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    One of the major restriction of existing visible light communication (VLC) systems is the limitation of channel transmission bandwidth which can be used in such systems. In this paper, an optimal and a suboptimal receiver are proposed to increase the on-off keying (OOK) transmission rate and hence to increase bandwidth efficiency of VLC system when a multiple reflections channel model is used to characterize the impacts of reflections in VLC signal propagation. Optimal detector consists of a simple receiver with a memory to find the optimal threshold based on the previous detected data. The error probability of the proposed detector is derived in the closed form and compared with the simulation results. It is demonstrated that the proposed detectors can improve the transmitting bandwidth close to the 3-dB bandwidth of the LOS channel model (which is several hundred MHz), whereas bit-error-rate (BER) remains low, in particular where the optimal detection is utilized.

  18. Highly Efficient and Well-controlled Ambient Temperature Raft Polymerization Under Visible Light Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A range of well-defined polymers and their corresponding block copolymers were synthesized via ambient temperature RAFT polymerization under environmentally friendly visible light radiation,using a (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) photo-initiator[1].The results indicated that the photolysis of chain transfer agent (CTA) functionalities was significantly suppressed under visible light radiation,thus exerting well control over RAFT process,leading to a remarkably living beh...

  19. Nitride-based Quantum-Confined Structures for Ultraviolet-Visible Optical Devices on Silicon Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2017-04-01

    III–V nitride quantum-confined structures embedded in nanowires (NWs), also known as quantum-disks-in-nanowires (Qdisks-in-NWs), have recently emerged as a new class of nanoscale materials exhibiting outstanding properties for optoelectronic devices and systems. It is promising for circumventing the technology limitation of existing planar epitaxy devices, which are bounded by the lattice-, crystal-structure-, and thermal- matching conditions. This work presents significant advances in the growth of good quality GaN, InGaN and AlGaN Qdisks-in-NWs based on careful optimization of the growth parameters, coupled with a meticulous layer structure and active region design. The NWs were grown, catalyst-free, using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on silicon (Si) substrates. A 2-step growth scheme was developed to achieve high areal density, dislocation free and vertically aligned NWs on Ti/Si substrates. Numerical modeling of the NWs structures, using the nextnano3 software, showed reduced polarization fields, and, in the presence of Qdisks, exhibited improved quantum-confinement; thus contributing to high carrier radiative-recombination rates. As a result, based on the growth and device structure optimization, the technologically challenging orange and yellow NWs light emitting devices (LEDs) targeting the ‘green-yellow’ gap were demonstrated on scalable, foundry compatible, and low-cost Ti coated Si substrates. The NWs work was also extended to LEDs emitting in the ultraviolet (UV) range with niche applications in environmental cleaning, UV-curing, medicine, and lighting. In this work, we used a Ti (100 nm) interlayer and Qdisks to achieve good quality AlGaN based UV-A (320 - 400 nm) device. To address the issue of UV-absorbing polymer, used in the planarization process, we developed a pendeo-epitaxy technique, for achieving an ultra-thin coalescence of the top p-GaN contact layer, for a self-planarized Qdisks-in-NWs UV-B (280 – 320 nm) LED grown

  20. Synthesis and polymorphic control for visible light active titania nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewgun, Sujaree

    Titania (TiO2) is useful for many applications in photocatalysis, antimicrobials, pigment, deodorization, and decomposition of harmful organics and undesirable compounds in the air and waste water under UV irradiation. Among the three phases of TiO2, Rutile, Anatase, and Brookite, studies have been more focused on the anatase and rutile phases. Pure brookite is the most difficult phase to prepare, even under hydrothermal conditions. Predominantly brookite phase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the Water-based Ambient Condition Sol (WACS) process in our laboratory. The objectives of this research were to enhance visible light active (VLA) photocatalytic properties of polymorphic brookite TiO2 by minimizing the lattice defects and narrowing band gap of titania by nitrogen and/or carbon chromophone, and to investigate the deactivation, reusability, and regeneration of the VLA titania in order to design better titania catalysts for organic compound degradation applications. In order to study the influence of hydroxyl content on photocatalytic activities (PCAs) of polymorphic titania nanoparticles, the WACS samples were post-treated by a Solvent-based Ambient Condition Sol (SACS) process in sec-butanol (sec-BuOH). All samples were characterized for phase composition, surface area, hydroxyl contamination, and particle morphology by x-ray diffraction, N2 physisorption, FT-IR, solid state 1H NMR and scanning electron microscopy, and then compared to a commercial titania, Degussa P25. Evaluation of methyl orange (MO) degradation under UV irradiation results showed that the lower lattice hydroxyl content in SACS titania enhanced the PCA. As-prepared titania and SACS samples, which have similar surface areas and crystallinity, were compared in order to prove that the superior PCA came from the reduction in the lattice hydroxyl content. To enhance PCA and VLA properties of WACS, an alternative high boiling point polar solvent, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), was utilized in the

  1. A visible light imaging device for cardiac rate detection with reduced effect of body movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaotian; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin

    2014-09-01

    A visible light imaging system to detect human cardiac rate is proposed in this paper. A color camera and several LEDs, acting as lighting source, were used to avoid the interference of ambient light. From people's forehead, the cardiac rate could be acquired based on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. The template matching method was used after the capture of video. The video signal was discomposed into three signal channels (RGB) and the region of interest was chosen to take the average gray value. The green channel signal could provide an excellent waveform of pulse wave on the account of green lights' absorptive characteristics of blood. Through the fast Fourier transform, the cardiac rate was exactly achieved. But the research goal was not just to achieve the cardiac rate accurately. With the template matching method, the effects of body movement are reduced to a large extent, therefore the pulse wave can be detected even while people are in the moving state and the waveform is largely optimized. Several experiments are conducted on volunteers, and the results are compared with the ones gained by a finger clamped pulse oximeter. The contrast results between these two ways are exactly agreeable. This method to detect the cardiac rate and the pulse wave largely reduces the effects of body movement and can probably be widely used in the future.

  2. Enhancing Nanoparticle-Based Visible Detection by Controlling the Extent of Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seokwon; Koo, Ok Kyung; You, Young Sang; Lee, Yeong Eun; Kim, Min-Sik; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Kang, Dong Hyun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Young Jin; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2012-06-01

    Visible indication based on the aggregation of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) is highly advantageous for rapid on-site detection of biological entities, which even untrained persons can perform without specialized instrumentation. However, since the extent of aggregation should exceed a certain minimum threshold to produce visible change, further applications of this conventional method have been hampered by insufficient sensitivity or certain limiting characteristics of the target. Here we report a signal amplification strategy to enhance visible detection by introducing switchable linkers (SLs), which are designed to lose their function to bridge NPs in the presence of target and control the extent of aggregation. By precisely designing the system, considering the quantitative relationship between the functionalized NPs and SLs, highly sensitive and quantitative visible detection is possible. We confirmed the ultrahigh sensitivity of this method by detecting the presence of 20 fM of streptavidin and fewer than 100 CFU/mL of Escherichia coli.

  3. Remote device access in the new accelerator controls middleware

    CERN Document Server

    Baggiolini, V; Jensen, S; Kostro, K; Risso, A; Trofimov, N N; SL

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the Remote Device Access (RDA) package developed at CERN in the framework of the joint PS/SL Controls Middleware project. The package design reflects the Accelerator Device Model in which devices, named entities in the control system, can be controlled via properties. RDA implements this model in a distributed environment with devices residing in servers that can run anywhere in the controls network. It provides a location-independent and reliable access to the devices from control programs. By invoking the device access methods, clients can read, write and subscribe to device property values. We describe the architecture and design of RDA its API, and CORBA-based implementations in Java and C++. First applications of RDA in the CERN accelerator control systems are described as well.

  4. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, KSC liftoff from a remote control tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, riding atop the external tank(ET), begins its roll maneuver after lifting off from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex (LC) pad at 9:24:51 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). Exhaust plumes billow from the solid rocket booster (SRB) skirts. The glow of the three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) is visible. This photo was taken by a remote control tracking device mounted 1600 feet from epicenter.

  5. Controllable valley splitting in silicon quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Srijit; Slinker, K. A.; Friesen, Mark; McGuire, L. M.; Truitt, J. L.; Tahan, Charles; Klein, L. J.; Chu, J. O.; Mooney, P. M.; van der Weide, D. W.; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon has many attractive properties for quantum computing, and the quantum-dot architecture is appealing because of its controllability and scalability. However, the multiple valleys in the silicon conduction band are potentially a serious source of decoherence for spin-based quantum-dot qubits. Only when a large energy splits these valleys do we obtain well-defined and long-lived spin states appropriate for quantum computing. Here, we show that the small valley splittings observed in previous experiments on Si-SiGe heterostructures result from atomic steps at the quantum-well interface. Lateral confinement in a quantum point contact limits the electron wavefunctions to several steps, and enhances the valley splitting substantially, up to 1.5meV. The combination of electrostatic and magnetic confinement produces a valley splitting larger than the spin splitting, which is controllable over a wide range. These results improve the outlook for realizing spin qubits with long coherence times in silicon-based devices.

  6. Mechanism of Attitude Control Device for Floating Object

    OpenAIRE

    辻, 俊明; 大西, 公平

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the new mechanism on attitude control device for unfixed objects. Flywheel is a common attitude control device on spacecraft that provides precise control at an easy rate. However, rapid response is hardly achieved since low reaction torque is available applying flywheel. The purpose in this paper is to improve the response of attitude control device with flywheel. Brake equipment is mounted on the flywheel in order to raise the maximum torque. Maximum torque is raised dr...

  7. 75 FR 20935 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways; Maintaining Minimum...: Notice of proposed amendments (NPA). SUMMARY: The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is..., and highways with narrow pavement widths and low traffic volumes. \\4\\ Carlson, Park, Andersen...

  8. Towards electrochromic devices having visible color switching using electronic push-push and push-pull cinnamaldehyde derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarathne, Daminda; Skene, W G

    2013-12-11

    A series of symmetric and unsymmetric conjugated azomethines derived from cinnamaldehyde and 2,5-diaminothiophene-3,4-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester were prepared. The optical, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical properties of the electronic push-pull and push-push triads were investigated. Their properties could be tuned contingent on the cinnamaldehyde's electron withdrawing and donating substituents. The push-push symmetric derivative exhibited positive solvatochromism with the absorbance spanning some 31 nm, depending on the solvent polarity. Solvent dependent spectroelectrochemistry was also found for the symmetric push-push azomethine. The color of the neutral state and radical cation spanned 215 nm. The most pronounced color transition of the purple colored material was found in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), where the color bleached with electrochemical oxidation. This was a result of the absorbance shifting into the near infrared (NIR) and not from decomposition of the azomethine. Electrochromic devices with the azomethines possessing desired reversible oxidation and color changes in the visible were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the applicability of these azomethine triads in devices.

  9. Brain-controlled body movement assistance devices and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuthardt, Eric C.; Love, Lonnie J.; Coker, Rob; Moran, Daniel W.

    2017-01-10

    Methods, devices, systems, and apparatus, including computer programs encoded on a computer storage medium, for brain-controlled body movement assistance devices. In one aspect, a device includes a brain-controlled body movement assistance device with a brain-computer interface (BCI) component adapted to be mounted to a user, a body movement assistance component operably connected to the BCI component and adapted to be worn by the user, and a feedback mechanism provided in connection with at least one of the BCI component and the body movement assistance component, the feedback mechanism being configured to output information relating to a usage session of the brain-controlled body movement assistance device.

  10. Brain-controlled body movement assistance devices and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthardt, Eric C.; Love, Lonnie J.; Coker, Rob; Moran, Daniel W.

    2017-01-10

    Methods, devices, systems, and apparatus, including computer programs encoded on a computer storage medium, for brain-controlled body movement assistance devices. In one aspect, a device includes a brain-controlled body movement assistance device with a brain-computer interface (BCI) component adapted to be mounted to a user, a body movement assistance component operably connected to the BCI component and adapted to be worn by the user, and a feedback mechanism provided in connection with at least one of the BCI component and the body movement assistance component, the feedback mechanism being configured to output information relating to a usage session of the brain-controlled body movement assistance device.

  11. Control device for underground extension units. Steuereinrichtung fuer untertaegige Ausbaueinheiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1987-08-20

    The invention concerns a control device for a sliding cap situated on the screwdown cap of an extension frame. The control device situated in the area of the joint axis between the screwdown cap and the roof cap consists of a cylindrical gear-shifting gate and a proximity switch. The control device prevents the sliding cap moving out if a certain angle of the screwdown cap is exceeded.

  12. 49 CFR 178.338-11 - Discharge control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge control devices. 178.338-11 Section 178... devices. (a) Excess-flow valves are not required. (b) Each liquid filling and liquid discharge line must... fusible elements actuated at a temperature not exceeding 121 °C (250 °F), or equivalent devices....

  13. Clinical research device for ovarian cancer detection by optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet C-visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ronie; Chandrasekaran, Archana; Brewer, Molly A; Hatch, Kenneth D; Utzinger, Urs

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of ovarian cancer could greatly increase the likelihood of successful treatment. However, present detection techniques are not very effective, and symptoms are more commonly seen in later stage disease. Amino acids, structural proteins, and enzymatic cofactors have endogenous optical properties influenced by precancerous changes and tumor growth. We present the technical details of an optical spectroscopy system used to quantify these properties. A fiber optic probe excites the surface epithelium (origin of 90% of cases) over 270 to 580 nm and collects fluorescence and reflectance at 300 to 800 nm with four or greater orders of magnitude instrument to background suppression. Up to four sites per ovary are investigated on patients giving consent to oophorectomy and the system's in vivo optical evaluation. Data acquisition is completed within 20 s per site. We illustrate design, selection, and development of the components used in the system. Concerns relating to clinical use, performance, calibration, and quality control are addressed. In the future, spectroscopic data will be compared with histological biopsies from the corresponding tissue sites. If proven effective, this technique can be useful in screening women at high risk of developing ovarian cancer to determine whether oophorectomy is necessary.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of Sm3+ ions activated lithium lead alumino borate glasses for visible luminescent device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deopa, Nisha; Rao, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) characterization of Lithium Lead Alumino Borate (LiPbAlB) glasses doped with Sm3+ ions at varying concentrations have been studied by using absorption, excitation, emission, time resolved and confocal image measurements. From the absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters were evaluated and in turn used to estimate various radiative parameters for the fluorescent levels of Sm3+ ion doped LiPbAlB glasses. The PL spectra of Sm3+ ions exhibit three emission bands corresponding to the transitions 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2 and 6H9/2, for which the emission cross-sections and branching ratios were evaluated to know the potentialities of these materials as visible luminescent devices. The decay spectral profiles measured for 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition level were used to estimate quantum efficiency of the as-prepared glasses. The non-exponential decay curves observed for higher Sm3+ ion concentrations were well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama model to understand the predominant energy transfer mechanism involved in the as-prepared glasses. CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperatures (CCT) were evaluated to understand the utility of the titled glasses in cool white light generation. The confocal images captured under 405 nm CW laser excitation show intense reddish-orange color. From the evaluated radiative parameters, emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency, CIE co-ordinates, CCT temperatures and confocal images, it was observed that LiPbAlB glass with 0.5 mol% Sm3+ ions are more suitable for w-LEDs and reddish-orange luminescent device applications.

  15. Frequency and electric field controllable photodevice: FYTRONIX device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataroğlu, A.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Özdemir, Mehmet; Özdemir, Resul; Usta, Hakan; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Farooq, W. A.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Al/p-Si/BODIPY/Al diode was fabricated by forming BODIPY organic layer on p-Si having ohmic contact. The electrical and photoresponse properties of the prepared diode were investigated in detail. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements were performed under dark and various illumination intensities. It is observed that the photocurrent under illumination is higher than the dark current. The transient measurements indicate that the device exhibits both photodiode and photocapacitor behavior. We called this device as FYTRONIX device. The photoresponse behavior of the FYTRONIX device is controlled simultaneously by frequency and electric field. The FYRONIX device can be used as a photoresponse sensor in optoelectronic applications.

  16. Controlled Defects of Zinc Oxide Nanorods for Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Al-Sabahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution from human and industrial activities has received much attention as it adversely affects human health and bio-diversity. In this work we report efficient visible light photocatalytic degradation of phenol using supported zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods and explore the role of surface defects in ZnO on the visible light photocatalytic activity. ZnO nanorods were synthesized on glass substrates using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal process, while the surface defect states were controlled by annealing the nanorods at various temperatures and were characterized by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for the evaluation of phenol photocatalytic degradation. ZnO nanorods with high surface defects exhibited maximum visible light photocatalytic activity, showing 50% degradation of 10 ppm phenol aqueous solution within 2.5 h, with a degradation rate almost four times higher than that of nanorods with lower surface defects. The mineralization process of phenol during degradation was also investigated, and it showed the evolution of different photocatalytic byproducts, such as benzoquinone, catechol, resorcinol and carboxylic acids, at different stages. The results from this study suggest that the presence of surface defects in ZnO nanorods is crucial for its efficient visible light photocatalytic activity, which is otherwise only active in the ultraviolet region.

  17. Use of UPFC device controlled by fuzzy logic controllers for decoupled power flow control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of decoupled active and reactive power flow control in a power system using a UPFC device controlled by fuzzy logic controllers. A Brief theoretical review of the operation principles and applications of UPFC devices and design principles of the fuzzy logic controller used are given. A Matlab/Simulink model of the system with UPFC, the fuzzy controller setup, and graphs of the results are presented. Conclusions are drawn regarding the possibility of using this system for decoupled control of the power flow in power systems based on analysis of these graphs.

  18. SPICE modeling of flux-controlled unipolar memristive devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xu-Dong; Tang Yu-Hua; Wu Jun-Jie; Zhu Xuan; Zhou Jing; Huang Da

    2013-01-01

    Unipolar memristive devices are an important kind of resistive switching devices.However,few circuit models of them have been proposed.In this paper,we propose the SPICE modeling of flux-controlled unipolar memristive devices based on the memristance versus state map.Using our model,the flux thresholds,ON and OFF resistance,and compliance current can easily be set as model parameters.We simulate the model in HSPICE using model parameters abstracted from real devices,and the simulation results show that the proposed model caters to the real device data very well,thus demonstrating that the model is correct.Using the same modeling methodology,the SPICE model of charge-controlled unipolar memristive devices could also be developed.The proposed model could be used to model resistive memory cells,logical gates as well as synapses in artificial neural networks.

  19. Linear optimal control of tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, C.E.; Firestone, M.A.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-05-01

    The control of plasma position, shape and current in a tokamak fusion reactor is examined using linear optimal control. These advanced tokamaks are characterized by non up-down symmetric coils and structure, thick structure surrounding the plasma, eddy currents, shaped plasmas, superconducting coils, vertically unstable plasmas, and hybrid function coils providing ohmic heating, vertical field, radial field, and shaping field. Models of the electromagnetic environment in a tokamak are derived and used to construct control gains that are tested in nonlinear simulations with initial perturbations. The issues of applying linear optimal control to advanced tokamaks are addressed, including complex equilibrium control, choice of cost functional weights, the coil voltage limit, discrete control, and order reduction. Results indicate that the linear optimal control is a feasible technique for controlling advanced tokamaks where the more common classical control will be severely strained or will not work. 28 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Wearable Device Control Platform Technology for Network Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application development platform is the most important environment in IT industry. There are a variety of platforms. Although the native development enables application to optimize, various languages and software development kits need to be acquired according to the device. The coexistence of smart devices and platforms has rendered the native development approach time and cost consuming. Cross-platform development emerged as a response to these issues. These platforms generate applications for multiple devices based on web languages. Nevertheless, development requires additional implementation based on a native language because of the coverage and functions of supported application programming interfaces (APIs. Wearable devices have recently attracted considerable attention. These devices only support Bluetooth-based interdevice communication, thereby making communication and device control impossible beyond a certain range. We propose Network Application Agent (NetApp-Agent in order to overcome issues. NetApp-Agent based on the Cordova is a wearable device control platform for the development of network applications, controls input/output functions of smartphones and wearable/IoT through the Cordova and Native API, and enables device control and information exchange by external users by offering a self-defined API. We confirmed the efficiency of the proposed platform through experiments and a qualitative assessment of its implementation.

  1. Risk management abilities in multimodal maritime supply chains: Visibility and control perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilko, Jyri; Ritala, Paavo; Hallikas, Jukka

    2016-11-29

    Supply chain complexity and disintegration lead to increased uncertainty from a stakeholders' perspective, which is emerging as one of the major challenges of risk management. The ability to identify risks has weakened, as the responsibility of supply chain risk management is handed over to outside service providers. Regardless, the risks, their visibility and their impact depend on the position of the companies in the supply chain. The actors in the chain must therefore collaborate to create effective risk management conditions. This challenging situation is especially pronounced in multimodal maritime supply chains, where the risks and actor focality are high. This paper contributes to current risk management literature by providing a holistic and systemic view of risk visibility and control in maritime supply chains. The study employs broad-based, qualitative interview data collected from actors operating in southern Finland and the Gulf of Finland as well as an expert-panel assessment of the related risk management abilities. The results show a high level of variance in the level of risk identification and visibility between the actors in question. This further suggests that collaboration in supply chain risk management is essential, as an awareness of the risks and their control mechanisms do not necessarily reside in the same company.

  2. Controlled trifluoromethylation reactions of alkynes through visible-light photoredox catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naeem; Jung, Jaehun; Park, Sehyun; Cho, Eun Jin

    2014-01-07

    The control of a reaction that can form multiple products is a highly attractive and challenging concept in synthetic chemistry. A set of valuable CF3 -containing molecules, namely trifluoromethylated alkenyl iodides, alkenes, and alkynes, were selectively generated from alkynes and CF3 I by environmentally benign and efficient visible-light photoredox catalysis. Subtle differences in the combination of catalyst, base, and solvent enabled the control of reactivity and selectivity for the reaction between an alkyne and CF3 I. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Visible/Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Sensing of Solids under Controlled Environmental Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Anheier, Norman C.; Mendoza, Albert; Fritz, Brad G.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the use of a wind tunnel for conducting controlled passive hyperspectral imaging experiments. Passive techniques are potentially useful for detecting explosives, solid-phase chemicals and other materials of interest from a distance so as to provide operator safety. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates a wind tunnel facility that can generate and circulate artificial atmospheres to control lighting, humidity, temperature, aerosol burdens, and obscurants. We will present recent results describing optimized sensing of solids over tens of meters distance using both visible and near-infrared cameras, as well as the effects of certain environmental parameters on data retrieval.

  4. Discrete control of resonant wave energy devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, A H; Babarit, A

    2012-01-28

    Aiming at amplifying the energy productive motion of wave energy converters (WECs) in response to irregular sea waves, the strategies of discrete control presented here feature some major advantages over continuous control, which is known to require, for optimal operation, a bidirectional power take-off able to re-inject energy into the WEC system during parts of the oscillation cycles. Three different discrete control strategies are described: latching control, declutching control and the combination of both, which we term latched-operating-declutched control. It is shown that any of these methods can be applied with great benefit, not only to mono-resonant WEC oscillators, but also to bi-resonant and multi-resonant systems. For some of these applications, it is shown how these three discrete control strategies can be optimally defined, either by analytical solution for regular waves, or numerically, by applying the optimal command theory in irregular waves. Applied to a model of a seven degree-of-freedom system (the SEAREV WEC) to estimate its annual production on several production sites, the most efficient of these discrete control strategies was shown to double the energy production, regardless of the resource level of the site, which may be considered as a real breakthrough, rather than a marginal improvement.

  5. Broadband Wireless Data Acquisition and Control Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum is proposing to develop a broadband wireless device for real-time data acquisition and monitoring applicable to the field instrumentation and control...

  6. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Fruk, Ljiljana [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Hung, Yu-Chueh, E-mail: ychung@ee.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-21

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices.

  7. Emulation of Industrial Control Field Device Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. International Society of Automation, 2009. [Cap10] Capula Limited. Case study: Alstom power...via the HMI, more than 99% of all messages from 5 the MTU are automatic [Boy09]. This is particularly true for very complex or very large systems where...telemetry units ( RTU ) (as opposed to remote terminal units) and programmable logic controllers (PLC). While similar in concept, there are differences

  8. STS-41 Discovery, OV-103, KSC liftoff from a remote control tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, riding atop the external tank (ET), begins its roll maneuver after lifting off from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39 at 7:47 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). Exhaust plumes billow from the solid rocket booster (SRB) skirts. The glow of the three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) is visible. This photo was taken by a remote control tracking device mounted 1600 feet from epicenter and looks from the bottom of the ET to OV-103's nose.

  9. Local Gate Control in Carbon Nanotube Quantum Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biercuk, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes exhibit many properties which make them ideal candidates for applications in coherent electronic devices for quantum computation.We have made significant technological advancements in device fabrication,for the creation of multiple spatially localized electrostatic gates on a single nanotube device. These advancements permit a previously unattainable level of device control in the quantum regime, essential forelectronic logic operations. Our measurements have demonstrated independent gate control in nanotube double quantum dots defined by naturally occurring tunnel barriers [1], as well as the controllable formation of intratube quantum point contacts [2]. In these devices conductance quantization is evident in units of e2/h, suggesting that both band and spin degeneracies may be lifted at zero magnetic field. Local gating has also permitted the fabrication of fully gate-defined intratube quantum dots with gate-tunable tunnel barriers. Multiple quantum dots with independent control over charge number and tunneling rates have been demonstrated [3], raising the functionality of carbon nanotube devices to match that of standard semiconductor heterostructures. New devices incorporating integrated RF-SETs, and microwave studies of gate-defined intratube quantum dots will be discussed.[1] Science 303 p.655, 20042] PRL in press, cond-mat/04066523] To be published

  10. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These s

  11. Controllable Chemoselectivity in Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Four Diverse Aerobic Radical Cascade Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinfei; Ye, Xinyi; Bureš, Filip; Liu, Hongjun; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-21

    Reported is the controllable selectivity syntheses of four distinct products from the same starting materials by visible-light photoredox catalysis. By employing a dicyanopyrazine-derived chromophore (DPZ) as photoredox catalyst, an aerobic radical mechanism has been developed, and allows the reactions of N-tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) with N-itaconimides to through four different pathways, including addition-cyclization, addition-elimination, addition-coupling, and addition-protonation, with satisfactory chemoselectivity. The current strategy provide straightforward access to four different but valuable N-heterocyclic adducts in moderate to excellent yields. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fountain code-based error control scheme for dimmable visible light communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lifang; Hu, Rose Qingyang; Wang, Jianping; Xu, Peng

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a novel error control scheme using Fountain codes is proposed in on-off keying (OOK) based visible light communications (VLC) systems. By using Fountain codes, feedback information is needed to be sent back to the transmitter only when transmitted messages are successfully recovered. Therefore improved transmission efficiency, reduced protocol complexity and relative little wireless link-layer delay are gained. By employing scrambling techniques and complementing symbols, the least complemented symbols are needed to support arbitrary dimming target values, and the value of entropy of encoded message are increased.

  13. Virtual Machine Language Controls Remote Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center worked with Blue Sun Enterprises, based in Boulder, Colorado, to enhance the company's virtual machine language (VML) to control the instruments on the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction mission. Now the NASA-improved VML is available for crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, and has potential applications on remote systems such as weather balloons, unmanned aerial vehicles, and submarines.

  14. Growth control of sessile microbubbles in PDMS devices

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Andreas; Kähler, Christian J; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Marin, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    In a microfluidic environment, the presence of bubbles is often detrimental to the functionality of the device, leading to clogging or cavitation, but microbubbles can also be an indispensable asset in other applications such as microstreaming. In either case, it is crucial to understand and control the growth or shrinkage of these bodies of air, in particular in common soft-lithography devices based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is highly permeable to gases. In this work, we study the gas transport into and out of a bubble positioned in a microfluidic device, taking into account the direct gas exchange through PDMS as well as the transport of gas through the liquid in the device. Hydrostatic pressure regulation allows for the quantitative control of growth, shrinkage, or the attainment of a stable equilibrium bubble size. We find that the vapor pressure of the liquid plays an important role for the balance of gas transport, accounting for variability in experimental conditions and suggesting addition...

  15. Prototyping of concurrent control systems implemented in FPGA devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on prototyping aspects of concurrent control systems and their further implementation and partial reconfiguration in programmable devices. Further, it lays out a full prototyping flow for concurrent control systems. Based on a given primary specification, a system is described with an interpreted Petri net, which naturally reflects the concurrent and sequential relationships of the design. The book shows that, apart from the traditional option of static configuration of the entire system, the latest programmable devices (especially FPGAs) offer far more sophistication. Partial reconfiguration allows selected parts of the system to be replaced without having to reprogram the entire structure of the device. Approaches to dynamic and static partial reconfiguration of concurrent control systems are presented and described in detail.< The theoretical work is illustrated by examples drawn from various applications, with a milling machine and a traffic-light controller highlighted as representat...

  16. Safety control for powder compaction of initiating explosive device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Powder compaction is one of the most crucial processes in initiating explosive device manufacturing. The quality of powder compaction may influence the performances of product directly. Traditional powder compaction mainly makes use of manual gravitational spiral loading machine or lever loading machine. Potential accident by the strike in powder compaction of initiating explosive device could risk life, property and the environment. To prevent this risk, automatic control system and control strategy can be used to guarantee no strike in pressing process. The scope of this paper is to analyze and review the control strategy for powder compact and discuss the experimental results for the application of the proposed strategy.

  17. [Key Technology and Quantity Control of Wearable Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongen; Yao, Shaowei

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, because the wearable medical devices can indicate the health monitoring index of blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen content, temperature, respiration of the human body anytime and anywhere, can also be used for the treatment of various diseases, accompanied by the development of large data, which will bring a subversive revolution for the medical device industry. This paper introduces the development of wearable devices, key technical index of main products, and to make a preliminary study on its quantity control.

  18. Visible Light Triggered Drug Release from TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: A Novel Controllable Antibacterial Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jingwen; Gao, Zhida; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we use a double-layered stack of TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs) to construct a visible-light triggered drug delivery system. Key for visible-light drug release is a hydrophobic cap on the nanotubes containing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs allow for a photocatalytic scission of the hydrophobic chain under visible light. To demonstrate the principle, we loaded antibiotic (ampicillin sodium (AMP)) in the lower part of the TiO2 nanotube stack, triggered visible light induced release, and carried out antibacterial studies. The release from the platform becomes most controllable if the drug is silane-grafted in hydrophilic bottom layer for drug storage. Thus visible-light photocatalysis can also determine the release kinetics of the active drug from the nanotube wall.

  19. Electromechanical Devices and Controllers. Electronics Module 10. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ed

    This module is the tenth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross-reference table of instructional materials. Six instructional units cover: electromechanical control devices; programmable logic controllers (PLC);…

  20. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Monenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM-based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSP) devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment

  1. Visibility maintenance via controlled invariance for leader-follower Dubins-like vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidi, Fabio; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the visibility maintenance problem (VMP) for a leader-follower pair of Dubins-like vehicles with input constraints, and proposes an original solution based on the notion of controlled invariance. The nonlinear model describing the relative dynamics of the vehicles is interpreted as linear uncertain system, with the leader robot acting as an external disturbance. The VMP is then reformulated as a linear constrained regulation problem with additive disturbances (DLCRP). Positive D-invariance conditions for linear uncertain systems with parametric disturbance matrix are introduced and used to solve the VMP when box bounds on the state, control input and disturbance are considered. The proposed design procedure is shown to be easily adaptable to more general working scenarios. Extensive simulation results are provided to illustrate the theory and show the effectiveness of our approach

  2. 49 CFR 236.515 - Visibility of cab signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visibility of cab signals. 236.515 Section 236.515..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.515 Visibility of cab signals. The cab signals...

  3. Partial reconfiguration of concurrent logic controllers implemented in FPGA devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Grobelna, Iwona; Stefanowicz, Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Reconfigurable systems are recently used in many domains. Although the concept of multi-context logic controllers is relatively new, it may be noticed that the subject is receiving a lot of attention, especially in the industry. The work constitutes a stepping stone in design of reconfigurable logic controllers implemented in an FPGA device. An approach of designing of logic controllers oriented for further partial reconfiguration is proposed. A case study of a milling machine is used for an illustration.

  4. Devices for the control of electrical safety; Appareils de controle de la securite electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leconte, A.; Kantorowski, B. [Societe Chauvin-Arnoux, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-02-01

    After a recall of the risks linked with electric currents and of the equipments used to avoid electrical hazards, this article makes a review of the different devices used to control the electrical safety of equipments: ohmmeters for the measurement of the insulation conductivity; ohmmeters for the checking of grounding continuity; ohmmeters for the measurement of loop conductivities; devices for the control of dielectric resistance; devices for the control of the characteristics of differential circuit breakers; permanent controllers of insulation; and multi-purpose testing devices. (J.S.)

  5. Near-infrared–actuated devices for remotely controlled drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Brian P.; Arruebo, Manuel; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; McAlvin, J. Brian; Okonkwo, Obiajulu S.; Mizrahi, Boaz; Stefanescu, Cristina F.; Gomez, Leyre; Zhu, Jia; Zhu, Angela; Santamaria, Jesus; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    A reservoir that could be remotely triggered to release a drug would enable the patient or physician to achieve on-demand, reproducible, repeated, and tunable dosing. Such a device would allow precise adjustment of dosage to desired effect, with a consequent minimization of toxicity, and could obviate repeated drug administrations or device implantations, enhancing patient compliance. It should exhibit low off-state leakage to minimize basal effects, and tunable on-state release profiles that could be adjusted from pulsatile to sustained in real time. Despite the clear clinical need for a device that meets these criteria, none has been reported to date to our knowledge. To address this deficiency, we developed an implantable reservoir capped by a nanocomposite membrane whose permeability was modulated by irradiation with a near-infrared laser. Irradiated devices could exhibit sustained on-state drug release for at least 3 h, and could reproducibly deliver short pulses over at least 10 cycles, with an on/off ratio of 30. Devices containing aspart, a fast-acting insulin analog, could achieve glycemic control after s.c. implantation in diabetic rats, with reproducible dosing controlled by the intensity and timing of irradiation over a 2-wk period. These devices can be loaded with a wide range of drug types, and therefore represent a platform technology that might be used to address a wide variety of clinical indications. PMID:24474759

  6. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Assayed Quality Control Material for Clinical Microbiology Assays. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, Agency, or we) is classifying the assayed quality control material for clinical microbiology assays into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the assayed quality control material for clinical microbiology assays' classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  7. A Multiposture Locomotor Training Device with Force-Field Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Sui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multiposture locomotor training device (MPLTD with a closed-loop control scheme based on joint angle feedback, which is able to overcome various difficulties resulting from mechanical vibration and the weight of trainer to achieve higher accuracy trajectory. By introducing the force-field control scheme used in the closed-loop control, the device can obtain the active-constrained mode including the passive one. The MPLTD is mainly composed of three systems: posture adjusting and weight support system, lower limb exoskeleton system, and control system, of which the lower limb exoskeleton system mainly includes the indifferent equilibrium mechanism with two degrees of freedom (DOF and the driving torque is calculated by the Lagrangian function. In addition, a series of experiments, the weight support and the trajectory accuracy experiment, demonstrate a good performance of mechanical structure and the closed-loop control.

  8. Control, interaction mitigation and location for FACTS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liangying

    This dissertation focuses on the investigation and mitigation of the potential dynamic control interactions among multiple UPFC controllers installed in power systems and the optimal location of UPFC for system stability improvement. Two different interaction phenomena are highlighted by their distinctive frequency characteristics: low frequency modal interaction and high frequency interaction. Due to the difference between the interaction phenomena, two approaches are proposed respectively to eliminate these adverse interactions. By introducing a series of additional global control signals, low frequency modal interactions can be effectively alleviated to improve system dynamic stability performance. Also, a nonlinear hybrid fuzzy logic PI controller is developed in this dissertation, which is shown to be effective in mitigating the high frequency interactions. It is indicated that the effectiveness of the FACTS device control in improving the stability mainly depends on the location of devices in the network. This dissertation develops a placement sensitivity index, which is derived from the controllability and observability factors of the system to evaluate the interaction phenomena severity. In addition, this dissertation presents the schematic and basic controls of a reconfigurable FACTS system that can be used to realize the major voltage-sourced-converter FACTS topologies. Furthermore, performance indices are developed for different FACTS devices with Energy Storage System (ESS) and dynamic responses of different FACTS combinations are presented to support the validity of the developed indices and increased controller flexibility introduced by integrating the ESS.

  9. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NOx or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NOx emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20-50%) on NOx, VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3-1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NOx (85%) and SO2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons.

  10. Computer Controlled Switching Device for Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tauchmanová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two goals. The practical part deals with the design of a computer controlled switching device for an external stimulator for deep brain stimulation. The switching device is used during investigations with functional magnetic resonance for controlling signals leading to the deep brain stimulation (DBS electrode in the patient's brain. The motivation for designing this device was improve measured data quality and to enable new types of experiments.The theoretical part reports on early attempts to approach the problem of modeling and localizing the neural response of the human brain as a system identification and estimation task. The parametric identification method and real fMRI data are used for modeling the hemodynamic response.The project is in cooperation with 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Na Homolce hospital in Prague.

  11. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  12. What device should be used for telementoring? Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrionis, Andrius; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Lindsetmo, Rolv-Ole; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2015-09-01

    The paper analyzes behavioral patterns of mentors while using different mentoring devices to demonstrate the feasibility of multi-platform mentoring. The fundamental differences of devices supporting telementoring create threats for the perception and interpretation of the transmitted video, highlighting the necessity of exploring hardware usability aspects in a safety critical surgical mentoring scenario. Three types of devices, based on the screen size, formed the arms for the randomized controlled trial. Streaming video recordings of a laparoscopic procedure to the mentors imitated the mentoring scenario. User preferences and response times were recorded while participating in a session performed on all devices. Median response to a mentoring request times were similar for mobile platforms; expected durations were considerably longer for stationary computer. Ability to perceive and identify anatomical structures was insignificantly lower on small sized devices. Stationary and tablet platforms were nearly equally preferred by the most of participants as default telementoring hardware. As a side effect, incompatibility of daily duties of the surgeons in the hospital and telementoring responsibilities while implementing systems locally was identified. Scaling up the use of the service in combination with the organizational changes of clinical staff looks like a promising solution. The trial demonstrated the feasibility of using all three types of devices for the purpose of mentoring, allowing users to choose the preferred platform. The paper provided initial results on the quality assurance of telementoring systems imposed by the regulatory documents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biopolymers in controlled release devices for agricultural applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biopolymers such as starch for agricultural applications including controlled release devices is growing due the environmental benefits. Recently, concerns have grown about the worldwide spread of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) that infect colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). ...

  14. Chaos control and taming of turbulence in plasma devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinger, T.; Schröder, C.; Block, D.;

    2001-01-01

    Chaos and turbulence are often considered as troublesome features of plasma devices. In the general framework of nonlinear dynamical systems, a number of strategies have been developed to achieve active control over complex temporal or spatio-temporal behavior. Many of these techniques apply to p...

  15. 242-A Control System device logic software documentation. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-05-19

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534. This computer-based control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and Monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment System Engineering Group of Westinghouse. This document describes the Device Logic for this system.

  16. Power system damping using fuzzy controlled facts devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Ahad; Sohrforouzani, Mahmoud Vakili [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran)

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents a new approach to the implementation of the effect of FACTS devices on damping local modes and inter-area modes of oscillations based on a simple fuzzy logic proportional plus conventional integral controller in a multi-machine power system. The proposed controller uses a combination of a FLC and a PI controller. In comparison with the existing fuzzy controllers, the proposed fuzzy controller combines the advantages of a FLC and a conventional PI controller. By applying this controller to the FACTS devices such as UPFC, TCSC and SVC the damping of local modes and inter-area modes of oscillations in a multi-machine power system will be handled properly. In addition, the paper considers the conventional PI controller and compares its performance with respect to the proposed fuzzy controller. Also the effects of the auxiliary signals in damping multimodal oscillation have been shown. Finally, several fault and load disturbance simulation results are presented to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed FACTS controller in a multi-machine power system. (author)

  17. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  18. Shape control of colloidal Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals and their visible light photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Li, Yaguang; Zhu, Liping; He, Haiping; Hu, Liang; Huang, Jingyun; Hu, Fengchun; He, Bo; Ye, Zhizhen

    2013-11-07

    For colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), shape control and doping as two widely applied strategies are crucial for enhancing and manipulating their functional properties. Here we report a facile and green synthetic approach for high-quality colloidal Mn doped ZnO NCs with simultaneous control over composition, shape and optical properties. Specifically, the shape of doped ZnO NCs can be finely modulated from three dimensional (3D) tetrapods to 0D spherical nanoparticles in a single reaction scheme. The growth mechanism of doped ZnO NCs with interesting shape transition is explored. Furthermore, we demonstrate the tunable optical absorption features of Mn doped ZnO NCs by varying the Mn doping levels, and the enhanced photocatalytic performance of Mn doped ZnO NCs under visible light, which can be further optimized by delicately controlling their shapes and Mn doping concentrations. Our results provide an improved understanding of the growth mechanism of doped NCs during the growth process and can be potentially extended to ZnO NCs doped with other metal ions for various applications.

  19. Growth control of sessile microbubbles in PDMS devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Andreas; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Marin, Alvaro

    2015-12-21

    In a microfluidic environment, the presence of bubbles is often detrimental to the functionality of the device, leading to clogging or cavitation, but microbubbles can also be an indispensable asset in other applications such as microstreaming. In either case, it is crucial to understand and control the growth or shrinkage of these bodies of air, in particular in common soft-lithography devices based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is highly permeable to gases. In this work, we study the gas transport into and out of a bubble positioned in a microfluidic device, taking into account the direct gas exchange through PDMS as well as the transport of gas through the liquid in the device. Hydrostatic pressure regulation allows for the quantitative control of growth, shrinkage, or the attainment of a stable equilibrium bubble size. We find that the vapor pressure of the liquid plays an important role for the balance of gas transport, accounting for variability in experimental conditions and suggesting additional means of bubble size control in applications.

  20. Leap Motion Device Used to Control a Real Anthropomorphic Gripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Staretu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents for the first time the use of the Leap Motion device to control an anthropomorphic gripper with five fingers. First, a description of the Leap Motion device is presented, highlighting its main functional characteristics, followed by testing of its use for capturing the movements of a human hand's fingers in different configurations. Next, the HandCommander soft module and the Interface Controller application are described. The HandCommander is a software module created to facilitate interaction between a human hand and the GraspIT virtual environment, and the Interface Controller application is required to send motion data to the virtual environment and to test the communication protocol. For the test, a prototype of an anthropomorphic gripper with five fingers was made, including a proper hardware system of command and control, which is briefly presented in this paper. Following the creation of the prototype, the command system performance test was conducted under real conditions, evaluating the recognition efficiency of the objects to be gripped and the efficiency of the command and control strategies for the gripping process. The gripping test is exemplified by the gripping of an object, such as a screw spanner. It was found that the command system, both in terms of capturing human hand gestures with the Leap Motion device and effective object gripping, is operational. Suggestive figures are presented as examples.

  1. Control strategies for afterload reduction with an artificial vasculature device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Cheng, Rolando Chip; Glower, Jacob S; Ewert, Daniel L; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been used successfully as a bridge to transplant in heart failure patients by unloading ventricular volume and restoring the circulation. An artificial vasculature device (AVD) is being developed that may better facilitate myocardial recovery than VAD by controlling the afterload experienced by the native heart and controlling the pulsatile energy entering into the arterial system from the device, potentially reconditioning the arterial system properties. The AVD is a valveless, 80 ml blood chamber with a servo-controlled pusher plate connected to the ascending aorta by a vascular graft. Control algorithms for the AVD were developed to maintain any user-defined systemic input impedance (IM) including resistance, elastance, and inertial components. Computer simulation and mock circulation models of the cardiovascular system were used to test the efficacy of two control strategies for the AVD: 1) average impedance position control (AIPC)-to maintain an average value of resistance during left ventricular (LV) systole and 2) instantaneous impedance force feedback (IIFF) and position control (IIPC)-to maintain a desired value or profile of resistance and compliance. Computer simulations and mock loop tests were performed to predict resulting cardiovascular pressures, volumes, flows, and the resistance and compliance experienced by the native LV during ejection for simulated normal, failing, and recovering LV. These results indicate that the LV volume and pressure decreased, and the LV stroke volume increased with decreasing IM, resulting in an increased ejection fraction. Although the AIPC algorithm is more stable and can tolerate higher levels of sensor errors and noise, the IIFF and IIPC control algorithms are better suited to maintain any instantaneous IM or an IM profile. The developed AVD impedance control algorithms may be implemented with current VADs to promote myocardial recovery and facilitate weaning.

  2. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-28

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ∼5 × 10(-4) photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.

  3. A Wii-controlled safety device for electric chainsaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gubiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forestry continues to represent one of the most hazardous economic sectors of human activity, and historically, the operation of chainsaws has mainly been restricted to professional lumberjacks. In recent years, because of low cost, chainsaws have become popular among unprofessionals, e.g. for cutting firewood and trimming trees. Serious or lethal lesions due to the use of chainsaws or electric chainsaws are often observed by traumatologists or forensic pathologists. Such serious accidents often occur during occupational activities and are essentially due to kickback or uncorrected use of the tool, or when the operator falls down losing the control of the implement. A new device in order to stop a cutting chain was developed and adapted to an electric chainsaw. The device is based on a Wiimote controller (Nintendo™, including two accelerometers and two gyroscopes for detecting rotation and inclination. A Bluetooth wireless technology is used to transfer data to a portable computer. The data collected about linear and angular acceleration are filtered by an algorithm, based on the Euclid norm, capable to distinguishing between normal movements and dangerous chainsaw movements. The result show a good answer to device and when happen a dangerous situation an alarm signal is sent back to the implement in order to stop the cutting chain. The device show a correct behavior in tested dangerous situations and is envisaged to extend to combustion engine chainsaws, as well as to other portable equipment used in agriculture and forestry operations and for this objectives were patented.

  4. The Visibility of Illicit Drugs: Implications for Community-based Drug Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Leonard; Kadushin, Charles; Beveridge, Andrew; Livert, David; Tighe, Elizabeth; Rindskopf, David; Ford, Julie; Brodsky, Archie

    2001-01-01

    Examined differences between the visibility of drugs and drug use in over 2000 neighborhoods, surveying residents regarding drug- and alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes and comparing the responses of poor, urban, African Americans versus people from comparison neighborhoods. The most disadvantaged neighborhoods had the most visible drug…

  5. Fluoropolymer surface coatings to control droplets in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, Carson T; Zhang, Chuchu; Gupta, Malancha; Malmstadt, Noah

    2014-06-07

    We have demonstrated the application of low surface energy fluoropolymer coatings onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices for droplet formation and extraction-induced merger of droplets. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was used to pattern fluoropolymer coatings within microchannels based on geometrical constraints. In a two-phase flow system, the range of accessible flow rates for droplet formation was greatly enhanced in the coated devices. The ability to controllably apply the coating only at the inlet facilitated a method for merging droplets. An organic spacer droplet was extracted from between a pair of aqueous droplets. The size of the organic droplet and the flow rate controlled the time to merge the aqueous droplets; the process of merging was independent of the droplet sizes. Extraction-induced droplet merging is a robust method for manipulating droplets that could be applied in translating multi-step reactions to microfluidic platforms.

  6. Highly tunable local gate controlled complementary graphene device performing as inverter and voltage controlled resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Ya; Lipsanen, Harri

    2013-10-04

    Using single-layer CVD graphene, a complementary field effect transistor (FET) device is fabricated on the top of separated back-gates. The local back-gate control of the transistors, which operate with low bias at room temperature, enables highly tunable device characteristics due to separate control over electrostatic doping of the channels. Local back-gating allows control of the doping level independently of the supply voltage, which enables device operation with very low VDD. Controllable characteristics also allow the compensation of variation in the unintentional doping typically observed in CVD graphene. Moreover, both p-n and n-p configurations of FETs can be achieved by electrostatic doping using the local back-gate. Therefore, the device operation can also be switched from inverter to voltage controlled resistor, opening new possibilities in using graphene in logic circuitry.

  7. Size control of semimetal bismuth nanoparticles and the UV-visible and IR absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y W; Hong, Byung Hee; Kim, Kwang S

    2005-04-21

    We introduced a simple chemical method to synthesize semimetal bismuth nanoparticles in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by reducing Bi(3+) with sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) in the presence of poly(vinylpyrroldone) (PVP) at room temperature. The size and dispersibility of Bi nanoparticles can be easily controlled by changing the synthetic conditions such as the molar ratio of PVP to BiCl(3) and the concentration of BiCl(3). The UV-visible absorption spectra of Bi nanoparticles of different diameters are systematically studied. The surface plasmon peaks broaden with the increasing molar ratio of PVP to BiCl(3) as the size of bismuth nanoparticles decreases. Infrared (IR) spectra of the complexes with different molar ratios of PVP/BiCl(3) show a strong interaction between the carboxyl oxygen (C=O) of PVP and Bi(3+) ion and a weak interaction between the carboxyl oxygen (C=O) of PVP and the Bi atom in nanoparticles. This indicates that PVP serves as an effective capping ligand, which prevents the nanoparticles from aggregation.

  8. Activation and control of visible single defects in 4H-, 6H-, and 3C-SiC by oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrmann, A.; Klein, J. R.; Prawer, S.; McCallum, J. C. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Castelletto, S. [School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Ohshima, T. [SemiConductor Analysis and Radiation Effects Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Bosi, M.; Negri, M. [IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Lau, D. W. M.; Gibson, B. C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Johnson, B. C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computing and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2016-01-11

    In this work, we present the creation and characterisation of single photon emitters at the surface of 4H- and 6H-SiC, and of 3C-SiC epitaxially grown on silicon. These emitters can be created by annealing in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures above 550 °C. By using standard confocal microscopy techniques, we find characteristic spectral signatures in the visible region. The excited state lifetimes are found to be in the nanosecond regime in all three polytypes, and the emission dipoles are aligned with the lattice. HF-etching is shown to effectively annihilate the defects and to restore an optically clean surface. The defects described in this work have ideal characteristics for broadband single photon generation in the visible spectral region at room temperature and for integration into nanophotonic devices.

  9. Mechanism of controlled release kinetics from medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of biodegradable polymers for controlled drug delivery has gained immense attention in the pharmaceutical and medical device industry to administer various drugs, proteins and other bio-molecules both systematically and locally to cure several diseases. The efficacy and toxicity of this local therapeutics depends upon drug release kinetics, which will further decide drug deposition, distribution, and retention at the target site. Drug Eluting Stent (DES presently possesses clinical importance as an alternative to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting due to the ease of the procedure and comparable safety and efficacy. Many models have been developed to describe the drug delivery from polymeric carriers based on the different mechanisms which control the release phenomenon from DES. Advanced characterization techniques facilitate an understanding of the complexities behind design and related drug release behavior of drug eluting stents, which aids in the development of improved future drug eluting systems. This review discusses different drug release mechanisms, engineering principles, mathematical models and current trends that are proposed for drug-polymer coated medical devices such as cardiovascular stents and different analytical methods currently utilized to probe diverse characteristics of drug eluting devices.

  10. Model predictive control approach for a CPAP-device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheel Mathias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by a collapse of the upper respiratory tract, resulting in a reduction of the blood oxygen- and an increase of the carbon dioxide (CO2 - concentration, which causes repeated sleep disruptions. The gold standard to treat the OSAS is the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy. The continuous pressure keeps the upper airway open and prevents the collapse of the upper respiratory tract and the pharynx. Most of the available CPAP-devices cannot maintain the pressure reference [1]. In this work a model predictive control approach is provided. This control approach has the possibility to include the patient’s breathing effort into the calculation of the control variable. Therefore a patient-individualized control strategy can be developed.

  11. Development and Quantification of UV-Visible and Laser Spectroscopic Techniques for Materials Accountability and Process Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Czerwinski; Phil Weck; Frederic Poineau

    2010-12-29

    Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Visible) and Time Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) optical techniques can permit on-line, real-time analysis of the actinide elements in a solvent extraction process. UV-Visible and TRLFS techniques have been used for measuring the speciation and concentration of the actinides under laboratory conditions. These methods are easily adaptable to multiple sampling geometries, such as dip probes, fiber-optic sample cells, and flow-through cell geometries. To fully exploit these techniques for GNEP applications, the fundamental speciation of the target actinides and the resulting influence on 3 spectroscopic properties must be determined. Through this effort detection limits, process conditions, and speciation of key actinide components can be establish and utilized in a range of areas of interest to GNEP, especially in areas related to materials accountability and process control.

  12. Magnetic Control of Locked Modes in Present Devices and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, F. A.; Sabbagh, S.; Sweeney, R.; Hender, T.; Kirk, A.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.; Ding, Y. H.; Rao, B.; Fietz, S.; Maraschek, M.; Frassinetti, L.; in, Y.; Jeon, Y.; Sakakihara, S.

    2014-10-01

    The toroidal phase of non-rotating (``locked'') neoclassical tearing modes was controlled in several devices by means of applied magnetic perturbations. Evidence is presented from various tokamaks (ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET, J-TEXT, KSTAR), spherical tori (MAST, NSTX) and a reversed field pinch (EXTRAP-T2R). Furthermore, the phase of interchange modes was controlled in the LHD helical device. These results share a common interpretation in terms of torques acting on the mode. Based on this interpretation, it is predicted that control-coil currents will be sufficient to control the phase of locking in ITER. This will be possible both with the internal coils and with the external error-field-correction coils, and might have promising consequences for disruption avoidance (by aiding the electron cyclotron current drive stabilization of locked modes), as well as for spatially distributing heat loads during disruptions. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0008520, DE-FC-02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Modeling of power control schemes in induction cooking devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Alessio; Conti, Massimo; Turchetti, Claudio; Orcioni, Simone

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, with remarkable advancements of power semiconductor devices and electronic control systems, it becomes possible to apply the induction heating technique for domestic use. In order to achieve the supply power required by these devices, high-frequency resonant inverters are used: the force commutated, half-bridge series resonant converter is well suited for induction cooking since it offers an appropriate balance between complexity and performances. Power control is a key issue to attain efficient and reliable products. This paper describes and compares four power control schemes applied to the half-bridge series resonant inverter. The pulse frequency modulation is the most common control scheme: according to this strategy, the output power is regulated by varying the switching frequency of the inverter circuit. Other considered methods, originally developed for induction heating industrial applications, are: pulse amplitude modulation, asymmetrical duty cycle and pulse density modulation which are respectively based on variation of the amplitude of the input supply voltage, on variation of the duty cycle of the switching signals and on variation of the number of switching pulses. Each description is provided with a detailed mathematical analysis; an analytical model, built to simulate the circuit topology, is implemented in the Matlab environment in order to obtain the steady-state values and waveforms of currents and voltages. For purposes of this study, switches and all reactive components are modelled as ideal and the "heating-coil/pan" system is represented by an equivalent circuit made up of a series connected resistance and inductance.

  14. Coherent control of meta-device (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ming Lun; Fang, Xu; Chu, Cheng Hung; Wu, Hui Jun; Huang, Yao-Wei; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Chen, Mu-Ku; Wang, Hsiang-Chu; Chen, Ching-Fu; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-09-01

    Selective excitation of specific multipolar resonances in matter can be of great utility in understanding the internal make-up of the underlying material and, as a result, in developing novel nanophotonic devices. Many efforts have been addressed on this topic. For example, the emission spectra related to the different multipolar transitions of trivalent europium can be modulated by changing the thickness of the dielectric spacer between the gold mirror and the fluorescent layer. In this talk, we reported the results about active control of the multipolar resonance in metadevices using the coherent control technique. In the coherent control spectroscopy system, the optical standing wave constructed from two counterpart propagation coherent beams is utilized as the excitation. By controlling the time delay between two ultrafast pulses to decide the location of metadivce as the electromagnetic field node or antinode node of standing wave, the absorption related to the specific multipolar resonance can be controlled. Using this technique, with the 30-nm-thick metadevice, the broadband controlling light with light without nonlinearity can be realized. The switching contrast ratios can be as high as 3:1 with a modulation bandwidth in excess of 2 THz. The active control of the high order and complex optical resonance related to the magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and toroidal dipole in the metamaterial is reported as well. This research can be applied in the all ultrafast all-optical data processing and the active control of the resonances of metadevice with high order multipolar resonance.

  15. Optimal control and quantum simulations in superconducting quantum devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Daniel J.

    2014-10-31

    Quantum optimal control theory is the science of steering quantum systems. In this thesis we show how to overcome the obstacles in implementing optimal control for superconducting quantum bits, a promising candidate for the creation of a quantum computer. Building such a device will require the tools of optimal control. We develop pulse shapes to solve a frequency crowding problem and create controlled-Z gates. A methodology is developed for the optimisation towards a target non-unitary process. We show how to tune-up control pulses for a generic quantum system in an automated way using a combination of open- and closed-loop optimal control. This will help scaling of quantum technologies since algorithms can calibrate control pulses far more efficiently than humans. Additionally we show how circuit QED can be brought to the novel regime of multi-mode ultrastrong coupling using a left-handed transmission line coupled to a right-handed one. We then propose to use this system as an analogue quantum simulator for the Spin-Boson model to show how dissipation arises in quantum systems.

  16. A Device for a Proton Beam Energy Control for Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Agapov, A V; Molokanov, A G; Shvidkii, S V

    2004-01-01

    A Medical-Technical Facility for hadron radiotherapy based on DLNP JINR phasotron has been constructed and put into operation. Upgrading of methods, hardware and software for radiotherapy is one of the main tasks for further development of the Facility. This article concerns one of the fields of this work, that is the development of equipment for dynamic irradiation of deep lying target - the construction of a device for the proton beam energy control and measurement of its depth-dose curve in a treatment room.

  17. Y stenting assisted coiling using a new low profile visible intraluminal support device for wide necked basilar tip aneurysms: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Marcelo D; Brasiliense, Leonardo B C; Richie, Alexa N; Hanel, Ricardo A

    2014-05-01

    Many endovascular techniques have been described in recent years for the management of wide necked aneurysms. The Y stent assisted technique has been generally used for coil embolization of wide necked bifurcation aneurysms. This technique was first described for the treatment of basilar tip aneurysms in combination with several different devices, demonstrating encouraging results. We report the results of the first two cases of wide necked basilar tip aneurysms treated with Y stent assisted coil embolization using a new low profile visible intraluminal stent (LVIS Jr; MicroVention, Tustin, California, USA) delivered through a 0.017 inch microcatheter. We also reviewed the literature comparing other endovascular techniques (coiling alone, stent assisted coiling, and Y stent assisted coiling) for wide necked aneurysms. The LVIS Jr device offers a new option for the treatment of these challenging lesions, with clear advantages over currently available intracranial stents. Larger series and long term results are needed to confirm the applicability and durability of this technique/technology.

  18. Ultraviolet-Visible Electroluminescence of a p-ZnO:As/n-Si Device Formed by the GaAs Interlayer Doping Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiao-Chuan; DU Guo-Tong; WANG Hui; ZHAO Yang; WANG Jin; ZHAO Jian-Ze; SHI Zhi-Feng; LI Xiang-Ping; LIANG Hong-Wei; ZHANG Bao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic doped p-type ZnO films were grown on n-type silicon substrates using the GaAs interlayer doping method.Under our growth conditions the main doping element is arsenic,which was confirmed by x-ray photoelectroscopy.X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the p-ZnO:As film was still in the (002) preferred orientation.The Hall test showed that the hole concentration of the p-ZnO:As film was 2.6 × 1017 cm-3.The acceptor level was located at 135 meV above the valance band maximum,according to the low-temperature photoluminescence results.We then fabricated a p-ZnO:As/n-Si hetero junction light-emitting device.Its current-voltage curve showed the typical rectifying behavior of a p-n diode.At forward current injections,the electroluminescence peaks,which cover the ultraviolet-to-visible region,could be clearly detected.ZnO is a Ⅱ-Ⅵ compound semiconductor with a wide direct gap (3.37eV) and a high exciton binding energy (60meV).It has been studied as the candidate material for ultraviolet (UV) light emitting devices (LEDs).Many methods have been used to prepare ZnO films.[1,2] Among them,the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method has its own excellent advantages in industrial applications.Today,the preparation of p-ZnO is still a challenge.%Arsenic doped p-type ZnO films were grown on n-type silicon substrates using the GaAs interlayer doping method. Under our growth conditions the main doping element is arsenic, which was confirmed by x-ray photoelectroscopy. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the p-ZnO:As Him was still in the (002) preferred orientation. The Hall test showed that the hole concentration of the p-ZnO:As film was 2.6 × 1017 cm-3. The acceptor level was located at 135 meV above the valance band maximum, according to the low-temperature photoluminescence results. We then fabricated a p-ZnO:As/n-Si heterojunction light-emitting device. Its current-voltage curve showed the typical rectifying behavior of a p-n diode

  19. Conduction band energy level control of titanium dioxide: toward an efficient visible-light-sensitive photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huogen; Irie, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2010-05-26

    Through the use of a strategy that involves narrowing the TiO(2) band gap by shifting its conduction band positively and utilizing the catalytic activity of photoproduced Cu(I) for oxygen reduction, a novel visible-light-sensitive TiO(2) photocatalyst, Cu(II)-grafted Ti(1-3x)W(x)Ga(2x)O(2), was designed and synthesized. The Cu(II)/Ti(1-3x)W(x)Ga(2x)O(2) photocatalyst produced high activity under visible-light irradiation. In fact, it decomposed 2-propanol to CO(2) via acetone under visible light (>400 nm) with a high quantum efficiency of 13%. The turnover number for this reaction exceeded 22, indicating that it functioned catalytically.

  20. 75 FR 74128 - Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Compliance Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Compliance Dates AGENCY... control devices to comply with certain requirements established in the Manual on Uniform Traffic...

  1. 40 CFR 63.2251 - What are the requirements for the routine control device maintenance exemption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance exemption from the EPA Administrator for routine maintenance events such as control device... device is used to control a green rotary dryer, tube dryer, rotary strand dryer, or pressurized...

  2. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sushabhan

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high-quality research papers presented at the first international conference, ICICCD 2016, organised by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 2nd and 3rd April, 2016. The book is broadly divided into three sections: Intelligent Communication, Intelligent Control and Intelligent Devices. The areas covered under these sections are wireless communication and radio technologies, optical communication, communication hardware evolution, machine-to-machine communication networks, routing techniques, network analytics, network applications and services, satellite and space communications, technologies for e-communication, wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks, communications and information security, signal processing for communications, communication software, microwave informatics, robotics and automation, optimization techniques and algorithms, intelligent transport, mechatronics system, guidance and navigat...

  3. 78 FR 49701 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Control of Visible Emissions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... industrial boilers to reduce SO 2 emissions by 30 to 50 percent and NO X emissions by 20 to 30 percent... sources (about 59 sources). Starting January 1, 2002, every industrial boiler or EGU subject to... visible and PM emissions from stationary sources, including electric generating units (EGUs) and...

  4. Patient Machine Interface for the Control of Mechanical Ventilation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Grave de Peralta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs to translate brain activity into commands to control external devices during mechanical ventilation (MV remains largely unexplored. This is surprising since the amount of patients that might benefit from such assistance is considerably larger than the number of patients requiring BCI for motor control. Given the transient nature of MV (i.e., used mainly over night or during acute clinical conditions, precluding the use of invasive methods, and inspired by current research on BCIs, we argue that scalp recorded EEG (electroencephalography signals can provide a non-invasive direct communication pathway between the brain and the ventilator. In this paper we propose a Patient Ventilator Interface (PVI to control a ventilator during variable conscious states (i.e., wake, sleep, etc.. After a brief introduction on the neural control of breathing and the clinical conditions requiring the use of MV we discuss the conventional techniques used during MV. The schema of the PVI is presented followed by a description of the neural signals that can be used for the on-line control. To illustrate the full approach, we present data from a healthy subject, where the inspiration and expiration periods during voluntary breathing were discriminated with a 92% accuracy (10-fold cross-validation from the scalp EEG data. The paper ends with a discussion on the advantages and obstacles that can be forecasted in this novel application of the concept of BCI.

  5. Frank-starling control of a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael Charles; Gaddum, Nicholas Richard; Pearcy, Mark; Salamonsen, Robert F; Timms, Daniel Lee; Mason, David Glen; Fraser, John F

    2011-01-01

    A physiological control system was developed for a rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in which the target pump flow rate (LVADQ) was set as a function of left atrial pressure (LAP), mimicking the Frank-Starling mechanism. The control strategy was implemented using linear PID control and was evaluated in a pulsatile mock circulation loop using a prototyped centrifugal pump by varying pulmonary vascular resistance to alter venous return. The control strategy automatically varied pump speed (2460 to 1740 to 2700 RPM) in response to a decrease and subsequent increase in venous return. In contrast, a fixed-speed pump caused a simulated ventricular suction event during low venous return and higher ventricular volumes during high venous return. The preload sensitivity was increased from 0.011 L/min/mmHg in fixed speed mode to 0.47L/min/mmHg, a value similar to that of the native healthy heart. The sensitivity varied automatically to maintain the LAP and LVADQ within a predefined zone. This control strategy requires the implantation of a pressure sensor in the left atrium and a flow sensor around the outflow cannula of the LVAD. However, appropriate pressure sensor technology is not yet commercially available and so an alternative measure of preload such as pulsatility of pump signals should be investigated.

  6. Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Polagye, Brian [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Fabien, Brian [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Thomson, Jim [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Kilcher, Levi [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices (Project) investigated, analyzed and modeled advanced turbine control schemes with the objective of increasing the energy harvested by hydrokinetic turbines in turbulent flow. Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) implemented and validated a feedforward controller to increase power capture; and applied and tested the controls on ORPC’s RivGen® Power Systems in Igiugig, Alaska. Assessments of performance improvements were made for the RivGen® in the Igiugig environment and for ORPC’s TidGen® Power System in a reference tidal environment. Annualized Energy Production (AEP) and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) improvements associated with implementation of the recommended control methodology were made for the TidGen® Power System in the DOE reference tidal environment. System Performance Advancement (SPA) goals were selected for the project. SPA targets were to improve Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) and system Availability, with the intention of reducing Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). This project focused primarily reducing in PWR. Reductions in PWR of 25.5% were achieved. Reductions of 20.3% in LCOE were achieved. This project evaluated four types of controllers which were tested in simulation, emulation, a laboratory flume, and the field. The adaptive Kω2 controller performs similarly to the non-adaptive version of the same controller and may be useful in tidal channels where the mean velocity is continually evolving. Trends in simulation were largely verified through experiments, which also provided the opportunity to test assumptions about turbine responsiveness and control resilience to varying scales of turbulence. Laboratory experiments provided an essential stepping stone between simulation and implementation on a field-scale turbine. Experiments also demonstrated that using “energy loss” as a metric to differentiate between well-designed controllers operating at

  7. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  8. 40 CFR 63.693 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or replace the existing carbon in the control device with fresh carbon. Measurement of the... of the exhaust gases from the control device. The accuracy of the temperature monitoring device shall... system to measure and record the daily average temperature of the exhaust gases from the control...

  9. Vision-Based Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation in Poor Visibility Conditions Using a Model-Free Robust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pérez-Alcocer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based navigation system for an autonomous underwater vehicle in semistructured environments with poor visibility. In terrestrial and aerial applications, the use of visual systems mounted in robotic platforms as a control sensor feedback is commonplace. However, robotic vision-based tasks for underwater applications are still not widely considered as the images captured in this type of environments tend to be blurred and/or color depleted. To tackle this problem, we have adapted the lαβ color space to identify features of interest in underwater images even in extreme visibility conditions. To guarantee the stability of the vehicle at all times, a model-free robust control is used. We have validated the performance of our visual navigation system in real environments showing the feasibility of our approach.

  10. STcontrol and NEWPORT Motion Controller Model ESP 301 Device

    CERN Document Server

    Kapanadze, Giorgi

    2015-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used to detect particle tracks in LHC experiments. This kind of detectors are built with silicon semiconductor diodes. Ionizing particles create charge in the diode and the reverse bias voltage creates electric field in the diode which causes effective charge collection by the drift of electrons [1]. One of the main parameter of tracker detectors is efficiency. The efficiency as a function of position in the pixel matrix can be evaluated by scanning the matrix with red and infrared lasers. It is important to know what is happening between pixels in terms of efficiency. We perform these measurements to test new type of pixel detectors for the LHC future upgrade in 2023. New type of detectors are needed because the radiation level will be much higher [2]. For the measurements we need to control a stage motion controller (NEWPORT Motion Controller Model ESP 301) with the existing software STcontrol, which is used for readout data from pixel detectors and to control other devices like the lase...

  11. Color control of the multi-color printing device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; XIU Xiao-jie; ZHU Wen-hua; TANG Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    Conventional color-printing systems often use inks of three hues, such as CMY, CMYK and CMYKLcLm, but in order to obtain more realistic color reproductions, the ink set of more than three hues has been adopted by some color-printing systems. It is difficult, however, to model the composed color with the multiple inks when the number of the output ink hues exceeds three due to the none-unique mapping between the color spaces of the CIE Lab and the multi-color printing device. In this paper, we propose a fine color-printing method for multi-color printing device with the ink set of more than three hues. The proposed approach has good color expression ability and provides fine control of the printed color. By dividing the output color space into several subspaces, our method allows one-to-one mapping between the standard color space and the multi-color output color space. It has been proved effective when applied to the digital inkjet printer-Mutoh8000.

  12. A low volume 3D-printed temperature-controllable cuvette for UV visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaruka, Jelena; Dymond, Marcus K

    2016-10-01

    We report the fabrication of a 3D-printed water-heated cuvette that fits into a standard UV visible spectrophotometer. Full 3D-printable designs are provided and 3D-printing conditions have been optimised to provide options to print the cuvette in either acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polylactic acid polymers, extending the range of solvents that are compatible with the design. We demonstrate the efficacy of the cuvette by determining the critical micelle concentration of sodium dodecyl sulphate at 40 °C, the molar extinction coefficients of cobalt nitrate and dsDNA and by reproducing the thermochromic UV visible spectrum of a mixture of cobalt chloride, water and propan-2-ol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Design, implementation and control of a magnetic levitation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Ehsan

    Magnetic levitation technology has shown a great deal of promise for micromanipulation tasks. Due to the lack of mechanical contact, magnetic levitation systems are free of problems caused by friction, wear, sealing and lubrication. These advantages have made magnetic levitation systems a great candidate for clean room applications. In this thesis, a new large gap magnetic levitation system is designed, developed and successfully tested. The system is capable of levitating a 6.5(gr) permanent magnet in 3D space with an air gap of approximately 50(cm) with the traveling range of 20x20x30 mm3. The overall positioning accuracy of the system is 60mum. With the aid of finite elements method, an optimal geometry for the magnetic stator is proposed. Also, an energy optimization approach is utilized in the design of the electromagnets. In order to facilitate the design of various controllers for the system, a mathematical model of the magnetic force experienced by the levitated object is obtained. The dynamic magnetic force model is determined experimentally using frequency response system identification. The response of the system components including the power amplifiers, and position measurement system are also considered in the development of the force model. The force model is then employed in the controller design for the magnetic levitation device. Through a modular approach, the controller design for the 3D positioning system is started with the controller design for the vertical direction, i.e. z, and then followed by the controller design in the horizontal directions, i.e. x and y. For the vertical direction, several controllers such as PID, feed forward and feedback linearization are designed and their performances are compared. Also a control command conditioning method is introduced as a solution to increase the control performance and the results of the proposed controller are compared with the other designs. Experimental results showed that for the magnetic

  14. A simple optical fibre-linked remote control system for multiple devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Sumesh; Boby Joseph; D P Mahapatra

    2005-08-01

    We report on the development of a simple control system which can handle multiple devices through an optical fibre data link. The devices are controlled using a set of DACs through serial data communication via a serial port of a PC. Serial data from the PC get converted to parallel mode using a homemade “serial in parallel out” (SIPO) device at the remote end. The functioning of this to control multiple devices is presented and discussed.

  15. Disclosing and concealing: internet governance, information control and the management of visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Flyverbom

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of digital technologies and the datafication of many domains of social life raise important questions about governance. In the emergent field of internet governance studies, most work has explored novel governance arrangements, institutional developments and the effects of interactions among public and private actors in the emergence of the internet as a matter of concern in global politics. But the digital realm involves more subtle forms of governance and politics that also deserve attention. In this paper, I suggest that the 'ordering' effects of digital infrastructures also revolve around what I term the ‘management of visibilities’. Drawing on insights from science and technology studies and sociologies of visibility, the paper articulates how digital technologies afford and condition ordering through the production of visibilities and the guidance of attention. The basic tenet of the argument is that there is an intimate relationship between seeing, knowing and governing, and that digitalisation and datafication processes fundamentally shape how we make things visible or invisible, knowable or unknowable and governable or ungovernable. Having articulated this conceptual argument, the article offers a number of illustrations of such forms of ordering.

  16. Electrostatic charging and control of droplets in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongbo; Yao, Shuhuai

    2013-03-07

    Precharged droplets can facilitate manipulation and control of low-volume liquids in droplet-based microfluidics. In this paper, we demonstrate non-contact electrostatic charging of droplets by polarizing a neutral droplet and splitting it into two oppositely charged daughter droplets in a T-junction microchannel. We performed numerical simulation to analyze the non-contact charging process and proposed a new design with a notch at the T-junction in aid of droplet splitting for more efficient charging. We experimentally characterized the induced charge in droplets in microfabricated devices. The experimental results agreed well with the simulation. Finally, we demonstrated highly effective droplet manipulation in a path selection unit appending to the droplet charging. We expect our work could enable precision manipulation of droplets for more complex liquid handling in microfluidics and promote electric-force based manipulation in 'lab-on-a-chip' systems.

  17. Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Polagye, Brian [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Fabien, Brian [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Thomson, Jim [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Kilcher, Levi [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices (Project) investigated, analyzed and modeled advanced turbine control schemes with the objective of increasing the energy harvested by hydrokinetic turbines in turbulent flow. Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) implemented and validated a feedforward controller to increase power capture; and applied and tested the controls on ORPC’s RivGen® Power Systems in Igiugig, Alaska. Assessments of performance improvements were made for the RivGen® in the Igiugig environment and for ORPC’s TidGen® Power System in a reference tidal environment. Annualized Energy Production (AEP) and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) improvements associated with implementation of the recommended control methodology were made for the TidGen® Power System in the DOE reference tidal environment. System Performance Advancement (SPA) goals were selected for the project. SPA targets were to improve Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) and system Availability, with the intention of reducing Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). This project focused primarily reducing in PWR. Reductions in PWR of 25.5% were achieved. Reductions of 20.3% in LCOE were achieved. This project evaluated four types of controllers which were tested in simulation, emulation, a laboratory flume, and the field. The adaptive Kω2 controller performs similarly to the non-adaptive version of the same controller and may be useful in tidal channels where the mean velocity is continually evolving. Trends in simulation were largely verified through experiments, which also provided the opportunity to test assumptions about turbine responsiveness and control resilience to varying scales of turbulence. Laboratory experiments provided an essential stepping stone between simulation and implementation on a field-scale turbine. Experiments also demonstrated that using “energy loss” as a metric to differentiate between well-designed controllers operating at

  18. NIRS monitoring of muscle contraction to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Beltrami, Giorgio; Verni, Gennaro

    1999-01-01

    The fitting of upper-extremity amputees requires special efforts, and its significance has been increased by the development of the myoelectrically controlled prosthetic arm. This solution is not free of problems due to the nature of the amputation, to the electromagnetic noise affecting the myelectrical signal and to the perspiration due to the contact between socket and the residual limb. Starting from the fact that NIRS and electromyographic signals are similar during a muscle contraction, we have first studied the NIRS signal during forearm muscle contractions in normal and amputee subjects. Then a new system to interface the NIRS unit and the myoelectrical prosthetic hand has been developed. The NIRS unit has been used as optical sensor and all the operations (I/O and signal processing) are performed via software. This system has been tested on normal and amputee subjects performing hand grasping using a visual biofeedback control scheme. All the subjects have been able to perform these operations demonstrating the NIRS technique. This could represent an alternative solution for controlling a prosthetic device.

  19. Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: Closed- and open-loop control

    CERN Document Server

    Morzinski, Katie; Gavel, Donald T; Grigsby, Bryant; Dillon, Daren; Reinig, Marc; Macintosh, Bruce A

    2010-01-01

    At the University of California's Lick Observatory, we have implemented an on-sky testbed for next-generation adaptive optics (AO) technologies. The Visible-Light Laser Guidestar Experiments instrument (ViLLaGEs) includes visible-light AO, a micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror, and open-loop control of said MEMS on the 1-meter Nickel telescope at Mt. Hamilton. In this paper we evaluate the performance of ViLLaGEs in open- and closed-loop control, finding that both control methods give equivalent Strehl ratios of up to ~ 7% in I-band and similar rejection of temporal power. Therefore, we find that open-loop control of MEMS on-sky is as effective as closed-loop control. Furthermore, after operating the system for three years, we find MEMS technology to function well in the observatory environment. We construct an error budget for the system, accounting for 130 nm of wavefront error out of 190 nm error in the science-camera PSFs. We find that the dominant known term is internal static error...

  20. Solid-state charge-based device for control of catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum nanofilms using external bias and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L Robert; Hervier, Antoine; Kennedy, Griffin; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2012-05-09

    Using a Pt/Si catalytic nanodiode, we externally control the rate of CO oxidation on a Pt nanofilm. The catalytic reaction can be turned on and off by alternating between bias states of the device. Additionally, the reaction rate is sensitive to photocurrent induced by visible light. The effects of both bias and light show that negative charge on the Pt increases catalytic activity, while positive charge on the Pt decreases catalytic activity for CO oxidation.

  1. Facial fat grafting with a prototype injection control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetherington HE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hugh E Hetherington,1 Jon E Block2 1Bozeman Deaconess Health Group, Bozeman, MT, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical performance of a prototype injection control device (ICD to facilitate fat grafting by injection. Methods: An ICD, which mechanically couples the act of withdrawing the cannula with the act of depressing the plunger, was fabricated for the purpose of facial fat grafting. The action of the device results in deposition of consistent threads of fat having a volume of approximately 33 uL per cm that the cannula is withdrawn, which is slightly less than the internal volume of a 12-gauge cannula. A total of 26 patients underwent 30 procedures, and the results were subjectively evaluated using pre- and postoperative photographs, with a minimum follow-up of 4 months. Results: The desired degree of correction was more consistent, recovery was faster, and procedural efficiency was improved when performing the procedure with the ICD compared to historical use of the manual method of injection. Minor irregularities were the only complications encountered. Conclusion: The ICD optimally distributes fat as a uniform thread along the withdrawal tract of the cannula, thereby eliminating clumping and minimizing tissue trauma, resulting in reduced recovery time as well as more consistent and predictable clinical results. Since the ICD automates the injection process, it provides a notable and easily attainable efficiency in procedural time and minimal learning curve for the user. Keywords: dermal fillers, liposuction, facial rejuvenation, threading

  2. Use of drugs and intrauterine devices for birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, C I

    1969-05-08

    The current use of oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices for population control is reviewed including the mechanism of their antifertility actions and the use-effectiveness of each method. The use-effectiveness of the IUD has been calculated as 1.5-3.0 pregnancies per 100 woman-years of exposure. The IUD has a high continuation rate (70% after 2 years) and is excellent for poorly motivated population groups. The most serious common side-effect--pelvic infection--can be controlled by more careful screening and modern antibiotic therapy. Other side-effects include irregular bleeding and uterine perforation, but not at significantly high levels. Oral contraceptives have been found to be virtually 100% effective, even in the new lower dose preparations containing around .5 mg progesterone and .05-.15 mg estrogen per tablet. New hormonal contraceptive approaches include pills which progesterone only, high postcoital estrogen administration, and long-acting injectable progestogen (Depo-Provera). All of these methods are highly effective but have some undesirable side-effects and require further study. Careful examination of the recent research reports connecting oral contraceptive use with increased risk of thromboembolism indicate that whatever the danger in oral contraceptive use, the direct physical hazards of pregnancy after contraceptive failure are much higher and more serious. Though a 100% safe contraceptive is a desirable ideal, the safety of current oral contraceptives and IUDs is higher than most other aspects of modern life.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of pre-procedure simethicone and N-acetylcysteine to improve mucosal visibility during gastroscopy - NICEVIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, Peter John; Brown, James; Gadeke, Lisa; Fogg, Carole; Haysom-Newport, Ben; Ogollah, Reuben; Bhattacharyya, Rupam; Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Thursby-Pelham, Fergus; Neale, James R; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-11-01

    Background and study aims: Mucosal views can be impaired by residual bubbles and mucus during gastroscopy. This study aimed to determine whether a pre-gastroscopy drink containing simethicone and N-acetylcysteine improves mucosal visualisation. Patients and methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial recruiting 126 subjects undergoing routine gastroscopy. Subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive: A-pre-procedure drink of water, simethicone and N-acetylcysteine (NAC); B-water alone; or C-no preparation. Study endoscopists were blinded to group allocation. Digital images were taken at 4 locations (lower esophagus/upper gastric body/antrum/fundus), and rated for mucosal visibility (MV) using a 4-point scale (1 = best, 4 = worst) by 4 separate experienced endoscopists. The primary outcome measure was mean mucosal visibility score (MVS). Secondary outcome measures were procedure duration and volume of fluid flush required to achieve adequate mucosal views. Results: Mean MVS for Group A was significantly better than for Group B (1.35 vs 2.11, P NAC significantly improves mucosal visibility during gastroscopy and reduces the need for flushes during the procedure. Effectiveness in the lower esophagus demonstrates potential benefit in Barrett's oesophagus surveillance gastroscopy.

  4. Controlled deposition and enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance of Pt-modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jun, E-mail: lvjun117@126.com [Laboratory of Functional Nanomaterials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Gao, Huazhen; Wang, Honge; Lu, Xuejun; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Dongmei [Laboratory of Functional Nanomaterials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, Zhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Zhang, Xinyi [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Zheng, Zhixiang [Laboratory of Functional Nanomaterials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Functional Nanomaterials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pt nanoparticles were deposited onto TiO{sub 2} NTAs by UV light photoreduction method. • Uniform distribution of nanoparticles was achieved by controlling deposition. • 3 Pt/TiO{sub 2} NTAs show 84.27% degradation rate after visible light irradiation. • The kinetic constant of 3 Pt/TiO{sub 2} NTAs is 0.01493 min{sup −1}. - Abstract: Highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TiO{sub 2} NTAs) have been fabricated by the potentiostatic anodization method with Ti foils. Pt nanoparticles have been successfully deposited onto TiO{sub 2} NTAs by UV light photoreduction method. In this work, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer methods were adopted to characterize the samples. The influence of different concentration of H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} precursor solution on the morphology and photocatalytic performances of samples was discussed. The SEM observations showed that Pt nanoparticles distributed on the wall of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes uniformly. UV–vis spectra analysis showed that the light absorption of Pt/TiO{sub 2} NTAs has been extended to the visible light range. When the concentration of H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} was 3 mM, the prepared sample showed the highest photodegradation rate. After irradiated under visible light for 2 h, the degradation rate of methyl orange solution reached 84.27%. Under the same condition, no obvious photodegradation of methyl orange was found for TiO{sub 2} NTAs. Kinetic research showed that photodegradation process followed the first-order reaction, the apparent reaction rate constant of 3 Pt/TiO{sub 2} NTAs was 1.493 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1}.

  5. Primary Control by ON/OFF Demand-Side Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    manage the portfolio of devices to collectively provide a primary reserve delivery in an unbundled liberalized electricity market setting under current regulations. Furthermore, we formulate a binary linear optimization problem that minimizes the aggregator’s cost of providing a primary reserve delivery......We consider an aggregator managing a portfolio of ON/OFF demand-side devices. The devices are able to shift con- sumption in time within certain energy limitations; moreover, the devices are able to measure the system frequency and switch ON and OFF accordingly. We show how the aggregator can...

  6. Vector control in internal midface distraction using temporary anchorage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Cameron; Rommer, Elizabeth; Mancho, Salim; Carey, Joseph; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A; Urata, Mark M

    2012-11-01

    Le Fort III and monobloc distraction osteogenesis serve as the primary surgical treatment for children with severe midface hypoplasia. The orbital retrusion and class III malocclusion of patients with midface hypoplasia is best addressed with bodily advancement of the midface segment parallel to the cephalometric Frankfort horizontal plane. Use of internal distraction devices allows for advancement of the midface without extensive external hardware but comes at the cost of less vectorial control, resulting in a distraction vector that can cause a clockwise rotation of the entire midface or frontofacial component creating hollow appearing orbits. To counteract this clockwise rotation, we have developed a technique using orthodontic microimplants to anchor interarch class III relationship elastics. We report our experiences with this technique on a cadaveric model and as a case series of 17 patients who underwent midface distraction. A Le Fort III distraction procedure was carried out on a cadaver, and the orbital height was measured at 0-, 10-, and 20-mm distraction advancement with and without elastics in a class III relationship. Improvement of both subjective hollow appearance of the orbits and objective measurement of the orbital height with class III relationship elastics demonstrated the efficacy of class III relationship elastics in counteracting the clockwise rotation of the midface segment. A review of 17 patients with midface or frontofacial hypoplasia treated with Le Fort III or monobloc distraction with simultaneous microimplant anchored class III relationship elastics revealed correction of malocclusion and improved midface projection without significant increase in vertical height of the orbits.

  7. Controllable synthesis of α-sulfur spheres with hierarchical nanostructures for efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Xueming; Zhang, Xiufang, E-mail: zhangxf@dlpu.edu.cn; Zhang, Weiqiang; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Hongchao

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • α-Sulfur spheres with hierarchical nanostructures are controllably produced. • Addition quantity of PVP affects photocatalytic ability of α-sulfur. • The enhanced photocatalytic ability of α-sulfur hierarchical sphere is found. - Abstract: Visible-light-active α-sulfur spheres with hierarchical nanostructures were fabricated by simple solution-phase synthesis with PVP as the template for enhanced photocatalytic ability. The α-sulfur hierarchical spheres with an ultrahigh specific surface area can controllable synthesized by changing the addition quantity of PVP. The obtained products are systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy (DRS), Fluorescence (FL) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples is evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution under visible light illumination. The results indicate that the morphology, specific surface area, photo absorbance ability, the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers and the reactant adsorption performance can be controlled by varying the addition quantity of PVP. When 200 mg PVP is added, α-sulfur hierarchical spheres with uniform particle size about 1 μm and ultrahigh specific surface area of 67.1 m{sup 2}/g is obtained, and its photocatalytic activity reaches a maximum value, which can be attributed to the combined effects of photo absorbance ability, the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers and the reactant adsorption performance.

  8. Control Device for Temperature Characteristics of a Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Slipchenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The device for measuring of the temperature coefficients of the photovoltaic characteristics of a solar cell is developed. This device provides a real-time monitoring and study of the energy and photovoltaic parameters of a solar cells and its temperature dependence.

  9. Control Device for Temperature Characteristics of a Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    N.I. Slipchenko; V.A. Pismenetskiy; N.V. Gerasimenko; A.D. Sheremet`ev

    2013-01-01

    The device for measuring of the temperature coefficients of the photovoltaic characteristics of a solar cell is developed. This device provides a real-time monitoring and study of the energy and photovoltaic parameters of a solar cells and its temperature dependence.

  10. System Control Applications of Low-Power Radio Frequency Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Roger

    2017-09-01

    This paper conceptualizes a low-power wireless sensor network design for application employment to reduce theft of portable computer devices used in educational institutions today. The aim of this study is to design and develop a reliable and robust wireless network that can eradicate accessibility of a device’s human interface. An embedded system supplied by an energy harvesting source, installed on the portable computer device, may represent one of multiple slave nodes which request regular updates from a standalone master station. A portable computer device which is operated in an undesignated area or in a field perimeter where master to slave communication is restricted, indicating a possible theft scenario, will initiate a shutdown of its operating system and render the device unusable. Consequently, an algorithm in the device firmware may ensure the necessary steps are executed to track the device, irrespective whether the device is enabled. Design outcomes thus far indicate that a wireless network using low-power embedded hardware, is feasible for anti-theft applications. By incorporating one of the latest Bluetooth low-energy, ANT+, ZigBee or Thread wireless technologies, an anti-theft system may be implemented that has the potential to reduce major portable computer device theft in institutions of digitized learning.

  11. Device Architecture and Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Devices Targeting High Current Densities and Control of the Triplet Concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Schols, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Device Architecture and Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Devices focuses on the design of new device and material concepts for organic light-emitting devices, thereby targeting high current densities and an improved control of the triplet concentration. A new light-emitting device architecture, the OLED with field-effect electron transport, is demonstrated. This device is a hybrid between a diode and a field-effect transistor. Compared to conventional OLEDs, the metallic cathode is displaced by one to several micrometers from the light-emitting zone, reducing optical absorption losses. The electrons injected by the cathode accumulate at an organic heterojunction and are transported to the light-emission zone by field-effect. High mobilities for charge carriers are achieved in this way, enabling a high current density and a reduced number of charge carriers in the device. Pulsed excitation experiments show that pulses down to 1 µs can be applied to this structure without affecting the light intensity, sug...

  12. Breath alcohol ignition interlock devices: controlling the recidivist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Richard A; Lucke, Roy E; Wark, Richard I

    2003-09-01

    This study compares the recidivism rates of two groups of Illinois drivers who had their driver's licenses revoked for alcohol-impaired driving and who received restricted driving permits. Drivers in both groups had more than two driving under the influence (DUI) actions against their record within 5 years or were classed as level III alcohol dependents. Drivers in one group were required to install breath alcohol ignition interlock devices in their vehicles and drivers in the other group were not. The research found that drivers with the interlock were one-fifth as likely to be arrested for DUI during the 1 year the device was installed as the comparison group, which did not have the device. However, once the ignition interlock was removed, drivers in this group rapidly returned to DUI arrest rates similar to those in the comparison group. These findings echo previous literature. Additionally, the study showed that this voluntary program in Illinois reached only 16% of the drivers who met the requirements for installing the interlock device. Finally, this study found that individuals who were removed from the interlock program and returned to revoked status continued to drive. Within 3 years, approximately 50% of this latter group were involved in a crash or were arrested for DUI or with an invalid driver's license. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that the breath alcohol ignition interlock device is effective in preventing continued driving while impaired. However, the large-scale effectiveness of the device is limited since most of the drivers eligible for the device do not have it installed. To have a significant impact, the interlock device must represent a better alternative to drivers whose licenses were suspended or revoked because of alcohol arrests compared to remaining on revoked status without having the device installed. Finally the research suggests that, given the rapid return to predevice recidivism, the devices should remain installed until

  13. Light-controlling, flexible and transparent ethanol gas sensor based on ZnO nanoparticles for wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z Q; Yao, J D; Wang, B; Yang, G W

    2015-06-16

    In recent years, owing to the significant applications of health monitoring, wearable electronic devices such as smart watches, smart glass and wearable cameras have been growing rapidly. Gas sensor is an important part of wearable electronic devices for detecting pollutant, toxic, and combustible gases. However, in order to apply to wearable electronic devices, the gas sensor needs flexible, transparent, and working at room temperature, which are not available for traditional gas sensors. Here, we for the first time fabricate a light-controlling, flexible, transparent, and working at room-temperature ethanol gas sensor by using commercial ZnO nanoparticles. The fabricated sensor not only exhibits fast and excellent photoresponse, but also shows high sensing response to ethanol under UV irradiation. Meanwhile, its transmittance exceeds 62% in the visible spectral range, and the sensing performance keeps the same even bent it at a curvature angle of 90(o). Additionally, using commercial ZnO nanoparticles provides a facile and low-cost route to fabricate wearable electronic devices.

  14. 76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... certain vaginal ring birth control devices by reason of infringement of claim 1 of U.S. Patent No. 6,086... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain vaginal ring birth control...

  15. 40 CFR 63.990 - Absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers used as control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.990 Absorbers, condensers, and carbon... regeneration cycle; and a carbon bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording the carbon...

  16. Re-active Passive (RAP) Devices for Control of Noise Transmission through a Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneal, James P.; Giovanardi, Marco; Fuller, Chris R.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Re-Active Passive (RAP) devices have been developed to control low frequency (RAP device uses passive constrained layer damping to cover the relatively high frequency range (>200 Hz), reactive distributed vibration absorber) to cover the medium frequency range (75 to 250 Hz), and active control for controlling low frequencies (RAP devices were able to increase the overall broadband (15-1000 Hz) transmission loss by 9.4 dB. These three devices added a total of 285 grams to the panel mass of 6.0 kg, or approximately 5%, not including control electronics.

  17. Novel Rigid External Distraction Device Improves Stability and Controls the Vector During Midfacial Advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Cory M; Rottgers, Stephen Alex; Langenfeld, Christopher C; Mulliken, John B; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2016-06-01

    The major limitation of the rigid external devices currently used for midfacial distraction after subcranial Le Fort III osteotomies is the ductile wire that connects the midface to the device, which makes it difficult to control the vector and force during distraction. The authors describe a novel external appliance that addresses this and other problems of contemporary devices, and application of a custom cranial template that facilitates precise placement of the device to achieve the planned vector of distraction.

  18. Visibles Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Mark; Zelevinsky, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Within the set of points in the plane with integer coordinates, one point is said to be visible from another if no other point in the set lies between them. This study of visibility draws in topics from a wide variety of mathematical areas, including geometry, number theory, probability, and combinatorics.

  19. Control of Thermal Conductance of Peltier Device Using Heat Disturbance Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimitsu, Hidetaka; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Presently in the industry, temperature control and heat flow control are conducted for many thermal devices, including the Peltier device, which facilitates heat transfer on the basis of the Peltier effect. Generally, temperature control compensates for the heat flowing from the external environment, while the heat actively flows into the system during heat flow control. Thus, temperature control and heat flow control differ from each other. However, there have been no detailed discussions on a thermal control process in which the thermal conductance of control ranges between 0 and ∞. This paper focuses on the thermal conductance of control and the construction of a thermal conductance control system for a Peltier device using a heat disturbance observer. When using the thermal conductance controller, the thermal conductance of control is altered, and the system becomes thermally compliant with the external environment. This paper also shows the experimental results that confirm the validity of the proposed control system.

  20. Passive control experiment of building with spacious first story by magnet-friction energy dissipation device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-xiang; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the former performance capacity experiments of the magnet-friction energy dissipation devices, including the permanent magnet-friction energy dissipation device (PMF) and electromagnet-friction energy dissipation devices ( EMF), a 5-story steel frame model with spacious first story is designed and made according to a scale of 1/4. The magnet-friction energy dissipation devices can realize continuously varied controlling force, with rapid response and reverse recognition. Therefore, they overcome shortcomings usually found in energy dissipation devices whose force models are invariable. The two kinds of devices were fixed on the flexible first story of the structure model, and the shaking table tests have been carried out, respectively. In these tests,the performance of the devices and their effectiveness in structural control were confirmed. In this paper, the test results and analysis are discussed.

  1. Control and automation of multilayered integrated microfluidic device fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, Sarit; Frolov, Ludmila; Guy, Ortal; Pellach, Michal; Glick, Yair; Malichi, Asaf; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Avrahami, Dorit; Yavets-Chen, Yehuda; Levanon, Erez Y; Gerber, Doron

    2017-01-31

    Integrated microfluidics is a sophisticated three-dimensional (multi layer) solution for high complexity serial or parallel processes. Fabrication of integrated microfluidic devices requires soft lithography and the stacking of thin-patterned PDMS layers. Precise layer alignment and bonding is crucial. There are no previously reported standards for alignment of the layers, which is mostly performed using uncontrolled processes with very low alignment success. As a result, integrated microfluidics is mostly used in academia rather than in the many potential industrial applications. We have designed and manufactured a semiautomatic Microfluidic Device Assembly System (μDAS) for full device production. μDAS comprises an electrooptic mechanical system consisting of four main parts: optical system, smart media holder (for PDMS), a micropositioning xyzθ system and a macropositioning XY mechanism. The use of the μDAS yielded valuable information regarding PDMS as the material for device fabrication, revealed previously unidentified errors, and enabled optimization of a robust fabrication process. In addition, we have demonstrated the utilization of the μDAS technology for fabrication of a complex 3 layered device with over 12 000 micromechanical valves and an array of 64 × 64 DNA spots on a glass substrate with high yield and high accuracy. We increased fabrication yield from 25% to about 85% with an average layer alignment error of just ∼4 μm. It also increased our protein expression yields from 80% to over 90%, allowing us to investigate more proteins per experiment. The μDAS has great potential to become a valuable tool for both advancing integrated microfluidics in academia and producing and applying microfluidic devices in the industry.

  2. Chemical and physical processes for integrated temperature control in microfluidic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, Rosanne M.; Dodge, Arash; Van Dedem, Gijs W. K.; De Rooij, Nico F.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are a promising new tool for studying and optimizing (bio)chemical reactions and analyses. Many (bio)chemical reactions require accurate temperature control, such as for example thermocycling for PCR. Here, a new integrated temperature control system for microfluidic devices is

  3. 77 FR 8900 - Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal... within the United States after importation of certain vaginal birth control devices by reason of...

  4. Chemical and physical processes for integrated temperature control in microfluidic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, Rosanne M.; Dodge, Arash; Van Dedem, Gijs W. K.; De Rooij, Nico F.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are a promising new tool for studying and optimizing (bio)chemical reactions and analyses. Many (bio)chemical reactions require accurate temperature control, such as for example thermocycling for PCR. Here, a new integrated temperature control system for microfluidic devices is

  5. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller a via network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention provides a network device interface and method for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. In one embodiment, the bus controller transmits messages to the network device interface containing a plurality of bits having a value defined by a transition between first and second states in the bits. The network device interface determines timing of the data sequence of the message and uses the determined timing to communicate with the bus controller.

  6. Theory of electrically controlled resonant tunneling spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. -Y.; Cartoixa, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    We report device concepts that exploit spin-orbit coupling for creating spin polarized current sources using nonmagnetic semiconductor resonant tunneling heterostructures, without external magnetic fields. The resonant interband tunneling psin filter exploits large valence band spin-orbit interaction to provide strong spin selectivity.

  7. Changes in surface aerosol extinction trends over China during 1980-2013 inferred from quality-controlled visibility data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Chengcai; Zhao, Chunsheng; Su, Tianning

    2016-08-01

    Pollution in China has been attracting extensive attention both globally and regionally, especially due to the perceptually worsening "smog" condition in recent years. We use routine visibility measurements from 1980 to 2013 at 272 World Meteorological Organization stations in China to assess the temporal changes in the magnitude and the sign of pollution trends. A strict and comprehensive quality control procedure is enforced by considering several issues not typically addressed in previous studies. Two methods are used to independently estimate the trend and its significance level. Results show that, in general, a strong increase in aerosol extinction coefficient over the majority of China is observed in the 1980s, followed by a moderate decrease in the 1990s, another increase in the 2000s, and a shift to decrease since around 2006 for some regions. Seasonally, winter and fall trends appear to be the strongest, while summer has the lowest trend.

  8. Description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, C. T.; Groom, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    A description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory model is presented. The AMCD is a momentum exchange device which is under development as an advanced control effector for spacecraft attitude control systems. The digital computer simulation of this device incorporates the following models: six degree of freedom rigid body dynamics; rim warp; controller dynamics; nonlinear distributed element axial bearings; as well as power driver and power supply current limits. An annotated FORTRAN IV source code listing of the computer program is included.

  9. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include development of a procedure to correct for the substantial differences of transistor delay time as measured with different instruments or with the same instrument at different frequencies; association of infrared response spectra of poor quality germanium gamma ray detectors with spectra of detectors fabricated from portions of a good crystal that had been degraded in known ways; and confirmation of the excellent quality and cosmetic appearance of ultrasonic bonds made with aluminum ribbon wire. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon, development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  10. Designing of an Automatic Paraffin Controlling Device for a Beam Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jian; LIU Xiao-juan; LI Shu-qin; YANG Shi-hao; ZHANG Ning-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the paraffin-deposition problem of a beam well,the automatic paraffin-controlling device is designed by making use of ratchet-pallet mechanism,cam echanism and modern designing method.The device has four main functions:paraffin-controlling,paraffin removal,centralizing the pumping rod,and improving the safety of well tubing.This device integrates the advantages of the paraffin control,such as strong magnetic paraffin controlling and mechanical paraffin-cntting.Theoretical analysis shows that this device has fine working reliability.It turns out to be a new device which can solve the paraffin-deposition problem of a beam well economieally and efficiently.

  11. 3D Printing device adaptable to Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

    OpenAIRE

    Gardan, Julien; DANESI, Frédéric; Roucoules, Lionel; Schneider, A

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the development of a 3D printing device for the additive manufacturing adapted to a CNC machining. The application involves the integration of a specific printing head. Additive manufacturing technology is most commonly used for modeling, prototyping, tooling through an exclusive machine or 3D printer. A global review and analysis of technologies show the additive manufacturing presents little independent solutions [6][9]. The problem studied especially the additive manu...

  12. In situ control and monitoring of photonic device intermixing during laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, C K; Suryana, M; Hopkinson, M

    2011-05-09

    Apparatus and method for the in situ control of photonic device intermixing processes are described. The setup utilises an optical fiber splitter which delivers photons to selectively anneal the photonic device and simultaneously measures the emission spectra from the device to monitor the intermixing process in real time. The in situ monitoring of a laser annealing process for the modification of a semiconductor laser diode facet is demonstrated using the instrumentation. A progressive blueshift in the emission wavelength of the device can clearly be observed in real time while high energy photons are delivered to anneal the device facet, hence enabling the control on the degree of intermixing required. This instrumentation is also ideal for broadening of emission spectra in quantum dot and quantum well based light emitting devices such as superluminescent diodes and broadband laser. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Aerodynamic Control-Augmentation Devices For Saturn-Class Launch Vehicles With Aft Centers Of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report describes study of aerodynamic flight-control-augmentation devices proposed for use in increasing payload capabilities of future launch vehicles by allowing more aft centers of gravity. Proposed all-movable devices not only provide increased control authority during ascent trajectory, but also reduce engine gimballing requirements and enhance crew safety. Report proposes various aerodynamic control surfaces mounted fore and aft on Saturn-class launch vehicle.

  14. Gain Parameter Adjustment Methods Comparison of Controller for Autonomous Rehabilitation Device

    OpenAIRE

    Eski, Ikbal; Kirnap, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    PID controller design and comparison between two different gainparameter adjustment method for autonomous physical rehabilitation device ispresented in this paper. This device will be capable of doing repeatedtherapeutic exercises of shoulder joint. That devices main objective  is reducing physiotherapist work load. Thecontrollers tested with real angel values. Comparison of simulation resultsshowed Ziegler_Nichols adjustment method has better performance than Matlab'sauto-tune method.

  15. Method of controlling illumination device based on current-voltage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination device comprising a number of LEDs, means for receiving an input signal, means for generating an activation signal for at least one of the LEDs based on the input signal. The illumination device comprises further means for obtaining the voltage...... and the colorimetric properties of said light emitted by LED. The present invention relates also to a method of controlling and a meted of calibrating such illumination device....

  16. Controlled Assembly of Heterobinuclear Sites on Mesoporous Silica: Visible Light Charge-Transfer Units with Selectable Redox Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Heinz; Han, Hongxian; Frei, Heinz

    2008-06-04

    Mild synthetic methods are demonstrated for the selective assembly of oxo-bridged heterobinuclear units of the type TiOCrIII, TiOCoII, and TiOCeIII on mesoporous silica support MCM-41. One method takes advantage of the higher acidity and, hence, higher reactivity of titanol compared to silanol OH groups towards CeIII or CoII precursor. The procedure avoids the customary use of strong base. The controlled assembly of the TiOCr system exploits the selective redox reactivity of one metal towards another (TiIII precursor reacting with anchored CrVI centers). The observed selectivity for linking a metal precursor to an already anchored partner versus formation of isolated centers ranges from a factor of six (TiOCe) to complete (TiOCr, TiOCo). Evidence for oxo bridges and determination of the coordination environment of each metal centers is based on K-edge EXAFS (TiOCr), L-edge absorption spectroscopy (Ce), and XANES measurements (Co, Cr). EPR, optical, FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy furnish additional details on oxidation state and coordination environment of donor and acceptor metal centers. In the case of TiOCr, the integrity of the anchored group upon calcination (350 oC) and cycling of the Cr oxidation state is demonstrated. The binuclear units possess metal-to-metal charge-transfer transitions that absorb deep in the visible region. The flexible synthetic method for assembling the units opens up the use of visible light charge transfer pumps featuring donor or acceptor metals with selectable redox potential.

  17. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  18. Rotor position and vibration control for aerospace flywheel energy storage devices and other vibration based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B. X. S.

    Flywheel energy storage has distinct advantages over conventional energy storage methods such as electrochemical batteries. Because the energy density of a flywheel rotor increases quadratically with its speed, the foremost goal in flywheel design is to achieve sustainable high speeds of the rotor. Many issues exist with the flywheel rotor operation at high and varying speeds. A prominent problem is synchronous rotor vibration, which can drastically limit the sustainable rotor speed. In a set of projects, the novel Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) is applied to various problems of flywheel rotor operation. These applications include rotor levitation, steady state rotation at high speeds and accelerating operation. Several models such as the lumped mass model and distributed three-mass models have been analyzed. In each of these applications, the ADRC has been extended to cope with disturbance, noise, and control effort optimization; it also has been compared to various industry-standard controllers such as PID and PD/observer, and is proven to be superior. The control performance of the PID controller and the PD/observer currently used at NASA Glenn has been improved by as much as an order of magnitude. Due to the universality of the second order system, the results obtained in the rotor vibration problem can be straightforwardly extended to other vibrational systems, particularly, the MEMS gyroscope. Potential uses of a new nonlinear controller, which inherits the ease of use of the traditional PID, are also discussed.

  19. Galvanic disruption of vestibulospinal postural control by cochlear implant devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F O; Wall, C; O'Leary, D P; Bilger, R C; Wolf, R V

    1978-12-01

    All subjects with implanted cochlear stimulators demonstrated evidence of abnormal postural stability without their stimulators activated. Instability increased when they were tested with cochlear stimulation units turned on, and additional instability was demonstrated in four of these subjects when tested in noise. These findings suggest that the electrical stimulation delivered by the cochlear prosthesis is not limited to the auditory system. The precise characteristics of electrical stimulation devices designed for stimulations limited to the cochlea and their spurious effects upon motor performance should be investigated. The design of future intralabyrinthine auditory electrical prostheses must include hardware designs and stimulus paradigms that avoid undesirable vestibular system stimulation.

  20. Fast, cheap and in control: spectral imaging with handheld devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Deutsch, Erik R.; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2017-05-01

    Remote sensing has moved out of the laboratory and into the real world. Instruments using reflection or Raman imaging modalities become faster, cheaper and more powerful annually. Enabling technologies include virtual slit spectrometer design, high power multimode diode lasers, fast open-loop scanning systems, low-noise IR-sensitive array detectors and low-cost computers with touchscreen interfaces. High-volume manufacturing assembles these components into inexpensive portable or handheld devices that make possible sophisticated decision-making based on robust data analytics. Examples include threat, hazmat and narcotics detection; remote gas sensing; biophotonic screening; environmental remediation and a host of other applications.

  1. Improved device reliability in organic light emitting devices by controlling the etching of indium zinc oxide anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Jie; Lou, Yan-Hui; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    A controllable etching process for indium zinc oxide (IZO) films was developed by using a weak etchant of oxalic acid with a slow etching ratio. With controllable etching time and temperature, a patterned IZO electrode with smoothed surface morphology and slope edge was achieved. For the practical application in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), a suppression of the leak current in the current—voltage characteristics of OLEDs was observed. It resulted in a 1.6 times longer half lifetime in the IZO-based OLEDs compared to that using an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode etched by a conventional strong etchant of aqua regia.

  2. Feedback control of biomimetic exotendon device for hand rehabilitation in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Wook; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Many hand exoskeleton devices have recently been developed for hand rehabilitation of stroke survivors, but most hand exoskeletons focused on implementing joint movement driven by individual actuator located at the finger joints rather than considering function of hand muscle-tendons and their coordination. In order to achieve hand rehabilitation targeted on restoration of specific muscle-tendon functions, a biomimetic hand exotendon device (BiomHED) was introduced recently. This paper introduces a ring-type design of exotendon device for easier donning and the design of a feedback control system for controlling posture of the finger. Technical details of the feedback sensor and controller with preliminary experimental results are presented.

  3. Characteristics of magnetic force control device with magnetostrictive and piezoelectric laminate composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki; Qiu, Jinhao; Tani, Junji

    2003-08-01

    A magnetic force control device with laminate composite of giant magnetostrictive material (GMM) and piezo-electric material (PZT) is proposed. This magnetic force control is based on inverse magnetostrictive effect of a magnetic material, whereby the variation of stress applied on the material is converted to that of magnetic force via magnetic circuits. For the purpose of realizing the method in practical applications, disks of GMM and PZT are laminated to control the stress of GMM by electric field on PZT. Due to the capacitive properties of PZT, the device requires little electric energy hence generates no heat to maintain constant force. Furthermore compared with conventional electromagnetics, the device can be fabricated easily and in small size to be suitable for microactuators. This paper presents the principle of the magnetic force control by the lamination of GMM and PZT and investigates the static and dynamic characteristics of several devices to demonstrate their capabilities of the magnetic force control.

  4. State-variable control of shunt FACTS devices using phasor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machowski, J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Instytut Elektroenergetyki, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Bialek, J.W. [University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering and Electronics, King' s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    This paper addresses the problem of state-variable stabilizing control of power system using shunt FACTS devices. This stabilizing control is activated in the transient state of a power system and is supplementary with respect to the main steady-state control of a FACTS device. Stabilizing control laws have been derived for a non-linear multi-machine system model using direct Lyapunov method with the aim to maximize the rate of energy dissipation during power swings and therefore maximization of damping. The proposed control strategy is executed by a non-linear multi-loop controller with rotor angles and speed deviations of synchronous generators used as the input signals. The input signals, obtained from a phasor measurement system, are necessary only from a small area around the controlled shunt FACTS device. Validity of the proposed state-variable control has been confirmed by computer simulation for a small multi-machine test system. (author)

  5. Virtual planning for vertical control using temporary anchorage devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Accorsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new and innovative technologies are unprecedentedly improving the level of proficiency in orthodontics in the recent history of this area of expertise. The proliferation of advances, such as self-ligating systems, temporary anchorage devices, shape-memory wires, robotically wire bending, intraoral scanners, cone-beam computed tomography, bring the virtual planning, and confection of dental devices through CAD/CAM systems to the real world. In order to get efficiency and efficacy in orthodontics with these new technologies, we must understand the importance of systemically managed clinical information, medical, and dentistry history of the patients, including the images resources, which ensures the use of a communication that is assisted by the technology, with an interdisciplinary team so that the database is able to help and support the process of therapeutic decision-making. This paper presents the clinical case of a borderline patient for orthognathic surgery who had his final treatment planning supported by these new tools for three-dimensional diagnosis and virtual planning.

  6. RIO EPICS device support application case study on an ion source control system (ISHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Diego [UPM – Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Mariano, E-mail: mariano.ruiz@upm.es [UPM – Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Eguiraun, Mikel [Department of Electricity and Electronic, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain); Arredondo, Iñigo [ESS Bilbao Consortium, Zamudio (Spain); Badillo, Inari; Jugo, Josu [Department of Electricity and Electronic, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain); Vega, Jesús; Castro, Rodrigo [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A use case example of RIO/FlexRIO design methodology is described. • Ion source device is controlled and monitored by means EPICS IOCs. • NIRIO EPICS device support demonstrates that is able to manage RIO devices. • Easy and fast deployment is possible using RIO/FlexRIO design methodology using NIRIO-EDS. • RIO/FlexRIO technology and EPICS are a good combination for support large scale experiments in fusion environments. - Abstract: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software tool that during last years has become relevant as a main framework to deploy distributed control systems in large scientific environments. At the moment, ESS Bilbao uses this middleware to perform the control of their Ion Source Hydrogen Positive (ISHP) project. The implementation of the control system was based on: PXI Real Time controllers using the LabVIEW-RT and LabVIEW-EPICS tools; and RIO devices based on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. Intended to provide a full compliant EPICS IOCs for RIO devices and to avoid additional efforts on the system maintainability, a migration of the current system to a derivative Red Hat Linux (CentOS) environment has been conducted. This paper presents a real application case study for using the NIRIO EPICS device support (NIRIO-EDS) to give support to the ISHP. Although RIO FPGA configurations are particular solutions for ISHP performance, the NIRIO-EDS has permitted the control and monitoring of devices by applying a well-defined design methodology into the previous FPGA configuration for RIO/FlexRIO devices. This methodology has permitted a fast and easy deployment for the new robust, scalable and maintainable software to support RIO devices into the ISHP control architecture.

  7. Non-invasive control interfaces for intention detection in active movement-assistive devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Prat, J.; Kooren, P.N.; Stienen, A.H.A.; Herder, J.L.; Koopman, B.F.J.M.; Veltink, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Active movement-assistive devices aim to increase the quality of life for patients with neuromusculoskeletal disorders. This technology requires interaction between the user and the device through a control interface that detects the user’s movement intention. Researchers have explored a wide variet

  8. 40 CFR 63.996 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.996 General monitoring requirements for... cycle and the temperature of the carbon bed determined within 15 minutes of the completion of...

  9. Controlled preparation of Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Siyuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Zhang, Shengsen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Fang, Yueping [College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Peng, Feng, E-mail: cefpeng@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The corncob-like Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanostructure with suitably exposed Ag surface exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than Ag@Cu{sub 2}O nanocables and Cu{sub 2}O nanowires. - Highlights: • Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs have been controllably prepared by a simple synthesis. • The possible formation mechanism of Ag–Cu{sub 2}O has been studied. • Ag–Cu{sub 2}O exhibits noticeable improved photocurrent compared with the pure Cu{sub 2}O NWs. • Ag–Cu{sub 2}O with suitably exposed Ag surface shows much higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Novel corncob-like nano-heterostructured Ag–Cu{sub 2}O photocatalyst has been controllably prepared by adjusting the synthetic parameters, and the possible formation mechanism has been also studied. The photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances demonstrated that the as-prepared Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than both pure Cu{sub 2}O nanowires and cable-like Ag@Cu{sub 2}O nano-composites. It was concluded that Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs with suitably exposed Ag surface not only effectively inhibit the recombination of electron–hole pairs but also suitably increase the active sites of electronic conduction, and thus increasing the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

  10. Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Solar sails offer an opportunity for a CubeSatscale, propellant-free spacecraft technology that enables long-term and long-distance missions not possible with traditional methods. Solar sails operate using the transfer of linear momentum from photons of sunlight reflected from the surface of the sail. To propel the spacecraft, no mechanically moving parts, thrusters, or propellant are needed. However, attitude control, or orientation, is still performed using traditional methods involving reaction wheels and propellant ejection, which severely limit mission lifetime. For example, the current state of the art solutions employed by upcoming missions couple solar sails with a state of the art propellant ejection gas system. Here, the use of the gas thruster has limited the lifetime of the mission. To solve the limited mission lifetime problem, the Propellantless Attitude Control of Solar Sail Technology Utilizing Reflective Control Devices project team is working on propellantless attitude control using thin layers of material, an optical film, electrically switchable from transparent to reflective. The technology is based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), which allows this switch upon application of a voltage. This technology removes the need for propellant, which reduces weight and cost while improving performance and lifetime.

  11. Anderson localisation of visible light on a nanophotonic chip

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, Tom; Sapienza, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the propagation of visible light on a chip is of tremendous interest in research areas such as energy harvesting, imaging, sensing and biology. Technological advances allow us to control light at the nanoscale and to strongly enhance the light-matter interaction in highly engineered devices. However, compared to state-of-the-art two-dimensional optical cavities operating at longer wavelengths, the quality factor of on-chip visible light confinement is several orders of magnitude lower. Our approach makes use of fabrication imperfections to trap light: we demonstrate, for the first time, Anderson localisation of visible light on a chip. Remarkably, compared to quality factors of engineered cavities, disorder-induced localisation proves to be more efficient in trapping light than highly engineered devices, thus reversing the trend observed so far. We measure light-confinement quality factors as high as 7600 and, by implementing a sensitive imaging technique, we directly visualise the localised modes...

  12. Remote Controlling of Light Intensity Using Phone Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beza Negash Getu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the design and simulation of an electronic system for remote controlling the level of light intensity of an electrical lighting system used for a certain desired application. The remote controlling is done using the keypad of any Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF based telephone handset. A DTMF tone command sent from a transmitting fixed or mobile phone terminal will be used to activate a system of relays that control the required level of light intensity. An appropriate active bandpass filters are designed for recognition of the DTMF tones of the transmitted digit. The bandpass filters and the additional subsequent stages of the overall electronic system are simulated and tested using MULTISM. Light intensity controlling is useful to avoid unnecessary electrical power wastage and the remote controlling eliminates the physical presence of a person for adjusting the required level of lighting at the desired location.

  13. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  14. Consumer-grade EEG devices: are they usable for control tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Damasevicius, Robertas; Martisius, Ignas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas

    2016-01-01

    We present the evaluation of two well-known, low-cost consumer-grade EEG devices: the Emotiv EPOC and the Neurosky MindWave. Problems with using the consumer-grade EEG devices (BCI illiteracy, poor technical characteristics, and adverse EEG artefacts) are discussed. The experimental evaluation of the devices, performed with 10 subjects asked to perform concentration/relaxation and blinking recognition tasks, is given. The results of statistical analysis show that both devices exhibit high variability and non-normality of attention and meditation data, which makes each of them difficult to use as an input to control tasks. BCI illiteracy may be a significant problem, as well as setting up of the proper environment of the experiment. The results of blinking recognition show that using the Neurosky device means recognition accuracy is less than 50%, while the Emotiv device has achieved a recognition accuracy of more than 75%; for tasks that require concentration and relaxation of subjects, the Emotiv EPOC device has performed better (as measured by the recognition accuracy) by ∼9%. Therefore, the Emotiv EPOC device may be more suitable for control tasks using the attention/meditation level or eye blinking than the Neurosky MindWave device.

  15. Consumer-grade EEG devices: are they usable for control tasks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rytis Maskeliunas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the evaluation of two well-known, low-cost consumer-grade EEG devices: the Emotiv EPOC and the Neurosky MindWave. Problems with using the consumer-grade EEG devices (BCI illiteracy, poor technical characteristics, and adverse EEG artefacts are discussed. The experimental evaluation of the devices, performed with 10 subjects asked to perform concentration/relaxation and blinking recognition tasks, is given. The results of statistical analysis show that both devices exhibit high variability and non-normality of attention and meditation data, which makes each of them difficult to use as an input to control tasks. BCI illiteracy may be a significant problem, as well as setting up of the proper environment of the experiment. The results of blinking recognition show that using the Neurosky device means recognition accuracy is less than 50%, while the Emotiv device has achieved a recognition accuracy of more than 75%; for tasks that require concentration and relaxation of subjects, the Emotiv EPOC device has performed better (as measured by the recognition accuracy by ∼9%. Therefore, the Emotiv EPOC device may be more suitable for control tasks using the attention/meditation level or eye blinking than the Neurosky MindWave device.

  16. Lightweight and Compace Multifunction Computer-Controlled Strength and Aerobic Training Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and...

  17. Guest Editorial Advanced Distributed Control of Energy Conversion Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudi, Ali; Guerrero, Josep M.; Lewis, Frank;

    2014-01-01

    The papers in this special issue on advanced distributed control of energy conversion devices and systems are loosely grouped into three categories: 1) ac energy conversion systems; 2) dc energy conversion systems; and 3) optimization and standards....

  18. Advanced Controls for the Multi-pod Centipod WEC device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, Alan [Dehlsen Associates, LLC, Santa Barabara, CA (United States); Fleming, Alex [Dehlsen Associates, LLC, Santa Barabara, CA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) has developed a Wave Energy Converter (WEC), Centipod, which is a multiple point absorber, extracting wave energy primarily in the heave direction through a plurality of point absorber floats sharing a common stable reference structure. The objective of this project was to develop advanced control algorithms that will be used to reduce Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). This project investigated the use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) to improve the power capture of the WEC. The MPC controller developed in this work is a state-space, “look ahead” controller approach using knowledge of past and current states to predict future states to take action with the PTO to maximize power capture while still respecting system constraints. In order to maximize power, which is the product of force and velocity, the controller must aim to create phase alignment between excitation force and velocity. This project showed a 161% improvement in the Annual Energy Production (AEP) for the Centipod WEC when utilizing MPC, compared to a baseline, fixed passive damping control strategy. This improvement in AEP was shown to provide a substantial benefit to the WEC’s overall Cost of Energy, reducing LCOE by 50% from baseline. The results of this work proved great potential for the adoption of Model Predictive Controls in Wave Energy Converters.

  19. Fluid control in microfluidic devices using a fluid conveyance extension and an absorbent microfluidic flow modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2013-05-07

    This article presents a simple method for controlling fluid in microfluidic devices without the need for valves or pumps. A fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled to the enclosed outlet chamber of a microfluidic device. After a fluid is introduced into the microfluidic device and saturates the fluid conveyance extension, a fluid flow in the microfluidic device is generated by contacting an absorbent microfluidic flow modulator with the fluid conveyance extension to absorb the fluid from the fluid conveyance extension through capillary action. Since the fluid in the microfluidic device is fluidly coupled with the fluid conveyance extension and the fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled with the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, which is the rate at which the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator absorbs fluid, matches the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device. Thus, the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is set by the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator. Sheath flow and fluid switching applications are demonstrated using this simple fluid control method without the need for valves or pumps. Also, the ability to control the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is demonstrated using absorbent microfluidic flow modulators with various absorbent characteristics and dimensions.

  20. Temperature control of power semiconductor devices in traction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugachev, A. A.; Strekalov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    The peculiarity of thermal management of traction frequency converters of a railway rolling stock is highlighted. The topology and the operation principle of the automatic temperature control system of power semiconductor modules of the traction frequency converter are designed and discussed. The features of semiconductors as an object of temperature control are considered; the equivalent circuit of thermal processes in the semiconductors is suggested, the power losses in the two-level voltage source inverters are evaluated and analyzed. The dynamic properties and characteristics of the cooling fan induction motor electric drive with the scalar control are presented. The results of simulation in Matlab are shown for the steady state of thermal processes.

  1. Seismic Response Control Of Structures Using Semi-Active and Passive Variable Stiffness Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed M. A.

    Controllable devices such as Magneto-Rheological Fluid Dampers, Electro-Rheological Dampers, and controllable friction devices have been studied extensively with limited implementation in real structures. Such devices have shown great potential in reducing seismic demands, either as smart base isolation systems, or as smart devices for multistory structures. Although variable stiffness devices can be used for seismic control of structures, the vast majority of research effort has been given to the control of damping. The primary focus of this dissertation is to evaluate the seismic control of structures using semi-active and passive variable stiffness characteristics. Smart base isolation systems employing variable stiffness devices have been studied, and two semi-active control strategies are proposed. The control algorithms were designed to reduce the superstructure and base accelerations of seismically isolated structures subject to near-fault and far-field ground motions. Computational simulations of the proposed control algorithms on the benchmark structure have shown that excessive base displacements associated with the near-fault ground motions may be better mitigated with the use of variable stiffness devices. However, the device properties must be controllable to produce a wide range of stiffness changes for an effective control of the base displacements. The potential of controllable stiffness devices in limiting the base displacement due to near-fault excitation without compromising the performance of conventionally isolated structures, is illustrated. The application of passive variable stiffness devices for seismic response mitigation of multistory structures is also investigated. A stiffening bracing system (SBS) is proposed to replace the conventional bracing systems of braced frames. An optimization process for the SBS parameters has been developed. The main objective of the design process is to maintain a uniform inter-story drift angle over the

  2. Intelligent Security Auditing Based on Access Control of Devices in Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-wei; SHI You-qun; ZHU Ming; WU Guo-wen; CAO Qi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Security in Ad Hoc network is an important issue under the opening circumstance of application service. Some protocols and models of security auditing have been proposed to ensure rationality of contracting strategy and operating regulation and used to identify abnormal operation. Model of security auditing based on access control of devices will be advanced to register sign of devices and property of event of access control and to audit those actions. In the end, the model is analyzed and simulated.

  3. Collaborative Research: Fundamental studies of plasma control using surface embedded electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Laxminarayan L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); PanneerChelvam, PremKumar [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Levko, Dimtry [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The proposed study will investigate the effect of active electron injection of from electrode surfaces To the best of our knowledge, no such a study has ever been attempted even though it could lead to the formation of whole new classes of plasma based devices and systems. We are motivated by recent articles and simple theory which gives strong reason to believe that embedded electronic devices can be used to exert control over the SEE coefficient of semiconductor surfaces (and maybe other surface types as well). Furthermore, the research will explore how such sub-surface electronic devices can best be used to exert control over an associated plasma.

  4. Optically controlled microwave devices and circuits: Emerging applications in space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1987-01-01

    Optical control of microwave devices and circuits by an optical fiber has the potential to simplify signal distribution networks in high frequency communications systems. The optical response of two terminal and three terminal (GaAs MESFET, HEMT, PBT) microwave devices are compared and several schemes for controlling such devices by modulated optical signals examined. Monolithic integration of optical and microwave functions on a single semiconductor substrate is considered to provide low power, low loss, and reliable digital and analog optical links for signal distribution.

  5. A Model for Service Life Control of Selected Device Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieja Mariusz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a way of determining distribution of limit state exceedence time by a diagnostic parameter which determines accuracy of maintaining zero state. For calculations it was assumed that the diagnostic parameter is deviation from nominal value (zero state. Change of deviation value occurs as a result of destructive processes which occur during service. For estimation of deviation increasing rate in probabilistic sense, was used a difference equation from which, after transformation, Fokker-Planck differential equation was obtained [4, 11]. A particular solution of the equation is deviation increasing rate density function which was used for determining exceedance probability of limit state. The so-determined probability was then used to determine density function of limit state exceedance time, by increasing deviation. Having at disposal the density function of limit state exceedance time one determined service life of a system of maladjustment. In the end, a numerical example based on operational data of selected aircraft [weapon] sights was presented. The elaborated method can be also applied to determining residual life of shipboard devices whose technical state is determined on the basis of analysis of values of diagnostic parameters.

  6. Design Optimization and Development in Air Pollution Control Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ligade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP is the device used to remove the dust particles from the processed gases coming out of boilers in cement industries, and iron core industries. There are many governing factors that affect the efficiency from that one major reason is to fully filled hopper. When hopper fills 70 % of its full limit the precipitation process stopped of that particular hopper. For remedy dust removal efficiency is increased by hopper vibrator at the time of emptying bagasse ash from the hopper. The maximum displacement is getting by using different hopper wall thicknesses, stiffener spacing as well as different configuration vibrators. Due to minimum time to complete project there are many difficulties to test at every stage to improve the design and this results in increased project cost. For this situation there is one simple way to improve the design of equipment’s through simulation in ANSYS and validation by actual physical measurements. This project presents FEA approach for modeling and analysis the hopper of electrostatic precipitator using Static, Modal and Harmonic analysis. Actual model testing is done for the validation of results. The results coming out from the FEA analysis and testing are discussed.

  7. Quality control associated with use of semipermeable membrane devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVita, W.M.; Crunkilton, R.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban stream. Replicate SPMDs were exposed during seven consecutive 14-day periods and analyzed for PAHs. Relative percent differences (RPDs) were calculated to determine precision (reproducibility) in SPMD replicates. RPDs ranged from 13.9% to 56.0% (n = 14). Variations in replicates encompassed SPMD preparation, deployment, exposure, retrieval, and analysis. Seven SPMDs were spiked at various intervals throughout the study with a mixture of all PAH analytes at 2.0 {micro}g/g triolein per compound. Average percent recovery (n = 7) varied from 52% to 82%. Method detection limits (MDLs) were also assessed by spiking ten SPMDs at 0.200 {micro}g/g with equal amounts of a PAH mixture. Most MDLs for PAHs in SPMDs ranged from 0.054 to 0.178 {micro}g/g triolein, however, if considering a 14-day exposure period, these MDLs can be translated into water concentrations of 2.1 ng/L to 13 ng/L. These values are as much as 2,000 times lower than MDLs for methods which employ solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography to directly measure PAHs in water. Blank SPMDs were prepared, and analyzed along with each set of field exposures and proved to be free of PAH contaminants above MDLs.

  8. Overview of magnetic bearing control and linearization approaches for annular magnetically suspended devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of magnetic bearing control and linearization approaches which have been considered for annular magnetically suspended devices is presented. These devices include the Annular Momentum Control Device and the Annular Suspension and Pointing System. Two approaches were investigated for controlling the magnetic actuator. One approach involves controlling the upper and lower electromagnets differentially about a bias flux. The bias flux can either be supplied by permanent magnets in the magnetic circuit or by bias currents. In the other approach, either the upper electromagnet or the lower electromagnet is controlled depending on the direction of force required. One advantage of the bias flux is that for small gap perturbations about a fixed operating point, the force-current characteristic is linear. Linearization approaches investigated for individual element control include an analog solution of the nonlinear electromagnet force equation and a microprocessor-based table lookup method.

  9. Preparation and controlled drug delivery applications of mesoporous silica polymer nanocomposites through the visible light induced surface-initiated ATRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Xu, Dazhuang; Wan, Qing; Zeng, Guangjian; Shi, Yingge; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-08-01

    The mesoporous materials with large pore size, high specific surface area and high thermal stability have been widely utilized in a variety of fields ranging from environmental remediation to separation and biomedicine. However, surface modification of these silica nanomaterials is required to endow novel properties and achieve better performance for most of these applications. In this work, a new method has been established for surface modification of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) that relied on the visible light induced atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). In the procedure, the copolymers composited with itaconic acid (IA) and poly(ethylene glycol)methyl acrylate (PEGMA) were grafted from MSNs using IA and PEGMA as the monomers and 10-Phenylphenothiazine(PTH) as the organic catalyst. The successful preparation of final polymer nanocomposites (named as MSNs-NH2-poly(IA-co-PEGMA)) were evidenced by a series of characterization techniques. More importantly, the anticancer agent cisplatin can be effectively loaded on MSNs-NH2-poly(IA-co-PEGMA) and controlled release it from the drug-loading composites with pH responsive behavior. As compared with conventional ATRP, the light induced surface-initiated ATRP could also be utilized for preparation of various silica polymer nanocomposites under rather benign conditions (e.g. absent of transition metal ions, low polymerization temperature and short polymerization time). Taken together, we have developed a rather promising strategy method for fabrication of multifunctional MSNs-NH2-poly(IA-co-PEGMA) with great potential for biomedical applications.

  10. Simple Neuron-Fuzzy Tool for Small Control Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2008-01-01

    Small control computers, running a kind of Fuzzy controller, are more and more used in many systems from household machines to large industrial systems. The purpose of this paper is firstly to describe a tool that is easy to use for implementing self learning Fuzzy systems, that can be executed....... The C learning library contains the learning algorithm. The generated C code is simple standard C and therefore it can be applied to all computers which can be programmed in C. The learning algorithm is a gradient descend method based on a numerical calculation of the gradient. The input fuzzyfication...

  11. Device for dynamic switching of robot control points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention comprises a system for switching between control points of a robotic system involving an industrial robot including a robot arm with a number of joints and provided with a tool interest point movable in a plurality of degrees of freedom.......The invention comprises a system for switching between control points of a robotic system involving an industrial robot including a robot arm with a number of joints and provided with a tool interest point movable in a plurality of degrees of freedom....

  12. Linear motion device and method for inserting and withdrawing control rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    Disclosed is a linear motion device and more specifically a control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) for inserting and withdrawing control rods into a reactor core. The CRDM and method disclosed is capable of independently and sequentially positioning two sets of control rods with a single motor stator and rotor. The CRDM disclosed can control more than one control rod lead screw without incurring a substantial increase in the size of the mechanism.

  13. Control of the optical and crystalline properties of TiO{sub 2} in visible-light active TiO{sub 2}/TiN bi-layer thin-film stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Wilson; Fakhouri, Houssam; Pulpytel, Jerome; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes Plasma et Traitement de Surface, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 75231 (France)

    2012-01-15

    Multi-layered thin films of TiO{sub 2} and TiN were created by rf reactive magnetron sputtering, and their crystalline, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties were measured. The overall composition of the films (TiO{sub 2}-to-TiN ratio) was kept constant with the height of each film. The number of layers and thickness of each layer was controlled to create bi-layer thin films that were composed of: 9 bi-layers, 18 bi-layers, 27 bi-layers, 36 bi-layers, and 45 bi-layers. XRD patterns were observed for each film after annealing to measure the grain size and composition of anatase and rutile as a function of temperature. It was found that the phase-transition temperature is able to be substantially controlled (between 550 deg. C and 850 deg. C) for the anatase to rutile transition by varying the number of layers/thickness of each layer. In addition, bi-layer stacking significantly affected the film's optical properties by lowering the bandgap into the visible-light region, and also showed up to three times the improvement in photoelectrochemical performance under uv and visible irradiation. Overall, bi-layer stacking of TiO{sub 2}/TiN films has shown a unique and highly desirable control over several important physical characteristics that can be beneficial for many applications, such as high-temperature sensors and optoelectronic devices.

  14. The Applicability of Hydrofoils as a Ship Control Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Shamim Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal forces are commonly created when ships turn, which may cause a ship to capsize in a critical situation. A mathematical model has been developed to optimize the stability coefficients for ship, with the aim to prevent capsizing and to increase ship maneuverability in high-speed water craft. This model can be used to develop algorithms for control system improvement. The mathematical model presented in this paper optimized the use of multipurpose hydrofoils to reduce heeling and the trimming moment, maintaining an upright ship’s position and lessening the resistance via transverse force. Conventionally, the trimming and heeling of a ship are controlled using ballast water;however, under variable sea conditions it is sometimes difficult to control a ship’s motion using ballast water. In this case, a hydrofoil would be more stable and maneuverable than a ballast tank controlled vessel. A movable hydrofoil could theoretically be adapted from moveable aerofoil technology. This study proves the merit of further investigation into this possibility.

  15. Two-Degree-of-Freedom Robust Temperature Control of Peltier Device Based on Heat Disturbance Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimitsu, Hidetaka; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Recently, the Peltier device has been attracting attention as a haptic device that can transfer heat, because it has relatively fast response characteristics among thermal devices. To transmit the thermal sensation, temperature control is considered to be important. However, it is difficult to design a controller because of factors such as parameter variations, nonlinear characteristics of the device, and heat that flows from an external object. Moreover, it is preferable that the tracking performance and disturbance suppression characteristics be designed independently. To address these factors, this paper proposes a heat disturbance observer, which is constructed by using the disturbance observer commonly used in the field of motion control. When the observer is used, the thermal system becomes robust to the above-mentioned factors. In addition, it is possible to design the tracking performance independent of the disturbance suppression characteristics. The validity of the proposal is confirmed by experimental results.

  16. Study on DeviceNet communication mechanism and its application in protection measurement and control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Weiming; Li Zhongwei; Sun Fanjin; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    To fit in with the developing requirement of integrated functions of protection measurement, control and communication of protective relays,a protection measurement and control system based on DeviceNet fieldbus is designed.The communication mechanism of DeviceNet is studied and data trigger modes.communication connection,message types and other key technologies are analyzed.The object modeling and device description of the device are realized too.Results of network test,dynamic simulation and test in the field indicate that this system can accomplish all the communication tasks in real time and can make precise response to every kind of faults of the motor,transformer,line and capacitor.Moreover,this system has higher measurement precision and better control capability.

  17. Evaluation of the leap motion controller as a new contact-free pointing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Daniel; Weichert, Frank; Rinkenauer, Gerhard

    2014-12-24

    This paper presents a Fitts' law-based analysis of the user's performance in selection tasks with the Leap Motion Controller compared with a standard mouse device. The Leap Motion Controller (LMC) is a new contact-free input system for gesture-based human-computer interaction with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. Up to this point, there has hardly been any systematic evaluation of this new system available. With an error rate of 7.8% for the LMC and 2.8% for the mouse device, movement times twice as large as for a mouse device and high overall effort ratings, the Leap Motion Controller's performance as an input device for everyday generic computer pointing tasks is rather limited, at least with regard to the selection recognition provided by the LMC.

  18. Control Board Digital Interface Input Devices – Touchscreen, Trackpad, or Mouse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Ronald L. Boring; Roger Lew

    2015-08-01

    The authors collaborated with a power utility to evaluate input devices for use in the human system interface (HSI) for a new digital Turbine Control System (TCS) at a nuclear power plant (NPP) undergoing a TCS upgrade. A standalone dynamic software simulation of the new digital TCS and a mobile kiosk were developed to conduct an input device study to evaluate operator preference and input device effectiveness. The TCS software presented the anticipated HSI for the TCS and mimicked (i.e., simulated) the turbine systems’ responses to operator commands. Twenty-four licensed operators from the two nuclear power units participated in the study. Three input devices were tested: a trackpad, mouse, and touchscreen. The subjective feedback from the survey indicates the operators preferred the touchscreen interface. The operators subjectively rated the touchscreen as the fastest and most comfortable input device given the range of tasks they performed during the study, but also noted a lack of accuracy for selecting small targets. The empirical data suggest the mouse input device provides the most consistent performance for screen navigation and manipulating on screen controls. The trackpad input device was both empirically and subjectively found to be the least effective and least desired input device.

  19. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  20. Network device interface for digitally interfacing data channels to a controller via a network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Philip J. (Inventor); Grant, Robert L. (Inventor); Konz, Daniel W. (Inventor); Winkelmann, Joseph P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A communications system and method are provided for digitally connecting a plurality of data channels, such as sensors, actuators, and subsystems, to a controller using a network bus. The network device interface interprets commands and data received from the controller and polls the data channels in accordance with these commands. Specifically, the network device interface receives digital commands and data from the controller, and based on these commands and data, communicates with the data channels to either retrieve data in the case of a sensor or send data to activate an actuator. Data retrieved from the sensor is converted into digital signals and transmitted to the controller. Network device interfaces associated with different data channels can coordinate communications with the other interfaces based on either a transition in a command message sent by the bus controller or a synchronous clock signal.

  1. Low energy nanoemulsification to design veterinary controlled drug delivery devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F Vandamme

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thierry F Vandamme, Nicolas Anton, University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Pharmacy, Illkirch Cedex, France; UMR CNRS 7199, Laboratoire de Conception et Application de Molécules Bioactives, équipe de Pharmacie Biogalénique, Illkirch Cedex, France,  This work is selected as Controlled Release Society Outstanding Veterinary Paper Award 2010Abstract: The unique properties of nanomaterials related to structural stability and quantum-scale reactive properties open up a world of possibilities that could be exploited to design and to target drug delivery or create truly microscale biological sensors for veterinary applications. We developed cost-saving and solvent-free nanoemulsions. Formulated with a low-energy method, these nanoemulsions can find application in the delivery of controlled amounts of drugs into the beverage of breeding animals (such as poultry, cattle, pigs or be used for the controlled release of injectable poorly water-soluble drugs.Keywords: nanoemulsion, nanomedicine, low-energy emulsification, veterinary, ketoprofen, sulfamethazine

  2. Visibility Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Research production, which earns universities money, is accredited publications in peer-reviewed journals and books. Increasing research productivity is one policy amongst many used by management to boost growth and income. It is time for a pat on the back, the growth of knowledge and visibility...... at RSLIS ranks us among the top 10 contributors to core LIS journals in a new international ranking. The management should be pleased....

  3. Quality Control Method for a Micro-Nano-Channel Microfabricated Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattoni, Alessandro; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Xuewu

    2012-01-01

    A variety of silicon-fabricated devices is used in medical applications such as drug and cell delivery, and DNA and protein separation and analysis. When a fluidic device inlet is connected to a compressed gas reservoir, and the outlet is at a lower pressure, a gas flow occurs through the membrane toward the outside. The method relies on the measurement of the gas pressure over the elapsed time inside the upstream and downstream environments. By knowing the volume of the upstream reservoir, the gas flow rate through the membrane over the pressure drop can be calculated. This quality control method consists of measuring the gas flow through a device and comparing the results with a standard curve, which can be obtained by testing standard devices. Standard devices can be selected through a variety of techniques, both destructive and nondestructive, such as SEM, AFM, and standard particle filtration.

  4. Fuzzy maintenance costs of a wind turbine pitch control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimation maintenance costs for the case of the pitch controls system of wind farms turbines. Previous investigations have estimated these costs as (traditional “crisp” values, simply ignoring the uncertainty nature of data and information available. This paper purposes an extended version of the estimation model by making use of the Fuzzy Set Theory. The results alert decision-makers to consequent uncertainty of the estimations along with their overall level, thus improving the information given to the mainte-nance support system.

  5. Real-Time Occupant Based Plug-in Device Control Using ICT in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Bin Bae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reduce the unnecessary plug loads used by computers, monitors, and computer peripheral devices, all of which account for more than 95% of the entire plug loads of an office building. To this end, an occupant-based plug-in device control (OBC-P software was developed. The OBC-P software collects real-time information about the presence or absence of occupants who are connected to the access point through the Wifi and controls the power of monitors or computers, while a standby power off device controls computer peripheral devices. To measure the plug load saving of the occupant-based plug-in device control, an experiment was conducted, targeting 10 occupants of three research labs of the graduate school, for two weeks. The experiment results showed that it could save the plug loads of monitors and computer peripheral devices by 15% in the Awake mode, and by 26% in the Sleep mode.

  6. Efficacy of attract-and-kill devices for the control of Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime; Vacas, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    The control of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann traditionally has relied on chemical control with organophosphate insecticides. The use of many of these substances has been banned by new European directives; therefore, the development of new control methods is essential to manage this pest. Bait sprays with spinosad, mass trapping and lure-and-kill techniques have been the base for new integrated pest management programmes. In this study, a 2 year field trial was conducted in two citrus areas to test the efficacy of attract-and-kill devices against mass trapping and spinosad-plus-bait treatments. The Magnet(®) MED attract-and-kill device, Spintor(®) treatments and mass trapping achieved good control of C. capitata populations, as confirmed by low percentages of damaged fruit in the assessments performed during the harvest period. On the other hand, fly population levels on plots treated with other attract-and-kill prototype devices increased more than threefold by comparison with the populations recorded in the rest of the treated plots. The same effect was observed for fruit damage, with 6-8 times less damage with Magnet(®) MED and spinosad treatments, respectively, than with the attract-and-kill prototype devices. By using an effective attractant, conventional trapping systems can be replaced with cheaper and easier-to-handle attract-and-kill devices. The efficacy of these devices and their advantages over conventional mass trapping systems are discussed. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones.

  8. Pixelized Device Control Actuators for Large Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Gareth J.; Bird, Ross W.; Shea, Brian; Chen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A fully integrated, compact, adaptive space optic mirror assembly has been developed, incorporating new advances in ultralight, high-performance composite mirrors. The composite mirrors use Q-switch matrix architecture-based pixelized control (PMN-PT) actuators, which achieve high-performance, large adaptive optic capability, while reducing the weight of present adaptive optic systems. The self-contained, fully assembled, 11x11x4-in. (approx.= 28x28x10-cm) unit integrates a very-high-performance 8-in. (approx.=20-cm) optic, and has 8-kHz true bandwidth. The assembled unit weighs less than 15 pounds (=6.8 kg), including all mechanical assemblies, power electronics, control electronics, drive electronics, face sheet, wiring, and cabling. It requires just three wires to be attached (power, ground, and signal) for full-function systems integration, and uses a steel-frame and epoxied electronics. The three main innovations are: 1. Ultralightweight composite optics: A new replication method for fabrication of very thin composite 20-cm-diameter laminate face sheets with good as-fabricated optical figure was developed. The approach is a new mandrel resin surface deposition onto previously fabricated thin composite laminates. 2. Matrix (regenerative) power topology: Waveform correction can be achieved across an entire face sheet at 6 kHz, even for large actuator counts. In practice, it was found to be better to develop a quadrant drive, that is, four quadrants of 169 actuators behind the face sheet. Each quadrant has a single, small, regenerative power supply driving all 169 actuators at 8 kHz in effective parallel. 3. Q-switch drive architecture: The Q-switch innovation is at the heart of the matrix architecture, and allows for a very fast current draw into a desired actuator element in 120 counts of a MHz clock without any actuator coupling.

  9. Electronic control of H+ current in a bioprotonic device with Gramicidin A and Alamethicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatian, Zahra; Keene, Scott; Josberger, Erik; Miyake, Takeo; Arboleda, Carina; Soto-Rodríguez, Jessica; Baneyx, François; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-10-01

    In biological systems, intercellular communication is mediated by membrane proteins and ion channels that regulate traffic of ions and small molecules across cell membranes. A bioelectronic device with ion channels that control ionic flow across a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) should therefore be ideal for interfacing with biological systems. Here, we demonstrate a biotic-abiotic bioprotonic device with Pd contacts that regulates proton (H+) flow across an SLB incorporating the ion channels Gramicidin A (gA) and Alamethicin (ALM). We model the device characteristics using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) solution to the Nernst-Planck equation for transport across the membrane. We derive the permeability for an SLB integrating gA and ALM and demonstrate pH control as a function of applied voltage and membrane permeability. This work opens the door to integrating more complex H+ channels at the Pd contact interface to produce responsive biotic-abiotic devices with increased functionality.

  10. Evaluation of the Leap Motion Controller as a New Contact-Free Pointing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bachmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Fitts’ law-based analysis of the user’s performance in selection tasks with the Leap Motion Controller compared with a standard mouse device. The Leap Motion Controller (LMC is a new contact-free input system for gesture-based human-computer interaction with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. Up to this point, there has hardly been any systematic evaluation of this new system available. With an error rate of 7.8% for the LMC and 2.8% for the mouse device, movement times twice as large as for a mouse device and high overall effort ratings, the Leap Motion Controller’s performance as an input device for everyday generic computer pointing tasks is rather limited, at least with regard to the selection recognition provided by the LMC.

  11. Distributed smart device for monitoring, control and management of electric loads in domotic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ricardo; Badesa, Francisco J; García-Aracil, Nicolas; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Sabater, Jose María

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket) has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron) used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753) to measure the consumption of electrical energy and then to transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600) has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user's program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device.

  12. Distributed Smart Device for Monitoring, Control and Management of Electric Loads in Domotic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Perez-Vidal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753 to measure the consumption of electrical energy and thento transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600 has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user’s program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device.

  13. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, D. W.; Lance, M. J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Toops, T. J.

    2017-02-27

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na+K and 5 ppm Ca+Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  14. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, Daniel W [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Mccormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Toops, Todd J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  15. APPLICATION OF OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY TO CARDIO-CIRCULATORY ASSIST DEVICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the investigation is the application of, and where necessary, extension of optimal control theory to the synthesis of controllers for such cardio-circulatory assist devices. In particular, the concept of set of attainability is extended to include linear, periodic, bounded control systems and the maximum principle applied to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for various problems. In addition to several numerical examples, the results of a large-scale hybrid simulation for a cardiovascular model and particular assist device are presented.

  16. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the control mechanism of noise and vibration active control devices by piezoceramic transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miccoli, G. [National Research Council, Cassana (Italy). Earth-Moving Machinery and Off-Road Vehicles Inst.; Concilio, A. [C.I.R.A., Capua (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The applications till now carried out by this research group in order to actively control structural noise and vibration levels by means of piezoceramic transducers refer to the use and test of simple analogic SISO control systems. These devices work each connected to a couple of sensor/actuator collocated piezoceramics and implement positive feedback control law with self-adaptive variable gain. In order to improve the performance of these control systems and get more insight into their operation, the simulation of the control mechanism itself has been carried out by means of: (a) theoretical analysis of phase and gain characteristics of these devices using finite element (FEM) code (MSC/NASTRAN); (b) experimental validation of the analytical results by means of an on purpose built SISO variable phase and gain control system. On the basis of the experimental results obtained the electronic components of this first SISO control system have been optimized in order to reduce possible instability phenomena.

  17. The Operation of a Domestic Interface Device for the HANARO Control Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young San; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Jung Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The interface device for the HANARO control rod which was supplied by a foreign company put difficulties on reactor operation due to the obsolescence of the products and lukewarm technical support from the manufacturer. The development of the interface device based on domestic technology has been completed in order to solve the problems in this issue and to ensure safe and reliable reactor operation. This paper describes the development process of the domestic interface device conducted which was over 5 years, the field test results, and the reactor operation application results

  18. High-throughput, temperature-controlled microchannel acoustophoresis device made with rapid prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Jonathan D; Ebbesen, Christian L.; Barnkob, Rune

    2012-01-01

    We report a temperature-controlled microfluidic acoustophoresis device capable of separating particles and transferring blood cells from undiluted whole human blood at a volume throughput greater than 1 L h−1. The device is fabricated from glass substrates and polymer sheets in microscope......-slide format using low-cost, rapid-prototyping techniques. This high-throughput acoustophoresis chip (HTAC) utilizes a temperature-stabilized, standing ultrasonic wave, which imposes differential acoustic radiation forces that can separate particles according to size, density and compressibility. The device...

  19. Mode coupling control in a resonant device: application to solid-state ring lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Sylvain; Feugnet, Gilles; Bouyer, Philippe; Lariontsev, Evguenii; Aspect, Alain; Pocholle, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A theoretical and experimental investigation of the effects of mode coupling in a resonant macro- scopic quantum device is achieved in the case of a ring laser. In particular, we show both analytically and experimentally that such a device can be used as a rotation sensor provided the effects of mode coupling are controlled, for example through the use of an additional coupling. A possible general- ization of this example to the case of another resonant macroscopic qua...

  20. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... posted speed limit of 55 mph that was in effect in 1991. \\2\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control... improved truck designs. \\3\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. TCA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

  1. A new portable device for automatic controlled-gradient cryopreservation of blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Albeck, G; Hansen, B

    1993-01-01

    , which has proved suitable for field conditions. We report here the development and testing of a similar micro-controller regulated device, allowing unattended and automatic controlled-gradient cell freezing. The equipment exploits the temperature gradient present between the liquid N2 surface...

  2. Motorized CPM/CAM physiotherapy device with sliding-mode Fuzzy Neural Network control loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hung-Jung; Chen, Tien-Chi

    2009-11-01

    Continuous passive motion (CPM) and controllable active motion (CAM) physiotherapy devices promote rehabilitation of damaged joints. This paper presents a computerized CPM/CAM system that obviates the need for mechanical resistance devices such as springs. The system is controlled by a computer which performs sliding-mode Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) calculations online. CAM-type resistance force is generated by the active performance of an electric motor which is controlled so as to oppose the motion of the patient's leg. A force sensor under the patient's foot on the device pedal provides data for feedback in a sliding-mode FNN control loop built around the motor. Via an active impedance control feedback system, the controller drives the motor to behave similarly to a damped spring by generating and controlling the amplitude and direction of the pedal force in relation to the patient's leg. Experiments demonstrate the high sensitivity and speed of the device. The PC-based feedback nature of the control loop means that sophisticated auto-adaptable CPM/CAM custom-designed physiotherapy becomes possible. The computer base also allows extensive data recording, data analysis and network-connected remote patient monitoring.

  3. Ensemble-based multi-objective optimization of on-off control devices under geological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, R.M.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Rossa, E.D.; Hof, P.M.J. van den; Jansen, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    We consider robust ensemble-based (EnOpt) multi-objective production optimization of on-off inflow control devices (ICDs) for a sector model inspired on a real-field case. The use of on-off valves as optimization variables leads to a discrete control problem. We propose a re-parameterization of such

  4. Quality Control Assessment of Radiology Devices in Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jomehzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of quality control (QC programs at diagnostic radiology departments is of great significance for optimization of image quality and reduction of patient dose. The main objective of this study was to perform QC tests on stationary radiographic X-ray machines, installed in 14 hospitals of Kerman province, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, QC tests were performed on 28 conventional radiographic X-ray units in Kerman governmental hospitals, based on the protocols and criteria recommended by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI, using a calibrated Gammex QC kit. Each section of the QC kit incorporated different models. Results Based on the findings, kVp accuracy, kVp reproducibility, timer accuracy, timer reproducibility, exposure reproducibility, mA/timer linearity, and half-value layer were not within the acceptable limits in 25%, 4%, 29%, 18%, 11%, 12%, and 7% of the evaluated units (n=28, respectively. Conclusion As radiographic X-ray equipments in Kerman province are relatively old with a high workload, it is recommended that AEOI modify the current policies by changing the frequency of QC test implementation to at least once a year.

  5. Controlled glucose consumption in yeast using a transistor-like device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Jiapeng; Yau, Siu-Tung

    2014-06-01

    From the point of view of systems biology, insight into controlling the functioning of biological systems is conducive to the understanding of their complexness. The development of novel devices, instrumentation and approaches facilitates this endeavor. Here, we show a transistor-like device that can be used to control the kinetics of the consumption of glucose at a yeast-immobilised electrode. The gating voltage of the device applied at an insulated gating electrode was used to control both the rate of glucose consumption and the rate of the production of ATP and ethanol, the end-products of normal glucose metabolism. Further, a correlation between the glucose consumption and the production of ethanol controlled by the gating voltage was observed using two different forms of the device. The results suggest the relevance of glucose metabolism in our work and demonstrate the electrostatic nature of the device. An attempt to explain the effect of the gating voltage on the kinetics is made in terms of transfer of electrons from NADH to enzymes in the electron transport chain. This novel technique is applicable to general cells and the reported results show a possible role for electrostatic means in controlling processes in cells.

  6. A biodegradable device for the controlled release of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae standardized extract to control Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauê Muller Custódio

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The significant increase in dengue, Zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing Piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. METHODS: Piper nigrum extract was produced by maceration, standardized in piperine, and incorporated into cotton threads, which were inserted into hydrogel cylinders manufactured by the extrusion of carrageenan and carob. The piperine content of the extract and thread reservoirs was quantified by chromatography. The release profile from the device was assessed in aqueous medium and the larvicidal and residual activities of the standardized extract as well as of the controlled-release device were examined in Aedes aegypti larvae. RESULTS The standardized extract contained 580mg/g of piperine and an LC50 value of 5.35ppm (24h and the 3 cm thread reservoirs contained 13.83 ± 1.81mg of piperine. The device showed zero-order release of piperine for 16 days. The P. nigrum extract (25ppm showed maximum residual larvicidal activity for 10 days, decreasing progressively thereafter. The device had a residual larvicidal activity for up to 37 days. CONCLUSIONS: The device provided controlled release of Piper nigrum extract with residual activity for 37 days. The device is easy to manufacture and may represent an effective alternative for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae in small water containers.

  7. Control technology for fine-particulate emissions. [71 references; novel devices considered but rejected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a detailed review and critical evaluation of current control technologies as applied to fine particulate emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Topics reviewed are: sources and characteristics of coals and fly ash; performance characteristics of various types of coal-fired utility boilers; design, operation, performance and maintenance features of the conventional control devices (electrostatic precipitator, fabric filter baghouse, wet scrubber), and descriptions of (and where available, performance data on) novel control devices. The report also includes quantitative assessments of the capabilities of both conventional novel devices to meet three different performance standards - the present New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) of 0.1 lb particulate per MBtu heat input, and standards of 0.05 and 0.03 lb particulate per MBtu. Each of the three conventional devices is compared and rated with respect to eight different performance categories. This information is presented in charts, which can be used to determine the relative effectiveness and attractiveness of these three control devices. The novel devices are compared and rated in the same manner. The major conclusions of the report are: (1) The use of conventional scrubbers for fine particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers will no longer be feasible should a more stringent NSPS be promulgated. (2) At the present NSPS, conventional electrostatic precipitators and baghouses are competitive. For a stricter standard, however, the baghouse will become a more attractive alternative than the precipitator. (3) Novel devices appear to offer almost no hope for this particular application (at a commercial level) between now and 1985 and only little hope before 1990.

  8. Open-loop versus closed-loop control of MEMS devices: choices and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovic, B.; Liu, A. Q.; Popa, D.; Cai, H.; Lewis, F. L.

    2005-10-01

    From a controls point of view, micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) can be driven in an open-loop and closed-loop fashion. Commonly, these devices are driven open-loop by applying simple input signals. If these input signals become more complex by being derived from the system dynamics, we call such control techniques pre-shaped open-loop driving. The ultimate step for improving precision and speed of response is the introduction of feedback, e.g. closed-loop control. Unlike macro mechanical systems, where the implementation of the feedback is relatively simple, in the MEMS case the feedback design is quite problematic, due to the limited availability of sensor data, the presence of sensor dynamics and noise, and the typically fast actuator dynamics. Furthermore, a performance comparison between open-loop and closed-loop control strategies has not been properly explored for MEMS devices. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental results obtained using both open- and closed-loop strategies and to address the comparative issues of driving and control for MEMS devices. An optical MEMS switching device is used for this study. Based on these experimental results, as well as computer simulations, we point out advantages and disadvantages of the different control strategies, address the problems that distinguish MEMS driving systems from their macro counterparts, and discuss criteria to choose a suitable control driving strategy.

  9. Geração e controle das cores luz primárias em vidros para dispositivos "full color" Generation and control of the primary light colors in glasses for full color devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Expedito C. Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We are working in a new multi-doped glassy material to generate simultaneously the three primary light color (by addition of the visible spectrum, with the control of the intensity of each one, allowing the simulation of any color: a full-color generator device. Tm+3, Tb+3 and Eu+3 ions were used (0.01 to 5,0 mol% as blue, green and red narrow line emitters. A wide color gamut was obtained under ultraviolet excitation by varying the material composition. The chromaticity diagram is covered, including the white simulation.

  10. A multiaxial computer-controlled organ culture and biomechanical device for mouse carotid arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, R L; Gray, S P; Wilson, E; Humphrey, J D

    2004-12-01

    Much of our understanding of vascular mechanotransduction has come from studies using either cell culture or in vivo animal models, but the recent success of organ culture systems offers an exciting alternative. In studying cell-mediated vascular adaptations to altered loading, organ culture allows one to impose well-controlled mechanical loads and to perform multiaxial mechanical tests on the same vessel throughout the culture period, and thereby to observe cell-mediated vascular adaptations independent of neural and hormonal effects. Here, we present a computer-controlled perfused organ culture and biomechanical testing device designed for small caliber (50-5000 micron) blood vessels. This device can control precisely the pulsatile pressure, luminal flow, and axial load (or stretch) and perform intermittent biaxial (pressure-diameter and axial load-length) and functional tests to quantify adaptations in mechanical behavior and cellular function, respectively. Device capabilities are demonstrated by culturing mouse carotid arteries for 4 days.

  11. New implantable therapeutic device for the control of an atrial fibrillation attack using the Peltier element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sumiyoshi, Taketada; Koga, Chihiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Miura, Hidekazu; Sugita, Norihiro; Tanaka, Akira; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    For the development of the new therapeutic device for the atrial fibrillation, implantable cooling device using Peltier element was developed in this study. An implantable cooling device had been consisted from Peltier element with transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS). 1st coil can be contacted from outside of the body, when the patients will feel palpitation. Electrical current will be induced to the implanted 2nd coil. Peltier element will able to cool the surface of the atrium. For the confirmation of the effect of the cooling device, trial manufacture model was developed. Animal experiments using six healthy adult goats after animal ethical committee allowance was carried out. Fourth intercostals space had been opened after anesthesia inhalation, and various sensors had been inserted. AF was induced by the electrical current with battery. As the results, AF had been recovered to the normal sinus rhythm after cooling in all six goats. So, this cooling system for the control of AF showed evident effect in these experiments. Smaller size cooling device has been under development aiming at totally implantable type. Catheter type cooling device for the insertion by the use of fiber-scope type is now under planning for the clinical application. This new type device may be able to become good news for the patients with uncontrollable AF.

  12. FARE device operational characteristics of remote controlled fuelling machine at Wolsong NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namgung, I. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. B.; Lee, S. K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    There are 4 CANDU6 type reactors operating at Wolsong site. For fuelling operation of certain fuel channels (with flow less than 21.5 kg/s) a FARE (flow Assist Ram Extension) device is used. During the refuelling operation, two remote controlled F/Ms (Fuelling Machines) are attached to a designated fuel channel and carry out refuelling job. The upstream F/M inserts new fuel bundles into the fuel channel while the downstream F/M discharges spent fuel bundles. In order to assist fuelling operation of channels that has lower coolant flow rate, the FARE device is used instead of F/M C-ram to push the fuel bundle string. The FARE device is essentially a flow restricting element that produces enough drag force to push the fuel bundle string toward downstream F/M. Channels that require the use of FARE device for refuelling are located along the outside perimeter of reactor. This paper presents the FARE device design feature, steady state hydraulic and operational characteristics and behavior of the device when coupled with fuel bundle string during fuelling operation. The study showed that the steady state performance of Fare device meets the design objective that was confirmed by downstream F/M C-ram force to be positive.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Pyriproxyfen-treated Device to Control the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    of Defense, or the US Governments. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A PYRIPROXYFEN- TREATED DEVICE TO CONTROL THE DENGUE VECTOR, AEDES AEGYPTI (L...control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases, critically important. We developed and evaluated an Ae. aegypti control device...be replaced to provide even better efficacy for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. Keywords: Aedes aegypti , pyriproxyfen, mosquito

  14. Optical design study of an infrared visible viewing system for Wendelstein 7-X divertor observation and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantarini, J.; Hildebrandt, D.; König, R.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Moddemeijer, K.; Vliegenthart, W.A.; Wolf, R.

    2008-01-01

    For the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, which will allow quasicontinuous operation (τ30 min) with 10 MW of electron cyclotron radiation heating power, a conceptual design study for an IR/visible viewing system (IVVS) has been elaborated. Ten such systems, as part of the machine protection system, will

  15. Instrumentation and control of harmonic oscillators via a single-board microprocessor-FPGA device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Rico A. R.; Davis, Solomon; Devine, Cameron; Garbini, Joseph L.; Sidles, John A.

    2017-04-01

    We report the development of an instrumentation and control system instantiated on a microprocessor-field programmable gate array (FPGA) device for a harmonic oscillator comprising a portion of a magnetic resonance force microscope. The specific advantages of the system are that it minimizes computation, increases maintainability, and reduces the technical barrier required to enter the experimental field of magnetic resonance force microscopy. Heterodyne digital control and measurement yields computational advantages. A single microprocessor-FPGA device improves system maintainability by using a single programming language. The system presented requires significantly less technical expertise to instantiate than the instrumentation of previous systems, yet integrity of performance is retained and demonstrated with experimental data.

  16. Micromechanical Devices for Control of Cell-Cell Interaction, and Methods of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sangeeta N. (Inventor); Hui, Elliot (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The development and function of living tissues depends largely on interactions between cells that can vary in both time and space; however, temporal control of cell-cell interaction is experimentally challenging. By employing a micromachined silicon substrate with moving parts, herein is disclosed the dynamic regulation of cell-cell interactions via direct manipulation of adherent cells with micron-scale precision. The inventive devices and methods allow mechanical control of both tissue composition and spatial organization. The inventive device and methods enable the investigation of dynamic cell-cell interaction in a multitude of applications, such as intercellular communication, spanning embryogenesis, homeostasis, and pathogenic processes.

  17. Retrofit device and method to improve humidity control of vapor compression cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Robert Paul; Hahn, David C.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    2016-08-16

    A method and device for improving moisture removal capacity of a vapor compression system is disclosed. The vapor compression system is started up with the evaporator blower initially set to a high speed. A relative humidity in a return air stream is measured with the evaporator blower operating at the high speed. If the measured humidity is above the predetermined high relative humidity value, the evaporator blower speed is reduced from the initially set high speed to the lowest possible speed. The device is a control board connected with the blower and uses a predetermined change in measured relative humidity to control the blower motor speed.

  18. Paracervical block with 1% lidocaine for pain control during intrauterine device insertion: a prospective, single-blinded, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Akdag Cirik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective controlled study we aimed to investigate efficacy of paracervical block with 1% Lidocaine for pain control and demographic variables which may affect pain perception during intrauterine device insertion in Turkish women. Data from 95 women assigned to paracervical block (n=34, placebo (n=30 and no treatment (n=31 arms and asked to grade the pain level they felt during tenaculum placement, intrauterine device insertion and 5 minutes after the procedure using a visual pain scale. Demographic variables were also recorded. Pain scores were found to be lower in paracervical block group when compared to other 2 groups during tenaculum placement (p=0.00, intrauterine device insertion (p=0.00 and 5 minutes after the procedure (p=0.00. Level of pain was unrelated to mode of previous deliveries and current breastfeeding. Paracervical block is an easy, safe and effective way of pain control during intrauterine device insertion. Lack of vaginal birth history is not a reason to draw back from intrauterine device use. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 263-267

  19. Controllable assembly of well-defined monodisperse Au nanoparticles on hierarchical ZnO microspheres for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Fang, Hua-Bin; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Ye, Rongqin; Tao, Xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2015-11-01

    A high-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalyst composed of homogeneously distributed Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) well-defined on hierarchical ZnO microspheres (ZMS) via a controllable layer-by-layer self-assembly technique is demonstrated. The gradual growth of the characteristic absorption bands of Au loaded on ZnO in the visible light region with an increasing number of assemblies indicates the enhancement of the light harvesting ability of the ZMS/Au composites as well as the reproducibility and controllability of the entire assembly process. Results on the photoelectrochemical performance characterized by EIS and transient photocurrent response spectra indicate that the ZMS/Au composites possess increased photoinduced charge separation and transfer efficiency compared to the pure ZMS film. As a result, the hybrid composites exhibited enhanced decomposition activity for methylene blue and salicylic acid as well as antibacterial activity in killing S. aureus and E. coli under visible light irradiation. It can be noted that well-distributed Au components even at a rather low Au/ZnO weight ratio of ~1.2% also exhibited extraordinary photocatalysis. Such a facile and controllable self-assembly approach may be viable for preparing high-performance visible-light-driven ZMS/Au photocatalysts in a simple and controllable way, and consequently, the technology may extend to other plasmon-enhanced heterostructures made of nanostructured semiconductors and noble metals for great potential application in environmental protection.A high-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalyst composed of homogeneously distributed Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) well-defined on hierarchical ZnO microspheres (ZMS) via a controllable layer-by-layer self-assembly technique is demonstrated. The gradual growth of the characteristic absorption bands of Au loaded on ZnO in the visible light region with an increasing number of assemblies indicates the enhancement of the light harvesting ability of

  20. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  1. PANATIKI: a network access control implementation based on PANA for IoT devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Sanchez, Pedro; Marin Lopez, Rafa; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2013-11-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices.

  2. Acute effects of an alternative electronic-control-device waveform in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James; Beason, Charles W; Cook, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, repeated 5-s exposures of anesthetized pigs to an electronic control device (TASER International's Advanced TASER X26 device) resulted in acidosis and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of longer continuous exposures to a different electronic-control-device waveform. After intramuscular injection of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl, anesthesia was maintained with propofol infusion. Ten pigs were exposed to either 30- or 60-s applications of an electronic waveform similar to the TASER-X26 device. Transient increases in potassium, and sodium were consistent with previous reports in the literature dealing with studies of muscle stimulation or exercise. Blood pH was significantly decreased after exposure, but subsequently returned to baseline levels. Lactate was highly elevated and remained somewhat increased even after three hrs. Serum myoglobin was increased after exposure and remained elevated for the 3-h follow-up period. Acidosis would appear to be one of the major concerns with long-duration (e.g., several min) exposures over a short period of time. Even with the extremely low pH immediately after exposure, all animals survived. On the basis of these results, further development of useful continuous-exposure electronic control devices is at least feasible, with the caveat that some medical monitoring of subjects may be required.

  3. Brain Computer Interface-Controlling Devices Utilizing The Alpha Brain Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Hundia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the development and testing of an interface system whereby one can control external devices by voluntarily controlling alpha waves that is through eye movement. Such a system may be used for the control of prosthetics robotic arms and external devices like wheelchairs using the alpha brain waves and the Mu rhythm. The response generated through the movement of the eye detecting and controlling the amplitude of the alpha brain waves is interfaced and processed to control Robotic systems and smart home control. In order to measure the response of alpha waves over different lobes of the brain initially I measured these signals over 32 regions using silver chloride plated electrodes. By the opening and the closure of the eyes and the movement in the up-down left-right directions and processing these movements measuring them over the occipital region I was able to differentiate the amplitude of the alpha waves generated due to these several movements. In the First session testing period subjects were asked to close and open their eyes and they were able to control limited movements of a Robot and a prosthetic arm. In the Second 2session the movement of the eyes was also considered left-right up-down along with the opening and closure during this time span they were able to control more dimensions of the robot several devices at the same time using different eye movements.

  4. Experimental Research of Electronic Devices Thermal Control Using Metallic Phase Change Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Gang Pan; Jun-Biao Wang; Xian-Jie Zhang; Xiao-Bao Cao

    2014-01-01

    A Phase-change thermal control unit ( PTCU) filled with metallic phase change material ( PCM) Bismuth alloy for electric devices thermal protection was developed and investigated experimentally. The PTCU filled with PCM was designed and manufactured. Resistance heating components ( RCHs) produced 1 W, 3 W, 5 W, 7W, and 10 W for simulating heat generation of electronic devices. At various heating power levels, the performance of PTCU were tested during heating period and one duty cycle period. The experimental results show that the PTCU delays RCH reaching the maximum operating temperature. Also, a numerical model was developed to enable interpretation of experimental results and to perform parametric studies. The results confirmed that the PTCU is suitable for electric devices thermal control.

  5. Review of an assortment of IR materials-devices technologies used for imaging in spectral bands ranging from the visible to very long wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWames, Roger E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we review the intrinsic and extrinsic technological properties of the incumbent technology, InP/In0.53Ga0.47As/InP, for imaging in the visible- short wavelength spectral band, InSb and HgCdTe for imaging in the mid-wavelength spectral band and HgCdTe for imaging in the long wavelength spectral band. These material systems are in use for a wide range of applications addressing compelling needs in night vision imaging, low light level astronomical applications and defense strategic satellite sensing. These materials systems are direct band gap energy semiconductors hence the internal quantum efficiency η, is near unity over a wide spectral band pass. A key system figure of merit of a shot noise limited detector technology is given by the equation (1+Jdark. /Jphoton), where Jdark is the dark current density and Jphoton ~qηΦ is the photocurrent density; Φ is the photon flux incident on the detector and q is the electronic charge. The capability to maintain this factor for a specific spectral band close to unity for low illumination conditions and low temperature onset of non-ideal dark current components, basically intrinsic diffusion limited performance all the way, is a marker of quality and versatility of a semiconductor detector technology. It also enables the highest temperature of operation for tactical illumination conditions. A purpose of the work reported in this paper is to explore the focal plane array data sets of photodiode detector technologies widely used to bench mark their fundamental and technology properties and identify paths for improvements.

  6. Research on the control systems of a precision linear motor drive device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Han; WANG Xian-kui; DUAN Guang-hong

    2006-01-01

    The model of a precision linear motor drive device (PLMDD) and its control requirements are analyzed.In order to enhance the tracking and anti-disturbance performance of the system,its third-order model is established,and disturbance-observer based input revising feedforward error compensation robust control algorithm,combined with integral-separated proportional integral derivative (PID) control algorithm is proposed.This includes feedback control algorithm and feedforward control algorithm.The feedback controller improves system tracking performance and suppresses load and mechanical disturbance while the feedforward controller compensates phase hysteresis introduced by feedback control.Theoretical analyses,simulations and experiments show that this control method increases the tracking precision of PLMDD from ±5 μm to ±2 μm and dramatically improves its anti-disturbance ability.

  7. O dispositivo de gozo na sociedade do controle The device of enjoyment in the society of control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo José Barreira Danziato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir das proposições de Foucault sobre uma mudança de dispositivos na modernidade, saindo de um "dispositivo de aliança" para um "dispositivo da sexualidade", e levando em conta, ainda, as considerações de Deleuze sobre a contemporânea "sociedade do controle", o autor realiza uma leitura psicanalítica dessas transformações nos processos de subjetivação modernos e contemporâneos, propondo a regência de um novo dispositivo na atualidade, que denomina de "dispositivo de gozo". Argumenta em favor das suas leituras a capitalização do "mais-de-gozar" sugerida por Lacan, e os imperativos de gozo próprios dos nossos tempos.From the propositions of Foucault on a change of devices in modernity, leaving a "alliance device" to a "sexual device", and also taking into account the considerations of Deleuze on the contemporary "society of control," the author presents a psychoanalytic reading of these changes in the processes of modern and contemporary subjectivation, proposing the regency of a new device today, which he called "enjoyment device." He argues in favor of his readings the capitalization of the plus de goce suggested by Lacan, and the imperatives of enjoyment of our own times.

  8. Bernoulli serial production lines with quality control devices: theory and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops the procedure for the analysis of the production systems with quality control devices. The evaluation of the production system requires an expression for the system performance measures as functions of the machine and buffer parameters. This paper presents a method for evaluating these functions and illustrates their practical utility using a case study at a production plant.

  9. 40 CFR 60.18 - General control device and work practice requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 60.18 General control device and work practice requirements. (a) Introduction. (1) This section... MJ/scm (300 Btu/scf) or greater if the flare is steam-assisted or air-assisted; or with the net heating value of the gas being combusted being 7.45 MJ/scm (200 Btu/scf) or greater if the flare...

  10. Reliability of Dubbed Technical Systems with Built-In Control Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Аnischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates a selection of passive or active system for dubbing technical systems in accordance with characteristics pertaining to probability of no-failure operation and mean–time-between failures with due account of non-reliability of a built-in control device and systems complexity. 

  11. Temperature influence on electrically controlled liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the temperature influence on electrically controlled liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fiber device. The phase shift in the wavelength range 1520nm-1600nm for realizing quarter and half wave plates at different temperatures by applying a certain voltage...

  12. Amplitude Test for Input Devices for System Control in Immersive Virtual Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Thornemann Hansen, Nina; Hald, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the amplitudes best suited to compare four input devices are examined in the context of a pointer-based system control interface for immersive virtual environments. The interfaces are based on a pen and tablet, a touch tablet, hand-tracking using Kinect and a Wii Nunchuk analog stick...

  13. 77 FR 43612 - Certain Lighting Control Devices Including Dimmer Switches and Parts Thereof (IV); Decision To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lighting Control Devices Including Dimmer Switches and Parts Thereof (IV); Decision To..., 2012. The Commission also requests written submissions regarding remedy, bonding, and the public... may also be obtained by accessing its Internet server at http://www.usitc.gov . The public record for...

  14. Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingxing; Liang, Youyun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    A design project that focuses on the subject of controlled-release drug delivery devices is presented for use in an undergraduate course on mass transfer. The purpose of the project is to introduce students to the various technologies used in the fabrication of drug delivery systems and provide a practical design exercise for understanding the…

  15. Characterization and Erosion Modeling of a Nozzle-Based Inflow-Control Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Juul; Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Bergmann, Line

    2017-01-01

    In the petroleum industry, water-and-gas breakthrough in hydrocarbon reservoirs is a common issue that eventually leads to uneconomic production. To extend the economic production lifetime, inflow-control devices (ICDs) are designed to delay the water-and-gas breakthrough. Because the lifetime of...

  16. "O.K. Where's the Remote?" Children, Families, and Remote Control Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krendl, Kathy A.; And Others

    This paper, part of a larger study of new television technologies, examines how preschool children integrate remote control devices (RCDs) into their television viewing behavior, preschoolers' competence with and knowledge of RCDs, and the role of the RCD in shaping family viewing styles. Subjects, 50 children aged 4 to 6 years attending 3…

  17. 40 CFR 265.1088 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and... operator using a control device other than a thermal vapor incinerator, flare, boiler, process heater... this section as follows: (i) An owner or operator shall demonstrate using either a performance test...

  18. The Actifier: A Device for Neurophysiological Studies of Orofacial Control in Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Donald S.; Barlow, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined responsiveness of the suck central pattern generator to external stimulation, based on premise that early control of sucking and smiling sets stage for more differentiated use of orofacial muscle system for speech. A device for the stimulation of intraoral tissues in neonates, called the actifier, features a wide frequency…

  19. The Actifier: A Device for Neurophysiological Studies of Orofacial Control in Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Donald S.; Barlow, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined responsiveness of the suck central pattern generator to external stimulation, based on premise that early control of sucking and smiling sets stage for more differentiated use of orofacial muscle system for speech. A device for the stimulation of intraoral tissues in neonates, called the actifier, features a wide frequency…

  20. 40 CFR 63.172 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... olfactory indications of leaks. (2) If the vapor collection system or closed-vent system is constructed of... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Closed-vent systems and... Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices. (a) Owners or operators of closed-vent systems...

  1. 40 CFR 60.482-10 - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., audible, or olfactory indications of leaks. (2) If the vapor collection system or closed vent system is... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Closed vent systems and..., 2006 § 60.482-10 Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices. (a) Owners or operators of...

  2. Applications of magnetorheological brakes in manual control of lifting devices and manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chciuk, M [University of Zielona Gora, 65-246 Zielona Gora, ul. Podgorna 50 (Poland); Milecki, A; Myszkowski, A [Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, ul. Piotrowo 3 (Poland)], E-mail: andrzej.milecki@put.poznan.pl

    2009-02-01

    The article is aimed to design and testing of joystick with force feedback used in direct, human control of lifting device. The paper starts with the basic description of designed and tested by us MR rotary brake. Some initial laboratory investigations results of such brakes are presented. The usage of MR brakes in 2 axis joystick is proposed. Such, built by as joystick, is described. It was used as Human-Machine Interface in active control of lifting device. The designed and built 2 axis manipulator with electrohydraulic drive is described. In the paper, the based on PC with input/output card, control system of mentioned above joystick with MR brake and manipulator is described. Finally the control algorithm is proposed.

  3. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  4. Morphological control and polarization switching in polymer dispersed liquid crystal materials and devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Raina; Pankaj Kumar; Praveen Malik

    2006-11-01

    Liquid crystals dispersed in polymer systems constitute novel class of optical materials. The precise control of the liquid crystal droplet morphology in the polymer matrix is essentially required to meet the prerequisites of display device. Experiments have been carried out to investigate and identify the material properties and processing conditions required for the precise control of the droplet morphology of the dispersed liquid crystal systems. Polarization switching has been studied. Aligned liquid crystal dispersed systems showed higher polarization over unaligned ones.

  5. The application of charge-coupled device processors in automatic-control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcvey, E. S.; Parrish, E. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The application of charge-coupled device (CCD) processors to automatic-control systems is suggested. CCD processors are a new form of semiconductor component with the unique ability to process sampled signals on an analog basis. Specific implementations of controllers are suggested for linear time-invariant, time-varying, and nonlinear systems. Typical processing time should be only a few microseconds. This form of technology may become competitive with microprocessors and minicomputers in addition to supplementing them.

  6. The application of charge-coupled device processors in automatic-control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcvey, E. S.; Parrish, E. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The application of charge-coupled device (CCD) processors to automatic-control systems is suggested. CCD processors are a new form of semiconductor component with the unique ability to process sampled signals on an analog basis. Specific implementations of controllers are suggested for linear time-invariant, time-varying, and nonlinear systems. Typical processing time should be only a few microseconds. This form of technology may become competitive with microprocessors and minicomputers in addition to supplementing them.

  7. Implementation of a Mobile Device Controlled Multi-behavior Interactive Mobile Robot Over MR Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wen-Yo; Guo, Jhu-Syuan; Hung, Ta-Chih; Hsu, Hui-Wen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile-device controlled multi-behavior interactive mobile robot. The proposed mobile robot is implemented under the technique of mixed reality. The proposed mobile robot has three basic locomotion behaviors that enable the mobile robot moving in a complex environment. The three basic interactive behaviors are: target navigation behavior, face tracking behavior, and obstacles avoidance behavior. The three behaviors are designed by the fuzzy controller, respectively. For ...

  8. Surface EMG and intra-socket force measurement to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Joe; Patterson, Rita; Popa, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) has been shown to be a robust and reliable interaction method allowing for basic control of powered prosthetic devices. Research has shown a marked decrease in EMG-classification efficiency throughout activities of daily life due to socket shift and movement and fatigue as well as changes in degree of fit of the socket throughout the subject's lifetime. Users with the most severe levels of amputation require the most complex devices with the greatest number of degrees of freedom. Controlling complex dexterous devices with limited available inputs requires the addition of sensing and interaction modalities. However, the larger the amputation severity, the fewer viable SEMG sites are available as control inputs. Previous work reported the use of intra-socket pressure, as measured during wrist flexion and extension, and has shown that it is possible to control a powered prosthetic device with pressure sensors. In this paper, we present data correlations of SEMG data with intra-socket pressure data. Surface EMG sensors and force sensors were housed within a simulated prosthetic cuff fit to a healthy-limbed subject. EMG and intra-socket force data was collected from inside the cuff as a subject performed pre-defined grip motions with their dominant hand. Data fusion algorithms were explored and allowed a subject to use both intra-socket pressure and SEMG data as control inputs for a powered prosthetic device. This additional input modality allows for an improvement in input classification as well as information regarding socket fit through out activities of daily life.

  9. Variants of Secondary Control with Power Recovery for Loading Hydraulic Driving Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiaoye

    2015-01-01

    Current high power load simulators are generally incapable of obtalning both high loading performance and high energy efficiency. Simulators with high energy efficiency are used to simulate static-state load, and those with high dynamic performance typically have low energy efficiency. In this paper, the variants of secondary control (VSC) with power recovery are developed to solve this problem for loading hydraulic driving devices that operate under variable pressure, unlike classical secondary control (CSC) that operates in constant pressure network. Hydrostatic secondary control units are used as the loading components, by which the absorbed mechanical power from the tested device is converted into hydraulic power and then fed back into the tested system through 4 types of feedback passages (FPs). The loading subsystem can operate in constant pressure network, controlled variable pressure network, or the same variable pressure network as that of the tested device by using different FPs. The 4 types of systems are defined, and their key techniques are analyzed, including work principle, simulating the work state of original tested device, static operation points, loading performance, energy efficiency, and control strategy, etc. The important technical merits of the 4 schemes are compared, and 3 of the schemes are selected, designed, simulated using AMESim and evaluated. The researching results show that the investigated systems can simulate the given loads effectively, realize the work conditions of the tested device, and furthermore attaln a high power recovery efficiency that ranges from 0.54 to 0.85, even though the 3 schemes have different loading performances and energy efficiencies. This paper proposes several loading schemes that can achieve both high dynamic performance and high power recovery efficiency.

  10. Piezo-Phototronic Effect Controlled Dual-Channel Visible light Communication (PVLC) Using InGaN/GaN Multiquantum Well Nanopillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunhua; Jiang, Chunyan; Zuo, Peng; Huang, Xin; Pu, Xiong; Zhao, Zhenfu; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Linxuan; Chen, Hong; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-02

    Visible light communication (VLC) simultaneously provides illumination and communication via light emitting diodes (LEDs). Keeping a low bit error rate is essential to communication quality, and holding a stable brightness level is pivotal for illumination function. For the first time, a piezo-phototronic effect controlled visible light communication (PVLC) system based on InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells nanopillars is demonstrated, in which the information is coded by mechanical straining. This approach of force coding is also instrumental to avoid LED blinks, which has less impact on illumination and is much safer to eyes than electrical on/off VLC. The two-channel transmission mode of the system here shows great superiority in error self-validation and error self-elimination in comparison to VLC. This two-channel PVLC system provides a suitable way to carry out noncontact, reliable communication under complex circumstances.

  11. Development and process control of magnetic tunnel junctions for magnetic random access memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Witold; Wolfman, Jerome; Ounadjela, Kamel; Chen, Eugene; Koutny, William

    2003-05-01

    We report on the development and process control of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. It is demonstrated that MTJs with high magnetoresistance ˜40% at 300 mV, resistance-area product (RA) ˜1-3 kΩ μm2, low intrinsic interlayer coupling (Hin) ˜2-3 Oe, and excellent bit switching characteristics can be developed and fully integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuitry into MRAM devices. MTJ uniformity and repeatability level suitable for mass production has been demonstrated with the advanced processing and monitoring techniques.

  12. Development of applications in Internet for the calculation of solar control devices; Desarrollo de una aplicacion en Internet para el calculo de dispositivos de control solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez V, Jesus B; Robles G, Saul; Villa M, Hector A; Cabanillas L, Rafael E [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work the development of an interactive software, visible over the World Wide Web, is presented to support the basic calculation required to control the solar gain inside buildings and houses. The site has two main parts: one part describes in a very required parameters to design devices for the control of the illumination inside the buildings, like overhangs and wingwalls for shading. The other part has the routines and procedures to calculate the sun position for any date and position over the earth, and the horizontal and vertical protection angles. The part to implement the calculations has been developed as a Java applet which can run on any platform and let the users, in an interactive way, to get the results. This software makes possible that any Internet user can run the application from his/her own computer without having to compile of use sophisticated procedures as it happens with traditional languages. With this web site it is intended to cover the necessity of having simple and reliable means for architects and civil engineers to support the use of solar energy and the saving of energy in bioclimatic design of buildings. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un sitio interactivo visible en el World Wide Web (WWW) que pretende servir de apoyo para los calculos basicos de control de asoleamiento en viviendas y edificios. El sitio esta conformado por dos partes principales: una parte cubre el aspecto informativo, donde en forma sencilla y clara, se explican los conceptos y parametros necesarios para disenar los dispositivos de control, alerones y parteluces. La otra parte contiene los procedimientos y las rutinas de calculo para la determinacion de la posicion solar para cualquier fecha del ano desde cualquier punto sobre la tierra, asi como los angulos de sombreado vertical y horizontal. Para la realizacion de los calculos se ha construido un applet de Java, el cual puede ejecutarse desde cualquier plataforma de computacion y

  13. Identification procedures for the charge-controlled nonlinear noise model of microwave electron devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filicori, Fabio; Traverso, Pier Andrea; Florian, Corrado; Borgarino, Mattia

    2004-05-01

    The basic features of the recently proposed Charge-Controlled Non-linear Noise (CCNN) model for the prediction of low-to-high-frequency noise up-conversion in electron devices under large-signal RF operation are synthetically presented. It is shown that the different noise generation phenomena within the device can be described by four equivalent noise sources, which are connected at the ports of a "noiseless" device model and are non-linearly controlled by the time-varying instantaneous values of the intrinsic device voltages. For the empirical identification of the voltage-controlled equivalent noise sources, different possible characterization procedures, based not only on conventional low-frequency noise data, but also on different types of noise measurements carried out under large-signal RF operating conditions are discussed. As an example of application, the measurement-based identification of the CCNN model for a GaInP heterojunction bipolar microwave transistor is presented. Preliminary validation results show that the proposed model can describe with adequate accuracy not only the low-frequency noise of the HBT, but also its phase-noise performance in a prototype VCO implemented by using the same monolithic GaAs technology.

  14. Controlled exfoliation of (100) GaAs-based devices by spalling fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Cassi A.; Schulte, Kevin L.; Simon, John D.; Steiner, Myles A.; Jain, Nikhil; Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron J.; Packard, Corinne E.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of exfoliation techniques increases as the semiconductor industry progresses toward thinner devices as a way to reduce material costs and improve performance. The controlled spalling technique is a recently developed substrate removal process that utilizes the physics of fracture to create wafer cleavage parallel to the surface at a precise depth. In this letter, we apply principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics to predict the process conditions needed to exfoliate (100) GaAs of a desired thickness. Spalling can be initiated in a controllable manner, by depositing a stressor film of a residual stress value just below the threshold value to induce a spontaneous spall. Experimental data show process window requirements to controllably spall (100) GaAs. Additionally, experimental spall depth in (100) GaAs compares well to spalling mechanics predictions when the effects of wafer thickness and modulus are considered. To test spalled material quality, III-V single junction photovoltaic devices are lifted off of a (100)-GaAs substrate by spalling methods and electrical characteristics are recorded. No degradation is observed in the spalled device, illustrating the potential of this method to rapidly produce thin, high quality devices.

  15. Eliminating leakage current in voltage-controlled exchange-bias devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Ather; Echtenkamp, Will; Street, Michael; Binek, Christian; Magnetic Heterostructures Team

    Manipulation of magnetism by electric field has drawn much attention due to the technological importance for low-power devices, and for understanding fundamental magnetoelectric phenomena. A manifestation of electrically controlled magnetism is voltage control of exchange bias (EB). Robust isothermal voltage control of EB was demonstrated near room temperature using a heterostructure of Co/Pd thin film and an exchange coupled single crystal of the antiferromagnetic Cr2O3 (Chromia). A major obstacle for EB in lithographically patterned Chromia based thin-film devices is to minimize the leakage currents at high electric fields (>10 kV/mm). By combining electrical measurements on patterned devices and conductive Atomic Force Microscopy of Chromia thin-films, we investigate the defects which form conducting paths impeding the application of sufficient voltage for demonstrating the isothermal EB switching in thin film heterostructures. Technological challenges in the device fabrication will be discussed. This project was supported by SRC through CNFD, an SRC-NRI Center, by C-SPIN, part of STARnet, and by the NSF through MRSEC Abstract DMR-0820521.

  16. A chemical bath deposition route to facet-controlled Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films with improved visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L.; Jo, Yun Kyung; Kim, In Young; Lee, Jang Mee; Patil, Sharad B. [Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, College of Natural Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Jae-Chul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seong-Ju, E-mail: hwangsju@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, College of Natural Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    A facile, economic, and reproducible chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is developed for the fabrication of facet-controlled Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. The fine-control of bath temperature, precursor, complexing agent, substrate, and solution pH is fairly crucial in preparing the facet-selective thin film of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanocrystal. The change of precursor from silver nitrate to silver acetate makes possible the tailoring of the crystal shape of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} from cube to rhombic dodecahedron and also the bandgap tuning of the deposited films. The control of [Ag{sup +}]/[phosphate] ratio enables to maximize the loading amount of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} crystals per the unit area of the deposited film. All the fabricated Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films show high photocatalytic activity for visible light-induced degradation of organic molecules, which can be optimized by tailoring the crystal shape of the deposited crystals. This CBD method is also useful in preparing the facet-controlled hybrid film of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}–ZnO photocatalyst. The present study clearly demonstrates the usefulness of the present CBD method for fabricating facet-controlled thin films of metal oxosalt and its nanohybrid. - Highlights: • The crystal facet of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} films can be tuned by chemical bath deposition. • The crystal shape of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is tailorable from cube to rhombic dodecahedron. • Facet-tuned Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} film shows enhanced visible light photocatalyst activity.

  17. Comparison of novel physiological load-adaptive control strategies for ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habigt, Moriz; Ketelhut, Maike; Gesenhues, Jonas; Schrödel, Frank; Hein, Marc; Mechelinck, Mare; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Abel, Dirk; Rossaint, Rolf

    2016-11-17

    Terminal heart failure (HF) is the most prevalent cause of death in the Western world and the implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has become the gold standard therapy today. Most of the actually implanted devices are driven at a constant speed (CS) regardless of the patient's physiological demand. A new physiological controller [power ratio (PR) controller], which keeps a constant ratio between LVAD power and left ventricular power, a previous concept [preload responsive speed (PRS) controller], which adds a variable LVAD power to reach a defined stroke work, and a CS controller were compared with an unimpaired ventricle in a full heart computer simulation model. The effects of changes in preload, afterload and left ventricular contractility are displayed by global hemodynamics and ventricular pressure-volume loops. Both physiological controllers demonstrated the desired load dependency, whereas the PR controller exceeded the PRS controller in response to an increased load and contractility. Response was inferior when preload or contractility was decreased. Thus, the PR controller might lead to an increased exercise tolerance of the patient. Additional studies are required to evaluate the controllers in vivo.

  18. Hierarchical Brokering with Feedback Control Framework in Mobile Device-Centric Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Lieh Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hierarchical brokering architecture (HiBA and Mobile Multicloud Networking (MMCN feedback control framework for mobile device-centric cloud (MDC2 computing. Exploiting the MMCN framework and RESTful web-based interconnection, each tier broker probes resource state of its federation for control and management. Real-time and seamless services were developed. Case studies including intrafederation energy-aware balancing based on fuzzy feedback control and higher tier load balancing are further demonstrated to show how HiBA with MMCN relieves the embedding of algorithms when developing services. Theoretical performance model and real-world experiments both show that an MDC2 based on HiBA features better quality in terms of resource availability and network latency if it federates devices with enough resources distributed in lower tier hierarchy. The proposed HiBA realizes a development platform for MDC2 computing which is a feasible solution to User-Centric Networks (UCNs.

  19. Coordinate control of initiative mating device for autonomous underwater vehicle based on TDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhe-ping; HOU Shu-ping

    2005-01-01

    A novel initiative mating device, which has four 2-degree manipulators around the mating skirt, is proposed to mate between a skirt of AUV (autonomons underwater vehicle) and a disabled submarine. The primary function of the device is to keep exact mating between skirt and disabled submarine in a badly sub sea environment. According to the characteristic of rescue, an automaton model is brought forward to describe the mating proceed between AUV and manipulators. The coordinated control is implemented by the TDES(time discrete event system).After taking into account the time problem, it is a useful method to control mating by simulation testing. The result shows that it reduces about 70 seconds after using intelligent co-ordinate control based on TDES through the whole mating procedure.

  20. Modeling a short cold cathode DC discharge device with controllable plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Adams, Steven; Demidov, Vladimir; Bogdanov, Yevgeny

    2009-11-01

    A short (without positive column) DC gas-discharge device with a cold cathode has been modeled. The device consists of the plane disk-shaped cathode and anode while the inter-electrode gap is bounded by a cylindrical wall. The cathode and anode are each 2.5 cm in diameter, and the inter-electrode gap is 12 mm. The wall is made of conducting parts divided by an insulator. The modeling has been performed for argon plasma at 1 Torr pressure. It is demonstrated in the model that spatial distributions of electron density and temperature and argon metastable atom density depend on the DC voltage applied to different conducting parts of the wall. Applied voltage can trap within the device volume energetic electrons arising from atomic and molecular processes in the plasma. This leads to a modification in the heating of slow electrons by energetic electrons and as a result modifies the controlling plasma parameters.

  1. Controlling light with light using coherent meta-devices: all-optical transistor, summator and invertor

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Xu; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2014-01-01

    Vast amounts of information are conveyed by photons in optical fibres, but most data processing is performed electronically, creating the infamous 'information bottleneck' and consuming energy at an increasingly unsustainable rate. The potential for photonic devices to manipulate light themselves remains unfulfilled, largely due to the absence of materials with strong, fast optical nonlinearities. Here we show that small-signal amplifier, summator and invertor functions for optical signals may all be realized with a 4-port device exploiting the coherent interaction of beams on a planar plasmonic metamaterial, assuming no intrinsic nonlinearity. We show that coherently controlled redistribution of energy among ports can deliver various forms of optical switching. Such devices can operate even at the single photon level, with THz bandwidth, and without introducing signal distortion, presenting powerful opportunities for novel optical data processing architectures, complexity oracles and the locally coherent net...

  2. COMPUTER CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE FOR INVESTIGATIONS OF TRIBOLOGICAL INFLUENCES IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vujinović

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sheet metal forming, especially deep drawing process is influenced by many factors. Blank holding force and drawbead displacement are two of them that can be controlled during the forming process.For this purpose, an electro-hydraulic computerized sheet-metal strip sliding device has been constructed. The basic characteristic of this device is realization of variable contact pressure and drawbead height as functions of time or stripe displacement. There are both, pressure and drawbead, ten linear and nonlinear functions. Additional features consist of the ability to measure drawing force, contact pressure, drawbead displacement etc.The device overview and first results of steel sheet stripe sliding over rounded drawbead are presented in the paper.

  3. Controlled synthesis of T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} and enhanced visible light responsive photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shuying; Yu, Chongfei; Li, Yukun [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Li, Yihui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Sun, Jianhui, E-mail: sunjh@htu.cn [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Geng, Xiaofei [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2014-03-15

    A novel T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} microcrystal photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method with the aid of a structure-directing surfactant SDBS in the present study. Having received well characterization with the aid of various techniques and the results showed that the SDBS greatly changed the microstructure of BiVO{sub 4}, which had a unique T shape and belonged to the monoclinic family. The fast exchange dynamics between the surfactants bound to the Bi{sup 3+} seed surface and the free VO{sub 3}{sup −} in the solution significantly increase the rate of heterogeneous nucleation. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} was evaluated by the degradation of Methylene Blue solution under visible light irradiation, 17% and 47% higher decolorization rates than the commercial P25 and BiVO{sub 4} synthesized without SDBS, respectively. Meanwhile, it has been found that the degradation kinetics of MB fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} also displayed high photocatalytic performance for metronidazole degradation. -- Graphical abstract: H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecules function as electron trapping reagent to react with e{sup −} to enhance the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB in the BiVO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system under visible light irradiation. Highlights: • T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} was synthesized using SDBS as a structure-directing surfactant. • SDBS greatly changed the microstructure of BiVO{sub 4}. • The T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} had a better visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Degradation kinetics of MB by BiVO{sub 4} fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  4. [Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dejun; Fu, Xiaokuan; Kong, Fanling; Sui, Shaofeng; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yinglin; Zhou, Jingyang

    2014-06-01

    Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants were performed on an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons, based on improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, with consideration of actual situation in China and in the present project. With the use of engineering analysis and identification of occupational hazards in the improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, hazard rating (HR) and risk assessment were performed on chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons. The chemical toxicants in the isophorone nitrile device were mainly isophorone, hydrocyanic acid, methanol, phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium cyanide; the HR values were mild hazard (2), extreme hazard (5), mild hazard (2), mild hazard (2), moderate hazard (3), and extreme hazard (5), respectively, and the corresponding exposure rating (ER) values were 2.09, 2.72, 2.76, 1.68, 2.0, and 1.59, respectively. The risk of chemical toxicants in this project was assessed according to the formula Risk = [HR×ER](1/2). Hydrocyanic acid was determined as high risk, sodium hydroxide and sodium cyanide as medium risk, and isophorone, methanol, and phosphoric acid as low risk. Priority in handling of risks was determined by risk rating. The table of risk control measure was established for pre-assessment of occupational hazards. With risk assessment in this study, we concluded that the isophorone nitrile device with 5,000 ton annual production was a high-occupational hazard device. This device is a project of extreme occupational hazard. The improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method is a scientific and applicable method, and is especially suitable for pre-evaluation of on-site project with no analogy.

  5. Techniques of control of the transit of power by FACTS-series devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziane-Khodja, A.; Adli, M.; Fettous, M. [Bejaia Targa Univ., Bejaia (Algeria). Electrical Engineering Lab

    2007-07-01

    Flexible alternative current transmission system (FACTS) devices are used in power systems to reinforce safety and improve power transmission. FACTS technology enables operators to increase the power capacity of existing equipment by maintaining or improving the essential trading margins to the network stability. The paper described the contribution of FACTS-series systems in improving power transmission. FACTS-series devices include the thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC), static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), and unified power flow conditioner (UPFC). The paper demonstrated the capacity of these devices to increase power transmission while improving the margins of exploitation without reaching the stability limit of the networks. FACT-series devices have minimal impact on the environment, and can be quickly implemented at low cost. Digital simulations were performed to analyze the properties of FACTS devices installed on simple circuits with 1 line, 2 lines and then on a wider network. The simulation provided an opportunity to analyze the operation of the series compensators according to their internal parameters and to show their influences on power transit in the lines. It was concluded that the compensators optimize the capacities of energy transfer and the sharing of loads between the parallel circuits while preserving the network stability under various operating conditions. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  6. Controlled delivery of antiangiogenic drug to human eye tissue using a MEMS device

    KAUST Repository

    Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an implantable MEMS drug delivery device to conduct controlled and on-demand, ex vivo drug transport to human eye tissue. Remotely operated drug delivery to human post-mortem eyes was performed via a MEMS device. The developed curved packaging cover conforms to the eyeball thereby preventing the eye tissue from contacting the actuating membrane. By pulsed operation of the device, using an externally applied magnetic field, the drug released from the device accumulates in a cavity adjacent to the tissue. As such, docetaxel (DTX), an antiangiogenic drug, diffuses through the eye tissue, from sclera and choroid to retina. DTX uptake by sclera and choroid were measured to be 1.93±0.66 and 7.24±0.37 μg/g tissue, respectively, after two hours in pulsed operation mode (10s on/off cycles) at 23°C. During this period, a total amount of 192 ng DTX diffused into the exposed tissue. This MEMS device shows great potential for the treatment of ocular posterior segment diseases such as diabetic retinopathy by introducing a novel way of drug administration to the eye. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Fabrication and test of digital output interface devices for gas turbine electronic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newirth, D. M.; Koenig, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop an innovative digital output interface device, a digital effector with optical feedback of the fuel metering valve position, for future electronic controls for gas turbine engines. A digital effector (on-off solenoids driven directly by on-off signals from a digital electronic controller) with optical position feedback was fabricated, coupled with the fuel metering valve, and tested under simulated engine operating conditions. The testing indicated that a digital effector with optical position feedback is a suitable candidate, with proper development for future digital electronic gas turbine controls. The testing also identified several problem areas which would have to be overcome in a final production configuration.

  8. Controller Design for a 3 D.O.F Haptic Interface Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 3 D.O.F haptic interface which is designed to meet the interaction requirement of teleoperation tasks and virtual reality applications. The mechanism design takes the operability into consideration such as adopting steel cables as transmission components and mass balances to eliminate the gravity effect and so on. The dynamics of haptic interface including actuating device is also studied. In order to provide operator with fidelity kinesthetic information, we design a force controller using self-learning fuzzy logic control. The simulation result verifies the effectiveness of the control method

  9. Controllable incorporation of CdS nanoparticles into TiO2 nanotubes for highly enhancing the photocatalytic response to visible light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A constant current electrochemical deposition was employed to incorporate CdS nanoparticles into the TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2NTs). The size and amount of CdS nanoparticles in TiO2NTs (CdS@TiO2NTs) were controllable via modulating current,deposition time and electrolyte concentration. It was revealed,from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in depth profile,that CdS nanoparticles were filled into TiO2 nanotubes. A shift of the absorption edge toward the visible region under the optimal electrodeposition condition was observed with the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). A 5-fold enhancement in the photocurrent spectrum for TiO2NTs was observed and the photocurrent response range was significantly extended into the visible region because of the CdS incorporation. Compared with pure TiO2NTs,under a visible light irradiation,CdS@TiO2NTs exhibited a 3.5-fold improvement of photocatalytic activity,which was demonstrated by the photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB).

  10. Development of regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces for motor control of neuroprosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Stephen W. P.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Cederna, Paul S.

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries suffered during amputation commonly results in debilitating neuropathic pain in the affected limb. Modern prosthetic technologies allow for intuitive, simultaneous control of multiple degrees of freedom. However, these state-of-the-art devices require separate, independent control signals for each degree of freedom, which is currently not possible. As a result, amputees reject up to 75% of myoelectric devices preferring instead to use body-powered artificial limbs which offer subtle sensory feedback. Without meaningful and intuitive sensory feedback, even the most advanced myoelectric prostheses remain insensate, burdensome, and are associated with enormous cognitive demand and mental fatigue. The ideal prosthetic device is one which is capable of providing intuitive somatosensory feedback essential for interaction with the environment. Critical to the design of such a bioprosthetic device is the development of a reliable biologic interface between human and machine. This ideal patient-prosthetic interface allows for transmission of both afferent somatosensory information and efferent motor signals for a closed-loop feedback system of neural control. Our lab has developed the Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interface (RPNI) as a biologic nerve interface designed for stable integration of a prosthetic device with transected peripheral nerves in a residual limb. The RPNI is constructed by surgically implanting the distal end of a transected peripheral nerve into an autogenous muscle graft. Animal experiments in our lab have shown recording of motor signals from RPNI's implanted into both rodents and monkeys. Here, we achieve high amplitude EMG signals with a high signal to noise (SNR) ratio.

  11. Delays in Admittance-Controlled Haptic Devices Make Simulated Masses Feel Heavier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene A Kuling

    Full Text Available In an admittance-controlled haptic device, input forces are used to calculate the movement of the device. Although developers try to minimize delays, there will always be delays between the applied force and the corresponding movement in such systems, which might affect what the user of the device perceives. In this experiment we tested whether these delays in a haptic human-robot interaction influence the perception of mass. In the experiment an admittance-controlled manipulator was used to simulate various masses. In a staircase design subjects had to decide which of two virtual masses was heavier after gently pushing them leftward with the right hand in mid-air (no friction, no gravity. The manipulator responded as quickly as possible or with an additional delay (25 or 50 ms to the forces exerted by the subject on the handle of the haptic device. The perceived mass was ~10% larger for a delay of 25 ms and ~20% larger for a delay of 50 ms. Based on these results, we estimated that the delays that are present in nowadays admittance-controlled haptic devices (up to 20ms will give an increase in perceived mass which is smaller than the Weber fraction for mass (~10% for inertial mass. Additional analyses showed that the subjects' decision on mass when the perceptual differences were small did not correlate with intuitive variables such as force, velocity or a combination of these, nor with any other measured variable, suggesting that subjects did not have a consistent strategy during guessing or used other sources of information, for example the efference copy of their pushes.

  12. Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Hybrid Tasks in Control Devices for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Dai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT, energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs and soft real-time tasks (SRTs. The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks’ Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks’ ideal speeds.

  13. Energy-efficient scheduling for hybrid tasks in control devices for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhigang; Wu, Yifan; Dai, Guojun; Xia, Haixia

    2012-01-01

    In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs) and soft real-time tasks (SRTs). The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW) task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks' Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS) algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%-80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR) of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks' ideal speeds.

  14. ER fluid applications to vibration control devices and an adaptive neural-net controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Shin; Ura, Tamaki

    1993-07-01

    Four applications of electrorheological (ER) fluid to vibration control actuators and an adaptive neural-net control system suitable for the controller of ER actuators are described: a shock absorber system for automobiles, a squeeze film damper bearing for rotational machines, a dynamic damper for multidegree-of-freedom structures, and a vibration isolator. An adaptive neural-net control system composed of a forward model network for structural identification and a controller network is introduced for the control system of these ER actuators. As an example study of intelligent vibration control systems, an experiment was performed in which the ER dynamic damper was attached to a beam structure and controlled by the present neural-net controller so that the vibration in several modes of the beam was reduced with a single dynamic damper.

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63 Protection of...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating limits by... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart SSSS of Part 63 Protection of...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OOOO of Part 63—Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are required... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 63 Protection of...

  18. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devices in the grid to achieve a more desirable aggregate demand profile that meets a particular target of the grid operator such as energy generation cost minimization and carbon emission reduction. Such a pricing scheme can potentially be applied to control the behavior of energy storage devices installed for integration of intermittent renewable energy sources that have permission to grid connection and will have broader applications as an increasing number of novel and low-cost energy storage technologies emerge.

  19. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  20. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  1. Voltage Control of Distribution Network with a Large Penetration of Photovoltaic Generations using FACTS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Taro; Baba, Jumpei; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In recent years, there is a great deal of interest in distributed generations from viewpoints of environmental problem and energy saving measure. Thus, a lot of distributed generators will be connected to the distribution network in the future. However, increase of distributed generators, which convert natural energy into electric energy, is concerned on their adverse effects on distribution network. Therefore, control of distribution networks using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices is considered in order to adjust the voltage profile, and as a result more distributed generations can be installed into the networks. In this paper, four types of FACTS devices, Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and self-commutated Back-To-Back converter (BTB), are analyzed by comparison of required minimum capacity of the inverters in a residential distribution network with a large penetration of photovoltaic generations.

  2. Immediate postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion and breast-feeding outcomes: a noninferiority randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turok, David K; Leeman, Lawrence; Sanders, Jessica N; Thaxton, Lauren; Eggebroten, Jennifer L; Yonke, Nicole; Bullock, Holly; Singh, Rameet; Gawron, Lori M; Espey, Eve

    2017-08-23

    Immediate postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion is increasing in frequency in the United States, but few studies have investigated the effect of early placement on breast-feeding outcomes. This study examined the effect of immediate vs delayed postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion on breast-feeding outcomes. We conducted this noninferiority randomized controlled trial at the University of Utah and the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Centers from February 2014 through March 2016. Eligible women were pregnant and planned to breast-feed, spoke English or Spanish, were aged 18-40 years, and desired a levonorgestrel intrauterine device. Enrolled women were randomized 1:1 to immediate postpartum insertion or delayed insertion at 4-12 weeks' postpartum. Prespecified exclusion criteria included delivery <37.0 weeks' gestational age, chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, contraindications to levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion, and medical complications of pregnancy that could affect breast-feeding. We conducted per-protocol analysis as the primary approach, as it is considered the standard for noninferiority studies; we also report the alternative intent-to-treat analysis. We powered the study for the primary outcome, breast-feeding continuation at 8 weeks, to detect a 15% noninferiority margin between groups, requiring 132 participants in each arm. The secondary study outcome, time to lactogenesis, used a validated measure, and was analyzed by survival analysis and log rank test. We followed up participants for ongoing data collection for 6 months. Only the data analysis team was blinded to the intervention. We met the enrollment target with 319 participants, but lost 34 prior to randomization and excluded an additional 26 for medical complications prior to delivery. The final analytic sample included 132 in the immediate group and 127 in the delayed group. Report of any breast-feeding at 8 weeks in the immediate

  3. Controllable design of solid-state perovskite solar cells by SCAPS device simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kai; Lin, Peng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zongchang; Lin, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solid-state perovskite solar cells (ssPSCs) has achieved 20.1% recently. There is reason to believe that ssPSCs is a strong competitor with silicon and CIGS solar cells in photovoltaic field. The deep understanding of operation mechanism of ssPSCs is essential and required to furtherly improve device performance. The configuration and excition type are similar to inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Therefore, Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS), a device simulator widely using in inorganic solar cells, was employed to controllably design ssPSCs. The validity of device simulation was verified by comparing with real devices from reported literatures. The influence of absorber thickness on device property was discussed, which indicate that it exists an optimal thickness range. Two hypothetical interface layers, TiO2/perovskite layer and perovskite/HTM layer, were introduced into the construction model to consider the effects of interfaces defect density on device performance. It revealed TiO2/perovskite has stronger impact than perovskite/HTM, because higher excess carrier density existing at TiO2/perovskite will cause more recombination rate. In addition, hole transport materials (HTM) parameters, hole mobility and acceptor density, were chosen to study the impact of HTM characteristics on PCE. The analysis illuminate that the design of HTM layer should balance hole mobility and acceptor density. Meanwhile, different HTM candidates were selected and replaced typical HTM layer. The discussion about the function of candidates on solar cells performance demonstrated that a thiophene group hole-transporting polymer (PTAA) and a copper-based conductor (CuI) both have relatively high PCE, which is due to their wide bandgap, high conductivity, and better chemical interaction with perovskite absorber.

  4. Management of painful temporomandibular joint clicking with different intraoral devices and counseling: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Rodrigues CONTI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The benefit of the use of some intraoral devices in arthrogenous temporomandibular disorders (TMD patients is still unknown. This study assessed the effectiveness of the partial use of intraoral devices and counseling in the management of patients with disc displacement with reduction (DDWR and arthralgia.Materials and Methods A total of 60 DDWR and arthralgia patients were randomly divided into three groups: group I (n=20 wore anterior repositioning occlusal splints (ARS; group II (n=20 wore the Nociceptive Trigeminal Inhibition Clenching Suppression System devices (NTI-tss; and group III (n=20 only received counseling for behavioral changes and self-care (the control group. The first two groups also received counseling. Follow-ups were performed after 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months. In these sessions, patients were evaluated by means of a visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold (PPT of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ, maximum range of motion and TMJ sounds. Possible adverse effects were also recorded, such as discomfort while using the device and occlusal changes. The results were analyzed with ANOVA, Tukey’s and Fisher Exact Test, with a significance level of 5%.Results Groups I and II showed improvement in pain intensity at the first follow-up. This progress was recorded only after 3 months in Group III. Group II showed an increased in joint sounds frequency. The PPT values, mandibular range of motion and the number of occlusal contacts did not change significantly.Conclusion The simultaneous use of intraoral devices (partial time plus behavioral modifications seems to produce a more rapid pain improvement in patients with painful DDWR. The use of NTI-tss could increase TMJ sounds. Although intraoral devices with additional counseling should be considered for the management of painful DDWR, dentists should be aware of the possible side effects of the intraoral device’s design.

  5. Management of painful temporomandibular joint clicking with different intraoral devices and counseling: a controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues; CORRÊA, Ana Silvia da Mota; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; STUGINSKI-BARBOSA, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The benefit of the use of some intraoral devices in arthrogenous temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients is still unknown. This study assessed the effectiveness of the partial use of intraoral devices and counseling in the management of patients with disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) and arthralgia. Materials and Methods A total of 60 DDWR and arthralgia patients were randomly divided into three groups: group I (n=20) wore anterior repositioning occlusal splints (ARS); group II (n=20) wore the Nociceptive Trigeminal Inhibition Clenching Suppression System devices (NTI-tss); and group III (n=20) only received counseling for behavioral changes and self-care (the control group). The first two groups also received counseling. Follow-ups were performed after 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months. In these sessions, patients were evaluated by means of a visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), maximum range of motion and TMJ sounds. Possible adverse effects were also recorded, such as discomfort while using the device and occlusal changes. The results were analyzed with ANOVA, Tukey’s and Fisher Exact Test, with a significance level of 5%. Results Groups I and II showed improvement in pain intensity at the first follow-up. This progress was recorded only after 3 months in Group III. Group II showed an increased in joint sounds frequency. The PPT values, mandibular range of motion and the number of occlusal contacts did not change significantly. Conclusion The simultaneous use of intraoral devices (partial time) plus behavioral modifications seems to produce a more rapid pain improvement in patients with painful DDWR. The use of NTI-tss could increase TMJ sounds. Although intraoral devices with additional counseling should be considered for the management of painful DDWR, dentists should be aware of the possible side effects of the intraoral device’s design. PMID:26200526

  6. Controlling Synergistic Oxidation Processes for Efficient and Stable Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin-Song; Deng, Ya-Li; Tsang, Daniel Ping-Kuen; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Zhang, Qisheng; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-09-01

    Efficient sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) display a three orders of magnitude increase in lifetime, which is superior to those of controlled phosphorescent OLEDs used in this study. The combination of electro-oxidation and photo-oxidation of the TADF emitters in their triplet excited-states is suppressed through molecule design and device engineering.

  7. Robust mechanical system swith mechatronic devices: parameters identification and vibration control

    OpenAIRE

    Chovnyuk, Yurii; Dikterjuk, Mykhailo

    2015-01-01

    The disturbance estimated with the help of advanced mechatronic devices is used for realization of robust mechanical system, such as agricultural machines. In the actual application, the estimated disturbance is effective not only for the disturbance compensation but also for the parameter identification in the mechanical system. The identified external force is applicable to sensorless force feed-back control in mechanical system and is utilized for a realization of mechanical vibration cont...

  8. Acute Effects of an Alternative Electronic-Control-Device Waveform in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    submitted to Public Affairs/RHD under different title: Blood Factors of Sus scrofa following continuous exposure to an electronic control device (similar...Resources—National Research Council. Ten male domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa domestica), ranging in weight from 56.8 to 63.8 kg (mean ± standard error of the...References 1. Jauchem JR, Sherry CJ, Fines DA, et al. Acidosis, lactate, elec- trolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following

  9. A New Vibration Measurement Procedure for On-Line Quality Control of Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Revel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of experimentally testing the mechanical reliability of electronic components for quality control is approached. In general, many tests are performed on electronic devices (personal computers, power supply units, lamps, etc., according to the relevant international standards (IEC, in order to verify their resistance to shock and vibrations, but these are mainly “go no-go” experiments, performed on few samples taken from the production batches.

  10. Optical-electronic device based on diffraction optical element for control of special protective tags executed from luminophor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, M.; Odinokov, S.

    2017-05-01

    The report focuses on special printing industry, which is called secure printing, which uses printing techniques to prevent forgery or falsification of security documents. The report considered the possibility of establishing a spectral device for determining the authenticity of certain documents that are protected by machine-readable luminophor labels. The device works in two spectral ranges - visible and near infrared that allows to register Stokes and anti-Stokes spectral components of protective tags. The proposed device allows verification of the authenticity of security documents based on multiple criteria in different spectral ranges. It may be used at enterprises related to the production of security printing products, expert units of law enforcement bodies at check of authenticity of banknotes and other structures.

  11. Randomized controlled trials in central vascular access devices: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Samantha; Rickard, Claire M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. Method A scoping review (January 2006–December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters. MeSH terms were used to undertake a systematic search with data extracted by two independent researchers, using a standardized data extraction form. Results In total, 178 trials were included (78 non-tunneled [44%]; 40 peripherally inserted central catheters [22%]; 20 totally implanted [11%]; 12 tunneled [6%]; 6 non-specified [3%]; and 22 combined device trials [12%]). There were 119 trials (68%) involving adult participants only, with 18 (9%) pediatric and 20 (11%) neonatal trials. Insertion-related themes existed in 38% of trials (67 RCTs), 35 RCTs (20%) related to post-insertion patency, with fewer trials on infection prevention (15 RCTs, 8%), education (14RCTs, 8%), and dressing and securement (12 RCTs, 7%). There were 46 different study outcomes reported, with the most common being infection outcomes (161 outcomes; 37%), with divergent definitions used for catheter-related bloodstream and other infections. Conclusion More high quality randomized trials across central venous access device management are necessary, especially in dressing and securement and patency. These can be encouraged by having more studies with multidisciplinary team involvement and consumer engagement. Additionally, there were extensive gaps within population sub-groups, particularly in tunneled devices, and in pediatrics and neonates. Finally, outcome definitions need to be unified for results to be meaningful and

  12. Quality Control of Conventional Radiology Devices in Selected Hospitals of Khuzestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Rasuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Quality control techniques used to test the components of the radiological system and verify that the equipment is operating satisfactorily. In this study, quality control (QC assessment of conventional radiology devices was performed in frequently visited radiology centers of Khuzestan province, Iran. Materials and Methods Fifteen conventional radiology devices were examined, based on the protocol proposed in Report No. 77 by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM. Ten standard QC tests, including voltage accuracy and reproducibility, exposure time accuracy and reproducibility, tube output linearity (time and milliampere, filtration (half-value layer, tube output (70 kV at FSD =100 cm, tube output reproducibility and beam alignment were performed and assessed. All measurements were performed, using Barracuda multi-purpose detector. Results The reproducibility of voltage, exposure time and dose output, as well as output linearity, met the standard criteria in all devices. However, in 60% of the units, the results of the beam alignment test were poor. We also found that 66.7% of the studied units offer services to more than 18,000 patients annually or 50 patients per day. Conclusion Despite the fact that radiological devices in Khuzestan province are relatively old with high workload, the obtained results showed that these devices met the standard criteria. This may be mainly related to proper after-sale services, provided by the companies. Although these services may be expensive for radiology centers, the costs may be significantly reduced if QC is defined as a routine procedure performed by qualified medical physicists or radiation safety officers.

  13. Quality Control of Conventional Radiology Devices in Selected Hospitals of Khuzestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Rasuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Quality control techniques used to test the components of the radiological system and verify that the equipment is operating satisfactorily. In this study, quality control (QC assessment of conventional radiology devices was performed in frequently visited radiology centers of Khuzestan province, Iran. Materials and Methods Fifteen conventional radiology devices were examined, based on the protocol proposed in Report No. 77 by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM. Ten standard QC tests, including voltage accuracy and reproducibility, exposure time accuracy and reproducibility, tube output linearity (time and milliampere, filtration (half-value layer, tube output (70 kV at FSD =100 cm, tube output reproducibility and beam alignment were performed and assessed. All measurements were performed, using Barracuda multi-purpose detector. Results Thereproducibility of voltage, exposure time and dose output, as well as output linearity, met the standard criteria in all devices. However, in 60% of the units, the results of the beam alignment test were poor. We also found that 66.7% of the studied units offer services to more than 18,000 patients annually or 50 patients per day. Conclusion Despite the fact that radiological devices in Khuzestan province are relatively old with high workload, the obtained results showed that these devices met the standard criteria. This may be mainly related to proper after-sale services, provided by the companies. Although these services may be expensive for radiology centers, the costs may be significantly reduced if QC is defined as a routine procedure performed by qualified medical physicists or radiation safety officers.

  14. Seismic Proofing Capability of the Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper as an Active Interaction Control Device with Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of natural disasters has increased recently, causing buildings’ damages which need to be reinforced to prevent their destruction. To improve the seismic proofing capability of Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper, it is converted to an Active Interaction Control device and synchronous control and predictive control methods are proposed. The full-scale shaking table test is used to test and verify the seismic proofing capability of the proposed AIC with these control methods. This study examines the shock absorption of test structure under excitation by external forces, influences of prediction time, stiffness of the auxiliary structure, synchronous switching, and asynchronous switching on the control effects, and the influence of control locations of test structure on the control effects of the proposed AIC. Test results show that, for the proposed AIC with synchronous control and predictive control of 0.10~0.13 seconds, the displacement reduction ratios are greater than 71%, the average acceleration reduction ratios are, respectively, 36.2% and 36.9%, at the 1st and 2nd floors, and the average base shear reduction ratio is 29.6%. The proposed AIC with suitable stiffeners for the auxiliary structure at each floor with synchronous control and predictive control provide high reliability and practicability for seismic proofing of buildings.

  15. Surface-controlled contact printing for nanowire device fabrication on a large scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßkopf, D.; Strehle, S.

    2016-05-01

    Assembly strategies for functional nanowire devices that merge bottom-up and top-down technologies have been debated for over a decade. Although several breakthroughs have been reported, nanowire device fabrication techniques remain generally incompatible with large-scale and high-yield top-down microelectronics manufacturing. Strategies enabling the controlled transfer of nanowires from the growth substrate to pre-defined locations on a target surface would help to address this challenge. Based on the promising concept of mechanical nanowire transfer, we developed the technique of surface-controlled contact printing, which is based purely on dry friction between a nanowire and a target surface. Surface features, so-called catchers, alter the local frictional force or deposition probability and allow the positioning of single nanowires. Surface-controlled contact printing extends the current scope of nanowire alignment strategies with the intention to facilitate efficient nanowire device fabrication. This is demonstrated by the simultaneous assembly of 36 nanowire resistors within a chip area of greater than 2 cm2 aided only by mask-assisted photolithography.

  16. Electrowetting-induced drop generation and control in a microfluidic flow-focusing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloggi, Florent; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Gu, Hao; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2007-11-01

    Recent upsurge in droplet-based microfluidic research is fueled by the potential application of drops as well-controlled environments for biochemical reactions, single cell analysis and fluid logical devices. Commonly pressure driven flows are used to create droplets continuously either in a flow-focusing or in T-junction geometry. While this approach provides high throughput capability, it is neither amenable to detailed on-demand generation of individual drops nor to dynamic control of surface wettability, which can dramatically affect the dynamics of two-phase microflows. Alternatively, electrowetting (EW)-on-dielectric is used to digitally manipulate drops. The EW provides exquisite control over individual drops and surface wettability. However, current implementations have low throughput and cannot readily be integrated with existing channel-based technologies. Here, we adopt a unified approach to create a soft microfluidic platform that harvests the power of both methods and offers the capability to address their limitations. We achieve this integration by incorporating EW into a flow-focusing device and demonstrate EW-controlled drop formation. We identify experimentally the range of voltages and driving pressures that yields EW-induced droplet generation. A theoretical description based on the balance of external pressures and voltage-controlled capillary pressures quantitatively accounts for the observations. Moreover we show that the smaller the geometric scales the more efficient the electrowetting control of drop generation.

  17. UV and visible light photocatalytic activity of Au/TiO2 nanoforests with Anatase/Rutile phase junctions and controlled Au locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wen, Wei; Qian, Xin-Yue; Liu, Jia-Bin; Wu, Jin-Ming

    2017-01-24

    To magnify anatase/rutile phase junction effects through appropriate Au decorations, a facile solution-based approach was developed to synthesize Au/TiO2 nanoforests with controlled Au locations. The nanoforests cons®isted of anatase nanowires surrounded by radially grown rutile branches, on which Au nanoparticles were deposited with preferred locations controlled by simply altering the order of the fabrication step. The Au-decoration increased the photocatalytic activity under the illumination of either UV or visible light, because of the beneficial effects of either electron trapping or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Gold nanoparticles located preferably at the interface of anatase/rutile led to a further enhanced photocatalytic activity. The appropriate distributions of Au nanoparticles magnify the beneficial effects arising from the anatase/rutile phase junctions when illuminated by UV light. Under the visible light illumination, the LSPR effect followed by the consecutive electron transfer explains the enhanced photocatalysis. This study provides a facile route to control locations of gold nanoparticles in one-dimensional nanostructured arrays of multiple-phases semiconductors for achieving a further increased photocatalytic activity.

  18. UV and visible light photocatalytic activity of Au/TiO2 nanoforests with Anatase/Rutile phase junctions and controlled Au locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wen, Wei; Qian, Xin-Yue; Liu, Jia-Bin; Wu, Jin-Ming

    2017-01-01

    To magnify anatase/rutile phase junction effects through appropriate Au decorations, a facile solution-based approach was developed to synthesize Au/TiO2 nanoforests with controlled Au locations. The nanoforests cons®isted of anatase nanowires surrounded by radially grown rutile branches, on which Au nanoparticles were deposited with preferred locations controlled by simply altering the order of the fabrication step. The Au-decoration increased the photocatalytic activity under the illumination of either UV or visible light, because of the beneficial effects of either electron trapping or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Gold nanoparticles located preferably at the interface of anatase/rutile led to a further enhanced photocatalytic activity. The appropriate distributions of Au nanoparticles magnify the beneficial effects arising from the anatase/rutile phase junctions when illuminated by UV light. Under the visible light illumination, the LSPR effect followed by the consecutive electron transfer explains the enhanced photocatalysis. This study provides a facile route to control locations of gold nanoparticles in one-dimensional nanostructured arrays of multiple-phases semiconductors for achieving a further increased photocatalytic activity.

  19. UV and visible light photocatalytic activity of Au/TiO2 nanoforests with Anatase/Rutile phase junctions and controlled Au locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wen, Wei; Qian, Xin-Yue; Liu, Jia-Bin; Wu, Jin-Ming

    2017-01-01

    To magnify anatase/rutile phase junction effects through appropriate Au decorations, a facile solution-based approach was developed to synthesize Au/TiO2 nanoforests with controlled Au locations. The nanoforests cons®isted of anatase nanowires surrounded by radially grown rutile branches, on which Au nanoparticles were deposited with preferred locations controlled by simply altering the order of the fabrication step. The Au-decoration increased the photocatalytic activity under the illumination of either UV or visible light, because of the beneficial effects of either electron trapping or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Gold nanoparticles located preferably at the interface of anatase/rutile led to a further enhanced photocatalytic activity. The appropriate distributions of Au nanoparticles magnify the beneficial effects arising from the anatase/rutile phase junctions when illuminated by UV light. Under the visible light illumination, the LSPR effect followed by the consecutive electron transfer explains the enhanced photocatalysis. This study provides a facile route to control locations of gold nanoparticles in one-dimensional nanostructured arrays of multiple-phases semiconductors for achieving a further increased photocatalytic activity. PMID:28117448

  20. Kinematic control model for light weighting mechanism of excavator attached to rotary working device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choongho; Lee, Sangsik; Cho, Youngtae; Im, Kwanghee

    2007-07-01

    An excavator attached to a rotary working device is used principally in industrial work. In particular, they are used in the building industry and public works. This research concerns the rotary automatic control of an excavator attached to a rotary working device. The drilling excavator is used in the crushed stone industry and the dragline excavation system is employed in the construction industry. Cases of the excavator's use in agriculture have been the subject of a relatively few studies. However, several modified excavator designs have been released in recent years. Applied excavator products are primarily utilized under relatively severe environmental conditions. In this study, we focus on the uses of an excavator in agricultural work. The readjustment of arable land and the reduction of weeds in agricultural applications both require skilled hand-operation of the machines. As such workers have been shown to develop problems with regard to working posture and proper positioning while laboring, a more appropriate excavator design may prove useful in such applications. Therefore, this pilot study is focused primarily on the rotary automatic control of an excavator attached to a rotary working device, and will adapt smart materials to the excavator applications for developing redesigned excavator having a light weight. The excavator is attached to a rotary working device on a normal excavator's platform, and the position and orientation of the mechanism between the joints and the rotary working device was determined. Simulations were also conducted of the excavator attached to the rotary working device. With an eye toward the use of this mechanism in agricultural work, we also conducted a set of kinematic analyses. The rotary working device was assumed to have 3 DOF, and was comprised of 5 links. Computer simulations were also conducted using the developed excavator model. In order to adequately evaluate the possible performance of such a system, kinetic

  1. En Route Air Traffic Control Input Devices for the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainini, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of different input device configurations when trial planning new routes for aircraft in an advanced simulation of the en route workstation. The task of trial planning is one of the futuristic tools that is performed by the graphical manipulation of an aircraft's trajectory to reroute the aircraft without voice communication. In this study with two input devices, the FAA's current trackball and a basic optical computer mouse were evaluated with "pick" button in a click-and-hold state and a click-and-release state while the participant dragged the trial plan line. The trial plan was used for three different conflict types: Aircraft Conflicts, Weather Conflicts, and Aircraft + Weather Conflicts. Speed and accuracy were the primary dependent variables. Results indicate that the mouse conditions were significantly faster than the trackball conditions overall with no significant loss of accuracy. Several performance ratings and preference ratings were analyzed from post-run and post-simulation questionnaires. The release conditions were significantly more useful and likable than the hold conditions. The results suggest that the mouse in the release button state was the fastest and most well liked device configuration for trial planning in the en route workstation. Keywords-input devices, en route, controller, workstation, mouse, trackball, NextGen

  2. Method for reading sensors and controlling actuators using audio interfaces of mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Rafael V; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F; Gonçalves, Luiz M G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks.

  3. Plasma parameters controlled by remote electron shower in a double plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Phukan, A.

    2012-07-01

    The principal feature of this experiment is the electron showers consisting of three tungsten wires embedded by the plasma, which are heated up consequently emitting electrons inside the diffused plasma to control the plasma parameters in the discharge section of a double plasma device. These cold electrons emitted by the heated filament are free from maintenance of discharge which is sustained in the source section. The target plasma, where electrons are injected is produced as a result of diffusion from the source section. It is found that, plasma density and plasma potential can be effectively controlled in this way.

  4. Quantum control study of ultrafast optical responses in semiconductor quantum dot devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jung Y; Lin, Chien Y; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Chyi, Jen-Inn

    2014-12-15

    Two quantum control spectroscopic techniques were applied to study InAs quantum dot (QD) devices, which contain different strain-reducing layers. By adaptively control light matter interaction, a delayed resonant response from the InAs QDs was found to be encoded into the optimal phase profile of ultrafast optical pulse used. We verified the delayed resonant response to originate from excitons coupled to acoustic phonons of InAs QDs with two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. Our study yields valuable dynamical information that can deepen our understanding of the coherent coupling process of exciton in the quantum-confined systems.

  5. Method for Reading Sensors and Controlling Actuators Using Audio Interfaces of Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Rafael V.; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F.; Gonçalves, Luiz M. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks. PMID:22438726

  6. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  7. Impact of Thyristors Controlled Series Capacitor Devices and Optimal Power Flow on Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha LAKDJA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm, for solving the Optimal Power Flow problem with flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS. The type of FACTS devices is used: thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC. A method to determine the optimal location of thyristor controlled series compensators has been suggested. The proposed approaches have been implemented on an adapted IEEE 26 bus system. The simulation results are discussed to show the performance of the proposed algorithm and our “FACTS programmer “simulator technique, which are compared with TCSC and without TCSC.

  8. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates managerial tactics of visualisation when a need to know and manage employees' values and attitudes is expressed. Using the Danish public school as a case study, we explore how school managers use teachers' emotions to render visible presumably invisible information about...... their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...... install a normative emotional scale where an ideal employee displays emotional investment and self-control. This has implications, not only for employees who are expected to exhibit the 'right' emotions, but also for management, which comes to depend on transient emotions and co-presence in situations...

  9. The inherent weaknesses in industrial control systems devices; hacking and defending SCADA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Louis J.

    The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) is about to enforce their NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Version Five and Six requirements on July 1st 2016. The NERC CIP requirements are a set of cyber security standards designed to protect cyber assets essential the reliable operation of the electric grid. The new Version Five and Six requirements are a major revision to the Version Three (currently enforced) requirements. The new requirements also bring substations into scope alongside Energy Control Centers. When the Version Five requirements were originally drafted they were vague, causing in depth discussions throughout the industry. The ramifications of these requirements has made owners look at their systems in depth, questioning how much money it will take to meet these requirements. Some owners saw backing down from routable networks to non-routable as a means to save money as they would be held to less requirements within the standards. Some owners saw removing routable connections as a proper security move. The purpose of this research was to uncover the inherent weaknesses in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) devices; to show how ICS devices can be hacked and figure out potential protections for these Critical Infrastructure devices. In addition, this research also aimed to validate the decision to move from External Routable connectivity to Non-Routable connectivity, as a security measure and not as a means of savings. The results reveal in order to ultimately protect Industrial Control Systems they must be removed from the Internet and all bi-directional external routable connections must be removed. Furthermore; non-routable serial connections should be utilized, and these non-routable serial connections should be encrypted on different layers of the OSI model. The research concluded that most weaknesses in SCADA systems are due to the inherent weaknesses in ICS devices and because of these weaknesses, human intervention is

  10. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  11. Effectiveness of an inlet flow turbulence control device to simulate flight noise fan in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. P.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Shaw, L. M.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A hemispherical inlet flow control device was tested on a 50.8 cm. (20-inch) diameter fan stage in the NASA-Lewis anechoic chamber. The control device used honeycomb and wire mesh to reduce turbulence intensities entering the fan. Far field acoustic power level results show about a 5 db reduction in blade passing tone and about 10 dB reduction in multiple pure tone sound power at 90% design fan speed with the inlet device in place. Hot film cross probes were inserted in the inlet to obtain data for two components of the turbulence at 65 and 90% design fan speed. Without the flow control device, the axial intensities were below 1.0%, while the circumferential intensities were almost twice this value. The inflow control device significantly reduced the circumferential turbulence intensities and also reduced the axial length scale.

  12. Effectiveness of an inlet flow turbulence control device to simulate flight fan noise in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. P.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Shaw, L. M.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A hemispherical inlet flow control device was tested on a 50.8 cm. (20-inch) diameter fan stage in the NASA-Lewis Anechoic Chamber. The control device used honeycomb and wire mesh to reduce turbulence intensities entering the fan. Far field acoustic power level results showed about a 5 dB reduction in blade passing tone and about 10 dB reduction in multiple pure tone sound power at 90% design fan speed with the inlet device in place. Hot film cross probes were inserted in the inlet to obtain data for two components of the turbulence at 65 and 90% design fan speed. Without the flow control device the axial intensities were below 1.0%, while the circumferential intensities were almost twice this value. The inflow control device significantly reduced the circumferential turbulence intensities and also reduced the axial length scale.

  13. Wireless, Web-Based Interactive Control of Optical Coherence Tomography with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajvi; Nankivil, Derek; Zielinski, David J.; Waterman, Gar; Keller, Brenton; Limkakeng, Alexander T.; Kopper, Regis; Izatt, Joseph A.; Kuo, Anthony N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used in ophthalmology clinics and has potential for more general medical settings and remote diagnostics. In anticipation of remote applications, we developed wireless interactive control of an OCT system using mobile devices. Methods A web-based user interface (WebUI) was developed to interact with a handheld OCT system. The WebUI consisted of key OCT displays and controls ported to a webpage using HTML and JavaScript. Client–server relationships were created between the WebUI and the OCT system computer. The WebUI was accessed on a cellular phone mounted to the handheld OCT probe to wirelessly control the OCT system. Twenty subjects were imaged using the WebUI to assess the system. System latency was measured using different connection types (wireless 802.11n only, wireless to remote virtual private network [VPN], and cellular). Results Using a cellular phone, the WebUI was successfully used to capture posterior eye OCT images in all subjects. Simultaneous interactivity by a remote user on a laptop was also demonstrated. On average, use of the WebUI added only 58, 95, and 170 ms to the system latency using wireless only, wireless to VPN, and cellular connections, respectively. Qualitatively, operator usage was not affected. Conclusions Using a WebUI, we demonstrated wireless and remote control of an OCT system with mobile devices. Translational Relevance The web and open source software tools used in this project make it possible for any mobile device to potentially control an OCT system through a WebUI. This platform can be a basis for remote, teleophthalmology applications using OCT.

  14. A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

  15. Pulse method of watchdog device building for subscriber telephone lines control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslav Y. Mykytyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of information security in modern world are becoming increasingly important. One of the main sources of threats is the contact connections to the subscriber telephone lines (STL in the telephone networks of technical intelligence communication devices. Aim: The aim of this work is the presentation of the new pulse method of unauthorized connections identification to the STL, description of implementation and principle of operation of the watchdog control device. Materials and Methods: The method consists in analysis of response to pulse excitation of two second-order oscillating systems. The connection of telephone wiretap causes unbalancing of signals in oscillatory circuits and this certifies the existence of the bug. Results: The structure and functions of the watchdog based on presented method is described. This device consists of two parts – analyzer and blocker allocated at the opposite sides of the controlled STL. The variant of implementation of the pulse linear analyzer and channel of signals processing is considered in details.

  16. Development of semi-active hydraulic damper as active interaction control device to withstand external excitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-02-01

    Semi-automatic control systems have the characteristics of being adaptable and requiring low energy. The objective of this research was to study the performance of an improved DSHD (Displacement Semi-Active Hydraulic Damper) by converting it to AIC (Active Interaction Control Device) with the addition of an accumulator. The prototype was tested using full-scale elements for examining the structural displacement, and typical responses of the interacting interface element developed in this research, the pressure variation of the pressure storage device, and the energy dissipation hysteresis loop when the structure installed with these elements is subjected to external force of various magnitude. The laboratory results confirm that the device developed in this research is capable of applying the energy dissipation characteristics of DSHD so that these elements are appropriate for developing the proposed AIC. The mutual interaction between the subordinate structure and the main structure to be protected is capable of transforming the quake energy applied to the main structure to the subordinate structure so that the objective of minimizing the deformation of main structural can be achieved.

  17. A frequency-control particle separation device based on resultant effects of electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiang-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2016-08-01

    Particle separation plays an important role in microfluidic sample preparation for various biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a particle manipulation and separation scheme using a microfluidic device based on low-volume/low-voltage electrokinetic frequency modulation. Utilizing a circular micro-electrode array, both electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis can be contributed to manipulate particles in the device by controlling the frequency of applied sinusoidal travelling wave signals. Theoretical simulations based on finite-element methods are employed to establish fundamental understanding of the developed scheme. For experimental demonstration, polystyrene beads (6 μm in diameter) and human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) are used to validate the frequency-modulation effect. Furthermore, different diameter polystyrene beads (6 μm and 10 μm in diameter) are mixed to show potentials of precise particle separations (˜90% efficiency) by the reported frequency-controlled electrokinetic device. The developed technique can be exploited as an actuation scheme and particle manipulation method for microfluidic sample preparations of low ionic concentration samples.

  18. Facile synthesis of CdS@TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanorods with controllable shell thickness and enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Wenhao [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Singapore-Peking University Research Centre, Centre for Research Excellence & Technological Enterprise (CREATE), Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Pan, Feng, E-mail: chmpf@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Singapore-Peking University Research Centre, Centre for Research Excellence & Technological Enterprise (CREATE), Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Xu, Leilei [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Singapore-Peking University Research Centre, Centre for Research Excellence & Technological Enterprise (CREATE), Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Zheng, Minrui; Sow, Chorng Haur [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Wu, Kai [Singapore-Peking University Research Centre, Centre for Research Excellence & Technological Enterprise (CREATE), Singapore 138602 (Singapore); BNLMS, SKLSCUSS, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Guo Qin [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Singapore-Peking University Research Centre, Centre for Research Excellence & Technological Enterprise (CREATE), Singapore 138602 (Singapore); National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute, 377 Lin Quan Street, Suzhou Industrial Park, Jiangsu Prov. 215123 (China); and others

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS nanorods were coated with amorphous TiO{sub 2} shells under a mild condition. • The TiO{sub 2} shell thickness can be controlled from 3.5 to 40 nm. • CdS@TiO{sub 2} nanorods exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities under visible light. • Efficient charge carriers separation leads to the improved photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Amorphous TiO{sub 2} layers with a controllable thickness from 3.5 to 40 nm were coated on the one-dimensional CdS nanorods surface under mild conditions. Compared to the bare CdS nanorods, the as-prepared CdS@TiO{sub 2} nanorods exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities for phenol photodecomposition under visible light irradiation. The improved photoactivity is ascribed to the efficient separation of photogenerated electron and hole charge carriers between CdS cores and TiO{sub 2} shells. This study promises a simple approach to fabricating CdS@TiO{sub 2} core–shell structure nanocomposites, and can be applied for other semiconductor cores with TiO{sub 2} shells.

  19. A rotational traveling wave based levitation device - Modeling, design, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Gabai, Ran; Shaham, Ran; Cohen, Nadav; Bucher, Izhak

    2016-01-01

    Described is a device acting on an acoustically levitated object by manipulating the pressure and flow of a thin layer of air such that its rotation can be precisely controlled without mechanical contact. Virtual work analysis assists in simplifying the multi-actuator control problem into a problem governed by a controllable parameter. Actuation is done with a vibrating ring capable of producing ultrasonic standing and traveling waves, creating the acoustic excitation that affects the pressure in a thin, intermediate layer of gas. A distinctive vibration pattern is required to generate the temporal and spatial pressure field of the squeezed air layer that gives rise to both acoustic levitation force and rotational torque. Described are the physical and design development stages leading to an optimized structure, all followed by verifying and dynamics-calibration experiments. Moreover, by precisely controlling the ratio of standing and traveling waves in a closed-loop, one can affect the shear forces applied b...

  20. Developing an intelligent control system of automatic window motor with diverse wireless sensor network devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yao-Chiang Kan; Hsueh-Chun Lin; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-08-01

    This invention system involves hardware, firmware and software to develop an intelligent control system of automatic window motor with diverse wireless sensor network (WSN) devices for health and environmental monitoring. The parts of this invention are improved by implementing the WSN mote into environmental sensors that may detect temperature, humility, toxic gas, smog or aerosol, etc. With embedded system design, these sensors are capable of delivering WSN signal packets based on ZigBee protocol that follows the IEEE 802.14.4 standards. The primary hardware of the system is the window motor with circuit design by integrating micro control unit (MCU), radio frequency (RF) and WSN antenna to receive command. The firmware developed under embedded system can bridge hardware and software to control the window at the specified position. At the back end, the control system software can manage diverse sensor data and provide the interface for remote monitoring.

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Density-controllable nonvolatile memory devices having metal nanocrystals through chemical synthesis and assembled by spin-coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangli, Wang; Yubin, Chen; Yi, Shi; Lin, Pu; Lijia, Pan; Rong, Zhang; Youdou, Zheng

    2010-12-01

    A novel two-step method is employed, for the first time, to fabricate nonvolatile memory devices that have metal nanocrystals. First, size-averaged Au nanocrystals are synthesized chemically; second, they are assembled into memory devices by a spin-coating technique at room temperature. This attractive approach makes it possible to tailor the diameter and control the density of nanocrystals individually. In addition, processes at room temperature prevent Au diffusion, which is a main concern for the application of metal nanocrystal-based memory. The experimental results, both the morphology characterization and the electrical measurements, reveal that there is an optimum density of nanocrystal monolayer to balance between long data retention and a large hysteresis memory window. At the same time, density-controllable devices could also feed the preferential emphasis on either memory window or retention time. All these facts confirm the advantages and novelty of our two-step method.

  2. Efficacy and tolerability of hyaluronic acid, tea tree oil and methyl-sulfonyl-methane in a new gel medical device for treatment of haemorrhoids in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, N; Spasovski, G; Joksimovic, V; Andreevski, V; Zuccari, C; Omini, C F

    2012-09-01

    Topical formulations are widely used in anti-haemorrhoidal treatment, but often lacking controlled clinical trials. Here, we report the results from a controlled clinical trial performed with a new gel medical device (Proctoial) containing hyaluronic acid with tea tree oil and methyl-sulfonyl-methane as major components. The total number of 36 haemorrhoidal patients (grade 1-3) was enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial and divided into 2 equal parallel groups. The anal pain, pain during defecation, visible bleeding, pruritus and irritation/inflammation were recorded before and after 14-day treatment using a visual analogue scale both by the investigators and by the patients. Safety and tolerability of the treatments were also recorded. The new gel medical device statistically significantly reduced all the symptoms after the treatment compared to placebo. The results indicated also a very good tolerability and safety of the treatments.

  3. Highly efficient photocatalytic H₂ evolution from water using visible light and structure-controlled graphitic carbon nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David James; Qiu, Kaipei; Shevlin, Stephen Andrew; Handoko, Albertus Denny; Chen, Xiaowei; Guo, Zhengxiao; Tang, Junwang

    2014-08-25

    The major challenge of photocatalytic water splitting, the prototypical reaction for the direct production of hydrogen by using solar energy, is to develop low-cost yet highly efficient and stable semiconductor photocatalysts. Herein, an effective strategy for synthesizing extremely active graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) from a low-cost precursor, urea, is reported. The g-C3N4 exhibits an extraordinary hydrogen-evolution rate (ca. 20,000 μmol h(-1) g(-1) under full arc), which leads to a high turnover number (TON) of over 641 after 6 h. The reaction proceeds for more than 30 h without activity loss and results in an internal quantum yield of 26.5% under visible light, which is nearly an order of magnitude higher than that observed for any other existing g-C3N4 photocatalysts. Furthermore, it was found by experimental analysis and DFT calculations that as the degree of polymerization increases and the proton concentration decreases, the hydrogen-evolution rate is significantly enhanced.

  4. Mass Spectrometric Calibration of Controlled Fluoroform Leak Rate Devices Technique and Uncertainty Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Balsley, S D; Laduca, C A

    2003-01-01

    Controlled leak rate devices of fluoroform on the order of 10 sup - sup 8 atm centre dot cc sec sup - sup 1 at 25 C are used to calibrate QC-1 War Reserve neutron tube exhaust stations for leak detection sensitivity. Close-out calibration of these tritium-contaminated devices is provided by the Gas Dynamics and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Organization 14406, which is a tritium analytical facility. The mass spectrometric technique used for the measurement is discussed, as is the first principals calculation (pressure, volume, temperature and time). The uncertainty of the measurement is largely driven by contributing factors in the determination of P, V and T. The expanded uncertainty of the leak rate measurement is shown to be 4.42%, with a coverage factor of 3 (k=3).

  5. The aerodynamic performance of several flow control devices for internal flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W. T.; Wettlaufer, B. M.; Mort, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental reseach and development program was undertaken to develop and document new flow-control devices for use in the major modifications to the 40 by 80 Foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. These devices, which are applicable to other facilities as well, included grid-type and quasi-two-dimensional flow straighteners, louver panels for valving, and turning-vane cascades with net turning angles from 0 deg to 90 deg. The tests were conducted at model scale over a Reynolds number range from 2 x 100,000 to 17 x 100,000, based on chord. The results showed quantitatively the performance benefits of faired, low-blockage, smooth-surface straightener systems, and the advantages of curved turning-vanes with hinge-line gaps sealed and a preferred chord-to-gap ratio between 2.5 and 3.0 for 45 deg or 90 deg turns.

  6. Electrical Control of Broadband Terahertz Wave Transmission with Two-Terminal Graphene Oxide Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seungwoo; Lee, Won Jun; Park, Byung Cheol; Kang, Byungsoo; Hwang, Euyheon; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have proved to be efficient building blocks for active optoelectronic devices. Especially, the exotic properties of crystalline graphene, such as a linear/gapless energy dispersion, offer a generic route to the development of active photonic modulator at the infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) regime with large modulation depth. Here, we show that graphene oxide (GO), an oxygenated derivative of graphene with randomly distributed molecular defects (e.g., adsorbed water molecules and punched holes), can provide a different way to effectively control broadband THz transmission amplitude, when incorporated into two-terminal electrode devices. Electrically trapped charge carriers within localized impurity states (LIS) of GO, which originate from fully randomized defective structure of GO, results in a large modulation of transmission amplitude (~30%) for broadband THz waves (0.3 ~ 2.0 THz) even at room temperature. Interesting hysteretic behavior observed i...

  7. High-order distortion control using a computational prediction method for device overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young-Seog; Affentauschegg, Cedric; Mulkens, Jan; Kim, Jang-Sun; Shin, Ju-Hee; Kim, Young-Ha; Nam, Young-Sun; Choi, Young-Sin; Ha, Hunhwan; Lee, Dong-Han; Lee, Jae-il; Rizvi, Umar; Geh, Bernd; van der Heijden, Rob; Baselmans, Jan; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuously shrinking features of the integrated circuit, the overlay budget requirements have become very demanding. Historically, overlay has been performed using metrology targets for process control, and most overlay enhancements were achieved by hardware improvements. However, this is no longer sufficient, and we need to consider additional solutions for overlay improvements in process variation using computational methods. In this paper, we present the limitations of third-order intrafield distortion corrections based on standard overlay metrology and propose an improved method which includes a prediction of the device overlay and corrects the lens aberration fingerprint based on this prediction. For a DRAM use case, we present a computational approach that calculates the overlay of the device pattern using lens aberrations as an additional input, next to the target-based overlay measurement result. Supporting experimental data are presented that demonstrate a significant reduction of the intrafield overlay fingerprint.

  8. Vibrating barrier: a novel device for the passive control of structures under ground motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, P; Tombari, A

    2015-07-08

    A novel device, called vibrating barrier (ViBa), that aims to reduce the vibrations of adjacent structures subjected to ground motion waves is proposed. The ViBa is a structure buried in the soil and detached from surrounding buildings that is able to absorb a significant portion of the dynamic energy arising from the ground motion. The working principle exploits the dynamic interaction among vibrating structures due to the propagation of waves through the soil, namely the structure-soil-structure interaction. The underlying theoretical aspects of the novel control strategy are scrutinized along with its numerical modelling. Closed-form solutions are also derived to design the ViBa in the case of harmonic excitation. Numerical and experimental analyses are performed in order to investigate the efficiency of the device in mitigating the effects of ground motion waves on the structural response. A significant reduction in the maximum structural acceleration of 87% has been achieved experimentally.

  9. Standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: East African species Glossina swynnertoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furaha Mramba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Here we set out to standardize long-lasting, visually-attractive devices for Glossina swynnertoni, a vector of both human and animal trypanosomiasis in open savannah in Tanzania and Kenya, and in neighbouring conservation areas used by pastoralists. The goal was to determine the most practical device/material that would induce the strongest landing response in G. swynnertoni for use in area-wide population suppression of this fly with insecticide-impregnated devices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Serengeti and Maasai Mara to measure the performance of traps and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a simple enumerator at these remote locations to compare trapping efficiencies of devices. Independent of season or presence of chemical baits, targets in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue cloth with adhesive film were the best devices for capturing G. swynnertoni in all situations, catching up to 19 times more flies than pyramidal traps. Baiting with chemicals did not affect the relative performance of devices. Fly landings were two times higher on 1 m(2 blue-black targets as on pyramidal traps when equivalent areas of both were covered with adhesive film. Landings on 1 m(2 blue-black targets were compared to those on smaller phthalogen blue 0.5 m(2 all-blue or blue-black-blue cloth targets, and to landings on all-blue plastic 0.32-0.47 m(2 leg panels painted in phthalogen blue. These smaller targets and leg panels captured equivalent numbers of G. swynnertoni per unit area as bigger targets. CONCLUSIONS: Leg panels and 0.5 m(2 cloth targets show promise as cost effective devices for management of G. swynnertoni as they can be used for both control (insecticide-impregnated cloth and for sampling (rigid plastic with insect glue or adhesive film of

  10. Features of control systems analysis with discrete control devices using mathematical packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, E. M.; Faerman, V. A.

    2017-02-01

    The article contains presentation of basic provisions of the theory of automatic pulse control systems as well as methods of analysis of such systems using the mathematical software widespread in the academic environment. The pulse systems under research are considered as analogues systems interacting among themselves, including sensors, amplifiers, controlled objects, and discrete parts. To describe such systems, one uses a mathematical apparatus of difference equations as well as discrete transfer functions. To obtain a transfer function of the open-loop system, being important from the point of view of the analysis of control systems, one uses mathematical packages Mathcad and Matlab. Despite identity of the obtained result, the way of its achievement from the point of view of user’s action is various for the specified means. In particular, Matlab uses a structural model of the control system while Mathcad allows only execution of a chain of operator transforms. It is worth noting that distinctions taking place allow considering transformation of signals during interaction of the linear and continuous parts of the control system from different sides. The latter can be used in an educational process for the best assimilation of the course of the control system theory by students.

  11. PyMOL mControl: Manipulating molecular visualization with mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy W T; Siu, Shirley W I

    2017-01-02

    Viewing and manipulating three-dimensional (3D) structures in molecular graphics software are essential tasks for researchers and students to understand the functions of molecules. Currently, the way to manipulate a 3D molecular object is mainly based on mouse-and-keyboard control that is usually difficult and tedious to learn. While gesture-based and touch-based interactions are increasingly popular in interactive software systems, their suitability in handling molecular graphics has not yet been sufficiently explored. Here, we designed the gesture-based and touch-based interaction methods to manipulate virtual objects in PyMOL utilizing the motion and touch sensors in a mobile device. Three fundamental viewing controls-zooming, translation and rotation-and frequently used functions were implemented. Results from a pilot user study reveal that task performances on viewing controls using a mobile device are slightly reduced as compared to mouse-and-keyboard method. However, it is considered to be more suitable for oral presentations and equally suitable for education scenarios such as school classes. Overall, PyMOL mControl provides an alternative way to manipulate objects in molecular graphic software with new user experiences. The software is freely available at http://cbbio.cis.umac.mo/mcontrol.html. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):76-83, 2017.

  12. Phase control of yttrium (Y)-doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers and intensive visible photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Koppala Siva; Song, Chan-Geun; Bak, Geon Myeon [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gaeun; Seong, Maeng-Je [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jong-Won, E-mail: jwyoon@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Yttrium (Y)-doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. • The incorporation of Y into TiO{sub 2} facilitates the anatase phase growth. • The optical band gap energy increased with Y-doping. • Y-doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers PL intensity enormously increased due to defect-related centers on the surface. - Abstract: Yttrium (Y)-doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning and the subsequent calcination of the as-spun nanofibers. The X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering results showed that the incorporation of Y into TiO{sub 2} impedes the rutile-phase growth, facilitates the anatase phase growth. Estimated grain sizes are reduced from 15.71 nm to 8.8 nm with increasing Y-doping concentration. Raman scattering studies confirm the existence of slight brookite phase in case of Y-doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images revealed that the nanofibers comprised of nanoparticles and that Y-doping reduced the nanoparticle size. The optical band gap energy increased with increasing Y-doping, which can be ascribed to both quantum confinement effect and pure anatase phase transformation from mixed rutile-anatase phase. Y-doping induced a blue-shift of the broad visible photoluminescence (PL) peak and an increase of PL intensity with the concurrent decrease grain size. For 3 at.% Y-doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers PL intensity enormously increased due to defect-related centers on the surface.

  13. Controller Design and Analysis of Spacecraft Automatic Levelling and Equalizing Hoist Device based on Hanging Point Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Laiying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spacecraft Automatic Levelling and Equalizing Hoist Device (SALEHD is a kind of hoisting device developed for eccentric spacecraft level-adjusting, based on hanging point adjustment by utilizing XY-workbench. To make the device automatically adjust the spacecraft to be levelling, the controller for SALEHD was designed in this paper. Through geometry and mechanics analysis for SALEHD and the spacecraft, the mathematical model of the controller is established. And then, the link of adaptive control and the link of variable structure control were added into the controller to adapt the unknown parameter and eliminate the interference of support vehicle. The stability of the controller was analysed, through constructing Lyapunov energy function. It was proved that the controller system is asymptotically stable, and converged to origin that is equilibrium point. So the controller can be applied in SALEHD availably and safely.

  14. Programmable immersive peripheral environmental system (PIPES): a prototype control system for environmental feedback devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frend, Chauncey; Boyles, Michael

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an environmental feedback device (EFD) control system aimed at simplifying the VR development cycle. Programmable Immersive Peripheral Environmental System (PIPES) affords VR developers a custom approach to programming and controlling EFD behaviors while relaxing the required knowledge and expertise of electronic systems. PIPES has been implemented for the Unity engine and features EFD control using the Arduino integrated development environment. PIPES was installed and tested on two VR systems, a large format CAVE system and an Oculus Rift HMD system. A photocell based end-to-end latency experiment was conducted to measure latency within the system. This work extends previously unpublished prototypes of a similar design. Development and experiments described in this paper are part of the VR community goal to understand and apply environment effects to VEs that ultimately add to users' perceived presence.

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.190 - Are portable heaters, fans and other such devices allowed in Government-controlled facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 102-74.190 Are portable heaters, fans and other such devices allowed in Government-controlled facilities? Federal agencies are prohibited from operating portable heaters, fans, and other such devices in... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are portable...

  16. A comparative evaluation of different supraglottic ventilatory devices during general anesthesia with controlled ventilation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Abd El Aziz

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that the I-gel, PLMA and SLIPA are effective ventilatory devices during controlled ventilation, without major complications. I-gel offers advantage over PLMA and SLIPA in being less manipulation needed during placement, less air leak, less postoperative sore throat and less in blood stained to the device after its removal in comparison with PLMA and SLIPA.

  17. Unified control of DC-DC buck converter using dynamic adaptive controller for battery operated devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanimozhi Kannabiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es mejorar la respuesta dinámica del sistema de convertidor DC-DC con incertidumbres en los parámetros internos. La metodología de control por modo deslizante en las obras existentes se basa en un sistema de control proporcional-integral-derivativo (PID. El presente trabajo aborda diversas cuestiones en un enfoque unificado para el diseño y la aplicación de la modulación de ancho de pulso (PWM basado en control digital por modos deslizantes adaptativos (CMD, técnica de control para el controlador buck para los teléfonos móviles que funcionan en modo continuo de conducción (MCC y el modo de conducción discontinua (MCD. El controlador está programado para controlar la ganancia de la condición de carga de salida y cambiar adaptativamente los parámetros de control para dar un rendimiento dinámico óptimo correspondiente a las variaciones de carga. Además, la estabilidad se verifica analíticamente utilizando el criterio de estabilidad de Lyapunov y se prueba que el sistema es global y asintóticamente estable. Finalmente, la eficacia del método propuesto se verifica mediante la simulación y experimentación. Se obtiene una respuesta estable en estado estacionario con ondulación reducida.

  18. Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Duane E.

    2003-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) using a Stirling thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode or can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly employ techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces, limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration. The MEMS cooler has potential applications across a broad range of industries such as the biomedical, computer, automotive, and aerospace industries. The basic capabilities it provides can be categorized into four key areas: 1) Extended environmental temperature range in harsh environments; 2) Lower operating temperatures for electronics and other components; 3) Precision spatial and temporal thermal control for temperature-sensitive devices; and 4) The enabling of microsystem devices that require active cooling and/or temperature control. The rapidly expanding capabilities of semiconductor processing in general, and microsystems packaging in particular, present a new opportunity to extend Stirling-cycle cooling to the MEMS domain. The comparatively high capacity and efficiency possible with a MEMS Stirling cooler provides a level of active cooling that is impossible at the microscale with current state-of-the-art techniques. The MEMS cooler technology builds on decades of research at Glenn on Stirling-cycle machines, and capitalizes on Glenn s emerging microsystems capabilities.

  19. Microprocessor-controlled optical stimulating device to improve the gait of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Brambilla, M; Garavello, L; Di Candia, A; Pedotti, A; Rabuffetti, M

    2004-05-01

    Different types of visual cue for subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) produced an improvement in gait and helped some of them prevent or overcome freezing episodes. The paper describes a portable gait-enabling device (optical stimulating glasses (OSGs) that provides, in the peripheral field of view, different types of continuous optic flow (backward or forward) and intermittent stimuli synchronised with external events. The OSGs are a programmable, stand-alone, augmented reality system that can be interfaced with a PC for program set-up. It consists of a pair of non-corrective glasses, equipped with two matrixes of 70 micro light emitting diodes, one on each side, controlled by a microprocessor. Two foot-switches are used to synchronise optical stimulation with specific gait events. A pilot study was carried out on three PD patients and three controls, with different types of optic flow during walking along a fixed path. The continuous optic flow in the forward direction produced an increase in gait velocity in the PD patients (up to + 11% in average), whereas the controls had small variations. The stimulation synchronised with the swing phase, associated with an attentional strategy, produced a remarkable increase in stride length for all subjects. After prolonged testing, the device has shown good applicability and technical functionality, it is easily wearable and transportable, and it does not interfere with gait.

  20. Haptic cue control of an MR gear shifting assistance device via Preisach hysteresis linearization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Min; Choi, Seung-Bok; Chung, Jye Ung; Kim, Soomin

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a driver assistance device to notify vehicle drivers an optimal gear shifting timing considering fuel consumption in manual transmission vehicles. The haptic cue function of the proposed gear shifting assistance device is utilizing magnetorheological (MR) clutch mechanism as haptic interface between driver and vehicle. The shear stress level and hysteretic behavior of the employed MR fluid are experimentally observed and identified with the Preisach model. A rotary type clutch mechanism is designed and manufactured with electromagnetic circuit and its transmission torque level is experimentally evaluated according to the applied current. The manufactured MR clutch is integrated with accelerator pedal on which driver's foot is placed to transmit haptic cue signal. In the meantime, a cue algorithm for gear shifting is formulated by considering vehicle model. The cue algorithm is then integrated with a haptic controller which is a torque model based-compensation strategy regarding Presiach hystersis linearization of the employed MR fluid. In this work, the haptic cue controller is implemented in discrete manner. Control performances are experimentally evaluated such as haptic tracking responses.

  1. An SSVEP based BCI to control a humanoid robot by using portable EEG device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneysu, Arzu; Akin, H Levent

    2013-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems that allow human subjects to interact with the environment by interpreting brain signals into machine commands. This work provides a design for a BCI to control a humanoid robot by using signals obtained from the Emotiv EPOC, a portable electroencephalogram (EEG) device with 14 electrodes and sampling rate of 128 Hz. The main objective is to process the neuroelectric responses to an externally driven stimulus and generate control signals for the humanoid robot Nao accordingly. We analyze steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) induced by one of four groups of light emitting diodes (LED) by using two distinct signals obtained from the two channels of the EEG device which reside on top of the occipital lobe. An embedded system is designed for generating pulse width modulated square wave signals in order to flicker each group of LEDs with different frequencies. The subject chooses the direction by looking at one of these groups of LEDs that represent four directions. Fast Fourier Transform and a Gaussian model are used to detect the dominant frequency component by utilizing harmonics and neighbor frequencies. Then, a control signal is sent to the robot in order to draw a fixed sized line in that selected direction by BCI. Experimental results display satisfactory performance where the correct target is detected 75% of the time on the average across all test subjects without any training.

  2. Atomic switch: atom/ion movement controlled devices for beyond von-neumann computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Terabe, Kazuya; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-01-10

    An atomic switch is a nanoionic device that controls the diffusion of metal ions/atoms and their reduction/oxidation processes in the switching operation to form/annihilate a conductive path. Since metal atoms can provide a highly conductive channel even if their cluster size is in the nanometer scale, atomic switches may enable downscaling to smaller than the 11 nm technology node, which is a great challenge for semiconductor devices. Atomic switches also possess novel characteristics, such as high on/off ratios, very low power consumption and non-volatility. The unique operating mechanisms of these devices have enabled the development of various types of atomic switch, such as gap-type and gapless-type two-terminal atomic switches and three-terminal atomic switches. Novel functions, such as selective volatile/nonvolatile, synaptic, memristive, and photo-assisted operations have been demonstrated. Such atomic switch characteristics can not only improve the performance of present-day electronic systems, but also enable development of new types of electronic systems, such as beyond von- Neumann computers. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. An efficient contents-adaptive backlight control method for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao Song; Yan, Ya Xing; Zhang, Xiao Mou; Cai, Hua; Deng, Xin; Wang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    For most of mobile devices with a large screen, image quality and power consumption are both of the major factors affecting the consumers' preference. Contents-adaptive backlight control (CABC) method can be utilized to adjust the backlight and promote the performance of mobile devices. Unlike the previous works mostly focusing on the reduction of power consumption, both of image quality and power consumption are taken into account in the proposed method. Firstly, region of interest (ROI) is detected to divide image into two parts: ROI and non-ROI. Then, three attributes including entropy, luminance, and saturation information in ROI are calculated. To achieve high perceived image quality in mobile devices, optimal value of backlight can be calculated by a linear combination of the aforementioned attributes. Coefficients of the linear combination are determined by applying the linear regression to the subjective scores of human visual experiments and objective values of the attributes. Based on the optimal value of backlight, displayed image data are processed brightly and backlight is darkened to reduce the power consumption of backlight later. Here, the ratios of increasing image data and decreasing backlight functionally depend on the luminance information of displayed image. Also, the proposed method is hardware implemented. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique exhibits better performance compared to the conventional methods.

  4. Comparative analysis of selected exhaled breath biomarkers obtained with two different temperature-controlled devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüning Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a suitable and non-invasive method for evaluation of airway inflammation. Several studies indicate that the composition of the condensate and the recovery of biomarkers are affected by physical characteristics of the condensing device and collecting circumstances. Additionally, there is an apparent influence of the condensing temperature, and often the level of detection of the assay is a limiting factor. The ECoScreen2 device is a new, partly single-use disposable system designed for studying different lung compartments. Methods EBC samples were collected from 16 healthy non-smokers by using the two commercially available devices ECoScreen2 and ECoScreen at a controlled temperature of -20°C. EBC volume, pH, NOx, LTB4, PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LTs were determined. Results EBC collected with ECoScreen2 was less acidic compared to ECoScreen. ECoScreen2 was superior concerning condensate volume and detection of biomarkers, as more samples were above the detection limit (LTB4 and PGE2 or showed higher concentrations (8-isoprostane. However, NOx was detected only in EBC sampled by ECoScreen. Conclusion ECoScreen2 in combination with mediator specific enzyme immunoassays may be suitable for measurement of different biomarkers. Using this equipment, patterns of markers can be assessed that are likely to reflect the complex pathophysiological processes in inflammatory respiratory disease.

  5. Increasing operational command and control security by the implementation of device independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Messina, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    In a very simplistic way, the Command and Control functions can be summarized as the need to provide the decision makers with an exhaustive, real-time, situation picture and the capability to convey their decisions down to the operational forces. This two-ways data and information flow is vital to the execution of current operations and goes far beyond the border of military operations stretching to Police and disaster recovery as well. The availability of off-the shelf technology has enabled hostile elements to endanger the security of the communication networks by violating the traditional security protocols and devices and hacking sensitive databases. In this paper an innovative approach based to implementing Device Independent Quantum Key Distribution system is presented. The use of this technology would prevent security breaches due to a stolen crypto device placed in an end-to-end communication chain. The system, operating with attenuated laser, is practical and provides the increasing of the distance between the legitimate users.

  6. Improving Memory Characteristics of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Germanium Nonvolatile Memory Devices by Controlling Germanium Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwoong; Jang, Kyungsoo; Phu, Nguyen Thi Cam; Trinh, Thanh Thuy; Raja, Jayapal; Kim, Taeyong; Cho, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangho; Park, Jinjoo; Jung, Junhee; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    Nonvolatile memory (NVM) with silicon dioxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxynitride (ONO(n)) charge trap structure is a promising flash memory technology duo that will fulfill process compatibility for system-on-panel displays, down-scaling cell size and low operation voltage. In this research, charge trap flash devices were fabricated with ONO(n) stack gate insulators and an active layer using hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon germanium (nc-SiGe:H) films at a low temperature. In this study, the effect of the interface trap density on the performance of devices, including memory window and retention, was investigated. The electrical characteristics of NVM devices were studied controlling Ge content from 0% to 28% in the nc-SiGe:H channel layer. The optimal Ge content in the channel layer was found to be around 16%. For nc-SiGe:H NVM with 16% Ge content, the memory window was 3.13 V and the retention data exceeded 77% after 10 years under the programming condition of 15 V for 1 msec. This showed that the memory window increased by 42% and the retention increased by 12% compared to the nc-Si:H NVM that does not contain Ge. However, when the Ge content was more than 16%, the memory window and retention property decreased. Finally, this research showed that the Ge content has an effect on the interface trap density and this enabled us to determine the optimal Ge content.

  7. Design of Intelligent Lighting Controller Based on DeviceNet Fieldbus%基于DeviceNet总线的智能照明控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世栋; 樊霁; 曹宇; 王军; 肖莉; 张志远; 达成莉

    2016-01-01

    Devicenet总线在智能照明控制方面有着明显优势。本文设计了一个基于DeviceNet现场总线的智能照明控制器。以协议规范为蓝本,介绍了智能照明控制器的DeviceNet接口硬件实现方案,系统软件在分析了对象模型的基础上由Keil uVision4编写,最终实现调节灯光照度的效果。%Devicenet bus has obvious advantages in intelligent lighting control. An intelligent lighting controller based on DeviceNet fieldbus was designed. Based on DeviceNet specification, the hardware design of intelligent lighting controller is presented and the software is programmed in environment of Keil uVision4 based on the analysis of the object model. It can adjust the effect of light intensity of illumination.

  8. Embedded Control in Wearable Medical Devices: Application to the Artificial Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Zavitsanou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant increases in processing power, coupled with the miniaturization of processing units operating at low power levels, has motivated the embedding of modern control systems into medical devices. The design of such embedded decision-making strategies for medical applications is driven by multiple crucial factors, such as: (i guaranteed safety in the presence of exogenous disturbances and unexpected system failures; (ii constraints on computing resources; (iii portability and longevity in terms of size and power consumption; and (iv constraints on manufacturing and maintenance costs. Embedded control systems are especially compelling in the context of modern artificial pancreas systems (AP used in glucose regulation for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Herein, a review of potential embedded control strategies that can be leveraged in a fully-automated and portable AP is presented. Amongst competing controllers, emphasis is provided on model predictive control (MPC, since it has been established as a very promising control strategy for glucose regulation using the AP. Challenges involved in the design, implementation and validation of safety-critical embedded model predictive controllers for the AP application are discussed in detail. Additionally, the computational expenditure inherent to MPC strategies is investigated, and a comparative study of runtime performances and storage requirements among modern quadratic programming solvers is reported for a desktop environment and a prototype hardware platform.

  9. A Numerical Analysis of Phononic-Assisted Control of Ultrasound Waves in Acoustofluidic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The ability to precisely sort individual microparticles/cells/droplets in suspension is important for various chemical and biological applications such as cancer cell detection, drug screening etc. The past decade, label- free particle handling of particle suspensions by ultrasonic radiation forces...... diffractors, which can be introduced in acoustofluidic structures. These diffractors can be applied in the design of efficient resonant cavities, directional sound waves for new types of particle sorting methods, or acoustically controlled deterministic lateral displacement. The PnC-diffractor-based devices...

  10. Integrated Channel Selector for Directing Fluid Flow Using Thermoreversible Gelation Controlled by a Digital Mirror Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Shirasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated channel selector system employing thermoreversible gelation of a polymer was developed. Here, we show a system with 3×3 arrayed microchannels having nine crossing points. Infrared laser irradiation was used to form gel areas at several crossing points in arranging a flow path from the inlet to one of the nine outlets passing through certain junctions and channels. The multipoint irradiation by the infrared laser was realized using a personal-computer-controlled digital mirror device. The system was demonstrated to be able to direct flow to all nine outlets. Finally, we achieved to produce flexible paths for flowing particles including side trips.

  11. Photolithography of thick photoresist coating for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Khomtchenko, Elena; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2009-01-01

    Thick photoresist coating for electrode patterning in an anisotropically etched V-groove is investigated for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre devices. The photoresist step coverage at the convex corners is compared with and without soft baking after photoresist spin...... coating. Two-step UV exposure is applied to achieve a complete exposure for the thick photoresist layer at the bottom of the V-groove, and minimise the reduction in resolution and image distortion. The resolution reduction of the different open window width for electrode pattern transfer is also...

  12. From nanofabrication to self-fabrication--tailored chemistry for control of single molecule electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    as alternatives to the dominant top-down nanofabrication techniques. One example is solution-based self-assembly of a molecule enclosed by two gold nanorod electrodes. This article will discuss recent attempts to control the self-assembly process by the use of supramolecular chemistry and how to tailor......Single molecule electronics is a field of research focused on the use of single molecules as electronics components. During the past 15 years the field has concentrated on development of test beds for measurements on single molecules. Bottom-up approaches to single molecule devices are emerging...

  13. Developing smart lighting LED-based device by using light parameterization and control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risteiu, Mircea; Ileana, Ioan; Marc, Gheorghe

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a smart system for control of chromatic distribution of white light produced by LED sources in order to satisfy simultaneously physiological comfort and color rendering requests. In region of interest (ROI) lighted by an ensemble of RGB and white LED's, a system of appropriate light sensors (from UV to IR radiation) take the chromatic an intensity information and send them to a microcontroller based device. Following the actual state of illumination end the desired one, the microcontroller will command the LED drivers adequately to obtain the optimum situation.

  14. Sham device v inert pill: randomised controlled trial of two placebo treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Stason, William B; Davis, Roger B; Legedza, Anna R T; Schnyer, Rosa N; Kerr, Catherine E; Stone, David A; Nam, Bong Hyun; Kirsch, Irving; Goldman, Rose H

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a sham device (a validated sham acupuncture needle) has a greater placebo effect than an inert pill in patients with persistent arm pain. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial created from the two week placebo run-in periods for two nested trials that compared acupuncture and amitriptyline with their respective placebo controls. Comparison of participants who remained on placebo continued beyond the run-in period to the end of the study. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 270 adults with arm pain due to repetitive use that had lasted at least three months despite treatment and who scored ≥3 on a 10 point pain scale. Interventions Acupuncture with sham device twice a week for six weeks or placebo pill once a day for eight weeks. Main outcomemeasures Arm pain measured on a 10 point pain scale. Secondary outcomes were symptoms measured by the Levine symptom severity scale, function measured by Pransky's upper extremity function scale, and grip strength. Results Pain decreased during the two week placebo run-in period in both the sham device and placebo pill groups, but changes were not different between the groups (-0.14, 95% confidence interval -0.52 to 0.25, P = 0.49). Changes in severity scores for arm symptoms and grip strength were similar between groups, but arm function improved more in the placebo pill group (2.0, 0.06 to 3.92, P = 0.04). Longitudinal regression analyses that followed participants throughout the treatment period showed significantly greater downward slopes per week on the 10 point arm pain scale in the sham device group than in the placebo pill group (-0.33 (-0.40 to -0.26) v -0.15 (-0.21 to -0.09), P = 0.0001) and on the symptom severity scale (-0.07 (-0.09 to -0.05) v -0.05 (-0.06 to -0.03), P = 0.02). Differences were not significant, however, on the function scale or for grip strength. Reported adverse effects were different in the two groups. Conclusions The sham device had greater

  15. Feasibility study of context-awareness device Comfort calculation methods and their application to comfort-based access control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jingjing; Jensen, Christian D.; Ma, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    . This allows us to analyze the influence of the context on the comfort level of the device in different perceived contexts in the real world. Moreover, to demonstrate the utility of our device comfort calculation methods, we apply it to comfort-based access control for mobile devices. We present the policy......Mobile devices have become more powerful and are increasingly integrated in the everyday life of people; from playing games, taking pictures and interacting with social media to replacing credit cards in payment solutions. Some actions may only be appropriate in some situations, so the security...... of a mobile device is therefore increasingly linked to its context, such as its location, surroundings (e.g. objects in the immediate environment) and so on. However, situational awareness and context are not captured by traditional security models. In this paper, we examine the notion of Device Comfort...

  16. Immediate postpartum versus 6-week postpartum intrauterine device insertion: a feasibility study of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Amy G; Kamanga, Gift; Stuart, Gretchen S; Haddad, Lisa B; Meguid, Tarek; Mhango, Chisale

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of postpartum intrauterine device insertion and to demonstrate that the postpartum intrauterine device is acceptable to women. Women attending prenatal care at a maternity hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi were recruited into a trial comparing immediate (10 minutes to 48 hours) to 6 week postpartum insertion. Feasibility of recruiting and consenting 140 women and randomizing 70% of them was evaluated. Satisfaction with the intrauterine device was also assessed. One hundred fifteen women consented and 49 (61%) were randomized. Twenty-six women were assigned to immediate insertion, and 23 to insertion at 6 weeks postpartum. Thirty (24%) women received the device as part of the study protocol, and 28 (93%) had the device in place at 12 weeks postpartum. The intrauterine device is acceptable to some postpartum women in Malawi, but conducting a randomized clinical trial may not be feasible.

  17. Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (SSDBD) Device for Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Reduction and Flow Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research effort explores the use of a nanosecond pulse driven offset semiconducting surface dielectric barrier discharge (SSDBD) device for the control...

  18. Standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: east African Species Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina tachinoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Oloo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Riverine species of tsetse are responsible for most human African trypanosomiasis (HAT transmission and are also important vectors of animal trypanosomiasis. This study concerns the development of visual control devices for two such species, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina tachinoides, at the eastern limits of their continental range. The goal was to determine the most long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that induces the strongest landing responses in these species for use as insecticide-impregnated tools in vector population suppression.Field trials were conducted in different seasons on G. f. fuscipes in Kenya, Ethiopia and the Sudan and on G. tachinoides in Ethiopia to measure the performance of traps and 2D targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used to enumerate flies at these remote locations to compare trapping efficiencies. The findings show that targets made from black and blue fabrics (either phthalogen or turquoise covered with adhesive film render them equal to or more efficient than traps at capturing G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Biconical trap efficiency varied between 25% and 33% for the two species. Smaller 0.25 m×0.25 m phthalogen blue-black targets proved more efficient than the regular 1 m2 target for both species, by over six times for Glossina f. fuscipes and two times for G. tachinoides based on catches per m2. Overall, targets with a higher edge/surface area ratio were more efficient at capturing flies.Taking into account practical considerations and fly preferences for edges and colours, we propose a 0.5×0.75 m blue-black target as a simple cost-effective device for management of G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides, impregnated with insecticide for control and covered with adhesive film for population sampling.

  19. WaveSAX device: design optimization through scale modelling and a PTO strategical control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Maximo; Danelli, Andrea; Dadone, Gianluca; Dalmasso, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    WaveSAX is an innovative OWC (Oscillating Water Column) device for the generation of electricity from wave power, conceived to be installed in coastal marine structures, such as ports and harbours. The device - especially designed for the typical wave climate of Mediterranean Sea - is characterized by two important aspects: flexibility to fit in different structural configurations and replication in a large number of units. A model of the WaveSAX device on a scale 1:5 has been built and tested in the ocean tank at Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France). The study aimed to analyse the behaviour of the device, including two Wells turbine configurations (with three and four blades), with regular and irregular wave conditions in the ocean wave tank. The model and the wave basin were equipped with a series of sensors which allowed to measure the following parameters during the tests: pressure in different points inside the device, the free water surface displacement inside and outside the device, the rotational velocity and the torque at the top of the axis. The tests had the objective to optimize the device design, especially as far as the characteristics of the rotor of the turbine is concern. Although the performance of the WaveSAX has been satisfactory for regular wave conditions, the behaviour of the Wells turbines for irregular wave climate has shown limitations in terms of maintaining the capacity to transform hydraulics energy into mechanical power. To optimize the efficiency of the turbine, an electronical system has been built on the basis of the ocean tank tests. It allows to continuously monitor and command the rotational speed and the torque of the rotor connected with the turbine, and to control in real time the electrical flow of a motor-generator, either absorbing energy as a generator, or providing power to the turbine working as an engine. Two strategies - based on the velocity and the torque control - have been investigate in the electronic test bench

  20. Precision Control of Thermal Transport in Cryogenic Single-Crystal Silicon Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 510 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 microns. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of +/-8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  1. Biofuel cell controlled by enzyme logic network--approaching physiologically regulated devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Tsz Kin; Pita, Marcos; Ornatska, Maryna; Katz, Evgeny

    2009-09-01

    A "smart" biofuel cell switchable ON and OFF upon application of several chemical signals processed by an enzyme logic network was designed. The biocomputing system performing logic operations on the input signals was composed of four enzymes: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), amyloglucosidase (AGS), invertase (INV) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). These enzymes were activated by different combinations of chemical input signals: NADH, acetaldehyde, maltose and sucrose. The sequence of biochemical reactions catalyzed by the enzymes models a logic network composed of concatenated AND/OR gates. Upon application of specific "successful" patterns of the chemical input signals, the cascade of biochemical reactions resulted in the formation of gluconic acid, thus producing acidic pH in the solution. This resulted in the activation of a pH-sensitive redox-polymer-modified cathode in the biofuel cell, thus, switching ON the entire cell and dramatically increasing its power output. Application of another chemical signal (urea in the presence of urease) resulted in the return to the initial neutral pH value, when the O(2)-reducing cathode and the entire cell are in the mute state. The reversible activation-inactivation of the biofuel cell was controlled by the enzymatic reactions logically processing a number of chemical input signals applied in different combinations. The studied biofuel cell exemplifies a new kind of bioelectronic device where the bioelectronic function is controlled by a biocomputing system. Such devices will provide a new dimension in bioelectronics and biocomputing benefiting from the integration of both concepts.

  2. Artificial Pancreas Device Systems for the Closed-Loop Control of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevitt, Sara; Simpson, Sue; Wood, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Closed-loop artificial pancreas device (APD) systems are externally worn medical devices that are being developed to enable people with type 1 diabetes to regulate their blood glucose levels in a more automated way. The innovative concept of this emerging technology is that hands-free, continuous, glycemic control can be achieved by using digital communication technology and advanced computer algorithms. Methods: A horizon scanning review of this field was conducted using online sources of intelligence to identify systems in development. The systems were classified into subtypes according to their level of automation, the hormonal and glycemic control approaches used, and their research setting. Results: Eighteen closed-loop APD systems were identified. All were being tested in clinical trials prior to potential commercialization. Six were being studied in the home setting, 5 in outpatient settings, and 7 in inpatient settings. It is estimated that 2 systems may become commercially available in the EU by the end of 2016, 1 during 2017, and 2 more in 2018. Conclusions: There are around 18 closed-loop APD systems progressing through early stages of clinical development. Only a few of these are currently in phase 3 trials and in settings that replicate real life. PMID:26589628

  3. Numerical Simulation of Electric Controlled Injection Device Equipped on Gas Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Ge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since there exist the problems of engine temping and combustion instability on the heavy-duty gas fuel engine based on single-point injection system, an electronically controlled multi-point injection system utilizing moving-coil electromagnetic linear actuator and mushrooms type valve structure was developed. The influence mechanism to gas fuel intake and mixing process caused by injection pulse width and installation site of the injection device was determined by the established CFD numerical simulation model. And the related experimental researches are completed. The results showed that the injection pulse width between 360ºCA to 450ºCA could not only realize sufficient fuel gas intake, but also avoid fuel wastage during engine’s scavenging period.  Furthermore, the injection devices should be installed adjacent to combustion chambers, which could avoid the injected gas fuel from being sucked into other intake manifolds and ensure it to flow into cylinders more adequately. The self-developed electronically controlled multi-point injection system could solve the problems of the engine tempering and combustion instability.

  4. Quality control associated with the use of semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices have been proposed as sentinels of nonpolar organic substances which have the potential to bioconcentrate. The focus of this study was to assess quality control aspects associated with use of these new devices. SPMDs were employed to monitor 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in an urban stream. SPMDs were deployed in aquaria housed inside a USGS gauging station along the banks of Lincoln Creek, an urban stream in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A minimum of three replicate SPMDs were deployed, exposed and analyzed for each period. SPMDs were subsequently dialyzed in hexane for 48 hours and residual lipid removed by gel permeation chromatography. Refined extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ion trap). Method detection limits ranged from 8 ng/g SPMD for benzo(e)pyrene to 230 ng/g SPMD for benzo(g,h,i)pyrene. Reproducibility, as measured by percent relative standard deviation (%RSD), was routinely well below the US EPA standard of 30%. This %RSD accounts for errors in SPMD preparation, deployment, exposure, retrieval, and analysis (dialysis, refinement and instrumental determination). With each set of SPMDs, one SPMD was spiked with a PAH mixture, stored for 30 days, then analyzed with the others from that set. Percent recoveries ranged from an average of 64% for acenaphthylene to 79% for phenanthrene which is considered an acceptable range by US EPA Method SW-846. Overall, SPMDs produced acceptable quality control for PAHs.

  5. Amplitude Test for Input Devices for System Control in Immersive Virtual Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Thornemann Hansen, Nina; Hald, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the amplitudes best suited to compare four input devices are examined in the context of a pointer-based system control interface for immersive virtual environments. The interfaces are based on a pen and tablet, a touch tablet, hand-tracking using Kinect and a Wii Nunchuk analog sti...... menu using each combination of amplitude and interface. The amplitudes to be used for future experiments were found. Also, the movement times for the interfaces do not fit the predictions of Fitts' law.......In this study, the amplitudes best suited to compare four input devices are examined in the context of a pointer-based system control interface for immersive virtual environments. The interfaces are based on a pen and tablet, a touch tablet, hand-tracking using Kinect and a Wii Nunchuk analog stick....... This is done as a preliminary study in order to be able to compare the interfaces with the goal of evaluating them in the context of using virtual environments in a class lecture. Five amplitudes are tested for each of the four interfaces by having test participants mark menu elements in an eight-part radial...

  6. Force-feedback control of a spherical haptic device featuring an electrorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Min; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the force-feedback performance of an active type of haptic device featuring an electrorheological (ER) fluid via a sliding mode controller (SMC), which is very robust to external disturbances and parameter uncertainties. In order to generate a 2-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) active force, a spherical ER joint is designed based on the mathematical torque model. The ER joint is then manufactured by adopting two bi-directional clutch actuators and the spherical geometry of the electrode, and its field-dependent generating force is experimentally evaluated. Subsequently, the 2-DOF force display is manufactured by integrating the ER joint with AC motors. The force response of the manufactured haptic device is experimentally evaluated, and expressed by a second-order dynamic equation. In order to achieve the desired force trajectories, the SMC is formulated and experimentally realized by imposing an Euler angle relationship. Tracking control performances for various force trajectories are presented in the time domain, and their tracking errors are evaluated.

  7. Precision control of thermal transport in cryogenic single-crystal silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostem, K., E-mail: karwan.rostem@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-28

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path ℓ is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than ℓ, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 5–10 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 μm. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order ℓ, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of ±8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  8. Locking IR and UV diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW PID controller on a Fabry-Perot signal

    CERN Document Server

    Kwolek, J M; Goodman, D S; Smith, W W

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of IR and UV lasers to a visible reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input and an internal PID algorithm converts the Fabry-Perot signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of less than 12 MHz, with the lab-built IR laser undergoing signi?cant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple computer-controlled, non temperature-stabilized Fabry-Perot locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca+ ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  9. Simple locking of infrared and ultraviolet diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW proportional-integral-derivative controller on a Fabry-Perot signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, J M; Wells, J E; Goodman, D S; Smith, W W

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet lasers to a visible stabilized reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input, and an internal proportional-integral-derivative algorithm converts the FP signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of better than 9 MHz, with a custom-built IR laser undergoing significant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple, computer-controlled, non-temperature-stabilized FP locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca(+) ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  10. Simple locking of infrared and ultraviolet diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW proportional-integral-derivative controller on a Fabry-Perot signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, J. M.; Wells, J. E.; Goodman, D. S.; Smith, W. W.

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet lasers to a visible stabilized reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input, and an internal proportional-integral-derivative algorithm converts the FP signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of better than 9 MHz, with a custom-built IR laser undergoing significant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple, computer-controlled, non-temperature-stabilized FP locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca+ ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  11. Stabilization and control of quad-rotor helicopter using a smartphone device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Alok; Lee, Dah-Jye; Moore, Jason; Chang, Yung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, autonomous, micro-unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs), or more specifically hovering micro- UAVs, have proven suitable for many promising applications such as unknown environment exploration and search and rescue operations. The early versions of UAVs had no on-board control capabilities, and were difficult for manual control from a ground station. Many UAVs now are equipped with on-board control systems that reduce the amount of control required from the ground-station operator. However, the limitations on payload, power consumption and control without human interference remain the biggest challenges. This paper proposes to use a smartphone as the sole computational device to stabilize and control a quad-rotor. The goal is to use the readily available sensors in a smartphone such as the GPS, the accelerometer, the rate-gyros, and the camera to support vision-related tasks such as flight stabilization, estimation of the height above ground, target tracking, obstacle detection, and surveillance. We use a quad-rotor platform that has been built in the Robotic Vision Lab at Brigham Young University for our development and experiments. An Android smartphone is connected through the USB port to an external hardware that has a microprocessor and circuitries to generate pulse-width modulation signals to control the brushless servomotors on the quad-rotor. The high-resolution camera on the smartphone is used to detect and track features to maintain a desired altitude level. The vision algorithms implemented include template matching, Harris feature detector, RANSAC similarity-constrained homography, and color segmentation. Other sensors are used to control yaw, pitch, and roll of the quad-rotor. This smartphone-based system is able to stabilize and control micro-UAVs and is ideal for micro-UAVs that have size, weight, and power limitations.

  12. Control of electro-rheological fluid based resistive torque elements for use in active rehabilitation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present control algorithms for novel electro-rheological fluid based resistive torque generation elements that will be used to drive the joint of a new type of portable and controllable active knee rehabilitation orthotic device (AKROD) for iso-inertial, isokinetic, and isometric exercising as well as gait retraining. The AKROD is composed of straps and rigid components for attachment to the leg, with a central hinge mechanism where a gear system is connected. The key features of AKROD include: a compact, lightweight design with highly tunable torque capabilities through a variable damper component, full portability with on-board power, control circuitry, and sensors (encoder and torque), and real-time capabilities for closed loop computer control for optimizing gait retraining. The variable damper component is achieved through an electro-rheological fluid (ERF) element that connects to the output of the gear system. Using the electrically controlled rheological properties of ERFs, compact brakes capable of supplying high resistive and controllable torques are developed. In this project, a prototype for the AKROD has been developed and tested. The AKROD's ERF resistive actuator was tested in laboratory experiments using a custom-made ERF testing apparatus (ETA). ETA provides a computer-controlled environment to test ERF brakes and actuators in various conditions and scenarios including emulating the interaction between human muscles involved with the knee and the AKROD's ERF actuators/brakes. The AKROD's ERF resistive actuator was tested in closed loop torque control experiments. A hybrid (non-linear, adaptive) proportional-integral (PI) torque controller was implemented to achieve this goal.

  13. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  14. Influence of flow control devices on metallurgical effects in a large-capacity tundish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The influence of flow control devices on metallurgical effects in a large-capacity tundish has been studied carefully with elements tracing, sampling and theoretical prospecting. The results from the studies are (1) in the continuous casting of clean steel, bad control of tundish operation may deteriorate the cleanliness of steel; (2) the cleanliness of steel is deteriorated mainly at the unsteady state; (3) large amount of macro inclusions come from the top slag and the refractory of tundish; (4) installing dam and weir can improve the cleanliness of steel and lighten the influence of steel fluctuation; and (5) the result of theoretical calculation suggests that the inclusions larger than the critical size of 92.6 μm can be floated out from the tundish bath completely.

  15. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  16. Application of piezoelectric devices to vibration suppression - From modeling and controller designs to implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Chin C.; Sparks, Dean; Belvin, Keith; Sulla, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    Embedded piezoelectric devices may be ideally suited for vibration control of space structures, which lack an inertial ground. When subjected to an input voltage, an embedded piezoelectric actuator changes its dimensions, which in turn generates a pair of forces exerted on adjacent structural members. From the direct piezoelectric effect, an embedded piezoelectric transducer generates an electric charge proportional to the structural dynamic response. In this paper, the implementation, testing and modeling of an active truss structure consisting of piezoelectric sensors and actuators are described. Linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), second-order, and direct rate feedback control schemes are designed to suppress the vibrations of the active structure. Simulation and test results are presented. It is shown that special model reduction considerations are required to achieve good correlation between test and analysis.

  17. Design and control of a dual unidirectional brake hybrid actuation system for haptic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossa, Carlos; Lozada, José; Micaelli, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid actuators combining brakes and motors have emerged as an efficient solution to achieve high performance in haptic devices. In this paper, an actuation approach using two unidirectional brakes and a DC motor is proposed. The brakes are coupled to overrunning clutches and can apply a torque in only one rotational direction. The associated control laws, that are independent of the virtual environment model, calculate the control gains in real time in order limit the energy and the stiffness delivered by the motor to ensure stability. The reference torque is respected using the combination of the motor and the brake. Finally, an user experiment has been performed to evaluate the influence of passive and active torque differences in the perception of elasticity. The proposed actuator has a torque range of 0.03 Nm to 5.5 Nm with a 17.75 kNm (-2) torque density.

  18. The Use of a Brain Computer Interface Remote Control to Navigate a Recreational Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Chung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available People suffering from paralysis caused by serious neural disorder or spinal cord injury also need to be given a means of recreation other than general living aids. Although there have been a proliferation of brain computer interface (BCI applications, developments for recreational activities are scarcely seen. The objective of this study is to develop a BCI-based remote control integrated with commercial devices such as the remote controlled Air Swimmer. The brain is visually stimulated using boxes flickering at preprogrammed frequencies to activate a brain response. After acquiring and processing these brain signals, the frequency of the resulting peak, which corresponds to the user’s selection, is determined by a decision model. Consequently, a command signal is sent from the computer to the wireless remote controller via a data acquisition (DAQ module. A command selection training (CST and simulated path test (SPT were conducted by 12 subjects using the BCI control system and the experimental results showed a recognition accuracy rate of 89.51% and 92.31% for the CST and SPT, respectively. The fastest information transfer rate demonstrated a response of 105 bits/min and 41.79 bits/min for the CST and SPT, respectively. The BCI system was proven to be able to provide a fast and accurate response for a remote controller application.

  19. Evaluation of Physiological Control Systems for Rotary Left Ventricular Assist Devices: An In-Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Jo P; Stevens, Michael C; Bartnikowski, Nicole; Fraser, John F; Gregory, Shaun D; Tansley, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    Rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) show weaker response to preload and greater response to afterload than the native heart. This may lead to ventricular suction or pulmonary congestion, which can be deleterious to the patient's recovery. A physiological control system which optimizes responsiveness of LVADs may reduce adverse events. This study compared eight physiological control systems for LVAD support against constant speed mode. Pulmonary (PVR) and systemic (SVR) vascular resistance changes, a passive postural change and exercise were simulated in a mock circulation loop to evaluate the controller's ability to prevent suction and congestion and to increase exercise capacity. Three active and one passive control systems prevented ventricular suction at high PVR (500 dyne s cm(-5)) and low SVR (600 dyne s cm(-5)) by decreasing LVAD speed (by 200-515 rpm) and by increasing LVAD inflow cannula resistance (up to 1000 dyne s cm(-5)) respectively. These controllers increased LVAD preload sensitivity (to 0.196-2.415 L min(-1) mmHg(-1)) compared to the other control systems and constant speed mode (0.039-0.069 L min(-1) mmHg(-1)). The same three active controllers increased pump speed (600-800 rpm) and thus LVAD flow by 4.5 L min(-1) during exercise which increased exercise capacity. Physiological control systems that prevent adverse events and/or increase exercise capacity may help improve LVAD patient conditions.

  20. Application of FACTS devices to the 330 kV Nigerian system for voltage and power control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komolafe, O.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Adepoju, G. [Ladoke Akintola Univ. of Technology, Ogbomoso (Nigeria). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Garcia-Valle, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). CET-Elektro

    2008-07-01

    Various flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices were investigated in this study. A static VAR compensator (SVC), static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and a unified power flow controller (UPFC) were simulated in order to determine their voltage regulation and power flow control ability for a 330 kV transmission system in Nigeria. The FACTS models were tested on standard power networks and then modelled with a Newton-Raphson algorithm as part of a power flow analysis. The study identified potential locations for the devices in the Nigerian transmission network. Four case studies were considered in order to determine optimal configurations for the devices within the network. The study showed that the SVC and STATCOM devices regulate voltage buses without violating susceptance or voltage limits. The UPFC can control active power flow through transmission lines connecting the northern region of the country to areas with a high demand for power supply. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Home-based wrinkle reduction using a novel handheld multisource phase-controlled radiofrequency device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Avner; Levy, Hanna; Sadick, Neil S; Harth, Yoram; Dorizas, Andrew S

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, energy-based aesthetic treatments, using light, radiofrequency (RF), and ultrasound, have gained scientific acceptance as safe and efficacious for non-invasive treatment for aesthetic skin disorders. The phase-controlled multisource radiofrequency technology (3DEEP™), which is based on the simultaneous use of multiple RF generators, was proven to allow significant pigment-independent dermal heating without pain or the need of epidermal cooling. This study was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new handheld device delivering multisource radiofrequency to the skin for wrinkle reduction and skin tightening in the home setting. A total of 69 participants (age 54.3 years ± 8.09; age range 37-72 years) were enrolled in the study after meeting all inclusion/exclusion criteria (100%) and providing informed consent. Participants were provided with the tested device together with a user manual and treatment diary, to perform independent treatments at home for 4 weeks. The tested device, (Newa™, EndyMed Medical, Cesarea, Israel) emits 12 W of 1Mhz, RF energy through six electrodes arranged in a linear fashion. Independent control of RF polarity through each one of the 6 electrodes allows significant reduction of energy flow through the epidermis with increased dermal penetration. Participants were instructed to perform at least 5 treatments a week, for one month. Four follow-up visits were scheduled (once a week) during the period of independent treatments at home, following 4 weeks of home treatments, 1 month follow-up visit (1 month after treatment end) and at 3 months follow-up (3 months following treatment end). Analysis of pre-and post treatment images was conducted by three uninvolved physicians experienced with the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle and Elastosis Scale. Fitzpatrick Wrinkle and Elastosis score of each time point (4 weeks following home use treatments; 1 month follow-up, 3 months follow-up) was compared to baseline

  2. A new hyperspectral imaging based device for quality control in plastic recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, G.; D'Agostini, M.; Dall'Ava, A.; Serranti, S.; Turioni, F.

    2013-05-01

    The quality control of contamination level in the recycled plastics stream has been identified as an important key factor for increasing the value of the recycled material by both plastic recycling and compounder industries. Existing quality control methods for the detection of both plastics and non-plastics contaminants in the plastic waste streams at different stages of the industrial process (e.g. feed, intermediate and final products) are currently based on the manual collection from the stream of a sample and on the subsequent off-line laboratory analyses. The results of such analyses are usually available after some hours, or sometimes even some days, after the material has been processed. The laboratory analyses are time-consuming and expensive (both in terms of equipment cost and their maintenance and of labour cost).Therefore, a fast on-line assessment to monitor the plastic waste feed streams and to characterize the composition of the different plastic products, is fundamental to increase the value of secondary plastics. The paper is finalized to describe and evaluate the development of an HSI-based device and of the related software architectures and processing algorithms for quality assessment of plastics in recycling plants, with particular reference to polyolefins (PO). NIR-HSI sensing devices coupled with multivariate data analysis methods was demonstrated as an objective, rapid and non-destructive technique that can be used for on-line quality and process control in the recycling process of POs. In particular, the adoption of the previous mentioned HD&SW integrated architectures can provide a solution to one of the major problems of the recycling industry, which is the lack of an accurate quality certification of materials obtained by recycling processes. These results could therefore assist in developing strategies to certify the composition of recycled PO products.

  3. Development and evaluation of a pyriproxyfen-treated device to control the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Kurusarttra, Somwang; Pongsiri, Arissara; McCardle, Patrick W; Evans, Brian P; Evans, Brain P; Richardson, Jason H

    2013-03-01

    The resurgence of dengue fever and the chikungunya epidemic make the control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases, critically important. We developed and evaluated an Ae. aegypti control device that is visually-attractive to mosquitoes. This pyriproxyfen-treated device was evaluated for its impact on Ae. aegypti egg production and population dynamics in dengue-endemic areas in Thailand. The device consists of a "high rise" shaped ovitrap/ resting station covered with black cotton cloth. The device is easily collapsible and transportable. Ae. aegypti are generally drawn towards darker, shadier areas making this device physically attractive as a resting station to mosquitoes of all physiological stages. The results show this device suppressed Ae. aegypti populations after it was introduced into a village. The observed effect was primarily the result of the Ae. aegypti exposure to pyriproxyfen shortly after adult emergence or after taking a blood meal resulting in decreased egg production. We believe the device may be further improved physically and the formulation should be replaced to provide even better efficacy for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito, populations.

  4. Wireless platform for controlled nitric oxide releasing optical fibers for mediating biological response to implanted devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, Michael A; Nielsen, Matthew; Smeenge, David M; Romanowicz, Genevieve E; Frost, Megan C

    2012-12-01

    Despite the documented potential to leverage nitric oxide generation to improve in vivo performance of implanted devices, a key limitation to current NO releasing materials tested thus far is that there has not been a means to modulate the level of NO release after it has been initiated. We report the fabrication of a wireless platform that uses light to release NO from a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) optical fiber coated with an S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine derivatized polydimethylsiloxane (SNAP-PDMS). We demonstrate that a VAOL-5GSBY4 LED (λ(dominant)=460 nm) can be used as a dynamic trigger to vary the level of NO released from 500 μm diameter coated PMMA. The ability to generate programmable sequences of NO flux from the surface of these coated fibers offers precise spatial and temporal control over NO release and provides a platform to begin the systematic study of in vivo physiological response to implanted devices. NO surface fluxes up to 3.88 ± 0.57 × 10(-10)mol cm(-2)min(-1) were achieved with -100 μm thick coatings on the fibers and NO flux was pulsed, ramped and held steady using the wireless platform developed. We demonstrate the NO release is linearly proportional to the drive current applied to the LED (and therefore level of light produced from the LED). This system allow the surface flux of NO from the fibers to be continuously changed, providing a means to determine the level and duration of NO needed to mediate physiological response to blood contacting and subcutaneous implants and will ultimately lead to the intelligent design of NO releasing materials tailored to specific patterns of NO release needed to achieve reliable in vivo performance for intravascular and subcutaneous sensors and potentially for a wide variety of other implanted biomedical devices.

  5. A reliable method for the counting and control of single ions for single-dopant controlled devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinada, T; Kurosawa, T; Nakayama, H; Zhu, Y; Hori, M; Ohdomari, I

    2008-08-27

    By 2016, transistor device size will be just 10 nm. However, a transistor that is doped at a typical concentration of 10(18) atoms cm(-3) has only one dopant atom in the active channel region. Therefore, it can be predicted that conventional doping methods such as ion implantation and thermal diffusion will not be available ten years from now. We have been developing a single-ion implantation (SII) method that enables us to implant dopant ions one-by-one into semiconductors until the desired number is reached. Here we report a simple but reliable method to control the number of single-dopant atoms by detecting the change in drain current induced by single-ion implantation. The drain current decreases in a stepwise fashion as a result of the clusters of displaced Si atoms created by every single-ion incidence. This result indicates that the single-ion detection method we have developed is capable of detecting single-ion incidence with 100% efficiency. Our method potentially could pave the way to future single-atom devices, including a solid-state quantum computer.

  6. FACTS Devices Using Neuro Fuzzy Controller in Stabilization of Grid Connected Wind Generator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHI KACHROO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind power is one of the renewable energy sources. It has various advantages like, cost competitiveness, environmentally clean and safeness. Large wind farms have stability problems when they are integrated to the power system. A thorough analysis is required to identify the stability problems and to develop measures to improve it. Mostly used wind generator is a fixed speed induction generator, which requires reactive power to maintain air gap flux. Reactive ower equipments are used to enable recovery of large wind farms from severe system disturbances. In this paper shunt and series FACTS evices, Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM and Static ynchronous Series Compensator are used for the purpose of stabilizing grid connected wind generator against the grid-side disturbances. The essential feature of the FACTS devices is their ability to absorb or inject the reactive power. Since stability is a non linear process so system performance can be improved by using nonlinear controllers. Neurofuzzy controller (NFC is a non linear controller. NFC has fasterresponse than conventional PI controllers

  7. Direct cardiac potential trigger for chronic control of a ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, M; Hanzawa, K; Aoki, K; Saitoh, M; Hayashi, J

    2001-01-01

    As a new trigger method for chronic drive control of a ventricular assist device (VAD), a direct cardiac potential trigger was assessed under various conditions in a chronic experimental model. A pneumatic pulsatile VAD was implanted as circulatory support between the left ventricular apex and the ascending aorta in 12 adult pigs. Hemodynamic parameters and pump output were continuously monitored. Two tips of a bipolar electrode were set on the RV anterior wall and the LV posterior wall for recording direct cardiac potential. Counterpulsation drive of the VAD was applied by using the R wave in a standard electrocardiogram (ECG) or the direct cardiac potential as an ECG trigger. As special conditions, various artifacts on ECG, electromusculogram, arrhythmia, irregular ventilation, and passive vibration (simulation of exercise) were set for assessing the ECG trigger modes. Artifacts of irregular ventilation and passive vibration made the drive control poor using a standard ECG trigger. In contrast, the direct cardiac potential trigger maintained the counterpulsation control of the VAD well in all conditions of this study, and was a safe and reliable support for the native heart. It also supported animals for up to 48 hours after operation. The above results suggested that the direct cardiac potential trigger might be useful for monitoring native heart beats and adjusting the support cycle to the native heart cycle as a chronic control method for various VADs.

  8. Sensitive biomolecule detection in lateral flow assay with a portable temperature-humidity control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jane Ru; Hu, Jie; Feng, Shangsheng; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng

    2016-05-15

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) have currently attracted broad interest for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, but their application has been restricted by poor quantification and limited sensitivity. While the former has been currently solved to some extent by the development of handheld or smartphone-based readers, the latter has not been addressed fully, particularly the potential influences of environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and relative humidity (RH)), which have not yet received serious attention. The present study reports the use of a portable temperature-humidity control device to provide an optimum environmental requirement for sensitivity improvement in LFAs, followed by quantification by using a smartphone. We found that a RH beyond 60% with temperatures of 55-60°C and 37-40°C produced optimum nucleic acid hybridization and antigen-antibody interaction in LFAs, respectively representing a 10-fold and 3-fold signal enhancement over ambient conditions (25°C, 60% RH). We envision that in the future the portable device could be coupled with a fully integrated paper-based sample-to-answer biosensor for sensitive detection of various target analytes in POC settings.

  9. Studies on corrosion control of naphtha fractions in overhead condensing system using laboratory distillation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, R.C.; Jayaraman, A.; Chauhan, R.K; Goyal, H.B. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun-248005 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Corrosion in the overhead condensing system of atmospheric distillation units is a common occurrence in petroleum refineries worldwide. These corrosion problems are influenced by the presence of three phases: vapours, liquid hydrocarbons and aqueous phase containing hydrochloric acid formed during distillation by decomposition of chloride salts of calcium and magnesium. Present studies highlight the corrosion control of naphtha fractions of Bombay High and Dubai crude oils in laboratory distillation device by chemical treatment using various corrosion inhibitors having different functional groups. These studies were carried out using two phase systems (aqueous-hydrocarbon) in the distillation device having facilities for monitoring the corrosion and temperatures in vapour condensing region and liquid condensate. Corrosion monitoring was carried out by potentiodynamic polarization technique and dissolved iron analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Experimental findings indicate that Dubai naphtha fraction is more corrosive in nature when compared to Bombay High naphtha. This observation can also be explained on the basis of characterization of both crude oils and their naphtha fractions. At normally recommended dosage level as in refinery overhead systems, water soluble corrosion inhibitors are more effective than hydrocarbon soluble ones in the vapour condensing region as well as in the liquid condensate of both naphtha fractions. (author)

  10. Influence of Steering Control Devices Mounted in Cars for the Disabled on Passive Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiá, J.; Eixerés, B.; Dols, J. F.; Colomina, F. J.

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of steering control devices for disabled people on passive safety. It is based on the advances made in the modelling and simulation of the driver position and in the suit verification test. The influence of these devices is studied through airbag deployment and/or its influence on driver safety. We characterize the different adaptations that are used in adapted cars that can be found mounted in vehicles in order to generating models that are verified by experimental test. A three dimensional design software package was used to develop the model. The simulations were generated using a dynamic simulation program employing LSDYNA finite elements. This program plots the geometry and assigns materials. The airbag is shaped, meshed and folded just as it is mounted in current vehicles. The thermodynamic model of expansion of gases is assigned and the contact interfaces are defined. Static tests were carried out on deployment of the airbag to contrast with and to validate the computational models and to measure the behaviour of the airbag when there are steering adaptations mounted in the vehicle.

  11. Microfluidic biosensing device for controlled trapping and detection of magnetic microparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2013-05-01

    A magnetic microfluidic device is proposed to transport and trap magnetic microparticles (MPs) to a sensing area. Once the MPs are concentrated in the vicinity of the sensing area, a spin valve type giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor is used to detect their presence. The device is used for the detection of biological targets once they are labeled with functionalized MPs. Manipulation of the MPs is achieved by employing a microstructure which consists of planar ringshaped conducting microloops. These microloops are designed to produce high magnetic field gradients which are directly proportional to the force applied to manipulate the MPs. Upon sequential application of current, starting from the outermost loop, MPs are directed to move from the outermost to the innermost loop. The speed with which the MPs move towards the sensing area is controlled by the speed with which current is switched between the loops. On top of the microstructure, a microfluidic channel is fabricated using a standard photolithography technique and a dry film resist layer (Ordyl SY355). Experimental results showed that MPs of different diameters were successfully trapped at the sensing area and detected by the GMR sensor located directly under the innermost square loop. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Improvement in Device Performance and Reliability of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes through Deposition Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a fabrication technique to reduce the driving voltage, increase the current efficiency, and extend the operating lifetime of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED by simply controlling the deposition rate of bis(10-hydroxybenzo[h]qinolinato beryllium (Bebq2 used as the emitting layer and the electron-transport layer. In our optimized device, 55 nm of Bebq2 was first deposited at a faster deposition rate of 1.3 nm/s, followed by the deposition of a thin Bebq2 (5 nm layer at a slower rate of 0.03 nm/s. The Bebq2 layer with the faster deposition rate exhibited higher photoluminescence efficiency and was suitable for use in light emission. The thin Bebq2 layer with the slower deposition rate was used to modify the interface between the Bebq2 and cathode and hence improve the injection efficiency and lower the driving voltage. The operating lifetime of such a two-step deposition OLED was 1.92 and 4.6 times longer than that of devices with a single deposition rate, that is, 1.3 and 0.03 nm/s cases, respectively.

  13. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  14. Standardising Visual Control Devices for Tsetse Flies: Central and West African Species Glossina palpalis palpalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Dramane; Zacarie, Tusevo; M'Pondi, Alexis Makumyaviri; Njiokou, Flobert; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Kröber, Thomas; McMullin, Andrew; Mihok, Steve; Guerin, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis) is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. Methodology/Principal Findings Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal) and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8–51%). There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. Conclusions/Significance Blue-black 0.25 m2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for population sampling when

  15. Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds...

  16. Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds...

  17. Slow-release fluoride devices for the control of dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Lee Yee; Clarkson, Jan E; Dobbyn-Ross, Lorna; Bhakta, Smriti

    2014-11-28

    Slow-release fluoride devices have been investigated as a potentially cost-effective method of reducing dental caries in people with high risk of disease. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different types of slow-release fluoride devices on preventing, arresting, or reversing the progression of carious lesions on all surface types of primary (deciduous) and permanent teeth. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 13 August 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 7), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 13 August 2014), and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 13 August 2014). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases.We first published the review in 2006. The update in 2013 found 302 abstracts, but none of these met the inclusion criteria of the review. Parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing slow-release fluoride devices with an alternative fluoride treatment, placebo, or no intervention in all age groups. The main outcomes measures sought were changes in numbers of decayed, missing, and filled teeth or surfaces (DMFT/DMFS in permanent teeth or dmft/dmfs in primary teeth), and progression of carious lesions through enamel and into dentine. We conducted data collection and analysis using standard Cochrane review methods. At least two review authors independently performed all the key steps in the review such as screening of abstracts, application of inclusion criteria, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. We resolved discrepancies through discussions or arbitration by a third or fourth review author. We found no evidence comparing slow-release fluoride devices against other types of fluoride therapy.We found only one double-blind RCT involving

  18. Removal efficiencies of PCDDs/PCDFs by air pollution control devices in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S C; Jeon, S H; Jung, I R; Kim, K H; Kwon, M H; Kim, J H; Yi, J H; Kim, S J; You, J C; Jung, D H

    2001-01-01

    Removal efficiencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) by air pollution control devices (APCDs) in the commercial-scale municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators with a capacity of above 200 ton/day were evaluated. The removal efficiencies of PCDDs/PCDFs were up to 95% when the activated carbon (AC) was injected in front of electrostatic precipitator (EP). Spray dryer absorber/bag filter (SDA/BF) had high removal efficiency (99%)) of PCDDs/PCDFs when a mixture of lime and AC was sprayed into the SDA. When the AC was not added in scrubbing solution, the whole congeners of PCDDs/PCDFs were enriched in the wet scrubber (WS) with negative removal efficiencies of -25% to -5731%. Discharge of PCDDs/PCDFs was decreased with increasing the proportions of AC added in scrubbing solution. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system had the removal efficiencies of up to 93% during the test operation.

  19. Plasmon-controlled light-harvesting: design rules for biohybrid devices via multiscale modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreussi, Oliviero; Biancardi, Alessandro; Corni, Stefano; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2013-09-11

    Photosynthesis is triggered by the absorption of light by light-harvesting (LH) pigment-protein complexes followed by excitation energy transfer to the reaction center(s). A promising strategy to achieve control on and to improve light harvesting is to complement the LH complexes with plasmonic particles. Here a recently developed QM/MM/continuum approach is used to investigate the LH process of the peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP) complex on a silver island film. The simulations not only reproduce and interpret the experiments but they also suggest general rules to design novel biohybrid devices; hot-spot configurations in which the LH complex is sandwiched between couples of metal aggregates are found to produce the largest amplifications. Indications about the best distances and orientations are also reported together with illumination and emission geometries of the PCP-NP system necessary to achieve the maximum enhancement.

  20. Numerical Modeling of the Fluid Flow in Continuous Casting Tundish with Different Control Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations were conducted to study the melt flow under the influence of control devices in a T-type two-strand bloom caster tundish via the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics software OpenFOAM. Three different cases were studied: a bare tundish, a tundish with two pairs of baffles, and a tundish equipped with a turbulence inhibitor and a pair of baffles. Turbulence inhibitor and baffles arrangement showed an improvement of the fluid flow characteristics, yielding lower values of dead volume and higher values of plug flow. With a turbulence inhibitor, the velocity of metal which flows directly toward the tundish floor is smaller and the turbulence kinetic energy of the melt top surface is lower than the other two arrangements.

  1. Electro-Active Device Using Radial Electric Field Piezo-Diaphragm for Control of Fluid Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A fluid-control electro-active device includes a piezo-diaphragm made from a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied thereto. The electric field originates at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and extends radially outward from this region of the ferroelectric material and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The piezo-diaphragm deflects symmetrically about this region in a direction substantially perpendicular to the electric field. An annular region coupled to and extending radially outward from the piezo-diaphragm perimetrically borders the piezo-diaphragm, A housing is connected to the region and at least one fluid flow path with piezo-diaphragm disposed therein.

  2. Effect of passive flow-control devices on turbulent low-speed base flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari-Miandoab, Farid

    Some configurations of blunt trailing-edge airfoils are known to have a lower pressure drag compared to sharp trailing-edge airfoils. However, this advantage in addition to the structural advantage of a thick trailing-edge airfoil is offset by its high base drag. At subsonic velocities, this is attributed to the low-pressure base flow dominated by a Karman vortex street. In the limiting case, the steady separated flow over a rearward-facing step is attained if the periodically shed vortices from a blunt trailing-edge are suppressed by the addition of a base spiltter-plate. Experimental studies in the Old Dominion University Low-Speed Closed-Circuit Wind Tunnel were conducted to examine the effect of several passive flow-control devices such as Wheeler doublets and wishbone vortex generators, longitudinal surface grooves, base cavities, and serrations on the characteristics of two- and three-dimensional base flows. Flow over flat-plate airfoil and rearward-facing step models was studied in the turbulent incompressible subsonic flow regime. Models with trailing-edge and step-sweep angles of 0, 30, and 45 degrees with respect to the crossflow direction were considered. Constant-temperature hot-wire anemometry, infrared surface thermography, and pitot-static probes were used to conduct flow measurements. The parameters measured included vortex shedding frequency, convective heat-transfer rates, base pressure, and flow reattachment distance. Surveys of mean velocity profiles in the wake were also conducted. Results have shown that most of the flow control devices tested increased the base pressure of the 2-D and 3-D flat-plate airfoils. Use of longitudinal surface grooves resulted in shorter flow reattachment distances and higher convective heat transfer rates downstream of the 2-D rearward-facing steps.

  3. Thalamic DBS with a constant-current device in essential tremor: A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharen, Robert E; Okun, Michael S; Guthrie, Barton L; Uitti, Ryan J; Larson, Paul; Foote, Kelly; Walker, Harrison; Marshall, Frederick J; Schwalb, Jason; Ford, Blair; Jankovic, Joseph; Simpson, Richard; Dashtipour, Khashayar; Phibbs, Fenna; Neimat, Joseph S; Stewart, R Malcolm; Peichel, DeLea; Pahwa, Rajesh; Ostrem, Jill L

    2017-07-01

    This study of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) investigated whether a novel constant-current device improves tremor and activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with essential tremor (ET). A prospective, controlled, multicenter study was conducted at 12 academic centers. We investigated the safety and efficacy of unilateral and bilateral constant-current DBS of the ventralis intermedius (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus in patients with essential tremor whose tremor was inadequately controlled by medications. The primary outcome measure was a rater-blinded assessment of the change in the target limb tremor score in the stimulation-on versus stimulation-off state six months following surgery. Multiple secondary outcomes were assessed at one-year follow-up, including motor, mood, and quality-of-life measures. 127 patients were implanted with VIM DBS. The blinded, primary outcome variable (n = 76) revealed a mean improvement of 1.25 ± 1.26 points in the target limb tremor rating scale (TRS) score in the arm contralateral to DBS (p < 0.001). Secondary outcome variables at one year revealed significant improvements (p ≤ 0.001) in quality of life, depression symptoms, and ADL scores. Forty-seven patients had a second contralateral VIM-DBS, and this group demonstrated reduction in second-sided tremor at 180 days (p < 0.001). Serious adverse events related to the surgery included infection (n = 3), intracranial hemorrhage (n = 3), and device explantation (n = 3). Unilateral and bilateral constant-current VIM DBS significantly improves upper extremity tremor, ADL, quality of life, and depression in patients with severe ET. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of clinical endometritis in dairy cows by previously used controlled internal drug release devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mohsen; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Hesam A; Asadi, Farzad; Akbari, Rahmat

    2015-08-01

    Postpartum endometritis is considered as one of the diseases that lead to a potential profit reduction in dairy cows. The aims of the present study were to promote follicle growth by a previously used controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device and to evaluate its effect on the likelihood of recovery and the reproductive performance of clinical endometritis (CE) cows. Endometritis was diagnosed using ultrasonographic examination at 31 ± 3 (Day 0 of the experiment) days in milk, and CE cows were included in one of the three experimental groups according to the presence of a CL on their ovaries. Cows without CL on their ovaries received a reused CIDR device, which was previously used for 14 days (CIDR-14, n = 108), or PGF2α (PG-1, n = 112) on Day 0. In the third group, those with CL on their ovaries received PGF2α (PG-2, n = 107) at the same time. Ovarian structures, serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured on Days 0, 7, and 14. Controlled internal drug release devices were removed, and response to treatment was evaluated in all treated cows on Day 14. Diameters of ovarian follicles were 11.61 ± 0.50, 12.46 ± 0.25, and 18.36 ± 0.60 mm on Day 7 and 11.63 ± 0.58, 14.35 ± 0.40, and 21.96 ± 0.77 mm on Day 14 in PG-1, PG-2, and CIDR-14 cows, respectively (P estradiol concentrations were higher in CIDR-14 cows (141.17 ± 1.04 pg/mL) than in PG-1 (116.85 ± 1.05 pg/mL) and PG-2 (119.10 ± 1.05 pg/mL) cows on Day 7 (P 0.05). The cumulative pregnancy risk was lower in PG-1 (77.67%) cows than in CIDR-14 (87.07%) and PG-2 (87.85%) cows (P = 0.02). In conclusion, reused CIDR would be contributed to the treatment of CE by promotion of follicle growth and induction of sustainable sources of endogenic estrogen secreted by the dominant follicle.

  5. Sore throat following three adult supraglottic airway devices: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Hermite, Joël; Dubout, Elisabeth; Bouvet, Sophie; Bracoud, Laure-Hélène; Cuvillon, Philippe; Coussaye, Jean-Emmanuel de La; Ripart, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Sore throat is a common complaint after surgery. It affects patient satisfaction and can affect activity after discharge. The supraglottic airway device (SAD) offers an alternative to traditional tracheal intubation with potential benefit in preventing sore throat. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of sore throat following three different SADs, the laryngeal mask airway Unique (LMA-U) and the more recent LMA Supreme (LMA-S) and the I-gel. A randomised single-blind controlled three parallel-group trial. University Hospital of Nîmes, Division of Anaesthesia Intensive Care Pain and Emergency, Nîmes, France, from April 2009 to September 2012. A total of 546 patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery of less than 2 h under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive the LMA-U, the LMA-S or the I-gel. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and sufentanil and maintained with propofol or with sevoflurane in air-oxygen. After airway device insertion, intra-cuff pressure was adjusted to less than 60 mmHg (LMA-U, LMA-S) and pressure-controlled ventilation initiated. The primary study endpoint was to compare incidence of sore throat 24 h postoperatively (H+24) following placement of the LMA-U, LMA-S and the I-gel. Secondary endpoints were clinical performance (airway leak pressure, dynamic airway compliance, complications during maintenance), ease of use (device insertion time, success on first attempt, ease of insertion and removal) and other adverse events (neck or jaw pain, dysphonia, dysphagia, nausea and vomiting). The authors analysed 177, 174 and 173 patients who received LMA-U, the LMA-S and the I-gel, respectively. The primary endpoint was assessed in 436 patients. In total, 104 patients (23.9%) patients reported a H+24 sore throat, with no difference between groups (P = 0.34). H+24 dysphagia with liquids was higher (P = 0.0065) with the LMA-S (12.1%) compared with LMA-U (5.3%) and I-gel (2.9%). Airway leak pressure (cmH2

  6. Object Oriented Modeling of Thermostatically Controlled Devices for Cold Load Pick-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre A. Mota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: During service restoration, the power level at buses can significantly differ from the one presented under steady-state conditions, demanding an amount of electric power significantly higher than the normal load. Hence, their post-outage behavior must be adequately forecasted in order to permit the development of reliable restoration plans, or to avoid inadequate actions that may lead to a subsequent shutdown of the electric power system. This problem is known in the literature as cold load pick-up and the thermostatically controlled loads can be pointed as the main responsible for this behavior. Approach: This study proposes a methodology to model the thermostatically controlled load behavior during the reenergization process, based on object oriented programming and the physical modeling of individual loads, avoiding the explicitly modeling of the electric distribution feeder. In this context, the load aggregation is also implemented using “feeder” classes in an hierarchical structure. Results: The methodology was tested considering distinct devices distributed along a hypothetical feeder and the results show the impacts of interruption duration and environmental temperature in the load behavior. Conclusion: The Cold-load phenomena can be successfully simulated based on physical parameters of thermostatically controlled loads using objectoriented programming, yielding satisfactory results. In special, the impacts of the environmental temperature in the load to be restored can be assessed in detail.

  7. High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Devices using Trap-Controlled Quantum-Dot Ink prepared via Phase-Transfer Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqoma, Havid; Al Mubarok, Muhibullah; Hadmojo, Wisnu Tantyo; Lee, Eun-Hye; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2017-05-01

    Colloidal-quantum-dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices are promising candidates for low-cost power sources owing to their low-temperature solution processability and bandgap tunability. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of >10% is achieved for these devices; however, there are several remaining obstacles to their commercialization, including their high energy loss due to surface trap states and the complexity of the multiple-step CQD-layer-deposition process. Herein, high-efficiency photovoltaic devices prepared with CQD-ink using a phase-transfer-exchange (PTE) method are reported. Using CQD-ink, the fabrication of active layers by single-step coating and the suppression of surface trap states are achieved simultaneously. The CQD-ink photovoltaic devices achieve much higher PCEs (10.15% with a certified PCE of 9.61%) than the control devices (7.85%) owing to improved charge drift and diffusion. Notably, the CQD-ink devices show much lower energy loss than other reported high-efficiency CQD devices. This result reveals that the PTE method is an effective strategy for controlling trap states in CQDs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The power-supply control system in the device of acetylene production by H-plasma pyrolysis coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.Y.; Zhang, M.; Fu, P.; Weng, P.D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2006-09-15

    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  9. The Power-Supply Control System in the Device of Acetylene Production by H-Plasma Pyrolysis Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyun; Zhang, Ming; Fu, Peng; Weng, Peide

    2006-09-01

    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H-) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  10. Consumer-grade EEG devices: are they usable for control tasks?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We present the evaluation of two well-known, low-cost consumer-grade EEG devices: the Emotiv EPOC and the Neurosky MindWave. Problems with using the consumer-grade EEG devices (BCI illiteracy, poor technical characteristics, and adverse EEG artefacts) are discussed. The experimental evaluation of the devices, performed with 10 subjects asked to perform concentration/relaxation and blinking recognition tasks, is given. The results of statistical analysis show that both devices exhibit high var...

  11. Controlled synthesis of {001} facets-dominated dye-sensitized BiOCl with high photocatalytic efficiency under visible-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongbin; Yu, Xiang; Zhu, Yi; Fu, Xionghui; Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-08-01

    High-quality BiOCl with {001} facets were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method by controlling the volume ratio of ethanol (ET) and ethylene glycol (EG). The diameters of BiOCl nanosheets with {001} facets varied from 600 to 50 nm with the increase of EG content while the thickness nearly remained the same (˜20 nm). In the meantime, the morphologies of BiOCl turned into 3D hierarchical microspheres from 2D nanosheets. The 91.84 % {001} facets-exposed BiOCl nanosheets with diameter of 300-600 nm exhibited the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation on account of the strong adsorption property of the effective electron injection as well as the sequent reactive radical formation. More importantly, the RhB-sensitized BiOCl nanosheets showed effective photocatalytic property for breaking down methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) while RhB keeping almost intact until MB and MO had been photodegraded. It was found that the sensitizer radical cation (·RhB+) could react with MB and MO and their suitable redox potential confirms that as well. These findings may provide a promising approach method for synthesizing other metal oxyhalide materials with controllable diameters of nanosheets and deepen our comprehending for the role of the semiconductor in the sensitization process.

  12. Using a source-receptor approach to characterize the volatile organic compounds from control device exhaust in a science park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Fan; Liang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-03-01

    The science parks have helped shape Taiwan as a high-tech island with a good reputation worldwide. But some complaints on air pollution from the science parks have recently risen. To better understand the environmental effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from various high-tech factories in a science park, this study uses a source-receptor approach to characterize the environmental effects of VOCs from control device exhaust in Taichung Science Park. The chemical mass balance model (CMB8.2) of field measurements of 30 stacks and ambient air at nine sites was used to identify the source and relative contribution of ambient VOCs. The exhaust gas of various pollution control devices was also sampled by drawing a stream of the gases from the exhaust duct at its sampling port. The VOC source profile of each control device exhaust was determined using a database of noncharacteristic compounds. Monthly ambient concentrations of 167 VOCs were divided into monsoon datasets to investigate the effect of monsoon conditions on the emission of VOCs in the science park. This study also suggests a method for determining the optimum source profile in source-receptor modeling, and identifies and analyzes the sources of ambient VOCs at nine sites during southwest and northeast monsoons. Results show a direct relationship between the relative contribution of each source and its control device efficiency. The proposed source-receptor approach can characterize the environmental effect of air pollutants from various factories and successfully assess the efficiency of various control devices.

  13. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3546 Section 63.3546... device or system of multiple capture devices. The average duct static pressure is the maximum operating... Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...

  14. Visible light laser voltage probing on thinned substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutler, Joshua; Clement, John Joseph; Miller, Mary A.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2017-03-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing visible light in conjunction with a thinned structure to enable characterization of operation of one or more features included in an integrated circuit (IC). Short wavelength illumination (e.g., visible light) is applied to thinned samples (e.g., ultra-thinned samples) to achieve a spatial resolution for laser voltage probing (LVP) analysis to be performed on smaller technology node silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and bulk devices. Thinning of a semiconductor material included in the IC (e.g., backside material) can be controlled such that the thinned semiconductor material has sufficient thickness to enable operation of one or more features comprising the IC during LVP investigation.

  15. Development of an inlet pressure sensor for control in a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bryan; Cysyk, Joshua; Newswanger, Ray; Weiss, William; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2010-01-01

    A Tesla type continuous flow left ventricular assist device (VAD) has been designed by Penn State and Advanced Bionics, Inc. (ABI). When a continuous flow device is used, care must be taken to limit low pressures in the ventricle, which can produce an obstruction to the inlet cannula or trigger arrhythmias. Design of an inexpensive, semiconductor strain gauge inlet pressure sensor to detect suction has been completed. The research and design analysis included finite element modeling of the sensing region. Sensitivity, step-response, temperature dependence, and hysteresis tests have been performed on prototype units. All sensors were able to withstand the maximum expected strain of 82 microm/in at 500 mm Hg internal pressure. Average sensitivity was 0.52 +/- 0.24 microV/mm Hg with 0.5 V excitation (n = 5 units). Step-response time for a 0- to 90-mm Hg step change averaged 22 msec. Hysteresis was measured by applying and holding 75 mm Hg internal pressure for 4 hours, followed by a zero pressure measurement, and ranged from -15 to 4.1 mm Hg (n = 3 units). Offset drift varied between 180 and -140 mm Hg over a 4-week period (n = 2 units). Span temperature sensitivity ranged from 18 to -21 muV/ degrees C (n = 5 units). Gain temperature sensitivity ranged from -7.4 to 4.9 muV/ degrees C (n = 5 units). With the inherent drift, it is currently not possible to use the transducer to measure actual pressures, but it can easily be used to measure pressure changes throughout the cardiac cycle. This signal can then be used in the control system to avoid ventricular suction events.

  16. Control of a haptic gear shifting assistance device utilizing a magnetorheological clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Min; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes a haptic clutch driven gear shifting assistance device that can help when the driver shifts the gear of a transmission system. In order to achieve this goal, a magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based clutch is devised to be capable of the rotary motion of an accelerator pedal to which the MR clutch is integrated. The proposed MR clutch is then manufactured, and its transmission torque is experimentally evaluated according to the magnetic field intensity. The manufactured MR clutch is integrated with the accelerator pedal to transmit a haptic cue signal to the driver. The impending control issue is to cue the driver to shift the gear via the haptic force. Therefore, a gear-shifting decision algorithm is constructed by considering the vehicle engine speed concerned with engine combustion dynamics, vehicle dynamics and driving resistance. Then, the algorithm is integrated with a compensation strategy for attaining the desired haptic force. In this work, the compensator is also developed and implemented through the discrete version of the inverse hysteretic model. The control performances, such as the haptic force tracking responses and fuel consumption, are experimentally evaluated.

  17. Quality control test for electronic portal imaging device using QC-3 phantom with PIPSpro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Kumar Rout

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:A Quality control (QC test suitable for routinely daily use has been established for electronic portal imaging device (EPID using PIPSpro software version 4.4 (Standard Imaging, Middleton, WI. It provides an objective and quantitative test for tolerable image quality on the basis of the high contrast spatial resolution, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR and noise.Methods: The test uses a QC-3 phantom consisting of five sets of high contrast rectangular bar patterns with spatial frequeinces of 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, 0.43 and 0.75 lp/mm using 6MV and 15MV photon energy for accquiring high quality images. A “base line” value for the relative square wave modulation transfer function (RMTF, CNR and Noise data was obtained during a one week calibration period and one month test period.Results: Subsequent measurements shows significant deviations from baseline values, resulting in warning messages “potential problems in system performance”. The QC test uses high contrast spatial resolution and CNR for the system with acceptable performance. Conclusion: The method provides an automatic, objective, and sensitive measure of the system's imaging performance. This is a useful implementation during acceptance testing, commissioning, and routine quality control.

  18. Root elongation against a constant force: experiment with a computerized feedback-controlled device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzeja, P. S.; Lintilhac, P. M.; Wei, C.

    2001-01-01

    Axial force was applied to the root tip of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Merit) seedlings using a computerized, feedback-controlled mechanical device. The system's feedback capability allowed continuous control of a constant tip load, and the attached displacement transducer provided the time course of root elongation. Loads up to 7.5 g decreased the root elongation rate by 0.13 mm h-1 g-1, but loads 7.5 to 17.5 g decreased the growth rate by only 0.04 mm h-1 g-1. Loads higher than 18 g stopped root elongation completely. Measurement of the cross-sectional areas of the root tips indicated that the 18 g load had applied about 0.98 MPa of axial pressure to the root, thereby exceeding the root's ability to respond with increased turgor pressure. Recorded time-lapse images of loaded roots showed that radial thickening (swelling) occurred behind the root cap, whose cross-sectional area increased with tip load.

  19. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Zinc and Silicon Oxides Doped Cu Ferrite for Temperature Controller Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessien, M. M.; Ahmed, E. M.; Hemeda, O. M.

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Si+4 and Zn+2 substitutions on the structural and magnetic properties of Cu1-xZnx+ySiyFe2-2yO4 ferrites prepared by double sintering ceramic technique have been investigated. From X-ray diffraction analysis, it was found that substitution of Zn and Si enhanced sintering process and crystallization. The XRD peaks increase by increasing Zn and Si content. On the other hand, the initial permeability decreases sharply at Curie temperature for all samples, which makes Zn/Si co-doped CuFe2O4 spinel ferrites a very promising candidate for magnetic switches, magnetic temperature transducers (MTT), and for fabrication of temperature sensitive controller devices. The important change of Curie temperature of CuFe2O4 compound occurs by simply controlling the content of Zn and Si within CuFe2O4 and results in obtaining magnetic materials with desired Curie temperature. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show that the samples have soft magnetic character.

  20. Scattering Fields Control by Metamaterial Device Based on Ultra-Broadband Polarization Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Jia Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a novel ultra-broadband meta¬material screen with controlling the electromagnetic scat¬tering fields based on the three layers wideband polariza¬tion converter (TLW-PC. The unit cell of TLW-PC was composed of a three layers substrate loaded with double metallic split-rings structure and a metal ground plane. We observed that the polarization converter primarily per¬formed ultra-broadband cross polarization conversion from 5.71 GHz to 14.91 GHz. Furthermore, a metamaterial screen, which contributed to the low scattering charac¬teristics, had been exploited with the orthogonal array based on TLW-PC. The near scattering electronic fields are controlled due to the change of phase and amplitude for incident wave. The metamaterial screen significantly exhibited low scattering characteristics from 5.81 GHz to 15.06 GHz. To demonstrate design, a metamaterial device easily implemented by the common printed circuit board method has been fabricated and measured. Experimental results agreed well with the simulated results.

  1. Graphene-coated meshes for electroactive flow control devices utilizing two antagonistic functions of repellency and permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassian, Rassoul; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Sooyeun; Kim, Donggyu; Ryu, Seunghwa; Cho, Seung-Min; Koratkar, Nikhil; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-10-01

    The wettability of graphene on various substrates has been intensively investigated for practical applications including surgical and medical tools, textiles, water harvesting, self-cleaning, oil spill removal and microfluidic devices. However, most previous studies have been limited to investigating the intrinsic and passive wettability of graphene and graphene hybrid composites. Here, we report the electrowetting of graphene-coated metal meshes for use as electroactive flow control devices, utilizing two antagonistic functions, hydrophobic repellency versus liquid permeability. Graphene coating was able to prevent the thermal oxidation and corrosion problems that plague unprotected metal meshes, while also maintaining its hydrophobicity. The shapes of liquid droplets and the degree of water penetration through the graphene-coated meshes were controlled by electrical stimuli based on the functional control of hydrophobic repellency and liquid permeability. Furthermore, using the graphene-coated metal meshes, we developed two active flow devices demonstrating the dynamic locomotion of water droplets and electroactive flow switching.

  2. Method for optimization of the orientation and fixing system of workpiece for the construction of control devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Daniela-Monica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and evolution of technological equipment for machining, assembly and control ensure the modernization of manufacturing processes. Devices as subsystems of technological system in the general context of the development and diversification of machinery, tools, workpiece and drives are made in a variety of sizes and constructive variants that create difficulties in their structure and improvement. Part of the research in recent years presented in this paper have as major objectives the increase of accuracy, productivity and flexibility of orientation and fixing devices for control operations. To this end there have been developed a mathematical model, a new method of working and an algorithm for optimizing the construction of the orientation and fixing system of a new type of control device.

  3. Mobile technology habits: patterns of association among device usage, intertemporal preference, impulse control, and reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Henry H; Chein, Jason M

    2016-10-01

    Mobile electronic devices are playing an increasingly pervasive role in our daily activities. Yet, there has been very little empirical research investigating how mobile technology habits might relate to individual differences in cognition and affect. The research presented in this paper provides evidence that heavier investment in mobile devices is correlated with a relatively weaker tendency to delay gratification (as measured by a delay discounting task) and a greater inclination toward impulsive behavior (i.e., weaker impulse control, assessed behaviorally and through self-report) but is not related to individual differences in sensitivity to reward. Analyses further demonstrated that individual variation in impulse control mediates the relationship between mobile technology usage and delay of gratification. Although based on correlational results, these findings lend some backing to concerns that increased use of portable electronic devices could have negative impacts on impulse control and the ability to appropriately valuate delayed rewards.

  4. A Study on the Effectiveness of the Horizontal Shading Device Installation for Passive Control of Buildings in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyun Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Korea, the evaluation criteria for installing shading devices are defined by regulations, but the standards of design methods are not clearly established. The installation of shading devices has become mandatory for some public buildings due to revised regulations. Therefore, a design of horizontal shading device is required, and indoor environmental problems which may occur due to their installation should also be taken into consideration. This research aimed to propose a design which takes into account the energy consumption which may occur if the horizontal shading device is installed and suggests an improved design method of horizontal shading devices when they are installed. Consequently, it was confirmed that as the protrusion of the horizontal shading device becomes longer, the incoming daylight is reduced and the indoor intensity of illumination becomes lower, and thus more lighting energy may be consumed in a room where the shading device is installed than in the one where it is not. Therefore, annual energy consumption was calculated by applying the lighting control and it was found that the total energy consumption decreased by the reduction of air-conditioning and fans and lighting energy consumption.

  5. 基于DeviceNet的电机变频调速控制%Variable Frequency Speed Control for Motor Based on DeviceNet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳; 叶昊; 王宏宇; 赵振

    2014-01-01

    在工业自动化控制领域,现场总线的研究和应用已成为热点.罗克韦尔的DeviceNet总线是一种柔性开放透明的数据传输网络.电机控制系统基于这种新型总线网络,采用生产者/消费者模式的通讯方式,利用ControlLogix5561控制器实现对电机的远程变频调速控制.

  6. Synthesis of TiO2 visible light catalysts with controllable crystalline phase and morphology from Ti-bearing electric arc furnace molten slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Lulu; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei

    2016-09-01

    TiO2 visible light catalysts with different crystalline phases and morphologies were synthesized from titanium-bearing electric arc furnace molten slag (Ti-bearing EAF slag) by using a simple acidolysis process. The effects of the pH of the HCl solution, liquid to solid ratio (RL/S, HCl solution to the residue ratio, mL/g) and acidolysis time on the micro-morphology and crystalline phase of as-prepared TiO2 photocatalysts were systematically investigated. The results indicated that with decreasing pH in the HCl solution and increasing RL/S, the crystalline phase and micro-morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanostructures tended to transform from anatase type TiO2 with spherical nanoparticle structures to rutile type TiO2 with needle-like nanorod structures. The acidolysis time had little influence on the crystalline phase but great impact on the size of the obtained TiO2. The growth mechanism of TiO2 from Ti-bearing EAF slag during the acidolysis process was also discussed. In addition, the influence of RL/S on the photocatalytic properties of the synthesized nanostructured TiO2 was studied. The results showed that the photodegradation efficiency for Rhodamine B solution could reach 91.00% in 120min when the RL/S was controlled at 50:1.

  7. Hierarchical nanostructures of copper(II) phthalocyanine on electrospun TiO(2) nanofibers: controllable solvothermal-fabrication and enhanced visible photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyi; Shao, Changlu; Guo, Zengcai; Zhang, Zhenyi; Mu, Jingbo; Cao, Tieping; Liu, Yichun

    2011-02-01

    In the present work, 2,9,16,23-tetranitrophthalocyanine copper(II) (TNCuPc)/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures were successfully fabricated by a simple combination method of electrospinning technique and solvothermal processing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DR), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) were used to characterize the as-synthesized TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures. The results showed that the secondary TNCuPc nanostructures were not only successfully grown on the primary TiO(2) nanofibers substrates but also uniformly distributed without aggregation. By adjusting the solvothermal fabrication parameters, the TNCuPc nanowires or nanoflowers were facilely fabricated, and also the loading amounts of TNCuPc could be controlled on the TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructural nanofibers. And, there might exist the interaction between TNCuPc and TiO(2). A possible mechanism for the formation of TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures was suggested. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the TNCuPc/TiO(2) hierarchical nanostructures exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with the pure TNCuPc or TiO(2) nanofibers under visible-light irradiation.

  8. A Review on Natural Ventilation-enabling Façade Noise Control Devices for Congested High-Rise Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Keung Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current status of the research and development of natural ventilation-enabling noise control devices for use on the façades of high-rise residential buildings in congested cities. These devices are important for a sustainable urbanized city, as they are supposed to offer good acoustical protection to citizens, allowing for an acceptable level of natural ventilation inside residential units; energy for mechanical ventilation can then be saved. From the information presented in the existing literature, it is concluded that protrusive devices, such as lintels and balconies, are not effective noise screening devices, even if they are installed with sound absorbers and/or reflectors, under the effect of city reverberation. On the contrary, plenum windows and similar structures, which are plenum structures with a staggered air inlet and outlet, are interesting alternatives that are worth rigorous considerations.

  9. High Confinement Mode in the KSTAR Device and Control of Accompanying Edge Localized Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jay Hyun; Jeon, Young Mu; Xiao, Weiwen; Yoon, Si Woo; Bae, Young Soon; Ko, Won Ha; Lee, Sang Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joon Wook [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Yun, Gun Su [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    ELMy high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges have been achieved in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak with the combined auxiliary heating of neutral beam injection (NBI) and electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) since the 3{sup rd} campaign in 2010. The minimum external heating power required was about 0.9 MW at a line-averaged density higher than 1.4x10{sup 19} m{sup -3} and a toroidal field of 2 T. A clear increase of electron and ion temperatures in the pedestal was observed in the H-mode phase while the core ion temperature did not change notably. The toroidal rotation also increased over all radii in the H-mode phase. The measured ELM frequency was around 30{approx}50 Hz and the drop of the total energy appeared to be less than 5 %. Between large ELM spikes, small/grassy ELMs were also identified when mixed heating of NBI and ECRH was applied. On the basis of the H-mode achievement in the 3{sup rd} campaign, the 4{sup th} campaign experiments were focused on the ELM control by various methods such as resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP), supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), vertical jogging of plasma column, and edge current drive. Abrupt burst of stored energy due to ELM is harmful to plasma facing component especially in reactor scale devices like international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The aforementioned ELM control experiments were supported by advanced diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and X-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy (XICS). In the 3{sup rd} campaign, the ECEI observed the evolution of filamentary ELM structures in 2D and the XICS measured the plasma rotation profile enhanced by H-mode. Furthermore, the analyses based on advanced diagnostics are in progress for investigating the underlying physics of edge/pedestal characteristics when applying ELM control methods

  10. Visibility and Citation Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Habibi Tanha, Farid

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of two researchers who are using publication marketing tools confirmed that the article visibility will greatly improve the citation impact. Some st...

  11. Visibility and Citation Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ale Ebrahim, Nader

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of two researchers who are using publication marketing tools confirmed that the article visibility will greatly improve the citation impact. Some s...

  12. Visibility and Citation Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Amin Embi; Seyed Mohammad Motahar; Nader Ale Ebrahim نادر آل ابراهیم; Hossein gholizadeh; hossein gholizadeh

    2017-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of two researchers who are using publication marketing tools confirmed that the article visibility will greatly improve the citation impact. Some strat...

  13. Metal nanoparticle mediated space charge and its optical control in an organic hole-only device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligorio, G.; Nardi, M. V. [Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Steyrleuthner, R.; Neher, D. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht Str. 24, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ihiawakrim, D. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg, Cedex2 (France); Crespo-Monteiro, N.; Brinkmann, M. [Institut Charles Sadron CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Koch, N., E-mail: norbert.koch@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Erneuerbare Energien, Albert-Einstein Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    We reveal the role of localized space charges in hole-only devices based on an organic semiconductor with embedded metal nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs act as deep traps for holes and reduce the current density compared to a device without MNPs by a factor of 10{sup 4} due to the build-up of localized space charge. Dynamic MNPs charged neutrality can be realized during operation by electron transfer from excitons created in the organic matrix, enabling light sensing independent of device bias. In contrast to the previous speculations, electrical bistability in such devices was not observed.

  14. Ultrasound guided aspiration of hydrosalpinx fluid versus salpingectomy in the management of patients with ultrasound visible hydrosalpinx undergoing IVF-ET: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fouda, Usama M; Sayed, Ahmed M; Abdelmoty, Hatem I; Khaled A. Elsetohy

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of ultrasound guided aspiration of hydrosalpinx fluid at the time of oocyte retrieval with salpingectomy in the management of patients with ultrasound visible hydrosalpinx undergoing IVF-ET. Methods One hundred and sixty patients with ultrasound visible hydrosalpinx were randomized into salpingectomy group and aspiration group using computer generated randomization list and sequentially numbered sealed envelopes containing allocatio...

  15. Ovarian follicular development and oocyte quality in anestrous ewes treated with melatonin, a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device and follicle stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Justin S; Redmer, Dale A; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Choi, Jong Tae; Pant, Disha; Navanukraw, Chainarong; Arnold, Daniel R; Scheaffer, Abraham N; Borowicz, Pawel; Kirsch, James D; Weigl, Robert M; Kraft, Kim C; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T

    2005-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of hormonal treatments on ovarian follicular development and oocyte quality in anestrous ewes. Multiparous crossbred (RambouilletxTarghee) ewes were given melatonin implants (MEL) and/or controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices in conjunction with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during anestrus (March-May). In Experiment 1, ewes (n=25) were assigned randomly to four groups (n=4-7/group) in a 2x2 factorial arrangement [+/-MEL and +/-CIDR], resulting in Control (no treatment), CIDR, MEL, and MEL/CIDR groups, respectively. Ewes received an implant containing 18 mg of melatonin (Melovine) on Day 42 and/or a CIDR from Days 7 to 2 (Day 0: oocyte collection). In Experiment 2, ewes (n=12) were assigned randomly to two groups (n=6/group; 1CIDR or 2CIDR) and received the same type of melatonin implant on Day 60. All ewes received a CIDR device from Days -22 to -17 and 2CIDR ewes received an additional CIDR device from Days -10 to -2. In both experiments, ewes were given FSH im twice daily (morning and evening) on Days -2 and -1 (Day -2: 5 units/injection; Day -1: 4 units/injection). On the morning of Day 0, ovaries were removed, follicles>or=1 mm were counted, and oocytes were collected. Thereafter oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro. In Experiment 1, the number of visible follicles and the rates of oocyte recovery and in vitro maturation were similar (P>0.10) for Control, CIDR, MEL and MEL/CIDR (overall 29.7+/-2.9%, 89.9+/-7.1% and 95.0+/-2.0%, respectively). The rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) were lower (P0.10) for 1CIDR and 2CIDR groups (overall 27.3+/-3.2%, 92.1+/-2.7% and 90.2+/-1.9%, respectively). However, the rates of IVF were lower (P<0.01) for 2CIDR than 1CIDR group (30.2% versus 58.0%, respectively). In summary, when treatment with P4 commenced only 2 d before oocyte collection, rates of IVF were reduced in both experiments. Therefore, progestin treatment protocols used in

  16. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1993-01-01

    Inertial devices, including sensors and actuators, offer the potential of improving the tracking of telerobotic commands for space-based robots by smoothing payload motions and suppressing vibrations. In this paper, inertial actuators (specifically, torque-wheels and reaction-masses) are studied for that potential application. Batch simulation studies are presented which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed which samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. Currently, two manipulator models, a two-link, rigid arm and a single-link, flexible arm, have been studied. Results are presented which show that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s using only a hub motor. A hardware apparatus, which consists of a single-link, highly flexible arm with a hub motor and a torque-wheel, has been assembled to evaluate the concept and is described herein.

  17. Wafer-scale self-organized InP nanopillars with controlled orientation for photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanatinia, Reza; Berrier, Audrey; Dhaka, Veer; Perros, Alexander P; Huhtio, Teppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Anand, Srinivasan

    2015-10-16

    A unique wafer-scale self-organization process for generation of InP nanopillars is demonstrated, which is based on maskless ion-beam etching (IBE) of InP developed to obtain the nanopillars, where the height, shape, and orientation of the nanopillars can be varied by controlling the processing parameters. The fabricated InP nanopillars exhibit broadband suppression of the reflectance, 'black InP,' a property useful for solar cells. The realization of a conformal p-n junction for carrier collection, in the fabricated solar cells, is achieved by a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) overgrowth step on the fabricated pillars. The conformal overgrowth retains the broadband anti-reflection property of the InP nanopillars, indicating the feasibility of this technology for solar cells. Surface passivation of the formed InP nanopillars using sulfur-oleylamine solution resulted in improved solar-cell characteristics. An open-circuit voltage of 0.71 V and an increase of 0.13 V compared to the unpassivated device were achieved.

  18. Surface trimming of silicon photonics devices using controlled reactive ion etching chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, S.; Das, B. K.

    2015-06-01

    Surface trimming of rib waveguides fabricated in 5-μm SOI substrate has been carried out successfully without any significant increase of propagation losses. A reactive ion etching chemistry has been optimized for trimming and an empirical model has been developed to obtain the resulting waveguide geometries. This technique has been used to demonstrate smaller footprint devices like multimode interference based power splitters and ring resonators after defining them photolithographically with relatively large cross-section rib waveguides. We have been also successful to fabricate 2D tapered spot-size converter useful for monolithic integration of waveguides with varying heights and widths. The taper length is again precisely controlled by photolithographic definition. Minimum insertion loss of such a spot-size converter integrated between waveguides with 3-μm height difference has been recorded to be ∼2 dB. It has been also shown that the overall fiber-to-chip coupling loss can be reduced by >3 dB by using such spot-size converters at the input/output side of the waveguides.

  19. Evaluation of mercury speciation and removal through air pollution control devices of a 190 MW boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengli; Cao, Yan; Dong, Zhongbing; Cheng, Chinmin; Li, Hanxu; Pan, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control devices (APCDs) are installed at coal-fired power plants for air pollutant regulation. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have the co-benefits of air pollutant and mercury removal. Configuration and operational conditions of APCDs and mercury speciation affect mercury removal efficiently at coal-fired utilities. The Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used to determine mercury speciation simultaneously at five sampling locations through SCR-ESP-FGD at a 190 MW unit. Chlorine in coal had been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas; and low-chlorine coal was purported to produce less oxidized mercury (Hg2+) and more elemental mercury (Hg0) at the SCR inlet compared to higher chlorine coal. SCR could oxidize elemental mercury into oxidized mercury when SCR was in service, and oxidation efficiency reached 71.0%. Therefore, oxidized mercury removal efficiency was enhanced through a wet FGD system. In the non-ozone season, about 89.5%-96.8% of oxidized mercury was controlled, but only 54.9%-68.8% of the total mercury was captured through wet FGD. Oxidized mercury removal efficiency was 95.9%-98.0%, and there was a big difference in the total mercury removal efficiencies from 78.0% to 90.2% in the ozone season. Mercury mass balance was evaluated to validate reliability of OHM testing data, and the ratio of mercury input in the coal to mercury output at the stack was from 0.84 to 1.08.

  20. Daily dosimetric quality control of the MM50 Racetrack Microtron using an electronic portal imaging device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, M L; Kroonwijk, M; de Boer, J C; Heijmen, B J

    1995-10-01

    The MM50 Racetrack Microtron, suited for advanced three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy techniques, is a complex machine in various respects. Therefore, for a number of gantry angles, daily quality control of the absolute output and fluence profiles of the scanned beams are mandatory. For the applied photon beams, a fast method for these daily checks, based on dosimetric measurements with the Philips SRI-100 Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID), has been developed and tested. Open beams are checked for four different gantry angles; for gantry angle 0, a wedged field is checked as well. Performing and analyzing the measurements takes about 10 min. The applied EPID has favourable characteristics for dosimetric quality control measurements: absolute output measurements reproduce within 0.5% (1 SD) and the reproducibility of relative (2D) beam profile measurements is 0.2% (1 SD). The day-to-day sensitivity stability over a period of one month is 0.6% (1 SD). Measured grey scale values are within 0.2% linear with the applied dose. The 2D fluence profile of the 25 MV photon beam of the MM50 is very stable in time: during a period of 5 months a maximum fluctuation of 2.2% has been observed. Once, a deviation in the cGy/MU-value of 6% was detected. There is no interlock in the MM50-system that would have prevented patient treatment with this strongly deviating output. Based on the results of this study and on clinical requirements regarding acceptability of deviations of beam characteristics, a protocol has been developed including action levels for additional investigations and, if necessary, adjustment of the beam characteristics.