WorldWideScience

Sample records for control company-level bargaining

  1. Bilateral Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendstrup, Bjarne; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Paarsch, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    We employ a simple two-person bargaining model to interpret wage data-demands(offers) by workers (firms) and acceptances by firms (workers). Under two polarextremebargaining solutions, we develop a strategy to recover estimates of themarginal-productivity and the opportunity-cost distributions. W...

  2. Breakthrough bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, D M; Williams, J

    2001-02-01

    Unspoken, subtle parts of a bargaining process--also known as the shadow negotiation--can set the tone for a successful negotiation. Deborah Kolb and Judith Williams, whose book The Shadow Negotiation was the starting point for this article, say there are three strategies businesspeople can use to guide these hidden interactions. Power moves are used when two negotiating parties hold unequal power--for instance, subordinates and bosses; new and existing employees; and people of different races, ages, or genders. These strategies, such as casting the status quo in an unfavorable light, can help parties realize that they must negotiate: they will be better off if they do and worse off if they don't. Process moves affect how negotiation issues are received by both sides in the process, even though they do not address substantive issues. Working outside of the actual bargaining process, one party can suggest ideas or marshal support that can shape the agenda and influence how others view the negotiation. Appreciative moves alter the tone or atmosphere so that a more collaborative exchange is possible. They shift the dynamics of the shadow negotiation away from the adversarial--helping parties to save face--and thus build trust and encourage dialogue. These strategic moves don't guarantee that all bargainers will walk away winners, but they help to get stalled negotiations moving--out of the dark of unspoken power plays and into the light of true dialogue.

  3. Nash Bargaining Game-Theoretic Framework for Power Control in Distributed Multiple-Radar Architecture Underlying Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Nash bargaining solution (NBS-based cooperative game-theoretic framework for power control in a distributed multiple-radar architecture underlying a wireless communication system. Our primary objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the distributed multiple-radar system (DMRS with the protection of wireless communication user’s transmission, while guaranteeing each radar’s target detection requirement. A unified cooperative game-theoretic framework is proposed for the optimization problem, where interference power constraints (IPCs are imposed to protect the communication user’s transmission, and a minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR requirement is employed to provide reliable target detection for each radar. The existence, uniqueness and fairness of the NBS to this cooperative game are proven. An iterative Nash bargaining power control algorithm with low computational complexity and fast convergence is developed and is shown to converge to a Pareto-optimal equilibrium for the cooperative game model. Numerical simulations and analyses are further presented to highlight the advantages and testify to the efficiency of our proposed cooperative game algorithm. It is demonstrated that the distributed algorithm is effective for power control and could protect the communication system with limited implementation overhead.

  4. Bargaining in the crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Andersen, Søren Kaj; Due, Jesper Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    differences in bargaining structures, processes and output. On the whole, the crisis seems to have had little effect on the Danish bargaining system due to a strong centralization on the employer side through the Confederation of Danish Industries, union moderation and the coordination of bargaining areas...... by Denmark’s mediation institution. Conversely, the bargaining round in Sweden puts a question-mark over the viability of the whole Swedish bargaining system. Union coordination was shattered when the white-collar unions broke ranks and concluded agreements before the LO unions. But more importantly...

  5. Delegating bargaining and competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl; Roth, Stefan

    2004-08-01

    In this paper. a two-producers two-agent model is analyzed in which producers delegate sales and price negotiations to exclusive, separate, and independent agents. Producers first choose a pricing arrangement (two-part tariff versus linear tariff) and then set wholesale prices (and fixed fees) to their agents. Given this, agents announce prices to consumers as a basis for negotiations. Finally, consumers make their buying decision and bargain about the actually paid price once they arrive at an agent's location. We show that both franchise pricing and linear pricing can be supported as equilibrium outcomes depending on the agents' fixed costs and consumers' bargaining power. With ex ante unobservable two-part tariffs consumers may be worse off from the ability to bargain and more so the higher their bargaining power. In the case of linear pricing, consumers gain from the ability to bargain and more so the higher bargaining power they have. On the balance, however, consumers are worse off from higher bargaining power due to the fact that increasing bargaining power affects the manufacturers' equilibrium actions regarding pricing schemes to the consumers' disadvantage. /Author)

  6. Delegating bargaining and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl; Roth, Stefan

    2004-08-01

    In this paper. a two-producers two-agent model is analyzed in which producers delegate sales and price negotiations to exclusive, separate, and independent agents. Producers first choose a pricing arrangement (two-part tariff versus linear tariff) and then set wholesale prices (and fixed fees) to their agents. Given this, agents announce prices to consumers as a basis for negotiations. Finally, consumers make their buying decision and bargain about the actually paid price once they arrive at an agent's location. We show that both franchise pricing and linear pricing can be supported as equilibrium outcomes depending on the agents' fixed costs and consumers' bargaining power. With ex ante unobservable two-part tariffs consumers may be worse off from the ability to bargain and more so the higher their bargaining power. In the case of linear pricing, consumers gain from the ability to bargain and more so the higher bargaining power they have. On the balance, however, consumers are worse off from higher bargaining power due to the fact that increasing bargaining power affects the manufacturers' equilibrium actions regarding pricing schemes to the consumers' disadvantage. /Author)

  7. Bargaining with Optimism

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Muhamet

    2011-01-01

    Excessive optimism is a prominent explanation for bargaining delays. Recent results demonstrate that optimism plays a subtle role in bargaining, and its careful analysis may shed valuable insights into negotiation behavior. This article reviews some of these results, focusing on the following findings. First, when there is a nearby deadline, optimistic players delay the agreement to the last period before the deadline, replicating a broad empirical regularity known as the deadline effect. Sec...

  8. Disentangling Bargaining Power from Individual and Household Level to Institutions: Evidence on Women’s Position in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene; Mabsout, Ramzi

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSUMMARY Women's bargaining power is generally analyzed only with individual level and household level variables. We add a third level, namely institutional bargaining power. We define this as bargaining power which one party freely derives from unequal social norms. In the bargaining literature there is a common paradoxical finding, namely that more access to and control over individual resources sometimes decreases rather than increases women‟s bargaining outcomes. With household...

  9. Intertemporal Bargaining in Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eAinslie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and nonhumans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author’s control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org.

  10. Secret deals & bargained justice : lifting the veil of secrecy surrounding plea bargaining in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Asher Leigh Gevaux

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines Victoria’s plea bargaining process and argues that significant benefits would flow from formalisation, in the form of statutory recognition and control. Drawing upon the responses of 42 participants obtained from 57 semi-structured interviews, and the observations of 51 participants, it identifies and analyses the justifications driving the formalisation of Victoria’s plea bargaining process, and discusses the practical and policy implications of formalisat...

  11. Constructive Conflict in Academic Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Collective bargaining is seen as a process of shared authority used in some institutions to manage conflict. Some ways in which parties to bargaining can significantly alter their relationships to promote constructive and creative outcomes of conflict are suggested. (MLW)

  12. Essays on Intra-Household Bargaining Power of Women in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Poulomi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the factors that affect women's bargaining power within the household, in India. The first chapter introduces the literature on household bargaining mostly by describing how household outcomes like children's health indicators and expenditure pattern change with increase in resources under women's control. The second chapter describes the conceptual framework for intra-household bargaining. It discusses the two broad topics – household bargaining models and gendered i...

  13. Collective Bargaining: An Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gavin W.

    Collective bargaining is a technology and not a philosophy or set of moral values. There seems to be an almost irresistible urge among authors of educational bargaining statutes to adopt the basic tenets of private-sector labor law. However, employment and collective bargaining are different in the public sector than in the private sector, and one…

  14. The Transatlantic Bargain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Transatlantic Bargain from Truman to Obama, New York, The Continuum International Publish- ing Group Inc ., 2010. 44 the late 1940s were striving for or... Nike -Hercules surface-to-air missiles. 51 is most vividly remembered for its campaign to move NATO away from what Washington perceived at the time to

  15. The Proposed Plea Bargaining in Ethiopia …

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alemu Meheretu

    Plea bargaining, models of plea bargaining, the proposed plea bargaining, efficiency ... based on my PhD thesis titled: ` Introducing Plea bargaining in Ethiopia: Concerns and prospects`. .... defendant in return to not only pleading guilty but also waiving some rights as .... contradict the adversarial style of plea bargaining.

  16. Delegated bargaining and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl; Roth, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a two-producers two-agent model in which producers delegate sales and price negotiations to exclusive, separate, and independent agents. Producers first choose a pricing arrangement (two-part tariff versus linear tariff) and then set wholesale prices (and fixed fees)to their agents. Given this, agents announce prices to consumers as a basis for negotiations. Finally, consumers make their buying decision and bargain about the actually paid price once they arrive at an...

  17. Bargaining over Tax Information Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    May Elsayyad

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically studies recent treaty signings between tax havens and OECD countries as the outcome of a bargaining process over treaty form. Havens can decide not to sign an agreement, to sign a tax information exchange agreement or to sign a double taxation convention. We use a highly stylized bargaining model to develop testable hypotheses with regards to the type of agreement signed. We show that the main determinants of treaty signing are a haven's bargaining power and good govern...

  18. n-person nonconvex bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    For n-person bargaining problems the family of proportional solutions (introduced and characterized by Kalai) is generalized to bargaining problems with non-convex payoff sets. The so-called "efficient proportional solutions" are characterized axiomatically using natural extensions of the original...

  19. Partisan optimism and political bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding is that even high levels of partisan optimism do...

  20. Partisan Optimism and Political Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

    Partisan voters are optimistic about electoral outcomes: their estimates of the probability of electoral success for their party or candidate are substantially higher than the average among the electorate. This has large potential implications for political bargaining. Optimism about future...... electoral outcomes can make costly bargaining delay look more favorable, which may induce partisans to punish their party for agreeing to a compromise rather than waiting, for example by not turning out to vote. Therefore, party decision makers should take optimism among partisans into account when...... bargaining. In this paper we use game theoretic modeling to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding...

  1. Incomplete Information about Social Preferences Explains Equal Division and Delay in Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kohler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two deviations of alternating-offer bargaining behavior from economic theory are observed together, yet have been studied separately. Players who could secure themselves a large surplus share if bargainers were purely self-interested incompletely exploit their advantage. Delay in agreement occurs even if all experimentally controlled information is common knowledge. This paper rationalizes both regularities coherently by modeling heterogeneous social preferences, either self-interest or envy, of one bargaining party as private information in a three period game of bargaining and preference screening and signaling.

  2. Company Level Commander Development In The US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    pedagogy and andragogy in instruction can have a significant positive impact on developing combat arms officers to be successful company level commanders...Recommendations to achieve these improvements using andragogy are discussed. In the United States (US) Army, when an officer...use Malcom Knowles’ andragogy framework for understanding adults as learners in order to analyze the trainees and maximize the training outcomes for

  3. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Tristan A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  4. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Mabsout, Ramzi; Staveren, Irene

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher female incomes lead to higher bargaining power, which in turn tends to increase women’s relative wellbeing (Quisumbing, 2003). For assets, the empirical literature comes up with similar results, indic...

  5. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher

  6. Prospect Theory and Coercive Bargaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite many applications of prospect theory's concepts to explain political and strategic phenomena, formal analyses of strategic problems using prospect theory are rare. Using Fearon's model of bargaining, Tversky and Kahneman's value function, and an existing probability weighting function, I construct a model that demonstrates the differences…

  7. The Influence of Performance on Bargaining and Distribution of Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Samuel B.

    Performance variables were manipulated to elicit differential outcomes of success and failure for dyad members in an attempt to investigate resultant bargaining and distribution of rewards. Seventy, 10-12-year old children (36 female, 34 males) were placed into dyads controlling for age, sex, I.Q., and friendship choices. Self-allocations were…

  8. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  9. Searching and Bargaining with Middlemen

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thanh; Subramanian, Vijay G.; Berry, Randall A.

    2013-01-01

    We study decentralized markets with the presence of middlemen, modeled by a non-cooperative bargaining game in trading networks. Our goal is to investigate how the network structure of the market and the role of middlemen influence the market's efficiency and fairness. We introduce the concept of limit stationary equilibrium in a general trading network and use it to analyze how competition among middlemen is influenced by the network structure, how endogenous delay emerges in trade and how s...

  10. Bargaining for bribes under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Danila Serra

    2008-01-01

    A corrupt transaction is often the result of bargaining between the parties involved. This paper models bribery as a double auction where a private citizen and a public official strategically interact as the potential buyer and the potential seller of a corrupt service. Individuals differ in the internalized moral cost generated by corruption, and may have only imperfect information on others' moral cost, i.e. their "corruptibility". This paper investigates the role that imperfect information...

  11. Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution Equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe De Marco; Jacqueline Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Multicriteria games describe strategic interactions in which players, having more than one criterion to take into account, don't have an a-priori opinion on the rel- ative importance of all these criteria. Roemer (2005) introduces an organizational interpretation of the concept of equilibrium: each player can be viewed as running a bargaining game among criteria. In this paper, we analyze the bargaining problem within each player by considering the Kalai-Smorodinsky bargaining solution. We pr...

  12. 36 CFR 254.10 - Bargaining; arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bargaining; arbitration. 254.10 Section 254.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... determine values. Bargaining or any other process must be based on an objective analysis of the valuation in...

  13. Faculty Power: Collective Bargaining on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Terrence N., Ed.; Holmes, Grace W., Ed.

    This document, an outgrowth of the national conference of the Institute of Continuing Legal Education held in 1971, sets forth the views of lawyers and educators concerning the legal, economic, and institutional implications of faculty collective bargaining. Part I, principles and practices of collective bargaining, discusses legal principles of…

  14. Bargaining in Mergers and Termination Fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Rosenkranz, S.

    We model takeovers as a bargaining process and explain termination fees for, both, the target and the acquirer, subject to parties’ bargaining power and outside options. In equilibrium, termination fees are offered by firms with outside options in exchange for a greater share of merger synergies.

  15. Danes - The keen bargain hunters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2008-01-01

    New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product.......New research proves that Danes are keen bargain hunters, and that they do specific price checks before selecting a product....

  16. Instability and Change in Collective Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Bernd; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on collective bargaining structures and macroeconomic performance have largely ignored the role of stable and instable institutional structures and the effects of institutional change itself. In this article we posit that institutional stability of collective bargaining is of maj...... following the change. This effect also holds for changes in both decentralization and centralization of institutions....

  17. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  18. Coal dust darkens the bargaining table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, A.H.

    1978-04-24

    Reverberations from the lengthy winter 1978 coal strike are sure to have effects on other unions--teamsters, postal workers, trainmen, steel workers--the author says. This debacle in the coal fields obliges Americans to recognize that, bad as union dictatorship undoubtedly is, union anarchy is potentially more destructive. Miners showed that anarchy pays; they demonstrated that the rank-and-file with control over a vital source can get a better deal by spurning the settlements made by their elected leaders and defying court back-to-work orders. President Carter's encouragement of defiance is discussed. The U.M.W. precedent may encourage all rebel groups in unions to demand a seat at the bargaining table. (MCW)

  19. Are Women Asking for Low Wages? Gender Differences in Wage Bargaining Strategies and Ensuing Bargaining Success

    OpenAIRE

    Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Men and women’s labor market outcomes differ along pay, promotion and competitiveness. This paper contributes by uncovering results in a related unexplored field using unique data on individual wage bargaining. We find striking gender differences. Women, like men, also bargain, but they submit lower wage bids and are offered lower wages than men. The adjusted gender wage gap is lower with postedwage jobs than with individual bargaining, although less is ascribable to the term associated with ...

  20. Productivity Bargaining--Pattern for the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph R.

    1977-01-01

    How to measure productivity increases in service occupations is a problem that still awaits a solution. Efforts being made in the federal sector to gauge productivity growth are discussed, along with implications in private-sector bargaining. (Editor/LBH)

  1. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob R.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use detailed panel data covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides variation in the individual worker......'s wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. We find a wage premium associated with firm-level bargaining relative to sector-level bargaining and that the return to skills is higher under the more decentralized wage-setting systems. Using quantile regression......, we also find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems....

  2. Organizational Climate, Conflict, and Collective Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Theodore J.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion focuses on the emergence of collective bargaining in the public sector, the prevalence of bureaucratic climates in school districts, and the realization that conflict is a variable dependent on organizational climate and structure. (FG)

  3. A NOTE ON FRANCHISING AND WAGE BARGAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Grandner

    2004-01-01

    A franchise contract relocates distributable rent between franchisor and franchisee. With decentralized wage bargaining this modifies the position of the union in wage bargaining. If the rent is relocated to the franchisor completely, then even a strong union is not able to raise the wage above reservation level in the franchisee's firm. If franchisor and franchisee negotiate on rent division, there is an incentive to increase franchise fee with the consequence that franchisee's wage is pushe...

  4. A Bad Bargain: How Teacher Collective Bargaining Affects Students' Employment and Earnings Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Willén, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Today, more than 60 percent of teachers in the United States work under a union contract. The rights of teachers to unionize and bargain together have expanded dramatically since the late 1950s, when states began passing "duty-to-bargain" (DTB) laws that required school districts to negotiate with teachers unions in good faith. Recently,…

  5. Workers' Well-Being and Productivity: The Role of Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jean

    1983-01-01

    Bargaining that makes available facilities for satisfaction of workers' basic needs can contribute to increased productivity, which in turn enhances competitiveness. Such bargaining can be an effective means of extending and reinforcing national economic planning. (SK)

  6. CO2 capture and storage: Another Faustian Bargain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreng, Daniel; Marland, Gregg; Weinberg, Alvin M.

    2007-01-01

    A quarter-century ago, one of us termed the use of nuclear energy a Faustian Bargain. In this paper, we discuss what a Faustian Bargain means, how the expression has been used in characterizing other technologies, and in what measure CO 2 capture and storage is a Faustian Bargain. If we are about to enter into another Faustian Bargain, we should understand the contract

  7. Third party bargaining and contract terms: a link over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John M; Doucette, William R; Sorofman, Bernard A

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate whether prior pharmacy bargaining process strategies and pharmacy dependence on third parties affect the bargaining power of pharmacies in price negotiations with third parties. One-time survey. Random sample of 900 independent and small chain pharmacies in nine states: Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. Two hundred sixteen of the returned surveys contained sufficient responses for this analysis. Survey data on pharmacy bargaining power and prior pharmacy bargaining strategies, pharmacy dependence, and market characteristics were analyzed using multiple regression in a previously developed and modified provider/third party bargaining model. Pharmacy bargaining power. Pharmacy bargaining power varied across our sample. Pharmacy bargaining power was positively related to whether a pharmacy previously bargained with the third parties, negatively related to prior requests for contract changes, and negatively related to the pharmacy's dependence on third parties in total. Pharmacy bargaining power is related to the bargaining strategies employed by pharmacies during the previous year and the dependence of pharmacies on third party payers in total. With the prevalence of "take-it-or-leave-it" contracts from third parties, prior pharmacy bargaining behavior may affect the initial terms of the contracts that pharmacies are offered.

  8. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles; Croson; Murnighan

    2000-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Anonymous dyads exchanged messages and offers in a series of four ultimatum bargaining games that had prospects for relatively large monetary outcomes. Variations in each party's knowledge of the other's resources and alternatives created opportunities for deception. Revelation of prior unknowns exposed deceptions and created opportunities for retribution in subsequent interactions. Results showed that although proposers and responders chose deceptive strategies almost equally, proposers told more outright lies. Both were more deceptive when their private information was never revealed, and proposers were most deceptive when their potential profits were largest. Revelation of proposers' lies had little effect on their subsequent behavior even though responders rejected their offers more than similar offers from truthful proposers or proposers whose prior deceit was never revealed. The discussion and conclusions address the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated bargaining interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Between trust and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Denmark is often highlighted as a good example of organised decentralisation in which employee bargaining power remains comparatively strong. However, comparative analysis of the Danish case rarely reflects how the social contracts between management and workers’ representatives contribute...... to the bargaining outcome at company level. Drawing on 10 case studies in the German and Danish metal industries carried out in 2005, this article argues that the social contracts at the Danish case companies allow a more efficient use of company-level agreements on flexible working hours than the social contracts...

  10. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian M.; Le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob Roland

    in the individual worker's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. Consistent with predictions we find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems. However, the differences across wage-setting systems......This paper studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use a detailed panel data set covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides exogenous variation...

  11. Hospital-insurer bargaining: an empirical investigation of appendectomy pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J M; Dor, A; Wong, H S

    1997-08-01

    Employers' increased sensitivity to health care costs has forced insurers to seek ways to lower costs through effective bargaining with providers. What factors determine the prices negotiated between hospitals and insurers? The hospital-insurer interaction is captured in the context of a bargaining model, in which the gains from bargaining are explicitly defined. Appendectomy was chosen because it is a well-defined procedure with little clinical variation. Our results show that certain hospital institutional arrangements (e.g. hospital affiliations), HMO penetration, and greater hospital concentration improve hospitals' bargaining position. Furthermore, hospitals' bargaining effectiveness has diminished over time and varies across states.

  12. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A. K.; Wen, F. S.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  13. Intergenerational bargaining in the EU: comparative report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tros, F.; Keune, M.

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that there are three advantages in promoting the ‘intergenerational’ dimension in social dialogue and collective bargaining: o It strengthens awareness of the specific labour market positions and needs of both younger and older workers. o It supports social partners’ role in unifying

  14. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  15. Resources on Academic Bargaining and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Terrence N.

    In recent years several bibliographies have been compiled on the subject of collective bargaining in higher education. This publication is an attempt to provide laymen with an up-to-date and comprehensive bibliography. Citations are presented in three categories: (1) agencies, bibliographies, periodicals, and other basic resources; (2) public…

  16. How to Handle Impasses in Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Robert E.

    Guidelines in an outline format are presented to school board members and administrators on how to handle impasses in bargaining. The following two rules are given: there sometimes may be strikes, but there always will be settlements; and on the way to settlements, there always will be impasses. Suggestions for handling impasses are listed under…

  17. Enterprise Bargaining and the Gender Earnings Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examination of the widening gender earnings gap in Australia indicates that women's wages continue to lag behind those of men. The main factor appears to be women's concentration in part-time work in enterprises where bargaining is less likely to occur. (JOW)

  18. Metastrategies in large-scale bargaining settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennes, D.; Jong, S. de; Tuyls, K.; Gal, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents novel methods for representing and analyzing a special class of multiagent bargaining settings that feature multiple players, large action spaces, and a relationship among players' goals, tasks, and resources. We show how to reduce these interactions to a set of bilateral

  19. Behavioral aspects of bargaining and pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroger, S.

    2003-01-01

    Some remarkable results of the studies in this thesis are that individual behavior seems to be rather well described by theories taking the (im)patience of agents into account. Fairness considerations are found to play an important role not only in bargaining situations but also in competitive

  20. On the Evolutionary Stability of Bargaining Inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game tough behavior survives. Indeed, almost all the surplus may be wasted. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary select...

  1. Position and Role of Promotion in the Marketing Communication System at Company Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New types of advertizing have appeared apart from classical mass media due to the shrinking effectiveness of traditional advertizing messages. Promotions are not a brand new instrument for communicating and promoting goods and services to the market, but once organized and in a correct manner, they will be capable to bring success and good financial returns. Each promotion needs to be thoroughly elaborated and permanently controlled, being an instrument of marketing communications capable to have either positive or negative implications for the consumer attitude to a company. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the importance of promotions for company performance and effective communication with customers; to define the criteria for planning and organization of an effective promotion as part of marketing communication at company level. The essential meaning of promotion and its role in the system of marketing communications is highlighted. The most common mistakes in organizing promotions are shown; the criteria for effective planning of promotion campaign and the criteria for successful organization of a promotion are given.

  2. Legal distinction between employee and independent contractor as applied to collective bargaining activities in timber harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; William C. Siegal

    1977-01-01

    Collective bargaining attempts by timber harvesting labor groups is often complicated by lack of a clear legal distinction between "employees" and "independent contractors." the primary criterion to make the distinction - the "right-to-control" test of common law - has now been amplified by a number of secondary tests, including: 1) the...

  3. Vectors for Increasing the Effectiveness of Profit Management at Company Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect management of processes involved in accumulation and disposal of profit at Ukrainian companies affects their performance, with the consequent losses of public budget revenues. This raises the need for new and more effective mechanisms for accumulation and disposal of corporate profit, which would be focused on maximal utilization of production, marketing and fiscal capacities of business entities and enhancement of their competitiveness at domestic and global market. The article’s objective is to conduct theoretical study of profit as an economic category and an essential component of company’s performance, sum up the principles of profit management, and analyze the profit management system at company level. A brief review of theoretical definitions of profit is made, economic origin of profit and its role in business operation in the Ukrainian context is highlighted. The components of profit management system at company level, essential principles of strategic management of company profit, organizational and economic mechanism for company profit management, a strategy for profit management at company level is discussed and summed up. The organizational and economic mechanism for profit quality management at company level is proposed.

  4. Automated Bilateral Negotiation and Bargaining Impasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernando; Novais, A. Q.; Coelho, Helder

    The design and implementation of autonomous negotiating agents involve the consideration of insights from multiple relevant research areas to integrate different perspectives on negotiation. As a starting point for an interdisciplinary research effort, this paper employs game-theoretic techniques to define equilibrium strategies for the bargaining game of alternating offers and formalizes a set of negotiation strategies studied in the social sciences. This paper also shifts the emphasis to negotiations that are "difficult" to resolve and can hit an impasse. Specifically, it analyses a situation where two agents bargain over the division of the surplus of several distinct issues to demonstrate how a procedure to avoid impasses can be utilized in a specific negotiation setting. The procedure is based on the addition of new issues to the agenda during the course of negotiation and the exploration of the differences in the valuation of these issues to capitalize on Pareto optimal agreements.

  5. Bargaining Power Choices with Moral Hazard in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A supply chain contract is established using a dynamic, Nash bargaining game which determines the optimal bargaining power allocation for the manufacturer, retailer, and society in an environment affected by moral hazard and irreversible investment. The results found that the manufacturer’s choice was to hold all bargaining power; however, due to the remaining information problem, the retailer still had a profit; in contrast, the retailer was only willing to give up bargaining power if the manufacturer’s profit was reserved. The optimal bargaining power allocation was found to be strongly related to the ability to convert and monitor technology, with the bargaining power gradually shifting to the manufacturer as the technology improved. A numerical simulation is given to examine the theoretical results.

  6. Collective bargaining on wages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    2008-01-01

    17 kapitler kommer på forskellig vis rundt om disse hovedstrømninger, men indeholder naturligvis også mange andre informationer om lønfastsættelse på det europæiske arbejdsmarked. Bogen kan købes hos ETUI i Bruxelles bl.a. via deres hjemmeside: http://www.etui-rehs.org/research/activities/Workers-representation/Books/Wages-and-wage-bargaining-in-Europe...

  7. Experimental Evidence on Bargaining Power Within Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Beblo, Miriam; Beninger, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an experiment on the nature of income sharing within 95 established couples in Germany. In a first step, the partners revealed their individual preferences by making consumption choices independently. In a second step, decisions were taken jointly over five different rounds with varying resource allocations between the partners. From this design we are able to derive a female bargaining power index without structural restrictions, reflecting the sharing rule within the couple. We...

  8. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Women's Marital Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Marital bargaining models predict changes in the policy environment that affect the relative well-being of husbands and wives in divorce will indirectly affect the distribution of power within marriage. This study estimates the effect of 1996 welfare reform policies on the marital bargaining power of women with young children. Although the distribution of marital power cannot be directly observed, I utilize Consumer Expenditure data to infer shifts in bargaining power from changes in family d...

  9. 48 CFR 22.1405 - Collective bargaining agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with..., Affirmative Action for Workers with Disabilities, may necessitate a revision of a collective bargaining...

  10. The role of mediation institutions in Sweden and Denmark after centralized bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    not explain the internal stability of bargaining coordination once established. This analysis stresses the role of mediation institutions of both countries for solving collective action problems in pattern bargaining by pegging other settlements to the manufacturing labour cost norm. Mediation capabilities......This article compares coordinated collective bargaining in Sweden and Denmark after centralized bargaining. Existing theories — power resource and cross-class alliance theory — seem capable of explaining the transition from centralized bargaining to pattern bargaining system. However, they do...

  11. The Influence of Societal Values on Organizational Culture at Company Level –the Romanian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Ovidiu CERCEL

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the influence of societal values in modelling the organizational culture at company level. Studies conducted by different researchers highlighted the differences of perception between peoples’ values in their society in relation with the values of their colleagues of different nationalities. Finally, these values influence the importance that people grants to work, leisure, family and social status. The purpose of this paper is to draw the highlights of a new...

  12. Bargaining for Competitiveness: Law, Research and Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Richard N., Ed.

    This book is an analysis of the relationship among collective bargaining (CB), firm competitiveness, and employment protection/creation in the United States (U.S.). Comparisons are also made between the U.S. situation and that in Europe. "Collective Bargaining in Context" (Richard N. Block, Peter Berg) places the US system of industrial…

  13. Rethinking Plea Bargaining Policy: The Case of Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alemu Meheretu Negash

    2017-12-30

    Dec 30, 2017 ... Plea bargaining · Ethiopian Criminal Justice Policy · Trial · Policy justifications of plea bargaining ... For the discussion of this from the Ethiopian context, .... decisions meant to guard defendant's rights, and the absence of guilty plea .... massive case backlogs.36 In theory, this has far-reaching implications in.

  14. Intrahousehold bargaining and resource allocation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Many key development outcomes depend on women's ability to negotiate favorable intrahousehold allocations of resources. Yet it has been difficult to clearly identify which policies can increase women's bargaining power and result in better outcomes. This paper reviews both the analytical frameworks and the empirical evidence on the importance of women's bargaining power. It argues that the...

  15. A Synthetic Indicator of a Company's Level of Intellectual Capital as a Hidden Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dominiak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the paper analyzed 21 common methods of measuring a company's intellectual capital, finding that none of them meet all 6 demands that a model indicator should satisfy. As a result, a new method was developed, which meets the conditions for a model indicator. Using the chosen expert method, a synthetic indicator of a company's level of intellectual capital (WPKI has been determined. The authors of the paper determine the WPKI indicator for public construction companies using the algorithm defining a hidden value. (original abstract

  16. Decentralized enforcement, sequential bargaining, and the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Jon

    2001-07-01

    While there is a vast literature both on international bargaining and on how international agreements can be enforced, very little work has been done on how bargaining and enforcement interact. An important exception is Fearon (1998), who models international cooperation as a two-stage process in which the bargaining process is constrained by a need for decentralized enforcement (meaning that the agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves rather than a third party, such as a court). Using the Clean Development Mechanism as an example, the present paper proposes a different model of this kind of interaction. The model follows Fearon's in so far as we both use the infinitely repeated Prisoners' Dilemma to capture the enforcement phase of the game. However, while Fearon depicts the bargaining stage as a War of Attrition, the present model sees that stage as a sequential bargaining game of the Staahl-Rubinstein type. The implications of the present model are compared both to those of the Staahl-Rubinstein model and to those of the Fearon model. A surprising conclusion is that a need for decentralized enforcement tends to make the bargaining outcome more symmetrical than otherwise. Thus, the impact of bargaining power is actually smaller when the resulting agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves than it is if enforcement is taken care of by a third party. (author)

  17. Progressive Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Endogenous Working Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    This paper analyses the impact of tax reforms that decrease income tax progression in an equilibrium search model with wage bargaining and endogenous individual working time. The working time is either bargained together with the hourly wage (case 1) or determined solely by workers after bargaining...... over the wage (case 2). In both cases reducing tax progression increases working time of employed and, more interestingly, increases unambiguously wages and unemployment. Wages and unemployment rise more and working time and production less in case 1 compared to case 2; probably making case 2 countries...... best suited for such tax reforms...

  18. Coevolution of Artificial Agents Using Evolutionary Computation in Bargaining Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwook Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of bargaining game using evolutionary computation is essential issue in the field of game theory. This paper investigates the interaction and coevolutionary process among heterogeneous artificial agents using evolutionary computation (EC in the bargaining game. In particular, the game performance with regard to payoff through the interaction and coevolution of agents is studied. We present three kinds of EC based agents (EC-agent participating in the bargaining game: genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and differential evolution (DE. The agents’ performance with regard to changing condition is compared. From the simulation results it is found that the PSO-agent is superior to the other agents.

  19. Conservation when landowners have bargaining power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennox, Gareth D.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Acs, Szvetlana

    2013-01-01

    agreement. Implicitly assumed in such studies is therefore that those who ``produce'' biodiversity (landowners) receive none of the surplus available from trade. Instead, landowners could use their bargaining power to gain profits from conservation investments. We employ game theory to determine the surplus...... landowners could obtain in negotiations over conservation agreements, and the consequent effects on conservation outcomes, when enrolment decisions are governed by continuous variables (e.g. the proportion of a property to enrol). In addition, we consider how landowner uncertainty regarding the opportunity...... costs of other landowners affects these outcomes. Landowners' ability to gain surplus is highly variable and reflects variation in the substitutability of different properties for achieving a specified conservation objective. The ability of landowners to obtain profits from conservation agreements...

  20. Transforming gender relations through the market: Smallholder milk market participation and women's intra-household bargaining power in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenjiso, B.M.; Ruben, R.; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between smallholder milk market participation and women's intra-household bargaining position in Ethiopia, using a quasi-experiment and propensity score matching. In market participant households, milk income is higher and its control has shifted from women to men. Our data

  1. [Guidelines to productivity bargaining in the health care industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, M D; Maloney, W F

    1979-01-01

    A potential conflict exists between the recent growth of unionization in the health care industry and management efforts to increase productivity. One method of managing this conflict is to link employee rewards to employee productivity through productivity bargaining.

  2. Trade policy-making in a model of legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, B.; McLaren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-190 ISSN 0022-1996 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : trade policy * multilateral legislative bargaining * political economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.443, year: 2013

  3. 31 PLEA BARGAINING AND THE RELIGIOUS CUM SOCIO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2016-07-09

    Jul 9, 2016 ... eradicating corruption in the country will not be a mere political ... have plea bargaining systems, albeit in different stages of development. .... dying as a result of socio-cultural disintegration being witnessed as a bye product.

  4. Negotiated Procurements: Squandering the Benefit of the Bargain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whiteford, David

    2002-01-01

    .... In particular, the thesis will discuss how the Rewrite and other reforms created a regulatory framework much more conducive to bargaining but still overly amenable in allowing the Government to avoid...

  5. Bargaining for Social Rights (BARSORI) project: Country report on Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Barsori project studied social partners' initiatives contributing to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project compared experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Trade

  6. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoreticanalysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoretic analysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. The Doha Talks and the Bargaining Surplus in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Furtan, William Hartley; Guzel, A.; Karantininis, Kostas

    2007-01-01

    The Doha Round has been slow to achieve a reduction in the level of agricultural protection. This remains the case notwithstanding the substantial economic benefits that would arise from a more liberal agricultural trading regime. We provide one explanation for this slowness using a simple bargaining model. We demonstrate that the bargaining countries received a substantial fiscal gain from reducing government expenditures in the run-up to the Uruguay Round. This fiscal pressure was sufficien...

  9. WOMEN'S BARGAINING POWER IN HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC DECISIONS: EVIDENCE FROM GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Cheryl R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the percentage of assets held by women within the household is used as a measure of women's bargaining power. The assets used in this paper include land, savings, and business assets. Using detailed household survey data from Ghana, I demonstrate that the share of assets owned by women has a significant impact on household expenditure decisions. This provides additional support for the notion that women's bargaining power can be measured, at least in some dimensions, and that w...

  10. The role of self-interest in elite bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVeck, Brad L; Hughes, D Alex; Fowler, James H; Hafner-Burton, Emilie; Victor, David G

    2014-12-30

    One of the best-known and most replicated laboratory results in behavioral economics is that bargainers frequently reject low offers, even when it harms their material self-interest. This finding could have important implications for international negotiations on many problems facing humanity today, because models of international bargaining assume exactly the opposite: that policy makers are rational and self-interested. However, it is unknown whether elites who engage in diplomatic bargaining will similarly reject low offers because past research has been based almost exclusively on convenience samples of undergraduates, members of the general public, or small-scale societies rather than highly experienced elites who design and bargain over policy. Using a unique sample of 102 policy and business elites who have an average of 21 y of practical experience conducting international diplomacy or policy strategy, we show that, compared with undergraduates and the general public, elites are actually more likely to reject low offers when playing a standard "ultimatum game" that assesses how players bargain over a fixed resource. Elites with more experience tend to make even higher demands, suggesting that this tendency only increases as policy makers advance to leadership positions. This result contradicts assumptions of rational self-interested behavior that are standard in models of international bargaining, and it suggests that the adoption of global agreements on international trade, climate change, and other important problems will not depend solely on the interests of individual countries, but also on whether these accords are seen as equitable to all member states.

  11. Trade reforms, mark-ups and bargaining power of workers: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... workers between 1996 and 2007, a model of mark-up with labor bargaining power was estimated using random effects and LDPDM. ... Keywords: Trade reform, mark-up, bargaining power, rent, trade unions ...

  12. Unequal Bargaining? Australia's Aviation Trade Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Russell

    2001-01-01

    International aviation trade bargaining is distinguished by its use of a formal process of bilateral bargaining based on the reciprocal exchange of rights by states. Australia-United States aviation trade relations are currently without rancour, but this has not always been the case and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their formal bilateral aviation negotiations were a forum for a bitter conflict between two competing international aviation policies. In seeking to explain the bilateral aviation outcomes between Australia and the United States and how Australia has sought to improve upon these, analytical frameworks derived from international political economy were considered, along with the bilateral bargaining process itself. The paper adopts a modified neorealist model and concludes that to understand how Australia has sought to improve upon these aviation outcomes, neorealist assumptions that relative power capabilities determine outcomes must be qualified by reference to the formal bilateral bargaining process. In particular, Australia's use of this process and its application of certain bargaining tactics within that process remain critical to understanding bilateral outcomes.

  13. Negotiating transfer pricing using the Nash bargaining solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clempner Julio B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and proposes a solution to the transfer pricing problem from the point of view of the Nash bargaining game theory approach. We consider a firm consisting of several divisions with sequential transfers, in which central management provides a transfer price decision that enables maximization of operating profits. Price transferring between divisions is negotiable throughout the bargaining approach. Initially, we consider a disagreement point (status quo between the divisions of the firm, which plays the role of a deterrent. We propose a framework and a method based on the Nash equilibrium approach for computing the disagreement point. Then, we introduce a bargaining solution, which is a single-valued function that selects an outcome from the feasible pay-offs for each bargaining problem that is a result of cooperation of the divisions of the firm involved in the transfer pricing problem. The agreement reached by the divisions in the game is the most preferred alternative within the set of feasible outcomes, which produces a profit-maximizing allocation of the transfer price between divisions. For computing the bargaining solution, we propose an optimization method. An example illustrating the usefulness of the method is presented.

  14. 29 CFR 1620.23 - Collective bargaining agreements not a defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1620.23 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.23 Collective bargaining agreements not a defense. The establishment by collective bargaining or inclusion in a collective bargaining agreement of unequal rates of pay does not...

  15. Bargaining in Mergers: The Role of Outside Options and Termination Provisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, U.

    2005-01-01

    We model takeovers as a bargaining process and explain the existence and net effect of target as well as bidder termination fees, subject to bargaining power and outside options. In equilibrium, net termination fees (target minus acquirer fees) are offered by firms with a superior bargaining

  16. Creative Academic Bargaining: Managing Conflict in the Unionized College and University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    The evolution of collective bargaining in higher education and factors that lead academic bargaining from destructive conflict to cooperation are examined. Academic bargaining is viewed as a form of shared authority, but one with unusual institutional and organizational problems that may lead toward destructive, rather than constructive conflict.…

  17. Caspian games: A dynamic bargaining game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dennis Wright

    This Dissertation was written under the direction of Professor P.Terrence Hopmann. In this work, the author seeks to identify the independent variables affecting the outcome of three key decisions required of the international consortiums constructing Caspian oil export pipelines. The first of involves whether or not the enterprises developing the pipelines to export Kazakh oil, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium ("CPC"), and Azeri oil, the Azerbaijan International Operating Consortium ("CPC"), cooperate by utilizing the same route or utilize separate energy export corridors. Second, I analyzed how the actual Main Export Pipeline route ("MEP") for Azeri oil was selected by the AIOC. Finally, I tried to understand the factors driving the residual equity positions in each consortium. I was particularly interested in the equity position of Russian state and commercial interests in each consortium. I approached the puzzle as a multilevel bargaining problem. Hence, the preferences of each relevant actor (state and corporate levels) were assessed. The covering theory utilized was rational choice. An application of game theoretic modeling, particularly Bayesian analysis (used as a metaphor), accounted for the learning process resulting from the strategic interaction between actors. I sought to understand greater the refinement of each actor's perception of counterpart preferences. Additionally, the Gordon Constant Growth Model ("CGM") and the Sharp's Capital Asset Pricing Model ("CAPM") were utilized to relate multinational actors preferences, achieving a cost of capital based hurdle rate, to political risk. My end findings demonstrate this interrelationship and provide a clear argument for great power states to persuade newly developing Caspian states to adopt a more transparent, and credible approach to corporate governance. This revised state strategy will reduce multinationals' perception of political risk, lower firms' cost of capital (hurdle rate), and increase the

  18. Unwritten rules: virtual bargaining underpins social interaction, culture, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyak, Jennifer B; Melkonyan, Tigran; Zeitoun, Hossam; Chater, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Many social interactions require humans to coordinate their behavior across a range of scales. However, aspects of intentional coordination remain puzzling from within several approaches in cognitive science. Sketching a new perspective, we propose that the complex behavioral patterns - or 'unwritten rules' - governing such coordination emerge from an ongoing process of 'virtual bargaining'. Social participants behave on the basis of what they would agree to do if they were explicitly to bargain, provided the agreement that would arise from such discussion is commonly known. Although intuitively simple, this interpretation has implications for understanding a broad spectrum of social, economic, and cultural phenomena (including joint action, team reasoning, communication, and language) that, we argue, depend fundamentally on the virtual bargains themselves. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Saving the NPT: past and future non-proliferation bargains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2005-07-01

    In this thorough study of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), the author looks at the origins of the NPT, its original bargains, and the current 'global crisis of compliance'. Then he looks to the 2005 NPT Review Conference for approaches 'to preserve the integrity and the credibility of the Treaty'. He suggests a new set of bargains centered around two issues: increase rewards for members in good standing of their obligations, but promote sanctions for those cheating; and recognize that nuclear disarmament is a distant goal, but satisfy the legitimate worries of NNWS (Non-Nuclear Weapon States)

  20. Center-Periphery Bargaining in the Age of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siroky, David; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael Norman

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the key concepts used in this special issue – center, periphery, and vertical bargaining – and inquires why some national groups within democratic states demand outright independence, while others mobilize for regional autonomy and still others settle for even less. It then ......This paper introduces the key concepts used in this special issue – center, periphery, and vertical bargaining – and inquires why some national groups within democratic states demand outright independence, while others mobilize for regional autonomy and still others settle for even less...

  1. Saving the NPT: past and future non-proliferation bargains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this thorough study of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), the author looks at the origins of the NPT, its original bargains, and the current 'global crisis of compliance'. Then he looks to the 2005 NPT Review Conference for approaches 'to preserve the integrity and the credibility of the Treaty'. He suggests a new set of bargains centered around two issues: increase rewards for members in good standing of their obligations, but promote sanctions for those cheating; and recognize that nuclear disarmament is a distant goal, but satisfy the legitimate worries of NNWS (Non-Nuclear Weapon States)

  2. Disentangling Bargaining Power from Individual and Household Level to Institutions: Evidence on Women’s Position in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); R. Mabsout (Ramzi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSUMMARY Women's bargaining power is generally analyzed only with individual level and household level variables. We add a third level, namely institutional bargaining power. We define this as bargaining power which one party freely derives from unequal social norms. In the bargaining

  3. Collective bargaining under the new Labour Relations Act: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 PHILOSOPHY OF THE NEW ACT. The 1956 Act was premised on a "pluralist" perspective) of the relation- ... However, in view of the Act's ostensible abstentionist approach, interven- tion by the courts in the bargaining ... trade union members but who are, in terms of a collective agreement, nevertheless represented by the ...

  4. Trade policy-making in a model of legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, Bilgehan; McLaren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-190 ISSN 0022-1996 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0666 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : trade policy * multilateral legislative bargaining * political economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.443, year: 2013

  5. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  6. Competitive consensus: bargaining on employment and competitiveness in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, M.J.; Huiskamp, Rien; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    This article shows how bargaining on the conflicting issues of fighting unemployment and increasing competitiveness has evolved. It offers an empirical insight into the degree to which the national framework agreements that form part of the now famous Dutch polder model are implemented. At the

  7. The role of information and aspiration in bargaining behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines how information and aspiration level affect bargaining behavior. Eighty (80) students of the staff Development Centre, Bureau of Establishment and Training, Osogbo, Osun State, served as participants for the study. They were assigned to treatments conditions, in a 2 x 2 factorial design experiment.

  8. The Proposed Plea Bargaining in Ethiopia: How it Fares with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FDRE Criminal Justice Policy embodies multiple reforms that are meant to address the various problems in the Ethiopian criminal justice system. The reforms include the introduction of plea bargaining which represents an unprecedented and ambitious development in the realm of the criminal justice system in Ethiopia.

  9. Provision for Community College Faculty Development in Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Terry H. Smith

    1976-01-01

    Trends of collective negotiations were examined as they affect inservice education, through an examination of collective bargaining agreements. Conclusion: the trend is presently one of negotiation of provisions in a piecemeal fashion rather than one with the goal of establishing comprehensive professional improvement programs. (Editor/JT)

  10. Two Impossibility Results on the Converse Consistency Principle in Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Youngsub Chun

    1999-01-01

    We present two impossibility results on the converse consistency principle in the context of bargaining. First, we show that there is no solution satis-fying Pareto optimality, contraction independence, and converse consistency. Next, we show that there is no solution satisfying Pareto optimality, strong individual rationality, individual monotonicity, and converse consistency.

  11. Selected Collective Bargaining Agreements of Michigan Two-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Collective bargaining agreements of 19 selected Michigan two-year colleges are presented, representing contracts in effect in 1987. Contracts for the following colleges are included: Alpena Community College, Bay de Noc Community College, Gogebic Community College, Grand Rapids Junior College, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Kellogg Community…

  12. Power Dependence in Individual Bargaining: The Expected Utility of Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward J.; Bacharach, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    This study uses power-dependence theory as a framework for examining whether and how parties use information on each other's dependence to estimate the utility of an influence attempt. The effect of dependence in expected utilities is investigated (by role playing) in bargaining between employer and employee for a pay raise. (MF)

  13. On the Sensitivity Matrix of the Nash Bargaining Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this note we provide a characterization of a subclass of bargaining problems for which the Nash solution has the property of disagreement point monotonicity.While the original d-monotonicity axiom and its stronger notion, strong d-monotonicity, were introduced and discussed by Thomson [15], this

  14. On the Evolutionary Stability of 'Tough' Bargaining Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game such behavior survives. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary selection wipes out all tough behavior, as long as th...

  15. Essays in competition with product differentiation and bargaining in markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    The fourth essay uses bargaining theory and compares the outcome of a negotiation in two differently organized markets. In the first market, sellers simultaneously offer their good or service for sale. In the second market, sellers queue and offer their good or service sequentially for sale.

  16. Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

    This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

  17. Transforming Gender Relations through the Market: Smallholder Milk Market Participation and Women`s Intra-household Bargaining Power in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenjiso, B.M.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between smallholder milk market participation and women's intra-household bargaining position in Ethiopia, using a quasi-experiment and propensity score matching. In market participant households, milk income is higher and its control has shifted from women to men. Our data

  18. China’s Bargaining Strategies after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2014-01-01

    Applying bargaining theory of international conflicts, we examine the successes and challenges of China’s strategic choices in its ascent after the Cold War. We suggest that China needs to alleviate information and commitment problems in order to rise peacefully. Since 2008, China’s “peaceful rise...... disputes. China should engage in rule-based, institution building, such as a security community between China and ASEAN, to reinforce its peaceful rise commitments....

  19. Implications of Nash Bargaining for Horizontal Industry Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Just; Siddhartha Mitra; Sinaia Netanyahu

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how horizontal industry integration can arise from transferable asymmetry of technologies and endowments. The Nash bargaining solution suggests that greater technological diversity among coordinating parties yields greater gains from horizontal integration. The framework fits the case where a firm with a superior technology franchises the technology by horizontal integration. The results appear to fit hog production where integration has been primarily horizontal and, in pa...

  20. Unwritten rules: virtual bargaining underpins social interaction, culture, and society

    OpenAIRE

    Misyak, Jennifer B.; Melkonyan, Tigran; Zeitoun, Hossam; Chater, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Many social interactions require humans to coordinate their behavior across a range of scales. However, aspects of intentional coordination remain puzzling from within several approaches in cognitive science. Sketching a new perspective, we propose that the complex behavioral patterns – or 'unwritten rules' – governing such coordination emerge from an ongoing process of 'virtual bargaining'. Social participants behave on the basis of what they would agree to do if they were explicitly to barg...

  1. Developing a stochastic conflict resolution model for urban runoff quality management: Application of info-gap and bargaining theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Estalaki, Siamak Malakpour; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two deterministic and stochastic multilateral, multi-issue, non-cooperative bargaining methodologies are proposed for urban runoff quality management. In the proposed methodologies, a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate stormwater runoff quantity and quality for different urban stormwater runoff management scenarios, which have been defined considering several Low Impact Development (LID) techniques. In the deterministic methodology, the best management scenario, representing location and area of LID controls, is identified using the bargaining model. In the stochastic methodology, uncertainties of some key parameters of SWMM are analyzed using the info-gap theory. For each water quality management scenario, robustness and opportuneness criteria are determined based on utility functions of different stakeholders. Then, to find the best solution, the bargaining model is performed considering a combination of robustness and opportuneness criteria for each scenario based on utility function of each stakeholder. The results of applying the proposed methodology in the Velenjak urban watershed located in the northeastern part of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, illustrate its practical utility for conflict resolution in urban water quantity and quality management. It is shown that the solution obtained using the deterministic model cannot outperform the result of the stochastic model considering the robustness and opportuneness criteria. Therefore, it can be concluded that the stochastic model, which incorporates the main uncertainties, could provide more reliable results.

  2. Bargaining with Incomplete Information: An Infinite-Horizon Model with Two-Sided Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton

    1984-01-01

    The resolution of any bargaining conflict depends crucially on the relative urgency of the agents to reach agreement and the information each agent has about the others' preferences. This paper explores, within the context of an infinite-horizon bargaining model with two-sided uncertainty, how timing and information affect the rational behaviour of agents when commitment is not possible. Since the bargainers are uncertain about whether trade is desirable, they must communicate some of their p...

  3. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Hendon, Ebbe

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good with...... with large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium...

  4. Sequential bargaining in a market with one seller and two different buyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Tranæs, Torben

    1991-01-01

    A matching and bargaining model in a market with one seller and two buyers, differing only in their reservation price, is analyzed. No subgame perfect equilibrium exists for stationary strategies. We demonstrate the existence of inefficient equilibria in which the low buyer receives the good with...... with large probability, even as friction becomes negligible. We investigate the relationship between the use of Nash and sequential bargaining. Nash bargaining seems applicable only when the sequential approach yields a unique stationary strategy subgame perfect equilibrium....

  5. Intrahousehold Bargaining and Resource Allocation in Developing Countries-super-1

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Doss

    2013-01-01

    Many key development outcomes depend on women s ability to negotiate favorable intrahousehold allocations of resources. Yet it has been difficult to clearly identify which policies can increase women's bargaining power and result in better outcomes. This paper reviews both the analytical frameworks and the empirical evidence on the importance of women's bargaining power. It argues that there is sufficient evidence from rigorous studies to conclude that women's bargaining power does affect out...

  6. 29 CFR 541.4 - Other laws and collective bargaining agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES General Regulations § 541.4 Other laws and collective bargaining agreements. The...

  7. Going beyond the surface: gendered intra-household bargaining as a social determinant of child health and nutrition in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Esther; Theobald, Sally; George, Asha; Kim, Julia C; Rudert, Christiane; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    A growing body of research highlights the importance of gendered social determinants of child health, such as maternal education and women's status, for mediating child survival. This narrative review of evidence from diverse low and middle-income contexts (covering the period 1970-May 2012) examines the significance of intra-household bargaining power and process as gendered dimensions of child health and nutrition. The findings focus on two main elements of bargaining: the role of women's decision-making power and access to and control over resources; and the importance of household headship, structure and composition. The paper discusses the implications of these findings in the light of lifecycle and intersectional approaches to gender and health. The relative lack of published intervention studies that explicitly consider gendered intra-household bargaining is highlighted. Given the complex mechanisms through which intra-household bargaining shapes child health and nutrition it is critical that efforts to address gender in health and nutrition programming are thoroughly documented and widely shared to promote further learning and action. There is scope to develop links between gender equity initiatives in areas of adult and adolescent health, and child health and nutrition programming. Child health and nutrition interventions will be more effective, equitable and sustainable if they are designed based on gender-sensitive information and continually evaluated from a gender perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasible sets, comparative risk aversion, and comparative uncertainty aversion in bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, B.W.I.; Lombardi, M.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We study feasible sets of the bargaining problem under two different assumptions: the players are subjective expected utility maximizers or the players are Choquet expected utility maximizers. For the latter case, we consider the effects on bargaining solutions when players become more risk averse

  9. Collective bargaining: An analysis of hurdles and applicability in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chigudu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the arguments against adopting collective bargaining in the public sector and its benefits. Collective bargaining in the public sector is viewed primarily as undermining democratic governance in one way and paradoxically it is seen as an essential part of democratic governance. In the former view, collective bargaining in the public sector is seen as an interference with administrative law for personal benefit to the detriment of the taxpayer. Proponents of this view argue that unionising public sector employees encourages disloyalty to the government at the expense of public welfare. In the later view, public sector collective bargaining is viewed as a fundamental human right in a pluralistic society. Advocates of this view posit that, public sector unions provide a collective voice that stimulates improvement of government services as well as sound administration of law. They also argue that, public sector collective bargaining represents public policy interests and serves as a watchdog to government’s monopoly power in employment matters. Public sector unions raise employee salaries and perks to levels higher than they would have been in the absence of collective bargaining. These two opposite views are subjected to a critical analysis in this paper, with empirical evidence for both the benefits of public sector collective bargaining and arguments against public sector unions. The article found that public sector collective bargaining depends on the socio-economic background of states although international laws favour public sector unionism.

  10. Teacher Bargaining Structures. A Brief to the Ministry of Education from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Collective bargaining has evolved as a recognized way of creating a system of fairness and equity in the workplace. Full free collective bargaining is the fruition of the evolution of labour management relations. It is the mechanism that balances the power of the employer and prevents injustice and exploitation. The Supreme Court of Canada has…

  11. Plea bargaining and the religious cum socio-cultural concept of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plea bargaining and the religious cum socio-cultural concept of Yoruba ọmọlúàbí in the Nigerian political landscape. ... Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies ... It therefore, attempts to define what is meant by plea bargaining, introduction as to its ...

  12. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157222241; Weitzel, G.U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276323394

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of

  13. Leadership, Pay, and Promotion as Predictors of Choice of Bargaining Unit in a University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Lane

    1979-01-01

    Examines the choice of bargaining unit and its relationship to style of and satisfaction with departmental leadership and to fairness of and satisfaction with pay and the promotion system. Collective bargaining choices were actual organizations campaigning to be the faculty's representatives in the University of Hawaii system. (Author/IRT)

  14. Collective bargaining in a time of crisis: developments in the private sector in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glassner, V.; Keune, M.; Marginson, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses crisis-related developments in collective bargaining in the private sector across the EU since the onset of the crisis during 2008. It analyses developments in the incidence, procedures and content of collective bargaining during the crisis and is cross-nationally and

  15. Collective Bargaining on Employment Security: The Influence of the Legal Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekic, Nuna; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Employers’ organisations and trade unions (also called the social partners) are given a central role to play in the specification of employment security into concrete regulations through collective bargaining. The question is how employment security can be implemented through collective bargaining.

  16. The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Teacher Transfer Rates in Urban High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. Howard

    2006-01-01

    Data in this report reveals that collectively bargaining agreements are not the source of the teacher quality problem in urban school districts. The data shows that collective bargaining agreements are associated with reduced teacher transfer activity, especially in high-poverty schools, and less reliance on first-year teachers to staff…

  17. 1994/1995 collective bargaining in the Ruhr coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidelbach, G.; Herting, W.

    1994-01-01

    The Ruhr coal industry will reduce its production capacity beyond the initial target due to the unexpected dramatic decline in coking coal sales. In a move of joint social responsibility the collective bargaining parties therefore entered their negotiations prematurily, in December 1993, in order to agree on additional - temporary - free shifts subject to salary deduction, in an attempt to master the added burden of adaptation and avoid dismissals. On December 20, 1993, then was concluded a collective agreement which takes due account of that target. (orig.)

  18. Bargaining and idle public sector capacity in health care

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2005-01-01

    A feature present in countries with a National Health Service is the co−existence of a públic and a private sector. Often, the public payer contracts with private providers while holding idle capacity. This is often seen as inefficiency from the management of public facilities. We present here a different rationale for the existence of such idle capacity: the public sector may opt to have idle capacity as a way to gain bargaining power vis−à−vis the private provider, under the assumption of a...

  19. Bargaining and idle public sector capacity in health care

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Martinez-Giralt; Barros Pedro Pita

    2005-01-01

    A feature present in countries with a National Health Service is the co-existence of a public and a private sector. Often, the public payer contracts with private providers while holding idle capacity. This is often seen as inefficiency from the management of public facilities. We present here a different rationale for the existence of such idle capacity: the public sector may opt to have idle capacity as a way to gain bargaining power vis-Ã -vis the private provider, under the assumption of ...

  20. Assessing the Present in Perspective of the Past: Experiences from a Chronicle Workshop on Company-Level Work Disability Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik Gensby

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Participatory approaches to jointly address development and change processes are increasingly applied in Nordic working life research. One approach, the Chronicle Workshop (CW, aims at facilitating collective history through collaborative exploration and joint analysis of organizational development and change processes to guide forthcoming change. This study presents the CW methodology as an interactive research process. The study examines how the CW can facilitate mutual understanding and explanation of sickness absence and return to work efforts in the healthcare workplace, and discuss the extent to which the CW methodology can inform researchers involved in organizational development and change to address some potential limitations that exist. The CW encouraged the expression of diverse perspectives, incorporating insight from different organizational levels, and identified various kinds of resources and dilemmas in mapping the collective history of company-level sickness absence and return to work efforts. More attention to consensus building and power relations, greater explicitness about theoretical groundings, researcher role, and follow-up action ought to be considered prospectively to develop the method further. Inspiration from action research principles and the combined use of critical realism and interactive research may guide future development of the CW methodology.

  1. Complementary or competing climates? Examining the interactive effect of service and ethical climates on company-level financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Adam T; Thoroughgood, Christian N; Mohammed, Susan

    2016-08-01

    By bending rules to please their customers, companies with high service climates may be less ethical but ultimately more profitable. In this article, we pose the question of whether being ethical comes at a cost to profits in customer-oriented firms. Despite the organizational reality that multiple climates coexist at a given time, research has largely ignored these types of questions, and the simultaneous analysis of multiple climate dimensions has received little empirical attention to date. Given their scientific and practical importance, this study tested complementary and conflicting perspectives regarding interactions between service (outcome-focused) and ethical (process-focused) climates on company-level financial performance. Drawing on a sample of 16,862 medical sales representatives spread across 77 subsidiary companies of a large multinational corporation in the health care product industry, we found support for a complementary view. More precisely, results revealed that profitability was enhanced, not diminished, in service-oriented firms that also stressed the importance of ethics. Results suggest studying the interactive effects of multiple climates is a more fruitful approach than examining main effects alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Active ageing on the company level: the theory vs. the day-to-day practice in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Dimovski

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to improve the labour market participation of older people has received ever greater attention in recent years, especially in view of the significant demographic changes the European Union will undergo due to population ageing. Besides the macroeconomic level, implications of this trend are strongly seen at the company level, particularly when it comes to managing the ageing workforce. Companies are thus introducing new approaches, policies and instruments which seek to foster the higher employment rates of the elderly by implementing the active-ageing concept in business and HRM practice. The paper aims to highlight the development of active-ageing initiatives within Slovenian companies where the practice of age management is still in its early stages. Consequently, we shed light on problems and obstacles appearing in the developmental process of implementing the active-ageing concept in Slovenian companies, and conclude with some recommendations for the future development of active-ageing practice with an emphasis on new HRM approaches, policies and instruments which seem to be extremely important when striving to prolong working life.

  3. Behavioural consequences of regret and disappointment in social bargaining games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis M F; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Rijsman, John B

    2011-02-01

    Previous research on the role of negative emotions in social bargaining games has focused primarily on social emotions such as anger and guilt. In this article, we provide a test for behavioural differences between two prototypical decision-related negative emotions-regret and disappointment-in one-shot social dilemma games. Three experiments with two different emotion-induction procedures (autobiographical recall and imagined scenarios) and two different games (the ultimatum game and the 10-coin give-some game) revealed that regret increased prosocial behaviour, whereas disappointment decreased prosocial behaviour. These results extend previous findings concerning differences between regret and disappointment to interdependent (social) situations. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  4. International bargaining in the presence of global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotillon, G.; Tazdait, T.

    1996-01-01

    This model deals with the greenhouse effect, that is to say with a problem of intemational pollution. Through a description of the bargaining process, it aims to determine the different forms that may be taken by cooperation agreements between the countries involved. We demonstrate, in particular, that under some conditions it is always possible for the countries to reach an agreement. Such agreements are the work of a group of so-called 'leader countries' characterized by their commitment in favour of cooperation. These leader countries use transfers to induce other countries to join them, but they can be insufficiently attractive to convince all the countries to cooperate. So as we show in the discussion, the cooperation is not necessarily total. Therefore, the key of a common problem can be a partial cooperation and not necessarily a common cooperation. 2 figs., 21 refs

  5. Strategic reasoning and bargaining in catastrophic climate change games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verendel, Vilhelm; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Lindgren, Kristian

    2016-03-01

    Two decades of international negotiations show that agreeing on emission levels for climate change mitigation is a hard challenge. However, if early warning signals were to show an upcoming tipping point with catastrophic damage, theory and experiments suggest this could simplify collective action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the actual threshold, no country would have a free-ride incentive to increase emissions over the tipping point, but it remains for countries to negotiate their emission levels to reach these agreements. We model agents bargaining for emission levels using strategic reasoning to predict emission bids by others and ask how this affects the possibility of reaching agreements that avoid catastrophic damage. It is known that policy elites often use a higher degree of strategic reasoning, and in our model this increases the risk for climate catastrophe. Moreover, some forms of higher strategic reasoning make agreements to reduce greenhouse gases unstable. We use empirically informed levels of strategic reasoning when simulating the model.

  6. Two-Person Bargaining Under Incomplete Information: An Experimental Study of New Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parco, James

    2002-01-01

    .... It is now generally accepted that a theory of bargaining behavior for individuals who typically do not meet the stringent assumptions about common knowledge of rationality cannot be complete without...

  7. A theory of ethnic diversity and income distribution: a legislative bargaining approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsuchimoto Menkyna, Fusako

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, June (2014), s. 52-67 ISSN 0176-2680 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : political economy * diversity * legislative bargaining Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  8. Illustrated Examples of the Effects of Risk Preferences and Expectations on Bargaining Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes bargaining examples that use expected utility theory. Provides example results that are intuitive, shown graphically and algebraically, and offer upper-level student samples that illustrate the usefulness of the expected utility theory. (JEH)

  9. Markovian equilibria in dynamic spatial legislative bargaining: existence with three players

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 98, July (2016), s. 235-242 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : dynamic decision-making * endogenous status-quo * spatial bargaining Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.904, year: 2016

  10. Gambler’s fallacy and imperfect best response in legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunnari, S.; Zápal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, September (2016), s. 275-294 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : legislative bargaining * experiments * quantal response Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.904, year: 2016

  11. Prosecution's Power, Procedural Rights, and Pleading Guilty: The Problem of Coercion in Plea Bargaining Drug Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Jerald W.

    1979-01-01

    The forms of psychological pressure placed on the defendant's pleading in drug cases are examined, with emphasis on the interplay between rational and emotional aspects of such situations. Three stages in plea bargaining negotiations are outlined. (Author/MC)

  12. Unilateral plea bargain as a logical result of the Brazilian due process’s constitucional guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Dutra Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the possibility of an unilateral plea bargain, not depending on a previous agreement with the prosecution. From the comparative study between the American and Italian bargained criminal justice and the one practiced in Brazil, it reveals the acceptance of this type of cooperation, according to the nature of the benefits involved, as a natural and inevitable consequence of the constitutional principles that guide Brazilian Criminal Procedure Law.

  13. China's Crisis Bargaining in the South China Sea Dispute (2010-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani, Eryan

    2014-01-01

    As one of China’s most intricate territorial dispute, the South China Sea dispute has sufficiently consumed significant amount of Chinese leaders’ attention in Beijing. This paper reveals that China exerts signaling strategy in its crisis bargaining over the South China Sea dispute. This strategy contains reassurance as positive signal through offering negotiation and appearing self-restraint and of negative signal by means of escalatory acts and verbal threats. China’s crisis bargaining in t...

  14. Endogenous Learning and Consensual Understanding in Multilateral Negotiations: Arguing and Bargaining in the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Robert

    2010-01-01

    People at home and trade negotiators in Geneva cannot bargain what they do not understand, and what they bargain must be based on consensual understanding among the relevant actors, whether or not they agree on what to do about it. Consensual understanding is endogenous, arising in an argumentative process of learning structured by constitutive principles of a regime. In a departure from both rationalist and constructivist approaches to negotiation analysis in political science, my goal in th...

  15. Fish welfare assurance system: initial steps to set up an effective tool to safeguard and monitor farmed fish welfare at a company level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, van de J.W.; Poelman, M.; Lambooij, E.; Bégout, M.L.; Pilarczyk, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to take a first step in the development of a process-oriented quality assurance (QA) system for monitoring and safeguarding of fish welfare at a company level. A process-oriented approach is focused on preventing hazards and involves establishment of critical steps in a process

  16. A bargaining game analysis of international climate negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory; Sandler, Ronald L.; Forber, Patrick; Basl, John

    2014-06-01

    Climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have so far failed to achieve a robust international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Game theory has been used to investigate possible climate negotiation solutions and strategies for accomplishing them. Negotiations have been primarily modelled as public goods games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma, though coordination games or games of conflict have also been used. Many of these models have solutions, in the form of equilibria, corresponding to possible positive outcomes--that is, agreements with the requisite emissions reduction commitments. Other work on large-scale social dilemmas suggests that it should be possible to resolve the climate problem. It therefore seems that equilibrium selection may be a barrier to successful negotiations. Here we use an N-player bargaining game in an agent-based model with learning dynamics to examine the past failures of and future prospects for a robust international climate agreement. The model suggests reasons why the desirable solutions identified in previous game-theoretic models have not yet been accomplished in practice and what mechanisms might be used to achieve these solutions.

  17. Trends in International Persuasion: Persuasion in the Arms Control Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, P. Terrence; Walcott, Charles

    An analysis of the bargaining process in international arms control negotiations is possible by developing a framework of interrelated hypotheses, by delineating and practicing interactions study called "Bargaining Process Analysis," and by formulating procedural steps that bridge the gap between laboratory studies and "real world" situations. In…

  18. Editorial dossier “plea bargain and bargaining criminal justice: new and multiples points of view”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia da Rosa Mendes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tal como poucos o tema da barganha e da justiça criminal negocial tem sido um dos principais pontos de acaloradas discussões dentro da pauta de assuntos do processo penal no mundo e, de algum tempo, também no Brasil. Neste sentido, o dossiê  "Colaboração Premiada e Justiça Criminal Negocial" tem como objetivo propiciar um espaço amplo e aberto às analises e estudos daqueles que se debruçam sobre os principais aspectos do instituto da colaboração/delação premiada em suas diversas interfaces, como, por exemplo: ao sistema de justiça criminal negocial no direito comparado; à ação penal pública e oportunidade; à celebração do acordo e a decretação de medidas cautelares; ao controle dos acordos durante a investigação preliminar; aos limites constitucionais de atuação do Ministério Público investigador, acusador e negociador; ao sistema acusatório e o papel do Poder Judiciário nos acordos; e aos direitos do colaborador e a atuação da mídia.

  19. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    decrease in land use emissions during the past decade (Harris et al 2012) could contribute to the decreasing airborne fraction in figure 3, although Malhi (2010) presents evidence that tropical forest deforestation and regrowth are approximately in balance, within uncertainties. Land use change can be only a partial explanation for the decrease of the airborne fraction; something more than land use change seems to be occurring. We suggest that the huge post-2000 increase of uptake by the carbon sinks implied by figure 3 is related to the simultaneous sharp increase in coal use (figure 1). Increased coal use occurred primarily in China and India (Boden et al 2012; BP 2012; see graphs at www.columbia.edu/~mhs119/Emissions/Emis_moreFigs/). Satellite radiance measurements for July-December, months when desert dust does not dominate aerosol amount, yield an increase of aerosol optical depth in East Asia of about 4% yr-1 during 2000-2006 (van Donkelaar et al 2008). Associated gaseous and particulate emissions increased rapidly after 2000 in China and India (Lu et al 2011, Tian et al 2010). Some decrease of the sulfur component of emissions occurred in China after 2006 as wide application of flue-gas desulfurization began to be initiated (Lu et al 2010), but this was largely offset by continuing emission increases from India (Lu et al 2011). We suggest that the surge of fossil fuel use, mainly coal, since 2000 is a basic cause of the large increase of carbon uptake by the combined terrestrial and ocean carbon sinks. One mechanism by which fossil fuel emissions increase carbon uptake is by fertilizing the biosphere via provision of nutrients essential for tissue building, especially nitrogen, which plays a critical role in controlling net primary productivity and is limited in many ecosystems (Gruber and Galloway 2008). Modeling (e.g., Thornton et al 2009) and field studies (Magnani et al 2007) confirm a major role of nitrogen deposition, working in concert with CO2 fertilization

  20. Summary of innovation models on a company level – creating a framework for an innovation model that will increase a company’s innovation activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanovska Ceravolo, Ljubica; Polenakovik, Radmil; Dzidrov, Misko

    2016-01-01

    There are six known and generally accepted generations of innovation models. Innovation models transform from simple, linear models, to integrated and networking models that are dynamic and interactive. Each generation of innovation models is presented in this paper with their characteristics as well as drawbacks. The main goal of this paper is to show the transformation path of innovation models and create a framework for a new innovation model on a company level, that could be used by compa...

  1. 29 CFR 4.1b - Payment of minimum compensation based on collectively bargained wage rates and fringe benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bargained wage rates and fringe benefits applicable to employment under predecessor contract. 4.1b Section 4... collectively bargained wage rates and fringe benefits applicable to employment under predecessor contract. (a) Section 4(c) of the Service Contract Act of 1965 as amended provides special minimum wage and fringe...

  2. Policy guidelines for collective bargaining and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, O D; Parulan, D

    1973-01-01

    The benfits of establishing family planning through collective bargaining to both labor and management are discussed. Until workers can be convinced that their children will receive health care, education and employment, and that they will be economically secure in old age, it is difficult to convince them of the many benefits of child spacing and small family size. In 1953, it was calculated by management in a Japanese steel factory that about 70% of all acidents could be attributable to difficulties in the private lives of employees. In order to ease problems in the home, collective agreements were initiated by management in the Nippon Express Company to provide family planning services. Labor agreed as long as the workers were to share in the economic awards which came from participation. Costs of implementing the family planning programs were fully offset by the decrease in expenditure on family allowances, confinement, nursing, and so on. In India some ten estates began a program in which a certain amount of money is paid into an account for every month that a woman does not become pregnant. If the woman becomes pregnant, she forfeits a substantial amount of the fund. This money comes directly from the funds which would normally have to be set aside to provide for maternity and child support programs. Certain guidelines are presented in the paper to outline the areas of responsibility of labor and management in the provision of family planning services. Among the many possibilities mentioned is the idea that both labor and management could look into the conceivability of plowing back a portion of whatever savings are accrued by management into a pension scheme to compensate workers for the loss of labor caused by having fewer children than were previously anticipated.

  3. Common mycorrhizal networks and their effect on the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücking, Heike; Mensah, Jerry A; Fellbaum, Carl R

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic interactions with the majority of land plants, including some of the most important crop species. The fungus takes up nutrients from the soil, and transfers these nutrients to the mycorrhizal interface in the root, where these nutrients are exchanged against carbon from the host. AM fungi form extensive hyphal networks in the soil and connect with their network multiple host plants. These common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) play a critical role in the long-distance transport of nutrients through soil ecosystems and allow the exchange of signals between the interconnected plants. CMNs affect the survival, fitness, and competitiveness of the fungal and plant species that interact via these networks, but how the resource transport within these CMNs is controlled is largely unknown. We discuss the significance of CMNs for plant communities and for the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the AM symbiosis.

  4. Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Antonczyk, Dirk; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Sommerfeld, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the increase in wage inequality, the decline in collective bargaining, and the development of the gender wage gap in West Germany between 2001 and 2006. Based on detailed linked employer-employee data, we show that wage inequality is rising strongly – driven not only by real wage increases at the top of the wage distribution, but also by real wage losses below the median. Coverage by collective wage bargaining plummets by 16.5 (19.1) percentage points for male (female)...

  5. Fear and guilt in proposers : Using emotions to explain offers in ultimatum bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.; Leliveld, M.C.; van Dijk, E; Zeelenberg, M.

    We argue that offers in bargaining are guided by the emotions that proposers anticipate when contemplating their offers. In particular, we reason that positive offers may be driven by fear and guilt, where fear is more related to the perceived consequences of having one's offer rejected, and guilt

  6. Tackling the Crisis through Concession Bargaining: Five Company Cases from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagelmeyer, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to present an analysis of the nature and drivers of company‐level concession bargaining during the financial crisis 2008‐10 in Germany. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on five company case studies. Data collection methods include document analysis and

  7. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest...

  8. Central Bank Independence, Centralization of Wage Bargaining, Inflation and Unemployment - Theory and Some Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cukierman, A.; Lippi, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework to investigate the effects of central bank independence, of the degree of centralization of wage bargaining and of the interaction between those institutional variables, on real wages, unemployment and inflation, in a framework in which unions are averse to

  9. Risk Sensitivity, Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives and Continuity of Bargaining Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); H.J.M. Peters (Hans); S.H. Tijs; P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractBargaining solutions are considered which have the following four properties: individual rationality, Pareto optimality, independence of equivalent utility representations, and independence of irrelevant alternatives. A main result of this paper is a simple proof of the fact that all

  10. PROFESSIONAL NEGOTIATION IN EDUCATION--A BARGAINING GAME WITH SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS. INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL. FIRST REVISED EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HORVAT, JOHN J.

    IN AN APPLICATION OF GAME THEORY TO PREPARE PARTICIPATING PERSONNEL FOR EFFECTIVE PROFESSIONAL NEGOTIATION IN EDUCATION, THREE FORMS OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING ARE SIMULATED--ONE FOR A FOUR- TO EIGHT-HOUR TIME PERIOD, A SECOND FOR A TWO- TO FOUR-DAY TIME PERIOD, AND A THIRD FOR A ONE- TO THREE-WEEK WORKSHOP OR SEMINAR. LONGER FORMS PRESENT MORE…

  11. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education Systems: A Study of Four States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, William H.; Bullis, Bruce

    Systemwide bargaining in higher education in four states (Florida, Minnesota, New York, Illinois) was studied to determine whether institutions were affected in the manner predicted by previous literature, whether the amounts of influence, or power, of various institutional decision-makers were affected, and whether the viewpoints of respondents…

  12. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions. Bibliography No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Ida B., Ed.; Johnson, Beth Hillman, Ed.

    This bibliography of 886 citations is an annual accounting of the literature on collective bargaining in higher education and the professions for 1993. The research design and methodology used in the preparation of this volume relied on computer searches of various data bases, as well as manual retrieval of citations not available on data bases.…

  13. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions. Bibliography No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Ida B., Ed.; Johnson, Beth Hillman, Ed.

    This bibliography of 885 citations is an annual accounting of the literature on collective bargaining in higher education and the professions for 1992. The research design and methodology used in the preparation of this volume relied on computer searches of various data bases, as well as manual retrieval of citations not available on data bases.…

  14. Does Collective Bargaining Influence the Pay Satisfaction of Elementary School Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, David G.; Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of collective bargaining on teacher pay satisfaction and offer knowledge of the factors contributing to the pay satisfaction of public elementary school teachers. The study focuses on how human capital, occupational characteristics, and job related characteristics impact the pay satisfaction of…

  15. Improving the explanatory power of bargaining models - New evidence from European Union studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selck, TJ

    Focusing on recent studies of European Union legislative decision-making, this research note evaluates the current literature that attempts to improve the explanatory power of bargaining models by integrating game-theoretic spatial models with micro-level data gained from expert interviews or from

  16. Sabbatical, Personal, Maternity, and Sick Leave Policies. Collective Bargaining Perspectives, Volume 2, Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeres, Ernest R.

    While hiring and advancement considerations are of paramount importance to the faculty member as well as to the institution where collective bargaining agreements are negotiated each year, other employment conditions are accorded almost as much consideration. Allowances for leave follow closely on the heels of placement and promotion conditions in…

  17. Managing Organizational Conflict: When to Use Collaboration, Bargaining and Power Approaches. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, C. Brooklyn

    A contingency theory for managing conflicts in organizational settings is proposed. Collaboration, bargaining, and power approaches to conflict management are all appropriate, given certain situations. The situations and the costs and benefits of using a given strategy under varying conditions are discussed. (Author)

  18. Gambler’s fallacy and imperfect best response in legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunnari, S.; Zápal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, September (2016), s. 275-294 ISSN 0899-8256 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-27902P Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : legislative bargaining * experiments * quantal response Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.904, year: 2016

  19. Markovian equilibria in dynamic spatial legislative bargaining: existence with three players

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 98, July (2016), s. 235-242 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : dynamic decision-making * endogenous status-quo * spatial bargaining Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.904, year: 2016

  20. Policy Brief: Bargaining for social rights of precarious workers in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of the Barsori project was the contribution that social partners make to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project studied experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the

  1. Multi-attribute bilateral bargaining in a one-to-many setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. Gerding (Enrico); D.J.A. Somefun (Koye); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractNegotiations are an important way of reaching agreements between selfish autonomous agents. In this paper we focus on one-to-many bargaining within the context of agent-mediated electronic commerce. We consider an approach where a seller negotiates over multiple interdependent attributes

  2. Bonds or Bargains: Relationship Paradigms and Their Significance for Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sue

    1986-01-01

    Discusses contrasting conceptual paradigms describing the nature of intimate relationships. Relationships may be viewed in terms of a rational bargain or as an emotional bond. The implications of each paradigm for the process of marital therapy and the role of bonding and attachment in adult intimacy are prescribed. Implications for marital…

  3. Essays on Women’s Bargaining Power and Intra-household Resource in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. Dito

    2011-01-01

    textabstractxv Abstract This thesis investigates the effect of a woman’s bargaining power on her welfare and that of her children in rural Ethiopia. The issue is of particular concern because, as empirical evidence shows, intra-household inequalities in welfare are frequently the direct

  4. The Bargaining Table and Beyond: How the AFT Came to Support Labor-Management Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Phil

    2014-01-01

    When he first came to the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) in 1973, reports Phil Kugler, there was no such thing as labor-management collaboration. It was a term he had never heard of, and no one used it. Back then, the focus was on supporting local unions in their struggles to win collective bargaining rights. At the time, teachers were…

  5. Modest Labor-Management Bargains Continue in 1984 Despite the Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, George

    1985-01-01

    Major collective bargaining agreements in 1984 resulted in modest settlements, due to concern about foreign competition, domestic deregulation, and inflation. Agreements occurred in the following industries: auto, soft coal, airlines, aircraft and aerospace, construction, petroleum refining, longshore industry, railroads, trucking, steel, West…

  6. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  7. Policy Poison or Promise: Exploring the Dual Nature of California School District Collective Bargaining Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Katharine O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines policies set in the collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) negotiated between teachers' unions and school boards and explores what kinds of districts have contract provisions that restrict district administrators, enhance administrative flexibility, and/or improve teachers' professional work lives and that have…

  8. Quality and Pricing Decisions in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain with Nash Bargaining Fairness Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-cai Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Product quality and pricing, as the important competitive tools, play a key role in attracting consumers. In a supply chain, the decisions on product quality and pricing are usually interlinked and would influence the cooperation relation between the members, especially when they are fairness-concerned and have different bargaining power. However, linking the quality and pricing decisions to the decision-makers’ behavioral factors such as fairness concern draws a little attention in the literature of supply chain management. This paper incorporates the members’ fairness preference and bargaining power into the product quality and pricing decisions in a two-echelon supply chain, where the supplier offers core components with a certain quality level to the downstream manufacturer, who subsequently sells the final products in the end market. Both the supplier and the manufacturer are assumed to be fairness-concerned by adopting Nash bargaining solutions as their fairness reference points. We use game-theoretic models to analyze the equilibrium product quality and pricing strategies under the setting of integrated and decentralized supply chain, respectively. Detailed comparisons and sensitivity analysis are further conducted to examine the impacts of members’ strengths of fairness concern, bargaining power, and decision structure on their equilibrium product quality and pricing strategies and corresponding payoffs.

  9. Towards Automated Bargaining in Electronic Markets: A Partially Two-Sided Competition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Nicola; Lazaric, Alessandro; Restelli, Marcello

    This paper focuses on the prominent issue of automating bargaining agents within electronic markets. Models of bargaining in literature deal with settings wherein there are only two agents and no model satisfactorily captures settings in which there is competition among buyers, being they more than one, and analogously among sellers. In this paper, we extend the principal bargaining protocol, i.e. the alternating-offers protocol, to capture bargaining in markets. The model we propose is such that, in presence of a unique buyer and a unique seller, agents' equilibrium strategies are those in the original protocol. Moreover, we game theoretically study the considered game providing the following results: in presence of one-sided competition (more buyers and one seller or vice versa) we provide agents' equilibrium strategies for all the values of the parameters, in presence of two-sided competition (more buyers and more sellers) we provide an algorithm that produce agents' equilibrium strategies for a large set of the parameters and we experimentally evaluate its effectiveness.

  10. Air traffic control : FAA enhanced the controller-in-charge program, but more comprehensive evaluation is needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    In negotiating its 1998 collective bargaining agreement with its controllers' union (the National Air Traffic Controllers Association, or NATCA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) agreed to a national plan that would reduce by attrition the n...

  11. Company-level, semi-quantitative assessment of occupational styrene exposure when individual data are not available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Henrik A; Sønderskov, Jette; Burstyn, Igor

    2005-03-01

    In epidemiological research, self-reported information about determinants and levels of occupational exposures is difficult to obtain, especially if the disease under study has a high mortality rate or follow-up has exceeded several years. In this paper, we present a semi-quantitative exposure assessment strategy for nested case-control studies of styrene exposure among workers of the Danish reinforced plastics industry when no information on job title, task or other indicators of individual exposure were readily available from cases and controls. The strategy takes advantage of the variability in styrene exposure level and styrene exposure probability across companies. The study comprised 1522 cases of selected malignancies and neurodegenerative diseases and controls employed in 230 reinforced plastics companies and other related industries. Between 1960 and 1996, 3057 measurements of styrene exposure level obtained from 191 companies, were identified. Mixed effects models were used to estimate expected styrene exposure levels by production characteristics for all companies. Styrene exposure probability within each company was estimated for all but three cases and controls from the fraction of laminators, which was reported by a sample of 945 living colleagues of the cases and controls and by employers and dealers of plastic raw materials. The estimates were validated from a subset of 427 living cases and controls that reported their own work as laminators in the industry. We computed styrene exposure scores that integrated estimated styrene exposure level and styrene exposure probability. Product (boats), process (hand and spray lamination) and calendar year period were the major determinants of styrene exposure level. Within-company styrene exposure variability increased by calendar year and was accounted for when computing the styrene exposure scores. Exposure probability estimates based on colleagues' reports showed the highest predictive values in the

  12. The Structure of Enterprise Law: Interrelationships among contracts, markets, and laws in the bargaining structure of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    SHISHIDO Zenichi

    2010-01-01

    The firm is an ongoing joint project requiring both financial and human capital. Like other joint projects, the firm cannot maximize added value without achieving an efficient incentive bargain among the indispensable capital providers, i.e., shareholders and creditors as the monetary capital providers, and management and employees as the human capital providers. To stimulate efficient incentive bargaining at the firm level and, consequently, to enhance the efficiency of the whole economy, I ...

  13. Union Bargaining in an Oligopoly Market with Cournot-Bertrand Competition: Welfare and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schroeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the welfare effect of union activity in a relatively new oligopoly model, the Cournot-Bertrand model, where one firm competes in output (a la Cournot and the other firm competes in price (a la Bertrand. The Nash equilibrium prices, outputs, and profits are quite diverse in this model, with the competitive advantage going to the Cournot-type competitor. A comparison of the results from the Cournot-Bertrand model with those found in the traditional Cournot and Bertrand models reveals that firms and the union have a different preference ordering over labor market bargaining. These differences help explain why the empirical evidence does not support any one model of union bargaining. We also examine the welfare and policy implications of union activity in a Cournot-Bertrand setting.

  14. Considering the impact of the 'Right to Bargain' Legislation in Ireland: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinane, Niall; Dobbins, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Ireland is rare among advanced economies in not having statutory trade union recognition legislation for collective bargaining purposes. The matter has been a source of policy contention over the years with attempts to resolve it encapsulated in the so-called ‘Right to Bargain’ legislation, introduced in 2001. This legislation has sought to circumvent statutory recognition in Ireland by putting in place an alternative mechanism for unions to represent members in non-union firms where collecti...

  15. Uncertainty of food contamination origin and liability rules: Implications for bargaining power

    OpenAIRE

    Boutouis, M. Z.; Benhassine, W.; Perito, Maria Angela

    2018-01-01

    We propose an industrial organization model to analyze the role of bargaining power and liability rules in creating incentives for downstream and upstream supply chain operators to invest in good practices. We investigate the case in which either upstream production practices or downstream distribution may cause product contamination resulting in noncompliance with the authorized thresholds of residues (maximum residue limit [MRL]). We provide a comparative analysis of the retailers' liabilit...

  16. "He will ask why the child gets sick so often": the gendered dynamics of intra-household bargaining over healthcare for children with fever in the Volta Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Amekudzi, Yaa Peprah; Nyonator, Frank K; Bertel Squire, S; Theobald, Sally

    2008-03-01

    This paper explores the gendered dynamics of intra-household bargaining around treatment seeking for children with fever revealed through two qualitative research studies in the Volta Region of Ghana, and discusses the influence of different gender and health discourses on the likely policy implications drawn from such findings. Methods used included focus group discussions, in-depth and critical incidence interviews, and Participatory Learning and Action methods. We found that treatment seeking behaviour for children was influenced by norms of decision-making power and 'ownership' of children, access to and control over resources to pay for treatment, norms of responsibility for payment, marital status, household living arrangements, and the quality of relationships between mothers, fathers and elders. However, the implications of these findings may be interpreted from different perspectives. Most studies that have considered gender in relation to malaria have done so within a narrow biomedical approach to health that focuses only on the outcomes of gender relations in terms of the (non-)utilisation of allopathic healthcare. However, we argue that a 'gender transformatory' approach, which aims to promote women's empowerment, needs to include but go beyond this model, to consider broader potential outcomes of intra-household bargaining for women's and men's interests, including their livelihoods and 'bargaining positions'.

  17. The transit oil and gas pipeline and the role of bargaining: A non-technical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omonbude, Ekpen J.

    2007-01-01

    Transit oil and gas pipelines are growing in relevance, and face a number of topical problems. One of such issues is the problem of potential disruption from a number of sources, notably post-construction behaviour of the transit country. Present and future pipelines face the risk of continuous conflict over legal, economic and political issues. Once the pipeline is built and in operation, the threat of disruption of the pipeline by the transit country over disputed transit terms exists. This is due to two key problems: first, a shift in bargaining powers to the transit country upon construction and operation of the pipeline and, second, changes in the value of the throughput imply price changes that can affect the behaviour of the transit country. This paper discusses the role of basic bargaining principles in cross-border oil and gas pipelines involving transit through one or more countries. It finds that the motive behind the pipeline plays a key role in the prevention of potential disruptions to the pipeline due to rent squeezing. Also, although the potential of such disruptions does exist, there are a number of factors that could serve to mute the consequences of shifts in bargaining power to the transit countries

  18. Toronto Civic Workers Bargaining Without a Base: The Significance of 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fanelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how the politics and economics of austerity has influenced collective bargaining between the CUPE Locals 79/416 and the city of Toronto. I explore the relationship between neoliberalism and workplace precarity, drawing attention to the importance of the municipal public sector to trade unionism and the political potential of urbanized Left-labour radicalism. Following this, I provide an overview of the repeated attempts by City Council to extract concessions from unionized workers with a focus on the concession-filled 2012 round of bargaining and its relationship to earlier rounds. In what follows I discuss the implications of austerity bargaining for Locals 79 and 416 members, drawing attention to the repercussions this may have for other public sector workers. To conclude, I propose an alternative political strategy for municipal public sector unions, stressing the importance of a radicalized labour approach. It is my contention that this requires the development of both alternative policies and an alternative politics rooted in demands for workplace democracy and social justice.

  19. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding varieties of flexibility and security in multinationals: Product markets, institutional variation and local bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulignano, V.; Keune, M.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of flexicurity have focused on formal institutions within distinctive national labour market systems. However, the level and types of flexibility and security in a national labour market are to an important extent influenced by company-level processes, relationships and policies; thus a

  1. Potentiality of the existence of plea bargaining in the criminal process of Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Janušaitytė, Gintarė

    2016-01-01

    Kontinentinės teisės tradicijos valstybėse pradėtas taikyti bendrosios teisės sistemos valstybėms būdingas derybų dėl kaltės (angl. plea bargaining) institutas sudarė prielaidas diskusijoms apie naujos baudžiamosios procesinės formos taikymo galimybes Lietuvos Respublikos baudžiamajame procese. Atsižvelgiant į siekį tobulinti baudžiamojo proceso optimizavimo galimybes, yra tikslinga svarstyti derybų dėl kaltės instituto egzistavimo prielaidas Lietuvos Respublikos baudžiamajame procese. Straip...

  2. Are litigation and collective bargaining complements or substitutes for achieving gender equality? A study of the British Equal Pay Act

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Deakin; Sarah Fraser Butlin; Colm McLaughlin; Aleksandra Polanska

    2015-01-01

    We present a socio-legal case study of the recent equal pay litigation wave in Britain, which saw an unprecedented increase in the number of claims, triggered in part by the entry of no-win, no-fee law firms into this part of the legal services market. Although the rise in litigation led to greater adversarialism in pay bargaining, litigation and collective bargaining mostly operated as complementary mechanisms in advancing an equality agenda. Litigation may be a more potent agent for socia...

  3. Desire to bargain and negotiation success: Lessons about the need to negotiate from six hydropower disputes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigated the notion that successful licensing negotiations require that all parties to the dispute must have a desire to bargain. This desire is most likely to be present when the dispute exhibits ripeness and each party believes a bargained solution is the most cost-effective way to resolve differences. Structured interviews of participants in six Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hydropower licensing consultations were conducted to determine the level of need to negotiate for each party. The findings indicate that a need to negotiate is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for success. Several factors were associated with a need to negotiate: a weak BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement); a salient issue; participants' sense of efficacy; a sense of inevitability; professional roles encouraging negotiation; and disputes about facts as opposed to disputes about values. Participants' need to negotiate fluctuated throughout the process and intensified when questions were ripe: i.e., critical issues were debated or the regulatory process required action

  4. Plea bargaining as a third route of criminal law in the fight against organized administrative corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine whether the plea bargaining in the context of “Lava Jato” Operation is adopting a third route of criminal law against administrative corruption, in which reparation of damages is established as one of the primary objectives of criminal prosecution, in substitution or mitigation of the restrictive sentence of the collaborating defendants. Subsequent to this analysis, it is intended to reflect if the adoption of a third route of criminal law by means of these negotiating instruments could imply in the utilitarian mercantilization of the criminal process prejudicial to the principle of criminal legality, proportionality and isonomy in the application of the punishment. This is a necessary and pertinent analysis due to the protagonism that the plea-bargaining have been assuming in the discovery of great corruption schemes in Brazil and the recovery of assets. The procedural methodology is the bibliographic and the method of approach is the hypothetico-deductive one, besides the case study involving “Lava Jato” operation. The hypothesis worked out is that the award-winning collaboration agreements have externalized a third-way criminal law and that there is a viability of violations of isonomy and criminal legality in fight against administrative corruption.

  5. On gamesmen and fair men: explaining fairness in non-cooperative bargaining games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Ramzi

    2018-02-01

    Experiments on bargaining games have repeatedly shown that subjects fail to use backward induction, and that they only rarely make demands in accordance with the subgame perfect equilibrium. In a recent paper, we proposed an alternative model, termed 'economic harmony' in which we modified the individual's utility by defining it as a function of the ratio between the actual and aspired pay-offs. We also abandoned the notion of equilibrium, in favour of a new notion of 'harmony', defined as the intersection of strategies, at which all players are equally satisfied. We showed that the proposed model yields excellent predictions of offers in the ultimatum game, and requests in the sequential common pool resource dilemma game. Strikingly, the predicted demand in the ultimatum game is equal to the famous Golden Ratio (approx. 0.62 of the entire pie). The same prediction was recently derived independently by Schuster (Schuster 2017. Sci. Rep. 7 , 5642). In this paper, we extend the solution to bargaining games with alternating offers. We show that the derived solution predicts the opening demands reported in several experiments, on games with equal and unequal discount factors and game horizons. Our solution also predicts several unexplained findings, including the puzzling 'disadvantageous counter-offers', and the insensitivity of opening demands to variations in the players' discount factors, and game horizon. Strikingly, we find that the predicted opening demand in the alternating offers game is also equal to the Golden Ratio.

  6. On gamesmen and fair men: explaining fairness in non-cooperative bargaining games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Experiments on bargaining games have repeatedly shown that subjects fail to use backward induction, and that they only rarely make demands in accordance with the subgame perfect equilibrium. In a recent paper, we proposed an alternative model, termed ‘economic harmony’ in which we modified the individual's utility by defining it as a function of the ratio between the actual and aspired pay-offs. We also abandoned the notion of equilibrium, in favour of a new notion of ‘harmony’, defined as the intersection of strategies, at which all players are equally satisfied. We showed that the proposed model yields excellent predictions of offers in the ultimatum game, and requests in the sequential common pool resource dilemma game. Strikingly, the predicted demand in the ultimatum game is equal to the famous Golden Ratio (approx. 0.62 of the entire pie). The same prediction was recently derived independently by Schuster (Schuster 2017. Sci. Rep. 7, 5642). In this paper, we extend the solution to bargaining games with alternating offers. We show that the derived solution predicts the opening demands reported in several experiments, on games with equal and unequal discount factors and game horizons. Our solution also predicts several unexplained findings, including the puzzling ‘disadvantageous counter-offers’, and the insensitivity of opening demands to variations in the players' discount factors, and game horizon. Strikingly, we find that the predicted opening demand in the alternating offers game is also equal to the Golden Ratio. PMID:29515877

  7. NASH BARGAINING BASED BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION IN COGNITIVE RADIO FOR DELAY CRITICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Kulkarni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively regulate the existing resources, dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio needs to adopt the effective resource allocation strategies. Multimedia applications require large bandwidth and have to meet the delay constraints while maintaining the data quality. Game theory is emerging as an effective analytical tool for the analysis of available resources and its allocation. This paper addresses resource allocation schemes employing bargaining game model for Multi-carrier CDMA based Cognitive Radio. Resource allocation scheme is designed for transmission of video over cognitive radio networks and aim to perform bandwidth allocation for different cognitive users. Utility function based on bargaining model is proposed. Primary user utility function includes the pricing factor and an upbeat factor that can be adjusted by observing the delay constraints of the video. Allocated bandwidth to the secondary user can be adjusted by changing the upbeat factor. Throughput in the proposed scheme is increased by 2% as compared to other reported pricing based resource allocation schemes. The edge PSNR of reconstructed video obtained as 32.6dB resulting to optimum decoding of the video at the receiver. The study also shows upbeat factor can be used to enhanced capacity of the network.

  8. The effects of hospitals' governance on optimal contracts: bargaining vs. contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Matteo M; Miraldo, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two-stage model to study the impact of different hospitals' governance frameworks on the optimal contracts designed by third-party payers when patients' disease severity is the private information of the hospital. In the second stage, doctors and managers interact within either a bargaining or a contracting scenario. In the contracting scenario, managers offer a contract that determines the payment to doctors, and doctors decide how many patients to treat. In the bargaining scenario, doctors and managers strategically negotiate on both the payment to doctors and the number of patients to treat. We derive the equilibrium doctors' payments and number of treated patients under both scenarios. We then derive the optimal contract offered by the government to the hospital in the first stage. Results show that when the cost of capital is sufficiently low, the informational rent is lower, and the social welfare is higher, in the contracting scenario. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions of Bargaining Power and Introduction of Online Channel in Two Competing Supply Chains

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    Jie Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of dual-channel format on supply chain’s competition ability and the effect of different bargaining powers on the competition between two supply chains and the optimal pricing decisions of all supply chain members when one supply chain introduces an online retailing channel. We develop four game models and obtain the optimal pricing decisions in closed form of these models and give some sensitivity analysis through numerical approach. Some new managerial insights are obtained as follows: Regardless of the two supply chain members’ bargaining forms, the optimal price, the maximal demand, and the maximal profit decrease as the self-price sensitivity decreases. The industry holds advantage in getting higher profit when the supply chain without online retailing channel is led by the retailer. In addition, we find that a manufacturer as a leader of its supply chain can get more profit when the competing supply chain’s leader is the manufacturer than when the competing supply chain’s leader is the retailer.

  10. Dubious bargain: trading sleep for Leno and Letterman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F

    2009-06-01

    Sleeping less than 7 hours daily impairs alertness and is associated with increased obesity, morbidity, and mortality; yet up to 40% of US adults do so. Population data indicate work time is the primary activity reciprocally related to sleep time in the United States. Reducing work time and its economic benefits to increase sleep time may not be feasible for most of the population. We sought to identify waking activities under discretionary control and adjacent to the sleep period that would be a more feasible source for increasing sleep time. American Time Use Survey data from 21,475 respondents aged > or = 15 years were pooled for the years 2003-2006 to explore activities in 2-hour periods prior to going to bed and past getting up on weekdays. N/A. Long workers (> or = 8 hours) terminated bed time an average of 0.68 h earlier than short workers (hours, P working on the interview day (P accounting for 55.6 min (46.3%) of the 2-h pre-bed period. In the morning, travel time and work time increased steadily toward the end of the post-awakening 2-h period, accounting for 14.8% and 12.3%, respectively. Watching television may be an important social Zeitgeber for the time of going to bed. Watching less television in the evening and postponing work start time in the morning appear to be the candidate behavioral changes for achieving additional sleep. While the timing of work may not be flexible, giving up some TV viewing in the evening should be possible to reduce chronic sleep debt and promote adequate sleep in those who need it.

  11. Convergent and divergent country trends in coordinated wage-setting and collective bargaining in the public hospitals sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimshaw, D.; Jaehrling, K.; van der Meer, M.; Méhaut, P.; Shimron, N.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of research in the public hospitals sector in five European countries1—France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK—this article assesses the character of change in wage setting and collective bargaining. It demonstrates the diversity of national arrangements by

  12. Teacher Satisfaction and Turnover in Charter Schools: Examining the Variations and Possibilities for Collective Bargaining in State Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. Chris; Oluwole, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Charter schools see as many as one in four teachers leave annually, and recent evidence attributes much of this turnover to provisions affected by collective bargaining processes and state laws such as salary, benefits, job security, and working hours. There have been many recent efforts to improve teacher voice in charter schools (Kahlenberg…

  13. Collective Bargaining and District Costs for Teacher Health Insurance: An Examination of the Data from the BLS and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    District costs for teachers' health insurance are, on average, higher then employer costs for private-sector professionals. How much of this is attributable to collective bargaining? This article examines the question using data from the National Compensation Survey (NCS) of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the state of Wisconsin. In…

  14. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango chain: a gaming simulation approach with local producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.E.; Meijer, S.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  15. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: →The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. →Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. →A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising

  16. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N., E-mail: amenegaki@her.forthnet.g [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Languages, Literature and Civilization of Black Sea Countries, Polytechniou 7A, 69100 Komotini (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: {yields}The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. {yields}Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. {yields}A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might

  17. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, Mehran; Zomorodian, Mehdi; Martinez, Christopher J; Lai, Sai Hin

    2015-01-01

    So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation

  18. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Homayounfar

    Full Text Available So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i having a discrete nature; and (ii working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance of the state variable (water level in the reservoir is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP, and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG. By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in

  19. A multi-stakeholder framework for urban runoff quality management: Application of social choice and bargaining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, an integrated framework is proposed for urban runoff management. To control and improve runoff quality and quantity, Low Impact Development (LID) practices are utilized. In order to determine the LIDs' areas and locations, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), which considers three objective functions of minimizing runoff volume, runoff pollution and implementation cost of LIDs, is utilized. In this framework, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used for stream flow simulation. The non-dominated solutions provided by the NSGA-II are considered as management scenarios. To select the most preferred scenario, interactions among the main stakeholders in the study area with conflicting utilities are incorporated by utilizing bargaining models including a non-cooperative game, Nash model and social choice procedures of Borda count and approval voting. Moreover, a new social choice procedure, named pairwise voting method, is proposed and applied. Based on each conflict resolution approach, a scenario is identified as the ideal solution providing the LIDs' areas, locations and implementation cost. The proposed framework is applied for urban water quality and quantity management in the northern part of Tehran metropolitan city, Iran. Results show that the proposed pairwise voting method tends to select a scenario with a higher percentage of reduction in TSS (Total Suspended Solid) load and runoff volume, in comparison with the Borda count and approval voting methods. Besides, the Nash method presents a management scenario with the highest cost for LIDs' implementation and the maximum values for percentage of runoff volume reduction and TSS removal. The results also signify that selection of an appropriate management scenario by stakeholders in the study area depends on the available financial resources and the relative importance of runoff quality improvement in comparison with reducing the runoff volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  20. The austerity bargain and the social self: conceptual clarity surrounding health cutbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David A

    2013-01-01

    As necessary austerity measures make major inroads into western health services, this paper investigates the philology of austerity and finds that there are two subtly similar yet importantly different derivations from the Latin and the Greek. The Latin austerus is an abstract term meaning dry, harsh, sour; whereas the Greek austeros has a more embodied and literal meaning of making the tongue dry. What seems an initially subtle difference between the metaphorical and the metonymic plays out as involving seriously different outcomes between harsh economic measures and the literal effects on the people suffering under measures that actually make the tongue dry. The paper argues that between the trope and the literal that which Wittgenstein described as 'a language game' ensues wherein the metaphorical through a sleight of grammar is passed off as being real while, the literal effects on real people is downplayed as metaphorical 'collateral damage'. The paper further argues that within this grammar that forces itself upon us, the game of capital is played out through what the author terms an austerity bargain that is levelled by the financial elites: healthy capitalism equals a healthy society. The paper then examines the six elements of the social determinants of health and what actually contributes to a healthy society. Rather than being under an individual threat of exclusion from what Marx termed a superabundance, the paper considers the irreducible differences between the game of capital's individualism, and, the social determinants of health's social inclusion, legitimization and that which Habermas termed public authentication. The paper concludes that not only do necessary austerity measures need to be critiqued but that they radically undermine what determines a healthy society. It follows also that the social determinants of health, radically undermine the bargain inherent for the privileged few within the game of capital. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The plea bargain as a criminal policy instrument: the tension about the fundamental guarantees of the defendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Thomas Aires

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research intends to analyze the plea bargaining based on its political-criminal foundation, in order to achieve the tension it maintains in relation to certain fundamental guarantees of the defendant, especially the one who signs the agreement. On this occasion, there will be substantially a contraposition between the legal procedure of collaboration and the principles of the adversary, ample defense, presumption of innocence, and non-self-incrimination. The application of the plea bargain proves extremely controversial not only in the common sense, often conveyed by the media, but mainly in the technical perspective, especially in relation to the scientific debate, which reflects the complexity of the proposed theme. For an effective approach to the theme, the work uses the deductive, historical-evolutionary and dialectical methods, being the bibliographical research the technique fundamentally used.

  2. Recycling Pricing and Coordination of WEEE Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain Considering Consumers' Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Jing; Tang, Juan

    2017-12-15

    Environmentally friendly handling and efficient recycling of waste electrical on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) have grown to be a global social problem. As holders of WEEE, consumers have a significant effect on the recycling process. A consideration of and attention to the influence of consumer behavior in the recycling process can help achieve more effective recycling of WEEE. In this paper, we built a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain model composed of manufacturers, retailers, and network recycling platforms. Based on the influence of customer bargaining behavior, we studied several different scenarios of centralized decision-making, decentralized decision-making, and contract coordination, using the Stackelberg game theory. The results show that retailers and network recycling platforms will reduce the direct recovery prices to maintain their own profit when considering the impact of consumer bargaining behavior, while remanufacturers will improve the transfer payment price for surrendering part of the profit under revenue and the expense sharing contract. Using this contract, we can achieve supply chain coordination and eliminate the effect of consumer bargaining behavior on supply chain performance. It can be viewed from the parameter sensitivity analysis that when we select the appropriate sharing coefficient, the closed-loop supply chain can achieve the same system performance under a centralized decision.

  3. Recycling Pricing and Coordination of WEEE Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain Considering Consumers’ Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly handling and efficient recycling of waste electrical on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE have grown to be a global social problem. As holders of WEEE, consumers have a significant effect on the recycling process. A consideration of and attention to the influence of consumer behavior in the recycling process can help achieve more effective recycling of WEEE. In this paper, we built a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain model composed of manufacturers, retailers, and network recycling platforms. Based on the influence of customer bargaining behavior, we studied several different scenarios of centralized decision-making, decentralized decision-making, and contract coordination, using the Stackelberg game theory. The results show that retailers and network recycling platforms will reduce the direct recovery prices to maintain their own profit when considering the impact of consumer bargaining behavior, while remanufacturers will improve the transfer payment price for surrendering part of the profit under revenue and the expense sharing contract. Using this contract, we can achieve supply chain coordination and eliminate the effect of consumer bargaining behavior on supply chain performance. It can be viewed from the parameter sensitivity analysis that when we select the appropriate sharing coefficient, the closed-loop supply chain can achieve the same system performance under a centralized decision.

  4. Recycling Pricing and Coordination of WEEE Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain Considering Consumers’ Bargaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Jing; Tang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Environmentally friendly handling and efficient recycling of waste electrical on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) have grown to be a global social problem. As holders of WEEE, consumers have a significant effect on the recycling process. A consideration of and attention to the influence of consumer behavior in the recycling process can help achieve more effective recycling of WEEE. In this paper, we built a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain model composed of manufacturers, retailers, and network recycling platforms. Based on the influence of customer bargaining behavior, we studied several different scenarios of centralized decision-making, decentralized decision-making, and contract coordination, using the Stackelberg game theory. The results show that retailers and network recycling platforms will reduce the direct recovery prices to maintain their own profit when considering the impact of consumer bargaining behavior, while remanufacturers will improve the transfer payment price for surrendering part of the profit under revenue and the expense sharing contract. Using this contract, we can achieve supply chain coordination and eliminate the effect of consumer bargaining behavior on supply chain performance. It can be viewed from the parameter sensitivity analysis that when we select the appropriate sharing coefficient, the closed-loop supply chain can achieve the same system performance under a centralized decision. PMID:29244778

  5. Vertical Integration or Disintegration? A Bargaining Model of the Maquiladora's Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuho Kochi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analytical framework to study the demands of foreign and domestic factors of production of the maquiladora industry. We derive the net profitability of demanding high in72 9 Vol. 21 ¿ número 41 ¿ 2012 stead of low quality inputs. We argue that differences in the quality of inputs between foreign and domestic factors can explain the low vertical integration of the maquiladora with the Mexican industry. We show that if the difference in quality and its positive effect in marginal production compensates the difference in prices, then the maquiladora can be induced to integrate vertically with foreign suppliers of inputs, even if the unitary cost to demand foreign inputs is strictly higher than that of domestic inputs. We also show that a depreciation of the Mexican exchange rate does not necessarily increase the maquiladora's demand of Mexican inputs. This explains recent empirical evidence showing this phenomenon. Conversely, a depreciation of the exchange rate might increase the maquiladora's demand of imported inputs if foreign and domestic factors are complementary. The above holds even if the domestic supplier participates in a bargaining game offering an efficient contract.

  6. Rejection in Bargaining Situations: An Event-Related Potential Study in Adolescents and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Zanolie

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of rejection in bargaining situations when proposing a fair or unfair offer are not yet well understood. We measured neural responses to rejection and acceptance of monetary offers with event-related potentials (ERPs in mid-adolescents (14-17 years and early adults (19-24 years. Participants played multiple rounds of the Ultimatum Game as proposers, dividing coins between themselves and a second player (responder by making a choice between an unfair distribution (7 coins for proposer and 3 for responder; 7/3 and one of two alternatives: a fair distribution (5/5 or a hyperfair distribution (3/7. Participants mostly made fair offers (5/5 when the alternative was unfair (7/3, but made mostly unfair offers (7/3 when the alternative was hyperfair (3/7. When participants' fair offers (5/5; alternative was 7/3 were rejected this was associated with a larger Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN compared to acceptance of fair offers and rejection of unfair offers (7/3; alternative was 3/7. Also, the MFN was smaller after acceptance of unfair offers (7/3 compared to rejection. These neural responses did not differ between adults and mid-adolescents, suggesting that the MFN reacts as a neural alarm system to social prediction errors which is already prevalent during adolescence.

  7. Pricing of Vehicle-to-Grid Services in a Microgrid by Nash Bargaining Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sarparandeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Owners of electric vehicles (EVs can offer the storage capacity of their batteries to the operator of a microgrid as a service called vehicle-to-grid (V2G to hold the balance between supply and demand of electricity, particularly when the microgrid has intermittent renewable energy sources. Literature review implies that V2G has economic benefits for both microgrid operator and EV owners, but it is unclear how these benefits are divided between them. The challenge grows when the policy makers rely on the V2G revenue as an incentive for expanding the penetration of EVs in the automotive market. This paper models the interaction between microgrid operator and EV owners as a bargaining game to determine how the benefits of V2G should be divided. The method has been implemented on a hybrid power system with high wind penetration in addition to diesel generators in Manjil, Iran. The results indicate that, in addition to V2G benefits, government subsidies are necessary to promote the use of EVs.

  8. Mesoscopic effects in an agent-based bargaining model in regular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, David J; Santos, José I; Galán, José M; López-Paredes, Adolfo

    2011-03-09

    The effect of spatial structure has been proved very relevant in repeated games. In this work we propose an agent based model where a fixed finite population of tagged agents play iteratively the Nash demand game in a regular lattice. The model extends the multiagent bargaining model by Axtell, Epstein and Young modifying the assumption of global interaction. Each agent is endowed with a memory and plays the best reply against the opponent's most frequent demand. We focus our analysis on the transient dynamics of the system, studying by computer simulation the set of states in which the system spends a considerable fraction of the time. The results show that all the possible persistent regimes in the global interaction model can also be observed in this spatial version. We also find that the mesoscopic properties of the interaction networks that the spatial distribution induces in the model have a significant impact on the diffusion of strategies, and can lead to new persistent regimes different from those found in previous research. In particular, community structure in the intratype interaction networks may cause that communities reach different persistent regimes as a consequence of the hindering diffusion effect of fluctuating agents at their borders.

  9. Mesoscopic effects in an agent-based bargaining model in regular lattices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Poza

    Full Text Available The effect of spatial structure has been proved very relevant in repeated games. In this work we propose an agent based model where a fixed finite population of tagged agents play iteratively the Nash demand game in a regular lattice. The model extends the multiagent bargaining model by Axtell, Epstein and Young modifying the assumption of global interaction. Each agent is endowed with a memory and plays the best reply against the opponent's most frequent demand. We focus our analysis on the transient dynamics of the system, studying by computer simulation the set of states in which the system spends a considerable fraction of the time. The results show that all the possible persistent regimes in the global interaction model can also be observed in this spatial version. We also find that the mesoscopic properties of the interaction networks that the spatial distribution induces in the model have a significant impact on the diffusion of strategies, and can lead to new persistent regimes different from those found in previous research. In particular, community structure in the intratype interaction networks may cause that communities reach different persistent regimes as a consequence of the hindering diffusion effect of fluctuating agents at their borders.

  10. Non-egalitarian allocations among preschool peers in a face-to-face bargaining task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia P Melis

    Full Text Available In face-to-face bargaining tasks human adults almost always agree on an equal split of resources. This is due to mutually recognized fairness and equality norms. Early developmental studies on sharing and equality norms found that egalitarian allocations of resources are not common before children are 5 or 6 years old. However, recent studies have shown that in some face-to face collaborative situations, or when recipients express their desires, children at much younger ages choose equal allocations. We investigated the ability of 3.5 and 5-year-olds to negotiate face-to-face, whether to collaborate to obtain an equal or an unequal distribution of rewards. We hypothesized that the face-to-face interaction and interdependency between partners would facilitate egalitarian outcomes at both ages. In the first experiment we found that 5-year-olds were more egalitarian than 3.5-year-olds, but neither of the age classes shared equally. In the second experiment, in which we increased the magnitude of the inequality, we found that children at both ages mostly agreed on the unequal distribution. These results show that communication and face-to-face interactions are not sufficient to guarantee equal allocations at 3-5 years of age. These results add to previous findings suggesting that in the context of non-collaboratively produced resources it is only after 5 years of age that children use equality norms to allocate resources.

  11. Bargaining, Sorting, and the Gender Wage Gap: Quantifying the Impact of Firms on the Relative Pay of Women

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Ana Rute Cardoso; Patrick Kline

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that firm-specific pay premiums are an important source of wage inequality. These premiums will contribute to the gender wage gap if women are less likely to work at high-paying firms or if women negotiate (or are offered) worse wage bargains with their employers than men. Using longitudinal data on the hourly wages of Portuguese workers matched with income statement information for firms, we show that the wages of both men and women contain firm-specific premiums th...

  12. Mobbing in Company: Levels and Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnejčič Beno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The individual is exposed to ever more covert psychological violence or mobbing in workplace within companies. The aim of this study is to analyse the level and the types of psychological violence within a company in which the individual works in their daily lives.

  13. The impact of bank's franchise on loan price: With an estimation about bargaining power of China's commercial bank%银行特许权对贷款价格的影响研究:兼论我国商业银行的议价能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琪; 曾胜

    2017-01-01

    With the deepening of the banking liberalization and market-oriented reform of interest rate controls,it would be an inevitable trend for banks and enterprises to determine the loan price by negotiation,so the role of the bargaining power in the loan pricing process will become more prominent.However,the existing literature mostly discussed the issue of loan pricing by focus on the product attribute of loan and the financial intermediary attribute of banks which ignored the properties of general merchandise of loans,so we barely knew the loan pricing mechanism form the perspective of market player's bargaining power,especially the bargaining power which came from bank's franchise and its impacts on loan price.This is neither conducive for us to understand the process of capital pricing correctly,nor comprehensive understanding the role of bank's franchise in loan pricing.This paper established a bargaining game model to analyze the formation mechanism of loan pricing with the market trend,and influences of bank's franchise on the loan prices negotiation.Based on this,this paper did an empirical study on the determinants of loan pricing by using two-tier stochastic frontier model and the data of 104 China's commercial bank from 2005 to 2013,measured commercial bank's bargaining power and its impact degree on loan prices.The study found:Firstly,franchise brought banks monopoly and operational superiority,which made banks have lower negotiation cost and stronger bargaining power,so as to get a strong position in the loan price negotiation to make the negotiation reach a higher transaction price;Secondly,beside the benchmark interest rate,loan cost,credit risk,the market structure of banking and the level of inflation were the major factors to determine the price of the loan.And the barging between the lender and borrower could lead to loan price fluctuation.Thirdly,although interest rate control limited the bargaining space of loan price,with monopoly power and

  14. Teacher-Board Relations in Connecticut: A Summary of the Law Regarding Scope of Negotiations, Good Faith Bargaining, and Unfair Labor Practices. Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    This document is a discussion draft intended to lead to the formulation of a set of guidelines by the state board of education concerning three areas of teacher negotiations: scope, good faith bargaining, and prohibited practices. It has been prepared in the form of an organized data base that focuses on summarizing the present state of the law…

  15. Collective Bargaining Agreement 1985-1987 between Regis College and the Regis College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis Coll., Denver, CO.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Regis College and the Regis College Chapter (50 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period August 1985-August 1987 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: definitions and AAUP recognition; faculty-administration relationships; stipends for…

  16. The Impact of a Collegiate Course in Bargaining and Negotiation on Students' Perceptions of Their Own and Others' Attitudes and Behaviors: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Stuart E.; Ammeter, Anthony P.; Hawley, Delvin D.; Garner, Bart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the importance of a course in bargaining and negotiation to university-level students in an accredited business school environment. In addition to discussing recommended content, pedagogy, and assessment methods, the results of a study that examines the impact of the course on students' perceptions of skills,…

  17. New Public Management, Public Service Bargains and the challenges of interdepartmental coordination: a comparative analysis of top civil servants in state administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Steen, Trui; de Jong, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    In this article we are interested in how the coordinating role of top civil servants is related to the argument that country-level differences in the adoption of New Public Management significantly alter the Public Service Bargains of top civil servants and consequently their capacity to accompli...

  18. Monetary policy and wage bargaining in the EMU: restrictive ECB policies, high unemployment, nominal wage restraint and inflation above the target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Hein

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the effects of monetary policy and wage bargaining on employment andinflation in the European Monetary Union (EMU, the first step sees development of a Post-Keynesian competitive claims model of inflation with endogenous money. In this model the NAIRU is considered to be a short-run limit to employment enforced by independent and conservative central banks. In the long run, however, the NAIRU will follow actual unemployment and is therefore also dependent on the forces determining aggregate demand, including monetary policies. But the NAIRU may also be reduced through effectively co-ordinated wage bargaining, as has been shown by institutional political economists. Applying these considerations to the economic performance of the EMU, different scenarios determined by wage bargainingcoordination and the European Central Bank's (ECB monetary policies are developed. It is shown that the first phase of the EMU was dominated by uncoordinated wage bargaining across the EMU and an "anti-growth-bias" of theECB. Thus the euro area was plagued with nominal wage restraint, highunemployment and inflation above the ECB target. Economic performance will improve if the ECB abandons its asymmetric monetary strategy. This may be facilitated by a higher degree of effective wage bargaining co-ordination across the EMU.

  19. More equal than others: Equity norms as an integration of cognitive heuristics and contextual cues in bargaining games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civai, Claudia; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Rustichini, Aldo

    2013-09-01

    Behavior in one-shot bargaining games, like the Ultimatum Game (UG), has been interpreted as an expression of social preferences, such as inequity aversion and negative reciprocity; however, the traditional UG design limits the range of possible psychological interpretation of the results. Here, we employed three different designs for ultimatum games, finding support for a more comprehensive theory: behavior is driven by cognitive factors implementing rules such as equal splitting, speaking up for the idea that equity works as a cognitive heuristic, applicable when the environment provides no reason to behave otherwise. Instead subjects deviate from this rule when environment changes, as, for instance, when personal interest is at stake. Results show that behavior varies systematically with contextual cues, balancing the self-interest with the automatic application of the equity heuristic. Thus, the context suggests the rule to be applied in a specific situation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interethnic Interaction, Strategic Bargaining Power, and the Dynamics of Cultural Norms : A Field Study in an Amazonian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John Andrew; McElreath, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms. We examine five mechanisms influencing the dynamics of ethnically distinct cultural norms, each focused on strategic individual-level choices in interethnic interaction: bargaining, interaction-frequency-biased norm adoption, assortment on norms, success-biased interethnic social learning, and childhood socialization. We use Bayesian item response models to analyze patterns of norm variation and interethnic interaction in an ethnically structured Amazonian population. We show that, among indigenous Matsigenka, interethnic education with colonial Mestizos is more strongly associated with Mestizo-typical norms than even extensive interethnic experience in commerce and wage labor is. Using ethnographic observations, we show that all five of the proposed mechanisms of norm adoption may contribute to this effect. However, of these mechanisms, we argue that changes in relative bargaining power are particularly important for ethnic minorities wishing to preserve distinctive norms while engaging in interethnic interaction in domains such as education. If this mechanism proves applicable in a range of other ethnographic contexts, it would constitute one cogent explanation for when and why ethnically structured cultural variation can either persist or erode given frequent, and often mutually beneficial, interethnic interaction.

  1. Mind the First Step: The Intrapersonal Effects of Affect on the Decision to Initiate Negotiations under Bargaining Power Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Kapoutsis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook two vignette studies to examine the role of affect (trait and state and bargaining power on initiating negotiations, an often overlooked stage of the negotiation process. Using a job negotiation opportunity, we examine three distinct phases of the initiation process—engaging a counterpart, making a request, and optimizing a request. Study 1 examines the effects of two affect dispositions (happiness and sadness, under power asymmetry (low vs. high bargaining power, on the three initiation behaviors. We found that power is pivotal to the decision to engage, request, and optimize. Also, sadness reduces the likelihood of initiation when power is high but is immaterial when power is low. In contrast, individuals who tend to be happy can reverse the adverse effect of powerlessness on requesting, but not on engaging and optimizing. However, happiness does not carry over a positive effect on negotiation initiation, over and above that of power. Study 2 investigated the role of trait affect when individuals are in power asymmetry and when they are induced with sadness or happiness. We found that those with a happy disposition initiate more (engage, request, and optimize when power is high and experience incidental sadness. Overall, these findings qualify previous research on negotiation initiation and highlight the importance of trait affect and its interaction with state affect as additional driving forces and of power as a boundary condition.“for the error occurs at the beginning, and the beginning as the proverb says is half of the whole, so that even a small mistake at the beginning stands in the same ratio to mistakes at the other stages.”(trans.Aristotle, 1944, 1303b

  2. The Role of "Islamic feminism" in Somali Immigrant Women's Intra-and Extra-Household Bargaining Power and in Mitigating the Negative Effects of the Image Problem in their Integration in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ngunjiri, Anne Wangui

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the aspirations and life experiences of Somali immigrant women in Bergen as they embark on gender-tuned interpretation of the Quran as a source of bargaining power within the household and in the wider Norwegian immigration context. By bargaining power I mean an individual's interests or preferences and the ability to act on those interests or preferences. I show that, faced by constraints such as restrictive structures within the Norwegian immigration context and pa...

  3. Assessing the Impact of Wage Bargaining and Worker Preferences on the Gender Pay Gap in Ireland Using the National Employment Survey 2003

    OpenAIRE

    McGuinness, Seamus; Kelly, Elish; O'Connell, Philip J.; Callan, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude and nature of the gender pay gap in Ireland using the National Employment Survey 2003, an employeremployee matched dataset. The results suggest that while a wage bargaining system centred around social partnership was of benefit to females irrespective of their employment status, the minimum wage mechanism appears to improve the relative position of part-time females only. Trade union membership was associated with a widening gender pay gap in the full-time l...

  4. Balancing work and family in the low-wage service sector: the role of legislated and collectively-bargained norms in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of legislated norms of general application in shaping "family-friendly" workplaces and their interaction with collectively-bargained standards in the retail service sector and more specifically, in a single unionized retail sector in Quebec, Canada. The methodology used is traditional legal research methodology: analysis of laws, collective agreements and case law. The principal norms examined concern parental and family leave, working time and disparities between different employment statuses. A series of legislative provisions have been adopted in Quebec over the last 30 years whose objectives are the improvement of family-related leave and the reduction of working time. Unions have also negotiated provisions in collective agreements with these same goals. In the low-wage retail sector studied, the working time standards negotiated between the unions and the employers reflect the characteristics of the sector, most notably extended opening hours, seven days a week. Predictability of hours also varies according to employment status. Such issues as family-unfriendly working time arrangements (last-minute scheduling, asocial hours, etc.) and the need for flexibility in family-related leave are insufficiently taken into account by the legislated and bargained provisions. A fine analysis and comprehension of existing formal regulation, be it legislated or collectively-bargained, is required to fully understand workers' experiences with work-family balance and to identify the gaps between formal norms and the needs expressed by workers with respect to work-family balance.

  5. Dynamics in Dutch collective bargaining - practice and challenges : Peer Review “Towards a more dynamic collective bargaining”, Portugal, 23-24 October 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Sonja; Wilthagen, Ton

    2017-01-01

    Having the so-called ‘Polder’ model, the Netherlands has a long and fruitful history of social dialogue at both the national, sectoral and company level, with relatively harmonious relationship between the social partners and the government for the past 35 years (de Beer and Keune, 2017). The

  6. Kalai-Smorodinsky bargaining solution for optimal resource allocation over wireless DS-CDMA visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandremmenou, Katerina; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance applications usually require high levels of video quality, resulting in high power consumption. The existence of a well-behaved scheme to balance video quality and power consumption is crucial for the system's performance. In the present work, we adopt the game-theoretic approach of Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution (KSBS) to deal with the problem of optimal resource allocation in a multi-node wireless visual sensor network (VSN). In our setting, the Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) method is used for channel access, while a cross-layer optimization design, which employs a central processing server, accounts for the overall system efficacy through all network layers. The task assigned to the central server is the communication with the nodes and the joint determination of their transmission parameters. The KSBS is applied to non-convex utility spaces, efficiently distributing the source coding rate, channel coding rate and transmission powers among the nodes. In the underlying model, the transmission powers assume continuous values, whereas the source and channel coding rates can take only discrete values. Experimental results are reported and discussed to demonstrate the merits of KSBS over competing policies.

  7. Peaceful use agenda at the 2015 NPT review conference. Reaffirming grand bargain and north-south agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Nobumasa

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference was judged as having two highlights: one was that the conflict between the United States and Middle East on the 'Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction' brought about a failure in the adoption of the final document, and the other was that the discussions over nuclear disarmament livened up in the climax of debate over the inhumanity of nuclear arms. On the other hand, among the first NPT Review Conference after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy did not attract a great attention. However, the importance of the structure of Grand Bargain' among the three pillars of NPT such as nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation, and peaceful uses of nuclear energy was once again recognized. In addition, it was shown that the peaceful uses in the non-power generation field is important from the viewpoint of maintaining the involvement in NPT of the countries that do not necessarily use a large-scale of nuclear energy, such as developing countries. In the future, the importance of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy will increase from the viewpoints of its relationship between the development field and the equality between the developing and developed countries. (A.O.)

  8. Money priming and social behavior of natural groups in simple bargaining and dilemma experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Michailova, Julija; Bühren, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of money priming and solidarity on individual behavior in three simple experiments: dictator game, ultimatum game, and prisoner's dilemma. Our study comprises two money treatments and two neutral (control) treatments. Additionally, we control for the strength of social ties between experimental participants. Although our priming procedure is sufficient to remind people of the concept of money, it is not sufficient to induce systematically different behavior of the treat...

  9. Advancing a Distributive-Bargaining and Integrative-Negotiation Integral System: A Values-Based Negotiation Model (VBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The proposed values-based negotiation model (VBM agrees with and extends principled negotiation’s recognition of personal values and emotions as important negotiation elements. First, building upon Martin Buber’s existentialist treatment of religion and secularism, VBM centers on religion as one of many possible sources of personal values that informs respectful and mutually beneficial interactions without needing one to necessarily be religious. Just as one need not be a Buddhist or a Hindu to practice yoga, negotiators of any theological outlook can profit from a model grounded in broad, common tenets drawn from a range of organized religions. Second, VBM distinguishes feelings from emotions because the long-lasting and intrinsically stimulated effects of feelings have greater implications on the perception of negotiated outcomes. VBM negotiators view negotiations as a constitutive prosocial process whereby parties consider the outcome important enough to invest time and energy. Negotiators who use VBM appeal to the goodness of their counterparts by doing good first so that both parties avoid a win-lose outcome. This counterintuitive move contradicts the self-centered but understandably normal human behavior of prioritizing one’s own interests before others’ interests. However, when one appeals to the goodness of one’s Buberian Thou counterparts, he or she stimulates positive emotions that promote understanding. Third, VBM provides a framework that draws upon an individual’s personal values (religious or otherwise and reconfigures the distributive-bargaining-and-integrative-negotiation distinction so that negotiators can freely apply distributive tactics to claim maximum intangible and tangible outcomes without compromising on their personal values or valuable relationships.

  10. A multi-objective simulation-optimization model for in situ bioremediation of groundwater contamination: Application of bargaining theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raei, Ehsan; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Pourshahabi, Shokoufeh

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, a BIOPLUME III simulation model is coupled with a non-dominating sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II)-based model for optimal design of in situ groundwater bioremediation system, considering preferences of stakeholders. Ministry of Energy (MOE), Department of Environment (DOE), and National Disaster Management Organization (NDMO) are three stakeholders in the groundwater bioremediation problem in Iran. Based on the preferences of these stakeholders, the multi-objective optimization model tries to minimize: (1) cost; (2) sum of contaminant concentrations that violate standard; (3) contaminant plume fragmentation. The NSGA-II multi-objective optimization method gives Pareto-optimal solutions. A compromised solution is determined using fallback bargaining with impasse to achieve a consensus among the stakeholders. In this study, two different approaches are investigated and compared based on two different domains for locations of injection and extraction wells. At the first approach, a limited number of predefined locations is considered according to previous similar studies. At the second approach, all possible points in study area are investigated to find optimal locations, arrangement, and flow rate of injection and extraction wells. Involvement of the stakeholders, investigating all possible points instead of a limited number of locations for wells, and minimizing the contaminant plume fragmentation during bioremediation are new innovations in this research. Besides, the simulation period is divided into smaller time intervals for more efficient optimization. Image processing toolbox in MATLAB® software is utilized for calculation of the third objective function. In comparison with previous studies, cost is reduced using the proposed methodology. Dispersion of the contaminant plume is reduced in both presented approaches using the third objective function. Considering all possible points in the study area for determining the optimal locations

  11. Parallel Imports, Drag Price Control and Pharmaceutical Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Tabata; Testuya Shinkai; Satoru Tanaka; Makoto Okamura

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how parallel importation influences pharmaceutical innovation and the welfare of the economy, when crossnational drug price differentials occur not only because of demand elasticity based factors, but also governmental drug price control based factors. By explicitly considering the governmental drug price control baaed factors, this paper shows that parallel importation may enhance pharmaceutical innovation, when the bargaining power of a foreign government is strong and t...

  12. All China federation of trade unions : structure, functions and the challenge of collective bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Traub-Merz, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    In China, the All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) is the sole legal trade union organisation. It was established in 1925 and over the years and decades has gone through many changes. After 1949 it was restructured according to the needs of a socialist command economy and became the »transmission belt« through which the Party controlled workers. The year 1978 was again a turning point, when China started its liberalisation and, fed by surplus labour from a peasant economy, gradually r...

  13. Bargaining power within couples and use of prenatal and delivery care in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, K; Frankenberg, E; Thomas, D

    2001-06-01

    Indonesian women's power relative to that of their husbands is examined to determine how it affects use of prenatal and delivery care. Holding household resources constant, a woman's control over economic resources affects the couple's decision-making. Compared with a woman with no assets that she perceives as being her own, a woman with some share of household assets influences reproductive health decisions. Evidence suggests that her influence on service use also varies if a woman is better educated than her husband, comes from a background of higher social status than her husband's, or if her father is better educated than her father-in-law. Therefore, both economic and social dimensions of the distribution of power between spouses influence use of services, and conceptualizing power as multidimensional is useful for understanding couples' behavior.

  14. Flexicurity and Collective Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    and combination security (work-life balance) arguably depend on local circumstances which complicates things. To compensate for increased working time flexibility so called social chapters on maternity/paternal leave can be introduced which increase income security and combination security. Also, provisions...... countries combine flexibility and security. Minimum rates provide a certain degree of income security in shifting jobs and economic downturns while companies can introduce variable pay systems at workplace level. The same logic applies to working time, but here balances between working time flexibility...

  15. Bargaining with the Divine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald E.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a clarification of morality, ethics, and moral development, as well as a definition of justice. Also examines a theological perspective of moral development and the implications of this perspective for the education of young students. Includes examples of classroom situations where the concept of "justice-plus" can be developed as a moral…

  16. A Faustian Bargain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    of the Wehrmacht. Although the Wehrmacht’s economic department had pointed to a few Danish industrial plants that might be of military interest, Berlin’s expectations of Denmark’s industrial capacity were limited. The situation changed as the Wehrwirtschaftsstab Dänemark (the Danish office of the Economic branch...

  17. Bargaining for health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Saaby; Nielsen Arendt, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the short- and medium-term effects of the PensionDanmark Health Scheme, the largest privately administered health program for workers in Denmark, which provides prevention and early management of work-related injuries. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits...... a natural variation in the program rollout across collective agreement areas in the construction sector and over time. The results show only little evidence of an effect on the prevention of injuries requiring medical attention in the first 3 years after the program was introduced. Despite this, we find...... evidence of significant positive effects on several labor market outcomes, suggesting that the program enables some work-injured individuals to maintain their work and earnings capacity. In view of its low costs, the program appears to be cost-effective overall....

  18. Bargaining over Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thörnqvist, Tomas; Vardardottir, Arna

    and utilize a source of exogenous variation in sex-specific labor demand to show that its distribution among spouses is a driving force in the aggregation of spouses' preferences in financial decision making. As the decision power of female spouses grows, participation in the equity market decreases......This paper investigates the internal financial decision-making process of households by employing a unique panel dataset containing the disaggregated wealth of the entire Swedish population over seven years. We directly estimate the outside options of spouses that determine their decision power...... of their decision power to reduce the cost of underdiversification....

  19. A Global Governance Shift in Development : A study on how transnational corporation´s CSR initiative can address Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining and how that can facilitate development

    OpenAIRE

    Runesson, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Through globalization non-state actors including transnational corporations (TNC), have taken on a more important global governance role from the nation state, where they through their CSR initiatives, impact social issues surrounding development. There are however conflicting views whether CSR could contribute to development in the society. TNCs CSR engagement mainly concerns social issues at the workplace such as complying with labour rights. But workers right to organize and bargain collec...

  20. Abordajes sobre la negociación colectiva durante la convertibilidad: Aportes para interrogar al presente Approaches concerning collective bargaining on convertibility: Contributions to ask at the present time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Anigstein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, ¿se ha reestablecido la "pauta tradicional" de negociación colectiva luego de un paréntesis demarcado por el régimen de convertibilidad? ¿O mantiene vigencia la pauta de negociación instaurada con la flexibilización laboral?. Estos interrogantes reclaman una revisión de las argumentaciones que se articularon en torno a los cambios en los patrones de la negociación colectiva durante la década de los noventa y de sus premisas conceptuales. El propósito es construir un punto de partida conceptual que nos habilite un abordaje del presente, sino exento, al menos advertido de algunas perspectivas normativas.At present, the guideline was re-established the " traditional guideline " of collective bargaining after a parenthesis limited by the regime of convertibility? Or, does it follow in force the guideline of collective bargaining installed in the decade of the nineties?. These questions claim a review of the argumentations that were articulated concerning the changes in the bosses of the collective bargaining during the decade of the nineties and of his conceptual premises. The intention is to construct a point of conceptual item that a boarding of the present enables us, but exempt, at least warned of some normative perspectives.

  1. Literature review on risk governance at the company level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, A.; Terwoert, J.; Hollander, A.

    2011-01-01

    This literature review on Risk Governance is part of a TNO research programme on the safety of innovative substances and technologies in the workplace. The purpose of this review is to investigate how risk governance can be applied in the workplace when dealing with uncertainties regarding the

  2. Literature review on risk governance at the company level

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkman, A.; Terwoert, J.; Hollander, A.

    2011-01-01

    This literature review on Risk Governance is part of a TNO research programme on the safety of innovative substances and technologies in the workplace. The purpose of this review is to investigate how risk governance can be applied in the workplace when dealing with uncertainties regarding the (health) risks of these technologies, and with the related responsibilities. The review gives an overview of the current state of affairs of risk governance as a concept, and more specifically examines ...

  3. Beyond takeovers: politics comes to corporate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, J

    1992-01-01

    In the 1990s, politics will replace takeovers as the defining tool for corporate governance challenges, and a marketplace of ideas will replace the frenzied activity that once dominated the financial marketplace in the 1980s. In the transaction-driven market of the past, corporate raiders used junk bonds and other financial tools to take control of their targets. In the new marketplace of ideas, debate will replace debt as active shareholders press specific operating policies for their target corporations in a new politicized market for corporate control. John Pound, associate professor of public policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, reports that investors are already using shadow management committees, independent director slates, and outside experts to influence management policy. Pound cites Carl Icahn's battle for control of USX as an example of the emerging trend. What began as a hostile takeover ended with a negotiated solution in which many constituencies ultimately played a role in the restructuring of the company. This political approach to governance gives management a chance to embrace a bargain that is in its long-term interest. By promoting politically based tactics, managers can generate political capital with their major investors. Managers in companies as diverse as Avon and Lockheed now meet regularly with investors, seeking their input on both financial and strategic decisions. In the new politicized market for corporate control, striking a bargain with long-term investors is ultimately in the best interest of the corporation.

  4. Joint Machine Learning and Game Theory for Rate Control in High Efficiency Video Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Kwong, Sam; Jia, Yuheng

    2017-08-25

    In this paper, a joint machine learning and game theory modeling (MLGT) framework is proposed for inter frame coding tree unit (CTU) level bit allocation and rate control (RC) optimization in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). First, a support vector machine (SVM) based multi-classification scheme is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of CTU-level Rate-Distortion (R-D) model. The legacy "chicken-and-egg" dilemma in video coding is proposed to be overcome by the learning-based R-D model. Second, a mixed R-D model based cooperative bargaining game theory is proposed for bit allocation optimization, where the convexity of the mixed R-D model based utility function is proved, and Nash bargaining solution (NBS) is achieved by the proposed iterative solution search method. The minimum utility is adjusted by the reference coding distortion and frame-level Quantization parameter (QP) change. Lastly, intra frame QP and inter frame adaptive bit ratios are adjusted to make inter frames have more bit resources to maintain smooth quality and bit consumption in the bargaining game optimization. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MLGT based RC method can achieve much better R-D performances, quality smoothness, bit rate accuracy, buffer control results and subjective visual quality than the other state-of-the-art one-pass RC methods, and the achieved R-D performances are very close to the performance limits from the FixedQP method.

  5. Oral cancer via the bargain bin: The risk of oral cancer associated with a smokeless tobacco product (Naswar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib; Dreger, Steffen; Shah, Syed Majid Hussain; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Khan, Sheraz; Ullah, Zakir; Rehman, Basheer; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of smokeless tobacco (SLT) being advocated as a mean of tobacco harm reduction, it is pertinent to establish individual health risks associated with each SLT product. This case-control study was aimed at assessing the risk of oral cancer associated with a smokeless tobacco product (Naswar). The study was conducted from September 2014 till May 2015 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Exposure and covariate information was collected through a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). 84 oral cancer cases (62% males) and 174 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Ever users of Naswar had more than a 20-fold higher risk of oral cancer compared to never-users (OR 21.2, 95% CI 8.4-53.8). Females had a higher risk of oral cancer with the use of Naswar (OR 29.0, 95% CI 5.4-153.9) as compared to males (OR 21.0, 95% CI 6.1-72.1). Based on this result, 68% (men) and 38% (women) of the oral cancer burden in Pakistan is attributable to Naswar. The risk estimates observed in this study are comparable to risk estimates reported by previous studies on other forms of SLT use and the risk of oral cancer in Pakistan. The exposure-response relationship also supports a strong role of Naswar in the etiology of oral cancer in Pakistan. Although still requiring further validation through independent studies, these findings may be used for smokeless tobacco control in countries where Naswar use is common.

  6. Intergenerational bargaining in technology adoption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    -, č. 414 (2010), s. 1-61 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : technology adoption * stagnation * economic integration * political fragmentation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp414.pdf

  7. GOVERNANCE, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND PEACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth of national economy in relation to global economic change. This situation ... Today׳s environment has rarely been exceeded in complexity, turbulence ... has shown the fusion of state politics and organized labour business. The state.

  8. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be

  9. The Juscelino Kubitschek government and the Brazilian Malaria Control and Eradication Working Group: collaboration and conflicts in Brazilian and international health agenda, 1958-1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, a disease which was under control in the beginning of Juscelino Kubitschek government, became the most important endemic disease in 1958, when Brazil made a commitment with the World Health Organization to convert its control programs into eradication programs. For this purpose a Malaria Control and Eradication Group was set up under the leadership of the malaria specialist Mário Pinotti. Malaria would become an important bargaining chip in the context of the development policies of Kubitschek. This article focuses on path of the Malaria Control and Eradication Working Group in Brazil, in its varying relationships with the arguments and guidelines established at international level

  10. Optimal treatment cost allocation methods in pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenying; Fang Dong; Xue Dazhi

    1999-01-01

    Total emission control is an effective pollution control strategy. However, Chinese application of total emission control lacks reasonable and fair methods for optimal treatment cost allocation, a critical issue in total emission control. The author considers four approaches to allocate treatment costs. The first approach is to set up a multiple-objective planning model and to solve the model using the shortest distance ideal point method. The second approach is to define degree of satisfaction for cost allocation results for each polluter and to establish a method based on this concept. The third is to apply bargaining and arbitration theory to develop a model. The fourth is to establish a cooperative N-person game model which can be solved using the Shapley value method, the core method, the Cost Gap Allocation method or the Minimum Costs-Remaining Savings method. These approaches are compared using a practicable case study

  11. Using game theory for perceptual tuned rate control algorithm in video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiancong; Ahmad, Ishfaq

    2005-03-01

    This paper proposes a game theoretical rate control technique for video compression. Using a cooperative gaming approach, which has been utilized in several branches of natural and social sciences because of its enormous potential for solving constrained optimization problems, we propose a dual-level scheme to optimize the perceptual quality while guaranteeing "fairness" in bit allocation among macroblocks. At the frame level, the algorithm allocates target bits to frames based on their coding complexity. At the macroblock level, the algorithm distributes bits to macroblocks by defining a bargaining game. Macroblocks play cooperatively to compete for shares of resources (bits) to optimize their quantization scales while considering the Human Visual System"s perceptual property. Since the whole frame is an entity perceived by viewers, macroblocks compete cooperatively under a global objective of achieving the best quality with the given bit constraint. The major advantage of the proposed approach is that the cooperative game leads to an optimal and fair bit allocation strategy based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Another advantage is that it allows multi-objective optimization with multiple decision makers (macroblocks). The simulation results testify the algorithm"s ability to achieve accurate bit rate with good perceptual quality, and to maintain a stable buffer level.

  12. Intrahousehold resource allocation and child growth in Mozambique: an ethnographic case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, J; Gloyd, S; Ramirez Li, L

    2001-07-01

    This study examines the effect of intrahousehold cash income control and decision-making patterns on child growth in the rural town of Sussundenga in Manica Province, Mozambique. A case-control study design was used to examine the influence of men's and women's disaggregated cash incomes on child growth. The research tested whether greater maternal share of household cash income was associated with (1) increased maternal decision-making and bargaining power in the household, and (2) better child growth. Fifty case households, with children 1-4 years old exhibiting poor growth, were matched with 50 control households of similar socioeconomic status in which all children under five demonstrated healthy growth. Data were gathered on gender-specific income generation and expenditure, specific intrahousehold allocation processes, diet, and sociodemographic variables using a formal survey. Key informant interviews, focus groups, and observation over one year provided ethnographic context for the case-control findings. Case-control differences were analyzed using McNemar's test, paired t-test, and conditional logistic regression. In spite of matching households for socioeconomic status, control household incomes were still slightly greater than cases. Male spouse income was also higher among controls while maternal income, and maternal proportion of household income, were not significantly different. Household meat, fish and poultry consumption, and maternal education were significantly greater among control households than cases. Greater maternal share of household income was not associated with greater maternal decision-making around cash. However, mothers must spend what little cash they earn on daily food supplies and usually request additional cash from spouses to cover these costs. There is evidence that if mothers earn enough to cover these socially prescribed costs, they can spend cash for other needs. Above this threshold, women's earnings may confer more

  13. Building Server Capabilities - Company Level Innovation and Innovation Management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2012-01-01

    . How to develop the capabilities needed in the subsidiaries of multinational companies in order to fit their business strategies and to serve the markets appropriately poses challenges, and the study is an effort to unravel solutions to these challenges while helping managers to find suitable rationale...

  14. Trade-offs on flexible working hours at the company level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Arbejdstidsforskningen inden for Industrial Relations traditionen har haft et stærkt fokus på arbejdsgivernes interesse i at forhandle fleksibel arbejdstid lokalt. Debatten har først og fremmest stået om, i hvilket omfang denne interesse fra arbejdsgivernes side primært er at finde i bestemte sek...

  15. Business rescue: How can its success be evaluated at company level?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of what constitutes a successful business rescue is a very topical and unanswered one. Reports on success are contradictory and seem to lack a set of standardised evaluation criteria. The purpose of this article is to investigate how business rescue success is evaluated internationally in order to develop a set ...

  16. Equal Opportunity Leadership Training for Company-Level Chain of Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Finman, An Analysis of the Training of Army Personnel at the Defense Race Rela- tions Institute, ARI Technical Repqrt TR78-Bi4, Alexa /dria, Vat. US. Army... recognition on our last IG Inspection, sir. This was really due to outstanding work by our squad leaders. It would be tough to lose them." FS Brown...Philadelphia? Is the speech of blacks evaluated differently than that of whites? What about a Spanish/Mexican/Puerto Rican accent?" The main point to be

  17. Business rescue: How can its success be evaluated at company level?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    Ms S. Conradie & Mr C. Lamprecht are in the School of Accounting, ... Firstly, a vast body of literature exists for predicting financial distress and developing ..... original company emerged from Chapter 11 for the principal purpose of preserving.

  18. Implementing the EU's Directive on Fixed-term Contracts at Company Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Trine Pernille

    This article examines the effects and influences of the EU's directive on fixed-term contracts in the Danish local government sector. The study is based on interviews with 259 workplaces, central management and trade union representatives from 14 randomly selected Danish municipalities. The article...... argues that although social partners at local level have transposed the directive, its actual effects are limited, as employers' recruitment strategies and fixed-term workers' working conditions have changed relatively little as a result of the directive. The success of implementing the directive largely...

  19. Company-level profile of international coal trade: 1985-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutledge, J.; Wright, P.

    1992-01-01

    This article profiles the 61 parent companies from 21 countries which, in 1990, were responsible for 88% of world coal exports. The profile categorizes the parent companies according to their principal business activity, establishes the extent to which their operations are transnational, identifies those with the fastest growing coal exports and investigates the relationship between exporting and profitability. Its main findings are that the majority of coal exports are produced by companies for which coal is not their main business activity, that half of the companies in the study are transnationals but only a quarter are transnational in coal and that, in the context of declining profit margins between 1985 and 1990, there is no evidence of a relationship between the profitability of a company's coal operations and its propensity to export

  20. Business rescue: How can its success be evaluated at company level?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 3 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Common weights under dea control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, P.J.; Bogetoft, P.; Fristrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    DEA relies so far on endogenous local or exogenous general weights, limited to available information. We offer endogenous general prices based on a reformulation of DEA. The potential application could be to precipitate collective bargaining on cost efficiency. The models are exemplified with data from the Danish district heating plants, where the open evaluation of multiple non-priced outputs is relevant (au)

  2. Networks and Bargaining in Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today.......A duscussion of the fight between proponents of rationalistic policy analysis and more political interaction models for policy analysis. The latter group is the foundation for the many network models of policy analysis of today....

  3. A Multimedia Bargain? (New Media Literacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, William

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that choosing the right type of animation and designing it carefully can communicate messages effectively and economically. Discusses using animation for what it does well; using the right type of animation; and keeping animation costs low. (RS)

  4. Bargaining power and information in SME lending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grunert (Jens); L. Norden (Lars)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSmall- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are informationally opaque and bank dependent. In SME lending, banks largely rely on soft information, because the scale and scope of hard information are limited. We analyze whether and how hard and soft information affects the borrower's

  5. Is Distance Education a Faustian Bargain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiase, David

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the morality of distance education in geography. States that distance education learners are a qualitatively different, older population with educational needs separate from traditional on-campus students. Argues that geography educators have a moral obligation to serve lifelong learners. Includes references. (CMK)

  6. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  7. The Hippocratic bargain and health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    The shift to longitudinal, comprehensive electronic health records (EHRs) means that any health care provider (e.g., dentist, pharmacist, physical therapist) or third-party user of the EHR (e.g., employer, life insurer) will be able to access much health information of questionable clinical utility and possibly of great sensitivity. Genetic test results, reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence are examples of sensitive information that many patients would not want routinely available. The likely policy response is to give patients the ability to segment information in their EHRs and to sequester certain types of sensitive information, thereby limiting routine access to the totality of a patient's health record. This article explores the likely effect on the physician-patient relationship of patient-directed sequestration of sensitive health information, including the ethical and legal consequences.

  8. Trade Unionism, Collective Bargaining and Nation Building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    This paper tends to examine the impact of trade unionism .... NLC waxed very strong despite the incessant harassments, detention and intimidation on the ..... effect the decisions of such agreements in a negative way as could be seen in many ...

  9. Institutions, Social Norms, and Bargaining Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Stratton, VCU, Leslie

    are generally supportive of these hypotheses, with leisure time on non-work days in the US being particularly responsive to economic power. In addition, we find some evidence that institutions matter as women in the US who are more likely to receive welfare benefits enjoy more leisure time than would...... standard economic power measures have upon couples’ time use. Further we posit that leisure time will be more sensitive to power considerations than housework time which may be more influenced by preferences regarding household public goods, to gendered notions of time use, and to censoring. Our results...

  10. Alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, plea bargain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflicts, disputes, disagreements, problems and issues are inevitable in human affairs. Most of these disputes and problems in some circumstances give rise to offences for which a criminal prosecution becomes necessary. One can say that Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is used all round the world to resolve ...

  11. Instrumentation and controls training in TVA: a story of large numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority currently has four nuclear units on line with seventeen units planned prior to the year 2000. Providing a permanent instrumentation and controls workforce, projected to be approximately 700 trades and labor craftsmen, is a formidable task requiring the cooperative efforts of many diverse groups: mangement and labor, engineers and craftsmen, students and instructors. In TVA, the primary source of skilled I and C craftsmen is through formal training programs conducted in cooperation with the craft bargaining unit, the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. The purpose of this paper is to describe and review the progress of two of these programs: the Instrument Mechanic Training Program and the Senior Instrument Mechanic Training Program

  12. Getting International Labour Rights Right at a Foreign Controlled Company in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses international campaigning for labour rights and global labour networking against illegitimate labour practices of global corporations. Theoretically, the article offers an analytical framework to explain and strategise labour empowerment and disempowerment in Global Production......–Malaysian campaign in support of a worker collective in a Danish controlled joint venture in Malaysia struggling for union recognition and collective bargaining agreement. The article concludes that the GLN approach integrates the achievements of the labour agency literatures by focusing on explaining changes...... in strategic labour power from the dynamic interface of strategic opportunities and labour capacity. Moreover, it is argued that semi-comprehensive international campaigns of labour NGOs may add critical but insufficient support to labour agency in developing countries with highly legalistic and politically...

  13. Streamlining Local Behaviour Through Communication, Incentives and Control: A Case Study of Local Environmental Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heberer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how China uses evaluation ratings and monitoring as incentives in order to foster the implementation of environmental policies at the local level. It is argued that decentralisation in China leaves room for actors at the local levels to manoeuver and bargain with those on higher levels for flexible adjustment of implementation policies according to local conditions. However, decentralisation is accompanied by significant institutional changes in the structure of intergovernmental communication, incentives and control. Accordingly, decentralisation in China exhibits a specific design which leaves space for divergent local environmental policies while also engendering “grass-roots mechanisms”. On the whole, this new institutional setting benefits the implementation of environmental policies.

  14. Signs of segmentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the contribution of decentralized collective bargaining to the development of different forms of flexicurity for different groups of employees on the Danish labour market. Based on five case studies of company-level bargaining on flexible working hours in Danish industry......, it is argued that decentralized bargaining has enabled new balances between flexibility and security to develop for many but not all groups of employees. On the one hand, the company-level agreements on flexible working hours facilitate greater efficiency and employee satisfaction that often goes beyond...... the text of the agreements. On the other hand, less flexible employees often face difficulties in meeting the demands of the agreements and may ultimately be forced to leave the company and rely on unemployment benefits and active labour market policies. In a flexicurity perspective, this development seems...

  15. Condicionantes institucionais e políticos e poder de barganha nas negociações internacionais sobre agricultura: o caso da União Européia Institutional and political constraints and bargain power in agriculture international negotiations: the case of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Valladão de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo se analisa a influência das instituições políticas e da Política Agrícola Comum sobre o comportamento da UE nas negociações internacionais no âmbito da agricultura. Procura-se demonstrar que aqueles fatores colaboram para tornar o ambiente ratificador da UE limitado, aumentando o seu poder de barganha e reduzindo a margem de manobra dos adversários. A pesquisa enfoca, dessa maneira, o modo como os interesses dos Estados-membro são canalizados pelas instituições, bem como o desempenho da UE em relação ao comportamento dos EUA e do Brasil nas Rodadas Uruguai e Doha.This article analyses the influence of political institutions and of the Common Agricultural Policy on the EU's behavior in international agricultural negotiations. It aims at demonstrating that those factors contribute to make the EU's ratification context restricted, increasing its bargaining power and reducing the leverage of its opponents. Therefore, this paper considers how the member states' interests are channeled by the institutions and the role of the EU in relation to the behavior of the USA and of Brazil in the Uruguay and Doha Rounds.

  16. Working time flexibility components and working time regimes in Europe: using company-level data across 21 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Heejung; Tijdens, Kea

    2013-01-01

    Working time flexibility comprises a wide variety of arrangements, from part-time,\\ud overtime, to long-term leaves. Theoretical approaches to grouping these arrangements\\ud have been developed, but empirical underpinnings are rare. This article investigates\\ud the bundles that can be found for various flexible working time arrangements, using the\\ud Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work–Life Balance, 2004/2005, covering 21\\ud EU member states and 13 industries. The results from the fac...

  17. Working time flexibility components and working time regimes in Europe: using company-level data across 21 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, H.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    Working time flexibility comprises a wide variety of arrangements, from part-time, overtime, to long-term leaves. Theoretical approaches to grouping these arrangements have been developed, but empirical underpinnings are rare. This article investigates the bundles that can be found for various

  18. Flexibility, but for whom? : A new approach to examining labour market flexibility across Europe using company level data

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Heejung

    2006-01-01

    Labour market flexibility continues to be one of the key issues in the reform of labour markets in welfare states. The way in which various countries adapt to this need differs according to their institutions and prevailing strategies. Despite the vast numbers of studies addressing this issue, labour market flexibility has been examined predominantly by concentrating on the arrangements that firms adopt to adjust to market fluctuations. Thus flexibility arrangements are perceived to exist onl...

  19. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Meyer-Rath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes in the workplace. A full cost-benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost-benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022.A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM, was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers. The model was fitted to workforce HIV prevalence and separation data while incorporating parameter uncertainty; univariate sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model findings. As ART coverage increases from 10% to 97% of eligible employees, increases in survival and retention of HIV-positive employees and associated reductions in absenteeism and benefit payments lead to cost savings compared to a scenario of no treatment provision, with the annual cost of HIV to the company decreasing by 5% (90% credibility interval [CrI] 2%-8% and the mean cost per HIV-positive employee decreasing by 14% (90% CrI 7%-19% by 2022. This translates into an average saving of US$950,215 (90% CrI US$220,879-US$1.6 million per year; 80% of these cost savings are due to reductions in benefit payments and inpatient care costs. Although findings are sensitive to assumptions regarding incidence and absenteeism, ART is cost-saving under considerable parameter uncertainty and in all tested scenarios, including when prevalence is reduced to 1%-except when no benefits were paid out to employees leaving the workforce and when absenteeism rates were half of what data suggested. Scaling up ART further through a universal test and treat strategy doubles savings; incorporating ART for family members reduces savings but is still marginally cost-saving compared to no treatment. Our analysis was limited to the direct cost of HIV to companies and did not examine the impact of HIV prevention policies on the miners or their families, and a few model inputs were based on limited data, though in sensitivity analysis our results were found to be robust to changes to these inputs along plausible ranges.Workplace ART provision can be cost-saving for companies in high HIV prevalence settings due to reductions in healthcare costs, absenteeism, and staff turnover. Company-sponsored HIV counselling and voluntary testing with ensuing treatment of all HIV-positive employees and family members should be implemented universally at workplaces in countries with high HIV prevalence.

  20. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa: A Cost–Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Pienaar, Jan; Brink, Brian; van Zyl, Andrew; Muirhead, Debbie; Grant, Alison; Churchyard, Gavin; Watts, Charlotte; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in the workplace. A full cost–benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost–benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022. Methods and Findings A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM), was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers. The model was fitted to workforce HIV prevalence and separation data while incorporating parameter uncertainty; univariate sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model findings. As ART coverage increases from 10% to 97% of eligible employees, increases in survival and retention of HIV-positive employees and associated reductions in absenteeism and benefit payments lead to cost savings compared to a scenario of no treatment provision, with the annual cost of HIV to the company decreasing by 5% (90% credibility interval [CrI] 2%–8%) and the mean cost per HIV-positive employee decreasing by 14% (90% CrI 7%–19%) by 2022. This translates into an average saving of US$950,215 (90% CrI US$220,879–US$1.6 million) per year; 80% of these cost savings are due to reductions in benefit payments and inpatient care costs. Although findings are sensitive to assumptions regarding incidence and absenteeism, ART is cost-saving under considerable parameter uncertainty and in all tested scenarios, including when prevalence is reduced to 1%—except when no benefits were paid out to employees leaving the workforce and when absenteeism rates were half of what data suggested. Scaling up ART further through a universal test and treat strategy doubles savings; incorporating ART for family members reduces savings but is still marginally cost-saving compared to no treatment. Our analysis was limited to the direct cost of HIV to companies and did not examine the impact of HIV prevention policies on the miners or their families, and a few model inputs were based on limited data, though in sensitivity analysis our results were found to be robust to changes to these inputs along plausible ranges. Conclusions Workplace ART provision can be cost-saving for companies in high HIV prevalence settings due to reductions in healthcare costs, absenteeism, and staff turnover. Company-sponsored HIV counselling and voluntary testing with ensuing treatment of all HIV-positive employees and family members should be implemented universally at workplaces in countries with high HIV prevalence. PMID:26327271

  1. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Pienaar, Jan; Brink, Brian; van Zyl, Andrew; Muirhead, Debbie; Grant, Alison; Churchyard, Gavin; Watts, Charlotte; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-09-01

    HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in the workplace. A full cost-benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost-benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022. A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM), was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers. The model was fitted to workforce HIV prevalence and separation data while incorporating parameter uncertainty; univariate sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model findings. As ART coverage increases from 10% to 97% of eligible employees, increases in survival and retention of HIV-positive employees and associated reductions in absenteeism and benefit payments lead to cost savings compared to a scenario of no treatment provision, with the annual cost of HIV to the company decreasing by 5% (90% credibility interval [CrI] 2%-8%) and the mean cost per HIV-positive employee decreasing by 14% (90% CrI 7%-19%) by 2022. This translates into an average saving of US$950,215 (90% CrI US$220,879-US$1.6 million) per year; 80% of these cost savings are due to reductions in benefit payments and inpatient care costs. Although findings are sensitive to assumptions regarding incidence and absenteeism, ART is cost-saving under considerable parameter uncertainty and in all tested scenarios, including when prevalence is reduced to 1%-except when no benefits were paid out to employees leaving the workforce and when absenteeism rates were half of what data suggested. Scaling up ART further through a universal test and treat strategy doubles savings; incorporating ART for family members reduces savings but is still marginally cost-saving compared to no treatment. Our analysis was limited to the direct cost of HIV to companies and did not examine the impact of HIV prevention policies on the miners or their families, and a few model inputs were based on limited data, though in sensitivity analysis our results were found to be robust to changes to these inputs along plausible ranges. Workplace ART provision can be cost-saving for companies in high HIV prevalence settings due to reductions in healthcare costs, absenteeism, and staff turnover. Company-sponsored HIV counselling and voluntary testing with ensuing treatment of all HIV-positive employees and family members should be implemented universally at workplaces in countries with high HIV prevalence.

  2. Decisive Action Training Environment at the Joint Readiness Training Center, Vol.14: Company-Level Combined Arms Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    leaders can expect. This cloud of uncertainty, when mixed with the violence of combat, creates what many have come to call the “fog of war.” In the...vehicles are filled with Soldiers able to dismount with AT-4s or Javelins, the company and platoon HQ vehicles (minus the LMTV with an M66 ring mount

  3. It is out of my hands: how deferring control to God can decrease quality of life for breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Yoo, Woohyun; D'Angelo, Jonathan; Tsang, Stephanie; Shaw, Bret; Shah, Dhavan; Baker, Timothy; Gustafson, David

    2013-12-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the understanding of how and why religion affects psychosocial health outcomes. We propose a theoretical model predicting that when women with breast cancer defer control to God they will experience fewer breast cancer related concerns. Deferring control to God, however, should also reduce the likelihood that they take a proactive coping approach, which will be exacerbated by lowered breast cancer concerns. We therefore predict that this passive coping style will ultimately result in lower levels of quality of life. Data were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial funded by the National Cancer Institute. A total of 192 women with breast cancer participated in a computer-mediated social support group. Deferring control to God statements were captured by using computer-aided content analysis of discussion posts. Psychosocial outcomes were measured using longitudinal survey data. Analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. The results of our analysis largely confirm our mediation model for which we find significant model fit. As predicted, deferring control to God leads to lower levels of breast cancer concerns but also to more passive coping styles. Ultimately, deferring control to God can lead to lower levels of quality of life. Our study demonstrates how and why religious coping can lead to both positive and negative psychosocial health outcomes. Health care practitioners should encourage patients who are relying on religion to keep their end of the bargain and maintain an active coping style. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  5. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  6. Extended Deterrence and Arms Control: A Collection of Conference Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    differences between governments and opposi- tion parties and between elite opinion and mass public opinion. In both the Federal Republic of Germany and...firms rarely practice philanthropy , but instead drive very hard bargains indeed. Margaret Thatcher’s hope to secure for the UK a whole slice of the SDI

  7. Multidisciplinary Responses to the Sexual Victimization of Children: Use of Control Phone Calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, J William; Borowski, Christine; Essex, Stacy; Perkowski, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    This descriptive study addresses the question of the value of one-party consent phone calls regarding the sexual victimization of children. The authors reviewed 4 years of experience with children between the ages of 3 and 18 years selected for the control phone calls after a forensic interview by the New York State Police forensic interviewer. The forensic interviewer identified appropriate cases for control phone calls considering New York State law, the child's capacity to make the call, the presence of another person to make the call and a supportive residence. The control phone call process has been extremely effective forensically. Offenders choose to avoid trial by taking a plea bargain thereby dramatically speeding up the criminal judicial and family court processes. An additional outcome of the control phone call is the alleged offender's own words saved the child from the trauma of testifying in court. The control phone call reduced the need for children to repeat their stories to various interviewers. A successful control phone call gives the child a sense of vindication. This technique is the only technique that preserves the actual communication pattern between the alleged victim and the alleged offender. This can be of great value to the mental health professionals working with both the child and the alleged offender. Cautions must be considered regarding potential serious adverse effects on the child. The multidisciplinary team members must work together in the control phone call. The descriptive nature of this study did not allow the authors adequate demographic data, a subject that should be addressed in future prospective study.

  8. Control rod control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiji, Takehiko; Obara, Kohei; Yanagihashi, Kazumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable for switching of electric motors for driving each of control rods in a nuclear reactor. Namely, in a control rod controlling device, a plurality of previously allotted electric motors connected in parallel as groups, and electric motors of any selected group are driven. In this case, a voltage of not driving predetermined selected electric motors is at first applied. In this state an electric current supplied to the circuit of predetermined electric motors is detected. Whether integration or failure of a power source and the circuit of the predetermined electric motors are normal or not is judged by the detected electric current supplied. After they are judged normal, the electric motors are driven by a regular voltage. With such procedures, whether the selected circuit is normal or not can be accurately confirmed previously. Since the electric motors are not driven just at the selected time, the control rods are not operated erroneously. (I.S.)

  9. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  10. Control of control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sri Nurdiati, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Shewhart chart is widely used in practice because of its simplicity, applying this control chart to monitor the mean of a process may lead to two types of problems. The first concerns the typically unknown parameters involved in the distribution, while the second concerns the validity

  11. Dream controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  12. Controllable dose; Dosis controlable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T; Anaya M, R A [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  13. Business models in commercial media markets: Bargaining, advertising, and mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Thöne, Miriam; Rasch, Alexander; Wenzel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We consider a product and a media market and show how a change in the business model employed by the media platforms affects consumers, producers (or advertisers), and price negotiations for advertisements. On both markets, two firms differentiated á la Hotelling compete for consumers. On the media market, consumers can mix between the two outlets whereas on the product market, consumers have to decide for one supplier. With pay-tv, as opposed to free-to-air, mixing by consumers disappears, p...

  14. Conversations with God: Prayer and Bargaining in Adjustment to Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Valerie J.; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Blanco, E. Lisette

    2013-01-01

    The role of religiosity and spirituality in the process of adjustment to disability is of increasing interest to rehabilitation professionals. Beginning with the Kubler-Ross models of grief and adjustment to disability and terminal illness, a number of stage models have included spiritual and religious interactions as a part of the adjustment…

  15. Identity Bargaining: A Policy Systems Research Model of Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawski, Carl

    A detailed, general and comprehensive accounting scheme is presented, consisting of nine stages of career development, three major sets of elements contributing to career choice (in terms of personal, cultural and situational roles), and 20 hypotheses relating the separate elements. Implicit in the model is a novel procedure and method for…

  16. Let’s bullshit! Arguing, bargaining and dissembling over Darfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seymour, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The crisis in Darfur led to one of the most powerful advocacy campaigns in recent US history. Responding to intense political pressures from this campaign, the US engaged Sudan in a heated public confrontation, increasingly echoing the rhetoric of an advocacy campaign that was surprisingly

  17. Own brand label restorative materials-A false bargain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Gaute Floer; Thieu, Minh Khai Le; Hussain, Badra; Pamuła, Elzbieta; Reseland, Janne Elin; Lyngstadaas, Ståle Petter; Haugen, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating and comparing mechanical, chemical, and cytotoxicological parameters of a commercial brand name composite material against two 'own brand label' (OBL) composites. Parameters included depth of cure, flexural strength, degree of conversion, polymerization shrinkage, filler particle morphology and elemental analyzes, Vickers hardness, surface roughness parameters after abrasion, monomer elution, and cytotoxicity. The conventional composite outperformed the OBLS in terms of depth of cure (pbrand-name composites, but at a lower price. Dentists are highly recommended to reconsider utilization of OBLs lacking sound scientific scrutiny, and our findings underscore this recommendation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Bargaining Experiment To Motivate a Discussion on Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Employs a classroom version of the research game, the Ultimatum Game, to teach undergraduate students how fairness affects behavior. Focuses on three concepts related to fairness. Finds that classroom results motivate discussion about a downward sloping demand curve for fairness. Provides an appendix that includes instructional materials. (JEH)

  19. Indus Basin Floods of 2010: Souring of a Faustian Bargain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daanish Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great flood of 2010 in Pakistan was not an accidental, unpredictable and random episode in the hydrologic development of the Indus basin, but rather a by-product of national decisions on water use, integrally linked, as well, to the design of the social landscape. In immediate and mid terms, acute impacts are expected to be concentrated among households with fragile and sensitive livelihoods. To attenuate an evolving low-level humanitarian, social and political crisis, and to prevent backsliding to Pakistan’s development progress, attention should focus on water drainage and rapid rehabilitation of farmland. Local government structures can be engaged in the distribution and implementation of recovery programs. In Pakistan, the hydrological priorities have always been irrigation and power generation, but in the interest of preventing a costly recurrence, Pakistani flood management and early alert systems require structural revision.

  20. Transaction costs and sequential bargaining in transferable discharge permit markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netusil, N R; Braden, J B

    2001-03-01

    Market-type mechanisms have been introduced and are being explored for various environmental programs. Several existing programs, however, have not attained the cost savings that were initially projected. Modeling that acknowledges the role of transactions costs and the discrete, bilateral, and sequential manner in which trades are executed should provide a more realistic basis for calculating potential cost savings. This paper presents empirical evidence on potential cost savings by examining a market for the abatement of sediment from farmland. Empirical results based on a market simulation model find no statistically significant change in mean abatement costs under several transaction cost levels when contracts are randomly executed. An alternative method of contract execution, gain-ranked, yields similar results. At the highest transaction cost level studied, trading reduces the total cost of compliance relative to a uniform standard that reflects current regulations.

  1. Collective Bargaining Agreements, Labor Relations, Division of Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Unit July 1, 2016 - June 30, 2019 Alaska Vocational Technical Center Teacher's Unit July 1, 2017 Officers Unit July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2009 July 1, 2009- June 30, 2012, as a result of interest arbitration One as a result of interest arbitration award, then extended to Class Three July 1, 2010 - June 30

  2. 12 CFR 269.4 - Determination of appropriate bargaining unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requesting a representation election signed by at least thirty percent (30%) of the employees in a unit which... the labor organization should disagree with the Special Tribunal's decision, the party in disagreement... percent (30%) of the employees in a unit claimed by a labor organization as appropriate or subsequently...

  3. Governance, collective bargaining and peace culture in labour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This struggle by the labour unions to improve on the unfair policies and working conditions has generated severe threat in maintaining peace culture in labour relations. It has adversely been affecting the growth of national economy in relation to global economic change. This situation has created almost total failure on the ...

  4. Plea Bargaining: A Recreation of George Orwell's Animal Farm in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Farm is an allegorical novel by George Orwell in which he depicted social injustice precipitated by the insincerity of leadership and the betrayal of the people by their leaders which has made the novel relevant as the experience depicted therein “seamlessly steps into the realities of everyday life” (Achebe 2012) in ...

  5. Bargaining Theory and Building Strategies for Countering Armed Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    actions previously labeled counter-insurgency, -terrorism, -drug, or - gang operations; irregular, unconventional, small guerilla, asymmetrical, or 4th...field of wheat, which, without regard to the individual stalk , may be mown down more or less efficiently depending on the quality of the scythe; it

  6. MARC and the Library Service Center: Automation at Bargain Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Karl M.

    Despite recent research and development in the field of library automation, libraries have been unable to reap the benefits promised by technology due to the high cost of building and maintaining their own computer-based systems. Time-sharing and disc mass storage devices will bring automation costs, if spread over a number of users, within the…

  7. How Does Collective Bargaining Affect the Gender Pay Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Marta M.; Saporta, Ishak

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Industry Wage Survey data from nine manufacturing industries indicated that unionization made the gender wage gap considerably smaller in six industries. In the other three, the overall proportion of women in the industry and the characteristics of unions may contribute to the disparity. (Contains 68 references.) (SK)

  8. Organic Creativity and the Faustian Bargain: Reconciling Opposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide the reader, or anyone interested in creativity, a glimpse into the findings of existing psychological and psychiatric literature on manic depression, its occurrence in creative individuals, ways in which it manifests and affects their functioning and creative output (positively and negatively), and the lessons…

  9. On the value of transparency and information acquisition in bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gehrig, T.; Güth, W.; Levínský, René

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 337-358 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : information acquisition * ultimatum experiment * transparency Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2016

  10. Solution Concept for Intergenerational Conflict: the Role of Intergenerational Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Kinai

    2011-01-01

    This paper specifically examines intergenerational conflict and analyzes an overlapping generations model of public goods provision from the viewpoint of time-consistency. Public goods are financed through labor-income and capital-income taxation, thereby distorting savings and the labor supply. Taxes redistribute income across generations in the form of public goods. Under such a situation, there emerge dual intergenerational conflicts: the first is related to the amount of public goods and ...

  11. Functional Cortical Network in Alpha Band Correlates with Social Bargaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; Chavez, Mario; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Solving demanding tasks requires fast and flexible coordination among different brain areas. Everyday examples of this are the social dilemmas in which goals tend to clash, requiring one to weigh alternative courses of action in limited time. In spite of this fact, there are few studies that directly address the dynamics of flexible brain network integration during social interaction. To study the preceding, we carried out EEG recordings while subjects played a repeated version of the Ultimatum Game in both human (social) and computer (non-social) conditions. We found phase synchrony (inter-site-phase-clustering) modulation in alpha band that was specific to the human condition and independent of power modulation. The strength and patterns of the inter-site-phase-clustering of the cortical networks were also modulated, and these modulations were mainly in frontal and parietal regions. Moreover, changes in the individuals’ alpha network structure correlated with the risk of the offers made only in social conditions. This correlation was independent of changes in power and inter-site-phase-clustering strength. Our results indicate that, when subjects believe they are participating in a social interaction, a specific modulation of functional cortical networks in alpha band takes place, suggesting that phase synchrony of alpha oscillations could serve as a mechanism by which different brain areas flexibly interact in order to adapt ongoing behavior in socially demanding contexts. PMID:25286240

  12. Propossals and opinions around plea bargains in Colom bia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Medina García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The principle of opportunity is an institution imported from the systems with accusatory trend. It can be implemented in Colombia if it is according to our Constitution. In our criminal justice system the opportunity has been relegated to the place of an exceptional figure, however, the Constitution requires that the opportunity can be a general rule, so the legal rules must be in accordance with this constitutional requirement, and It will be achieved if we envisage this figure of these way, apply to other cases and making its process more fluid.

  13. Market Structure and Hospital-Insurer Bargaining in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbersma, R.S.; Mikkers, M.C.; Motchenkova, E.; Seinen, I.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, competition was introduced in part of the hospital market in the Netherlands. Using a unique dataset of transaction and list prices between hospitals and insurers in the years 2005 and 2006, we estimate the influence of buyer and seller concentration on the negotiated prices in the first

  14. Cognitive Bargaining Model: An Analysis Tool for Third Party Incentives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    catalytic by reducing any rally-around-the-flag effect in the target state, bolstering the business class (“commercial bourgeoisie ”), which typically is...9. 136 “Donors Drawing Up Plans for CIS Aid,” Agence France Presse, May 23, 1992. 137 RusData Dialine, “USA—Ukraine: Buy Anytime You Like,” BizEkon...2009). Agence France Presse. “Donors Drawing Up Plans for CIS Aid.” May 23, 1992. Aslund, Anders. How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and

  15. Bargaining issues in Europe: comparing countries and industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.

    2008-01-01

    What drives low pay in Europe? Who and what sectors are affected? Which workers work very long or very short hours and miss out on training opportunities? In this study, produced by the University of Amsterdam/AIAS, these are some of the questions posed for thirteen industries in nine EU member

  16. Placement Evaluations and Remedial Education: Are Students Shopping for Bargains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence that students may be doing comparison shopping when it comes to community college placement in English and mathematics courses. Comparisons may occur because of the difference in the placement process across campuses and the variation in the levels of developmental education offered. The…

  17. The Netherlands: Temporary agency work and collective bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, E.; Engelsman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands is a forerunner in the regulation of temp agency work. A main focus in the regulation is the Collective Labour Agreement (CLA). Since the first CLA in 1971 negotiations have led to a better accommodation of the allocation, renumeration and protection of temp agency workers and the

  18. Intrahousehold Bargaining and the Demand for Consumer Durables in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Polato e Fava, Ana Claudia; Arends-Kuenning, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, wives do most of the household work. About sixty percent of them also work outside the household, working a total of about 10 hours more per week than men. Because of this unequal distribution of household work, husbands and wives might have different priorities regarding the purchase of durable goods. Although both husbands and wives enjoy entertainment durable goods, wives might have a relative preference for household-production durable goods such as washing machines over entert...

  19. Women's Role in the Agricultural Household: Bargaining and Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods and empirical findings from economic analyses of women's contribution to social welfare and the determinants of their human capital. To understand better women's roles in agricultural households, three themes have gained prominence in the economics literature. First is the conceptualization of the unified family as coordinator of production and consumption over the lifecycle. Second is the role of separability of production and consumption decisions in the agric...

  20. Experimental Studies of Bargaining as Analogues of Civil Disputes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    reported; thus it is worthy of further attention. Bilateral Monopoly Games The Bilateral Monopoly game is a simulation of an economic market with two...a Hoyer and Seller in a wholesale market must agree on prices tor three commodities: -33- iron, sulphur, and coal. The commodities have differing...Conflict of Interest on I)ispute Resolution," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 42, pp. b65-672. Homans, G.C., (1961) Social Beharior

  1. Bargaining on Law and Bureaucracies: A Constitutional Theory of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Brousseau, Eric; Schemeil, Yves; Sgard, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    The process of development is linked to the rise of an integrated and competitive economy and polity that allow a maximal division of labor and innovation. This process relies on two intertwined dynamics. First, in the establishment of the rule of law, legal instruments are appropriated by those who call for more autonomy, resulting in a progressive equalization of rights. Second, development of a capable and impartial state is a prerequisite to implementation of rights, including their trans...

  2. International group calls for new nuclear 'bargain of confidence'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A report published by the International Consultative Group on Nuclear Energy on 17 January 1980 concluded that the option of expanding nuclear power supply will not be available for the long term unless its development is carefully sustained during the intervening period. Quotations from the report are given on world energy supplies, establishing nuclear options, nuclear safety and the public interest, and nuclear trade and nuclear proliferation. (UK)

  3. To Bargain or Govern: The Impact of Yeshiva on Private and Public Sector Collective Bargaining in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dena Elliott

    1980-01-01

    The history of excluding supervisory employees from National Labor Relations Board protection is traced and the Yeshiva University case and implications for higher education are outlined. It is concluded that further court action is needed so as not to further undermine the university's effectiveness. (Journal availability: Ohio N. Univ. Law…

  4. Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Contact Us Share Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... Repellent that is Right for You DEET Mosquito Control Methods Success in mosquito control: an integrated approach ...

  5. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  6. Neurofuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994).......These notes are for a course in fuzzy control and neural networks. By neural networks we more precisely mean neurofuzzy systems rather than pure neural network theory. The notes are an extension to the existing notes on fuzzy control (Jantzen, Fuzzy Control, 1994)....

  7. Control rod position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubukata, Shinji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod position control device which stores data such as of position signals and driving control rod instruction before and after occurrence of abnormality in control for the control rod position for controlling reactor power and utilized the data effectively for investigating the cause of abnormality. Namely, a plurality of individual control devices have an operation mismatching detection circuit for outputting signals when difference is caused between a driving instruction given to the control rod position control device and the control rod driving means and signals from a detection means for detecting an actual moving amount. A general control device collectively controls the individual control devices. In addition, there is also disposed a position storing circuit for storing position signals at least before and after the occurrence of the control rod operation mismatching. With such procedures, the cause of the abnormality can be determined based on the position signals before and after the occurrence of control rod mismatching operation stored in the position storing circuit. Accordingly, the abnormality cause can be determined to conduct restoration in an early stage. (I.S.)

  8. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hiromi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To realize effective utilization, cost reduction and weight reduction in neutron absorbing materials. Constitution: Residual amount of neutron absorbing material is averaged between the top end region and other regions of a control rod upon reaching to the control rod working life, by using a single kind of neutron absorbing material and increasing the amount of the neutron absorber material at the top end region of the control rod as compared with that in the other regions. Further, in a case of a control rod having control rod blades such as in a cross-like control rod, the amount of the neutron absorbing material is decreased in the middle portion than in the both end portions of the control rod blade along the transversal direction of the rod, so that the residual amount of the neutron absorbing material is balanced between the central region and both end regions upon reaching the working life of the control rod. (Yoshihara, H.)

  9. Control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which flexible control rods are used to enable insertion of the control rods into guide holes in the core which are distributed over an area larger than the cross section of the control rod penetration in the reactor pressure vessel. Guide tubes extend from the penetration and fan out to the guide holes for guiding the control rods from the penetration to the guide holes

  10. Gaining control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enden, van der E.; Laan, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the efforts of companies to find a solution for tax risk management, tax accounting and being in control. In trying to find a solution, companies work towards an integrated tax control framework (TCF), a tax risk management and control environment embedded in the internal

  11. Associational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the concept of control has had a central position in research into the psychological working environment. Control has been understood as individual autonomy and individual opportunities for development. This article examines whether the concept of control has the same key...

  12. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  13. Taking Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast gives action steps and reasons to control diabetes.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/2/2007.

  14. Control Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Inspired by William Glasser's Reality Therapy ideas, Control Theory (CT) is a disciplinary approach that stresses people's ability to control only their own behavior, based on internal motivations to satisfy five basic needs. At one North Dakota high school, CT-trained teachers are the program's best recruiters. (MLH)

  15. CONTROL ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.E.; Matras, S.

    1963-04-30

    This patent shows a method of making a fuel or control rod for a nuclear reactor. Fuel or control material is placed within a tube and plugs of porous metal wool are inserted at both ends. The metal wool is then compacted and the tube compressed around it as by swaging, thereby making the plugs liquid- impervious but gas-pervious. (AEC)

  16. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even if you aren’t going for birth control. What doesn’t work to prevent pregnancy? top It’s ... and taking care of a baby’s many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...

  17. Integrated controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    During 1984, all portions of the Nova control system that were necessary for the support of laser activation and completion of the Nova project were finished and placed in service on time. The Nova control system has been unique in providing, on schedule, the capabilities required in the central control room and in various local control areas throughout the facility. The ambitious goal of deploying this system early enough to use it as an aid in the activation of the laser was accomplished; thus the control system made a major contribution to the completion of Nova activation on schedule. Support and enhancement activities continued during the year on the VAX computer systems, central control room, operator consoles and displays, Novanet data communications network, system-level software for both the VAX and LSI-11 computers, Praxis control system computer language, software management tools, and the development system, which includes office terminals. Computational support was also supplied for a wide variety of test fixtures required by the optical and mechanical subsystems. Significant new advancements were made in four areas in integrated controls this year: the integration software (which includes the shot scheduler), the Praxis language, software quality assurance audit, and software development and data handling. A description of the accomplishments in each of these areas follows

  18. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. This podcast discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  19. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  20. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Shimoshige, Takanori; Nishimura, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: A control rod has been developed, which provided a plurality of through-holes in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position, in order to flatten burn-up, of fuel rods in positions confronting a control rod. Thereby to facilitate the manufacture of the control rods and prevent fuel rod failures. Constitution: A plurality of through-holes are formed in the vicinity of the sheath fitting position of a central support rod to which a sheath for the control rod is fitted. These through-holes are arranged in the axial direction of the central support rod. Accordingly, burn-up of fuel rods confronting the control rods can be reduced by through-holes and fuel rod failures can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  1. Describing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouet, J.M.; Starynkevitch, B.

    1987-01-01

    Incremental development and maintenance of large systems imply that control be clearly separated from knowledge. Finding efficient control for a given class of knowledge is itself a matter of expertise, to which knowledge-based methods may and should be applied. We present here two attempts at building root systems that may later be tuned by knowledge engineers, using the semantics of each particular application. These systems are given heuristics in a declarative manner, which they use to control the application of heuristics. Eventually, some heuristics may be used to compile others (or themselves) into efficient pieces of programmed code

  2. Specifics of corporate management in agribusiness in transitional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignjević-Đorđević Nada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance in agribusiness describes an agency problem resulting from separation of ownership from control in modern corporations and represents a huge cost to the shareholders. The agency problem is regulated by legal protection of minority shareholders, by constituting the Board of Directors as a Supervisory authority to monitor managers and an active agribusiness market for corporate control in agribusiness (against hostile takeover. These mechanisms are regulated by regulations on securities (at the federal level, corporate law (at the state level, and the corporate statutes, regulations and other Contracting Rules (at the company level. These regulations, laws and decrees actually define distribution of power between shareholders and managers. Such techniques of defense against takeover can be beneficial to shareholders, if managers use them to strengthen the bargaining power and increase the selling price of an agribusiness company. However, if managers use it for preservation of position and for the achievement of personal interests these regulations do not contribute to the realization of shareholders' interests.

  3. Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Harvey S.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)

  4. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  5. The development of Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam: stakeholder tensions over tobacco control legislation in a state owned industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building on its National Tobacco Control Policy initiated in 2000, Vietnam is currently considering introducing a comprehensive law to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policy. This study analyses the positions of key stakeholders in the development of tobacco control legislation in the context of a largely state-owned industry, and discusses their implications for the policy process. Methods Several qualitative methods were employed for the study including: literature review and documentary analysis; key informant interview; focus groups discussion; and key stakeholders survey. Findings The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Ministry of Finance are key players in the tobacco control policy and legislation, representing competing bureaucratic interests over health, macro-economy and revenue. High-ranking officials, including the Communist Party and National Assembly members, take a rather relaxed position reflecting the low political stakes placed on tobacco issues. The state-owned tobacco industry is regarded as an important contributor to the government revenue and gross domestic product, and the relative weight on health and socioeconomic issues placed by stakeholders determine their positions on tobacco control. Overall, short-term economic interests have more immediate influence in setting policy directions, with the consequences of health gains perceived as relegated to a distant future. This was reflected in the position of tobacco control advocates, including MOH, that presented with reluctance in insisting on some tobacco control strategies revealing a mixture attitude of concessions to the socioeconomic uncertainties and a sense of bargaining to win the strategies that are more likely to be accepted. Conclusion The state-ownership of tobacco industry poses a major paradox within the government that benefits from manufacturing of tobacco products and is also responsible for

  6. The development of Tobacco Harm Prevention Law in Vietnam: stakeholder tensions over tobacco control legislation in a state owned industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hideki; Khuong, Tuan A; Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2011-09-18

    Building on its National Tobacco Control Policy initiated in 2000, Vietnam is currently considering introducing a comprehensive law to strengthen the implementation of tobacco control policy. This study analyses the positions of key stakeholders in the development of tobacco control legislation in the context of a largely state-owned industry, and discusses their implications for the policy process. Several qualitative methods were employed for the study including: literature review and documentary analysis; key informant interview; focus groups discussion; and key stakeholders survey. The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Ministry of Finance are key players in the tobacco control policy and legislation, representing competing bureaucratic interests over health, macro-economy and revenue. High-ranking officials, including the Communist Party and National Assembly members, take a rather relaxed position reflecting the low political stakes placed on tobacco issues. The state-owned tobacco industry is regarded as an important contributor to the government revenue and gross domestic product, and the relative weight on health and socioeconomic issues placed by stakeholders determine their positions on tobacco control. Overall, short-term economic interests have more immediate influence in setting policy directions, with the consequences of health gains perceived as relegated to a distant future. This was reflected in the position of tobacco control advocates, including MOH, that presented with reluctance in insisting on some tobacco control strategies revealing a mixture attitude of concessions to the socioeconomic uncertainties and a sense of bargaining to win the strategies that are more likely to be accepted. The state-ownership of tobacco industry poses a major paradox within the government that benefits from manufacturing of tobacco products and is also responsible for controlling tobacco consumption. The perceptions of negative implications

  7. Control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.

    1990-01-01

    The current state of knowledge about screen systems for application in traffic (e.g., flight control), process control, and production is presented. The 29 lectures, 5 of which relate to aviation, deal with the optimization of the man-machine interface with respect to unusual operating situations and adequate presentation and action methods on the basis of taks and event analyses integrating the users. (DG) [de

  8. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects one third of U.S. adults and is a leading cause of heart disease and stroke. A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  9. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa:A Cost-Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Pienaar, Jan; Brink, Brian; van Zyl, Andrew; Muirhead, Debbie; Grant, Alison; Churchyard, Gavin; Watts, Charlotte; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, more than 2 million people become newly infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, usually by having unprotected sex with an infected partner. People in the early stages of HIV infection rarely have any symptoms, but, over time, HIV destroys CD4 lymphocytes and other immune system cells, and, eventually, HIV-positive individuals become susceptible to numerous other infections. Because many of these infections are extremely serious, early in the AIDS...

  10. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Isao; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent fuel element failures during power conditioning by removing liquid absorbents in poison tubes of control rods in a fast power up step and extracting control rods to slightly increase power in a medium power up step. Constitution: A plurality of poison tubes are disposed in a coaxial or plate-like arrangement and divided into a region capable of compensating the reactivity from the initial state at low temperature to 40% power operation and a region capable of compensating the reactivity in the power up above 40% power operation. Soluble poisons are used as absorbers in the poison tubes corresponding to above 40% power operation and they are adapted to be removed independently from the driving of control rods. The poison tubes filled with the soluble absorbers are responsible for the changes in the reactivity from the initial state at low temperature to the medium power region and the reactivity control is conducted by the elimination of liquid absorbers from the poison tubes. In the succeeding slight power up region above the medium power, power up is proceeding by extracting the control rods having remaining poison tubes filled with solid or liquid absorbers. (Seki, T.)

  11. Losing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Lust, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    picking disorder). CONCLUSIONS: Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant......OBJECTIVE: Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders......, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. METHODS: The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening...

  12. Coordinating controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-07-15

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics.

  13. Helicopter Controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    106 3. Program CC Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) of Hawthorne, CA., develops and markets PC control system analysis and design software including...is marketed in Palo Alto, Ca., by Applied i and can be used for both linear and non- linear control system analysis. Using TUTSIM involves developing...gravity centroid ( ucg ) can be calculated as 112 n m pi - 2 zi acg n i (7-5) where pi = poles zi = zeroes n = number of poles m = number of zeroes If K

  14. Coordinating controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics

  15. Topology control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.; Wagner, D.; Wattenhofer, R.

    2007-01-01

    Information between two nodes in a network is sent based on the network topology, the structure of links connecting pairs of nodes of a network. The task of topology control is to choose a connecting subset from all possible links such that the overall network performance is good. For instance, a

  16. Control mental

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    La revista especialitzada NeuroReport ha publicat un article que m'ha aportat nous elements de reflexió sobre els mecanismes neurals de control mental que, de forma innata, realitzem les persones com a part de la nostra vida social.

  17. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takao; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Sugawara, Satoshi; Fukumoto, Takashi; Endo, Zen-ichiro; Saito, Shozo; Shinpo, Katsutoshi; Nishimura, Akira; Ozawa, Michihiro

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a sufficient shutdown margin upon reactor shutdown, prevent sheath deformation without decreasing neutron absorbents and prevent impact shocks exerted to structural materials. Constitution: The control rod of the present invention comprises a neutron absorption region, a sheath deformation means attached to the side wall and means for restricting and supporting axial movement of the neutron absorbent rod. Then, the amount of absorptive nuclei chained absorbents in the lower region is reduced than that in the upper region. In this way, effective neutron absorbing performance can be obtained relative to the neutron importance distribution during reactor shutdown. In addition, since the operationability is improved by reducing the weight of the control rod and the absorptive nuclei chained neutron abosrbers are used, mechanical nuclear life of the control rod can be increased. Thus, it is possible to prevent the outward deformation of the sheath, as well as prevent collision between the neutron absorber rod and the structural material on the side of inserting the control rod generated upon reactor scram by a simple structure. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...

  19. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  20. Controllable dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Anaya M, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of eliminating the controversy about the lineal hypothesis without threshold which found the systems of dose limitation of the recommendations of ICRP 26 and 60, at the end of last decade R. Clarke president of the ICRP proposed the concept of Controllable Dose: as the dose or dose sum that an individual receives from a particular source which can be reasonably controllable by means of any means; said concept proposes a change in the philosophy of the radiological protection of its concern by social approaches to an individual focus. In this work a panorama of the foundations is presented, convenient and inconveniences that this proposal has loosened in the international community of the radiological protection, with the purpose of to familiarize to our Mexican community in radiological protection with these new concepts. (Author)

  1. quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skujina, A.; Purina, S.; Riekstina, D.

    1999-01-01

    The optimal objects: soils, spruce needles and bracken ferns were found for the environmental monitoring in the regions of possible radioactive contamination - near SalaspiIs nuclear reactor and Ignalina nuclear power plant. The determination of Sr-90 was based on the radiochemical separation of Sr-90 (=Y-90) by HDEHP extraction and counting the Cerenkov radiation. The quality control of the results was carried out. (authors)

  2. Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  3. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Inoue, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To flatten the power distribution in the reactor core without impairing neutron economy by disposing pins containing elements of lower atomic number in the central region of a shroud and loading pins containing depleted uranium in the periphery region thereof. Constitution: The shroud has a layer of pins containing depleted uranium in the peripheral region and a layer of pins containing elements of lower atomic number such as beryllium in the central region. Heat removal from those pins containing depleted uranium and elements of lower atomic number (neutron moderator) is effected by sodium flow outside of the cladding material. The control rod operation is conducted by inserting or extracting the central portion (pins containing elements of lower atomic number such as beryllium) inside of the stainless pipe. Upon extraction of the control rod, the moderator in the central region is removed whereby high speed neutrons are no more deccelerated and the absorption rate to the depleted uranium is decreased. This can flatten the power distribution in the reactore core with the disposition of a plurality of control rods at a better neutron economy as compared with the use of neutron absorber such as boron. (Seki, T.)

  4. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Kawashima, Norio; Goto, Yasuyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron absorbers are contained in a tubular member comprising, integrally a tubular portion and four corners disposed at the outer circumference of the tubular portion at every 90deg, to provide a neutron absorbing tube. A plurality of neutron absorbing tubes are arranged in parallel in the lateral direction, and adjacent corners are joined, into a blade to constitute a control rod. Such a control rod has a great structural strength, simple in the structure and relatively light in weight and can contain a great amount of neutron absorbers. Upon formation of the control rod by arranging the blades in a cross-like shape, at least a portion thereof is constituted with short neutron absorbing tubes shorter than the entire length of the blade, and gaps are formed at positions in adjacent in the axial direction. With such a constitution, there is no worry that a wing end of the blade collides against or be abraded with a fuel channel box or a fuel support. Even if fuel channels are vibrated upon scram of the reactor, such as occurrence of earthquakes, it can be inserted to the reactor easily. (N.H.)

  5. Controlled fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  6. Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    can be written as â fj (t) =WO tanh( WIx (t)+bI)+bO, (38) where WI , WO are the input and output matrices, respectively, and bI and bO are the input...applications, present on envisioned airborne optical platforms . One of the problems is that all adaptive optical systems rely on mechanically moving some...of successfully controlling the optical aberration due to the flow over the aperture of airborne optical platforms . As outlined above, systems

  7. Control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takao; Sugawara, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Saito, Shozo; Fukumoto, Takashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and thereby obtain satisfactory operationability of control rods by combining absorbing nuclear chain type neutron absorbers and conventional type neutron absorbers in the axial direction of blades. Constitution: Neutron absorber rods and long life type neutron absorber rods are disposed in a tie rod and a sheath. The neutron absorber rod comprises a poison tube made of stainless steels and packed with B 4 C powder. The long life type neutron absorber rod is prepared by packing B-10 enriched boron carbide powder into a hafnium metal rod, hafnium pipe, europium and stainless made poison tube. Since the long life type absorber rod uses HF as the absorbing nuclear chain type neutron absorber, it absorbs neutrons to form new neutron absorbers to increase the nuclear life. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Control Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Wayne R.

    2018-03-20

    A control valve includes a first conduit having a first inlet and a first outlet and defining a first passage; a second conduit having a second inlet and a second outlet and defining a second passage, the second conduit extending into the first passage such that the second inlet is located within the first passage; and a valve plate disposed pivotably within the first passage, the valve plate defining a valve plate surface. Pivoting of the valve plate within the first passage varies flow from the first inlet to the first outlet and the valve plate is pivotal between a first position and a second position such that in the first position the valve plate substantially prevents fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage and such that in the second position the valve plate permits fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage.

  9. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  10. Through Internal Control System, Jatirogo Organic Coconut Sugar Farmers Gained Access to the Export Market

    OpenAIRE

    Setyowati, Theresia Eko

    2014-01-01

    By founding Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS, 1,554 farmer members now have stronger bargaining power in marketing organic coconut sugar. Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS has succeeded to export its organic gula semut. By obtaining international certifications (EU Regulation, NOP-USDA, and JAS), KSU Jatirogo sends organic gula semut to various countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European and Asian countries, by collaborating with KSU Jatirogo and exporting companies. ...

  11. Agreement between the Board of Control of Ferris State College and the Ferris College Faculty Association (MEA/NEA), November 12, 1984-June 30, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Education Association, East Lansing.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Ferris State College and Ferris Faculty Association Chapter (507 members), an affiliate of the National Education Association and the Michigan Education Association, covering the period November 12, 1984-June 30, 1987 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition,…

  12. Custom controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butell, Bart

    1996-02-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic (VB) and Borland's Delphi provide an extremely robust programming environment for delivering multimedia solutions for interactive kiosks, games and titles. Their object oriented use of standard and custom controls enable a user to build extremely powerful applications. A multipurpose, database enabled programming environment that can provide an event driven interface functions as a multimedia kernel. This kernel can provide a variety of authoring solutions (e.g. a timeline based model similar to Macromedia Director or a node authoring model similar to Icon Author). At the heart of the kernel is a set of low level multimedia components providing object oriented interfaces for graphics, audio, video and imaging. Data preparation tools (e.g., layout, palette and Sprite Editors) could be built to manage the media database. The flexible interface for VB allows the construction of an infinite number of user models. The proliferation of these models within a popular, easy to use environment will allow the vast developer segment of 'producer' types to bring their ideas to the market. This is the key to building exciting, content rich multimedia solutions. Microsoft's VB and Borland's Delphi environments combined with multimedia components enable these possibilities.

  13. Control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the fuel safety by constituting a control rod with a plurality of poison bodies suspended in a cross-like section and shorter length poison bodies made movable and engageable in the gap between each of the above poison bodies thereby maintaining the function of the shorter length poison constant. Constitution: Cross-like supports are secured to the upper and lower parts of a driving shaft journaled in a sheath and poison bodies composed of neutron absorber poisons of a large thermal neutron absorption cross section and neutron absorber poison tubes for containing them are suspended from the supports. A movable cross-like support is mounted slidably at its base to the lower part of the driving shaft and poison bodies shorter than the above poison bodies and composed of neutron absorber poisons having a greater absorption cross section at the neutron energy region higher than thermal neutron region and neutron poison tubes for containing them are suspended to the movable support at the position capable of engaging in the gap between each of the poison bodies. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Akira

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes on how the condition of radiation level in the ring (storage ring) experimentation room changes corresponding to the operating stage of SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring), and does not describe on the present radiation control in the SOR facility. The operating stage of SOR is divided into the following five: (1) 307 MeV electron injection, (2) 307 MeV electron storage (used for SOR experiments), (3) energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV, (4) 380 MeV electron storage, (5) re-injection and completion of operation. Gamma and X ray levels are shown when electron beam is injected from the electron synchrotron to the SOR-ring. Two main causes of the high level are reported. Spatial dose rate in storing 307 MeV electrons in also illustrated. This is sufficiently lower than that at electron incidence. The measurement of radiation level at the time of energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV has just started. Since the radiation level in 380 MeV storage, measured at the points about 20 cm apart from the electron orbit, showed several mR/h, the level seems to be negligible at the points where experiments are carried out, 1 m away from the measurement points. The radiation level in electron reinjection and completion of operation may be large during a short period (a few Roentgen) like the time of energy increase. Therefore, the beam shall be re-injected or decreased after confirming that all experimenters have retreated into the predetermined place. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Active vibration control by robust control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohar, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies active vibration control of multi-degree-of-freedom system. The control techniques considered are LTR, H/sup 2/ and H/sup infinite/. The results show that LTR controls the vibration but its respective settling time is higher than that of the other techniques. The control performance of H/sup infinite/ control is similar to that of H/sup 2/ control in the case of it weighting functions. However, H/sup infinite/ control is superior to H/sup 2/ control with respect to robustness, steady state error and settling time. (author)

  16. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  17. Control panel for CMC 8080 crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Inokuchi

    1978-01-01

    The main features of Control Panel for CAMAC Crate Controller CMC 8080 are described. The control panel can be directly connected with CRATE CONTROLLER's front panel connector with a 50 lines cable without any changes in CMC 8080 system circuits. (author)

  18. Uniting Control Lyapunov and Control Barrier Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romdlony, Zakiyullah; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear control design for solving the problem of stabilization with guaranteed safety. The design is based on the merging of a Control Lyapunov Function and a Control Barrier Function. The proposed control method allows us to combine the design of a stabilizer based on

  19. Interaction between production control and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bij, van der J.D.; Ekert, van J.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study on interaction between systems for production control and quality control within industrial organisations. Production control and quality control interact in a sense. Good performance for one aspect often influences or frustrates the performance of the other. As far as

  20. Control heeft vele gezichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, H.B.A.

    The editorial summarizes several perspectives of control, including the control conducted by supervisors, control based on classical budgeting, control by analytics, et cetera, and relates these angles to the papers in this issue of the journal.

  1. Hierarchical Control of Thermostatically Controller Loads for Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    reserve references. At the middle level, distribution substations estimate the available power of TCLs based on the aggregated bin model, and dispatch control signals to individual TCLs. At the local level, a supplementary frequency control loop is implemented at the local controller, which makes TCLs...... respond to the frequency event autonomously. Case studies show that the proposed controller can efficiently respond to frequency events and fulfill the requirement specified by the system operator. The users’ comforts are not compromised and the short cycling of TCLs is largely reduced. Due...... to the autonomous control, the communication requirement is minimized....

  2. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  3. Covariance upperbound controllers for networked control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with designing covariance upperbound controllers for a linear system that can be used in a networked control environment in which control laws are calculated in a remote controller and transmitted through a shared communication link to the plant. In order to compensate for possible packet losses during the transmission, two different techniques are often employed: the zero-input and the hold-input strategy. These use zero input and the latest control input, respectively, when a packet is lost. For each strategy, we synthesize a class of output covariance upperbound controllers for a given covariance upperbound and a packet loss probability. Existence conditions of the covariance upperbound controller are also provided for each strategy. Through numerical examples, performance of the two strategies is compared in terms of feasibility of implementing the controllers

  4. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  5. Controlling chaotic systems via nonlinear feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a new method to control chaotic systems is proposed. Using Lyapunov method, we design a nonlinear feedback controller to make the controlled system be stabilized. A numerical example is given to illuminate the design procedure and advantage of the result derived

  6. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  7. Introduction of digital control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin

    1988-01-01

    This book is one of mechatronics series. It deals with digital control, which includes what is digital control?, display way of control system, output of primary system, secondary system like example of system and display way of the system, stabilizing of control system such as method to decide stability and system out of control, displaying equation of state into vector, good control such as the right characteristic, transient behavior and design of position control system using DC servo motor.

  8. Solid state controller three axes controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The reported flight controller features a handle grip which is mounted on a longitudinally extending control element. The handle grip is pivotally mounted on the control element about a pitch axis which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis through the control element. The pivotal mounting includes a resilient force mounting mechanism which centers the grip relative to the control element. Rotation of the handle grip produces a direct rotation of a transducer element in a transducer which provides an electrical indication of the rotative movement about three mutually perpendicular axes.

  9. PID control with robust disturbance feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawai, Fukiko; Vinther, Kasper; Andersen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance Feedback Control (DFC) is a technique, originally proposed by Fuji Electric, for augmenting existing control systems with an extra feedback for attenuation of disturbances and model errors. In this work, we analyze the robustness and performance of a PID-based control system with DFC...... and performance (if such gains exist). Finally, two different simulation case studies are evaluated and compared. Our numerical studies indicate that better performance can be achieved with the proposed method compared with a conservatively tuned PID controller and comparable performance can be achieved when...... compared with an H-infinity controller....

  10. Organizational Control: Two Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, William G.; Maguire, Mary Ann

    1975-01-01

    Distinguishes between two modes of organizational control, personal surveillance (behavior control) and the measurement of outputs (output control). Output control occurs in response to a manager's need to provide legitimate evidence of performance, while behavior control is exerted when means-ends relations are known and appropriate instruction…

  11. Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  12. BSF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Ishii, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Sasaki, H.; Sakai, I.

    1982-08-01

    The booster synchrotron utilization facility (BSF) is a facility which utilizes the four fifths of available beam pulses from the KEK booster synchrotron. The BSF control system includes the beam line control, interactions with the PS central control room and the experimental facilities, and the access control system. A brief description of the various components in the control system is given. (author)

  13. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  14. Pricing policies for a two-part exhaustible resource cartel: the case of OPEC (world oil project). Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnyilicza, E.; Pindyck, R.S.

    1976-04-01

    This paper examines pricing policies for OPEC under the assumption that the cartel is composed of a block of spender countries with large cash needs and a block of saver countries with little immediate need for cash and a lower rate of discount. The decision problem for the two-part cartel is embodied in a game-theoretic framework and the optimal bargaining solution is computed using results from the theory of cooperative games developed by Nash. The set of feasible bargaining points--and the corresponding Nash solution--is computed under two assumptions on the behavior of output shares: that they are subject to choice and that they are fixed at historical values. The results suggest that for fixed output shares, there is little room for bargaining and the price path approximates the optimal monopoly price path. If the shares are subject to control, optimal paths depend significantly on the relative bargaining power of each block.

  15. Integrated Control Using the SOFFT Control Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1996-01-01

    The need for integrated/constrained control systems has become clearer as advanced aircraft introduced new coupled subsystems such as new propulsion subsystems with thrust vectoring and new aerodynamic designs. In this study, we develop an integrated control design methodology which accomodates constraints among subsystem variables while using the Stochastic Optimal Feedforward/Feedback Control Technique (SOFFT) thus maintaining all the advantages of the SOFFT approach. The Integrated SOFFT Control methodology uses a centralized feedforward control and a constrained feedback control law. The control thus takes advantage of the known coupling among the subsystems while maintaining the identity of subsystems for validation purposes and the simplicity of the feedback law to understand the system response in complicated nonlinear scenarios. The Variable-Gain Output Feedback Control methodology (including constant gain output feedback) is extended to accommodate equality constraints. A gain computation algorithm is developed. The designer can set the cross-gains between two variables or subsystems to zero or another value and optimize the remaining gains subject to the constraint. An integrated control law is designed for a modified F-15 SMTD aircraft model with coupled airframe and propulsion subsystems using the Integrated SOFFT Control methodology to produce a set of desired flying qualities.

  16. ISABELLE control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.; Frankel, R.S.; Niederer, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Design principles for the Brookhaven ISABELLE control intersecting storage ring accelerator are described. Principal features include a locally networked console and control computer complex, a system wide process data highway, and intelligent local device controllers. Progress to date is summarized

  17. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  18. Olivo-Cerebellar Controller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R

    2008-01-01

    ...) used in a maneuvering controller or control system of an underwater vehicle. In order to attain the objects described, the present invention provides closed-loop control of multiple inferior olives (IOs...

  19. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  20. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  1. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  2. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  3. Best possible cycle chemistry control in steam turbine plants; Baesta moejliga oevervakning av vattenkemin i anlaeggningar med aangturbin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats [Hellman Vatten AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    A project has been conducted of a large number of power and pulp plants in Sweden. Production managers and those responsible for water quality control were visited and interviewed. In addition, a research of cycle chemistry literature has been conducted to determine what has been done in other countries. The review of this literature shows that the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA and ESKOM in South Africa are in the forefront regarding QA/QC and have come a long way in water control management. A key requirement for successful plant cycle chemistry is corporate management support. The project makes it clear that cycle chemistry control was best at plants where production management was aware of the importance of high water quality. There is a real need for feed water technique and water quality education at all company levels. The objective should be that 'everyone should know the importance of right water quality'. Personnel without an education in chemistry often regard cycle chemistry as somewhat complicated. Better understanding and better working cycle chemistry control can be obtained by making the control easier and clearer for persons without training in chemistry. Extensive on-line instrumentation with well-designed systems for presenting the data, by-far, gives the best cycle chemistry control. It is important to have a holistic view when water treatment systems and on-line instrumentation are planned. It is not the amount of instruments or the number of chemistry personnel that is important. The important thing is to ensure that all functions needed fit together in the best way possible. Today, when cycle chemistry monitoring is heavily dependent on on-line instrumentation, the reliability of the instruments is crucial. Therefore, it is important to have well-established routines for maintenance, calibration and service. In order to decrease forced outages of plants due to poor cycle chemistry, the focus of chemistry control should

  4. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  5. A new controllable damper with neuro controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Saito, O.; Yokoi, R.; Morishita, S.

    1993-01-01

    A new controllable damper is proposed for suppressing the vibration of the piping system for wide frequency range. Electro-Rheological fluid (ER fluid) is enclosed in the damper casing in place of oil, and the apparent viscosity of ER fluid can be varied by applying electric field strength (E.F.S.), which is controlled by an adaptive neural network controller. The shaking test is conducted about a simplified L-shaped piping model with a prototype controllable damper. The test results show the effectiveness of the presented controllable damper for suppressing very small amplitude vibration of the piping system. Furthermore an application of neural network is discussed to control E.F.S. of the electrode. (author)

  6. Digital control programmer for temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajore, S.B.; Kumar, S.V.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a PC based digital control programmer for controlling and programming temperature of a high vacuum resistance heating furnace and the software developed to control power using PID algorithm. It also describes the amplifier specially developed to suit the input requirement of the non-standard W5 thermocouple and the software and hardware protections introduced in the system. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  7. Control and optimal control theories with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Burghes, D N

    2004-01-01

    This sound introduction to classical and modern control theory concentrates on fundamental concepts. Employing the minimum of mathematical elaboration, it investigates the many applications of control theory to varied and important present-day problems, e.g. economic growth, resource depletion, disease epidemics, exploited population, and rocket trajectories. An original feature is the amount of space devoted to the important and fascinating subject of optimal control. The work is divided into two parts. Part one deals with the control of linear time-continuous systems, using both transfer fun

  8. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Haruo; Morimoto, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To operate a reactor always with safety operation while eliminating the danger of tripping. Constitution: In a reactor control device adapted to detect the process variants of a reactor, control a control rod drive controlling system based on the detected signal to thereby control the driving the control rods, control the reactor power and control the electric power generated from an electric generator by the output from the reactor, detection means is provided for the detection of the electric power from said electric generator, and a compensation device is provided for outputting control rod driving compensation signals to the control rod driving controlling system in accordance with the amount of variation in the detected value. (Seki, T.)

  9. Power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukawa, Naohiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the load of an operator by automatically operating the main controller, the speed controller, etc. of a recirculation control system and safely operating them without erroneous operation for long period of time, thereby improving the efficiency of a plant. Constitution: An electric type hydraulic control device controls loads of a turbine and a generator and outputs a control signal also to the main controller of a recirculation flow rate control system. At this time, the main controller is set at an automatic position, and the speed controller receives a recirculation pump speed signal from the main controller at the automatic position. The speed controller outputs a pump speed control signal to the recirculation pump system, and a reactor generates a power corresponding thereto. When the power control is automatically performed by the recirculation flow rate control, an operator sets a rate of change of the recirculation pump speed and the rate of change of the mean power range monitor at a change rate setting unit. Therefore, the control of the recirculation flow rate under the power control can be substantially entirely automated. (Yoshigara, H.)

  10. Process and apparatus for controlling control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebelin, B.; Couture, R.

    1987-01-01

    This process and apparatus is characterized by 2 methods, for examination of cluster of nuclear control rods. Foucault current analyzer which examines fraction by fraction all the control rods. This examination is made by rotation of the cluster. Doubtful rods are then analysed by ultrasonic probe [fr

  11. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust

  12. Try to Control Yourself!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Timm J.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional management controls employees, but successful management encourages and enables employees to control themselves. Where control resides in an organization can be determined by examining its performance tracking systems. Most are management information systems. The best are owned and used by the employees to control and adjust their own…

  13. Evaluation of Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Suciu; Pipu-Nicolae Barsan

    2013-01-01

    Performance is indissolubly tied to control. Performance cannot be obtained without a strong, adequate control, regardless if it is in the public or private sector. Control is one of management’s attributes and it must be organized, implemented and evaluated in every company, regardless of its size. Each person from a company participates to a greater or lesser extent in the control activities.

  14. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  15. Exotic biological control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Hurley, Brett P.; Kenis, Marc; Garnas, Jeffrey R.; Bush, Samantha J.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Lenteren, van Joop C.; Cock, Matthew J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control is a valuable and effective strategy for controlling arthropod pests and has been used extensively against invasive arthropods. As one approach for control of invasives, exotic natural enemies from the native range of a pest are introduced to areas where control is needed.

  16. Optimal decoupling controllers revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020197 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : linear systems * fractional representations * decoupling control lers * stabilizing control lers * optimal control lers Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  17. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  18. Catastrophes control problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of catastrophe control is discussed. Catastrophe control aims to withdraw responsible engineering constructions out of the catastrophe. The mathematical framework of catastrophes control systems is constructed. It determines the principles of systems filling by the concrete physical contents and, simultaneously, permits to employ modern control methods for the synthesis of optimal withdrawal strategy for protected objects

  19. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible...... in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important....... Firstly, it is assumed that the nonlinear processes can be divided into a dynamic linear part and static nonlinear part. Consequently the processes with input nonlinearity and output nonlinearity are treated separately. With the nonlinearity at the input it is easy to set up a model which is linear...

  20. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  1. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  2. CONTROLLING AND BUSINESS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vuko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing business successfully in dynamic environment requires effective controlling system. Controlling is the process of defining objectives, planning and management control so that every decision maker can act in accordance with agreed objectives. Controlling function as a separate department contributes business efficiency trough ensuring transparency of business result and business processes. Controlling takes place when manager and controller cooperate. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of controlling function (i.e. controlling department in Croatian companies and to address the specific features of the function that contribute significantly to overall business performance. The research is conducted on the sample of companies listed on the Regulated market of the Zagreb Stock Exchange. Survey is used as a method to collect the data regarding the controlling function, while financial data necessary for the research are extracted from the published financial statements. Results of the research indicate that controlling department has positive effects on the business performance.

  3. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Power, M.A.; Bryan, M.

    1992-01-01

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  4. Control of Bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of bioprocess control is to ensure that the plant operates as designed. This chapter presents the fundamental principles for control of biochemical processes. Through examples, the selection of manipulated and controlled variables in the classical reactor configurations is discussed, so...... are control objectives and the challenges in obtaining good control of the bioreactor. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the bioreactor control problems and to highlight some general traits that distinguish operation of bioprocesses from operation of processes in the conventional chemical process...... industries. It also provides a number of typical control loops for different objectives. A brief introduction to the general principles of process control, the PID control algorithm is discussed, and the design and effect of tuning are shown in an example. Finally, a discussion of novel, model-free control...

  5. Foundations Of Fuzzy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well...... as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID...

  6. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Akiyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable three types of controls, that is, level control, scram control and excess reactivity control required for a reactor by a same mechanism by feeding neutron absorber liquid and pressure control gas to several blind pipes provided in the reactor core. Constitution: A plurality of blind pipes are disposed spaced apart in a reactor core and connected by way of injection pipes to a neutron absorber liquid tank. A pressure regulator is connected to the blind pipes, to which pressure control gas is supplied. The neutron absorber liquid used herein consists of sodium, potassium or their alloy, or mercury as a basic substance incorporated with one or more selected from boron, tantalum, rhenium, europium or their compounds. The level control, scram control and excess reactivity control can be attained by moderating the pressure changes in the pressure control gas or by regulating the fluctuation in the liquid level. (Horiughi, T.)

  7. Applied predictive control

    CERN Document Server

    Sunan, Huang; Heng, Lee Tong

    2002-01-01

    The presence of considerable time delays in the dynamics of many industrial processes, leading to difficult problems in the associated closed-loop control systems, is a well-recognized phenomenon. The performance achievable in conventional feedback control systems can be significantly degraded if an industrial process has a relatively large time delay compared with the dominant time constant. Under these circumstances, advanced predictive control is necessary to improve the performance of the control system significantly. The book is a focused treatment of the subject matter, including the fundamentals and some state-of-the-art developments in the field of predictive control. Three main schemes for advanced predictive control are addressed in this book: • Smith Predictive Control; • Generalised Predictive Control; • a form of predictive control based on Finite Spectrum Assignment. A substantial part of the book addresses application issues in predictive control, providing several interesting case studie...

  8. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  10. Trust and controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka; Zabłocka-Kluczka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controll...

  11. Arduino based laser control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Muñoz, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    ARDUINO is a vey usefull platform for prototypes. In this project ARDUINO will be used for controling a Semiconductor Tuneable Laser. [ANGLÈS] Diode laser for communications control based on an Arduino board. Temperature control implementation. Software and hardware protection for the laser implementation. [CASTELLÀ] Control de un láser de comunicaciones ópticas desde el ordenador utilizando una placa Arduino. Implementación de un control de temperatura y protección software y hardware ...

  12. Pneumatic control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Seong Gil; Kim, Won Hoe; Nam, Dae Hyun

    1993-03-01

    This book contains property of pneumatic pressure drive, pneumatic pressure device like air cleaning, pressure control, lubricators, air pressure pipe, kinds and function of pneumatic pressure equipment like pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic motor, flow control valve, direction control valve, design of pneumatic control circuit, pneumatic system design, cause and measurement of pneumatic circuit failure, PLC and pneumatic control like introduction and system application and method of PLC programing.

  13. 26 CFR 1.1011-2 - Bargain sale to a charitable organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... securities have a fair market value of $100,000 and an adjusted basis to A of $20,000. (b) The present value... purposes, the investment in the contract is $59,755, that is, the present value of the annuity. (d) The... of section 170 for the taxable year, including the percentage limitations of section 170(b), no...

  14. Individual differences in decision making: Drive and reward responsiveness affect strategic bargaining in economic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanfey Alan G

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the growing body of literature on economic decision making, the main focus has typically been on explaining aggregate behavior, with little interest in individual differences despite considerable between-subject variability in decision responses. In this study, we were interested in asking to what degree individual differences in fundamental psychological processes can mediate economic decision-making behavior. Methods Specifically, we studied a personality dimension that may influence economic decision-making, the Behavioral Activation System, (BAS which is composed of three components: Reward Responsiveness, Drive, and Fun Seeking. In order to assess economic decision making, we utilized two commonly-used tasks, the Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game. Individual differences in BAS were measured by completion of the BIS/BAS Scales, and correlations between the BAS scales and monetary offers made in the two tasks were computed. Results We found that higher scores on BAS Drive and on BAS Reward Responsiveness were associated with a pattern of higher offers on the Ultimatum Game, lower offers on the Dictator Game, and a correspondingly larger discrepancy between Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game offers. Conclusion These findings are consistent with an interpretation that high scores on Drive and Reward Responsiveness are associated with a strategy that first seeks to maximize the likelihood of reward, and then to maximize the amount of reward. More generally, these results suggest that there are additional factors other than empathy, fairness and selfishness that contribute to strategic decision-making.

  15. Multi-slice helical CT: biggest pitch does not mean dosimetric bargain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2000-01-01

    This article explains the point of the definition of the pitch, definition different from the point of view of the constructor and the definition used in the normalisation documents. It is important to dissociate the detection step ( displacement of the way divided by the thickness of the reconstructed hits) and the acquisition step (displacement of the way divided by the product of the number of hits simultaneously achieved by the nominal thickness of hit). This last one is the only step that answers to the step definition, still current in the normalisation documents and it should be the only used by the constructors. As irradiation is inversely proportional to the pitch, the definition of this one becomes a part of radiation protection and explains why different radiation doses can be gotten. (N.C.)

  16. Multi-attribute bilateral bargaining in a one-to-many setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerding, E.H.; Somefun, D.J.A.; Poutré, la J.A.; Faratin, P.; Rodríguez-Aguilar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    CWI is a founding member of ERCIM, the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics. CWI's research has a theme-oriented structure and is grouped into four clusters. Listed below are the names of the clusters and in parentheses their acronyms.

  17. Institutional barriers to DSM (demand side management): Reviewing the regulatory bargain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1990-09-01

    The paper discusses traditional arguments for utility regulation in the context of the current utility environment. It reviews several DSM delivery options using a matrix of key financial considerations for utilities and consumers. The strengths and weaknesses of each option are discussed and an assessment of current prospects for DSM implementation is provided. The premise of the paper is that adoption of DSM by utilities and consumers has lagged because of technical and behavioral uncertainties. In addition, regulatory practices and DSM delivery mechanisms have not provided adequate means to extract the benefits of DSM and allocate the risks in a way that offers clear advantages over generating options. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the potential for value of service approaches to resolve these problems.

  18. Negotiating the crisis? Collective bargaining in Europe during the economic downturn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glassner, V.; Keune, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights in the role of the key actors in the labour market, which are the trade unions, the employer organizations and the state, in negotiating responses to the economic downturn. As the crisis revealed, the role of the state changed with regard to the prevailing paradigm of the

  19. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben

    2000-01-01

    in extending coverage of a minimum wage to the non-union sector. Furthermore, the union sector does not seek to increase the non-union wage to a level above the market-clearing wage. In fact, it is optimal for the union sector to impose a market-clearing wage on the non-union sector. Finally, coverage...

  20. A Bargain Half Fulfilled: Teacher Autonomy and Accountability in Traditional Public Schools and Public Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberfield, Zachary W.

    2016-01-01

    Public charter schools (PCS) are thought to succeed because they have greater autonomy and are held more accountable than traditional public schools (TPS). Though teachers are central to this expectation, there is little evidence about whether teachers in PCS enjoy more autonomy and are held more accountable than teachers in TPS. Also, it is…

  1. Coalition-driven initiatives in the Ugandan dairy sector: Elites, conflict, and bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muhumuza, Fred; Mwebaze, Tom

    The dairy sector is one of the only agricultural sectors in Uganda that has enjoyed sustained high growth since the late 1980s. Milk and the cold dairy chain developed especially in the south-western part of the country. This paper explains why this is so by the sector’s relation to the ruling...

  2. Growth and Performance of the Ugandan Dairy Sector: Elites, Conflict and Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Mwebaze, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Abstract – The dairy sector is one of the only agricultural sectors in Uganda that has enjoyed sustained high growth since the late 1980s. Milk and the cold dairy chain developed especially in the South-Western part of the country. Some farmers have since adopted improved breeds and better...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.518 - Duty to bargain, confer, and consult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... representative may determine appropriate techniques, consistent with the operational rules of the HSLRB, to... change to a condition of employment unless the change is otherwise negotiable pursuant to these...

  4. Dismissal Disputes and the Incentives to Bargain: Estimates of the Contract Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit P. Freyens

    2011-01-01

    In many countries the arbitration of dismissal disputes by public tribunals and state agencies is regarded as slow and expensive. Some common law countries, including the United States and Australia, are privatizing dispute resolution on the premise that this is more efficient than using statutory channels, and it is thus perceived as a better method of settling disputes. Previous advances in statutory law regarding the arbitration of dismissal disputes have been either rescinded or circumven...

  5. Solar power generation in the US: Too expensive, or a bargain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Richard; Zweibel, Ken; Hoff, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    This article identifies the combined value that solar electric power plants deliver to utilities' rate payers and society's tax payers. Benefits that are relevant to utilities and their rate payers include traditional, measures of energy and capacity. Benefits that are tangible to tax payers include environmental, fuel price mitigation, outage risk protection, and long-term economic growth components. Results for the state of New York suggest that solar electric installations deliver between 15 and 40 cents /kWh to ratepayers and tax payers. These results provide economic justification for the existence of payment structures (often referred to as incentives) that transfer value from those who benefit from solar electric generation to those who invest in solar electric generation. - Highlights: → The article presents a valuation of the energy produced by solar generators. → Valuation accounts for physical, socio economic, and environmental attributes. → Value depends upon solar penetration and location and is likely to exceed cost. → The article shows that incentives for solar deployment are justified. → Incentives should be a function of solar energy's site and penetration dependent value.

  6. A Transatlantic Bargain for the 21st Century: The United States, Europe, and the Transatlantic Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    THE 21ST CENTURY: THE UNITED STATES, EUROPE, AND THE TRANSATLANTIC ALLIANCE The burdens of global citizenship continue to bind us together. A change...had led Europe and America to drift apart, he argued that the “the burdens of global citizenship continue to bind us together,” requiring allies...capabilities, including Norway, Belgium, Italy, and Denmark. Qatar , the United Arab Emirates, Morocco, Jordan, and Swe- den also played key operational roles

  7. Freedom of contract, bargaining power & forum selection in bills of lading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmeron Henriquez, Juan Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the parties to conclude binding agreements, and to determine the contents of these agreements, is at the very core of our market system. They are the consequence of our liberal understanding of personhood, placing individuality and autonomy as essential elements of our personality.

  8. The Wage Bargaining Structure in Norway and Sweden and its Influenceon Real Wage Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Alun H. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants of wages in the tradables and service sectors in Norway and Sweden. Tradables wages are determined by their own productivity growth whereas service sector wages are influenced by wage growth in the tradables sector. The traditional strong sensitivity of the real wage to changes in the unemployment rate has been virtually eliminated since the recessionary period in the early 1990s in Sweden, and real wages have grown faster than macroeconomic factors alo...

  9. Bottom-Up Structure: Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and the Plight of Disadvantaged Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Terry M.

    2006-01-01

    In the positive theory of public bureaucracy, the prevailing view is that the structure of public agencies is designed from the top down by political superiors. Faced with bureaucrats who may disagree with them on policy and who are advantaged by private information, superiors choose rules and procedures to try to ensure that agencies do what they…

  10. Negotiation genius how to overcome obstacles and achieve brilliant results at the bargaining table and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    From two leaders in executive education at Harvard Business School, here are the mental habits and proven strategies you need to achieve outstanding results in any negotiation. Whether you’ve “seen it all” or are just starting out, Negotiation Genius will dramatically improve your negotiating skills and confidence. Drawing on decades of behavioral research plus the experience of thousands of business clients, the authors take the mystery out of preparing for and executing negotiations—whether they involve multimillion-dollar deals or improving your next salary offer. What sets negotiation geniuses apart? They are the men and women who know how to: •Identify negotiation opportunities where others see no room for discussion •Discover the truth even when the other side wants to conceal it •Negotiate successfully from a position of weakness •Defuse threats, ultimatums, lies, and other hardball tactics •Overcome resistance and “sell” proposals using proven influence tactics •Negotia...

  11. An unsettled bargain? Mothers' perceptions of justice and fairness in paid work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerkes, Mara A.; Martin, Bill; Baxter, Janeen; Rose, Judy

    Mothers’ return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It

  12. Bargaining agents based system for automatic classification of potential allergens in recipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José ALEMANY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The automatic recipe recommendation which take into account the dietary restrictions of users (such as allergies or intolerances is a complex and open problem. Some of the limitations of the problem is the lack of food databases correctly labeled with its potential allergens and non-unification of this information by companies in the food sector. In the absence of an appropriate solution, people affected by food restrictions cannot use recommender systems, because this recommend them inappropriate recipes. In order to resolve this situation, in this article we propose a solution based on a collaborative multi-agent system, using negotiation and machine learning techniques, is able to detect and label potential allergens in recipes. The proposed system is being employed in receteame.com, a recipe recommendation system which includes persuasive technologies, which are interactive technologies aimed at changing users’ attitudes or behaviors through persuasion and social influence, and social information to improve the recommendations.

  13. A bargaining model of regulated markets' integration with an application to electricity supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jingyuan; Smeers, Y.; Canon, E.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated market organized by regulated electric utilities is modelled. It is assumed that, given a price vector for the exchange of electricity between each pair of neighboring utilities, utilities independently maximize their own domestic social welfare subject to the zero profit constraint. An equilibrium price vector for exchanges among utilities is defined as the one which clears the exchanges for all pair of business partners. A single piecewise linear model is formulated for computing market equilibria. The model is used to simulate the electricity supply market organized by 11 western European countries

  14. Bargaining for Absolutism: A Spanish Path to Nation State and Empire Building

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Irigoin; R. Grafe

    2006-01-01

    Social scientists use the history of Spain and her empire as a standard against which they have sought to establish the relatively superior efficiency of Anglo-Saxon institutions. This historical `experiment` underpins the core argument of new-institutional economic history. This paper argues that such comparisons have departed from a misleading characterisation of Spanish rule in the metropolis and overseas. For some time historians of Spain and Colonial Spanish America have emphasized that ...

  15. List prices vs. bargain prices: which solution to estimate consumer price indices?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo De Gregorio

    2010-01-01

    Alternative approaches to CPI surveys are here evaluated, in markets where final prices are based on some sort of price listing. Three types of surveys are compared: local surveys (LOC), with small samples and a local price collection; list price surveys (LIS), with huge samples and centralised collection; mixed surveys (MXD), in which LOC and LIS are jointly used. Based on a multiplicative pricing model, some conditions are derived to establish the relative efficiency of these approaches. Th...

  16. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…

  17. Financial management, bargaining and efficiency within the household; An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelsteen, S; Kooreman, P

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from the British Household Panel Survey on households' financial management and financial decision-making. Direct subjective information was collected by asking questions like 'Who has the final say in big financial decisions?'. All questions were answered separately by both

  18. Pricing of Vehicle-to-Grid Services in a Microgrid by Nash Bargaining Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sarparandeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ehsan, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Owners of electric vehicles (EVs) can offer the storage capacity of their batteries to the operator of a microgrid as a service called vehicle-to-grid (V2G) to hold the balance between supply and demand of electricity, particularly when the microgrid has intermittent renewable energy sources. Literature review implies that V2G has economic benefits for both microgrid operator and EV owners, but it is unclear how these benefits are divided between them. The challenge grows when the policy make...

  19. Researching Collective Bargaining Agreements: Building Conceptual Understanding in an Era of Declining Union Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Feng, Li; Wilson, Jerry J.

    2018-01-01

    Here, we examine over two decades of empirical literature to explore the ways scholars have been working to reveal the changing set of policy and political conditions in which teachers unions are operating. In this context, we identify the conceptual models educational researchers have used to frame their research and the applications of these…

  20. A garage sale bargain: A leaking 2.2 GBq source, Phase III - The radiological cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitkus, T.; Beck, W.L. [ORISE, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Freeman, B. [Tennessee Dept. of Environment and Conservation, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    As described in a previous paper, a private residence in Bristol, Tennessee, was extensively contaminated when the owner unknowingly handled a leaking {sup 226}Ra source of about 60 mCi. Contamination was found on both floors of the two-story house and in the yard. The most extensively contaminated area was a back porch where the owner initially opened the source containment box. Contamination was probably spread most by {open_quotes}tracking{close_quotes} by the owner, his wife, and several pet cats. One of the most contaminated objects found was a pillow, a favorite napping place for the cats, which read 25 mR h{sup -1} at contact. Several decon techniques were tried including stripable paints, washing with various agents, etc. However, decontamination was primarily accomplished by physical removal techniques, such as removing carpeting, scraping and sanding wooden surfaces, and by disposal of contaminated objects (much to the owners` dismay). The house and the yard were cleaned up to meet the recommended guidelines for unrestricted release with the expenditure of about 550 hours of effort. The groups assisting the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health included the Department of Energy, Tennessee Valley Authority`s Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Scientific Ecology Group. All of the assistance was provided at no cost to the home owner or the State of Tennessee.

  1. More Than We Bargained For: The Impact of Consumer Culture in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Katherine T.

    Advertising by multinational corporations in Southeast Asia is generating a growing resistance to its perceived role in creating a "consumer culture" damaging to indigenous values systems. Critics of advertising in Southeast Asia argue that when multinational advertisers or their multinational advertising agencies move into this foreign…

  2. Using the Patriot Act to Turn North Korea’s Dirty Money into a Bargaining Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Department issued its final section 311 rule on BDA on 19 March 2007 “to help en - sure that Banco Delta Asia is denied access to the US financial system...located in China’s Macau Special Administrative Region, Banco Delta Asia (BDA), is the best known and perhaps the most misunder- stood. In September...BDA facilitated this illicit behavior—which included distributing counterfeit US currency, smuggling black market tobacco products, and drug

  3. Bargaining with Patriarchy: Former Female Coaches' Experiences and Their Decision to Leave Collegiate Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the experiences of former female coaches and their decision to terminate their careers. A feminist perspective and mixed-methods (surveys and interviews) were used to allow for a richer understanding of their experiences. The survey findings, which included 121 former female coaches, suggest that…

  4. The Agricultural—Industrial Partnership for Eliminating icronutrient Malnutrition:The Investment Bargain of the Decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOSEPHMICHAELHUNT

    2001-01-01

    The limitations of conventional approaches to eliminating micronutrient deficiencies drives the search for a sustainable paradigm.This manuscript argues that the public sectors must embark on modernization of the Asian food industry and reorientation of the international agrcultural research complex so that nutritionally enriched essential foods will be affordable and accessible to the poor.It is recommended that this partnership take special care of the needs of Asian children.The costs of chronic undernutrition,availaility of cost-effective strategies,and benefits of sustained nutrition improvement to individuals ,failies and nations are reviewed.The roles of food fortification,plant breeding and biotechnology,both actual and imminent,are described.The paper concludes that a recast Green Revolution directed to dietary quality may be the key to enhancing the learning and earning capacity of young Asians of the new millenium."No other technology offers as large an opportunity to improve lives…at such a low cost and in such a short time…" World Bank[1] .

  5. The Agricultural-Industrial Partnership for EliminatingMicronutrient Malnutrition: The Investment Bargain of the Decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The limitations of conventional approaches to eliminatingmicronutrient deficiencies drives the search for a sustainable paradigm. This manuscript argues that the public and private sectors must embark on modernization of the Asian food industry and reorientation of the international agricultural research complex so that nutritionally enriched essential foods will be affordable and accessible to the poor. It is recommended that this partnership take special care of the needs of Asian children. The costs of chronic undernutrition, availability of cost-effective strategies, and benefits of sustained nutrition improvement to individuals, families and nations are reviewed. The roles of food fortification, plant breeding and biotechnology, both actual and imminent, are described. The paper concludes that a recast Green Revolution directed to dietary quality may be the key to enhancing the learning and earning capacity of young Asians of the new millenium.“No other technology offers as large and opportunity to improve lives...at such a low cost and in such a short time.."world Bank[1

  6. Psychological distance boosts value-behavior correspondence in ultimatum bargaining and integrative negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomantonio, M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Shalvi, S.; Sligte, D.; Leder, S.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined how construal level and social motivation interact in influencing individuals’ behavior in social decision making settings. Consistent with recent work on psychological distance and value-behavior correspondence (Eyal, Sagristano, Trope, Liberman, & Chaiken, 2009), it

  7. Bargaining babblers: vocal negotiation of cooperative behaviour in a social bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. B. V.; Radford, A. N.; Smith, R. A.; Thompson, A. M.; Ridley, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Wherever individuals perform cooperative behaviours, each should be selected to adjust their own current contributions in relation to the likely future contributions of their collaborators. Here, we use the sentinel system of pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor) to show that individuals anticipate contributions by group mates, adjusting their own contribution in response to information about internal state broadcast by others. Specifically, we show that (i) short-term changes in state influence contributions to a cooperative behaviour, (ii) individuals communicate short-term changes in state, and (iii) individuals use information about the state of group mates to adjust their own investment in sentinel behaviour. Our results demonstrate that individual decisions about contributions to a cooperative effort can be influenced by information about the likely future contribution of others. We suggest that similar pre-emptive adjustments based on information obtained from collaborators will be a common feature of cooperative behaviour, and may play an important role in the development of complex communication in social species. PMID:20519221

  8. Trade Reforms, Mark-Ups and Bargaining Power of Workers: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    the board to influence firms to properly consider the working and payment conditions of workers. ... Thus, it may lend some policy implications and modest .... meets on a bi-monthly basis or to the court if the committee's decision is not accepted ...

  9. Individual differences in decision making: Drive and Reward Responsiveness affect strategic bargaining in economic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheres, Anouk; Sanfey, Alan G

    2006-10-18

    In the growing body of literature on economic decision making, the main focus has typically been on explaining aggregate behavior, with little interest in individual differences despite considerable between-subject variability in decision responses. In this study, we were interested in asking to what degree individual differences in fundamental psychological processes can mediate economic decision-making behavior. Specifically, we studied a personality dimension that may influence economic decision-making, the Behavioral Activation System, (BAS) which is composed of three components: Reward Responsiveness, Drive, and Fun Seeking. In order to assess economic decision making, we utilized two commonly-used tasks, the Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game. Individual differences in BAS were measured by completion of the BIS/BAS Scales, and correlations between the BAS scales and monetary offers made in the two tasks were computed. We found that higher scores on BAS Drive and on BAS Reward Responsiveness were associated with a pattern of higher offers on the Ultimatum Game, lower offers on the Dictator Game, and a correspondingly larger discrepancy between Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game offers. These findings are consistent with an interpretation that high scores on Drive and Reward Responsiveness are associated with a strategy that first seeks to maximize the likelihood of reward, and then to maximize the amount of reward. More generally, these results suggest that there are additional factors other than empathy, fairness and selfishness that contribute to strategic decision-making.

  10. The Faustian bargain-hazards of theft and sabotage: Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that the fissionable material in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, waste storage facilities and that contained in the shipments of radioactive waste are vulnerable to sabotage and theft. (R.L.)

  11. Industrial Unionism and Its Bargaining Correlates in Nigeria Industrial Relations System

    OpenAIRE

    Francis C. Anyim; Joy Onyinyechi Ekwoaba; Adedoyinsola Olajumoke Shonuga

    2013-01-01

    Between 1960-1966, industrial relations system in Nigeria was based on Laissez-faire doctrine or voluntary ethic. The colonial trade union ordinance of 1938 allowed any five or more persons to form trade unions. The trend led to the proliferation of over 1000 mushroom unions which were not well organized and badly managed. Besides, all was not well with the organization, administration, finance, leadership and foreign relations of the unions. It was against this backdrop that government initi...

  12. An unsettled bargain? Mothers' perceptions of justice and fairness in paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Mara A; Martin, Bill; Baxter, Janeen; Rose, Judy

    2017-06-01

    Mothers' return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It focuses on mothers' perceptions of the fairness and justice of the flexibility of arrangements they commonly enter into upon return to work. The article draws attention to the importance of different justice frameworks, distributive, procedural and interactional, in understanding women's acceptance of gender inequality in paid work. The results indicate that most mothers view their workplace arrangements as fair, consistent with a distributive justice framework. Many women also place great importance on interactional justice, particularly in their experiences in negotiating flexibility. The article also identifies differences across employment type with women in jobs with career prospects more likely to invoke interactional justice frameworks than women in jobs with few career prospects.

  13. Crazy for bargains: inventing the irrational female shopper in modernizing English Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, Donica

    2011-01-01

    Between the 1890s and 1930s, anglophone politicians, journalists, novelists, and other commentators living in western, central, and eastern Canada drew upon established connections among greed, luxury, hysteria, and femininity to describe women who went shopping as irrational. Their motivations for doing so included their desires to assuage feelings of guilt about increased abundance; articulate anger caused by spousal conflicts over money; assert the legitimacy of male authority; and assign blame for the decline of small communities’ sustainability, the degradation of labour standards, and the erosion of independent shopkeeping. By calling upon stock stereotypes of femininity, and by repositioning them to fit the current capitalist moment, English-Canadian commentators constructed disempowering representations of women to alleviate their anxieties about what they perceived as the ills of modernization.

  14. Productive and Reproductive Decisions in Turkey: The Role of Domestic Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isvan, Nilufer A.

    1991-01-01

    Used national household survey from Turkey to examine relationship between employment and fertility. Hypothesized that women's relative power within domestic decision process and/or autonomy are additional factors in determining responsiveness of fertility to female employment. Found that in Turkey, where gender relations are generally…

  15. Capital structure as a bargaining tool : the role of leverage in contract renegotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Spier, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a strategic model of temporarily high leverage. When the repayment of senior claims depends in part upon further investment, shareholders may be able to alter credibly their incentives to invest through an exchange of junior debt for equity and thereby force concessions from

  16. Outsmarting the gig-economy through collective bargaining - EU competition law as a barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiek, Dagmar; Gideon, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    In August 2016, drivers delivering meals in London after being booked via the platforms ‘Deliveroo’ and ‘UberEATS’ made headlines by challenging working practices in the gig-economy through collective industrial action. Dissatisfaction resulted from extremely low levels of pay as well as a new payment calculation system being introduced without consultation. This indicates that the ‘gig-economy’ may not always constitute the smartest solution for those serving within it. However, it also high...

  17. Solving the Bargaining Democracy Problem Using a Constitutional Hierarchy for Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wihlborg, Clas

    2004-01-01

    the policy debate to focus on principles andrules to an increasing extent. At the same time, the difficulty of defining a rule asopposed to an outcome-oriented directive is avoided by limiting the task of aconstitutional court to simply rank conflicting policy actions with respect to thedegree actions...

  18. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  20. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-01-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p max . This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic