WorldWideScience

Sample records for contrat etat-andra 2005-2008

  1. Government/Andra 2001/2004 quadrennial contract; Contrat quadriennal 2001/2004 Etat/Andra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) was created on December 31, 1991 with the objective of carrying out research works in the domain of the long term management of radioactive wastes: research programs, management of waste disposal facilities, realisation and exploitation of underground laboratories for the design and setting up of new disposal facilities, definition of safety rules, conditioning and disposal specifications, inventory and localization of all radioactive wastes inside the French territory. This documents aims at defining the missions of the Andra for the 2001-2004 era, ten years after its creation: classification of radioactive wastes; positioning and missions of the Agency; objectives for the industrial mission (safety, storage and disposal solutions, management solutions, continuation of the inventory work, optimization of disposal costs, memory and surveillance); objectives of the research mission (high scientific level projects, structuration of researches, reinforcement of the coordination between the 3 axes of the 1991 law, exploitation and management of underground laboratories, spreading out of scientific results); objectives of the information mission (inventory and localization of wastes, realization of a reference inventory, contribution to the local information, proposal for a clear and verifiable information); international policy objectives (promotion of contacts and cooperations with foreign partners, representation of the Agency among the big international organizations, punctual missions for the valorization of the Agency competencies); evaluation and quality assurance inside the Agency (safety evaluation, scientific and technical evaluation, quality policy and environment, ethics, contract follow up). (J.S.)

  2. The ISOLDE group 2005-2008

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    In the years leading up to the first beams in LHC in the autumn 2008 most CERN efforts were focussed on finishing the LHC. Still, ISOLDE managed to evolve and broaden its physics scope. I shall give a brief overview of the main events taking place at ISOLDE in the period 2005-2008, including the consolidation of the existing infrastructure and the preparations for the HIE-ISOLDE project, and remind about some of the physics results coming out. I shall also mention the developments in and around the ISOLDE Collaboration.

  3. Assessment of the 2005-2008 State-ANDRA contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report proposes an assessment of the activity of the ANDRA (French national Agency for radioactive waste management) with respect to its different missions, i.e., an industrial mission, a research mission, and an information mission, but also with respect to evaluation practices and to its human resources. For each of these main issues, this report recalls the objectives as they were defined in the 2005-2008 contract and indicates what has been done about

  4. Antimony and sleep-related disorders: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C; Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery. Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. The prevalence of short sleep duration (sleep apnea (OSA) affects 12-28 million US adults. Insufficient sleep and OSA have been linked to the development of several chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression, conditions that pose serious public health threats. To investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders in the US adult population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with several sleep disorders, including insufficient sleep and OSA, in adult (ages 20 years and older) participants of NHANES 2005-2008 (n=2654). We found that participants with higher urinary antimony levels had higher odds to experience insufficient sleep (≤6h/night) (OR 1.73; 95%CI; 1.04, 2.91) as well as higher odds to have increased sleep onset latency (>30min/night). Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA (OR 1.57; 95%CI; 1.05, 2.34), sleep problems, and day-time sleepiness. In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA. Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. TIDALLY INDUCED OUTBURSTS IN OJ 287 DURING 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, M. J.; Nilsson, K.; Villforth, C.; Lehto, H. J.; Takalo, L. O.; Lindfors, E.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Mikkola, S.; Zola, S.; Drozdz, M.; Ogloza, W.; Winiarski, M.; Koziel, D.; Kurpinska-Winiarska, M.; Siwak, M.; Heidt, J.; Kidger, M.; Pursimo, T.; Wu, J.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The blazar OJ 287 has produced two major optical outburst events during the years 2005-2008. These are the latest in a series of outbursts that have occurred repeatedly at 12 year intervals since early 1900s. It has been possible to explain the historical light curve fairly well by using a binary black hole model where the secondary black hole impacts the accretion disk of the primary twice during the 12 year orbital cycle. We will ask here how well does the latest light-curve fit with this model. We use a 10 million particle disk to model the accretion disk of the primary black hole. The rate of transfer of particles through the 10 Schwarzschild radius cylinder around the primary is followed. The secondary induces an inward flow through this surface. The inward flow rate is compared with the historical light curve as well as with the most recent observations reported in this paper. The observations have been carried out by using a number of small and medium size telescopes in different locations in order to ensure a dense light-curve coverage. The 'inflow light curve' and the optical light curve of OJ 287 have a close resemblance to each other. It suggests that the tidally induced accretion flow is responsible for the main features of the optical light curve, with the exception of the quasi-periodic double peaks. It implies a close connection between the accretion disk and the jet where the optical synchrotron emission is presumably generated.

  6. Administration et gestion des contrats XL

    CERN Document Server

    Senouf, J

    2000-01-01

    Les grands contrats de travaux génèrent un grand nombre de commandes (OSVC) passées par un grand nombre de responsables techniques. Ils sont généralement basés sur des bordereaux de prix associés à un éventail de conditions économiques adaptées aux besoins complexes et variés des multiples utilisateurs du CERN nécessitant des calculs sophistiqués. L'administration des commandes, le suivi des travaux et de la facturation doivent répondre aux besoins de tous les acteurs. Les responsables techniques doivent jouir de la plus large indépendance administrative dans le respect des règlements CERN et des conditions contractuelles. Le contrôle des métrés et décomptes doit être rigoureux et d'une traçabilité complète. L'utilisation des bases de données Oracle a déjà permis l'intégration des données administratives et techniques. Le Web nous invite à une communication totale et transparente entre les utilisateurs, les services techniques et les contractants. De nouveaux types de contrat so...

  7. Måltidsvaner for voksne med kort uddannelse 2005-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lene Møller; Kørup, Karsten; Trolle, Ellen

    tre hovedmåltider og tre mellemmåltider samt hverdag/weekend. Resultaterne vises for mænd og kvinder separat og samlet. Rapporten er baseret på data fra Den nationale undersøgelse af danskernes kostvaner og fysiske aktivitet indsamlet i 2005-2008. I alt 537 mænd og 535 kvinder i alderen 20-75 år...

  8. Perchlorate exposure is associated with oxidative stress and indicators of serum iron homeostasis among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Perchlorate (ClO4-), an oxidizing agent, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Several studies have investigated its thyroid hormone disrupting properties. Its associations with other biological measures are largely unknown. This study, combining 2005-2008 National H...

  9. Le Projet d’Ole Lando sur les Contrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holle, Marie-Louise

    2017-01-01

    En 2016 le projet de recherche le plus important jusqu’à présent sur le droit nordique des contrats a pris fin et un livre, de presque 400 pages, en a marqué l’aboutissement. Le résultat du projet est un « restatement » tel qu’il existe aux États-Unis. Le Restatement porte sur les règles et les...

  10. Analyzing Local Government Financial Performance: Evidence from Brazilian Municipalities 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipality size has become an issue since the New Public Management doctrine of disaggregating structures into manageable units. In some countries, this doctrine led to the creation of small-scale agencies relying heavily upon transfers from upper-level governments. This paper aims to contribute to performance management literature by providing empirical evidence about some determinant factors that are likely to endow local governments with superior financial performance. Data came from a sample of Brazilian municipalities and refers to the period 2005-2008. The main conclusion of this investigation is that larger cities are more likely to manage revenue and expenditure better than are smaller cities, which aligns with the discussion of amalgamation versus fragmentation. This conclusion stems from the findings that in small municipalities mayors have fewer conditions to improve financial performance due to the difficulty of raising and collecting taxes and of reducing expenditures, which makes their administrations far more dependent upon external sources of money. Therefore, this dependent relationship can be seen as the cause of poor financial performance to the extent that it lowers mayoral discretion when making decisions. Another contribution this paper proposes to theory and practice relates to the fact that in the strong-mayor form of local government, mayoral qualification is likely to have little effect upon performance.

  11. [Survival rate for breast cancer in Rabat (Morocco) 2005-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechita, Nada Bennani; Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Mrabet, Mustapha; Saadi, Asma; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Razine, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem in Morocco. This study aims to estimate the survival rate for patients with breast cancer living in Rabat. We conducted a prognostic study of female patients with breast cancer diagnosed during 2005-2008, living in Rabat and whose data were recorded in the Rabat Cancer Registry. The date of inclusion in this study corresponded with the date on which cancer was histologically confirmed. Survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the comparison between the different classes of a variable was made using the log rank test. The study of factors associated with survival was performed using the Cox model. During the study period 628 cases of breast cancer were collected. Mortality rate was 19.9%. Overall 1-year survival rate was 97.1%, 89.2% at 3 years and 80.6% at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, breast cancer survival was statistically lower in patients over 70 years of age (p <0.001) with large tumor size (p < 0.001), advanced-stage adenopathies (p = 0.007), metastases (p < 0.001) and not using hormone therapy (p = 0.002). Large tumor size and metastases are poor prognostic factors in breast cancer, hence the need to strengthen screening programs.

  12. Control in personnel exposure of RCD/FCD facility RLG during the period 2005 - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, S.; Thanamani, S.; Sapkal, J.A.; Bairwa, Satya Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Radio Chemistry Wing, RLG, houses Radio Chemistry Division and Fuel Chemistry Division and certain common utility services. The personnel in the facility carry out radiochemical operations involving isotopes of Pu and other actinides. The HP Unit, Radio Chemistry Wing provides essential safety coverage to the personnel of the facility. The lab personnel of RCD/FCD facility at RLG carry out active operations, such operations held in suitable containment systems, under the HP supervision by RHC Unit advising safe work practices. The lab personnel are provided with monitoring programmes viz. TLD, Bio-assay and Lung counting periodically. Presently the dose limit for occupational exposure is 20 mSv per annum with 100 mSv for 5 consecutive calendar years. The present paper on TLD dose report enlists the details of the personnel exposure year wise and highlights the control in personnel exposure due to the safe procedures followed. The decreasing trend in the average personnel exposure over the period 2005 - 2008 validates the practice of adherence to safety procedures, though the amount of activity handled in the facility has increased by a few folds

  13. Physical activity, screen time, and school absenteeism: self-reports from NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew R; Pritchard, Tony; Melnic, Irina; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how lifestyle behaviors in the context of physical activity levels and screen time are associated with school absenteeism. We analyzed 2005-2008 NHANES data of proxy interviews for 1048 children aged 6-11 years and in-person self-reports of 1117 adolescents aged 12-18 years. Missing 10% of school days during the past school year was defined as severe school absenteeism (SSA). Watching TV ≥2 hours a day was significantly associated with SSA among both children (OR = 3.51 [1.03-12.0]) and adolescents (OR = 3.96 [1.84-8.52]) compared with their peers watching Absenteeism was not validated with report cards. Unable to account for the absence type or frequency of illness or injury. No psychometric properties provided for subjective measures regarding participants' attitudes and characteristic traits towards physical activity, TV viewing, and school attendance. Excessive TV watching among children and adolescents, and inactivity and high activity levels (≥7 times per week) among children are independently associated with severe school absenteeism.

  14. Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects Schreinemachers DM, Ghio AJ, Cascio WE, Sobus JR. U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA Perchlorate (ClO4-), an environmental pollutant, is a known thyroid toxicant and...

  15. Progress report of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project 2005-2008; Rapport d'avancement du projet SENSIB 2005-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumont, G.; Bourcier, L.; Briand, B.; Chojnacki, E.; Dufeu, A.; Duffa, C.; Durand, V.; Eyrolle, F.; Larue, C.; Levain, A.; Masson, O.; Mercat, C.; Metivier, J.M.; Pey, B.; Pourcelot, L.; Renaud, Ph.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Thebault, H

    2008-07-01

    applied to each sensitivity factor when calculating the overall sensitivity. Calculation of an overall score with the aim of defining a single radiological sensitivity scale. A prerequisite for these stages is the gathering together of all the available radioecological data (field data, modelling, and experimental results) and the processing of this data using a single approach. Two types of studies will be carried out during the period 2005-2008 (when the programme is jointly financed by the A.D.E.M.E.). These are thematic and applicative studies. The thematic studies will be used to characterise the sensitivity factors according to the type of environment or theme. These include the atmosphere, the soil, river banks, agricultural land, and the human food chain (see diagram). In the case of the atmosphere, for example, one of the sensitivity factors to be studied is the type of precipitation. Each type of precipitation washes out the contaminants present in a cloud to a different degree, and this washout potential is a determinant factor in the size of the resulting deposits. The results of these studies will provide the building blocks needed to establish a method for classifying an environment according to its sensitivity to radioactive pollution. The applicative studies are aimed at the development of innovative data analysis tool and their application to two distinct scenarios; the management of the consequences of discharges following a nuclear accident, and the sensitivity of the surrounding environments to chronic discharges from nuclear plants. The main focus of these studies will be the atmosphere, the soil, agricultural production and rivers. Other scenarios and environments may be studied after 2008. The C.L.A.R.A.2 and P.R.I.M.E. research projects, which were chosen for funding by French research calls (see the news), are included in the S.E.N.S.I.B. project. The results of the I.R.S.N. E.X.T.R.E.M.E. programme will also be used by S.E.N.S.I.B.. (authors)

  16. Molecular analysis of genital HPV: results of a study made in the years 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Di Bello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Papilloma virus (HPV infection is the main cause of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN worldwide. Consequently, it would be useful to evaluate HPV testing to screen for cervical cancer. Recently several molecular biological tests able to detect different HPV types and to classified them into high and low-risk groups have been developed. In this study we examined HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in a group of 346 patients, some women undergoing cytological screening for prevention, others with abnormal cytological and/ or clinics. Methods: HPV detection and genotyping were done using a polymerase chain reaction based assay with the use the HPV Typing kit (Nuclear Laser Medicine.The tests can detect and differentiate 14 types of human papilloma virus, classified them into low, medium and high risk. Results. During the period 2005-2008, a total of 346 samples were analysed.The results of this study show that in this series, HPV infection were detected in 43.35% with a prevalence of 83.3% in patients of 16-20 years. Over the years there weren’t an increase of the infection. Among patients with condylomas, the genotype most frequently detected were HPV 6 (79% followed by HPV 11 (25.5% while among the eso-endocervical swabs were HPV 16 (34.5% and HPV 6 (26.1%. Conclusions: Our work shows how is high the incidence of HPV infection in people especially young, thus the importance of HPV molecular test for diagnosing the presence of high risk HPV oncogenes.This epidemiological study can better understand the incidence of HPV in local and identification of the virus strain that maintains the infection, in order to assume a growing importance in prevention programs.

  17. Shoulder injuries in US high school baseball and softball athletes, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnik, Stephanie; Fogarty, Kieran J; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors that are involved in shoulder injury rates among high school athletes who participate in organized baseball and softball. Baseball- and softball-related injury data were collected during the 2005-2008 academic years from approximately 74 nationally representative high schools via High School Reporting Information Online. Certified athletic trainers reported 91 baseball shoulder injuries and 40 softball shoulder injuries during 528147 and 399522 athlete exposures, respectively. The injury rate was 1.72 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for baseball and 1.00 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for softball. Muscle strain/incomplete tears were the most common injuries in both baseball (30.8%) and softball (35.0%). In practices, throwing, not including pitching, caused more than half of softball injuries (68.2%) as compared with competition injuries (23.5%; injury proportion ratio [IPR]: 2.90 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-7.15]; P = .015), whereas pitching was the most common mechanism in causing shoulder injuries during baseball practice (41.9%) compared with competitions (25.6%; IPR: 1.64 [95% CI: 0.88-3.04]; P = .17). Eighty-one percent of the baseball shoulder injuries and 82.5% of the softball shoulder injuries were new. Ten percent of baseball athletes and 5.3% of softball athletes sustained injuries that required surgery (IPR: 1.40 [95% CI: 0.32-6.10]; P = .93). Injuries that were sustained while the athlete was on the pitcher's mound were significantly more likely to result in surgery than any other field position (IPR: 2.64 [95% CI: 1.65-4.21]; P = .0061). Injured baseball players were more than twice as likely to be pitchers. Although rates and patterns of shoulder injuries are similar between baseball and softball players, injury rates and patterns differ between field positions within each sport, as well as by injury severity and the athletes' year in school.

  18. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  19. Progress report of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumont, G.; Bourcier, L.; Briand, B.; Chojnacki, E.; Dufeu, A.; Duffa, C.; Durand, V.; Eyrolle, F.; Larue, C.; Levain, A.; Masson, O.; Mercat, C.; Metivier, J.M.; Pey, B.; Pourcelot, L.; Renaud, Ph.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Thebault, H.

    2008-01-01

    applied to each sensitivity factor when calculating the overall sensitivity. Calculation of an overall score with the aim of defining a single radiological sensitivity scale. A prerequisite for these stages is the gathering together of all the available radioecological data (field data, modelling, and experimental results) and the processing of this data using a single approach. Two types of studies will be carried out during the period 2005-2008 (when the programme is jointly financed by the A.D.E.M.E.). These are thematic and applicative studies. The thematic studies will be used to characterise the sensitivity factors according to the type of environment or theme. These include the atmosphere, the soil, river banks, agricultural land, and the human food chain (see diagram). In the case of the atmosphere, for example, one of the sensitivity factors to be studied is the type of precipitation. Each type of precipitation washes out the contaminants present in a cloud to a different degree, and this washout potential is a determinant factor in the size of the resulting deposits. The results of these studies will provide the building blocks needed to establish a method for classifying an environment according to its sensitivity to radioactive pollution. The applicative studies are aimed at the development of innovative data analysis tool and their application to two distinct scenarios; the management of the consequences of discharges following a nuclear accident, and the sensitivity of the surrounding environments to chronic discharges from nuclear plants. The main focus of these studies will be the atmosphere, the soil, agricultural production and rivers. Other scenarios and environments may be studied after 2008. The C.L.A.R.A.2 and P.R.I.M.E. research projects, which were chosen for funding by French research calls (see the news), are included in the S.E.N.S.I.B. project. The results of the I.R.S.N. E.X.T.R.E.M.E. programme will also be used by S.E.N.S.I.B.. (authors)

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience, 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    The fundamental objective of the Incident Reporting System (IRS) is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants which are operated worldwide. This fourth publication, covering the period 2005-2008, follows on the success of the previous three. It highlights important lessons learned based on a review of the approximately 200 event reports received from the participating countries over this period. The book is written both for a non-technical audience and for senior officials in industry and government who have decision making roles in the nuclear power industry.

  1. Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Province of Choapa, IV Region, Chile: Preliminary Report (2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Apt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease acquired special importance in Chile after the certification of the control of Triatoma infestans and transmission by blood donors affected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In order to establish adequate protocols for intervention and control in infected mother-neonate pairs in endemic zones of Chagas disease, we present partial results (2005-2008 of a pilot project which is being carried out in the Province of Choapa, IV Region, Chile, whose objectives are: determine the current prevalence of the disease in pregnant women, estimate the incidence of vertical transmission of T. cruzi to newborns, determine the lineages of the parasite present in mothers who do and do not transmit the disease, determine the prevalence of Chagas disease in maternal grandmothers of neonates and study placental histopathology. Preliminary results indicated that in this study period, 3.7% of the women who gave birth in the Province have Chagas disease and 2.5% of their newborns were infected. The most frequent T. cruzi genotypes found in mothers studied during pregnancy were TCI and TCIId, either alone or in mixed infections. A high percentage (74.3% of the grandmothers studied was infected with the parasite. In 29 placentas from mothers with Chagas disease we observed edema, necrosis, fibrinoid deposits and slight lymphoplasmocyte infiltration. In three placentas we found erythroblastosis and in one of them amastigote forms of T. cruzi; this was one of the cases of congenital infection. The evaluation of the diagnostic and control protocols generated will allow us to determine if it has been possible to modify the natural history of vertical transmission of T. cruzi in Chile.

  2. Sleep disordered breathing and depression among U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B

    2012-04-01

    To determine if symptoms of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with depression symptomology in a national sample. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. U.S., 2005-2008. 9,714 adults (≥ 18 years). Respondents were asked about frequency of snoring and snorting, gasping, or stopping breathing while asleep and completed the PHQ-9 (a 9-item depression screener). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for SDB symptom-associated probable major depression (defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) were obtained from sex-specific logistic regression analyses adjusted for body mass index, age, race/ethnicity, and education. Among men, 6.0% reported physician-diagnosed sleep apnea, 37.2% snored ≥ 5 nights/week, 7.1% snorted/stopped breathing ≥ 5 nights/week, and 5.0% had PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10. Among women, 3.1% reported sleep apnea, 22.4% snored ≥ 5 nights/week, 4.3% snorted/stopped breathing ≥ 5 nights/week, and 8.4% had PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10. Sleep apnea was associated with probable major depression (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5, 3.6 among men; OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.7, 9.9 among women). Snoring was not associated with depression symptoms in men or women. Snorting/stopping breathing ≥ 5 nights/week compared to never was strongly associated with probable major depression in men (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.2) and women (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.6, 5.4). Frequent snorting/stopping breathing was associated with probable major depression by the PHQ-9 in a national sample of adults. Additional research may be needed to determine whether regular screening for these conditions by mental health professionals and sleep specialists should be recommended.

  3. Association between sleep quality and C-reactive protein: results from national health and nutrition examination survey, 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. METHODS: This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2005-2008 who were aged 20-85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. RESULTS: Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, p<0.0001. Each sleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed among the overall sample and in females only (β = 0.10, se = 0.03, p<0.01 and β = 0.13, se = 0.04, p<0.01, respectively. In fully-adjusted logistics regression model, poor sleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15-1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18-2.14 in females, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population.

  4. Trend report Energy Research Subsidy programme (2005-2008). A report on the most important trends and effects since the start of the Energy Research Subsidy (EOS) programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimman, J.; Soeriowardojo, E.; Witte, F.; Nijdam, J.

    2009-07-01

    In 2005 the Energy Research Subsidy programme (EOS) was launched in the Netherlands. In four years' time about 500 projects were realized thanks to contributions from EOS. This report provides an overview of the main trends and effects of EOS in the period 2005-2008. One of the main conclusions is that a number of technologies have developed from invention level to market-ready level thanks to the EOS programme. The main trends since the start of EOS are: Increasing confidence of investors in EOS spearheads; increasing activity in EOS spearheads; Spearheads shifting to investment and exploitation schemes; EOS contributes to a solid patent position of Dutch parties; EOS contributes to European research. [nl

  5. Investigation Patients with Urinary Stones from the Aspect of Epidemiologic Parameters Admitted at Urology Department of Imam Reza Hospital During Years 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis is one of the most frequent diseases of urinary system which forms high percentage of patients who come to Urology wards. Therefore, study of epidemiological characteristics of patients of each ward can be helpful for making the best general decision. Methods: First, we devided 5133 cases who had come to Urology department of imam Reza hospital of mashhad during 2005-2008, in 2 groups and then in 6 groups. We investigated and compared 2 groups of lithotripsy and surgery from the aspect of epidemiological characteristics. So, we did for 6 groups: pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, ureteroscopy and TUL, PNL, ESWL, cystolitholapaxy. Results: From 5133 cases, mean age of 43.41, men to female ratio 2.1, 90.1% had done lithotripsy and 9.2% surgery. Percentage of patients of pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy was 3.5% ureterolithotomy 0.8%, ureteroscopy and TUL39.5%, PNL 4.9%, ESWL 49.5%, cystolitholapaxy 1.9%. Mean stay in hospital for 1.31±0.19 and for surgery 4.84±0.16, in ESWL 0.81±0.25 and in pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy 5.09±0.17 days. During years 2005-2008 percentage of ESWL was : 59.9, 51.4 & 38.4% of all admissions in these years. PNLs percentage was: 3.8, 5.51, 5.53%. Choosing of PNL in urban people was highest (84.5% and for rural people pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy is the most technique in use. Conclusion: Despite of other advanced countries high percentage of our patients undergo open surgery especially in rural people, yet. So, we should provide facilities of education and financials for modern and lower costs of urinary tract stone treatments.

  6. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  7. Respiratory viruses involved in influenza-like illness in a Greek pediatric population during the winter period of the years 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogka, Vasiliki; Kossivakis, Athanasios; Kalliaropoulos, Antonios; Moutousi, Afroditi; Sgouras, Dionyssios; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Chrousos, George P; Theodoridou, Maria; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki P; Mentis, Andreas F

    2011-10-01

    Viruses are the major cause of pediatric respiratory tract infection and yet many suspected cases of illness remain uncharacterized. This study aimed to determine the distribution of several respiratory viruses in children diagnosed as having influenza-like illness, over the winter period of 2005-2008. Molecular assays including conventional and real time PCR protocols, were employed to screen respiratory specimens, collected by clinicians of the Influenza sentinel system and of outpatient pediatric clinics, for identification of several respiratory viruses. Of 1,272 specimens tested, 814 (64%) were positive for at least one virus and included 387 influenza viruses, 160 rhinoviruses, 155 respiratory syncytial viruses, 95 adenoviruses, 81 bocaviruses, 47 parainfluenza viruses, 44 metapneumoviruses, and 30 coronaviruses. Simultaneous presence of two or three viruses was observed in 173 of the above positive cases, 21% of which included influenza virus and rhinovirus. The majority of positive cases occurred during January and February. Influenza virus predominated in children older than 1 year old, with type B being the dominant type for the first season and subtypes A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 the following two winter seasons, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus prevailed in children younger than 2 years old, with subtypes A and B alternating from year to year. This is the most comprehensive study of the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in Greece, indicating influenza, rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus as major contributors to influenza-like illness in children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Associations between yogurt, dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and obesity among U.S. children aged 8-18 years: NHANES, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Albertson, Ann M; Gugger, Carolyn K; Holschuh, Norton M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8-18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  9. Trends in HIV testing and associated factors among men in South Africa: evidence from 2005, 2008 and 2012 national population-based household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, T; Mabaso, M; Richter, L; Desmond, C; Jooste, S; Simbayi, L

    2017-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan African countries, including South Africa, uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among men remains a major challenge. Few studies have explored HIV testing uptake among men and factors that influence their testing behaviours. This article explores trends in HIV testing uptake and associated factors among men aged 15 years and older in South Africa using national HIV population-based household surveys conducted in 2005, 2008 and 2012. A multistage cross-sectional design was used in the three nationally representative household-based surveys. P-trend Chi-squared statistic was used to analyze changes in HIV testing in relation to demographic factors, and HIV-related risk behaviours across the three surveys. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between ever testing for HIV, demographic factors and HIV-related risk behaviours. HIV testing uptake among men was 28% in 2005, 43% in 2008 and 59% in 2012. A trend was also observed in HIV testing by sociodemographic factors, but differences existed within variables. HIV testing uptake was mainly influenced by the effects of selected population characteristics. Reduced likelihood of HIV testing was significantly associated with males aged 15-24 years, Black African race group, being single and unemployed, those residing in urban informal and rural informal areas, and those men who ever had sex. The observed sociodemographic differentials suggest that an effective expansion strategy for HIV testing needs to prioritize those most unlikely to test as identified by the current findings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bordeaux Gradignan Nuclear Research Centre - CENBG - 2005-2008 Activity report. From infinitely small to infinitely large, nuclear science in the service of mankind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Bordeaux Gradignan Nuclear Research Centre (CENBG) is a joint research unit of the CNRS/IN2P3 and the University Bordeaux 1 'Science and Technology'. The laboratory is composed of permanent researchers, permanent engineers and technicians and PhD students, post-docs and visitors. The scientific program covers a broad range of topics in nuclear physics, particle physics, astro-particle physics as well as applications of subatomic physics to different multidisciplinary fields. The main research subjects are: exotic nuclei far from the valley of beta stability and rare radioactive decays; neutrino physics (type and mass of the neutrino) and double beta decay; high energy gamma ray astronomy; innovative approaches to nuclear power generation and transmutation of nuclear waste; laser induced nuclear excitations; the effects of various environmental exposures studied via macro, micro or nano-ion beams using the new platform AIFIRA; and finally theoretical studies of nuclear and hadronic matter. All these activities take place within strong national and international collaborations involving the academic world and enabling the selection and training of high-quality students and post-doctoral researchers. To promote dissemination in the regional and national network, within the technologies developed at the laboratory in the domain of characterization with beams of ions or neutrons, there exists a transfer unit ARCANE which works through contracts. This document is the 2005-2008 Activity report of CNBG, content: 1 - Foreword; 2 - Research activities (Astro-particle, downstream of the fuel cycle and nuclear energy; laser nuclear excitations; physics-biology interface; neutrino and low radioactivities; exotic nuclei; theoretical physics); 3 - Services; 4 - Platform and cell facilities; 5 - other actions; 6 - scientific production; 7 - personnel

  11. Time trend of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and related dietary pattern in Taiwan: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to NAHSIT 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are challenging public health issues as globesity popularizes. The present study illustrates the trend of obesity and MetS for the last 12 years in Taiwan based on the analysis of Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Between the two surveys, a large growth on MetS prevalence was observed, from 13.6% to 25.5%. In NAHSIT 2005-2008, the prevalence of MetS in females exceeded that of males in people older than the age of 45. With regard to regional differences, the growing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndromes alleviated in the northern area level one, the most urbanized and dense area. Prevalence of obesity and MetS in Hakka, central, and southern areas increased rapidly. Aboriginal areas had the highest prevalence, which increased modestly. Prevalence of MetS rose fast among males, but much slower among females. Comparing the Taiwanese data with other countries, obesity prevalence in Taiwan was higher than in many of Asian countries, but less than in the West. The prevalence of MetS in Taiwanese females reached levels close to that of the West. Reduced rank regression analysis was used to extract a risk reducing dietary pattern in women, featured by not only more vegetables, fruit, lean meat, and fish, but also some specific Taiwanese dietary items including mushrooms, seaweed, and soybean. No apparent increase in intake of certain healthy foods including lean meat, milk, dark-green vegetables, and fruit in the last 12 years, challenges future strategies to promote health.

  12. Association between increased BMI and severe school absenteeism among US children and adolescents: findings from a national survey, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Raychowdhury, S; Tedders, S H; Lyn, R; Lòpez-De Fede, A; Zhang, J

    2012-04-01

    School absenteeism may be an underlying cause of poor school performance among overweight and obese children. We examined the associations between school absenteeism and body mass index (BMI) in a nationally representative sample. We analyzed the data of 1387 children (6-11 years) and 2185 adolescents (12-18 years), who completed an interview and anthropometric measurement as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. The CDC 2000 growth chart was used to categorize BMI status, and the number of school days missed during the past 12 months was assessed by asking the proxies or interviewees. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were 18.96±1.44% (s.e.) and 16.41±0.78%, respectively, among study populations. The means of school days missed in the last 12 months were not statistically different between the normal-weight, overweight and obese groups, 3.79±0.56, 3.86±0.38 and 4.31±0.01 days, respectively. However, when >2 days missed per school month was defined as severe absence, the prevalence of severe absence were 1.57%, 2.99% and 4.94% respectively, among 6-11-year-old children with normal, overweight and obese. The adjusted odds of severe school absence were 2.27 (95% confidence interval=0.64-8.03) and 3.93 (1.55-9.95), respectively, among overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers (P for trend test absenteeism in children but not adolescents. Future research is needed to determine the nature, and academic and social significance of this association.

  13. FREQUENCY OF SOLAR-LIKE SYSTEMS AND OF ICE AND GAS GIANTS BEYOND THE SNOW LINE FROM HIGH-MAGNIFICATION MICROLENSING EVENTS IN 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, A.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S.; Han, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the planet frequency beyond the 'snow line', for the planet-to-star mass-ratio interval -4.5 2 N pl )/(d log q d log s) = (0.36±0.15) dex -2 at the mean mass ratio q = 5 x 10 -4 with no discernible deviation from a flat (Oepik's law) distribution in log-projected separation s. The determination is based on a sample of six planets detected from intensive follow-up observations of high-magnification (A>200) microlensing events during 2005-2008. The sampled host stars have a typical mass M host ∼ 0.5 M sun , and detection is sensitive to planets over a range of planet-star-projected separations (s -1 max R E , s max R E ), where R E ∼ 3.5 AU(M host /M sun ) 1/2 is the Einstein radius and s max ∼ (q/10 -4.3 ) 1/3 . This corresponds to deprojected separations roughly three times the 'snow line'. We show that the observations of these events have the properties of a 'controlled experiment', which is what permits measurement of absolute planet frequency. High-magnification events are rare, but the survey-plus-follow-up high-magnification channel is very efficient: half of all high-mag events were successfully monitored and half of these yielded planet detections. The extremely high sensitivity of high-mag events leads to a policy of monitoring them as intensively as possible, independent of whether they show evidence of planets. This is what allows us to construct an unbiased sample. The planet frequency derived from microlensing is a factor 8 larger than the one derived from Doppler studies at factor ∼25 smaller star-planet separations (i.e., periods 2-2000 days). However, this difference is basically consistent with the gradient derived from Doppler studies (when extrapolated well beyond the separations from which it is measured). This suggests a universal separation distribution across 2 dex in planet-star separation, 2 dex in mass ratio, and 0.3 dex in host mass. Finally, if all planetary systems were 'analogs' of the solar

  14. Impacto del Seguro Popular en el gasto catastrófico y de bolsillo en el México rural y urbano, 2005-2008 Impact of “Seguro Popular” on catastrophic and out-of-pocket health expenditures in rural and urban Mexico, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra G Sosa-Rubí

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estimar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP sobre la incidencia del gasto catastrófico en salud (GCS y sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud (GBS en el mediano plazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Con base en la Encuesta de Evaluación del Seguro Popular (2005-2008, se analizaron los resultados del efecto del SP en la cohorte rural para dos años de seguimiento (2006 y 2008 y en la cohorte urbana para un año (2008. RESULTADOS. A nivel conglomerado no se detectaron efectos del SP. A nivel hogar se encontró que el SP tiene un efecto protector en el GCS y en el GBS en consulta externa y hospitalización en zonas rurales; y efectos significativos en la reducción de GBS en consulta externa en zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES. El SP se muestra como un programa efectivo para proteger a los hogares contra gastos de bolsillo por motivos de salud en el mediano plazo.OBJECTIVE. To estimate the effect of "Seguro Popular" (SP on the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE and out-of-pocket (OOP health expenditure in the medium term. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We used the 'Encuesta de Evaluación del SP' -SP Survey Evaluation- (2005-2008. We analyzed the SP effect on the rural cohort during two years of follow-up (2006 and 2008 and in the urban cohort during one year of follow-up (2008. RESULTS. At the local level (regional clusters we did not find an effect of the SP. At the household level we found a protective effect of SP on CHE and the OOP health payments in outpatient and hospitalization in rural areas; and a significant effect on the reduction of OOP health payments in outpatient services in urban zones. CONCLUSIONS. SP seems to be an effective program to protect poor household against out-of-pocket health expenditures in the medium term.

  15. The use of physician-patient email: a follow-up examination of adoption and best-practice adherence 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Prickett, Charles T; Brooks, Robert G

    2011-02-25

    Improved communication from physician- patient emailing is an important element of patient centeredness. Physician-patient email use has been low; and previous data from Florida suggest that physicians who email with patients rarely implement best-practice guidelines designed to protect physicians and patients. Our objective was to examine whether email use with patients has changed over time (2005-2008) by using two surveys of Florida physicians, and to determine whether physicians have more readily embraced the best-practice guidelines in 2008 versus 2005. Lastly, we explored the 2008 factors associated with email use with patients and determined whether these factors changed relative to 2005. Our pooled time-series design used results from a 2005 survey (targeting 14,921 physicians) and a separate 2008 survey (targeting 7003 different physicians). In both years, physicians practicing in the outpatient setting were targeted with proportionally identical sampling strategies. Combined data from questions focusing on email use were analyzed using chi-square analysis, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression. A combined 6260 responses were available for analyses, representing a participation rate of 28.2% (4203/14,921) in 2005 and 29.4% (2057/7003) in 2008. Relative to 2005, respondents in 2008 were more likely to indicate that they personally used email with patients (690/4148, 16.6% vs 408/2001, 20.4%, c(2) (1) = 13.0, P email with patients did not change from 2005 to 2008 (2.9% vs 59/2001, 2.9%). Interest among physicians in future email use with patients was lower in 2008 (58.4% vs 52.8%, c(2) (2) = 16.6, P email best practices remained low in 2008. When comparing 2005 and 2008 adherences with each of the individual guidelines, rates decreased over time in each category and were significantly lower for 4 of the 13 guidelines. Physician characteristics in 2008 that predicted email use with patients were different from 2005. Specifically, in multivariate analysis

  16. TRASTORNO DE ESTRÉS POSTRAUMÁTICO, ANSIEDAD Y DEPRESIÓN EN ADOLESCENTES Y ADULTOS EXPUESTOS AL CONFLICTO ARMADO EN COLOMBIA 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sarmiento Suárez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción: El conflicto armado de larga evolución ha contribuido a que la violencia se haya convertido la principal causa de muerte y discapacidad temprana en Colombia. Menos conocido es su impacto sobre la salud mental y son escasos los estudios que evalúan estos efectos en el país.

    Objetivo: Conocer los predictores de ansiedad, depresión y trastorno de estrés post traumático (TEPT en cuatro diferentes poblaciones de Colombia, expuestas a distintas formas del conflicto armado durante los años 2005 a 2008.

    Materiales y métodos: Diseño transversal con una muestra de 4.420 personas entre los 13 y 89 años en cuatro regiones donde Médicos sin Fronteras realizó atención en salud mental (Bogotá-Soacha, Caquetá, Barbacoas-Nariño y Cauca-Putumayo entre 2005-2008. El diagnóstico se realizó de acuerdo con los criterios del DSM IV. Se evaluaron factores de riesgos socioeconómicos y relacionados con la violencia. A partir de una muestra aleatoria de 40 historias clínicas se realizó extracción de datos cualitativos. El análisis estadístico utilizó los métodos de Chi cuadrado y Regresión logística.

    Resultados: Los predictores de depresión fueron el sexo femenino (OR=1,5, IC 95% 1,2-2,0 edad mayor de 65 años (OR=2,7, IC 95% 1,6-4,7, lugar de residencia en Nariño (OR=3,5, IC 95% 3,3-10, desplazamiento forzado (OR=1,3, IC 95% 1,1-1,7, violencia sexual (OR=1,7, IC 95% 1,2-2,5 y disfunción familiar (OR=1,3, IC 95% 1,1-1,7; otras variables asociadas fueron exposición a otras tipos de violencia en Bogotá-Soacha, problemas en la red de apoyo en Cauca-Putumayo y disfunción familiar en Barbacoas-Nariño. Para TEPT los factores asociados fueron sexo masculino (OR=1,6, IC 95% 1,1-2,3, el desplazamiento forzado (OR=2,2, IC 95% 1,4-3,5, exposición al conflicto armado (OR=4,3, IC 95% 3,0-6,4, violencia sexual (OR=6,0, IC 95% 3,7-9,8 y exposici

  17. Advanced Education Business Plan 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In collaboration with learning providers, the advanced education system, industry, communities, government agencies and non-governmental organizations, Advanced Education strives to create accessible, affordable and quality learning opportunities that are responsive to the ongoing learning needs of Albertans. The Ministry's 2005-08 Business Plan…

  18. Outils pour sécuriser les contrats de maintenance de bâtiments méthode et outils de suivi

    CERN Document Server

    Adda, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Les contrats de maintenance régissent le contenu des prestations et les obligations permettant de maintenir ou de rétablir un bien dans un état spécifié afin que celui-ci soit en mesure d'assurer un service déterminé. La maintenance regroupe ainsi les actions de dépannage, réparation, réglage, révision, contrôle et de vérification des équipements. Cet ouvrage propose une méthode et les éléments techniques permettant la rédaction et le suivi des contrats de maintenance en matière de chauffage, climatisation, ventilation, électricité courante faible et courant fort, installations de gestion technique de bâtiment ou centralisée, etc. Ainsi dans une 1re partie, ce livre détaille les différents types de maintenance (corrective, préventive, entretien courant), le cadre des procédures d'achats privés et publics et les outils permettant l'analyse des offres ainsi que le contrôle des devis et factures. Dans une 2e partie, il analyse les éléments de maintenance nécessaires à la rédacti...

  19. History, haldanes and health inequities: exploring phenotypic changes in body size by generation and income level in the US-born White and Black non-Hispanic populations 1959-1962 to 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Kosheleva, Anna; Beckfield, Jason

    2013-02-01

    Most public health literature on trends in population health and health inequities pertains to observed or targeted changes in rates or proportions per year or decade. We explore, in novel analyses, whether additional insight can be gained by using the 'haldane', a metric developed by evolutionary biologists to measure change in traits in standard deviations per generation, thereby enabling meaningful comparisons across species and time periods. We analysed the phenotypic embodied traits of body height, weight and body mass index of US-born White and Black non-Hispanic adults ages 20 to 44 as measured in six large nationally representative population samples spanning from the 1959-1962 National Health Examination Survey I to the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Setting the former as baseline, we computed the haldane for each outcome for each racial/ethnic group for each survey, overall and stratified by family income quintile. For height, high rates of phenotypic change (haldane ≥ 0.3) occurred chiefly between 1960 and 1980, especially for the Black population in the higher income quintiles. By contrast, for weight, high rates of phenotypic change became evident for both the White and Black populations in the late 1980s and increased thereafter; for body mass index, the shift to high rates of change started in both groups in the late 1990s, especially in the middle income quintiles. Our results support use of the haldane as a supplemental metric to place changes in population health and health inequities in a larger biological and historical context.

  20. La paridad cambiaria dólar/peso en la liquidez y rentabilidad de las MiPyMEs del sector de Confecciones en la ciudad de Cúcuta, años 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Marcela Bastos Osorio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación, de un proyecto de grado de la maestría en Gerencia de Empresas de la Universidad Experimental del Táchira (Venezuela, cuyo objetivo general fue determinar la relación de la paridad cambiaria dólar/peso en la liquidez y rentabilidad de las MIPYMES del sector de las confecciones en la ciudad de Cúcuta (2005-2008. Esta investigación fue de carácter descriptivo y correlacional, teniendo en cuenta datos contables, financieros y teorías financieras, las cuales permitieron determinar indicadores financieros que arrojaron los siguientes resultados: se presenta un proceso de revaluación del peso colombiano frente al dólar; se observa una aparente liquidez sustentada en altos inventarios; y la rentabilidad del sector es variable en los años de estudio y con tendencia a la disminución. Según la regresión lineal, aplicada entre estas variables, el comportamiento de la tasa de cambio del dólar solo afecta por el lado de la liquidez al indicador de la productividad del capital de trabajo; mientras que por el lado de la rentabilidad existen dos indicadores que presentan un alto grado de correlación con la tasa promedio del dólar. Para ello, se propone dos pasos para la ayuda al sector: una primera etapa es la realización de un diagnóstico del  mismo sector que contemple aspectos mesoeconómicos y financieros; y una segunda etapa es la creación de una asociación gremial de las MiPyMEs del sector de confecciones de Cúcuta.

  1. Neuropatologia da cinomose canina: 70 casos (2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma investigação anátomo-patológica detalhada das lesões e sua distribuição no sistema nervoso central (SNC de cães com cinomose. Foram avaliadas secções padronizadas do encéfalo e da medula espinhal de 70 cães. Os casos foram agrupados de acordo com a idade dos cães e classificados conforme a evolução das lesões. Os resultados permitem concluir que: (1 encefalomielite induzida pelo vírus da cinomose canina é mais prevalente em filhotes e adultos; (2 lesões macroscópicas no SNC ocorrem com baixa freqüência; (3 o encéfalo é mais acometido do que a medula espinhal; (4 as cinco regiões anatômicas mais afetadas do encéfalo são, em ordem decrescente de freqüência, o cerebelo, o diencéfalo, o lobo frontal, a ponte e o mesencéfalo; (5 a região anatômica mais afetada da medula espinhal é o segmento cervical cranial (C1-C5; (6 lesões subagudas e crônicas são mais comuns do que lesões agudas; (7 desmielinização é a lesão mais prevalente e ocorre principalmente no cerebelo, na ponte e no diencéfalo, quase sempre acompanhada de astrogliose e inflamação não-supurativa; (8 na maior parte dos casos em que há astrogliose, observam-se astrócitos gemistocíticos, freqüentemente com formação de sincícios; (9 leptomeningite não-supurativa, malacia e necrose cortical laminar são lesões relativamente freqüentes no encéfalo, mas não na medula espinhal; (10 corpúsculos de inclusão no encéfalo são muito comuns, ocorrem principalmente em astrócitos e com freqüência menor em neurônios; no entanto, independentemente da célula afetada, são vistos predominantemente no núcleo; (11 uma classificação da encefalite na cinomose com base em síndromes clínicas relacionadas com a idade do cão é imprecisa.The current study was performed to determine the pathology and distribution of lesions in the central nervous system (CNS of 70 dogs naturally affected by canine distemper. Cases were grouped according to the age of the dogs and classified according to the evolution of the lesions. It was possibly to conclude that: (1 the encephalomyelitis induced by canine distemper virus is more prevalent in puppies and adults; (2 gross lesions in the CNS occur infrequently; (3 the brain is more frequently affected than the spinal cord; (4 the five anatomical sites of the rain more frequently affected are, in decreasing order of frequency, cerebellum, diencephalon, frontal lobe of telencephalon, pons and mesencephalon; (5 the anatomical site more frequently affected in the spinal cord is the cervical (C1-C5 segment; (6 subacute and chronic lesions are more common than acute ones; (7 demyelization is the more prevalent lesion and occur mainly in the cerebellum, pons and diencephalons, usually associated with astrogliosis and non-suppurative inflammation; (8 in most cases with astrogliosis, gemistocytic astrocytes are observed, frequently with syncitia formation; (9 non-suppurative leptomeningitis, malacia and cortical neuronal necrosis are moderately frequent in the brain and less so in the spinal cord; (10 inclusion bodies are frequent in the brain; occur mainly in astrocytes and less frequently in neurons, however independently of the affected cell they occur mainly in the nucleus; (11 a classification of canine distemper encephalitis based in age-related clinical syndromes it is not accurate.

  2. World Health Organization's International Radon Project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Zhanat; Shannoun, Ferid; Zielinski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to indoor radon have confirmed that radon in homes is a serious health hazard that can be easily mitigated. To address the issue at an international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Radon Project (IRP). The project was launched in January 2005 with its first meeting attended by 36 experts representing 17 countries. The project's scope and the key objectives were outlined at this meeting and later refined: 1-) To identify effective strategies for reducing the health impact of radon; 2-) To promote sound policy options, prevention and mitigation programs (including monitoring and evaluation of programs; 3-) To raise public, political and economical awareness about the consequences of exposure to radon (including financial institutions as target group); 4-) To estimate the global health impact of exposure to residential radon using available data on radon worldwide. WHO and its member states strive through the WHO-IRP to succeed in putting indoor radon on the environmental health agenda in countries with lower awareness of radon as a health problem and in strengthening local and national radon-related activities in countries with ongoing radon programs. Two subsequent working meetings were held: in March, 2006 in Geneva with 63 participants from 25 countries, along with representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and European Commission (EC); and in March 2007 in Munich with 61 participants from 27 countries. Both meetings reviewed the IRP progress and focused on the two main outputs: 'The WHO Report on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to Radon' and 'The WHO Radon Handbook'. The former applies the WHO methodology for GBD assessment and considers ways to graphically map residential radon concentrations worldwide, and has also produced the interactive web based map of national levels of residential radon around the world. The WHO Radon handbook includes chapters on exposure guidelines, measurement, mitigation, cost-effectiveness and radon risk communication, as well as a background chapter and recommendations for policies leading to radon risk reduction. Both WHO-IRP outputs provides sound, evidence-based guidance and tools for radon control measures including the cost-effectiveness analysis of available approaches. (author)

  3. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  4. 2005-2008 government-ANDRA quadrennial contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste management represents an important field of intervention for public authorities who define and implement the public policy around these wastes. The public policy defines the safety framework of this management with a permanent care in ensuring the protection of people and of the environment. One fundamental step in the definition of the public policy was the vote of the law from December 30, 1991 which led to the creation of the national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA). The ANDRA is a public, industrial and commercial agency in charge of the long term management of radioactive wastes. In order to define the orientations of ANDRA's action, a contract was established in the year 2000 and signed in 2001 for the 2001-2004 era. It has consolidated the general framework of the agency's action and defined the goals to be reached. This contractual approach aimed at giving the public agency an accountableness and at defining priorities with respect to the actions to be implemented. (J.S.)

  5. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  6. Petrochemical activity in France. 2005-2008 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    About 12% of the French consumption of petroleum products is used as raw material for organic chemistry. In this case, more than 80% of the carbon content of petroleum products is not released in the atmosphere but included in products, like plastic materials, with an added-value. The inquiry carried out by the Service of observation and statistics (SOeS) shows the good health of the petrochemical activity from 2005 to 2007, and then a clear fall in 2008. This fall is explained by a double change: a strong rise of oil prices in the beginning of 2008 with a direct impact on the raw material cost, and the economic crisis which carried much weight on the demand at the end of the year. (J.S.)

  7. Swiss Compressed Air - Development of instruments for the 2005 - 2008 campaign; Druckluft Schweiz. Instrumentenentwicklung fuer die Kampagne 2005-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Jochem, E. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the development of a programme concerning the optimisation of compressed-air installations in Switzerland. The programme, which is to run from 2005 to 2008, aims to support operators of compressed-air equipment in the optimisation of their installations. The work to be done in co-operation with research institutes, manufacturers and a marketing company is reviewed. A series of tools is described which was developed during 2005 and 2006 to help systems' operators analyse and optimise their compressed air systems. As well as guidelines on optimisation, modernisation and new construction, an Internet-based benchmarking system and tools for heat recovery, leaks, the correct dimensioning of pipes and condensate drains. were developed. The report describes these tools and presents documentation on the subject, including screen-shots of the Internet platform.

  8. Le néo-corporatisme réinterpellé : analyse comparée de deux politiques d'accès à l'emploi, l'apprentissage industriel en Belgique et le contrat de qualification "jeunes" en France

    OpenAIRE

    Levêque, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    The comparative study of the "apprentissage industriel" in French speaking Belgium and of the "contrat de qualification jeunes" in France shows the maintenance of the neo corporatist model of social State. The analysis of the emergence and of the implementation of these two employment public policies for low qualified young permit to understand how they are appropriated on the ground, especially in the metallurgy sector. If these policies are intended for those low qualified young, the implem...

  9. Le néo-corporatisme réinterpellé : analyse comparée de deux politiques d'accès à l'emploi, l'apprentissage industriel en Belgique et le contrat de qualification "jeunes" en France

    OpenAIRE

    Levêque, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    L'étude comparative de l'apprentissage industriel en Belgique francophone et du contrat de qualification "jeunes" en France permet de réinterpeller le modèle néo-corporatiste d'Etat social. L'analyse de l'émergence et de la mise en oeuvre de ces deux politiques publiques d'accès à l'emploi pour les jeunes peu qualifiés permet de comprendre comment elles sont réappropriées par les acteurs de terrain et ce, plus particulièrement dans la branche de la métallurgie. Si ces politiques s'adressent t...

  10. Le contrat de franchise - aspects internationaux

    OpenAIRE

    Wautelet, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a review of the main private international law issues arising from cross-border franchise relationships, with a focus on drafting issues. The paper first reviews the issues linked to dispute resolution, emphasizing the need to provide dispute resolution provision in the agreement. It then turns to the rules relevant in case of dispute, with a focus on the potential impact of certain mandatory rules. In a final section, the paper discusses the process of determining which law...

  11. LES PARTIES DU CONTRAT DE CONCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian OLARU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential feature of the administrative contract, which is part of the concession contract, differentiates from the civil contract with at least one of the topics of administrative contract that is a physical person of public law. Thus, if the subject of civil contract can be any physical or juridical person that has full the capacity to exercise, then, in the case of the administrative contract, at least one subject must have the special “quality”, namely to be a public authority or a moral person of public law. If one of the contracting parties is a public figure and the other is a person of private law, the contract may be administrative. “This condition is necessary, but not sufficient”. By the definition given to concession in article 1 line 1 of the Law on concessions, the legislator determines not only the name of the contracting parties, which formed the juridical report (the conceded, the concessionaire but also the subject concession contract, which makes it different from other administrative contracts. Moreover, in the article 4 of the cited law, it is determined the scope of the public authorities, juridical persons of public law that may have the quality of conceded, while article 5 provides the scope of persons who may have the quality of concessionaire.

  12. Regards sur le contrat de franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvier , Amandine

    2015-01-01

    As an idea valued by distribution agreements reflect a modern understanding of the contract in which different characteristics are combined. It is at the same, a network distribution agreement, belonging in the category of reiterative agreements, a financing agreement, and a collaboration agreement. Franchise agreements are also an idea that is disparaged by ditribution. There are some challenges un connection whith changes in legislation and case law that feed the critiques against them. Lik...

  13. Dampak Perubahan Kebijakan Dagang Starbucks terhadap Perekonomian Ethiopia 2005-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Fauziah, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This research explains about how the the effect of the Starbucks policy trade changing to Ethiopian econnomy in 2005 until 2008. The purpose of this research is to know how the implementation of agreement between Ethiopian Government and Starbucks have effected to Ethiopia coffee industry. This case had been a conflict since 2004 when Ethiopian government knew their origin coffee was trademark by Strabucks in USPTO without their permission. Oxfam as Non-Government Organization that moved for ...

  14. Transmission of the L-Zagreb mumps vaccine virus, Croatia, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaic, B; Gjenero-Margan, I; Aleraj, B; Ljubin-Sternak, S; Vilibic-Cavlek, T; Kilvain, S; Pavic, I; Stojanovic, D; Ilic, A

    2008-04-17

    We report on three cases of symptomatic transmission of the L-Zagreb mumps vaccine virus from three vaccinated children to five adult contacts. The five contact cases were parents of the vaccinated children and presented with parotitis and in one case also with aseptic meningitis. The etiology of the contacts' illness was determined by viral culture, genomic sequencing, serology and epidemiological linking. Two of the vaccinated children developed vaccine associated parotitis as an adverse event three weeks following immunization. Symptoms in contact cases developed five to seven weeks after the vaccination of the children. The five contact cases, as well as the three children with adverse events recovered completely. The children had been vaccinated with MMR vaccine produced by the Institute of Immunology Zagreb, each of them with a different lot. One of the possible explanations for these adverse events is that the very low levels of wild mumps virus circulation in the last decade, combined with waning immunity in those who received one dose of vaccine or suffered from mumps in childhood, resulted in susceptible young adults and that this unique epidemiological situation allows us to detect horizontal transmission of mumps vaccine virus.

  15. Cultural Themes in Messages from Top Air Force Leaders, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Miles and A. M. Huberman , Qualitative Data Analysis, 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1994. 5 MacQueen et al., 1998; Carey, Morgan...Physical Fitness,” May 2007a. ———, “The Enlisted Perspective: Developing and Caring for Airmen,” July 2007b. Miles , M. B., and A. M. Huberman

  16. Survie au cancer du sein à Rabat (Maroc) 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechita, Nada Bennani; Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Mrabet, Mustapha; Saadi, Asma; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Razine, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le cancer du sein représente un problème de santé publique au Maroc. L’objectif de ce travail était d’estimer le taux de survie au cancer du sein chez les patientes habitant la ville de Rabat. Méthodes Etude pronostique réalisée chez les patientes diagnostiquées pour cancer du sein de 2005 à 2008, habitant la ville de Rabat et enregistrées au registre des cancers de Rabat. La date d’inclusion dans l’étude correspondait à la date de confirmation histologique du cancer. L’estimation de la survie a été réalisée par la méthode de Kaplan Meier, et la comparaison entre les différentes classes d’une variable a été réalisée par le test de log rank. L’étude des facteurs associés à la survie a été effectuée par le modèle de Cox. Résultats Durant la période d’étude 628 cas de cancer du sein ont été collectés. Le pourcentage de décès était de 19,9%. La survie globale à un an était de 97,1%, elle était de 89,2% à 3 ans et de 80,6 % à 5 ans. En analyse multivariée la survie au cancer du sein était statistiquement moins bonne chez les patientes âgées de plus de 70 ans (p<0,001), ayantune grande taille de tumeur (p<0,001), un stade avancé d’adénopathies (p=0,007), présentant des métastases (p<0,001) et non traitées par hormonothérapie (p=0,002). Conclusion Une grande taille de la tumeur et la présence de métastases sont des facteurs de mauvais pronostic du cancer du sein d’où la nécessité de renforcer les programmes de dépistage. PMID:28292106

  17. Antidepressant Use in Persons Aged 12 and Over: United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to take antidepressant medication at every level of depression severity. 1 Statistically significant trend. 2 Significantly different ... October 19, 2011 Content source: Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  18. Pengaruh Buy Back Saham PT Telkom terhadap Dividen Periode 2005 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasya Rusbandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro and macro economic condition has negative and positive effect for the financial market and also the investment. Based on that condition, many companies had to do some corporate action which mean investors and also shareholders had to adjust their portfolio for getting their objective. Investors and shareholder will see this corporate action. It includes the investor who wants to buy the company’s stock. This attention had always related with the dividend payment which will get by the investor, because for the long term investor, or the shareholders, the information about dividend payment is very important for them. When global financial crises happened in 2008, some of the emiten in Indonesia capital market, had donne their corporate action which is the buy back or repurchase stock of their outstanding shares. Some of them is the state owned enterprise, PT TELKOM. Some important thing which related with the buy back is the stock price and also dividend price. With this buy back strategy, it can be seen that PT TELKOM had tried to eliminate any threat with their stock price at that time, or to prevent their stock price become undervalued. Especially in the third quarter in 2008. This strategy had shown succeed because when the global financial crisis happened, TELKOM performance had indicated succeed based on their financial report and also the EPS and DPS every year did not show significance different result. 

  19. Imported malaria in an area in southern Madrid, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio José M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Spain, malaria cases are mostly due to migrants and travellers returning from endemic areas. The objective of this work was to describe the malaria cases diagnosed at the Severo Ochoa University Hospital (HUSO in Leganés in the south of the Madrid Region from 2005 to 2008. Methods Descriptive retrospective study performed at HUSO. Data sources are registries from the Microbiology Department and malaria cases notified to the Preventive Medicine Department. Analysed parameters were: administrative, demographical, related to the stay at the endemic country, clinical, microbiological diagnosis method, pregnancy, treatment and prophylaxis, co-infections, and days of hospital stay. Results Fifty-seven patients diagnosed with malaria were studied. Case distribution per year was 13 in 2005, 15 in 2006, 15 in 2007 and 14 in 2008. Thirty-three patients were female (57.9% and 24 male (42.1%. Mean age was 27.8 years. Most of the malaria cases were acquired in Nigeria (49.1% and Equatorial Guinea (32.7%. 29.1% of the patients were immigrants who had arrived recently, and 61.8% acquired malaria when travelling to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFR. Majority of cases were diagnosed between June and September. Microscopy was positive in 39 cases (68.4% immunochromatography in 42 (73.7% and PCR in the 55 cases where performed. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for 94.7% of the cases. The more frequent symptoms were fever (77.2%, followed by headache and gastrointestinal symptoms (33.3%. Nine cases needed hospital admittance, a pregnant woman, three children, four VFR and an African tourist, but all evolved favourably. Chemoprophylaxis data was known from 55 patients. It was taken correctly in one case (1.8%, in five (9.1% the prophylaxis was improper while the others 49 (89.1% cases had not followed any anti-malarial prophylaxis. Conclusions Children, pregnant women and the VFR have the highest risk to present severe malaria and to need hospital admittance. Another important risk factor for acquiring malaria is incorrect prophylaxis. The first place for malaria acquisition was Nigeria and the main species causing malaria was P. falciparum.

  20. Surveillance of drug use among young people attending a music festival in Australia, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Hellard, Margaret E; Hocking, Jane S; Spelman, Tim D; Aitken, Campbell K

    2010-03-01

    In order to monitor trends in illicit drug use among youth, surveillance of drug use behaviours among a variety of populations in different settings is required. We monitored drug use among music festival attendees. Cross-sectional studies of young people's reported drug use were performed at a music festival in Melbourne from 2005 to 2008. Self-administered questionnaires collected information on drug use, demographics and other risk behaviour. From 2005 to 2008, over 5000 questionnaires were completed by people aged 16-29; 2273 men and 3011 women. Overall, use of any illicit drug in the past month was reported by 44%. After adjusting for demographic and behavioural characteristics, the prevalence of recent illicit drug use decreased significantly from 46% in 2005 to 43% in 2008 (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97). After adjusting for age and sex the downwards trend was repeated for amphetamines and cannabis, but a significant increase in prevalence was observed in hallucinogen, ecstasy and inhalant use. Drug use was more common among men, older participants and those engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. Illicit drug use was much more common in this sample than in the National Drug Strategy Household survey, but the direction of trends in drug use were similar; drug use prevalences were much lower than in the Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System, the Illicit Drug Reporting System or National Needle and Syringe Program Survey. Music festival attendees are a potentially useful group for monitoring trends in illicit drug use.

  1. Selected Oral Health Indicators in the United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restoration prevalence varied by race and ethnicity and poverty level across the lifespan. Prevalence of untreated caries ... in teeth, by sex, race and ethnicity, and poverty level: United States, 2005–2008 Characteristic Untreated dental ...

  2. Four Years of Real-Time GRB Followup by BOOTES-1B (2005-2008)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, M.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Kubánek, P.; Guziy, S.; Gorosabel, J.; Cunniffe, R.; Vítek, S.; Hudec, René; Reglero, V.; Sabau-Graziati, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 1 (2010), 432172/1-432172/10 ISSN 1687-7969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; ESA(XE) PECS project No. 98023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : observing * GRB * Spain Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science)

  3. Factores asociados al trauma fatal en motociclistas en Medellín, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralba Aristizábal

    2012-03-01

    Conclusiones. En Medellín, los motociclistas son un grupo de interés en el sistema vial; por su mayor exposición, la energía que acumulan en los choques contra un objeto fijo es mucho mayor y más letal que la acumulada en otra clase de accidentes, y aunque hay más accidentes de tránsito en glorietas e intersecciones, la mayor posibilidad de morir se presenta en los tramos de vía de doble carril y en otras vías.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i1.603

  4. Characteristics of diabetes care in an institutional network of health services Medellin. 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Agudelo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of its severity, frequency and increasing social and economic impact, Diabetes Mellitus (DM is considered the third priority health problem in the world. Although to date there is no curative treatment, it does have effective measures to reduce its occurrence and limit its complications. Objective: to describe the control program of diabetes in a statewide network of health services in regard to clinical variables, the epidemiology of population served and the control actions, in order to identify strategies for improvement. Methodology: operational research based on secondary data. We reviewed the general conditions of operation of the program based on records of patient care. We studied a random sample of medical records of patients served by the control program of diabetes care units in the network.The results were validated in a meeting with officials of the institution. Results: we detected flaws and points of improvement in the performance of the control program that resulted in specific recommendations for the institutional network. Other failures are due to rules that hinder health system monitoring and control of the DM at the first level. Conclusion:the review of medical records reveals important problems about registration, monitoring and control of diabetics. Other regulatory and contractual provisions of the colombian health system were identified as restrictions that prevent the program to control hyperglycemia and early detection of renal damage. These restrictions could be affecting the programs of control of diabetes in other institutions of the country that are subject to the same rules

  5. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quester Pascale G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504, 2006 (n = 525, 2007 (n = 414 and 2008 (n = 464. Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  6. Consumption of Sugar Drinks in the United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been linked to poor diet quality, weight gain, obesity, and, in adults, type 2 diabetes ( 4 , 5 ). U.S. dietary guidelines issued in 2010 recommend limiting the consumption of foods and beverages with added sugars ( 6 ). Moreover, the American Heart Association has recommended a consumption goal of no more ...

  7. OMI measurements of SO2 pollution over Eastern China in 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N.; Pickering, K.; Witte, J.; Carn, S.; Yang, K.; Carmichael, G.; Streets, D.; Zhang, Q.; Wei, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. OMI seasonal to multi-year average images clearly show the world-highest consistent SO2 pollution in northeast China. China is the world's largest SO2 emitter, mostly due to the burning of high-sulfur coal in its many coal-fired power plants, which lack the technology used in many other countries to remove sulfur from smoke stack emissions. China's government has instituted nationwide measures to control SO2 emissions through the adoption of flue-gas desulfurization technology on new power plants; and even greater measures were adopted in the Beijing area in anticipation of the Olympic Games. To study the environmental effects of the emission controls we compared OMI SO2 time series over eastern China for 2005 through 2008. The time series have been done as 7-day running means of the cloud-free daily observations. By mid-March we started to see substantial periods of lower SO2 values in 2008 compared to 2007, and by mid June the 2008 values were consistently lower than 2007 and prior years. The decline is widespread with highest SO2 typically located to the south and southwest of Beijing in regions with large clusters of power plants and also around Shanghai. The decline also lasted beyond the Olympic season. We do not yet know to what extent the economic downturn in China (and reduced industrial production) contributed to lower SO2 levels in the fall of 2008. We have also compared the observed and modeled fields using University of Iowa STEM model for the period June - September 2008. The model provided SO2 vertical distributions as well as aerosol vertical profiles that were used to correct OMI operational SO2 retrievals and improve the comparisons. The OMI SO2 changes in 2008 have also been compared with the estimated changes in SO2 emissions derived from a bottom-up analysis of the SO2 reduction measures put into place for the Olympics. Finally we present our plans to use the OMI SO2 columns to provide a top-down constraint on SO2 regional emissions.

  8. Missed opportunities to prevent tuberculosis in foreign-born persons, Connecticut, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guh, A; Sosa, L; Hadler, J L; Lobato, M N

    2011-08-01

    Factors that influence testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among foreign-born persons in Connecticut are not well understood. To identify predictors for LTBI testing and challenges related to accessing health care among the foreign-born population in Connecticut. Foreign-born Connecticut residents with confirmed or suspected tuberculosis (TB) disease during June 2005-December 2008 were interviewed regarding health care access and immigration status. Predictors for self-reported testing for LTBI after US entry were determined. Of 161 foreign-born persons interviewed, 48% experienced TB disease within 5 years after arrival. One third (51/156) reported having undergone post-arrival testing for LTBI. Although those with established health care providers were more likely to have reported testing (aOR 4.49, 95%CI 1.48-13.62), only 43% of such persons were tested. Undocumented persons, the majority of whom lacked a provider (53%), were less likely than documented persons to have reported testing (aOR 0.20, 95%CI 0.06-0.67). Hispanic permanent residents (immigrants and refugees) and visitors (persons admitted temporarily) were more likely than non-Hispanics in the respective groups to have reported testing (OR 5.25, 95%CI 1.51-18.31 and OR 7.08, 95%CI 1.30-38.44, respectively). The self-reported rate of testing for LTBI among foreign-born persons in Connecticut with confirmed or suspected TB was low and differed significantly by ethnicity and immigration status. Strategies are needed to improve health care access for foreign-born persons and expand testing for LTBI, especially among non-Hispanic and undocumented populations.

  9. High-pressure fluid-phase equilibria: Experimental methods and systems investigated (2005-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José; Dohrn, Ralf; Peper, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    %) have carbon dioxide as one of the components. Information on 206 pure components, 535 ternary systems of which 355 (66%) contain carbon dioxide, 163 multicomponent and complex systems, and 207 systems with hydrates is given. A continuation of the review series is planned, covering the years from 2009...... points, the solubility of high-boiling substances in supercritical fluids, the solubility of gases in liquids and the solubility (sorption) of volatile components in polymers are included. Most of experimental data in the literature has been given for binary systems. Of the 1469 binary systems, 796 (54...

  10. Consumption of Added Sugar among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods such as breads, cakes, soft drinks, jams, chocolates, ice cream, and sugars eaten separately or added ... 242–9. 2010. Energy. In: Food, nutrition & diet therapy. 7th ed. Krause MV, Mahan LK (editors). 9– ...

  11. Contrat comme loi naturelle (rationnelle, penser le fondement de la validité du contenu du contrat en droit français et iranien des contrats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shahabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contract looks like the natural law. This means the negation of the principle of the autonomy of the will and the will of Legislator as a basis for the validity of contractual content would be rejected. For, the foundation of creation and validity of natural law would not the will, but natural justice and natural equity. Therefore, the foundation of the validity for such a contract- similar to such a law- must be sought in justice and equity. Adopting such an approach, the principle of contractual justice and fairness- not the principle of the autonomy of the will or the principle of obligatory force of a contract- surface dominant. Such an approach could become more conductive to Iranian contract law. Neither will of legislator nor the principle of the autonomy of the will could be considered as the foundation of the validity of the contractual content in the Iranian legal system, all in order to deter the contract to be praised. It is God's will that determines the foundation of the validity of the contract and this will gives priority to the La Zarar and the negation of Hardship over other contractual principles.

  12. L'allocation des risques dans les contrats : de l'économie des contrats « incomplets » à la pratique des contrats administratifs

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Kirat

    2003-01-01

    Risk allocation in contracts : from the economics of incomplete contracts to the effective practices in administrative contracts Risk allocation in contracts is an important issue for both economics and law. It questions the theoretical, methodological, and empirical foundations of economic and legal analysis. It also offers a valuable ground for comparative legal-economic inquiry. The article aims at providing some insights into that general approach, and proceeds with an articulation of the...

  13. Mujer delincuente, víctima de la violencia en los altos de Jalisco (2005-2008 “Flores marchitas”/Women offenders, victim of violence in los altos de Jalisco (2005-2008 "Blooms"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabiola García Álvarez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The moment I saw him over the history of that humanity, it is well-known it problem that live the woman, her victim femenine by part of the man and that of feminine same, away who unchain an serried of conduct antisociales femenine. The difficulty of the study of this phenomenon, it is debit principalmind at the femenine personality, at the constant evolution of his enviroment and of herself. The preoccupy before is who today in day, so much the victimation as the feminine delincuency them continue mostly grow, and that not those exist truthful mechanism of prevention and solution.

  14. Les choses dangereuses dans les contrats privés

    OpenAIRE

    Bella , Françoise

    2015-01-01

    A simple outlook on daily life is enough for becoming aware of the diversity of the contracts as well as the multitude of dangerous things which surround us. The contractual diversity which appears in the Civil Code and more widely in civil law, is also developed in commercial law and more generally in business law. As for dangerous things, like often mentioned by the doctrine, they are increasingly considered to be ubiquitous in the contemporary society.Dangerous things can be part of all co...

  15. Rural credit in Brazil: contrat's evolution at an institutional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Florêncio de Almeida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a New Institutional Economics’ approach of rural credit. The mainstream relies in the understanding that the rural credit contracts are hybrid forms in response to the agrichain´s complexity. The object of the research was operational credit contract for soybeans farms. The research consisted on qualitative researches in the extent that they sought to comprehend in a more profound level the rules of game for the rural financing contracting environment based on the economic agent’s perceptions. The results highlighted the agent’s perception that the judicial system is not strong enough to performance an efficient enforcement of the contracts. In response to this institutional challenge, the agents and the government manage adaptations in the contracts, which has been successful in the agent’s point of view. In the other hand, the informational system has showed weaknesses in protecting the creditor’s right. This scenario open breaches to opportunist actions and adverse selection. In order to mitigate these problems the agents govern interdependent transactions as a tool for risk sharing.

  16. L'ALLOCATION DES RISQUES DANS LES CONTRATS :

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Kirat

    2003-01-01

    Risk allocation in contracts is an important issue for both economics and law. It questions the theorerical, methodological, empirical foundations of economic and legal analysis. It also offers a valuable ground for comparative legal-economic inquiry. The article aims at providing some insights into that general perpective, and proceeds with an articulation of theoretical and empirical analysis. The paper first offers a critical analysis of some key economic basis hypothesis on law, contract ...

  17. On conditioned and directed freedom of contrats between business entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term conditioned freedom of contracts appeared in our legal theory before the adoption of the Obligations Relations Act, whereas the term directed freedom of contracts occurred after the Act's entry into force. Both terms were used to signify transformation of freedom of con tracts within the legal system based on ideology of socialism, social ownership of the means of production and government ruled economy and, afterwards, 'coordinated economy'. Conditioned freedom of contracts originated from the right to use the means of production in social ownership. This right, which belonged to social (state-owned companies, consisted of two components. The first, public-law component conditioned the second, private law component, by means of norms in individual administrative acts and administrative regulations. As these norms were an expression of state power, they make the contract subordinate: individual administrative act is a condition for the conclusion of contract, and administrative regulations for its validity. Directed freedom of contracts is freedom of making contracts directed by economic order established by the Constitution, systemic laws, and partially by the norms of the basic principles of the Obligations Relations Act which are related to social companies. As regards freedom of contracts it can be said that even today it is directed by legal principles and norms of economic-legal public policy through which the state interferes in business enterprises.

  18. Conditions de contrat applicables aux travaux de construction

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Conditions of Contract for Construction, which are recommended for building or engineering works designed by the Employer or by his representative, the Engineer. Under the usual arrangements for this type of contract, the Contractor constructs the works in accordance with a design provided by the Employer. However, the works may include some elements of Contractor-designed civil, mechanical, electrical and/or construction works.

  19. CONTRATS DE VENTE COMPORTANT UNE CLAUSE DE RESERVE DE PROPRIETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENGESCU RALUCA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts from the classic rule of the Fiscal Code, according to which the delivery operation is the transferring of the right to dispose as a real proprietor. In fact, the transmission of the goods from the seller to the buyer has as a dir

  20. Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Children and Adolescents: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. Number 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Cynthia L.; Lamb, Molly M.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Flegal, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007-2008 almost 17% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years were obese. Childhood obesity often tracks to adulthood and, in the short run, childhood obesity can lead to psychosocial problems and cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and abnormal glucose tolerance or diabetes. Studies have suggested that…

  1. Los efectos del tipo de cambio en el mercado de tomate en la zona del tlcan, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Borja Bravo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available México exportó 921 mil toneladas de tomate rojo al mercado de Estados Unidos de 2005 a 2008, lo que cubrió casi 90 por ciento de sus importaciones. Para analizar los efectos de modificaciones en la tasa de cambio sobre la competitividad de estas exportaciones mexicanas, se validó un modelo de equilibrio espacial e intertemporal, y los resultados indican que una apreciación del peso las disminuiría, mientras que una depreciación las aumentaría, ya que desplazaría la producción doméstica de ese país y las importaciones de Canadá. Se concluye que la depreciación del peso tiene gran impacto sobre las corrientes comerciales del tomate en el mercado del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, por lo cual es importante asegurar una política cambiaria que procure la estabilidad de la tasa de cambio.

  2. Consumption of Added Sugar among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. No. 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, R. Bethene; Kit, Brian K.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of added sugars, which are sweeteners added to processed and prepared foods, has been associated with measures of cardiovascular disease risk among adolescents, including adverse cholesterol concentrations. Although the percent of daily calories derived from added sugars declined between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, consumption of…

  3. Trends in lung cancer incidence in Lebanon by gender and histological type over the period 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Charafeddine, Maya; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Lung cancer incidence rates, overall and by histologic subtypes, vary substantially by gender and smoking. This study's aim was to review data regarding trends in the number of cases of different lung-cancer histologies and relate these to smoking habits by gender in Lebanon. Lung cancer data using ICD-O, 3rd edition, from the Lebanese National Cancer Registry from 2005 to 2008 were stratified by gender for histology type for patients aged over 18years. Lung cancer cases among males were 2.5 times higher than those in females. The most common lung cancer histology type for males and females was adenocarcinoma for all observed years. The proportion of squamous cell carcinoma in incident cases was significantly higher in males than in females for the total period from 2005 to 2008, P=0.032, but not in individual years. The ratio of adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma in incident cases between 2005 and 2008 was 2:45 for males and 3:15 for females. Lung cancer histology in Lebanon is following a pattern similar to that found in most countries of North America and in Europe, where adenocarcinoma is the most prevalent subtype among both males and females. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diabetes, Triglyceride Levels, and Other Risk Factors for Glaucoma in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V; Gupta, Priya; Gadkaree, Shekhar K; Vitale, Susan; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhao, Di; Friedman, David S

    2016-04-01

    To determine risk factors for glaucoma in a population-based study in the United States. Participants age 40 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent questionnaires, physical examination, laboratory tests, and vision tests including fundus imaging. Glaucoma was determined based on expert grading of fundus photographs. Regression modeling of glaucoma risk factors was performed. Participants with glaucoma (172) were older (mean age 68.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 65.6-70.7] vs. 56.4 years [95% CI 55.6-57.2, P glucose, insulin dependence, body mass index, cholesterol levels, diastolic hypertension, systolic hypotension, obstructive sleep apnea, and marijuana were not associated with glaucoma. Multivariable modeling showed associations between glaucoma and older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.09 per year, 95% CI 1.04-1.14), black race (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.71-11.30), and poverty (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.73-6.66). Diabetes was no longer associated with glaucoma after adjustment for triglyceride levels. Sex, education, insurance status, body mass index, blood pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, and smoking were not associated with glaucoma. People who are older, of black race, and with lower income levels have a higher prevalence of glaucoma. A novel association between diabetes, triglyceride levels, and glaucoma is also identified.

  5. HIV‑2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV‑1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation that HIV-2 Western blot be included in the diagnostic algorithm for HIV-1/2 to followup negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results. KEYWORDS Diagnosis, laboratory techniques and procedures, antibodies, HIV-2, Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, algorithm, Cuba.

  6. Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, ... on bone mineral density at either the femur neck or lumbar spine? Nine percent of persons aged ...

  7. Dust emission at Franklin Lake Playa, Mojave Desert (USA): Response to meteorological and hydrologic changes 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Bogle, Rian; Vogel, John; Goldstein, Harland L.; Yount, James

    2009-01-01

    Playa type, size, and setting; playa hydrology; and surface-sediment characteristics are important controls on the type and amount of atmospheric dust emitted from playas. Soft, evaporite-rich sediment develops on the surfaces of some Mojave Desert (USA) playas (wet playas), where the water table is shallow (monitored between March 2005 and April 2008. The dust record, based on day-time remote digital camera images captured during high wind, and compared with a nearby precipitation record, shows that aridity suppresses dust emission. High frequency of dust generation appears to be associated with relatively wet periods, identified as either heavy precipitation events or sustained regional precipitation over a few months. Several factors may act separately or in combination to account for this relation. Dust emission may respond rapidly to heavy precipitation when the dissolution of hard, wind-resistant evaporite mineral crusts is followed by the development of soft surfaces with thin, newly formed crusts that are vulnerable to wind erosion and (or) the production of loose aggregates of evaporite minerals that are quickly removed by even moderate winds. Dust loading may also increase when relatively high regional precipitation leads to decreasing depth to the water table, thereby increasing rates of vapor discharge, development of evaporite minerals, and temporary softening of playa surfaces. The seasonality of wind strength was not a major factor in dust-storm frequency at the playa. The lack of major dust emissions related to flood-derived sediment at Franklin Lake playa contrasts with some dry-lake systems elsewhere that may produce large amounts of dust from flood sediments. Flood sediments do not commonly accumulate on the surface of Franklin Lake playa because through-going drainage prevents frequent inundation and deposition of widespread flood sediment.

  8. Classification of the severe trauma patient with the Abbreviated Injury Scale: degree of correlation between versions 98 and 2005 (2008 update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajas Bustillo, Rebeca; Leal Costa, César; Ortego Mate, María Del Carmen; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Seguí Gómez, María; Durá Ros, María Jesús

    2018-02-01

    To explore differences in severity classifications according to 2 versions of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS): version 2005 (the 2008 update) and the earlier version 98. To determine whether possible differences might have an impact on identifying severe trauma patients. Descriptive study and cross-sectional analysis of a case series of patients admitted to two spanish hospitals with out-of-hospital injuries between February 2012 and February 2013. For each patient we calculated the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), and the AIS scores according to versions 98 and 2005. The sample included 699 cases. The mean Severity (SD) age of patients was 52.7 (29.2) years, and 388 (55.5%) were males. Version 98 of the AIS correlated more strongly with both the ISS (2.6%) and the NISS (2.9%). The 2008 update of the AIS (version 2005) classified fewer trauma patients than version 98 at the severity levels indicated by the ISS and NISS.

  9. Results of the 2005-2008 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States: Clinical Training and Resident Working Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Bernard, Johnny Ray; Jabbari, Siavash; Keam, Jennifer; Amorim Bernstein, Karen L. de; Dad, Luqman K.; Li, Linna; Poppe, Matthew M.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Chollet, Casey T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To document clinical training and resident working conditions reported by chief residents during their residency. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to assess changes in clinical training and resident working conditions over time. Results: Surveys were completed by representatives from 55 programs (response rate, 71.4%) in 2005 to 2006, 60 programs (75.9%) in 2006 to 2007, and 74 programs (93.7%) in 2007 to 2008. Nearly all chief residents reported receiving adequate clinical experience in commonly treated disease sites, such as breast and genitourinary malignancies; and commonly performed procedures, such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical experience in extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy increased over time (p < 0.001), whereas clinical experience in endovascular brachytherapy (p <0.001) decreased over time. The distribution of gynecologic and prostate brachytherapy cases remained stable, while clinical case load in breast brachytherapy increased (p = 0.006). A small but significant percentage of residents reported receiving inadequate clinical experience in pediatrics, seeing 10 or fewer pediatric cases during the course of residency. Procedures involving higher capital costs, such as particle beam therapy and intraoperative radiotherapy, and infrequent clinical use, such as head and neck brachytherapy, were limited to a minority of institutions. Most residency programs associated with at least one satellite facility have incorporated resident rotations into their clinical training, and the majority of residents at these programs find them valuable experiences. The majority of residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week on required clinical duties. Conclusions: Trends in clinical training and resident working conditions over 3 years are documented to allow residents and program directors to assess their residency training.

  10. Forskelle og ligheder i oplevelsen af arbejdsmiljøet i ældreplejen i ni kommuner fra 2005-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Bern, Stine Hvid; Carnelro, Isabella Gomes

    Formålet med nærværende rapport er at undersøge, hvordan arbejdsmiljø, helbred og trivsel udviklede sig blandt medarbejderne i ældreplejen i de ni kommuner, som deltog i de tre runder af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen Arbejde i ældreplejen, der blev gennemført i 2005, 2006 og 2008. I rapporten har vi...... sammenlignet udviklingen i arbejdsmiljø, helbred og trivsel blandt medarbejderne i de ni kommuner ved at se på udviklingen inden for følgende 10 områder: · Fysisk arbejdsmiljø · Smerter i bevægeapparatet · Krav i arbejdet · Ressourcer i arbejdet · Positive tilstande i arbejdet · Helbred og velbefindende...... · Plejekvalitet · Oplevelser af krænkende adfærd · Sygefravær · Forventninger om arbejdsophør. Undersøgelsen viser, at der inden for nogle af de analyserede områder af arbejdsmiljøet findes en relativt begrænset spredning mellem de ni kommuner, der har deltaget i de tre runder i undersøgelsen 'Arbejde i...

  11. Channel Morphology and Bed Sediment Characteristics Before and After Habitat Enhancement Activities in the Uridil Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Years 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphic data were collected by the United States Geological Survey from July 2005 to June 2008 (a time period within water years 2005 to 2008) to monitor the effects of habitat enhancement activities conducted in the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust's Uridil Property, located along the Platte River, Nebraska. The activities involved the removal of vegetation and sand from the tops of high permanent islands and the placement of the sand into the active river channel. This strategy was intended to enhance habitat for migratory water birds by lowering the elevations of the high islands, thereby eliminating a visual obstruction for roosting birds. It was also thought that the bare sand on the lowered island surfaces could serve as potential habitat for nesting water birds. Lastly, the project supplied a local source of sediment to the river to test the hypothesis that this material could contribute to the formation of lower sandbars and potential nesting sites downstream. Topographic surveys on the islands and along river transects were used to quantify the volume of removed sand and track the storage and movement of the introduced sand downstream. Sediment samples were also collected to map the spatial distribution of river bed sediment sizes before and after the management activities. While the project lowered the elevation of high islands, observations of the sand addition indicated the relatively fine-grained sand that was placed in the active river channel was rapidly transported by the flowing water. Topographic measurements made 3 months after the sand addition along transects in the area of sediment addition showed net aggradation over measurements made in 2005. In the year following the sand addition, 2007, elevated river flows from local rain events generally were accompanied by net degradation along transects within the area of sediment addition. In the spring of 2008, a large magnitude flow event of approximately 360 cubic meters per second occurred in the study reach and was accompanied by net aggradation in the managed area. These observations illustrate the high sediment transport capacity of the river channel both at lower flows, when the sand was added, and during higher flow events. This field experiment also serves as a practical example of the dynamic response of a Platte River channel to a relatively small-scale sand augmentation project directed toward enhancing in-channel habitat for avian species.

  12. [Methodological quality of articles on therapeutic procedures published in Cirugía Española. Evaluation of the period 2005-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterola, Carlos; Grande, Luís

    2010-04-01

    To determine methodological quality of therapy articles published in Cirugía Española and to study its association with the publication year, the centre of origin and subjects. A literature study which included all therapy articles published between 2005 and 2008. All kinds of clinical designs were considered, excluding editorials, review articles, letters to editor and experimental studies. Variables analysed included: year of publication, centre of origin, design, and methodological quality of articles. A valid and reliable scale was applied to determine methodological quality. A total of 243 articles [206 series of cases (84.8%), 27 cohort studies (11.1%), 9 clinical trials (3.7%) and 1 case control study (0.4%)] were found. Studies came preferentially from Catalonia and Valencia (22.3% and 12.3% respectively). Thematic areas most frequently found were hepato-bilio-pancreatic and colorectal surgery (20.0% and 16.6%, respectively). Average and median of the methodological quality score calculated for the entire series were 9.5+/-4.3 points and 8 points, respectively. Association between methodological quality and geographical area (p=0.0101), subject area (p=0.0267), and university origin (p=0.0369) was found. A significant increase of methodological quality by publication year was observed (p=0.0004). Methodological quality of therapy articles published in Cirugía Española between 2005 and 2008 is low; but an increase tendency with statistical significance was observed.

  13. Receipt of preventive oral health care by U.S. children: a population-based study of the 2005-2008 medical expenditure panel surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Colleen E; Bell, Janice F; Reed, Sarah C

    2013-11-01

    This study provides estimates of the annual use of preventive oral health care by U.S. children ages 6 months-17 years. We estimated the annual use of preventive oral health care with data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for the years 2005 through 2008 (n = 18,218). Additionally, we tested associations between use of preventive oral health care and predisposing factors, enabling factors and health need within three age groups: young children, school-age children and youth. Overall, 21 % of the sample was reported to have received preventive oral health care in the prior year. More school-age children received preventive care than did young children or youth regardless of gender, race/ethnicity, health status, residence, or family size. Among the youngest children, low parental education and lack of health insurance were associated with lower odds of receiving preventive care. School-age children of racial and ethnic minority groups had a higher odds of receiving preventive care than did non-Hispanic Whites. Youth with special health care needs were less likely to receive care than their peers. Within each age group, use of preventive care increased significantly from 2005 to 2008. In the U.S. there has been an increase in use of pediatric preventive dental care. Continued effort is needed to achieve primary prevention. Outreach and education should include all parents and especially parents with low levels of education, parents of children with special health care needs and those without health insurance.

  14. Overview of incursions of Asian H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus into Great Britain, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dennis J; Manvell, Ruth J; Irvine, Richard; Londt, Brandon Z; Cox, Bill; Ceeraz, Vanessa; Banks, Jill; Browna, Ian H

    2010-03-01

    Since 2005 there have been five incursions into Great Britain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N1 related to the ongoing global epizootic. The first incursion occurred in October 2005 in birds held in quarantine after importation from Taiwan. Two incursions related to wild birds: one involved a single dead whooper swan found in March 2006 in the sea off the east coast of Scotland, and the other involved 10 mute swans and a Canada goose found dead over the period extending from late December 2007 to late February 2008 on or close to a swannery on the south coast of England. The other two outbreaks occurred in commercial poultry in January 2007 and November 2007, both in the county of Suffolk. The first of these poultry outbreaks occurred on a large turkey farm, and there was no further spread. The second outbreak occurred on a free-range farm rearing turkeys, ducks, and geese and spread to birds on a second turkey farm that was culled as a dangerous contact. Viruses isolated from these five outbreaks were confirmed to be Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses; the quarantine outbreak was attributed to a clade 2.3 virus and the other four to clade 2.2 viruses. This article describes the outbreaks, their control, and the possible origins of the responsible viruses.

  15. Pandemic risk prevention in European countries: role of the ECDC in preparing for pandemics. Development and experience with a national self-assessment procedure, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, A

    2010-12-01

    To be effective risk prevention work takes place well before pandemics through the three Ps: Planning, Preparedness and Practise. Between 2005 and 2008 the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) worked with the European Commission (EC) and the WHO Regional Office for Europe (WHO-Euro) to assist European countries in preparing themselves for a future influenza pandemic. All eligible countries in the European Union and European Economic Area participated with energy and commitment. Indicators of preparedness were developed based on WHO planning guidance and these were set within a simple assessment which included a formal country visit. The procedure evolved considerably with field experience. As the complexity of pandemic preparedness was appreciated it changed from being a classical short external assessment to longer national self-assessments with demonstrable impact, especially when self-assessments were published. There were essential supporting activities undertaken including a series of pan-European pandemic preparedness workshops organised by EC, WHO-Euro, ECDC and countries holding the European Union Presidency. The self-assessments highlighted additional work and documentation that was needed by national authorities from the ECDC. This work was undertaken and the document produced. The benefits of the self-assessments were seen in the 2009 pandemic in that EU/EEA countries performed better than some others. A number of the guidance documents were updated to fit the specific features of the pandemic. However the pandemic revealed many weaknesses and brought new challenges for European countries, notably over communication and vaccines, the need to prepare for a variety of scenarios and to factor severity estimates into preparedness, to improve surveillance for severe disease and to deliver seroepidemiology. Any revised self-assessment procedure will need to respond to these challenges.

  16. Incidence of second cervical vertebral fractures far surpassed the rate predicted by the changing age distribution and growth among elderly persons in the United States (2005-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, Natalie L; Ching, Alexander C; Hart, Robert A; Yoo, Jung U

    2013-04-20

    Nationwide epidemiological cohort study. To characterize the incidence of second cervical vertebral (C2) fractures by age and geographical region among the elderly Medicare population and to elucidate if the rate changed in the years 2005 to 2008. Recent publications hypothesized that the rate of cervical vertebral fractures may be increasing. To date, there are no published nationwide reports describing the incidence and demographics of these injuries in the elderly US population. Incidence of C2 fracture in the years 2005 to 2008 was determined by querying PearlDiver Technologies, Inc. (Warsaw, IN), a commercially available database, using International Classification of Diseases code 805.02. Rates were calculated using the PearlDiver reported person-counts as the numerator and the Center for Medicare and Medicare Services midyear population file as the denominator, and reported per 10,000 person-years (10,000 p-y). The age and geographical distributions of fractures were examined. Variability in rates was analyzed using the mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence intervals, χ tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients. Although the elderly population increased by 6% between 2005 and 2008, the annual incidence of C2 fracture rose by 21%, from 1.58 to 1.91 per 10,000 p-y, trending upward in a straight-line function (r = 0.999, P = 0.0006). The incidence of fracture varied between age groups; however, an increase was observed in all age groups. Persons aged 65 to 74 years (the youngest age group) experienced the lowest incidence (0.63 in 2005 to 0.71 in 2008), and the rate of increase was the smallest among the age groups examined (13%). Persons aged 85 and older demonstrated the highest incidence (4.36-5.67) and the greatest increase (30%). From 2005 to 2008, the overall incidence of C2 fracture rose at a rate that was 3.5 times faster than the elderly population growth.

  17. Prevalência das dermatopatias não-tumorais em cães do município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (2005-2008 Prevalence of non-tumorous canine dermatopathies in dogs from the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo principal determinar a prevalência das dermatopatias não-tumorais que acometem cães do município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para isso, foram acompanhados os atendimentos dermatológicos no Hospital Veterinário Universitário, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, e em um consultório veterinário particular no período de março de 2005 a junho de 2008. Durante esse período foram atendidos 480 cães com problemas dermatológicos, desses, em 393 (81,9% foi possível estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo e em 87 (18,1% o diagnóstico não foi conclusivo. Esses 393 cães com diagnóstico conclusivo totalizaram 502 diagnósticos, sendo 424 diagnósticos primários e 78 diagnósticos secundários. A distribuição dos diagnósticos em relação às categorias de dermatopatias diagnosticadas foi a seguinte: dermatopatias alérgicas (190/502 [37,8%], dermatopatias bacterianas (103/502 [20,5%], dermatopatias parasitárias (97/502 [19,3%], dermatopatias relacionadas ao ambiente (28/502 [5,6%], dermatopatias fúngicas (20/502 [4,0%], dermatopatias endócrinas (13/502 [2,6%], defeitos da ceratinização (11/502 [2,2%], dermatopatias psicogênicas (9/502 [1,8%], alopecias adquiridas (6/502 [1,2%], dermatopatias auto-imunes (6/502 [1,2%], dermatopatias hereditárias (6/502 [1,2%], anormalidades pigmentares (1/502 [0,2%], dermatopatias nutricionais (1/502 [0,2%] e outras dermatopatias (11/502 [2,2%]. No geral, as 10 principais dermatopatias não-tumorais, em ordem decrescente de freqüência, foram: atopia, dermatite alérgica à picada de pulga, foliculite bacteriana superficial, sarna demodécica, foliculite bacteriana profunda/furunculose, sarna sarcóptica, miíase, alergia alimentar, dermatite piotraumática e malassezíase. Essas 10 condições perfizeram juntas aproximadamente três quartos de todas as doenças de pele de cães diagnosticadas neste estudo.The current study was aimed at determine the prevalence of non-tumorous canine dermatopathies affecting dogs from the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. From March 2005 to June de 2008, the authors followed-up canine dermatological cases from two sources: those referred to the Dermatology Sector of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria and those from a private practice. During this period 480 dogs with dermatological problems were examined; in 393 (81.9% it was possible to establish a definitive diagnosis and in 87 (18.1% the diagnosis was inconclusive. Four hundred and twenty four primary diagnosis and 78 secondary diagnosis were performed in the 393 dogs with conclusive diagnosis, totaling 502 diagnosis. The distribution of the diagnosis according to the categories of diagnosed dermatopathies was as follows: Allergic (190/502 [37.8%], bacterial (103/502 [20.5%], parasitic (97/502 [19.3%], environmental (28/502 [5,6%], mycotic (20/502 [4.0%], endocrine (13/502 [2.6%], keratinization disturbances (11/502 [2.2%], psychogenic (9/502 [1.8%], acquired alopecias (6/502 [1.2%], autoimmune (6/502 [1.2%], inherited (6/502 [1.2%], pigmentary disturbances (1/502 [0.2%], nutritional (1/502 [0.2%], and sundry conditions (11/502 [2.2%]. In general, the ten most frequently diagnosed non-tumorous dermatopathies in decreasing order of frequency were: Atopy, flea bite allergic dermatitis, bacterial folliculitis, demodectic mange, deep bacterial folliculitis/furunculosis, sarcoptic mange, myiasis, food allergy, traumatic pyoderma, and Malassezia dermatitis. These 10 conditions together made up approximately for three quarters of all canine skin diseases diagnosed in the current study.

  18. Perfil epidemiológico de la salud sexual y reproductiva de un grupo de adolescentes escolarizados: una perspectiva desde los derechos. Bello-Colombia. 2005-2008; Epidemiological profile of sexual and reproductive health among school teenagers: a perspective from human rights. Bello-Colombia. 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ramírez Gómez, Enf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la situación de la SSR, y sus determinantes protectores y deteriorantes, en los adolescentes de una institución de educación pública de Bello-Colombia. Método. Estudio descriptivo en el que se encuestaron estudiantes entre los 10 y 19 años de una institución educativa de Bello (Colombia, seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple; también se realizaron grupos de discusión con adolescentes, padres y profesores de la institución educativa. Resultados. Participaron 233 adolescentes, el 56% del sexo masculino, edad promedio de 14 años con una desviación estándar de 2.2 años. En las variables sociales el 62% se encuentran en el estrato socioeconómico 2 y 3, en la afiliación al SGSSS el 39% está afiliado al régimen contributivo y el 34% al subsidiado; el resto no lo sabía o no estaba carnetizado. En comportamiento sexual el 32% había experimentado la sexarquia, y de éstos el 9% fue a una edad menor a los 10 años, el 28% entre los 10 y 13 años, el 55% entre los 14 y 16 años, y el resto a edad mayor de los 17 años; del total el 17% había tenido menos de dos compa��eros sexuales el año anterior a la encuesta y el 14% tres o más compañeros, solamente un hombre refirió más de 10 parejas diferentes el último año. El 11% de los encuestados tenía antecedentes de embarazo, y de éstos el 58% terminó en aborto, y el 2.1% refirió antecedentes de infecciones de transmisión sexual; los derechos más vulnerados fueron el de formación oportuna completa e imparcializada en el tema de la sexualidad, la autonomía, la libre expresión de la sexualidad, la opción de reproducción, la intimidad personal y el buen nombre. Conclusión. Se encontró alto porcentaje de adolescentes con experiencias sexuales en etapas tempranas de la adolescencia, así mismo falta de formación en temas de sexualidad, salud sexual y reproductiva en los padres de familia y docentes de la institución educativa; la institución de salud no aporta a la educación de los adolescentes en estos temas.______________________________________________________________________Objective. Describe the status of sexual and reproductive health (S&RH, and its protective and deterring determinants, of adolescents from a public´s education institution of Bello, Colombia. Method. Descriptive study that surveyed students between 10 and 19 years, from an educational institution of Bello (Colombia, selected by simple random sampling, focus groups with teens, parents and teachers of the school were also conducted. Results. In the study participated 233 adolescents, 56% male, median age was 14 year-old and standard deviation was 2.2 year-olds. Social variables show that 62% are from 2and 3 socioeconomic strata, Related to the Social Security System in Health (SSSH enrolment 39% members are affiliated to the contributory regime and 34% to subsidize system, the rest did not know whether or not have an affiliation to health system. Related to sexual behavior, 32% had experienced the first intercourse, from them 9% were ayounger than 10 year-old, 28% between 10 and 13 year-old, 55% between 14 and 16 year-old, and the rest were above 17 year-old, from the total less than 17% had two sexual partners in the year before the survey and 14% had three or more partners, only one man referred to have over 10 different partners last year. Eleven percent of respondents had a history of pregnancy, and of them 58% ended inabortion, and 2.1% reported a history of sexually transmitted infections, the most violated rights were: complete, unbiased and timely information on sexual issues, autonomy, and free expression of sexuality, reproductive choice, personal privacy and reputation.Conclusion. We found a high percentage of teenagers with sexual experiences early in adolescence as well as lack of education about sexuality; sexual and reproductive health in parents and teachers of the school, the health facility does not contribute to educate adolescents on these issues.

  19. Avaliação da implantação de programa voltado para melhoria da acessibilidade e humanização do acolhimento aos usuários na rede básica: Salvador, 2005-2008 Evaluation of the implementation of a program aiming to improve accessibility and humanization for primary health care users: Salvador, Brazil, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Vieira-da-Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar e monitorar a implantação de um projeto voltado para a ampliação do acesso e a humanização do acolhimento aos usuários da rede básica de Salvador, entre novembro de 2005 e maio de 2008. MÉTODOS: foi realizada uma avaliação da implantação do projeto em três momentos, tanto de uma perspectiva externa, por equipe de consultores, quanto resultado de uma autoavaliação por parte dos Gerentes de Unidades. Com esse objetivo, foi elaborado um modelo lógico da intervenção, do qual foi derivada uma matriz com critérios para a avaliação. RESULTADOS: ao final do primeiro ano, a implantação dos componentes do programa variou entre 45% e 82% das unidades. Seis meses após, verificou-se uma ampliação da implantação. No terceiro e último ano, em 2008, avaliação feita em amostra de 24 Unidades revelou persistência da implantação do projeto, porém com importantes retrocessos. CONCLUSÕES: o elevado grau de implantação verificado, com a redução das filas evitáveis e melhoria da acessibilidade às unidades de saúde, no primeiro ano, pode estar relacionado à estratégia de implantação, bem como a algumas características da gestão municipal. Os autores discutem ainda as possíveis razões dos obstáculos encontrados no contexto da gestão municipal do Sistema Único de Saúde.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate and monitor the implementation of a project aiming to broaden access and humanization of user embracement for users of the primary health care in Salvador, Brazil, between November 2005 and May 2008. METHODS: the implementation of the project was evaluated at three points in time, both externally, by a team of consultants, and internally as part of a self-evaluation by Unit Managers. An intervention logic model was designed for this purpose and a set of evaluation criteria derived from this. RESULTS: at the end of the first year, the implementation of program components varied from 45% to 82% of units. Six months later, implementation was more extensive. In the third and last year, in 2008, an evaluation carried out in a sample of 24 units revealed continued implementation of the project, albeit with a considerable setbacks. CONCLUSIONS: the high degree of implementation observed, with a reduction in the size of avoidable waiting queues and improvement in access to health units in the first year, may be related to the implementation strategy adopted and to some of the specific features of municipal administration. The authors also discuss the possible reasons for the obstacles encountered within the municipal administration of the Brazilian National Health System.

  20. Annexe A Modalités et conditions générales du contrat

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    acray

    exclusifs et connexes aux produits et services actuels, futurs et proposés du Centre. .... Centre et sans aucune référence audit renseignement. ... du Canada, d'assurance ou de toute autre retenue semblable requise par la loi au profit des.

  1. Trophic interactions in contrating production systems: MiSeq versus multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintaining biodiversity is an important aspect of long-term agricultural sustainability. Generalist predators such as spiders and insect predators often prey upon common pest species, making them a beneficial component of agroecosystems. Much research has been devoted to understanding the roles of ...

  2. From the Social Contract to a Social Contract Law - Vom Contrat Social zum Gesellschaftsvertragsrecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Abegg

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking the viewpoint of the civil law tradition, which has traditionally assumed that the legitimacy of the administration is state-derived, this text recognises the constant decline of state sovereignty in modern times and consequently the increasing diffusion of the state into society. At the level of state theory, this reflects a shift from the great philosophical ‘social contract’ to many small legal contracts as its functional equivalent. Dealing with this phenomenon, administrative law needs to address the fundamental question of how law can sustainably support the unity of a society where the state administration and the various parts of society it has to govern are strange to each other and at the same time depending on mutual ad-hoc cooperation time and again.- Aus einer kontinentalen Sicht, gestützt auf die langen Erfahrungen mit einer staatlich angeleiteten Legitimation der Staatsverwaltung, erkennt diese Untersuchung den beständigen Niedergang staatlicher Souveränität in der Moderne und folglich die zunehmende Diffusion des Staates in die Gesellschaft. Auf der Ebene der Staatstheorie wird dies durch einen Wechsel vom großen philosophischen Sozialvertrag zu vielen einzelnen rechtlichen Verträgen als dessen funktionales Äquivalent gespiegelt. Mit diesem Phänomen erhält das Verwaltungsrecht eine grundsätzlich neue Perspektive: Es stellt sich die Frage, wie mit Recht die Einheit einer Gesellschaft hervorgebracht werden kann, in welcher die Staatsverwaltung und die von ihr zu regulierenden Sozialbereiche sich einerseits fremd geworden sind und doch andererseits auf wechselseitige Ad-hoc-Kooperationen immer wieder von Neuem angewiesen sind.

  3. Vom Contrat Social zum Gesellschaftsvertragsrecht / From the Social Contract to a Social Contract Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Abegg

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formen und Funktion des Verwaltungsvertrags in der fragmentierten Gesellschaft Aus einer kontinentalen Sicht, gestützt auf die langen Erfahrungen mit einer staatlich angeleiteten Legitimation der Staatsverwaltung, erkennt diese Untersuchung den beständigen Niedergang staatlicher Souveränität in der Moderne und folglich die zunehmende Diffusion des Staates in die Gesellschaft. Auf der Ebene der Staatstheorie wird dies durch einen Wechsel vom großen philosophischen Sozialvertrag zu vielen einzelnen rechtlichen Verträgen als dessen funktionales Äquivalent gespiegelt. Mit diesem Phänomen erhält das Verwaltungsrecht eine grundsätzlich neue Perspektive: Es stellt sich die Frage, wie mit Recht die Einheit einer Gesellschaft hervorgebracht werden kann, in welcher die Staatsverwaltung und die von ihr zu regulierenden Sozialbereiche sich einerseits fremd geworden sind und doch andererseits auf wechselseitige Ad-hoc-Kooperationen immer wieder von Neuem angewiesen sind. Forms and Function of Administrative Contracts in a Fragmented Society. Taking the viewpoint of the civil law tradition, which has traditionally assumed that the legitimacy of the administration is state-derived, this text recognises the constant decline of state sovereignty in modern times and consequently the increasing diffusion of the state into society. At the level of state theory, this reflects a shift from the great philosophical ‘social contract’ to many small legal contracts as its functional equivalent. Dealing with this phenomenon, administrative law needs to address the fundamental question of how law can sustainably support the unity of a society where the state administration and the various parts of society it has to govern are strange to each other and at the same time depending on mutual ad-hoc cooperation time and again.

  4. Le contrat psychologique : comprendre et pérenniser une relation de franchise

    OpenAIRE

    CHANUT , Odile; Paché , Gilles

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This article aims to suggest the ways to improve the governance of a franchise relationship between a franchisor and its franchisees. It uses the concept of psychological contract, coming from social sciences. This focuses on mutual obligations not specified in a formal contract, but it however generates the commitment in the relationship. The different components of psychological contracts are revealed by the method of life history applied in the French context taken ...

  5. Annexe A. Principes généraux des contrats du commerce international. Unidroit - 1994

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS [1994] PREAMBLE (Purpose of the Principles) These Principles set forth general rules for international commercial contracts. They shall be applied when the parties have agreed that their contract be governed by them. They may be applied when the parties have agreed that their contract be governed by general principles of law, the lex mercatoria or the like. They may provide a solution to an issue raised when it proves impossible to establish th...

  6. Energy efficiency performance contracts in the school environment; Contrats de performance energetique dans le milieu scolaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouin, J. [Quebec Ministere de l' Education, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    An overview of new regulations concerning the awarding of energy performance contracts by school boards in the province of Quebec is provided. The article deals with buildings belonging to boards of education that are wholly or primarily utilised for educational purposes. It provides an inventory of such buildings and statistical information about about energy consumption and energy-related costs of educational facilities during the school years 1996/1997 and 1997/1998. Regarding the new regulations, the principal change appears to be that school boards are required to award construction or building services contracts estimated to cost between $50,000 and $100,000 either by public requests for tenders, or by invitation; construction or building services contracts whose cost exceeds $100,000 must be awarded by public tender. In effect, to meet the energy efficiency criteria specified in the new regulations, school boards are obliged to call for bids on any project that contribute to the energy efficiency of school buildings whose cost is estimated to exceed $50,000. The objective of the new regulation is to encourage the consideration of energy efficiency standards by school boards, and by potential contractors. The regulations also prescribe the method of requesting bids and specifies the energy efficiency criteria bidders must meet in order to be eligible.

  7. Le Contrat Administratif Normatif - Source du Droit de la Science et de l’innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Balmus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Administrative law contract can serve as a basis both for subsequent completion ofadministrative regulations or individual, and the same type of contracts, becoming one of theconventional universal means of state administration, as well as acts as a means of overridingadministration state. Partnership Agreement between the Government and the Academy of Sciencesof Moldova is a genuine normative law contract and a conventional source of administrative lawsphere of science and innovation that ensure the competence of the Government delegation in theAcademy of Sciences of Moldova's sphere of science and innovation.

  8. Experiencias sociales y educativas en los procesos de participación con niñas y niños jóvenes en la ciudad de Sevilla entre los años 2005/2008.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Morales, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo de investigación social y educativa surge de las experiencias profesionales y personales vividas por el investigador en relación con los procesos de dinamización y participación con niños/as, chavales/as y jóvenes de la Ciudad de Sevilla, en el contexto de los Presupuestos Participativos, en el CEIP Adriano como estudio de caso, y en los procesos que se vivieron en Pino Montano. Este trabajo goza de actualidad con la puesta en marcha en Sevilla del proyecto “Sevilla Ciudad Amiga ...

  9. Characterization and source regions of 51 high-CO events observed during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights between south China and the Philippines, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2011-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and other atmospheric trace constituents were measured from onboard an Airbus 340-600 passenger aircraft in the upper troposphere (UT) between south China and the Philippines during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights from May 2005 until March 2008. A total of 132 events having CO enhancements were observed in the UT over the region during the 81 CARIBIC flights from Frankfurt, Germany, to Manila, Philippines, with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. Among these, 51 high-CO events with enhancements more than 50 ppb above background were observed. For these events enhancements ranged from 52.7 to 221.3 ppb and persisted for 3 to 78 min (˜40 to 1200 km), indicating an influence of strong pollution from biomass/biofuel/fossil fuel burning on the trace gas composition of the UT. Back trajectory analysis shows that south China, the Indochinese Peninsula, and the Philippines/Indonesia are the main source regions of the high-CO events. The composition of air parcels originating from south China was found to be primarily influenced by anthropogenic urban/industrial emissions, while emissions from biomass/biofuel burning contributed substantially to CO enhancements from the Indochinese Peninsula. During the Philippines/Indonesia events, air parcel composition suggests contributions from both biomass/biofuel burning and urban/industrial sources. Long-range transport of air parcels from northeast Asia and India also contributed to CO enhancements in the UT over the region. The general features of regional influence, typical cases, and the contributions of biomass/biofuel burning and anthropogenic emissions are presented and discussed to characterize the air parcels during the observed high-CO events.

  10. Poucet, B., La liberté sous contrat. Une histoire de l’enseignement privé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenn Rouillard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En France, l’histoire du système scolaire ne peut être appréhendée dans sa globalité sans porter un regard attentif et aiguisé sur celle de l’enseignement privé, comme notamment celui de Bruno Poucet depuis quelques années. Son dernier ouvrage s’attache à retracer les traits historiques du secteur d’enseignement associé à l’État, en l’occurrence catholique, avec une question centrale qui le guide : comment expliquer le présent par le passé ? Le résultat émane du travail imbriqué de l’historie...

  11. Conclusion du titre II

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Minh Hang

    2013-01-01

    La qualification de la conciliation et de la médiation judiciaires en contrats de pourparlers judiciaires emporte d’importantes conséquences. 216. Consécration d’une nouvelle famille de contrats : les contrats de pourparlers judiciaires - Elle consacre tout d’abord une nouvelle famille de contrats : les contrats de pourparlers judiciaires. Ce faisant, elle apporte une pierre supplémentaire à l’édifice des figures hybrides qui mêlent le conventionnel et le judiciaire. 217. Les contrats de pour...

  12. The public utility contract between the French government and EDF; Le contrat de service public entre l'Etat et EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The public utility contract as foreseen by article 1 of the law from August 9, 2004 was signed on October 24, 2005. It represents the reference of EDF's (Electricite de France) commitments for its different activities of power producer-supplier and network manager. It precises also the commitments of the manager of the public energy transportation system (RTE EDF-Transport). It describes the level of commitment of EDF group over the 2005-2006-2007 era and precises the financial compensation modalities of its public utility missions and of its commitments as described in the contract. The public utility plan indicates the level of investments planned by EDF in the domain of power generation and networks. This document gathers: the talk given by D. de Villepin, Prime Minister, during the signature of the contract, the talk and presentation (slides) given by P. Gadonneix, head of EDF, the public utility contract between the government and EDF, and the public utility plan. (J.S.)

  13. The contractual agreement State-EDF signature the 8. april 1997; Signature du contrat d`entreprise Etat-EDF le 8 avril 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The corporation agreement between the State and Electricite De France (EDF) was signed for the period of 1997-2000. With the agreement of the State, this new contract brings to EDF the ways to progress: becoming the reference public utilities in Europe and asserting its authority as an industrial corporation, leader of the electrical service in France and in international markets. The agreement precise the main orientations of the development plan and the economical policy. (A.L.B.)

  14. The contractual agreement State-EDF signature the 8. april 1997; Signature du contrat d`entreprise Etat-EDF le 8 avril 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The corporation agreement between the State and Electricite De France (EDF) was signed for the period of 1997-2000. With the agreement of the State, this new contract brings to EDF the ways to progress: becoming the reference public utilities in Europe and asserting its authority as an industrial corporation, leader of the electrical service in France and in international markets. The agreement precise the main orientations of the development plan and the economical policy. (A.L.B.)

  15. [Synchronization of ovulation (OVSYNCH) in high-producing dairy cattle herds. I. Fertility parameters, body condition score and plama progesterone contration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klindworth, H P; Hoedemaker, M; Burfeindt, D; Heilkenbrinker, T

    2001-01-01

    A method for synchronization of ovulation (OVSYNCH) was evaluated for its practical use in seven North German dairy cattle herds. The original procedure of PURSLEY et al. (1995) was applied, i.e. cows were injected Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) at a random stage of the estrous cycle, followed by an injection of a prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha)-analogon seven days later and another injection of GnRH two days after PGF2 alpha. Cows were inseminated 24 h after the last injection by artificial insemination. Control animals were assigned by corresponding lactation number and stage of lactation (month of partus). Cows from the OVSYNCH group returned to the conventional reproductive management after the OVSYNCH treatment, which was the same management as that for the control group. The average milk yield in 1997 and 1998 was 8128.6 +/- 637.0 kg and 8688.3 +/- 665.0 kg per year, respectively. First service conception rate (FSC) in the OVSYNCH group (n = 187) (39.77%) was lower than in the controls (n = 175) (54.34%; P 0.05), whereas in 1998, FSC for the OVSYNCH group (29.27%) was significantly lower than in the control group (29.27% vs. 52.78%) and the OVSYNCH group in 1997 (each time P cows in the OVSYNCH group was significantly lower than in the control group (37.84% vs. 71.05%; P 0.05). Proportion of cows in each class of lactation number (1., 2. and > 2. lactation number) with days open 0.05). There was a great influence of body condition on the success of OVSYNCH. Cows with a body condition score (BCS) of 3.00 had a significant better FSC than cows with a BCS cows with a BCS > 3.25 and cows in good and poor condition taken together) than for cows with a BCS of 3.00 (P cows as determined by progesterone concentration in blood plasma. Nine out of eleven cows reacted with the resumption of ovarian activity. Two cows became pregnant after first insemination.

  16. Quelques mots sur les contrats de vente de mots (Observations sur la condamnation judiciaire en France de Google pour son système Adwords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Manara

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A French court has ruled against Google France in an intellectual property dispute, saying the company infringed trademark laws for allowing advertisers to combine their text notices to trademarked search terms. This decision, which is not a temporary injunction, is unique, and it is also the first in the world to find Google liable for its AdWords program. This short analysis recaps the reason how the law applied to the search tool, and highlights that the judicial decision has probably no effect for the defendant: not because it has been ruled in France, but because advertisers who buy AdWords agree to indemnify Google for any liability and cause of action. Therefore, this shows that these conflicts of laws in cyberspace are not those we thought so

  17. CONSIDERATIONS SUR LA CESSATION DU CONTRAT D'ASSURANCE PAR DENONCIATION (CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TERMINATION OF THE INSURANCE CONTRACT BY DENUNCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Stoica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the issue of termination of insurance contracts by unilateral denunciation in accordance with Article 2209 of the Civil Code. Distinguishing features of this unusual or specific type of insurance contract are highlighted, together with its differences from the unilateral denunciation of the co ntract provided in the common law. Simultaneously, we aim at analyzing the prerequisites for making unilateral denunciation of an insurance contract, the legal effect of the denunciation throughout the notice period, as well as the effects of the insurance contract termination as a result of its denunciation.

  18. Le maître d’ouvrage et le contrat de sous-traitance dans les marchés publics de travaux au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesmont Bahoken Valeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Any subcontracting in public procurement contracts is subject to the prior approval of the Contracting authority. This is a manifestation of excessive powers which holds the administration in public law contracts. Therefore, the public contract is liable to termination as soon as the Contracting authority finds by any means whatsoever subcontracting occult on the work site. However, as soon as subcontracting is allowed, the Contracting authority appears foreign to its implementation, leaving the parties freely fulfill their contractual obligations. The situation of the contractor who is generally a small business or PMI is abandoned to the will of the contracting party of the public person, usually powerful multinationals. The Contracting authority displays a certain neutrality in both the quality of work performed by the contractor in terms of payment of the latter. Contractual freedom seems to have taken precedence here on the powers of control and direction of which is coated the Contracting authority in the execution of public contract, to the detriment of the subcontractor. A reform of the Government Procurement Code and subsequent legislation is needed to better protect the interests of the subcontractor. This article is striving to clarify the relationship Contracting authority -Contractorsubcontractor in works contracts. It demonstrates that the subcontractor weaker party to the contract must be better protected so as to safeguard the contractual solidarism which seems to be based the existence of the outsourcing contract.

  19. Administrateur de subventions (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... au projet (Protocole d'accord fixant les conditions de la subvention, Accord de subvention de soutien à la recherche, contrats de bourses de recherche, contrats d'emploi des titulaires de bourses, contrats de service et avis de subventions de déplacement) à porter à la signature de l'agent d'administration de subventions.

  20. Caracterización clínico epidemiológica de las convulsiones febriles. Hospital Pediátrico Docente Provincial “José Martí y Pérez”. Sancti Spíritus. Año 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Lizano Rabelo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un grupo de características clínico-epidemiológicas y de laboratorio relacionadas con las convulsiones febriles. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 273 pacientes con diagnóstico definitivo al egreso de convulsión febril, pertenecientes al Hospital Pediátrico Docente Provincial “José Martí Pérez “ de Sancti Spíritus (enero 2005- diciembre 2008, variables del estudio: Edad de presentación de la primera crisis. Temperatura axilar en el momento de la crisis. Momento de presentación de la crisis con relación a la fiebre. Causa de la fiebre. Características clínicas de las crisis. Factores de riesgo de recurrencia. Resultado del electroencefalograma interictal. El dato primario se tomó mediante un cuestionario que fue aplicado a las historias clínicas de estos pacientes. Los resultados fueron expresados en tablas y analizados de forma porcentual. La edad de debut de las crisis febriles que prevaleció fue de 11 a 23 meses en 90 pacientes(33%, la temperatura axilar en el momento de la convulsión identificada con mayor frecuencia fue entre 38-38,5 grados en el 56,87% de los casos, 198 pacientes para un 72,5% presentaron la crisis febril en las primeras 6 horas de la fiebre; predominando las infecciones respiratorias altas agudas como causa de la fiebre en 98 casos (35,9%, 191 pacientes presentaron crisis febriles simples para un 70% y de ellas 137 (54,2% fueron tónicas generalizadas, el electroencefalograma interictal fue normal en 198 casos para un 72,5%. El comportamiento de las convulsiones febriles en nuestro medio es de forma similar a lo reportado en la literatura nacional e internacional, en cuanto a edad de presentación, tipo de crisis y riesgo de recurrencia, así como patrones normales en el electroencefalograma. Predominando las infecciones respiratorias altas agudas como causa de la fiebre.

  1. Caracterización clínico epidemiológica de las convulsiones febriles. Hospital Pediátrico Docente Provincial “José Martí y Pérez”. Sancti Spíritus. Año 2005-2008.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelino Lizano Rabelo; Yanisbel Imara Rolo Naranjo; Noelio Rafael Poza Carmona

    2009-01-01

    Se describe un grupo de características clínico-epidemiológicas y de laboratorio relacionadas con las convulsiones febriles. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 273 pacientes con diagnóstico definitivo al egreso de convulsión febril, pertenecientes al Hospital Pediátrico Docente Provincial “José Martí Pérez “ de Sancti Spíritus (enero 2005- diciembre 2008), variables del estudio: Edad de presentación de la primera crisis. Temperatura axilar en el momento de la crisis. Momento de presentación...

  2. Sommaires des demandes d'accès à l'information complétées en 2016

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Liste de tous les contrats émis par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international durant la période du 1er avril 2015 au 31 mars 2016, y compris a) les noms des fournisseurs; b) les numéros de référence des contrats; c) les dates des contrats; d) la description des services fournis; e) les dates de livraison; ...

  3. La recherche fondamentale plutôt que la technologie de l'armement: Le CERN a mis la dernière main à des contrats avec le CIST

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    On Monday, 22 November, major collaboration contracts were finalized between CERN and the ISTC, the International Science and Technology Centre, which has its headquarters in Moscow. These contracts, worth more than 12 million Swiss Francs, are a large step forward in the cooperation between these two institutions. The agreement, which almost doubles the financial support for the ISTC Partner Project, will result in new technical equipment for CERN's latest project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  4. Les réglementations en matière de l’inexécution du contrat dans le contexte du rapprochement du droit privé européen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Baiesu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With a view to European integration, harmonisation of the Moldovan legislation to Europeanstandards has become an imperative. An important area of harmonisation is the contract law. The ViennaConvention on the International Sale of Goods of 11 April 1980 is one of the most important internationalconventions serving as an efficient instrument for the harmonization of the international trade. Other twosignificant projects for the harmonization of the contract law were elaborated in the course of the last yearsare the ”UNIDROIT principles regarding the international commercial contracts” and ”Principles of theEuropean Contract Law” carried out by the Commission for European Contract Law. The present articleanalyses certain specific features of the concept of breach of the contract and of the system of remediesprovided in both the instruments under consideration and national legislations meant to ensure the uniformityof the European contract law.

  5. Economic-technical effects of electric power quality obligation on the commitments related to the Emeraude contract; Impacts technico-economiques de l`obligation de qualite du courant sur les engagements lies au ``contrat Emeraude``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irani, J. [Centre Technique des Industries Mecaniques (CETIM), (France)

    1996-12-31

    Quality of electric current is guaranteed to its high-voltage clients by the Electricite de France`s Emeraude contract; the main problem is due to the fact that an industrial client does not know the nature of perturbations that its plant generates nor that they may propagate on the EDF distribution system. In that case, these clients will likely be obliged to contribute to EDF`s investments for improving the line quality

  6. Contrat de travail et précarisation : une modélisation de l’information asymétrique d’une situation atypique, cas des pays pauvres et en développement

    OpenAIRE

    El Bouhadi, Abdelhamid

    2006-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is dedicated to study the relations of recruiting among the employee and the employer in a frame characterized by the insecurity conditions of job and large scale of unemployment. The recruiting relationship that we will study is atypical as far as the offered salary is not a fixed minimum wage. The hiring contract between the employer and the employee in the developing labour markets is made with different conditions regarding to others, mainly in the developed countrie...

  7. Use of selective adsorbents for adsorption and concentration of radioactive isotopes difficult measurement; Empleo de materials adsorbentes selectivos para la adsorcion y contration de isotopos radiactivos de dificil medida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, L.; Medina, F.

    2011-07-01

    The work are focused on obtaining a selective adsorbent material to separate from the effluent of nuclear energy plants the radioactive isotopes with high average lifetimes that are in very low concentrations in order to treat them separately from the rest of waste. For this target we have worked with different materials, focusing on the utilization of the adsorptive capacity of layered double hydroxides, which can be reconstructed after being burned hosting anions in the interlayers space. (Author)

  8. Ethique professionnelle et régulation économique du marché des soins ambulatoires : de la théorie des contrats à l'économie des conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Gadreau , Maryse

    1992-01-01

    What is the part played by professionnal ethics in the economic regulation of the market for ambulatory care (heterogeneity, uncertainty, information asymmetry...) and extrinsic rigidities (imposed by medical corporation and public authorities) ? Is it the internal control variable from "interested" self-regulation that implicitly relies on teological conception of ethics ? Or, the essential being of conventions for "quality" and "activity" that, through the cycle of gift economics, set upspo...

  9. Unusual Ring Contration by Substitution of 4-O-activated-pentono-1,5-lactams with cyanide. Stereospecific Synthesis of 6-Amino-1,4,5,6-tetradeoxy-1,4-imino-hexitols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Michael Anders; Lundt, Inge; Søtofte, Inger

    2000-01-01

    Reaction of 4-O-sulfonylated 2,3-O-isopropylidene-D-ribo- or -D-lyxo-1,5-lactams with tetrabutylammonium cyanide gave 4-amino-5-C-cyano-4,5-dideoxy-2,3-O-isopropylidene-L-lyxo-5 or -L-ribo-15-1,4-lactams, respectively. A stereospecific ring contraction with inversion at C-4 had taken place in each...

  10. Objectives agreements 2007-2010 between the government and the Ademe; Contrat d'objectifs 2007-2010 entre l'Etat et l'Ademe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    The Agency for the Environment and the Energy Control (ADEME) is a public establishment, of a commercial and industrial nature, placed under the research, environment and energy ministries. Its missions are to create, manage and control the activities aiming to prevent and fight against the air pollution, to limit the wastes production their elimination recovery, to protect the soils, to realize energy conservation, to develop the renewable energies and the clean energies and to fight against the noise pollution.This document presents the Ademe objectives fixed by the State for the next 13 years. (A.L.B.)

  11. Cycles de vie et événements-ruptures dans la franchise : conséquences sur le pilotage de la relation franchiseur-franchisés. Une approche par le contrat psychologique.

    OpenAIRE

    CHANUT , Odile

    2007-01-01

    What is franchise? It's a beautiful wedding. At first we believe it. Unfortunately in a wedding he ends up having moments of lassitude, moments of disappointment and then arguments. "A network is based on the human relationship, so it remains fragile. Anyway, if a network has problems, it's because the franchisor has failed. A franchisee has no reason to be at war with his franchisor if all goes well. And if it goes wrong is that the franchisor has failed at some point in the relationship, in...

  12. Consultations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Qu'arrive-t-il si j'engage des dépenses avant d'avoir signé mon contrat? Combien de ... Facture-type de consultant. Cette fiche ... Le représentant du CRDI dont le nom figure dans votre contrat est votre source d'information la plus fiable.

  13. 2671-IJBCS-Article-Fongang Fouepe Hensel G

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Engagements contractuels et performances des organisations de producteurs ... Aussi ces contrats permettent aux OP d'accéder à un marché plus ..... Tableau 2 : Nombre d'OP par type de contrats agricoles à l'Ouest Cameroun entre 2010 et ...

  14. Opération et maintenance ST-EL: jusqu'où externaliser en conservant la maîtrise ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cumer, G

    2003-01-01

    Depuis juillet 2001, la totalité des activités d’exploitation et de maintenance ST/EL est désormais réalisée par des contrats d’externalisation. Ces contrats sont étroitement pilotés par un effectif CERN très réduit. Ce document présente l’organisation et le principe de fonctionnement de ces contrats. L’accent est mis sur le contrat E065/ST, en charge de l’exploitation de l’ensemble du réseau électrique. Après un rappel des orientations choisies à l’établissement de ce contrat qui assure l’ac...

  15. Legalis.net

    CERN Document Server

    Site Web regroupant de nombreuses publications, associations, cas de jurisprudence, modèles de contrats dans le domaine juridique de l'informatique, du multimedia, de l'Internet et des télécommunications.

  16. Evaluation. The actions of european towns on the utilization of new little cogeneration technologies. Contract n. 99.07.071; Etat de l'Art. Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration. Contrat n. 99.07.071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P

    2001-04-01

    After many experiences in the large cogeneration domain, some european municipalities, especially in Germany, develop now little cogeneration projects. This study aims to examine in a first part the policies and experiences of the municipalities and of the energy municipal companies in term of appropriate technology and in a second part the integration of these installations in the existing systems. The study brings also information on the technical aspects and the organization, in particular the difficulties and the results. (A.L.B.)

  17. Planing contract between the State and the Environment and energy mastership Agency 2000-2006; Contrat de plan entre l'Etat et l'Agence de l'environnement et de la maitrise de l'energie 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This contract describes the mutual commitments between the French State and the ADEME (Agency for the Environment and the Energy Mastership) for 2000-2006. The subjects concerned are the domestic wastes management, the energy efficiency and the energy resources development, the air pollution decrease and the international agreements of the France. It presents the implementing and expected impacts of the action and research and development programs, the ADEME research policy, the contract management and the evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  18. Planing contract between the State and the Environment and energy mastership Agency 2000-2006; Contrat de plan entre l'Etat et l'Agence de l'environnement et de la maitrise de l'energie 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This contract describes the mutual commitments between the French State and the ADEME (Agency for the Environment and the Energy Mastership) for 2000-2006. The subjects concerned are the domestic wastes management, the energy efficiency and the energy resources development, the air pollution decrease and the international agreements of the France. It presents the implementing and expected impacts of the action and research and development programs, the ADEME research policy, the contract management and the evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  19. Evaluation. The actions of european towns on the utilization of new little cogeneration technologies. Contract n. 99.07.071; Etat de l'Art. Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration. Contrat n. 99.07.071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-04-01

    After many experiences in the large cogeneration domain, some european municipalities, especially in Germany, develop now little cogeneration projects. This study aims to examine in a first part the policies and experiences of the municipalities and of the energy municipal companies in term of appropriate technology and in a second part the integration of these installations in the existing systems. The study brings also information on the technical aspects and the organization, in particular the difficulties and the results. (A.L.B.)

  20. 2001-2003 ''public utility'' contract between the French government and Gaz de France; Contrat de ''service public'' 2001-2003 entre l'etat et Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The ''public utility'' contract aims at specifying the actions of Gaz de France (GdF), the French gas utility, in terms of national development and public utility presence at the local scale. It extends and completes the 'contract of group' established between the government and GdF in the domain of quality of the services offered to clients, development of gas infrastructures and extension of gas supplies, and sustainable development. (J.S.)

  1. Synthesis of the objectives contract 2006-2010 between the State and the IFP. Innovate for a controlled energy transition; Synthese du contrat d'objectifs 2006-2010 entre l'Etat et l'IFP. Innover pour une transition energetique maitrisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The IFP, French Institute of Petroleum, is a public organization of research and formation at the service of the energy, the transport and the environment. It assures the technology transfer between fundamental research, applied research and the industrial development. The contract for 2006-2010 presents three major structural evolutions: the increase development of the new technologies of the energy; a new equilibrium in favor of the downstream researches and more particularly the transports, the increase of the industry competitiveness in the hydrocarbons sector and the automobiles. (A.L.B.)

  2. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  3. General conditions applicable to the contract for access to the public power transportation network for an eligible consuming site; Conditions generales applicables au contrat d'acces au reseau public de transport d'electricite pour un site consommateur eligible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    On 1 November 2002, the new tariffs for the utilisation of the public power transmission and distribution networks, defined by decree no 2002-1014 of 19 July 2002, will come into effect. A new contract for access to the transmission network has been drawn up in co-operation with the Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) so as to be able to include these new tariffs. This new contract also takes into account the expectations expressed by the users of the transmission network concerning the energy delivery agreement used since the coming into effect of the European Directive on the opening of the electricity market in February 1999. On 31 October 2002, RTE is publishing a new version of the contract for access to the Public Transmission Networks. This document reproduces the general conditions of this contract. It comprises the following parts: preamble; definitions; connection to the public transportation network; metering and deductions; subscribed power; development, exploitation and maintenance of facilities; power continuity and quality; liability; tariffing and conditions of payment; declaration of the balancing actor; general dispositions.

  4. Peamised trendid meeste tekstilisel konstrueerimisel naisteajakirja Cosmopolitan artiklites? / Greete Kempel, Andra Siibak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kempel, Greete

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse Eestis ilmuva Cosmpolitani nägemust meestest aastatel 2005-2008 ilmunud artiklite kontentanalüüsi põhjal. Meeste kujutamisel kasutatud kontruktsioonid, sõnastatud eeldused ja meeste enda esitatud omadused

  5. Psühhiaater: "Alkohol jääb meie suurimaks probleemiks" / Andres Lehtmets ; intervjueerinud Tiina Jõgeda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtmets, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Autor kritiseerib Tervise Arengu Instituudi "Eesti tervisestatistika raamatu" (2005-2008) tõlgendamist. Psüühika- ja käitumishäirete kasvust, mis on sõltuvuses uimastite ja alkoholi tarbimisest. Diagramm

  6. Information Meeting- Working Hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Maurin

    1972-01-01

    Mons. Maurin préside la séance et fait part des résultats aux questionnaires pour définir une ligne de conduite de l'association- ramener et harmoniser les horaires- changer les contrats de 44 à 40 heures- des gens travaillent en partie encore 48 h

  7. Administrateur du système (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sous la supervision du gestionnaire, Infrastructure, sécurité et documents (ISD), ... et de la maintenance courants des divers systèmes d'infrastructure du Centre, ... techniques dans les régions et des techniciens sous contrat) pour fournir des ...

  8. Spécialiste de la sécurité en matière de TI (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sous la supervision du gestionnaire, Infrastructure, sécurité et documents (ISD), ... techniques dans les régions et des techniciens sous contrat) pour fournir des ... et à la maintenance des éléments d'infrastructure, en surveillant les travaux ...

  9. Analyste de systèmes intermédiaire (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'analyste de systèmes intermédiaire travaille sous la supervision du ... à la mise en œuvre et à la maintenance d'un large éventail de systèmes tout en assurant ... directement les consultants externes sous contrat afin de faciliter la transition ...

  10. Gestionnaire, Relations d'affaires en technologie de l'information (TI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions En tant que membre de l'équipe de direction de la Division ... et la maintenance d'un système de technologie de l'information (TI) intégré en ... d'un contrat de consultation), évaluer les propositions et choisir la meilleure.

  11. Spécialiste de la sécurité en matière de TI (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Pour ce faire, le spécialiste de la sécurité en matière de TI sera appelé de temps ... techniques dans les régions et des techniciens sous contrat) pour fournir des ... en oeuvre et à la maintenance des éléments d'infrastructure, en surveillant les ...

  12. Markers of bone pain in the hemodialysis patients with renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Fumitoshi; Sagawa, Hitoshi; Yabe, Kinji

    1988-01-01

    The patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis were divided into two groups in the absence and the presence of bone pain and investigated the markers of bone pain in these patients. These results suggested that the duration of receiving hemodialysis, serum contrations of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone became to be the markers of bone pain. (author)

  13. Le développement d’une agriculture durable a-t-il besoin de nouveaux apprentissages ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Piraux

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En étudiant les apprentissages produits par la mise en place des contrats territoriaux d’exploitation (CTE puis des contrats d’agriculture durable (CAD à l’île de la Réunion, nous montrons de quelle manière ces outils ont impulsé les prémices d’une agriculture durable dont nous pensons que les apprentissages sont une composante essentielle. Notre travail s’appuie sur des entretiens avec les acteurs du développement rural, techniciens des organisations de développement notamment. Nous montrons que les apprentissages ont été nombreux tant au niveau individuel que collectif, entre conseillers et agriculteurs et entre conseillers d’organismes différents, et relèvent de nature différente (organisationnelle, sociale ou relationnelle.By studying the trainings produced by the installation of the territorial farm contracts (CTE, Contrat Territorial d’Exploitation then the sustainable agricultural contracts (CAD, Contrat d’Agriculture Durable in the Reunion Island, we proved how they encouraged the first steps of a sustainable agriculture. Our work is based on discussions with the actors of rural development, particularly extension technicians of the organizations of development. We establish that the trainings were numerous as well at the individual level as collective, between advisers and farmers and advisers of different organisms, and that they got different nature, organisational, social as well relational.

  14. Familes en Mutation dans une Societe en Mutation: Actes du Colloque, Bruxelles, 8-10 fevrier, 1992 (Families in Transition in a Society in Transition: Conference Proceedings, Brussels, February 8-10, 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Council of Women.

    This collection of essays on the family includes: "Discours d'ouverture" [Opening Speech] (L. Boeykens); "Transformer la famille, transformer l'homme et la femme, transformer la societe" [Transform the Family, Transform the Man and the Woman, Transform Society] (H. Sokalski); and "Vers un nouveau contrat social. Le role des femmes dans la famille"…

  15. Réunion d'information

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    L’Association change Son image, sa communication, son organisation   Bien préparer la révision quinquennale des conditions d’emploi   Conversion de contrats LD en IC en 2013 6 sur 10 de nos jeunes collègues passeront-ils à la trappe ?

  16. Nouveau webinaire IWRA/CRDI sur les changements climatiques et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 avr. 2018 ... Contrats d'options d'eau pour l'adaptation aux changements climatiques à Santiago (Chili);. • Adaptation aux changements climatiques dans les bassins hydrographiques en voie d'urbanisation rapide: enseignements issues d'une approche tenant compte des préoccupations et des facteurs de stress ...

  17. Résultats de recherche | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'émergence de l'agriculture sous contrat en Algérie. Au cours des dernières décennies, différents types d'ententes contractuelles entre les agriculteurs et les fabricants de produits alimentaires ont gagné en popularité. Projet.

  18. Résultats de recherche | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'émergence de l'agriculture sous contrat en Algérie. Au cours des dernières décennies, différents types d'ententes contractuelles entre les agriculteurs et les fabricants de produits alimentaires ont gagné en popularité.

  19. Résultats de recherche | Page 88 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'émergence de l'agriculture sous contrat en Algérie. Au cours des dernières décennies, différents types d'ententes contractuelles entre les agriculteurs et les fabricants de produits alimentaires ont gagné en popularité. Projet.

  20. Ce que nous faisons | Page 48 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'émergence de l'agriculture sous contrat en Algérie. Au cours des dernières décennies, différents types d'ententes contractuelles entre les agriculteurs et les fabricants de produits alimentaires ont gagné en popularité. Moyen-Orient, Algérie. PROJECT ...

  1. Opération et maintenance ST-EL jusqu'où externaliser en conservant la maîtrise ?

    CERN Document Server

    Cumer, G

    2003-01-01

    Depuis juillet 2001, la totalité des activités d’exploitation et de maintenance ST/EL est désormais réalisée par des contrats d’externalisation. Ces contrats sont étroitement pilotés par un effectif CERN très réduit. Ce document présente l’organisation et le principe de fonctionnement de ces contrats. L’accent est mis sur le contrat E065/ST, en charge de l’exploitation de l’ensemble du réseau électrique. Après un rappel des orientations choisies à l’établissement de ce contrat qui assure l’activité journalière d’opération et maintenance ST/EL/OM, sont présentés les étapes de mise en place, les outils utilisés pour le piloter et en évaluer les performances. L’aspect de la responsabilité est également abordé. L’analyse des résultats obtenus après 20 mois permet de présenter les difficultés rencontrées, d’analyser les bénéfices obtenus et de souligner les méthodes et les moyens nécessaires en personnel CERN pour conserver l’indispensable maîtrise du r...

  2. Assessment of radioactivity of the watershed and the Brest harbour, within the framework of the contract of bay. 1. part: radioecological situation ({gamma} emitters) of the aquatic ecosystems of the watershed and the Brest harbour year 2003; ''Etat des lieux'' de la radioactivite du bassin versant et de la rade de Brest, dans le cadre du contrat de baie. 1. volet: bilan radioecologique (emetteurs {gamma}) des ecosystemes aquatiques du bassin versant et de la rade de Brest annee 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In the marine medium, among living organisms the potassium-40 is the most important, but in sediments it is associated to uranium 238, and thorium 232 that constitute the almost totality of the natural radioactivity. About the concentrations, the content of {sup 40}K does not exceed 427 Bq/kg dry. About the component of sediments it is at least 1000 Bq/kg dry. The sands of beaches have levels very lower ( a factor 5 to 10). Radioisotopes from artificial origin are also detected: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 131}I. {sup 137}Cs is due to the fallout before and after the Chernobylsk accident, {sup 110m}Ag would come from the maintenance of nuclear submarines, {sup 131}I has a medical origin and comes from the wastewater treatments plants. The presence of Ag in salvage oysters has led to study the radiological impact but It emerges that the presence of radioactive silver in oysters has only a very weak impact however it seems essential to deepen this question notably for filtering molluscs as scallops. For freshwater medium the results show that the gamma radioactivity is due to radioisotopes of natural origin. Generally, it is the association of {sup 40}K with elements of the U{sup 238} or Th{sup 232} families that constitutes the essential of the natural radioactivity. Exceptionally the component is reinforced by {sup 235}U family, on this last point it is important to notice the existence in the Ellez river of an atypical situation: the aquatic mosses present significant levels of {sup 235}U family elements ({sup 223}Ra and daughters). No explanation has been found this day. (N.C.)

  3. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by methanation, and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par methanisation, et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (tariffs, energy efficiency incentives, conditions, control, tariffs indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from April 16, 2002, of the approximation rules and some models of certificates are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  4. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by cogeneration facilities and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to energy; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations de cogeneration et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 3 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, tariffing periods and energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (tariffs, energy efficiency incentives, conditions, controls, tariffs indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from July 31, 2001, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). The third part is an additional clause concerning the operation and tariffs of purchase when the cogeneration facility is in a dispatch mode. (J.S.)

  5. Schéma directeur des Systèmes d'information 2012-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Institut National de Recherche Agronomique UAR 0776 Administration du siège

    2012-01-01

    Le schéma directeur des systèmes d’information de l’inra est le premier Schéma directeur dont l’institut se dote dans le champ des systèmes D’information. Il couvre la période 2012‐2016 du contrat d’objectifs Et s’inscrit dans les perspectives scientifiques dressées par le document D’orientation 2010‐2020

  6. La contribution des jeunes à l'alternance politique au Sénégal : Le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a contribution to the research on the role of youth in the .... ils ont contribué sont d'une grande portée, quand on sait combien le « contrat social .... proportion d'urbains dont 19 % de Dakarois et 48,2 % d'entrepreneurs issus des ..... présidentiel » une confirmation de l'intention longtemps prêtée à Abdoulaye ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 9, No 1 (1999), Conception et réalisation d'un système d'aide à la décision pour la gestion des ressources naturelles, Abstract ... Vol 11, No 1 (2001), Contrat de Lecture et Revue Electronique : Quel paradigme éditorial, Abstract ... Vol 12, No 2 (2002), Le Document Web, Lisibilité, Structure et Oculométrie, Abstract.

  8. Existence and Comparability of data sources

    OpenAIRE

    KUHNIMHOF, T; ARMOOGUM, J

    2007-01-01

    The deliverable at hand comprises a comprehensive overview over existing data sources which can be used for analysis of long distance travel demand. This encompasses both national and international data sources with a focus on household travel surveys. Three types of relevant surveys were identified: - National travel surveys with focus on daily mobility - Travel survey elements dedicated to long distance mobility - Long distance travel surveys. RAPPORT DE CONTRAT

  9. KOUAME DIDIER.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    en Afrique de l'Ouest et Centrale. Yamoussoukro : pp 98 - 102. Roseboom J., et Ng Kee Kwong K. F. 2007. Etude de faisabilité d'un programme d'appui à la recherche sucrière en Côte d'Ivoire : diagnostic et proposition d'orientations. ITALTREND en association avec SOPEX,. IAK, HYDRO-RD, MEP, ADAS. Contrat cadre.

  10. Incoterms 2010 ICC rules for the use of domestic and international trade terms

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Les règles Incoterms® définissent les responsabilités des acheteurs et des vendeurs pour la livraison des marchandises dans le cadre d’un contrat de vente. Elles sont les règles officielles afin de déterminer comment les frais et risques sont alloués aux parties. Les règles des Incoterms sont régulièrement insérées au sein de contrats de vente à l’échelle mondiale et sont devenues partie intégrante du langage commercial de tous les jours. download Incoterms® 2010 comportent les règles de l’ICC pour l’utilisation des 11 termes commerciaux des Incoterms. Elles prennent en compte les derniers développements dans la pratique commerciale, mettent à jour et regroupent certaines anciennes règles. Une majorité de contrat de vente fera référence à cette dernière version dans le corps de leur contenu. En complément des 11 règles, cette édition inclut : De nombreuses notes explicatives et des graphiques pour aider les utilisateurs à choisir la règle la plus appropriée pour ...

  11. A matter of degree: the continuing training gap for women in Europe / Caroline Wozny, Martin R. Schneider

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wozny, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Artikli teemaks on soolõhe koolituses Euroopas, täpsemalt naiste väiksem osalemine tööga seotud koolitustes, aluseks 22 riigis (sh Eesti) ajavahemikul 2005-2008 läbi viidud täiskasvanute koolituse uuring

  12. The Rise and Fall of Text on the Web: A Quantitative Study of Web Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciolo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study addresses the following research question: is the use of text on the World Wide Web declining? If so, when did it start declining, and by how much has it declined? Method: Web pages are downloaded from the Internet Archive for the years 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014, producing 600 captures of 100 prominent and…

  13. Dr Tedros Adhanom: New WHO Director General

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... In Ethiopia, he served as the head of the Tigray Regional Health Bureau between 2001 -2003, during which he contributed to a 22.3% reduction in. HIV/AIDS prevalence in the region and 68.5% reduction in Malaria. Under his leadership as the Federal Minister of Health period 2005-2008, the Ethiopian.

  14. In My Own Time: Tuition Fees, Class Time and Student Effort in Non-Formal (Or Continuing) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Thomas; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    We develop and empirically test a model which examines the impact of changes in class time and tuition fees on student effort in the form of private study. The data come from the European Union's Adult Education Survey, conducted over the period 2005-2008. We find, in line with theoretical predictions, that the time students devote to private…

  15. Cost efficiency of waste management in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Hans; van Heezik, A.; Hollanders, D.; Felsö, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the cost efficiency of waste management of Dutch municipalities. For the first time stochastic frontier analysis is applied to Dutch data, employing recent multi-year data (2005-2008). The preliminary findings confirm earlier results on the importance for cost efficiency of

  16. Promoting Distance Education in Higher Education in Cape Verde and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernando; Taju, Gulamo; Canuto, Louisette

    2011-01-01

    Over the past six years, the authors have been project leaders for three distance education initiatives in Cape Verde and Mozambique: (1) a blended learning master's degree in multimedia in education for faculty in Cape Verdean public higher education institutions (2005-2008); (2) a teacher training programme for 1375 elementary teachers provided…

  17. Paneeldiskussioon (fonogrammilt lühendatult) / Ain Heinaru, Rein Vaikmäe, Rein Raud, Hardi Tullus, Urve Lippus, Andres Tali, Martin Zobel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Projekti "Eesti doktoriõppe kvaliteedi, tulemuslikkuse ja jätkusuutlikkuse tagamise süsteem" (2005-2008) II konverentsi "Doktorid Eesti tuleviku arengumootoriks" paneeldiskussioonist, millel arutleti doktoriõppe rahastamise ning doktoriõppe korralduse ja doktorandi juhendamise teemadel

  18. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  19. Valge villa / Karen Jagodin ; kommenteerinud Krista Aren, Emil Urbel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Villa (623 m² + kelder) Merirahu elamurajoonis Tallinnas. Arhitektid: Emil Urbel, Andrus Mark (AB Emil Urbel OÜ). Sisearhitektid: Krista Aren, Mati Veermets. Inseneriosad: AS Meistri Projekt. Haljastaja: Piret Kukk. Projekt: 2005-2008, valmis: 2009. Villa madalamat osa katab murtud pinnaga graniit, kõrgemat valge krohv

  20. Do 'good governance' codes enhance financial accountability? Evidence on managerial pay in Dutch charities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, P.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the initial impact of a 'good governance' code for charitable organisations that was promulgated in the Netherlands in 2005. Data are gathered from publicly available annual reports of 138 charities in the postimplementation phase of the code (2005-2008). We first examine whether

  1. Kuhu kulutame järgmisel aastal 53,1 miljardit krooni?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2005. aasta eelarve eelnõust, eelarve prioriteetidest. Riigi eelarvestrateegia aastateks 2005-2008 näeb ette mitmete aktsiisimaksude tõusu. Diagramm: Kulude maht miljonites kroonides. Kommenteerivad: Margus Tsahkna, Toomas Varek, Eiki Nestor, Liina Tõnisson. Küsimusele 2005. aasta riigieelarve projekti nõrgima lüli kohta vastavad: Andres Lipstok, Vello Tafenau ja Siim Kiisler

  2. Interactive forest governance to conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Dietz, A.J.; Kyereh, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes forest governance and conflict management in the Ghanaian forest sector from the perspective of forest experts. It does so by applying interactive governance theory (Kooiman et al. 2005, 2008) to characterize the governing system in terms of governance modes, actors and elements.

  3. Interactive forest governance for conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Dietz, T.; Kyereh, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes forest governance and conflict management in the Ghanaian forest sector from the perspective of forest experts.1 It does so by applying interactive governance theory (Kooiman et al. 2005, 2008) to characterize the governing system in terms of governance modes, actors and

  4. Team Danmarks støttekoncept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Evaluering af Team Danmarks støttekoncept 2005-2008 med omfattende analyser af Team Danmarks virke, dets støttekoncept og de samarbejdsrelationer med specialforbund, udøvere, politisk valgte ledere, trænere mv., som udmøntningen af støttekonceptet forudsætter. Herunder analyse af...

  5. The Ecology of Hope: Natural Guides to Building a Children and Nature Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Cheryl Charles, Ph.D gave the 2009 Paul F-Brandwein Lecture. The lecture addresses the impact of children's disconnect from the natural world in their everyday lives. Co-founder of the Children & Nature Network (C&NN) with Richard Louv, author of "Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder" (2005/2008), the author…

  6. Rapid increase of observed DIC and pCO(2) in the surface waters of the North Sea in the 2001-2011 decade ascribed to climate change superimposed by biological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clargo, Nicola M.; Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; de Baar, Hein J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The CO2 system in the North Sea over the 2001-2011 decade was investigated using four comprehensive basin-wide datasets covering the late summer periods of 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2011. We find that rises in surface water DIC and pCO(2) exceeded concurrent rises in atmospheric pCO(2), which we

  7. Mesure GPS sur le circuit du LIER à Lyon

    OpenAIRE

    GIRARD, PL; MARAIS, J

    2006-01-01

    Depuis quelques années le guidage immatériel pour les autobus est à l'ordre du jour et la localisation est une des contraintes à son développement. Pour subvenir à ces besoins la solution GPS est envisagée. Cette technologie en devenir comporte énormément d'avantage notamment en terme coût et de maintenance. L'expérimentation faite à Lyon met en évidence les performances maximales pouvant être obtenu en utilisant le GPS. RAPPORT DE CONTRAT

  8. Livrable RFF 1.5 : Plan d'expériences sur LGV

    OpenAIRE

    LORINO, Tristan; BOSQUET, Romain; COIRET, Alex; PRUAL, Jean Marie; VANDANJON, Pierre Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Ce rapport est un livrable de l’Ifsttar à destination de RFF , dans le cadre de leur partenariat commun de recherche intitulé « Améliorer l’efficacité énergie-carbone des investissements ». Ce contrat vise à effectuer des recherches sur l’impact énergétique du tracé ferroviaire. L’objectif est de concevoir des outils permettant de prendre en compte le coût énergétique des différentes étapes du cycle de vie : la construc- tion de l’infrastructure, l’exploita...

  9. Normal Impingement of a Supersonic Jet on a Plane - A Basic Study of Shock-Interference Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    George Xaler, Pail Zone Dr. H. Lew 28i0 Mr. J. W. Paust A . Mkrtallucci W. Daskin J. D. Cresaswell J. pvttu" J. Cor%.nto C. l!arri, F. GCOrge1. 4...NSWC/WOL/TR 75195 low zE ~ 1 WHITE OAK LABORATORY SNORMAL IMPINGEMENT OF A SUPERSONIC JET ON A PLANE - A BASIC STUDY OF SHOCK-INTERFERENCE HEATING...OF THIS PAGE ("oin DomejaE’ored) __________________ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS4 2. OV ACE.~ CONTRAT O0GRN NUMBER~ a NS. P ER OR M I

  10. Fabiola Gianotti (left) and President of CERN Council Agnieszka Zalewska sign Gianotti's contract as the next Director-General of CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    Fabiola Gianotti (left) and President of CERN Council Agnieszka Zalewska sign Gianotti's contract as the next Director-General of CERN. Gianotti's five-year mandate will start on 1 January 2016 (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN) Mme Fabiola Gianotti (à gauche) et la Présidente du Conseil du CERN, Mme Agnieszka Zalewska, signent le contrat de Mme Gianotti, prochaine directrice générale du CERN. Le mandat de cinq ans de Mme Gianotti débutera le 1er janvier 2016 (Image : M Brice)

  11. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  12. Google (encore) encore soupçonné d'abus de position dominante : Observations sur la Communication des griefs de la Commission Européenne du 20 avril 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Mouron , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    National audience; La Commission, dans cette communication du 20 avril 2016, énonce plusieurs griefs à l'encontre de Google, ceux-ci pouvant faire état d’un abus de position dominante :- les contrats passés avec les fabricants d’appareils mobiles subordonneraient l’octroi de licences pour des applications propriétaires (telles que Playstore) à la préinstallation d’autres applications, dont les plus essentielles pour l’utilisation des smartphones et tablettes (Google Search ou Chrome) ;- ces m...

  13. La représentation sociale de la culture de l'Autre : Figures opposées de l'Indien Primitif et du Maghrebin Indépendant chez des élèves de 1ère année d'IUT en situation de problème absurde

    OpenAIRE

    Maffiolo, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Dans le cadre d'une intervention pédagogique, 47 élèves en 1ère année d'IUT sont soumis à un problème absurde de sciences humaines comparant un groupe de Maghrebins et un groupe de Zapotèques. Après avoir présenté les effets quantitatifs en termes de contrat de communication didactique, on propose une analyse qualitative intertextuelle des copies, mettant à jour la production collective d'une double représentation sociale opposant sous forme argumentative l'Indien Primitif au Maghrebin Indépe...

  14. Diseño e implementación de una topología de red de datos con esquema de seguridad perimetral y acceso a internet de alta disponibilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Álvarez Becerra, Sonia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Esta tesis tiene como fin diseñar una topología de red con la seguridad básica necesaria para el funcionamiento de una empresa mediana. Se realizó la instalación de un utm comercial de marca fortinet como plataforma de seguridad perimetral. Se segmentó las redes para poder tener un mejor control de los accesos a cada una de ellas creando una red lan, una red dmz de frontend y una red de backend. Se contrató un proveedor de internet adicional para brindar acceso a internet de alta ...

  15. La Banque Européenne pour la Reconstruction et le Développement (BERD) et les mutations en Europe Centrale et Orientale

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    Contents :"Les pays de l'Est en transition vers l'économie de marché : 1990-1992" by Gérard Wild, "Privatisation en tant que préalable fondamental de la tranformation de l'économie tchèque en économie de marché" by Jan Vit, "Sur les problèmes monétaires" by A. Scannavino, "Le cadre juridique de l'activité économique : sociétés - investissements - privatisations" by Jerzy Rajski, " Le cadre juridique de l'activité économique : contrats et litiges" by Philippe Fouchard and Cestmir Cepelka

  16. Survival after elective surgery for colonic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawid, S K; Hemmingsen, L; Boesby, S

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Total mesorectal excision (TME) has been shown to improve the outcome for patients with rectal cancer. In contrast, there are fewer data on complete mesocolic excision (CME) for colonic cancer. METHOD: Data from the National Colorectal Cancer Database were analysed. This includes about 95......% of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark. Only patients having elective surgery for colonic cancer in the period 2001-2008 were included. Overall and relative survival analyses were carried out. The study period was divided into the periods 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. RESULTS: 9149 patients were...... included for the final analysis. The overall 5-year survival rates were 0.65 in 2001-2004 and 0.66 in 2005-2008. The relative 5-year survival rates were also within 1% of each other. None of these comparisons was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Survival following elective colon cancer surgery has...

  17. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which valorize the domestic wastes or equivalent, at the exception of the installations using biogas, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations qui valorisent des dechets menagers ou assimiles, a l'exception des installations utilisant du biogaz, et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  18. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the mechanical energy of the wind, and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to energy; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie mecanique du vent et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (tariffs, energy efficiency incentives, conditions, control, tariffs indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from June 8, 2001, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  19. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the radiant energy of the sun and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to energy; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie radiative du soleil et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 3 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). The third part is a model of contract for low voltage photovoltaic facilities. (J.S.)

  20. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the energy of aquifers or of underground rocks and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electricity; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie des nappes aquiferes ou des roches souterraines et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  1. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which eliminate the crude or transformed animal wastes, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations qui eliminent des dechets animaux bruts ou transformes, et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  2. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by small facilities with a power lower or equal to 36 kVA and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to energy; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les petites installations d'une puissance inferieure ou egale a 36 KVA et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 3 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and some models of certificates are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). The third part is a model of contract for low voltage facilities. (J.S.)

  3. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which use mainly the energy given by the combustion of non fossil matters of vegetable extraction, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant, a titre principal, l'energie degagee par la combustion de matieres non fossiles d'origine vegetale et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  4. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations using the hydraulic energy of lakes, rivers and seas and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie hydraulique des lacs, cours d'eau et mers et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  5. The evalution of reproduction parametres in chosen herd of sheep

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠOVÁ, Kristýna

    2009-01-01

    It has been observed the breed herd of Texel sheep in the foothills area of Orlické mountains in the year 2005-2008. The base of herd was consisted of 374 ewes, 575 lambs and 6 rams in total. These parametres of reproduction - conception, fertility, rearing, empty ewes, abortions, lambing, stillborn, death after born, were monitored at ewes. For the parametres of reproduction at ewes were found significant effects of ewe´s age and ram´s line.

  6. DISEGUAGLIANZE DEI REDDITI E POVERTA' DELLE FAMIGLIE ATTRAV ERSO DATI AMMINISTRATIVI. UN'INDAGINE LONGITIDINALE NEL COMUNE DI BRESCIA

    OpenAIRE

    COMUNE, MARIA ELENA

    2012-01-01

    In questo studio, attraverso la realizzazione di un’indagine longitudinale basata su dati amministrativi, sono stati ricostruiti i redditi delle famiglie residenti nel comune di Brescia per gli anni 2005-2008, in una prospettiva trasversale e longitudinale, individuando situazioni di disuguaglianza, di disagio e povertà economica di alcune fasce della popolazione. L’indagine longitudinale è stata realizzata mediante il record-linkage tra i dati amministrativi provenienti dall’Anagrafe comunal...

  7. Tumour MHC class I downregulation and immunotherapy (Review)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2003), s. 2005-2008 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA ČR GA301/01/0985; GA AV ČR IAA5052203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : tumour vaccines * MHC class I downregulation Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.256, year: 2003

  8. Corruption in the public and private sector from Romania: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Duțulescu, Silviu; Nișulescu-Ashrafzadeh, Ileana

    2017-01-01

    Corruption is becoming an increasingly acute problem lately for Romania and the authorities are trying to find solutions in this regard. Until now the anti-corruption strategy has undergone four stages, by approving as many sets of anti-corruption strategic documents (National Anti-corruption Strategies in 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2012). In this research, we started from the assumption that there is a correlation between corruption in the public sector and the corruption in the private s...

  9. Policy and Practice in Asian Distance Education | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 nov. 2010 ... Ce livre a été conçu pour l'orientation et la formation de spécialistes des méthodes d'apprentissage ouvert et à distance en Asie. Il est l'aboutissement du projet concerté de recherche et de développement PANdora (2005-2008) auquel participent 24 institutions d'apprentissage ouvert et à distance, ...

  10. Finanční analýza firmy Abner a. s.

    OpenAIRE

    Čížková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of Bachelor thesis is to evaluate the financial health of the company Abner, a. s. during the period of 2005-2008. From the position of an external user I evaluate financial position of the company. The thesis is divided into two individual parts. In the theoretical part are introduced theoretical bases for financial analysis. In the application part I closely look at calculation of particular indexes which I use for the evaluation of the financial situation in analyzed company.

  11. The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Venus, Thomas J.; Wesseler, Justus H H

    2017-01-01

    for farmers in their cultivation decisions, and therefore it is important to measure these costs. In this article, we investigate the costs of different coexistence measures for farmers in Germany. Currently, GM crop cultivation is outlawed in Germany, but there was a short period from 2005-2008 when...... that there are important differences in farm characteristics and overall landscape configuration that influence the costs or burden of coexistence measures....

  12. The impact of cosmetic surgery advertising on Swiss women's body image and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikali, E.-M.; Dittmar, H.; Ayers, S.

    2017-01-01

    International concern has been expressed about advertising for cosmetic surgery (British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons [BAAPS], 2005, 2008). A recent study showed that exposure to such advertising resulted in a more negative body image and attitudes toward surgery among women living in the UK (Ashikali, Dittmar, & Ayers, 2015). This study investigates the impact of cosmetic surgery advertising on women living in Switzerland, a country with relatively little advertising for cosmeti...

  13. Staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimova, N.U.; Malisheva, E.Yu.; Shosafarova, Sh.G.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics. Data on staff radiation exposure obtained during 2005-2008 years was analyzed. It was found that average individual doses of staff of various occupations in Dushanbe city for 2008 year are at 0.29-2.16 mSv range. They are higher than the average health indicators but lower than maximum permissible dose. It was defined that paramedical personnel receives the highest doses among the various categories of staff.

  14. Enquête de satisfaction des restaurants

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Comité de surveillance des restaurants L’Association du personnel est représentée dans plusieurs comités dont le Comité de surveillance des restaurants (CSR) qui a pour mandat : de donner son avis sur toute question relative à la politique générale de l’Organisation en matière de restauration sur le site, y compris en ce qui concerne les termes et l’attribution des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants ; de définir dans le cadre des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants, les prestations correspondant aux besoins et, dans la mesure du possible, aux désirs du personnel ; de surveiller les prestations des restaurants, y compris en ce qui concerne la qualité et la préparation des produits ; de négocier avec les concessionnaires des restaurants au sujet des tarifs et de surveill...

  15. Le Service Accueil et Contrôle d'Accès

    CERN Document Server

    Ducastel, C

    1999-01-01

    L'utilisateur qui vient au CERN pour la première fois, est accueilli généralement par les membres du service 'Accueil et Contrôle d'Accès'. Cet utilisateur sera tout d'abord orienté vers un des postes d'hôtesses d'accueil en charge de l'enregistrement et de la délivrance de cartes CERN. Les informations seront saisies et immédiatement disponibles et transmises, via le système AMS, aux équipements de contrôle d'accès et à la Centrale de Surveillance des accès, chargée de la supervision de tout le dispositif de contrôle d'accès au domaine. Ces contrôles aux entrées et accueil des visiteurs individuels sont complétés par des missions de surveillance à l'intérieur du Domaine pour les agents, et par des travaux de gestions de dossiers administratifs (service enregistrement) pour les hôtesses. Un contrat commun assure une uniformité de formation des agents et hôtesses. Ce contrat est assorti d'une clause de Bonus Malus afin de tendre vers une optimisation des performances.

  16. Os sindicatos brasileiros em face das inovações tecnológicas e organizacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Coutinho Cotanda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on étudie l'action syndicale qui cherche à influencer les processus d'innovation technologique et organisationnelle dans les entreprises. À partir du Système d'Accompagnement des Contrats Collectifs (SACC-Dieese, on a examiné le contenu des clauses et des accords et/ou des conventions collectives qui incident sur les processus d'innovation concernant la période 1990-2005. On a eu des entretiens avec des dirigeants des groupes qui forment le SACC-Dieese afin de savoir les résultats de l'application de ces contrats: ils semblent avoir été peu tangibles puisque l'influence syndicale n'a été qu'"illusoire". On voit que le succès relatif des syndicats dans leur influence sur les innovations technologiques et organisationnelles vient non seulement des contraintes extérieures mais de leurs propres limites d'expression et d'interaction face aux changements techno-organisationnels.

  17. Financial Crisis, openness of the economy and the financial performance of Jordanian listed banks: analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mustafa Abdullah Al Qudah, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of the world financial crisis and openness of the economy on the financial performance of Jordanian listed banks through the period 2005-2008. Panel data analysis is employed to examine study hypotheses. The results showed that the world financial crisis has a negative and significant impact on the financial performance measured by return on assets, return on equity, earning per share, market share prices, and market value while it has a positive but not significant impact on dividend yields. The study also found that openness of the economy has a positive and significant impact on the financial performance of Jordanian listed banks.

  18. Análisis de las formaciones dunares activas de la flecha del Fangar (Delta del Ebro)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Sánchez, M. J.; Montoya, I.; Serra, J.; Moreno, L.; Gracia, F.J.; Muñoz-Perez, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo muestra los trabajos realizados sobre los campos de dunas activas de la Flecha del Fangar al amparo del Proyecto de Investigación “Cuantificación y Contribución del Transporte Eólico en los Procesos Dinámicos y Ambientales en el Delta del Ebro. Aplicación a su Gestión Integrada y a la Conservación de los Ambientes Marginales” (AGITE), concedido por el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia 473 dentro del Plan Nacional de I+D+i (2005-2008). En dicho proyecto se ha po...

  19. Did Legalized Abortion Cut Crime in the Czech Republic?

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovský, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I test with Czech data the hypothesis of Donohue & Levitt (2001) which proposes that the growth of abortion rate lowers the future crime rate. The fixed effects model I use is derived from Donohue & Levitt (2001) and adjusted on the basis of criticism by Foote & Goetz (2005; 2008) and Joyce (2004; 2009a; 2009b). As regards period 1994-2009 the results imply that the rise of abortions by 10 per 100 born children lowers theft by eight percent in an age group after it reaches the...

  20. La situación de la música clásica en España: de la transición a la actualidad

    OpenAIRE

    Larrayoz Iribarren, Amaia

    2016-01-01

    La Sociología de la Música clásica en España es un amplio campo de conocimiento, y lo es en varios sentidos. De una parte, es un objeto de investigación novedoso; y por otro, y como consecuencia de lo anterior, hay pocos investigadores trabajando en la materia, a pesar de que algunos de los grandes sociólogos ya prestaron atención al arte y más específicamente a la música (como Weber (1977), Simmel (2003), Durkheim (2002), Bourdieu (2004, 2005, 2008), etc.). Actualmente, la Sociología de la M...

  1. TRATAMIENTO POR FETOSCOPIA DEL SÍNDROME DE TRANSFUSIÓN FETO FETAL EN CLÍNICA ALEMANA DE SANTIAGO

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto C,Masami; Astudillo D,Julio; Pedraza S,Daniel; Muñoz S,Hernán; Insunza F,Álvaro; Fleiderman D,José; Riveros K,Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes: El síndrome de transfusión feto fetal (STFF) afecta el 15% de los gemelares monocoriales y tiene una mortalidad de 90% cuando se diagnostica antes de las 26 semanas. Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado perinatal mediante fotocoagulación con láser porfetoscopia, de las anastomosis vasculares placentarias en pacientes con STFF. Método: Fotocoagulación láser por fetoscopia de 18 casos de SFF tratados en Clínica Alemana de Santiago entre los años 2005-2008. Resultados: 72,8% de los embar...

  2. 2011-2015 National action plan for the management of radon-related risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After an assessment of the 2005-2008 action plan, this report presents the 2011-2015 plan. It comprises five main axis: the implementation of a policy regarding the management of the radon-related risk in existing dwellings, the implementation of a regulation for new dwellings, the follow-up of the regulation regarding public places and that applicable to workers, the development and the implementation of new management tools for the diagnosis of buildings and works performed by professionals, and the coordination of policy regarding investigation and research. Each axis comprises several actions which are defined and presented. Eight key measures are also defined

  3. Evaluation of Iowa?s anti-bullying law

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Marizen; Ten Eyck, Patrick; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa?s anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Methods Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n?=?253,0...

  4. The Impact of Judicial Reform on Crime Victimization and Trust in Institutions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the impact of judicial reform in Mexico. It does so using a survey about crime victimization and perceptions of insecurity (Encuesta Nacional Sobre la Inseguridad [ENSI]) collected in 2005, 2008, and 2009 in 11 Mexican cities, 3 of which implemented the reform in 2007 and 2008. This analysis shows that judicial reform not only reduces victimization but also lowers perceptions of security. Although we find that judicial reform has a negative effect on trust in the local and federal police, judicial reform reduces the probability of being asked by the transit police for a bribe.

  5. Trends in HIV diagnoses and testing among U.S. adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Walker, Frances; Shah, Daxa; Belle, Eboni

    2012-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine HIV screening in health care settings. Using national surveillance data, we assessed trends in HIV diagnoses and testing frequency in youth aged 13-24 diagnosed with HIV in 2005-2008. Diagnosis rates increased among black (17.0% per year), Hispanic (13.5%), and white males (8.8%), with increases driven by men who have sex with men (MSM). A higher percentage of white males and MSM had previously been tested than their counterparts. No increases in diagnoses or differences in testing were observed among females. Intensified interventions are needed to reduce HIV infections and racial/ethnic disparities.

  6. LES JUGES FRANÇAIS ET LA GESTATION POUR AUTRUI

    OpenAIRE

    Gross , Martine; Brunet , Laurence; Giroux , Michelle

    2018-01-01

    International audience; A la différence du Canada où la gestation pour autrui (GPA) est légale, y compris au Québec même si dans cette province, le contrat de GPA est nul et ne peut avoir de valeur exécutoire (Art. 541 C.c.Q. ; Loi sur la procréation assistée 2004, art. 6 ; Giroux 2011 ; Moore 2013) 1 , en France, le recours à la GPA est strictement prohibé. Malgré cela, des couples hétérosexuels et des couples gays, ont recours à la GPA en se rendant dans les pays où elle est légale. Lorsqu'...

  7. Microstructure of amorphous and crystalline zirconium alloys rapiddly solidified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.; Bezerra, G.H

    1986-01-01

    In this work we report microstructural studies of rapidly solification of Zr-30% at Cu alloy. This composition was chosen because it is the Zr rich limit of glass formation range. The ribbons were prepared by melt spinning system (cooling rate is estimated in 10 6 K/s) and the average thickness of the microscopy were prepared by double jet electropolishing to investigate the microstructure of the ribbon. It was observed amorphos and crystalline regions. In the crystalline regions occured a radial growth morphology with stress contrats. The beginning of solidification is a polimorphous reaction and the shape of the micrograins is similar to spherulitic form. The average diameter of the grains are 0,5 μm or less. (Author) [pt

  8. Trajet entre le réel et la fiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Mauron

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Au départ, il y a un contrat: un trajet en taxi est offert à un habitant de Sao Paulo en contrepartie d’une histoire racontée. C’est l’idée directrice du film, proposée par l’artiste Fabiana de Barros au cinéaste suisse Michel Favre. À l’arrière d’une voiture, se trouve l’artiste qui accueille un passager et qui lui soumet, en guise de support mental, une image que le spectateur ne voit pas. Cette image déclenche la prise de paroles, le trajet peut commencer dans ...

  9. Concesión del monopolio de juegos de apuestas y azar en elvalle del cauca1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Alonso Cifuentes, Ph.D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La Beneficencia del Valle del Cauca (Colombia contrató con el CIENFI de la Universidad Icesi una consultoría que serviría como base para la licitación por la concesión de las apuestas permanentes en cinco zonas del Valle del Cauca. Uno de los resultados fundamentales del estudio era la proyección de las ventas brutas, que se basa, entre otras cosas, en una medida de tendencia central de la inversión en apuestas permanentes (chance de aquí en adelante por persona en el año. En el caso se presenta información relevante para la toma de decisión sobre la medida de tendencia central pertinente para la proyección de las ventas de chance y por lo tanto del valor de la concesión.

  10. Entre plan national et initiative locale, l'émergence d'une gouvernance territoriale des risques professionnels ?

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, Eric; Kornig, Cathel; Mossé, Philippe; Setbon, Michel

    2008-01-01

    A partir du cas des « Réseaux de Veille et de Prévention » des risques professionnels (RVP) mis en place en Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur au début des années 2000 dans le cadre du Contrat de Plan Etat-Région 2000-2006, cette recherche s'est efforcé de comprendre comment s'organisait et innovait l'action publique en matière de prévention des risques professionnels. 1. La difficile marche vers une gouvernance territoriale des risques du travail Reprenant les RVP et adopté dès 2005, le Plan régiona...

  11. Laboratory assessment of the mechanical properties of bituminous mixes recycled in situ with cold bitumen processes

    OpenAIRE

    BROSSEAUD, Y; BEGHIN, A; PLACIN, F; GAUDEFROY, V; DELFOSSE, F; BAENA, J

    2006-01-01

    Dans le cadre du programme SCORE (Superior COld REcycling of asphalt pavements), contrat européen du 5ème PCRD, le LCPC a été le leader de la tache 7, concernant l'évaluation des propriétés mécaniques en laboratoire des enrobés recyclés en place au moyen de liants bitumineux à froid. Préalablement à l'étude, un essai croisé sur la détermination du module par traction indirecte a été entrepris entre les laboratoires impliqués dans cette tach pour évaluer les dispersions tant dans la préparatio...

  12. Post accidental small breaks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, G.; Gandrille, J.

    1980-04-01

    EDF ordered to FRAMATOME by 1977 to complete post accidental long term studies on 'First Contrat-Programme' reactors, in order to demonstrate the safety criteria long term compliance, to get information on NSSS behaviour and to improve the post accidental procedures. Convenient analytical models were needed and EDF and FRAMATOME respectively developped the AXEL and FRARELAP codes. The main results of these studies is that for the smallest breaks, it is possible to manually undertake cooling and pressure reducing actions by dumping the steam generators secondary side in order to meet the RHR operating specifications and perform long term cooling through this system. A specific small breaks procedure was written on this basis. The EDF and FRAMATOME codes are continuously improved; the results of a French set of separate effects experiments will be incorporated as well as integral system verification

  13. INTERFON

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2011-01-01

    Prochaine journée « Portes Ouvertes » Mercredi 30 mars de 16h00 à 20h00 Salle Jean Monnet à St-Genis Au cours de laquelle vous pourrez rencontrer nos partenaires devant un agréable buffet campagnard. Cette traditionnelle journée est ouverte à tous les fonctionnaires internationaux ainsi qu’aux nationaux et territoriaux locaux. Elle a pour but de rencontrer nos partenaires qui, à cette occasion, se mettent à la disposition des visiteurs pour les informer, les conseiller et proposer leurs services. Lors de cette journée, certains vous feront profiter de promotions exceptionnelles tel que : Point S qui sera présent et vous proposera ses pneus d’été avec une remise particulière supplémentaire ce jour là. IRRIJardin proposera des contrats d’entretien de vos piscines avec remise spéc...

  14. Chaînes logistiques et consommation d'énergie : cas du yaourt et du jean

    OpenAIRE

    Rizet , C.; Keita , Basile

    2005-01-01

    Contrat INRETS/ADEME n°: 0203034; Rapport de recherche; Pour analyser l'efficacité énergétique et les émissions de GES des chaînes logistiques, on compare différentes chaînes aboutissant aux mêmes consommateurs. Deux produits sont étudiés : le yaourt, caractéristique de la chaîne du froid et des flux tendus et le blue jean, intégré au marché mondial, tant pour sa matière première principale (le coton) que pour les différentes étapes de sa fabrication. Les chaînes étudiées pour le jean différe...

  15. Plan d'assurance qualité (PAQ): un outil de partenariat

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquali, J

    1998-01-01

    En matière d'assurance qualité, la formalisation du système qualité est nécessaire pour démontrer la conformité par rapport au modèle (ex : ISO 9001, 9002 ou 9003). Dans ce cadre, certains contractants mettent en place un plan d'assurance qualité PAQ destiné à contenir les dispositions spécifiques à l'exécution de leur contrat avec le CERN. Si le PAQ, outil du système qualité du contractant, régit la relation « ST-contractant », il n'en demeure pas moins qu'une définition précise de « ce que ...

  16. Migrations de footballeurs et globalisation: de la théorie du système-monde à une approche relationnelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Poli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Le nombre de footballeurs latino-américains et africains en Europe augmente constamment, représentant près de 20% des joueurs sous contrat avec les clubs des cinq principaux championnats (Allemagne, Angleterre, Espagne, France, Italie. On analyse leur recrutement dans des États à faibles ressources financières vers des pays plus riches à la lumière d’une approche relationnelle. On montre ainsi qu’il ne suffit pas de prendre en compte les critères économiques pour comprendre pleinement la géographie des flux internationaux de footballeurs. L’histoire des relations entre territoires joue un grand rôle dans l’apparition d’opportunités économiques et dans la mise en place de canaux migratoires.

  17. Liquidity Dynamics in the Xetra Order Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidinger, Christoph

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we show how to reconstruct the limit order book of the 30 stocks constituting the DAX30 index based on the trading protocol of the Xetra Trading System at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. The algorithm used is innovative as it captures all trading phases, including auctions, and delivers a reconstruction of the orderbook either from a trader's view or a supervisory view including hidden volume as well. Based on the rebuilt order book, liquidity dynamics are examined. In contrats to findings for dealer markets, past market returns play a minor role in the determination of liquidity and liquidity commonality in Xetra, a pure limit order book market. Consequently, we provide evidence that liquidity provision by multiple sources in Xetra mitigates systemic liquidity risk introduced by the interrelation of return and liquidity.

  18. Mutation d’un cours de biostatistiques : évaluation d’un dispositif d’autoformation sur le Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Vincke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Les biostatistiques représentent une discipline à l’intersection des mathématiques et de la biologie. Son.enseignement.relativement.récent.requiert.encore de nombreux ajustements en vue d’être adapté à son public, généralement peu enclin à la formulation mathématique et très sceptique quant à son utilité. Le dispositif présenté ici expérimente les potentialités du multimédia et l’interactivité du Web 2.0 dans le but de rendre les concepts importants plus abordables et les étudiants plus autonomes. Nous insisterons particulièrement sur les mesures développées pour optimiser l’auto-apprentissage via le Web et sur les modifications du contrat didactique qui en ont découlé.

  19. L'élève: un sujet de l'ordre didactique? Des réponses complémentaires de la Didactique et de l'Ethnométhodologie

    OpenAIRE

    Ravestein , Jean

    1995-01-01

    International audience; Dans l'abord du problème que désigne son titre, cet article voudrait être une mise au clair des principaux concepts développés récemment par la Didactique (en particulier des Sciences et des Mathématiques). Après avoir esquissé son cadre épistémologique, on procède à un examen critique des concepts de transposition, de contrat, et de rapport au savoir. On en désigne certaines limites, et on se propose de les élargir à l'aide des concepts de l'ethnométhodologie, tels qu...

  20. Greek long-term energy consumption prediction using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekonomou, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper artificial neural networks (ANN) are addressed in order the Greek long-term energy consumption to be predicted. The multilayer perceptron model (MLP) has been used for this purpose by testing several possible architectures in order to be selected the one with the best generalizing ability. Actual recorded input and output data that influence long-term energy consumption were used in the training, validation and testing process. The developed ANN model is used for the prediction of 2005-2008, 2010, 2012 and 2015 Greek energy consumption. The produced ANN results for years 2005-2008 were compared with the results produced by a linear regression method, a support vector machine method and with real energy consumption records showing a great accuracy. The proposed approach can be useful in the effective implementation of energy policies, since accurate predictions of energy consumption affect the capital investment, the environmental quality, the revenue analysis, the market research management, while conserve at the same time the supply security. Furthermore it constitutes an accurate tool for the Greek long-term energy consumption prediction problem, which up today has not been faced effectively.

  1. Trends in chronic diseases among the oldest-old in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of several chronic diseases among the oldest-old in China. Data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) of 4 waves collected in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011, filtered to include individuals aged 80 and above. Bivariate and logistic regression methods were used in analyses. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart diseases, stroke/cardiovascular diseases, cancer and dementia, which generally saw an increase across the 4 waves. By contrast, prevalence of Parkinson was not significantly different over the 4 waves. Logistic regression results revealed that since 2002, hypertension had been significantly higher in subsequent waves in 2005, 2008 and 2011. Stroke had also shown significant increase in the 2008 and 2011 waves. Other chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, Parkinson and dementia were only found to be significantly higher in the recent 2011 wave compared to the initial wave in 2002. Arthritis, which initially increased in earlier waves, had dropped significantly in the recent 2011 wave. However, respiratory conditions had been significantly lower since the initial wave in 2002. Generally, findings confirmed the increasing trend of chronic morbidity in recent years among the oldest-old in China. Long life expectancy coupled with chronic morbidity in very late age will duly have societal and economic implications.

  2. Princípios de aprendizagem de jogos eletrônicos: gameficando a aula de línguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodrigues Murta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a aprendizagem propiciada pela experiência com jogos eletrônicos e como professores e escolas poderiam aprender com os jogos que apresentam princípios epistêmicos (SHAFFER et al., 2004. E ainda, apresentar a análise, segundo os princípios de Gee (2005; 2008, de nossa experiência em jogar um jogo comercial. Agameficação(DETERDING, 2011 é um processo que se vem disseminando como estratégia de aprendizagem. Esperamos com esta discussão despertar o interesse de professores para o potencial dos jogos eletrônicos na aprendizagem de línguas e demais conteúdos. Palavras-chave: Jogos eletrônicos.Aprendizagem.Gameficação.   Abstract The aim of this article is to discuss learning afforded by the experience of playing video games and how teachers and schools could learn from games that have epistemic principles (SHAFFER et al., 2004. We also present our experience in a commercial game, according to the principles of Gee (2005; 2008. The gamification (DETERDING, 2011 is a process that has been growing as a learning strategy. We hope that this discussion can draw teacher’s attention to the potential of computer games for language learning and other contents. Keywords: Video games.Learning.Gamification.

  3. [Technical efficiency of traditional hospitals and public enterprises in Andalusia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Tabanera, Luis; Martín Martín, José Jesús; López del Amo González, Ma del Puerto

    2015-01-01

    To assess the technical efficiency of traditional public hospitals without their own legal identity and subject to administrative law, and that of public enterprise hospitals, with their own legal identities and partly governed by private law, all of them belonging to the taxypayer-funded health system of Andalusia during the period 2005 -2008. The study included the 32 publicly-owned hospitals in Andalusia during the period 2005-2008. The method consisted of two stages. In the first stage, the indices of technical efficiency of the hospitals were calculated using Data Envelopment Analysis, and the change in total factor productivity was estimated using the Malmquist index. The results were compared according to perceived quality, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted through an auxiliary model and bootstrapping. In the second stage, a bivariate analysis was performed between hospital efficiency and organization type. Public enterprises were more efficient than traditional hospitals (on average by over 10%) in each of the study years. Nevertheless, a process of convergence was observed between the two types of organizations because, while the efficiency of traditional hospitals increased slightly (by 0.50%) over the study period, the performance of public enterprises declined by over 2%. The possible reasons for the greater efficiency of public enterprises include their greater budgetary and employment flexibility. However, the convergence process observed points to a process of mutual learning that is not necessarily efficient. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Remplacer l’Etat ? Promotion et réseaux des Partenariats Public-Privé en France Replacing the State, or promoting public-private partnerships and networks in France ¿Sustituir al Estado ? Promoción y redes de colaboraciones entre los sectores público y privado en Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Penalva-Icher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis sa création en 2004, le Contrat de partenariat a été promu comme une innovation managériale majeure dans la gestion de l’interface entre secteur public et privé, qui plus est encouragé par les pouvoirs publics car il représenterait la forme idéal-typique des Partenariats Public-Privé (PPP, eux-mêmes généralement présentés comme des outils pour améliorer l’efficacité économique des projets publics. Cette nouvelle forme de contrat appelée « Contrat de partenariat », passée entre personne publique et secteur privé, tisse des relations de très long terme (jusqu’à trente ans entre personne publique et différents types d’acteurs privés pour la construction, l’entretien, la maintenance, mais également le financement de bâtiments publics. Dans cet article, nous interrogeons la portée de ces contrats de partenariat. Plus qu’une innovation technique, ils prônent une nouvelle mise en relation des secteurs privé et public. À travers la description des réseaux du milieu des PPP en France, nous examinons l’encastrement relationnel des affaires qui participe à ce nouveau mode de mise en relation des secteurs public et privé et nous en analysons les structures. Le projet des PPP semble surtout revêtir une portée institutionnelle car les nouvelles structures relationnelles liées aux contrats de partenariat aboutissent à laisser une place centrale à la banque.Ever since it was introduced in France in 2004, the “Partnership Contract” has been promoted as a very innovative way of managing the interface between public and private sectors. Encouraged by government because it was supposed to represent an ideal-type, Public-Private Partnerships (PPP are generally designed as tools aimed at improving the economic efficiency of public projects. This new kind of contract, called the “Partnership Contract” is signed between different private sector actors and the state authority. It enables long

  5. From Virtue Ethics to Virtuous Corporation - Putting Virtues into Business Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the theory of virtue ethics in its application in the business arena. In contrast to other ethics approaches, virtue theory emphasises the virtues and moral characters of the individual as moral agent. As such, the theory of virtue ethics provides a useful perspective in making sense of various business ethics issues through placing an emphasis on the moral character of the individuals, and its transformational influences in driving ethical business conduct. Drawing from van Marrewijk's (2003 theory of agency and communion in understanding the corporate sustainability value systems, as well as Moore's (2002, 2005 & 2008 conceptualisation of Alasdair MacIntyre's philosophical approach to ethics, the paper presents a theoretical framework that seeks to explain how individuals, as moral agents, can serve to promote virtuous business conduct and help foster a moral and ethical climate in the organisation as well as society at large.

  6. A westward extension of the tropical Pacific warm pool leads to March through June drying in Kenya and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.

  7. Towards climate justice: how do the most vulnerable weigh environment-economy trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Katrina

    2015-03-01

    The world's poor are especially vulnerable to environmental disasters, including the adverse consequences of climate change. This creates a challenge for climate justice advocates who seek to ensure that those least responsible for causing climate change do not bear unwanted burdens of mitigation. One way to promote climate justice could be to pay particular attention to the environmental policy preferences of citizens from poorer, lower-emitting countries. This paper examines opinions on environment-economy trade-offs and willingness to make personal financial contributions to protect the environment among residents of 42 developed and developing countries using data from the 2005-2008 World Values Survey, the 2010 Climate Risk Index, and World Bank development indicators. Results reveal that individuals in developing countries are less likely to support policies to prioritize environmental protection over economic growth but are more willing to donate personal income for pro-environmental efforts compared to citizens of more developed nations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  9. Redefining the Poet as Healer: Valerie Gillies's Collaborative Role in the Edinburgh Marie Curie Hospice Quiet Room Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the poetic contribution of Valerie Gillies, Edinburgh Makar (or poet of the city) from 2005-2008, to the Edinburgh Marie Curie Hospice Quiet Room, a new contemplation space for patients, families, and staff. In collaboration with others, Gillies created a transitional space for the Quiet Room, centered on the display of her sonnet, "A Place Apart." This space functions to comfort visitors to the Quiet Room by relocating them in their surroundings and offering the solace provided by nature and history. With this project, her first as Edinburgh Makar, Gillies redefines the role of the poet as healer and advocates for newer forms of palliative care that focus on patients' spiritual and emotional, as well as physical, wellbeing.

  10. Hospital and Health Insurance Markets Concentration and Inpatient Hospital Transaction Prices in the U.S. Health Care Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauda, Seidu

    2018-04-01

    To examine the effects of hospital and insurer markets concentration on transaction prices for inpatient hospital services. Measures of hospital and insurer markets concentration derived from American Hospital Association and HealthLeaders-InterStudy data are linked to 2005-2008 inpatient administrative data from Truven Health MarketScan Databases. Uses a reduced-form price equation, controlling for cost and demand shifters and accounting for possible endogeneity of market concentration using instrumental variables (IV) technique. The findings suggest that greater hospital concentration raises prices, whereas greater insurer concentration depresses prices. A hypothetical merger between two of five equally sized hospitals is estimated to increase hospital prices by about 9 percent (p costs. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Healing notes: singing for well-being in an African bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta van As

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, Dr Steve Booysen - then Group Chief Executive of the Absa Group - initiated an internal choir festival as a platform for social interaction and teambuilding of staff across all cultures, age groups and post levels in the bank. Towards the end of 2005, based on the widely held perception that the effects of the project had exceeded all expectations, it was decided to repeat the initiative, which has since become an annual event. To date, Absa has invested, and continues to invest, millions of rands in their choir project - confirmation that choir participation offers valuable benefits to the ordinary employee. This paper uses data from an investigation into the ‘extra-musical benefits of this project to reflect on the value of the 2005-2008 Absa choir project for building social capital and strengthening individuals’ sense of coherence (SOC through singing together.

  12. The long term tsunami impact: Evolution of iron speciation and major elements concentration in tsunami deposits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lidia; Niedzielski, Przemyslaw

    2017-08-01

    The article describes the unique studies of the chemical composition changes of new geological object (tsunami deposits in south Thailand - Andaman Sea Coast) during four years (2005-2008) from the beginning of formation of it (deposition of tsunami transported material, 26 December 2004). The chemical composition of the acid leachable fraction of the tsunami deposits has been studied in the scope of concentration macrocompounds - concentration of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and iron speciation - the occurrence of Fe(II), Fe(III) and non-ionic iron species described as complexed iron (Fe complex). The changes of chemical composition and iron speciation in the acid leachable fraction of tsunami deposits have been observed with not clear tendencies of changes direction. For iron speciation changes the transformation of the Fe complex to Fe(III) has been recorded with no significant changes of the level of Fe(II). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HeatBar Final Report 2010, Basement Heat Generation and Heat Flow in the western Barents Sea - importance for hydrocarbon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Christophe; Balling, Niels; Barrere, Cecile; Davidsen, Boerre; Ebbing, Joerg; Elvebakk, Harald; Mesli, Melani; Roberts, David; Slagstad, Trond; Willemoes-Wissing, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    The HeatBar project aimed to determine the relative proportion of heat originating in the basement of the western Barents Sea and, as such, followed the methodologies and scientific approach developed in the course of the 2005-2008 Kontiki Project. We proposed to shed new lights on the thermal state of the basins of the western Barents Sea by (1) determining the heat flow and the relative content in heat-producing elements of the basement onshore northern Norway, (2) building 3D structural models of the basement offshore based on extensive geophysical information and (3) building 3D thermal models of the basins offshore. The present report summarizes the work accomplished in the framework of the project since 2006.(Au)

  14. Vanadium levels in marine organisms of Onagawa Bay in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Suzuki, H.; Saito, K.; Chatt, A.

    2009-01-01

    Vanadium in marine organisms from Onagawa Bay in Miyagi, Japan, was determined by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method using anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facility in Canada. Seaweeds, cultivated oysters, plankton, and four different species of sea squirt were collected from Onagawa Bay during 2005-2008. Vanadium levels around 20 μg g -1 (dry weight) were found in Japanese tangle and hijiki seaweeds. One species of sea squirt (Ciona savignyi) contained 160-500 ppm of V and it was highest among the four species of sea squirts studied. Protein-bound V species were separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the element determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). (author)

  15. Reperfusion delay in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel M; Sejersten, Maria; Hvelplund, Anders

    2012-01-01

    identification number to emergency medical services (EMS) and National Board of Health databases in the period of 2005-2008. Patients were stratified according to transfer distances to PPCI into zone 1 (0-25 km), zone 2 (65-100 km) and zone 3 (101-185 km) and according to referral by pre-hospital triage. System...... the local hospital (219 (171-250)). System delay was an independent predictor of mortality (ppatients. PCI-related delay exceeded European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for patients living >100 km away and for non-directly referred......BACKGROUND: Reperfusion delay in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) predicts adverse outcome. We evaluated time from alarm call (system delay) and time from first medical contact (PCI-related delay), where fibrinolysis could be initiated, to balloon inflation in a pre...

  16. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: an application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Daniel J; Porter, Mason A; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F; Jones, Nick S

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis.

  17. Objective confirmation of subjective measures of human well-being: evidence from the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Andrew J; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-29

    A huge research literature, across the behavioral and social sciences, uses information on individuals' subjective well-being. These are responses to questions--asked by survey interviewers or medical personnel--such as, "How happy do you feel on a scale from 1 to 4?" Yet there is little scientific evidence that such data are meaningful. This study examines a 2005-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System random sample of 1.3 million U.S. citizens. Life satisfaction in each U.S. state is measured. Across America, people's answers trace out the same pattern of quality of life as previously estimated, from solely nonsubjective data, in one branch of economics (so-called "compensating differentials" neoclassical theory, originally from Adam Smith). There is a state-by-state match (r = 0.6, P < 0.001) between subjective and objective well-being. This result has some potential to help to unify disciplines.

  18. Danish children born to parents with lower levels of education are more likely to become overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Stockmarr, Anders; Fagt, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    than fathers and their educational level was inversely associated with their child being overweight, especially if it was a boy. However, the highest educational level of the parents was the only significant educational variable, suggesting that education was associated with overweight children......AIM: Little is known about whether the socio-economic status of parents is linked to their children becoming overweight. This study examined the association between parents' educational level and overweight Danish children in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Body mass index...... was calculated for a random sample of 512 children aged from four to 14 from the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. Their parents provided weight and height data during an interview, together with details of their own educational level. Children were classified as overweight...

  19. Mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic and cognitive effects of developmental methamphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Sarah A; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2016-06-01

    Methamphetamine exposure in utero leads to a variety of higher-order cognitive deficits, such as decreased attention and working, and spatial memory impairments in exposed children (Piper et al., 2011; Roussotte et al., 2011; Kiblawi et al., 2011). As with other teratogens, the timing of methamphetamine exposure greatly determines its effects on both neuroanatomical and behavioral outcomes. Methamphetamine exposure in rodents during the third trimester human equivalent period of brain development results in distinct and long-lasting route-based and spatial navigation deficits (Williams et al., 2003; Vorhees et al., 2005, 2008, 2009;). Here, we examine the impact of neonatal methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity on behavioral outcomes, neurotransmission, receptor changes, plasticity proteins, and DNA damage. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:131-141, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reproduction of European Eel in Aquaculture (REEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Tybjerg, Lars; Støttrup, Josianne

    for the development of methods to reproduce European eel in aquaculture. Two major projects: Artificial Reproduction of Eels II and III (ROE II and III) succeeded during 2005-2008 to produce viable eggs and larvae that lived up to 12 days. The larvae thereby accomplished the yolk-sac stage and became ready to start...... feeding. The results were in particular promising because they evidenced that methods successfully applied to Japanese eel has a potential for application also to the European eel. ROE II and III were supported by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and the European Commission through...... the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG) and the Danish Food Research Program 2006, respectively. Results: The REEL project accomplished through three series of experiments to consolidate previous results. The longevity of larvae was extended from 12 to 20 days after hatch in first feeding...

  1. Hovdabrekka Project II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Hovdabrekka group is a group of nordic researchers doing survey studies of Nordic journalism schools (2005,2008). This site is dedicated to information from this project. The current members are: Norway: Rune Ottosen,Gunn Bjørnsen and Jan Fredrik Hovden Sweden: Jenny Wiik Denmark: Ida Willig...... and Jannie Møller Hartley. Finland: Henrika Zilliacus-Tikkanen and Raimo Solokangas Former members: Jan Dyberg and Hanne Jørndrup (Denmark), Marina Ghersetti (Sweden) Project Hovdabrekka originated at the Nordic conference for journalist teachers at Hovdabrekka, Iceland September 2004, where a small group...... of scientists/lecturers assembled with a desire to do a comparative quantitative study of students at Nordic journalism schools. Until very recently, there existed little systematic knowledge on the students of journalism in the Nordic countries. For these reasons, the Hovdabrekka group planned and sent out...

  2. Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Bridget A.

    School reform programs focus on making educational changes; however, research on interventions past the funded implementation phase to determine what was sustained is rarely done (Beery, Senter, Cheadle, Greenwald, Pearson, et al., 2005). This study adds to the research on sustainability by determining what instructional practices, if any, of the Teaching SMARTRTM professional development program that was implemented from 2005--2008 in elementary schools with teachers in grades third through eighth were continued, discontinued, or adapted five years post-implementation (in 2013). Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: What do teachers who participated in Teaching SMARTRTM and district administrators share about the sustainability of Teaching SMARTRTM practices in 2013? What teaching strategies do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use in their science classrooms five years postimplementation (2013)? What perceptions about the roles of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) have five years later (2013)? And, What classroom management techniques do the teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use five years post implementation (2013)? A mixed method approach was used to answer these questions. Quantitative teacher survey data from 23 teachers who participated in 2008 and 2013 were analyzed in SAS v. 9.3. Descriptive statistics were reported and paired t-tests were conducted to determine mean differences by survey factors identified from an exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and parallel analysis conducted with teacher survey baseline data (2005). Individual teacher change scores (2008 and 2013) for identified factors were computed using the Reliable Change Index statistic. Qualitative data consisted of interviews with two district administrators and three teachers who responded to the survey in both

  3. La concertación social en Andalucía, 1983-2008. Institucionalización y resultados

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Mosquera, Marcial

    2012-01-01

    La importancia estratégica de la concertación social en la política económica de la Junta de Andalucía ha sido creciente. El VI Acuerdo de Concertación Social, último ejecutado en su integridad, comprometió para 2005-2008 una inversión pública, contabilizada en fase de obligaciones reconocidas, de 11.509,41 millones de euros, el 45,40% del total de gasto consolidado de inversión de los presupues tos iniciales de la Junta de Andalucía para ese periodo. La estabilidad y recurrencia de la conc...

  4. Las tecnologías de organización de las TICS para el desarrollo (ICT4D), más allá del éxito y el fracaso : el caso de Infodesarrollo en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Becerra, Javier Andrés

    2012-01-01

    La Red Ecuatoriana de Información y Comunicación para el Desarrollo (Infodesarrollo), desde su inicio, fue considerada como una de las experiencias más exitosas de América Latina en el campo de las tecnologías de información y comunicación (TICS)1 para el desarrollo, así como un actor fundamental de las políticas públicas, en este tema, en Ecuador por 4 años (2005 -2008). Sin embargo, al finalizar el 2009 había desparecido del escenario de las políticas públicas en Ecuador y su continuidad...

  5. Long-term monitoring of Sgr A* at 7 mm with VERA and KaVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, K.; Kino, M.; Sohn, B.; Lee, S.; Trippe, S.; Honma, M.

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of radio monitoring observations of Sgr A* at 7 mm (i.e. 43 GHz) with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), which is a VLBI array in Japan. VERA provides angular resolution on millisecond scales, resolving structures within 100 Schwarzschild radii of Sgr A* , similar to the Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA). We performed multi-epoch observations of Sgr A* in 2005 - 2008, and started monitoring it again with VERA from 2013 January to trace the current G2 encounter event. Our preliminary results in 2013 show that Sgr A* on mas scales has been in an ordinary state as of August 2013, although some fraction of the G2 cloud already passed the pericenter of Sgr A* in April 2013. We will continue monitoring Sgr A* with VERA and the newly developed KaVA (KVN and VERA Array).

  6. Health status and 6 years survival of 552 90+ Italian sib-ships recruited within the EU Project GEHA (GEnetics of Healthy Ageing)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cevenini, E; Cotichini, R; Stazi, M A

    2014-01-01

    In a scenario of increasing life expectancy worldwide, it is mandatory to identify the characteristics of a healthy aging phenotype, including survival predictors, and to disentangle those related to environment/lifestyle versus those related to familiarity/genetics. To this aim we comprehensively...... characterised a cohort of 1,160 Italian subjects of 90 years and over (90+, mean age 93 years; age range 90-106 years) followed for 6 years survival, belonging to 552 sib-ships (familiar longevity) recruited (2005-2008) within the EU-funded GEHA project in three Italian geographic areas (Northern, Central...... emerged, such as functional and physical status being more important in Southern than in Central and Northern Italy. In conclusion, we identified modifiable survival predictors related to specific domains, whose role and importance vary according to the geographic area considered and which can help...

  7. National action plan 2011-2015 for the management of the radon-related risk. Assessment of the National action plan 2011-2015 for the management of the radon-related risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grall, Jean-Yves; Crepon, Etienne; Combrexelle, Jean-Denis; Niel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    After a presentation of the context, and a brief assessment of the previous national action plan (2005-2008), a first report presents the second national action plan for 2011-2015 with its 8 main axes (implementation of a policy for the management of radon-related risk in existing dwellings, implementation of a regulation for new dwellings, follow-up of the regulation for buildings open to public and of the regulations applied to workers, development of new management tools and of a new operational device to perform building diagnosis and to perform works by building professionals, coordination of the study and research policy) and its 8 main measures. After a synthetic presentation of actions, 30 sheets present the different actions associated with each axis. A second report proposes an assessment of these 30 actions

  8. PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK DEWAN DIREKSI TERHADAP PENGUKURAN KINERJA BANK DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Muchtar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the effect of Characteristics of The Board of towar Directors s Bank Performance. This research was used are 19 banking firm which listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2005-2008. Independent variables from this research are board size and Outside Director. Dependent variables are bank performance which include Net Interest Margin (NIM, Return On Asset (ROA, Return On Equity(ROE and Efficiency Ratio. Control Variables are Size, Risk and Capital Ratio. The analysis method was used are multiple regression analysis. The result from this research shows that Board Size did not has related to bank performance. Outsiders has related to bank performance. Keywords: Board Size, Outside Director, Net Interest Margin (NIM, Return On Asset (ROA, Return On Equity(ROE and Efficiency Ratio

  9. Panorama 2011: Refining: varying conditions by region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis has further weakened a sector that was already facing difficulties, if we look beyond the flush period (2005-2008) when, buoyed by strong demand, margins remained high and refiners could generate profits while maintaining a healthy level of activity. Falling demand and increased over-capacity in some regions - the immediate consequences of the deteriorating economic conditions over the past two years - have led to declining margins and to financial accounts being in the red. The adoption of increasingly stringent emissions standards and product specifications, burdensome regulatory requirements for refineries (for combating local pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions), stiffer competition from new fuels: all of these structural factors are weakening the sector, especially in industrialized nations with their more rigorous regulatory compliance. In this generally gloomy climate, numerous new projects are still being envisaged - although many have recently been postponed and tend to be concentrated in developing countries. (author)

  10. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances...... in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. METHODS: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis....... RESULTS: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high...

  11. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: An application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S.

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis.

  12. Health services for Buruli ulcer control: lessons from a field study in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy M Ackumey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, is a debilitating disease of the skin and underlying tissue. The first phase of a BU prevention and treatment programme (BUPaT was initiated from 2005-2008, in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Ghana to increase access to BU treatment and to improve early case detection and case management. This paper assesses achievements of the BUPaT programme and lessons learnt. It also considers the impact of the programme on broader interests of the health system. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach included patients' records review, review of programme reports, a stakeholder forum, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, clinic visits and observations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Extensive collaboration existed across all levels, (national, municipality, and community, thus strengthening the health system. The programme enhanced capacities of all stakeholders in various aspects of health services delivery and demonstrated the importance of health education and community-based surveillance to create awareness and encourage early treatment. A patient database was also created using recommended World Health Organisation (WHO forms which showed that 297 patients were treated from 2005-2008. The proportion of patients requiring only antibiotic treatment, introduced in the course of the programme, was highest in the last year (35.4% in the first, 23.5% in the second and 42.5% in the third year. Early antibiotic treatment prevented recurrences which was consistent with programme aims. CONCLUSIONS: To improve early case management of BU, strengthening existing clinics to increase access to antibiotic therapy is critical. Intensifying health education and surveillance would ultimately increase early reporting and treatment for all cases. Further research is needed to explain the role of environmental factors for BU contagion. Programme strategies reported in our study: collaboration

  13. The Unique OMI HCHO/NO2 Feature During the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics: Implications for Ozone Production Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Retscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    In preparation of the Beijing Summer Olympic and Paralympics Games, strict controls were imposed between July and September 2008 on motor vehicle traffic and industrial emissions to improve air quality for the competitors. We assessed chemical sensitivity of ozone production to these controls using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), where their ratio serves as a proxy for the sensitivity. During the emission controls, HCHO/NO2 increased and indicated a NOx-limited regime, in contrast to the same period in the preceding three years when the ratio indicates volatile organic carbon (VOC)-limited and mixed NOx-VOC-limited regimes. After the emission controls were lifted, observed NO2 and HCHO/NO2 returned to their previous values. The 2005-2008 OMI record shows that this transition in regimes was unique as ozone production in Beijing was rarely NOx-limited. OMI measured summertime increases in HCHO of around 13% in 2008 compared to prior years, the same time period during which MODIS vegetation indices increased. The OMI HCHO increase may be due to higher biogenic emissions of HCHO precursors, associated with Beijing's greening initiative for the Olympics. However, NO2 and HCHO were also found to be well-correlated during the summer months. This indicates an anthropogenic VOC contribution from vehicle emissions to OMI HCHO and is a plausible explanation for the relative HCHO minimum observed in August 2008, concurrent with a minimum in traffic emissions. We calculated positive trends in 2005-2008 OMI HCHO and NO2 of about +1 x 10(exp 14) Molec/ square M-2 and +3 x 10(exp 13) molec CM-2 per month, respectively. The positive trend in NO2 may be an indicator of increasing vehicular traffic since 2005, while the positive trend in HCHO may be due to a combined increase in anthropogenic and biogenic emissions since 2005.

  14. [THE RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT LOAN PROJECT "PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND AIDS", A "TUBERCULOSIS" COMPONENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.

  15. Hospitalisations and costs relating to ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, A

    2012-03-08

    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are conditions for which the provision of timely and effective outpatient care can reduce the risks of hospitalisation by preventing, controlling or managing a chronic disease or condition. AIMS: The aims of this study were to report on ACSCs in Ireland, and to provide a baseline for future reference. METHODS: Using HIPE, via Health Atlas Ireland, inpatient discharges classified as ACSCs using definitions from the Victorian ACSC study were extracted for the years 2005-2008. Direct methods of standardisation allowed comparison of rates using the EU standard population as a comparison for national data, and national population as comparison for county data. Costs were estimated using diagnosis-related groups. RESULTS: The directly age-standardised discharge rate for ACSC-related discharges increased slightly, but non-significantly, from 15.40 per 1,000 population in 2005 to 15.75 per 1,000 population in 2008. The number of discharges increased (9.5%) from 63,619 in 2005 to 69,664 in 2008, with the estimated associated hospital costs increasing (31.5%) from 267.8 million in 2005 to 352.2 million in 2008. Across the country, there was considerable variation in the discharge rates for the Top-10 ACSCs for the years 2005-2008. Significantly lower rates of hospitalisation were observed in more urban areas including Cork, Dublin and Galway. The most common ACSC in 2008 was diabetes with complications (29.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The variation in rates observed indicates the scope of reducing hospitalisations and associated costs for ACSCs, across both adult\\'s and children\\'s services and particularly in relation to diabetes complications.

  16. Aplicação da Lei Maria da Penha nas delegacias de mulheres: O caso do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Abdala

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a trajetória das queixas de violência conjugal prestadas por mulheres em cinco DEAMs do estado do Rio de Janeiro. São discutidos: o número de queixas realizadas e efetivamente transformadas em registros de ocorrência no período de 2005-2008; os diversos obstáculos encontrados pelas mulheres para tornar públicos os maus-tratos que sofrem e o impacto da sanção da Lei Maria da Penha no número de registros de ocorrência nessas delegacias. O estudo mostrou o risco que ainda hoje uma mulher corre quando decide denunciar a violência. Buscou-se também destacar o quanto à violência psicológica contra a mulher é naturalizada nas delegacias.  The article Application of the Maria da Penha Law at Police Stations for Women in Rio de Janeiro reviews the history of complaints of domestic violence reported by women in five DEAMs (special police stations for women in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The study investigates the number of complaints made and effectively transformed into reports in the period 2005-2008, the various obstacles faced by women to make known the abuse they suffer and the impact of the sanctioning of the Maria da Penha Act on the number those reports. The study demonstrates the risk that women still run when they decide to report violence and the extent to which psychological abuse against women is naturalized in the police stations. Key words: domestic violence, complaints, Maria da Penha Act, Rio de Janeiro, police stations for women

  17. Productivity of a plantation of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis var. Altilis initiated green seedlings over four growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castagnino, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are two initiation systems for an asparagus crop, i.e. by means of crowns and by means of seedlings, only the former allows the initiation of the definitive plantation in the first year. In order to determine the incidence of the seedling size throughout the first six years since planting, a trial was started on august 21, 2002, with three cell sizes: PG: big, PM: medium and PCH: small (70, 50 and 20 cm3 respectively and two densities: D1:35,714 and D2: 17,857 pl.ha-1, using the hybrid UC-157 and evaluating its productivity in the period 2005- 2008. Fresh weight per harvest (PFC and total annual fresh weight per ha (PFT, number of turions per harvest (NTC and per ha (NT and average weight per turion (PPT were determined. The PTF 2005-2008 was 26.300 Kg ha-1 and NT, with an annual average of 6,575 Kg ha-1 and 480,180 turions, respectively. NT showed a growing tendency throughout the whole period. Whereas, while the PFT grew in 2005-2007, it decreased in 2008 due to lower PPT, caused possibly by intra-specific competition. PM allowed a greater yield PFC: 343 Kg ha-1. The PPT turned out to be similar to that in 2005-2007, however it decreased in 2008. D1 obtained the maximum yield throughout the whole period. It can be concluded that when the aim is to obtain high initial productivity, it would be advisable to use seedlings of good size. Besides, the choice of density is an important factor due to the fact that there seems to be a direct relationship between the planting frame used and the obtained productivity.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edidin, Avram A; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Schmier, Jordana K; Kemner, Jason E; Kurtz, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) can be treated by nonsurgical management or by minimally invasive surgical treatment including vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the cost to Medicare for treating VCF-diagnosed patients by nonsurgical management, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty. We hypothesized that surgical treatments for VCFs using vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty would be a cost-effective alternative to nonsurgical management for the Medicare patient population. Cost per life-year gained for VCF patients in the US Medicare population was compared between operated (kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty) and non-operated patients and between kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty patients, all as a function of patient age and gender. Life expectancy was estimated using a parametric Weibull survival model (adjusted for comorbidities) for 858 978 VCF patients in the 100% Medicare dataset (2005-2008). Median payer costs were identified for each treatment group for up to 3 years following VCF diagnosis, based on 67 018 VCF patients in the 5% Medicare dataset (2005-2008). A discount rate of 3% was used for the base case in the cost-effectiveness analysis, with 0% and 5% discount rates used in sensitivity analyses. After accounting for the differences in median costs and using a discount rate of 3%, the cost per life-year gained for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty patients ranged from $US1863 to $US6687 and from $US2452 to $US13 543, respectively, compared with non-operated patients. The cost per life-year gained for kyphoplasty compared with vertebroplasty ranged from -$US4878 (cost saving) to $US2763. Among patients for whom surgical treatment was indicated, kyphoplasty was found to be cost effective, and perhaps even cost saving, compared with vertebroplasty. Even for the oldest patients (85 years of age and older), both interventions would be considered cost effective in terms of cost per life-year gained.

  19. Outils numériques nomades : les effets sur l’attention des étudiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guichon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La recherche sur le numérique en éducation est parvenue à une étape où peut être dressé un portrait plus nuancé des usages des outils numériques en contexte d’apprentissage. S’inscrivant dans une perspective sociocritique (Selwyn, 2007, cet article vise à apprécier les effets éventuellement négatifs résultant de l’utilisation des outils numériques nomades pendant le face-à-face didactique. Une enquête par questionnaire a été conduite auprès d’un échantillon d’étudiants internationaux (n=227 poursuivant leurs études dans un Centre de Langues en France. Cette recherche a permis d’examiner leurs habitudes de connexion en mettant au jour la fréquence et la motivation d’utilisation d’outils numériques pendant et hors le face-à-face avec leurs enseignants. Elle a également donné l’occasion de saisir l’impact ressenti de l’utilisation des outils numériques en classe par les participants sur leur attention. Les résultats de cette recherche permettent, in fine, d’examiner de quelle façon le contrat didactique est questionné par l’usage des outils numériques nomades.

  20. Microempresas del sector formal de comercio en Cuernavaca, Morelos, y contratación del capital humano (2000-2006. El aprovechamiento del régimen del riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dautrey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las transformaciones del entorno, como la apertura comercial y la difusión de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación (TIC pueden explicar las prácticas nuevas de contratación en las microempresas del sector formal de comercio, el más dinámico en la zona metropolitana de Cuernavaca, capital del estado de Morelos. ¿Cuál es entonces e nivel educativo que requiere el capital humano para ser contratado?, ¿son la competencia comercial y el uso de la informática los únicos factores explicativos de dichas prácticas? De hecho, la extensión del régimen del riesgo global, esto es, el incremento de la precariedad laboral y del desempleo hace que se contrate a personas que sean "empleables" de inmediato, y que parte de la capacitación en el trabajo sea externa, limitándola así a ciertas categorías de trabajadores.

  1. dātu ša šarri. La « loi du roi »dans la Babylonie achéménide et séleucide dātu ša šarri, The “Law of the King” in Achaemenid and Seleucid Babylonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Démare-Lafont

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine le champ sémantique de l’expression dātu ša šarri, « loi du roi », formée sur un terme d’origine vieux-perse (data. La dizaine d’occurrences d’époques achéménide et séleucide montre que la « loi du roi »désigne un mode d’élaboration de la norme issu de la pratique judiciaire du souverain, progressivement compilée pour former un corps de règles invoquées dans les contrats. Ce procédé de création de la loi et de fabrication des recueils législatifs rappelle celui du rescrit romain.This article investigates the meaning of the formula dātu ša šarri, “law of the king”, using the akkadian dātu based on the old Persian word dāta. The ten Achaemenid and Seleucid occurrences of this formula suggest a process of creation of legal rules comparable to the Roman rescript: the legal standard dātu ša šarri derives from the judicial practice of the king, whose decisions were progressively compiled in order to create a body of regulations which were invoked in contracts.

  2. L'externalisation de la maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Véret, Daniele

    2003-01-01

    La maintenance évolue ! De plus en plus d'entreprises externalisent tout ou partie des tâches ou fonctions de la maintenance à des prestataires. Dans ces conditions, une relation d confiance doit s'établir entre le donneur d'ordres et le prestataire, qui se traduira par un contrat respectant les intérêts de chacun. L'externalisation de la maintenance apporte les réponses à toutes les questions qui se posent lors de l'élaboration du cahier des charges et de la phase précontractuelle, afin de bien préciser les exigences à satisfaire. Vous trouverez les réponses à toutes vos questions et même à celles auxquelles vous n'aviez pas pensé ! - Jusqu'où va la notion d'externalisation ? - Quels sont les risques d'une mauvaise définition de la phase précontractuelle ? - Quels modes de relation contractuelle peut-on rencontrer ? - En quoi consistent les astreintes ? - Qu'est-ce que la sous-traitante ? - Qu'est-ce qu'un cahier des charges ? - Quelles sont les relations entre le donneur d'ordres et le p...

  3. O que muda quando se expande o assalariamento (e em que o debate da Sociologia pode nos ajudar a compreendê-lo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Araujo Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la seconde moitié des années 2000, on observe au Brésil une reprise continue de l'emploi formel comprenant la croissance remarquable d'une forme particulière de relation d'emploi, c'est-à-dire le travail par intermédiation. On élargit ainsi non seulement une autre modalitéde gestion de l'embauche et des contrats de travail, mais on renforce un florissant domaine des affaires d'oú émergent de nouvelles formes d'articulation entre sociétés usagères et médiatrices du travail. Des preuves empiriques approfondissent le cas de São Paulo, le plus grand marché brésilien d'emplois formels, ainsi que de postes par intermédiation, selon des données de la RAIS-Migra et de la PAEP/SP.

  4. La Protección Medioambiental: Predicar con el Ejemplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Vázquez-Cueto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La preocupación por el cuidado del medioambiente es generalizada, probablemente porque se considera que éste nos pertenece, nos afecta y, por tanto, nos concierne a todas las personas. La buena predisposición teórica hacia políticas o iniciativas que promueven buenos comportamientos ambientales se debilita al conocer los gastos asociados a la recuperación y mantenimiento del medioambiente, máxime cuando se toma conciencia de la repercusión directa para el bolsillo. Este trabajo pone de manifiesto la discrepancia entre la preocupación medioambiental y lo que estamos dispuestos a pagar para paliar los daños medioambientales. A partir de los datos del Ecobarómetro Andaluz (EBA y la Encuesta de Realidad Social en Andalucía (ERSA, realizamos análisis descriptivos y contrates paramétricos y no paramétricos. Observamos la escasa materialización en euros de la alta preocupación medioambiental, encontrando así que la población analizada está muy lejos de predicar con el ejemplo y que otorga un valor nulo a su conciencia medioambiental. Además, hemos analizado separadamente por sexo encontrando ciertas diferencias dignas de mención, según género.

  5. Politique CERN pour le contrôle d'accès à son domaine et description de l'implantation en cours

    CERN Document Server

    Jacot, C

    1998-01-01

    Une volonté politique claire émanant de la direction du CERN et de l'Access Control Panel a chargé la section ST/MC/AC de mettre en place un concept de contrôle d'accès global et cohérent pour l'ensemble des accès au domaine et aux sites de ses accélérateurs. Cela implique que depuis l'accueil et l'enregistrement des personnes jusqu'à la gestion, la surveillance du domaine ainsi que les installations techniques de contrôle d'accès, tous ces services qui sont complémentaires sont désormais rassemblés dans une seule section. Un projet de management des autorisations fortement informatisé ainsi que la productions des cartes CERN sont en cours d'installation. De nombreuses autres installations de contrôle d'accès sont opérationnelles et d'autres sont en cours de réalisation. Toutes seront ensuite intégrées et supervisées depuis une centrale située dans le bâtiment 120, cette dernière est exploitée par une société de surveillance au bénéfice d'un contrat avec le CERN.

  6. Superconductivity of tin and lead after heavy ion irradiation below 7.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaumuenzer, S.

    1978-01-01

    In this work the influence of radiation defects induced by heavy ion irradiation at low temperatures on the specific residual resistivity, the critical temperature of superconductivity, and the width of the resistive-superconductive phase transition have been measured for lead and tin as a function of dose and subsequent isochronous annealing. In the case of lead the critical magnetic field parallel to the surface of the sample, which in a wide range of defect contrations is identical with the surface superconductivity critical field, also has been measured at 5 K and 6 K as a function of dose and subsequent isochronous annealing. As projectiles 25 MeV oxygen ions have been used for irradiation, with a sufficiently low particle flux to obtain irradiation temperatures below about 7.2 K. However these temperatures are large enough to allow for free motion of interstitial atoms in the case of lead. For tin the results presented here also suggest free motion of the defects. (orig./WBU) [de

  7. Opposite effect of ATP on contraction force of tonic and phasic skeletal muscles in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, S N; Kamaliev, R R; Teplov, A Yu; Ziganshin, A U

    2011-07-01

    Experiments in vitro showed that ATP and adenosine equally suppressed contractions of frog m. sartorius, which belongs to the phasic type muscles. Adenosine receptors antagonist 8-SPT abolished the effect of adenosine, but did not change the effect of ATP. This fact proves the independence of signaling pathways of these purines. ATP produced an opposite effect on the tonic muscle m. cruralis and increased the force of its contraction. Adenosine produced an inhibitory effect on the force of m. cruralis contration. In this case, 8-SPT also eliminated the effect of adenosine, but did not change the effect of ATP. The potentiating effect of ATP was blocked by suramin, a nonselective antagonist of P2 receptors, which attests to their involvement into the effects of this purine. The opposite effects of purinergic regulation reflect fundamental differences in functional organization of phasic and tonic muscular systems. It was hypothesized that the increase in contraction force under the effect of ATP is a mechanism providing maitenance of the contracted state of tonic muscle without appreciable metabolic costs.

  8. Las Escuelas Normales de Varones del Siglo XIX en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Báez Osorio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En la década de los años setenta del siglo XIX, se fundaron doce escuelas normales de institutores en Colombia, así: una de carácter central, encargada de formar a los maestros para las demás escuelas normales del país, diez de carácter nacional en cada una de las capitales de los Estados Federados e incluso una más para el Estado de Bolívar con sede en Barranquilla. Además una escuela Normal por cuenta del Estado de Cundinamarca. La mayoría de las escuelas normales fueron organizadas y dirigidas por pedagogos alemanes que contrató el Estado colombiano. Todas las Instituciones asumieron la misión de preparar a los maestros, mediante el método pestalozziano que luego se encargaron de la educación primaria como política de popularización de la educación de los gobiernos radicales.

  9. INFLUÊNCIAS DA REFORMA PSIQUIÁTRICA NO CUIDADO DE ENFERMAGEM NA CASA DE SAÚDE ESPERANÇA EM JUIZ DE FORA, MINAS GERAIS, BRASIL (1994-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Aparecida Peters Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio socio histórico cuyo objetivos son describir el proceso de inserción de enfermeros y analizar las estrategias de reformulación del cuidado de enfermería en Casa de Saúde Esperança , entre los años 1994 y 1998. Fuentes históricas, documentos escritos y orales, analizados basándose en el concepto de saber/poder de Michel Foucault. Los resultados mostraron que después de casi tres décadas de funcionamento con ausencia o con solo una enfermera, la Casa de Saúde Esperança contrató cuatro enfermeros para atender exigencias legales de funcionamiento. Para ampliar el saber/poder de la enfermería, promovieron reuniones y capacitaciones junto al equipo. Las estrategias utilizadas produjeron efectos como: mayor reconocimiento del saber/poder de enfermería, en la que un saber práctico dio lugar a un saber científico; desarrollo de un modelo asistencial más humanizado; acreditación de la institución en siquiatría IV, por esa clasificación los hospitales siquiátricos tenían permiso para trabajar en convenio con el Sistema único de salud.

  10. ST Safety What's on?

    CERN Document Server

    Jacot, C

    2001-01-01

    Du premier coup de pioche jusqu'à la mise en place de la tente abritant le buffet offert lors de la cérémonie d'achèvement d'un projet, la division ST est sur les rangs et apporte son savoir faire. Ces projets nombreux et pluridisciplinaires sont étudiés, se réalisent, s'exploitent et font l'objet de maintenance jusqu'à leur démantèlement. Durant leurs cycles de vie, la division ST avance les compétences professionnelles spécifiques à chaque corps de métiers incluant le recours à de nombreux contrats avec des entreprises extérieures pour réaliser les travaux sur les sites du CERN. Pour en conserver la maîtrise, la division ST applique une gestion de projet, une assurance de la qualité et s'attache tout particulièrement à la sécurité, à la réglementation, à la prévention des risques et la gestion de ceux-ci. Sous la supervision du DSO, un ensemble de procédures et de démarches a été développé afin de faciliter les tâches du maître d'ouvrage et des entreprises contractantes, c...

  11. Beat-to-beat evaluation of left ventricular ejection in cardiac arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional multi-gated cardiac blood pool studies suffer from two kinds of superimpositions: the spatial overlapping of various heart chambers and the temporal superimposition of a large number of cardiac cycles. The first problem can be partially solved by first pass techniques or by emission tomography. For the second one, which is specially critical arrhythmias, the single probe device (''nuclear stethoscope'') represents an original solution. Patients with normal cardiac rythm and patients presenting various kinds of cardiac rythm alterations were examined using a commercial ''nuclear stethoscope''. Some characteristic results achieved in these cases, were presented. For blood pool labeling, 20 mCi of 99mTc albumin was injected. The single probe detector was then positioned over the left ventricular area. The beat-to-beat left ventricular activity curve was then recorded for several minutes on paper in the same time as the E.C.G. signal. In cases with irregular cardiac rythm, the multigated techniques yield an average value of left ventricular ejection. Due to the relatively constant duration of systole, the superimposition of cycles may be valid during contration: differences mainly appear during diastole. But, as it could be demonstrated using the ''nuclear stethoscope'', individual cycles can show a large variability of ejection and average ejection fraction is only a very partial aspect of the real cardiac function

  12. Use of hemicellulose hydrolate in the production of fatty acids. Udnyttelse af hemicellulosehydrolysat til fremstilling af fede syrer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann Spendler, F.

    1988-06-15

    Cellulose fibers can be produced from straw by an organosolve process or similar week acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysate sugars can further be converted to volatile fatty acids by fermentation. The composition of the hydrolysate was analyzed. Xylose was predominant, but in a lower contration than expected from the overall COD-content. This study has shown that if the fermentation is carried out in a fixed film reactor, composition of the acid mixture in the broth yield and conversion speed are strongly dependent on pH and retention time. The production of the more valuable acids, such as lactic acid and butyric acid is favored by a pH around 6,0. Lactid acid should be produced at low retention times of app. 4 hours or less, whereas butyric acid requires retention times of 40 - 60 hours. Attempt to recover the acids by extraction with a solvent compose of tertiary amines and nonylphenol did not prove to be succesful. Other ways of recovering the acids reported in the litterature have been studied and are going to be tested out in the second phase of the project.

  13. L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour la profession d'assistant(e) en information documentaire - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Susanne Schaefer / DSU

    2006-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGE AID FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DSU/SI L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse) pour les assistants en information documentaire : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 26 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage avoir un niveau scolaire correspondant à la 9e à Genève et à la 3e en France (connaissances d'allemand et d'anglais exigées)...

  14. Apprentissages techniques pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    HR/PMD APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN Pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9e du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3e en France) être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Gr&am...

  15. APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES - Électronicien(ne) et laborantin(e) en physique - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature: avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage, avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9e du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3e en France), être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse), pour les résidents en Suisse :...

  16. Apprentissages techniques - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Marc Bouché

    2006-01-01

    GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERNpour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse) pour les résidents en Suis...

  17. L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour la profession d'assistant(e) en information documentaire - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGE AID DSU/SI - Bibliothèque du CERN L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat fédéral de capacité suisse (CFC). 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire. L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature: avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 26 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage, avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, avoir un niveau scolaire correspondant à la 9e à Genève et à la 3e en France (connaissances d'allemand et d'anglais exigées), être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse), pour les résidents en Suisse: être ressortis...

  18. L’apprentissage au cern

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    pour les professions d’électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L’apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l’examen de fin d’apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat fédéral de capacité suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L’apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l’apprentissage ; avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9e du Cycle d’orientation genevois (3e en France) ; être ressortissant d’un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse) ; pour les résidents en Suisse : être ressortissant su...

  19. Apprentissages techniques - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Marc Bouché

    2006-01-01

    GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse) pour les résidents en Su...

  20. Technological study of organic fluids; Etudes technologiques des fluides caloporteurs organique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Under contract to EURATOM (MM. VAN der VENNE and HANNAERT), the C.E.A. and the Progil Society have collaborated on a technological study of the terphenyls. The results obtained from the radiolysis and pyrolysis of the product OM2 (70 p. 100 m-terphenyl, 25 p. 100 o-terphenyl, 5 p. 100 p-terphenyl) are reported. Using two pile loops at temperatures up to 450 deg. C, a phenomena of accelerated pyrolysis on the radiolized material has been demonstrated. Some by-products of the petroleum industry have also been studied, with a view to finding substitutes for terphenyl. (author) [French] Le C.E.A. et la Societe PROGIL ont entrepris en commun sous contrat EURATOM (MM. VAN der VENNE et HANNAERT) une etude technologique des terphenyles. Les resultats de radiolyse et de pyrolyse obtenus sur le produit OM2 (70 p. 100 m-terphenyle, 25 p. 100 o-terphenyle. 5 p. 100 de p-terphenyle) sont exposes. L'exploitation de deux boucles en pile jusqu'a des temperatures de 450 deg. C a mis en evidence un phenomene de pyrolyse acceleree sur le produit radiolyse. On a etudie egalement quelques sous-produits de l'industrie petroliere dans le but de trouver des substituts au terphenyle. (auteur)

  1. L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Roland Gay

    2002-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature :   avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse) avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de ...

  2. L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : - avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire - être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse) - avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage - avoir un niveau scolaire correspondant à la 9ème générale ou moderne...

  3. APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : - avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire - être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse) - avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage - avoir un niveau scolaire correspondant à la 9ème générale ou moderne du Cycle d'Orientation ge...

  4. L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Roland GAY

    2002-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborant(ine) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature :   avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Su&a...

  5. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  6. Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) -- Indication des états de surface dans la documentation technique de produits

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    La présente Norme internationale spécifie les règles pour l'indication des états de surface dans la documentation technique de produits (par exemple dessins, spécifications, contrats, rapports) au moyen de symboles graphiques et d'indications textuelles. Elle est applicable à l'indication des exigences sur les surfaces au moyen de paramètres de profil conformément à l'ISO 4287, relatifs au profil R (paramètres de rugosité), au profil W (paramètres d'ondulation) et au profil P (paramètres de structure), de paramètres liés aux motifs conformément à l'ISO 12085, relatifs au motif de rugosité et au motif d'ondulation, et de paramètres relatifs à la courbe du taux de longueur portante conformément à l'ISO 13565-2 et à l'ISO 13565-3. NOTE Quant à l'indication des exigences concernant les imperfections de surface (pores, stries, etc.), qui ne peuvent pas être spécifiées à l'aide des paramètres d'état de surface, référence est faite à l'ISO 8785 qui couvre les imperfections de surface...

  7. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2010-01-01

    Prochaine journée « Portes Ouvertes » Mercredi 31 mars de 16h00 à 20h00 Salle Jean Monnet à St Genis Au cours de laquelle vous pourrez rencontrer nos partenaires devant un agréable buffet campagnard. Partenaires présents cette journée là (suite)  Point S offre spéciale ce jour-là : - 53% sur les pneus d’été Continental & Uniroyal  Irrijardin installe piscines, spas, bassins de plaisance, arrosage automatique, avec une remise de 5%. Une réduction de 5% supplémentaires vous sera consentie ce jour-là sur les produits : Bayrol, sur les robots nettoyeurs et les contrats d’entretien. La société Savoie cheminées, vous fera bénéficier d’une offre de lancement sur les poêles Brisach, et jusqu’à -...

  8. Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes as a Theranostic Platform for Drug Delivery and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Alkattan, Nedah

    2014-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have special characteristics that made them good agents especially for biomedical applications. In this study, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were incorporated onto the surface of CNTs followed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafting forming CNTs-Fe3O4-PEG hybrids. The PEGylation improves their biocompatibility, water solubility, and increases blood circulation. CNTs-Fe3O4-PEG was used as T2-contrat agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded onto CNTs-Fe3O4-PEG. The release of DOX from DOX-loaded CNTs-Fe3O4-PEG was tested under different pH conditions (7.4, 6.3 and 5.2). The release increased at acidic pH compared to neutral pH, which shows the sensitivity of the system to pH change. Triggering the release by Near Infra-Red (NIR) irradiation was furthermore investigated. The release increased after irradiation with NIR compared to control sample. These result prove that the designed system can be triggered by an internal stimuli (pH) and external stimuli (NIR irradiation) making it a promising candidate to be used for biomedical applications.

  9. Report made on behalf of the Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission on the private bill introducing an ecological planning (n. 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This report of the French National Assembly first outlines and comments the need for a commitment to preserve the planet, which encompasses the struggle against climate change within the frame of the several existing international agreements. The author then stresses the fact that the French commitments must be met, and that the French national policy must be a model in order France to have a bigger weight in international conferences, particularly in the field of greenhouse gas emission reduction. Then, after having recalled the historical background of planning practices in France, and described the various planning instruments ('contrats de Plan Etat-Regions') and institutions (DIACT, previously named DATAR), the author presents an example of ecological land planning: the 'Schema Directeur 2008 de la Region Ile-de-France' (Ile-de-France regional guiding plan for 2008), which defines the future of the Ile-de-France region by 2030 in terms of space planning as well as in terms of social, economical and environmental evolutions. The report then discusses the various aspects of an ecological planning: an environment-friendly energy, an efficient housing policy which is in relationship with transport networks, an economy taking the ecological factor into account. A transcription of the debate of the Commission is given

  10. Apprentissage administratif : formation et développement - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Joane Wildi

    2005-01-01

    HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'employé(e) de commerce et d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 1 place est offerte pour la formation d'employé(e) de commerce 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, R&eacut...

  11. L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurence Van Cauter

    2002-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGE ADMINISTRATIF FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'employé(e) de commerce et d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 1 place est offerte pour la formation d'employé(e) de commerce 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portug...

  12. Apprentissage administratif : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGE ADMINISTRATIF FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/PMD/RCC L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'employé(e) de commerce et d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 1 place est offerte pour la formation d'employé(e) de commerce 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne,Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège...

  13. APPRENTISSAGE ADMINISTRATIF - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'employé(e) de commerce et d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 1 place est offerte pour la formation d'employé(e) de commerce 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : - avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire - être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse) - pour les employés de commerce : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de déb...

  14. APPRENTISSAGE ADMINISTRATIF FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    pour les professions d'employé(e) de commerce et d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 1 place est offerte pour la formation d'employé(e) de commerce 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : - avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire - être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse) - pour les employés de commerce : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage - pour les assistants en information...

  15. Privatization and re-structuration processes of electric monopolies: the case of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smida, S.

    2002-11-01

    In the new context of financial sources contraction from the eighties, the developing countries had to accept and engage a series of reform. Besides the well advanced re-structuration of the industries known as competitive, the public utilities have not been ignored. Privatization and the development of private participation in electric industries are, since the beginning of the nineties, in the centre of this evolution. In order to understand this change, we started with the following question. Is public ownership really inefficient? In other words, is privatization an actual alternative as it is implied by some economic development? Our aim in this thesis is to verify empirically if the ownership and/or private management in electric monopolies are preferable to the public form. The first part of this work deals with the theoretical and conceptual aspects. It primarily deals with operation, regulation and by and large with the traditional electric industries organisation. There is also a quotation of the failure of the first reforms as the contracts of performance ('contrats de plan'). The second part is essentially factual. It deals with the analysis and valuation of electric privatization and re-structuration in some developing countries. It appears from this study, that if privatization remains 'impossible' to avoid, it's widely because of public organisation and management failure. Nevertheless, the idea that private form is higher and more efficient than the public form is not necessarily justified. Indeed, other considerations seem to be more important as the type of regulation and the competitive intensity. (author)

  16. CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Car Club

    2012-01-01

    Nous sommes heureux de vous informer que désormais deux installations d’Hypromat sont opérationnelles, cela réduira considérablement le temps d’attente pour le lavage de votre véhicule. Pour vous qui êtes fidèles utilisateurs de nos installations et qui connaissez tous les avantages que notre CLUB est en mesure de vous offrir, il nous semble inutile de vous les donner en détails, par contre nous sommes certains que vous avez été très nombreux à en bénéficier et à en être satisfait. Nous rappelons que le personnel en appuis industriel et le personnel d’entreprises qui ont un contrat avec le CERN peuvent être membres de notre Club. Si vous n’êtes pas encore membre, venez nous rendre visite, nous serons heureux de vous y accueillir et vous renseigner sur nos installations ou co...

  17. Guide pour la rédaction de cahiers des charges pour la sous-traitance en mécano-soudage

    CERN Document Server

    Cheminat, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Ce rapport est principalement dédié aux rédacteurs de cahiers des charges lors de sous-traitance en soudage. Le choix de faire sous-traiter une fabrication et le choix du sous-traitant revêtent une triple dimension technique, économique et stratégique. Un sous-traitant n'est pas un simple fournisseur ; il est un véritable partenaire technique pour le donneur d'ordre qui lui confie la réalisation d'un produit qu'il a lui-même conçu. La sous-traitance nécessite alors, outre un audit préalable du partenaire, un suivi en continu, à distance, et une communication entre le donneur d'ordre et le sous-traitant. Le cahier des charges est un des éléments de cette communication. C'est un outil essentiel, notamment lorsque le marché est soumis à des normes, imposées par contrat entre le donneur d'ordre et le sous-traitant. Ce présent document est un guide pour la rédaction du document de consultation, afin d'être le plus précis et exhaustif possible, mais il ne saurait être utilisé pour établi...

  18. Pan para el cabildo catedral de Burgos (1754-1760. Hornos, panadeo y privilegios de clase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sanz de la Higuera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Cabildo Catedral de Burgos consideró, a partir de 1754, que era posible desligarse del sistema de abastecimiento de pan según el método de la «obligación», implantado en el municipio por el Concejo y la administración borbónica –con la «colaboración» de los vecinos de Arcos de la Llana y otros pueblos de los alrededores–, e instaurar su particular y propio método de hacer llegar el pan a las mesas de los prebendados catedralicios. Para ello, y en el derrotero urbano de permitir la instalación de hornos particulares en la ciudad de una manera más o menos libre, el Cabildo contrató a un panadero, con el que subscribió una «Escriptura para dar abasto de pan al Cavildo». Instalados los hornos en la calle La Calera, la experiencia, convergente con otras logísticas de productos esenciales –cacao y chocolate, carnero, vino, aceite, etcétera– controladas por la Mesa Capitular de la Catedral, acabó fracasando por la negligencia de los panaderos. En la práctica, esta propuesta tenía mucho de contestataria contra el gobierno y a favor de una autonomía capitular cada vez más amenazada por el Estado borbónico.

  19. Qualité et obligations de résultats

    CERN Document Server

    Guthapfel, C

    1998-01-01

    Un contrat de maintenance peut appartenir à deux grands types ; ceux où la prestation est définie par son contenu ou par son résultat. Dans l'exemple retenu, le résultat est exprimé principalement en terme d'état de référence à maintenir ; ce qui nécessite de définir préalablement l'état requis par rapport aux besoins exprimés ou implicites et l'écart toléré d'où une meilleure définition du besoin. Cette approche qualité responsabilise de manière plus complète le contractant par une facilité accrue de mesurer la conformité au besoin et la preuve de manquements aux obligations contractuelles est plus aisée à établir. Il faut toutefois noter un décalage entre les besoins exprimés et ressentis et la difficulté d'apprécier objectivement les résultats, d'où la nécessité d'améliorer et de formaliser les relations client/fournisseur. C'est uniquement sur ces bases que le partenariat, condition indispensable de l'efficience, peut se développer et les besoins être satisfaits au m...

  20. Trends in Arctic Ocean bottom pressure, sea surface height and freshwater content using GRACE and the ice-ocean model PIOMAS from 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Morison, James; Zhang, Jinlun; Bonin, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    The variability of ocean bottom pressure (OBP) in the Arctic is dominated by the variations in sea surface height (SSH) from daily to monthly timescales. Conversely, OBP variability is dominated by the changes in the steric pressure (StP) at inter-annual timescales, particularly off the continental shelves. The combination of GRACE-derived ocean bottom pressure and ICESat altimetry-derived sea surface height variations in the Arctic Ocean have provided new means of identifying inter-annual trends in StP (StP = OBP-SSH) and associated freshwater content (FWC) of the Arctic region (Morison et al., 2012). Morison et al. (2012) showed that from 2004 to 2008, the FWC increased in the Beaufort Gyre and decreased in the Siberian and Central Arctic, resulting in a relatively small net basin-averaged FWC change. In this work, we investigate the inter-annual trends from 2008 to 2012 in OBP from GRACE, SSH from the state-of-the-art pan-Arctic ocean model PIOMAS -validated with tide and pressure gauges in the Arctic-, and compute the trends in StP and FWC from 2008-2012. We compare these results with the previous trends from 2005-2008 described in Morison et al. (2012). Our initial findings suggest increased salinity in the entire Arctic basin (relative to the climatological seasonal variation) from 2008-2012, compared to the preceding four years (2005-2008). We also find that the trends in OBP, SSH and StP from 2008-2012 present a different behavior during the spring-summer and fall-winter, unlike 2005-2008, in which the trends were generally consistent through all months of the year. It seems since 2009, when the Beaufort Gyre relaxed and the export of freshwater from the Canada Basin into the Canadian Archipelago and Fram Strait, via the Lincoln Sea, was anomalously large (de Steur et al., 2013), the Arctic Ocean has entered a new circulation regime. The causes of such changes in the inter-annual trends of OBP, SSH and StP -hence FWC-, associated with the changes in the

  1. Pesquisa em enfermagem nas Américas Investigación en enfermería en las Américas Nursing research in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Evangelista Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo teve como objetivo identificar as problemáticas, desafios e estratégias recomendadas nos textos e analisar a aplicabilidade das recomendações nas produções de 2005-2008. Implementou-se a análise dos textos completos levantados a partir da base LILACS. O desenvolvimento da pesquisa em enfermagem articulou-se com o modelo econômico neoliberal e globalizante, o sistema de saúde local, as demandas da população e da profissão de enfermagem. O crescimento da pós-graduação resultou do maior esforço de internacionalização dos programas brasileiros, do aumento no número de pesquisadores e de centros produtores de conhecimento. Conclusão: a produção cientifica inserida na esfera acadêmica continua afastada dos serviços, exercendo pouca influência na formulação de políticas públicas de saúde. As organizações de Enfermagem e afins precisam continuar envidando esforços de superação dos velhos desafios e construir novos sentidos para a pesquisa em enfermagem.Esto artículo tuvo como objetivo identificar las problemáticas, desafíos y estrategias recomendadas en los textos y analizar la aplicabilidad de las recomendaciones en las producciones de 2005-2008. Fue implementado el análisis temático de los textos completos levantados a partir de la base LILACS. El desarrollo de la investigación en enfermería se articuló con el modelo económico neoliberal y globalizante, el sistema de salud local, las demandas de la población y de la profesión de enfermería. El crecimiento de la postgraduación fue resultado del mayor esfuerzo de internacionalización de los programas brasileños, del aumento en el número de investigadores y de centros productores de conocimiento. La producción científica incluida en la esfera académica continúa alejada de los servicios y ejerció poca influencia en la formulación de políticas públicas de salud. Las organizaciones de enfermería y afines precisan continuar envidando

  2. Trends of public health research output from India during 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Lalit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of how public health research output from India is changing in relation to the disease burden and public health priorities is required in order to inform relevant research development. We therefore studied the trends in the public health research output from India during 2001-2008 that was readily available in the public domain. Methods The scope and type of the published research from India in 2007 that was included in the PubMed database was assessed and compared with a previous similar assessment for 2002. Papers were classified based on the review of abstracts and original public health research papers were assessed in detail. Impact factors for the journals were used to compute quality-adjusted research output. The websites of governmental organizations, academic and research institutions and international organizations were searched in order to identify and review reports on original public health research produced in India from 2001 to 2008. The reports were classified based on the topics covered and quality and their trends over time were assessed. Results The number of original health research papers from India in PubMed doubled from 4494 in 2002 to 9066 in 2007. This included a 3.1-fold increase in public health research papers, but these comprised only 5% of the total papers in 2007. Within public health, the increase was lowest for the health system and policy category. Several major causes of disease burden in India continued to be underrepresented in the quality-adjusted public health research output in 2007. The number of papers evaluating population health interventions increased from 2002 to 2007, but there were none on the leading non-communicable causes of disease burden or on road traffic injuries. The number of identified original public health research reports increased by 64.7% from 204 in 2001-2004 to 336 in 2005-2008. The proportion of reports on reproductive and child health was very

  3. Mortalidade e assistência oncológica no Rio de Janeiro: câncer de mama e colo uterino Mortality and care oncology in Rio de Janeiro: cancer of the breast and cervix of uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíla de Souza Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O município do Rio de Janeiro apresenta grandes taxas de mortalidade para o câncer de mama e colo uterino. Analisou-se a trajetória dos óbitos por câncer de mama e colo uterino no município do Rio de Janeiro e relacionaram-se a oferta de serviços de saúde e o fluxo de pacientes entre o local de residência e o hospital. Estudo ecológico de base populacional que analisou óbitos por câncer de mama e colo uterino no município do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 2005-2008, mapeando os fluxos de casos da residência para os serviços de saúde. O Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade registrou, no período analisado, 3.384 óbitos por câncer de mama e 771 óbitos por câncer do colo de útero. A localização geográfica dos estabelecimentos de saúde define uma distribuição espacial dos óbitos extremamente desigual, alternando padrões de escassez em algumas áreas (periferia da cidade e excesso em outras (Centro.La ciudad de Rio de Janeiro tiene altas tasas de mortalidad por cáncer de mama y cuello uterino. Se analizó la trayectoria de las muertes por cáncer de mama y cáncer cervico-uterino en Rio de Janeiro y se vinculó la prestación de servicios de salud y el flujo de pacientes entre la residencia y el hospital. Estudio ecológico basado en la población que examinó las muertes de cáncer de mama y el cáncer cervical en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, en el período 2005-2008. El Sistema de Información sobre la mortalidad ha registrado en el período analizado 3.384 muertes por cáncer de mama y 771 muertes por cáncer de cáncer de cuello uterino. La ubicación geográfica de los centros de salud definió una distribución espacial de las muertes extremadamente desigual, alternando los padrones de escasez en algunas zonas (fuera de la ciudad y el exceso en los demás (Central.The city of Rio de Janeiro has high rates of mortality for breast cancer and uterine cervix. In this study was analyzed the trajectory of deaths

  4. PM trend study for the 1998 - 2012 period: Impact of Transport and Petroleum-based Fuels in Santiago Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M. A.; Jhun, I.; Moreno, F.; Oyola, P.; Koutrakis, P.

    2013-05-01

    .5 regression model for PBF sales. In PM2.5 trend was observed an increase in 2005-2008 period ; when the PBF sales were included in the regression model, the concentration of PM2.5 was mitigated (2005-2008), this results indicates that if the PBF sales not had risen in this period the concentration of PM2.5 would not have increased as much.

  5. La Relación entre Actitudes y Conductas Violentas en las Relaciones Interpersonales Íntimas (The association between attitudes and violent behaviors at private and interpersonal relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Puente

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between attitudes and violent behaviors at private and interpersonal relationships, as well as gender and age differences and the exposure to violent events. It is analyzed the relation between the perpetrated and suffered violence, the health condition, the perception of the social environment and its relation with the cultural values. The sample is based on 2006 persons, 825 men (41.1% and 1181 women (58.9%. A probabilistic sampling stratified across the cities (Alava, Guipuzkoa y Vizcaya is developed, according to proportionality criteria during the period 2005-2008. A connection between sharing attitudes and developing violent behaviors was detected. In general, the common violence in the couple is bidirectional and reciprocal, although there are differences between men and women related to severity. The aggression will be associated with violence in childhood, the age and the exposure to violent events. It is verified that violence severely impacts on the physical and mental health of victims and aggressors and it is related to a worse social climate and male cultural values. Este artículo tiene como objetivo estimar la relación entre las actitudes y conductas violentas en las relaciones interpersonales e íntimas y las diferencias por sexo, edad y la exposición a acontecimientos violentos. Se analiza la relación entre la violencia perpetrada y sufrida, el estado de salud, la percepción del clima social, y su relación con los valores culturales. Participaron 2006 personas, 825 hombres (41,1% y 1181 mujeres (58,9%. Se aplico un muestreo probabilístico estratificado por provincias (Álava, Guipuzkoa y Vizcaya según criterios de proporcionalidad durante los años 2005-2008. Se encontró una relación entre compartir actitudes y ejecutar conductas violentas. En general, la violencia común en la pareja tiene carácter bidireccional y recíproco, aunque existen diferencias entre

  6. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  7. Changes in hepatitis A and B vaccination rates in adult patients with chronic liver diseases and diabetes in the U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; Stepanova, Maria

    2011-10-01

    Professional societies recommend hepatitis A and hepatitis B immunization for individuals with chronic liver disease (CLD), but the degree of implementation is unknown. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 1999-2008. For the entire study population and for those with CLD and diabetes, we determined the rates and independent predictors of history of hepatitis A and hepatitis B (HepA and HepB) vaccinations, of their effectiveness, and of seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibody and anti-HB surface antibody. In total, 24,871 participants from NHANES were included: 14,886 (1999-2004) and 9,985 (2005-2008). Of these individuals, 14.0% had CLD and 8.6% had diabetes. During the study period, HepA vaccination in CLD increased from 13.3% ± 1.0% to 20.0% ± 1.5%, HepB vaccination increased from 23.4% ± 1.2% to 32.1% ± 1.5%. Of subtypes of CLD, HepA vaccination rates increased only in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whereas HepB vaccination increased for patients with hepatitis C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the diabetic cohort, HepA vaccination rates increased from 9.3% ± 1.1% to 15.4% ± 1.7% and HepB rates increased from 15.2% ± 1.5% to 22.4% ± 1.7%. All changes were similar to those observed in the general population. The quality measure (QM) for HepA in the general population decreased from 44.4% ± 1.2% in 1999-2004 to 41.7% ± 1.9% in 2005-2008, and similar changes were noted for all subcohorts. On the other hand, QM for HepB increased from 31.7% ± 0.9% to 40.7% ± 1.0% in the population, whereas no changes in QM were noted in any diagnostic cohort except for NAFLD. Although vaccination rates in CLD and diabetic cohorts are increasing, they remain low. Given the public health implications of acute hepatitis A and hepatitis B in patients with CLD, better implementation of the vaccination recommendations for these populations is warranted. Copyright © 2011 American Association for

  8. Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseaux, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Using data from this study and the literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2% per °C. The classification of varieties should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet IOOC requirements. The differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype produced by environmental interaction, and the negative effect of the high seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further research.La industria oleícola del noroeste de Argentina creció sustancialmente durante las últimas dos décadas para producir aceite de oliva virgen exportable. Para evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los principales aceites varietales, se analizaron 563 muestras de aceite de 17 variedades en la provincia de La Rioja durante 2005-2008. Las variedades se clasificaron de acuerdo a su contenido de ácido oleico en bajo (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Utilizando datos de este trabajo y de la literatura, los aceites de variedades de origen español (Arbequina y Picual e italiano (Coratina y Frantoio mostraron consistentemente menor contenido de ácido oleico

  9. La tecnología como motor de la innovación educativa. Estrategia y política institucional de la Universidad de Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorens Largo, Faraón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovation has to be standarized. It is not just a few-freaks-game to kill boredom experimenting with new ideas and tools from technological advances. Universities must acknowledge and empower innovative good practices. They must profit from these practices and set up strategies to lead all of us to better accomplish their educational mission. However, internal policies of each university should be based on justified fundamentals and must be shared by all its community. This paper is divided in three blocks. The first one, strategies to improve teaching + learning through the use of technology, establishes the fundamentals where the University of Alicante lays on. The second one explains the strategy and institutional policies of the University of Alicante during 2005-2008 period, as something already stated and proven. The third block anticipates planning and master lines for 2009-2012 period. Finally, this paper closes with some deep thoughts not to forget lessons learnt and not to make already known mistakes, thus running the right way.La innovación educativa debe de oficializarse. No es sólo cuestión de unos pocos locos que no tienen otra cosa mejor a la que dedicar su tiempo que experimentar con las ideas y herramientas que los avances tecnológicos ponen a nuestro alcance. Las universidades deben reconocer y potenciar esas buenas prácticas innovadoras. Deben alinearlas con su misión y establecer estrategias que nos conduzcan a su cumplimiento. Pero la política interna de cada universidad debe basarse en unos fundamentos que la justifiquen y debe ser compartida por toda la comunidad universitaria. Así, este articulo se estructura en tres bloques. Un primer bloque, estrategias de mejora de la enseñanza+aprendizaje por medio de la tecnología, que establece esos principios sobre los que se sustenta la política de la Universidad de Alicante. El segundo bloque está dedicado a explicar la estrategia y pol

  10. Health Literacy Impact on National Healthcare Utilization and Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasu, Rafia S; Bawa, Walter Agbor; Suminski, Richard; Snella, Kathleen; Warady, Bradley

    2015-08-17

    Health literacy presents an enormous challenge in the delivery of effective healthcare and quality outcomes. We evaluated the impact of low health literacy (LHL) on healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure. Database analysis used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) from 2005-2008 which provides nationally representative estimates of healthcare utilization and expenditure. Health literacy scores (HLSs) were calculated based on a validated, predictive model and were scored according to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). HLS ranged from 0-500. Health literacy level (HLL) and categorized in 2 groups: Below basic or basic (HLS Healthcare utilization expressed as a physician, nonphysician, or emergency room (ER) visits and healthcare spending. Expenditures were adjusted to 2010 rates using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). A P value of 0.05 or less was the criterion for statistical significance in all analyses. Multivariate regression models assessed the impact of the predicted HLLs on outpatient healthcare utilization and expenditures. All analyses were performed with SAS and STATA® 11.0 statistical software. The study evaluated 22 599 samples representing 503 374 648 weighted individuals nationally from 2005-2008. The cohort had an average age of 49 years and included more females (57%). Caucasian were the predominant racial ethnic group (83%) and 37% of the cohort were from the South region of the United States of America. The proportion of the cohort with basic or below basic health literacy was 22.4%. Annual predicted values of physician visits, nonphysician visits, and ER visits were 6.6, 4.8, and 0.2, respectively, for basic or below basic compared to 4.4, 2.6, and 0.1 for above basic. Predicted values of office and ER visits expenditures were $1284 and $151, respectively, for basic or below basic and $719 and $100 for above basic (P healthcare utilization and expenditure. Individuals with below basic or basic HLL have greater healthcare

  11. El modelo de gestión de las migraciones en Cataluña: ¿una “vía catalana” de integración? El modelo de gestión de las migraciones en Cataluña: ¿una “vía catalana” de integración?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Solé

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Los movimientos migratorios procedentes del resto de España constituyen la base del crecimiento de la población catalana hasta la década de los 1970s. En los últimos años se ha iniciado un nuevo flujo migratorio procedente de países no comunitarios que, lejos de estabilizarse, se ha acelerado, diversificado y extendido a todo el territorio. Sin lugar a dudas, el gobierno de la Generalitat de Catalunya cuenta con una larga trayectoria en el desarrollo de políticas de inmigración, que arranca con el PLA INTERDEPARTAMENTAL D’IMMIGRACIÓ (1993-2000. Sin embargo, el tercer y último plan, el PLA DE CIUTADANIA I IMMIGRACIÓ 2005-2008, aunque con una voluntad continuista, introduce novedades tanto conceptualmente como en cuanto a las líneas estratégicas. Entre dichas novedades destacan el lenguaje de la ciudadanía residente, la incorporación de la identidad como criterio a la hora de orientar las políticas o el establecimiento de líneas prioritarias en correlación con los objetivos políticos. Si bien se trata de un plan marcado por la incertidumbre política y que todavía no puede ser evaluado en su impacto, el artículo reflexiona sobre cómo las directrices y contenidos del Plan pretenden consolidar la denominada “vía catalana” de integración.Migratory movements from the rest of Spain were the foundation for Catalonia’s population growth until 70s. In the last years, we assist to the beginning of a new wave of immigration from non communitarian countries, which, far from becoming stable, has increased, diversified and extended throughout the territory. Certainly, the Government of the Generalitat has a long history of developing policies on immigration, with the first Interdepartmental Immigration Plan (1993-2000 in 1993. Nevertheless, the third and last Plan, The Citizenship and Immigration Plan (2005-2008, although it maintains coherence with some of the containts and guidelines of previous plans, it introduces important

  12. La capacidad de absorción para la innovación: estudio de caso en la Generación Distribuida Cubana; The absorptive capacity for innovation: study case on Cuban´s distributed generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lourdes Filgueiras Sainz de Rozas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la necesidad de formar las concepciones sobre el tratamiento de la innovación como resultado del proceso continuo de aprendizaje organizacional devenido de la integración y re-configuración de conocimientos impregnados en personas, procesos, sistemas y prácticas de gestión; como plataforma para el estudio de los mecanismos desde los cuales se construye e incrementa la capacidad de absorción. Se propone un modelo conceptual para explicar la capacidad de innovar en una organización, estableciendo sus componentes esenciales, determinándose un conjunto de variables que permiten construir indicadores empíricos para evaluar tal capacidad y su impacto en el nivel de desempeño organizacional. La aplicación se desarrolla en la Generación Distribuida en base a Grupos Electrógenos de Fuel, con insuficiencias en la actitud estrategia hacia la innovación, el aprendizaje organizacional y el entorno, que limitaban la asimilación de las tecnologías adquiridas en los años 2005-2008.  In this paper are made considerations about the need to form conceptions respect to treatment of innovation as a result of an organizational learning process become continuous integration and re-configuration ofembedded knowledge in people, processes, systems and the practices of management, as platform to study the mechanisms through which the absorptive capacity is built and increased. It is proposed a conceptualmodel to explain the innovation capability at a company and establish its essential components, by identifying a set of variables to construct empirical measures to evaluate such capacity and its impact on thelevel of organizational performance. The research was developed at the Cuban´s distributed generation by fuel oil engines´ plants; these organizations presented insufficiency with strategic attitude to innovation,learning and environment, which limited the assimilation of the acquired technologies on years 2005-2008.

  13. Three typological approaches to Catalonian archival evidence, 10-12 centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito i Monclús, Pere

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This tripartite study draws upon the vast documentation surviving from Catalonia in the tenth through twelfth centuries. It focuses in turn on the following processes, each represented by numerous surviving charters of a specific type: testamentary proof and publication (Nathaniel L. Taylor, convenientiae and agreement enforcement (Adam J. Kosto, and agrarian precaria (Pere Benito. In each case, comparison of large numbers of similar documents has enabled the construction of complex typology, not just in the traditional diplomatic sense, but also considering the function of the documents and the social causes and implications of changes in form or function. The testamentary probate documents illuminate a long-standing civil judiciary; changes in the form of the documents and the identity of testamentary authorities reflect the obsolescence and transformation of this judiciary in the eleventh and twelfth century. A case study of an eleventh-century comital conflict revealed in conventientiae shows notarial responses to changes in political behavior. Finally, agrarian precaria also follow modalities in tenurial structure. Drawing on a very rich archival resources, these findings support the relationship of social change and documentary change. Together, these studies demonstrate the nature of comparative work that can be done with studies based on large numbers of documents of superficially similar type.[fr] Cet article tripartite s'inspire de la survivance d'un grand nombre de documents catalans des Xe-XIIe siècles. Il rassemble les conclusions partielles de trois recherches de doctorat menées à partir d'un grande nombre d'actes d'un seul type: documents de publication et authentification testamentaires (Nathaniel L. Taylor, convenientiae et executions d'accords (Adam J. Kosto, et contrats d'accensement appelés precariae (Pere Benito. Dans chaque cas, l'analyse d'un grand nombre de documents a permis de bâtir une typologie complexe, non

  14. Achats et ventes de terres par les indiens de Cuenca au XVIIe siècle: éléments de conjoncture économique et de stratification sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, l'auteur étudie les contrats d'achat-vente de terres réalisés par les indiens du corregimiento de Cuenca (Equateur au XVIIº siècle. Après avoir présenté les problèmes méthodologiques, il analyse les différentes informations que contient la source concernant la nature des transactions, 1''identité' des intervenants indiens et la perspective des contrats une chronologie des phénomènes est proposée, montrant pour ce siècle les fluctuations des achats et des ventes, du lien ville-campagne. À travers cette étude, il s'agit d'une contribution au problème de la participation indienne au marché colonial - dans le cas présent, foncier et immobilier - en même temps que d'une approche de la mobilité et de la différenciation sociale interne au monde indigène pendant la Colonie. COMPRAS Y VENTAS DE TIERRAS POR LOS INDIOS DE CUENCA EN EL SIGLO XVII: ELEMENTOS DE COYUNTURA ECONÓMICA Y DE ESTRATIFICACIÓN SOCIAL. En este artículo, el autor estudia los contratos de compra-venta de tierras realizados por los indios del corregimiento de Cuenca (Ecuador en el siglo XVII. Después de haber presentado los aspectos metodológicos, analiza las distintas informaciones que contienen las fuentes en cuanto a la naturaleza de las transacciones, la 'identidad' de los participantes indígenas y la perspectiva de los contratos se propone una cronología de los fenómenos, diseñando para este siglo las fluctuaciones de las compras-ventas y del nexo ciudad-campo. A través de este estudio, se trata de dar una contribución al problema de la participación indígena al mercado colonial -en este caso, territorial e inmobiliario- al mismo tiempo que de un acercamiento a la movilidad y a la diferenciación social interna del mundo indígena colonial. LAND PROCUREMENT AND SALE BY THE CUENCA INDIANS OF THE 17TH CENTURY: CONSTITUENTS FOR FINANCIAL CONJUNCTION AND SOCIAL STATUS. Through the present article, the author analyses the land

  15. Interdiction de Genre: La Loi Qui Fait Taire le Corp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Duro Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche discute les identités de genre avec la base dans l'analyse du travail La Ley no escrita (2012 d'Oihana Cordero. Le travail de l'artiste plasticien a comme l'objectif provoque la réflexion sur les lois et les normes juridiques-sociales qu'ils existent autour du caractère ficcional et le genre performatife, révélant de nouvelles lectures sur l'acte du corps. C'est un travail sculptural (KRAUSS, 1984, composé par une base blanche, une épée et un groupe de feuilles, dans lesquelles ils sont exprimés, par un contrat de genre, comme ils se prononcent, interseccionam et c'est des interdictions imposées aux possibilités de genre. Comme ceci, les règles et des règlements sont faits la preuve imposés par le binarisme du genre que la force soumet et ils arrêtent des identités pour le compte de la normalisation (normatisation des corps. Pour cette enquête les concepts de genre sont problematize, le corps subjugué, la normativité et de la performance dans le Butler (2012a, 2012b, 2013, Foucault (1997, 1998, 2014, Fraser (2002, 2006, 2009, Scott (2008, Cordero (2012 et Preciado (2011. Cordero (2012, dans son travail, nous présente les copies multiples d'un contrat de papier imprimé a passé par une épée. C'est une métaphore, une forme de représentation dogmatizé du corps par les actes visibles et invisibles qui compose et ils naturalisent les identités de genre dans une dualité obscurantiste homme/femme. Ce travail comme l'objet conceptuel (FREIRE 2006 produit la puissance exprimée pour en plus d'un document légal perforé, elle vise à provoquer les gens de contempler sur leurs pratiques et leurs corps, mais, par-dessus tout, réfléchir comme ces périmètres ont de transgression difficile. Lors de l'analyse de l'intersection possible des identités de genre et un objet artistique dans le domaine juridique est prévu pour gérer des éléments capables de révéler les technologies complexes corporels politiques

  16. Formation of structure, phase composition and properties of electro explosion resistant coatings using electron-beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, Denis A.; Sosnin, Kirill V.; Budovskikh, Evgenij A.; Gromov, Viktor E.; Semin, Alexander P.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, the high intensity electron beam modification of electroexplosion composite coatings of MoCu, MoCCu, WCu, WCCu and TiB 2 Cu systems was done. The studies of phase and elemental composition, defective structure conditions of these coatings were carried out. The regimes of electron-beam processing making possible to form the dense, specular luster surface layers having a submicrocrystalline structure were revealed. It was established that electron-beam processing of elecroexplosion spraying of layer of elecroexplosion spraying carried out in the regime of melting results in the formation of structurally and contrationally homogeneous surface layer. Investigation of the effect of electron-beam processing of electroexplosion electroerosion resistant coatings on their tribological properties (wear resistanse and coefficient of friction) and electroerosion resistance was done. It was shown that all the examined costings demonstrate the increase of electroerosion resistance in spark erosion up to 10 times

  17. Formation of structure, phase composition and properties of electro explosion resistant coatings using electron-beam processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Denis A., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru; Sosnin, Kirill V., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru; Budovskikh, Evgenij A., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru; Gromov, Viktor E., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru; Semin, Alexander P., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    For the first time, the high intensity electron beam modification of electroexplosion composite coatings of MoCu, MoCCu, WCu, WCCu and TiB{sub 2}Cu systems was done. The studies of phase and elemental composition, defective structure conditions of these coatings were carried out. The regimes of electron-beam processing making possible to form the dense, specular luster surface layers having a submicrocrystalline structure were revealed. It was established that electron-beam processing of elecroexplosion spraying of layer of elecroexplosion spraying carried out in the regime of melting results in the formation of structurally and contrationally homogeneous surface layer. Investigation of the effect of electron-beam processing of electroexplosion electroerosion resistant coatings on their tribological properties (wear resistanse and coefficient of friction) and electroerosion resistance was done. It was shown that all the examined costings demonstrate the increase of electroerosion resistance in spark erosion up to 10 times.

  18. Investigação epidemiológica de casos de febre amarela na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Epidemiological investigation into cases of yellow fever in the North- west region of S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Lisieux M. Coimbra

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se investigação epidemiológica conduzida a partir da notificação de três casos suspeitos de febre amarela em moradores da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, onde se identificou a presença de Aedes aegypti. Concluiu-se que se tratavam de casos de febre amarela silvestre adquirida em área endêmica do Estado vizinho de Mato Grosso. Apesar da presença de focos de Aedes aegypti nos locais de residência dos doentes, não foram encontradas evidências de transmissão do vírus amarílico nesses locais. O teste MAC ELISA mostrou-se de grande utilidade no rápido esclarecimento diagnóstico dos casos suspeitos da moléstia, ao lado das técnicas tradicionais, e no inquérito sorológico conduzido entre familiares, vizinhos e colegas de trabalho dos doentes.An epidemiological investigation was carried out in the North-west region of the State of S. Paulo of Brazil with the purpose of clarifying three suspected cases of yellow fever that occurred in people resident in the area. In this region the presence of Aedes aegypti had been verified. It was concluded that the patients had contrated yellow fever during a trip to the forested region of the Mato Grosso State, where there are enzootic cycles of the virus. Despite of the presence of Ae. aegypti, no evidence of yellow fever transmission in the local population was detected. MAC ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with capture of IgM antibodies proved very useful in the rapid diagnosis of suspected cases and in the serological investigation among the relatives, neighbors and schoolmates of the patients, providing additional support for the traditional techniques.

  19. Multiplication des statuts précaires et (déstructuration de l’espace professionnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cégolène Frisque

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à interroger les formes d’encadrement du marché du travail du journalisme, la diversification des statuts d’emploi qui y ont cours et ses effets sur l’espace professionnel. Il s’appuie sur une exploitation secondaire des donnéesde la Commission de la carte d’identité des journalistes professionnels (carte de presse non obligatoire mais largement répandue en France, sur la confrontation avec d’autres sources statistiques, et sur une quarantaine d’entretiens avec des journalistes « instables », n’ayant pas de contrat de travail permanent mais rémunérés sous d’autres formes, relevant de différents secteurs de la presse écrite, aux situations diversifiées. L’analyse conclut à un recul voire un dépérissement – invisible jusqu’à présent – de la « pige », forme de paiement à l’article, au feuillet ou à la journée, ponctuel ou plus régulier, mais qui est officiellement assimilée à un contrat de travail, selon une fiction juridique, et permet l’accès des personnes concernées à divers droits salariaux et sociaux. Ce statut classique est débordé par les divers statuts précaires qui se sont multipliés dans l’ensemble du salariat (contrats à durée déterminée, dont le terme, variant d’une journée à 12 voire 18 mois, est fixé à l’avance, et contrats aidés, bénéficiant de subventions de l’Etat avec des objectifs de réinsertion professionnelle. D’autres statuts utilisés proviennent de secteurs connexes aux médias d’information (artistes auteurs employés par la presse écrite au contact de l’édition, intermittents du spectacle employés en télévision au contact des métiers du spectacle et de l’audiovisuel. Ce processus de déstructuration du marché du travail a été accentué et amplifié par le statut d’auto-entrepreneur, considéré comme relevant du travail « indépendant », et rémunéré sous forme de factures pour des prestations de

  20. 事業者間契約における不当条項規制をめぐる民法・消費者法・競争法の発展可能性

    OpenAIRE

    大澤, 彩

    2015-01-01

    研究成果の概要(和文):本研究においては、民法(債権法)改正において日仏両国で議論されている事業者間契約における不当条項規制の可能性につき、消費者契約法による不当条項規制と比較して検討した。具体的には、事業者間契約における不当条項規制をめぐるフランスの最新の法改正の動向、日仏における民法による不当条項規制がなされた裁判例の分析、さらには日仏における消費者法による不当条項規制の分析といった、多様な観点からの研究を行った。成果は論文や学会報告によって発表した。研究成果の概要(英文):This research is about unfair contract terms of B to B (Business to Business) contrats in Japan and France, which is debated for the revision of Civil law. Particulary, this research focused on the following topics : the proposed amendement for the establ...

  1. Hobbes, la coopération et la théorie des jeux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Parmentier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de cet article est d'établir dans quelle mesure la théorie des jeux permet de formaliser et d'éclairer trois problématiques-clés de la philosophie politique de Hobbes : la guerre de tous contre tous dans l'état de nature ; le pacte instaurant un souverain absolu ; le mode d'action de ce dernier pour faire respecter les contrats au sein de l'état civil. L'analyse révèle qu'à certains égards le « problème de confiance » formulé par Amartya Sen apparaît plus pertinent que le célèbre « dilemme du prisonnier » évoqué par de nombreux commentateurs. Elle révèle également les ambiguïtés d'une œuvre susceptible de plusieurs modélisations et de plusieurs jugements possibles quant à la place de son auteur dans l'histoire du libéralisme.This article aims to establish whether the theory of games can formalise and explain three basic issues raised by Hobbes: the war of all against all in the state of nature; the social contract that establish absolute sovereignty; legitimate means at the sovereign’s disposal to impose people’s consent to abide by the rules of the social contract. It will be argued that the « assurance problem » formulated by Amartya Sen appears more relevant than the well-known « prisoner's dilemma » in some respects. Our analysis also reveals some ambiguities in Hobbes' political philosophy that may lead to diverse interpretations and judgments about his role in the history of liberalism.

  2. Plan d'assurance qualité (PAQ) un outil de partenariat

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, J

    1998-01-01

    En matière d'assurance qualité, la formalisation du système qualité est nécessaire pour démontrer la conformité par rapport au modèle (ex : ISO 9001, 9002 ou 9003). Dans ce cadre, certains contractants mettent en place un plan d'assurance qualité PAQ destiné à contenir les dispositions spécifiques à l'exécution de leur contrat avec le CERN. Si le PAQ, outil du système qualité du contractant, régit la relation « ST-contractant », il n'en demeure pas moins qu'une définition précise de « ce que l'on veut » s'avère indispensable. L'assurance qualité est censée garantir la régularité de la qualité pour obtenir la confiance des clients et réduire les coûts par la réduction des contrôles et des dysfonctionnements. Cela suppose qu'en amont, la parfaite prise en compte des besoins du client final de la part de « ST »soit assurée. Cela le sera d'autant plus et mieux, qu'avec la démarche "Qualité", ST pourra pleinement se concentrer sur son rôle de conseiller, d'expert technique et...

  3. Mechanisms behind the relaxing effect of furosemide on the isolated rabbit ear artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, R.; Aalkjaer, C.; Andreasen, F. (Institute of Pharmacology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of furosemide on isometric contration and {sup 86}Rb uptake were studied in the isolated rabbit central ear artery (CEA). A concentration-dependent relaxing effect of furosemide (0.06 mM-1.0 mM) was found in vessel segments with intact endothelium. The maximal relaxation was 28.6+-3.9% (10). The effect was not diminished in segments deprived of endothelium, and removal of endothelium itself caused no change of the force development to electrical field stimualtion. The relaxing effect was time-dependent and stimulation-dependent and was not significantly affected by membrane depolarization induced by increasing external (K{sup +}) from 10 to 120 mM. The {sup 86}Rb uptake was inhibited by both furosemide and ouabain (8.0+-0.5(8) and 5.3+-0.5(8) versus 12.8+-0.9(16) nmol (K{sup +})x mm{sup -1}x(10 min.){sup -1} in the furosemide (1.0 mM), ouabain (1.0 mM) and control groups, respectively) without interaction between the two drugs. The {sup 86}Rb uptake was not further inhibited by increasing the furosemide concentration from 0.12 mM to 1.0 mM. Our results suggest: firstly, the direct relaxing effect of furosemide on isolated vessel segments in endothelium-independent and secondly, the inhibition of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-Cl{sup -} cotransport and a possible consequent hyperpolarization of the membrane is unlikely to be the sole mechanism responsible for the vasorelaxant effect of furosemide. The demonstrated direct effect on vascular tone may be of clinical importance in situations with very high plasma concentrations of the drug or very low concentrations of serum albumin. (aluthor).

  4. [Therapeutic applications and promises of cellular and tissue engineering. What strategic choice for the Etablissement Français du Sang?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Patrick

    2007-05-01

    A new medical field, known as regeneration medicine, is developing and attracting more and more researchers and practitioners. Whereas hematopoietic cell-based therapies have already proven their efficacy in numerous--malignant or not--diseases, non-hematopoietic cell-based therapies have not. They can be useful to dozens, if not hundreds, of patients with various disorders, such as cardiopathy, diabetes, some types of cancer, osteoarticular and neurodegenerative disorders. In these fields, numerous clinical applications are possible for mesenchymal stem cells. Cell and tissue (corneas, bone, skin) therapy products require the definition of pharmaceutical standards with new European requirements in terms of quality and safety. The legitimacy of the Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS) in cell and tissue engineering activities is established, it is recognized by most specialists and by regulatory authorities and has been asserted by the orientations of its "contrat d'objectifs et de moyens". An independent committee has been set up by the EFS President to define an EFS-specific strategy. This committee made up of qualified specialists was required to draw up a rational organization plan for these activities, in order for EFS to be in a position to produce cells and tissues according to pharmaceutical standards. The committee proposals are based on economic data and an inventory of existing cell and tissue engineering activities. Public/private partnerships are required and efforts must focus towards the industrial valorization of EFS expertise in R&D activities and staff know-how. Implementing such a new organization requires national management and the cooperation of institutional actors (university hospitals, cancer treatment centers, universities). For the success of this approach, EFS personnel must be convinced of its legitimacy and new skills must be encouraged. With its numerous assets, EFS can be ambitious and assert itself as a major actor in cell and

  5. Les investisseurs étrangers à l’assaut des terres agricoles africaines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Brondeau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les terres agricoles africaines sont convoitées par de nombreux investisseurs étrangers, ce qui se matérialise par une accélération des transactions portant sur des concessions foncières à grande échelle. Ces investissements répondent à des enjeux très divers et font l’objet de contrats rudimentaires, dont les clauses exactes sont souvent méconnues. Ce phénomène très médiatisé est extrêmement controversé et suscite de virulentes critiques, alors que les analyses scientifiques sur le sujet sont encore très rares. Au regard des effets pervers pressentis et pour certains déjà perceptibles, il peut être perçu comme une des dérives d’un nouveau modèle de croissance agricole basé sur la promotion de l’agrobusiness.The African farmlands are the object of the greed of numerous foreign investors which materializes by an acceleration of the transactions carrying on the concession of lands on a large-scale. These investments correspond to very diverse stakes and give rise to rudimentary contract the exact clauses which are often underestimated. This very mediatized phenomenon is extremely debated and arouses virulent criticisms while the scientific analyses on the subject are still very rare. Towards the anticipated perverse effects and for some already perceptible, he can be perceived as one of the drift of a new agricultural growth model based on the promotion of the agrobusiness.

  6. Deterioro de la percepción visual en el envejecimiento: Mecanismos cerebrales compensadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Rodríguez-Ferrer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se han estudiado los efectos del envejecimiento normal en la percepción visual y la existencia de posibles mecanismos cerebrales compensadores. En tres grupos de 30 personas con edad media de 19,6, 42,6 y 65,7 años, se midieron los tiempos de respuesta a la presentación de estímulos (un círculo gris de 0.5 grados de diámetro de forma secuencial en 24 posiciones del campo visual, distribuidas en 8 coordenadas polares y 3 excentricidades (2.15, 3.83 y 5.53 grados de campo visual. El estímulo se presentó durante 100 milisegundos, con bajo y alto contraste (6% y 78%, respectivamente. Los experimentos se realizaron con y sin atención encubierta a los estímulos. Se observó un incremento progresivo de los tiempos de respuesta con la edad para los estímulos del 6% de contrate y de los presentados en la excentricidad de 5.53º. La atención redujo los tiempos de respuesta en los tres grupos de edad, especialmente en jóvenes y mayores. Los resultados muestran que durante el envejecimiento se produce un deterioro selectivo y progresivo en la percepción de estímulos de bajo contraste y que este deterioro es mayor en las zonas periféricas maculares. A partir de los sesenta años se potencia el desarrollo de mecanismos compensadores que implican una mayor eficacia de la atención visual.

  7. Duero Nórdico: la actitud Nórdica en la arquitectura de los Poblados Hidroeléctricos del Douro Internacional (1954-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Encinas Hernández

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de embalses a lo largo del s. XX ha permitido la participación activa de la arquitectura en los proyectos auxiliares que los acompañan, haciendo uso en numerosas ocasiones de un lenguaje decididamente racionalista. A la manera de la Thenessee Valley Authority, que contrató al arquitecto Roland A. Wank para diseñar una nueva ciudad junto al embalse Norris, un equipo de jóvenes arquitectos de Opor- to (adheridos a las nuevas corrientes encabezadas por Le Corbusier o Gropius, pero a la vez apegados a los valores líricos de un paisaje fronterizo teñido de melancolía dieron respuesta al encargo de diseñar varios complejos hidroeléctricos encadenados en la tierra más deprimida del Portugal de los cincuenta, tomando conciencia de la importancia del lugar como valor natural, de la cultura como valor propio y del con- texto condicionante complejo de la propuesta. Este posicionamiento, que encontraría en el referente nórdico su más feliz manifestación a partir de la publicación de varios textos de Aalto en portugués, se traduce hoy en un paisaje arquitectónico de fuerza omnipresente, y su ejemplo en los complejos hidroeléctricos de Miranda do Douro, Picote o Bemposta se hace extensible a Saucelle o Aldeadávila, de autoría netamente española

  8. Effacement énonciatif et doxa dans le discours théorique : l’exemple de Julia Kristeva The erasement of subjectivity and doxa in theoretical discourse: the case of Julia Kristeva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Provenzano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article entend contribuer à la réflexion menée sur les phénomènes d’effacement énonciatif, en particulier dans le discours théorique. L’approche se veut inséparablement rhétorique et socio-historique et porte sur un corpus composé des principaux articles publiés par Julia Kristeva dans les années 1960. Ceux-ci sont contrastés avec des interventions ultérieures de la théoricienne, répondant à d’autres enjeux et stratégies. Les effets construits par l’effacement énonciatif sont envisagés comme des opérations sur la doxa, orientées par un contrat rhétorique. Cette notion, située à l’intersection du socio-historique et du discursif, se veut un outil complémentaire pour l’analyse de l’efficace des discours dans un état de société.This paper tackles the issue of enunciative effacement, particularly in theoretical discourse. The approach is both rhetorical and socio-historical, as it focuses on texts published by Julia Kristeva in the sixties and contrasts them with more recent Kristeva speeches, corresponding to other issues and strategies. The effects brought about by enunciative effacement are considered as operations on doxa, which are oriented by a rhetorical contract. This notion, both socio-historical and rhetorical, provides a tool for analyzing the efficiency of discourses in a given state of society.

  9. Resilience of a cerradão subjected to intermediate disturbance in the Cerrado-Amazonia transition, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hur Marimon-Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that remnant forests in small protected areas may be resilient to intermediate disturbances. We analyzed the diameter and height distributions of the tree community in a typical cerradão (14°42’02.3”S and 52°21’02.6”W and determined which species were most abundant, sampling at two- to three-year intervals over eight years. In 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2010, we measured all live trees with a diameter ≥ 5 cm at 0.3 m above ground in 50 plots of 10 x 10 m. Although significant variation was observed in the density of the trees and the distributions of their diameters and heights, the community maintained the “reverse-J” and unimodal patterns for these distributions, respectively. These results indicate continuous recruitment and little change in the structure of the community over the study period, supporting our hypothesis. Three different patterns of diametric distribution were observed among the analyzed species, likely reflecting different forest occupation strategies. Hirtella glandulosa was the speciesmost able to exploit its environment, as it possessed the greatest overall abundance and was represented by individuals in all diameter classes.

  10. Assessment of the safety benefits of vehicles' advanced driver assistance, connectivity and low level automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lishengsa; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wu, Yina; Wang, Ling

    2018-04-11

    The Connected Vehicle (CV) technologies together with other Driving Assistance (DA) technologies are believed to have great effects on traffic operation and safety, and they are expected to impact the future of our cities. However, few research has estimated the exact safety benefits when all vehicles are equipped with these technologies. This paper seeks to fill the gap by using a general crash avoidance effectiveness framework for major CV&DA technologies to make a comprehensive crash reduction estimation. Twenty technologies that were tested in recent studies are summarized and sensitivity analysis is used for estimating their total crash avoidance effectiveness. The results show that crash avoidance effectiveness of CV&DA technology is significantly affected by the vehicle type and the safety estimation methodology. A 70% crash avoidance rate seems to be the highest effectiveness for the CV&DA technologies operating in the real-world environment. Based on the 2005-2008 U.S. GES Crash Records, this research found that the CV&DA technologies could lead to the reduction of light vehicles' crashes and heavy trucks' crashes by at least 32.99% and 40.88%, respectively. The rear-end crashes for both light vehicles and heavy trucks have the most expected crash benefits from the technologies. The paper also studies the effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning technology (FCW) under fog conditions, and the results show that FCW could reduce 35% of the near-crash events under fog conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Air pollution emissions and damages from energy production in the U.S.: 2002–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Muller, Nicholas Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses air pollution emissions data for the years 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 to estimate monetary damages due to air pollution exposure for PM 2.5 , SO 2 , NO x , NH 3 , and VOC from electric power generation, oil and gas extraction, coal mining, and oil refineries. In 2011, damages associated with emissions from these sectors totaled 131 billion dollars (in 2000$), with SO 2 emissions from power generation being the largest contributors to social damages. Further, damages have decreased significantly since 2002, even as energy production increased, suggesting that, among other factors, policies that have driven reductions in emissions have reduced damages. The results of this analysis highlight the spatial heterogeneity of the impacts associated with the emissions of a given pollutant. In the past, environmental regulations have assumed that the benefits of air emissions reductions are homogenous across source location. This analysis suggests that policy designs that account for spatial differences in the impacts of air emissions could result in more effective environmental regulation. Accounting for such spatial heterogeneity in the benefits of policies would be akin to accounting for differences in compliances costs across states, which the EPA did when establishing the state emissions standards for the Clean Power Plan rule. - Highlights: • Social costs of emissions from energy sector decreased between 2002 and 2011. • Emissions from power generation are the major contributors to social costs. • Policies to control SO 2 emissions may produce the largest social costs reductions.

  12. Which Fall Ascertainment Method Captures Most Falls in Pre-Frail and Frail Seniors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teister, Corina J; Chocano-Bedoya, Patricia O; Orav, Endel J; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Meyer, Ursina; Meyer, Otto W; Freystaetter, Gregor; Gagesch, Michael; Rizzoli, Rene; Egli, Andreas; Theiler, Robert; Kanis, John A; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2018-06-15

    There is no consensus on most reliable falls ascertainment method. Therefore, we investigated which method captures most falls among pre-frail and frail seniors from two randomized controlled trials conducted in Zurich, Switzerland, a 18-month trial (2009-2010) including 200 community-dwelling pre-frail seniors with a prior fall and a 12-month trial (2005-2008) including 173 frail seniors with acute hip fracture. Both included the same fall ascertainment methods: monthly active-asking, daily self-report diary, and a call-in hotline. We compared number of falls reported and estimated overall and positive percent agreement between methods. Pre-frail seniors reported 499 falls (rate = 2.5/year) and frail seniors reported 205 falls (rate = 1.4/year). Most falls were reported by active-asking: 81% of falls in pre-frail, and 78% in frail seniors. Among pre-frail seniors, diaries captured additional 19% falls, while hotline added none. Among frail seniors, hotline added 16% falls, while diaries added 6%. The positive percent agreement between active-asking and diary was 100% among pre-frail and 88% among frail seniors. While monthly active-asking captures most falls in both groups, this method alone missed 19% of falls in pre-frail and 22% in frail seniors. Thus, a combination of active-asking and diaries for pre-frail, and active-asking and the hotline for frail seniors is warranted.

  13. Trends and costs of overtime among nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drebit, Sharla; Ngan, Karen; Hay, Mande; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2010-06-01

    To examine the regular and overtime working hours of Registered Nurses in acute care and their associated costs by employment status (full time, part time, casual) and department over a 4-year period. Data were extracted for 2005-2008 from one health region's payroll database for Registered Nurses in acute care in British Columbia, Canada. Regular and overtime hours by employment status and department were plotted over time and tested using simple linear regression. Regular and overtime wage costs were calculated at the individual level using the employee's wage rate and stratified by year, gender, age, employment status and department. Full time Registered Nurses are working an increasing amount of overtime hours each year. Full time nurses in Emergency, Intensive Care and General Medical departments are working the highest proportion of overtime hours per total hours and consequently, contributing the highest proportion of overtime costs. Efforts to lighten the burden of overtime should be focused at the department level. Creating more full time positions out of overtime hours may be one solution to alleviate this burden of overtime and to assuage the nursing shortage in Canada. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A risk prediction score for invasive mold disease in patients with hematological malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stanzani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A risk score for invasive mold disease (IMD in patients with hematological malignancies could facilitate patient screening and improve the targeted use of antifungal prophylaxis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1,709 hospital admissions of 840 patients with hematological malignancies (2005-2008 to collect data on 17 epidemiological and treatment-related risk factors for IMD. Multivariate regression was used to develop a weighted risk score based on independent risk factors associated with proven or probable IMD, which was prospectively validated during 1,746 hospital admissions of 855 patients from 2009-2012. RESULTS: Of the 17 candidate variables analyzed, 11 correlated with IMD by univariate analysis, but only 4 risk factors (neutropenia, lymphocytopenia or lymphocyte dysfunction in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, malignancy status, and prior IMD were retained in the final multivariate model, resulting in a weighted risk score 0-13. A risk score of 5% of IMD, with a negative predictive value (NPV of 0.99, (95% CI 0.98-0.99. During 2009-2012, patients with a calculated risk score at admission of 6 (0.9% vs. 10.6%, P <0.001. CONCLUSION: An objective, weighted risk score for IMD can accurately discriminate patients with hematological malignancies at low risk for developing mold disease, and could possibly facilitate "screening-out" of low risk patients less likely to benefit from intensive diagnostic monitoring or mold-directed antifungal prophylaxis.

  15. Daily global solar radiation modelling using multi-layer perceptron neural networks in semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawloud GUERMOUI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of Daily Global Solar Radiation (DGSR has been a major goal for solar energy application. However, solar radiation measurements are not a simple task for several reasons. In the cases where data are not available, it is very common the use of computational models to estimate the missing data, which are based mainly of the search for relationships between weather variables, such as temperature, humidity, sunshine duration, etc. In this respect, the present study focuses on the development of artificial neural network (ANN model for estimation of daily global solar radiation on horizontal surface in Ghardaia city (South Algeria. In this analysis back-propagation algorithm is applied. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine duration was used as climatic inputs parameters, while the daily global solar radiation (DGSR was the only output of the ANN. We have evaluated Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP models to estimate DGSR using three year of measurement (2005-2008. It was found that MLP-model based on sunshine duration and mean air temperature give accurate results in term of Mean Absolute Bias Error, Root Mean Square Error, Relative Square Error and Correlation Coefficient. The obtained values of these indicators are 0.67 MJ/m², 1.28 MJ/m², 6.12%and 98.18%, respectively which shows that MLP is highly qualified for DGSR estimation in semi-arid climates.

  16. Modifiable Lifestyle Behaviors Are Associated With Metabolic Syndrome in a Taiwanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuei-Man; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Shu-Hua; Tan, Jung-Ying; Huang, Chien-Ning; Liao, Wen-Chun

    2015-11-01

    To explore associations between metabolic syndrome and modifiable lifestyle behaviors among the adult population in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample that participated in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. The sample (2,337 participants older than 19 years) provided data on demographic characteristics, modifiable lifestyle behaviors, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemistry panel. These data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression to determine factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 25.2%, and this prevalence increased with age. In univariate regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with age, living with family members, educational level, and modifiable lifestyle behaviors (smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing, and physical activity). Individuals with a smoking history and currently chewing betel quid had the highest risk for metabolic syndrome. The risk for metabolic syndrome might be reduced by public health campaigns to encourage people to quit smoking cigarettes and chewing betel quid. Implementing more modifiable lifestyle behaviors in daily life will decrease metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Considering that betel quid chewing and tobacco smoking interact to adversely affect metabolic syndrome risk, public health campaigns against both behaviors seem to be a cost-effective and efficient health promotion strategy to reduce the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Investigating oral health-related quality of life and self-perceived satisfaction with partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, Menaka A; Kahwagi, Esperance; Yamakawa, Takeshi

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence and severity of oral health-related quality of life in patients treated with removable partial dentures at a publicly-funded dental hospital. The association between patients' demographic profiles, denture-related, variables and oral health-related quality of life was also investigated. A questionnaire was designed to investigate the use and satisfaction of removable partial dentures, and oral health-related quality of life of removable partial denture wearers using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14. The questionnaire was administered to 740 randomly-selected patients who received removable partial dentures during 2005-2008. The response rate was 31.35%. Non-parametric tests and a logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between denture-related variables and oral health-related quality of life. A question on symptoms unrelated to dentures was also analyzed. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 prevalence calculated was 43.1%. The removable partial denture experience and frequency of use was inversely associated with Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scores. Metal-based removable partial dentures were associated with lower Oral Health Impact Profile prevalence and severity scores. No significant association was found between demographic profile, circumstance for provision of removable partial dentures and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 score. The participants of this study indicated that perceived denture performance, removable partial dentures material, experience, and frequency of use are associated with oral health-related quality of life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses to enterovirus 71 infections in young children: implications for vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Liang Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused life-threatening outbreaks involving neurological and cardiopulmonary complications in Asian children with unknown mechanism. EV71 has one single serotype but can be phylogenetically classified into 3 main genogroups (A, B and C and 11 genotypes (A, B1∼B5 and C1∼C5. In Taiwan, nationwide EV71 epidemics with different predominant genotypes occurred in 1998 (C2, 2000-2001 (B4, 2004-2005 (C4, and 2008 (B5. In this study, sera were collected to measure cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against different genotypes. METHODS: We collected historical sera from children who developed an EV71 infection in 1998, 2000, 2005, 2008, or 2010 and measured cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against all 11 EV71 genotypes. In addition, we aligned and compared the amino acid sequences of P1 proteins of the tested viruses. RESULTS: Serology data showed that children infected with genogroups B and C consistently have lower neutralizing antibody titers against genogroup A (>4-fold difference. The sequence comparisons revealed that five amino acid signatures (N143D in VP2; K18R, H116Y, D167E, and S275A in VP1 are specific for genogroup A and may be related to the observed antigenic variations. CONCLUSIONS: This study documented antigenic variations among different EV71 genogroups and identified potential immunodominant amino acid positions. Enterovirus surveillance and vaccine development should monitor these positions.

  19. Entre o Planejamento Estratégico Formal e Informal: um Estudo de Caso Exploratório sobre a Prática de Estratégia nas Organizações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Motta Luiz de Souza

    Full Text Available Most studies on strategy formation have a constitutive contingency element that defines variables through which one could sort organizations into a certain order to indicate what type of strategy formation is more suitable for each (e.g. Mintzberg & McHugh, 1985. This almost prescriptive ordinance concerning the content, process and practice of strategy in organizations can lead one to the perception that it is possible to determine the pattern of strategy of formation in organizations through the simple analysis of some predetermined variables. Guided by the strategy-as-practice approach (Jarzabkowski, 2005, 2008; Whittington, 1996, 2006, this paper explores the practice of strategic planning based on an exploratory single case study in a project-based organization, through which it was possible to identify change processes that shaped different stages of the strategic planning practice over the years with distinct characteristics regarding its (informality. These processes were analyzed using an approach inspired on the structuration theory (Giddens, 1984, indicating that the adequate level of strategic planning formalization should be defined by the structuration of practice in its social dynamic.

  20. Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic oral health disparities among US older adults: oral health quality of life and dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Deborah L; Park, Mijung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine if older adults living in poverty and from minority racial/ethnic groups experienced disproportionately high rates of poor oral health outcomes measured by oral health quality of life (OHQOL) and number of permanent teeth. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,745 community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. Oral health outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using the NHANES-Oral Health Impact Profile for OHQOL and standardized examination for dentition. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between oral health outcomes and predictors of interest. All analyses were weighted to account for complex survey sampling methods. Both poverty and minority race/ethnicity were significantly associated with poor oral health outcomes in OHQOL and number of permanent teeth. Distribution of scores for each OHQOL domain varied by minority racial/ethnic group. Oral health disparities persist in older adults living in poverty and among those from minority racial/ethnic groups. The racial/ethnic variation in OHQOL domains should be further examined to develop interventions to improve the oral health of these groups. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  1. Penerapan Metode Balanced ScoreCard Sebagai Suatu Sistem Pengukuran Kinerja pada PT Dritama Brokerindo, Jakarta Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Sarjono

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in insurance company of PT Dritama Brokerindo, East Jakarta, by using Balanced Scorecard method, with four perpectives which measured, which are the finance perpective (financial statement, customer perpective (quizioner, perpective process internal business (quizioner and in growth, and study perpective (quizioner. With total employees 18 employees people, serving company customer about almost 1500.Research method which used is descriptive method with research type is case study. data analyse Technique which used is using primary data processing, like : field study, interview, quizioner and also secondary data with data collecting from company which is in the form of financial statement year 2005 - 2008. Research result that, performance PT Dritama Brokerindo which during the time measured traditionally, the management not get clear information, and measured about non finansial aspect of company. Triedly apply system of performance measurement with Balanced Scorecard, got the comprehensive and more complete result about condition of company which in fact. Pursuant to result of research from entirety aspect, obtained a total score 110, or value three which shown Good Enough criterion. 

  2. Progress toward interrupting wild poliovirus circulation in countries with reestablished transmission--Africa, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    Through efforts of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), begun in 1988, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) had been interrupted in all but four countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria) by 2006. Since 2002, a total of 39 previously polio-free countries experienced outbreaks following importation of WPV of Indian or Nigerian origin. Most outbreaks were stopped 12 months following importation before 2009. A key milestone of the GPEI 2010-2012 strategic plan was to interrupt WPV transmission in these African countries with reestablished transmission by the end of 2010. As of March 8, 2011, the milestone appeared to be on track only in Sudan. In Sudan, WPV type 1 (WPV1) was introduced in 2004, but no cases were detected for a 31-month period during 2005-2008. When resurgence occurred in 2008, surveillance and eradication efforts were enhanced, and no case has been detected since June 2009. In Chad, WPV type 3 (WPV3) transmission has persisted since 2007, although undetected for 7 months in 2010. In Angola, WPV1 circulation has persisted following importation in 2007, and became more widespread in 2010, with subsequent importations into DRC and Republic of the Congo (ROC). In DRC, WPV1 circulation has persisted since introduction in 2006. Achieving polio eradication depends on stopping WPV transmission in the four endemic countries and overcoming substantial, ongoing programmatic weaknesses in Chad, Angola, and DRC.

  3. Sensory Impairments and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Chen, Yanjun; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Pinto, A Alex

    2017-08-01

    Hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments have been associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about associations with cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Sensory and cognitive functions were measured on participants in the baseline examination (2005-2008) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Cognitive function was measured with the Trail Making tests A (TMTA) and B (TMTB) and the Grooved Peg Board test. Pure-tone audiometry, Pelli-Robson letter charts, and the San Diego Odor Identification test were used to measure hearing, contrast sensitivity, and olfaction, respectively. There were 2,836 participants aged 21-84 years with measures of hearing, visual, olfactory, and cognitive function at the baseline examination. Nineteen percent of the cohort had one sensory impairment and 3% had multiple sensory impairments. In multivariable adjusted linear regression models that included all three sensory impairments, hearing impairment, visual impairment, and olfactory impairment were each independently associated with poorer performance on the TMTA, TMTB, and Grooved Peg Board (p cognitive function tests independent of the other sensory impairments and factors associated with cognition. Sensory impairments in midlife are associated with subtle deficits in cognitive function which may be indicative of early brain aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Developing business opportunities for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.

    2001-01-01

    A quick review of the history of Dynetek Industries Limited was provided. During the period 1991-1995, it began research and development efforts in the field of advanced lightweight fuel storage systems and the DyneCell R Fuel Storage Systems was introduced on the market. In 1997, it began supplying Ballard Power Systems with hydrogen fuel tanks. Trading on the Toronto Stock Exchange started in September 2000, and in 2001 Dynetek incorporated a 100 per cent European subsidiary, Dynetek Europe GmbH. The advantages of the product are numerous: lightest cylinder on the market with a metallic liner, highest storage capacity of all lightweight designs, non-permeable, one piece, seamless aluminium liner, and true fast-fill capabilities to name but a few. Dynetek's vision of market development was introduced. It involves a California demonstration project for the period 2001-2003 which should lead to transit vehicles in 2005-2008. Fleet vehicles are expected to follow suit during the same period, and the consumer market should be ripe in 2010-2015. Some of the challenges facing the industry were discussed and Dynetek's role in meeting them was examined. figs

  5. [Clinical-morphological and histometric characteristics of soft tissue wounds in maxilla-facial region of patients in different terms after trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorina, T A; Braĭlovskaia, T V

    2009-01-01

    504 patients with open traumas of face soft tissues which were given primary surgical wounds treatment with reconstructive operations in maxilla-facial surgical clinics of Samara State Medical University in 2005-2008 also received detailed description. The results of statistical analysis of patients' surgical treatment for the previous 5 year period were listed. It was noted that in the majority of cases (75,5%) patients turned to stomatological aid in first hours or first day and night after receiving the injury, more often there were isolated soft tissue injuries (73,3%), tear-contused and cut wounds put together 80,5%. Morphological and histometric studies of operational-biopsy material let determine the character of changes of leucocyte infiltration and of epithelium - stromal interrelation in different zones of wound edges in patients incoming in different terms after trauma. Objective criteria of tissue excision volumes were received in the process of surgical wound treatment. During last 3 years esthetic results of patient treatment with maxilla-facial traumas improved, the postoperative complications frequency was reduced by 8,1% if compared with the previous 5-year period.

  6. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: a prospective feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaudis, H; Pupelis, G; Zeiza, K; Boka, V

    2012-01-01

    Experience with administration of synbiotics (prebiotics/probiotics) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity. The aim of this trial was evaluation of the feasibility and perspective of early clinical application of oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplements in patients with SAP. 90 SAP patients were enrolled during the period from 2005-2008. Patients were stratified according to the feeding mode. CONTROL (n = 32) group received standard whole protein feeding formula. SYNBIO (n = 30) and FIBRE groups (n = 28) received early (within first 24-48 hours) synbiotic or prebiotic supplements. Oral administration of synbiotics or prebiotics was commenced when patients were able to sip water. Daily provided average volume and calories of synbiotic/prebiotic blends were smaller compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.001. Oral administration of synbiotic/prebiotic supplements was associated with lower infection rate (pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis) compared to the CONTROL, (p = 0.03; p = 0.001), lower rate of surgical interventions, p = 0.005, shorter ICU (p = 0.05) and hospital stay (p = 0.03). Synbiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut resulted in reduced mortality rate compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.02. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut seems to be a potentially valuable complement to the routine treatment protocol of SAP.

  7. A coesão textual como ferramenta para compreensão de textos em língua inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique Rosa Senefonte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa ancora-se nos pressupostos de que o sentido do texto é construído pelo leitor e para que isso ocorra, é necessária a ativação de vários conhecimentos, dentre eles o domínio de mecanismos coesivos (KOCH, 2000, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008; MARCUSCHI, 2008. Dessa forma, o artigo objetiva ilustrar de forma prática como os conhecimentos de coesão textual auxiliam na compreensão de textos em língua inglesa como língua estrangeira. Para isso, foi demonstrado um procedimento metodológico, ancorado na literatura supracitada, para uma possível compreensão de uma notícia extraída do jornal “The New York Times”. Por meio de uma abordagem de leitura instrumental (TODA, 2010, tal procedimento comprovou que a construção de sentido (compreensão do texto foi possível graças à ativação de vários conhecimentos a respeito estratégias de leitura, incluindo o conhecimento acerca de coesão textual.

  8. Non formal education in the teaching of peruvian dances among peruvian migrants in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Benza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing migration of Peruvian citizens to Buenos Aires is a recent phenomenon, and the intensification of the development of organizations and their public presence are correlated with the participation in festivities, civic organizations and the like. This article is a preliminary report on research that focuses on Peruvian dance groups in Buenos Aires and that proposes to describe some of the ways that Peruvian folkdances are transmitted. I show how a process of non formal education is shaped by the interactions among dance groups and between them and representatives of the Peruvian Government in Buenos Aires; and how it is influenced by the need to «demonstrate through performance,» by ways of participating in the groups and by the previous knowledge of the dances that the performers bring with them. The analysis focuses on the microanalytic dimension of representations and practices of the dancers and directors of the dance groups. The fieldwork was carried out in the period 2005-2008 and focused on four groups of Peruvian folk dancers. The phenomena studied are shown to have great potential as intercultural mediators that transcend cultural manifestations to become mechanisms of consciousness raising that reach out to publics beyond the Peruvians themselves.

  9. Narrated Political Theory: Theorizing Pop Culture in Dietmar Dath’s Novel Für immer in Honig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spitaler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, debates on the relationship between pop culture and the political have transgressed academia and have even been prominent in pop (media discourses and texts, including pop literature. Amongst the contributions at the inter-section of art, theory and entertainment are the novels and essays by the German author Dietmar Dath. Taking the example of his novel Für immer in Honig (Berlin 2005/2008, it will be discussed how the book reloads and theorizes pop culture, and how a common cultural-theoretical narrative of de-politicized pop is challenged by the imaginative narratives of the novel. It will be argued that Dath’s references to affective ‘mattering maps’ of pop culture, that on the one hand tend to fall into the pitfalls of exclusive ‘pop sophis-tication’, nevertheless play a key role for his aesthetical/theoretical project of political emancipation, and that these references can be viewed as examples of why popular passions matter for the formation of political identities/subjectivities as well as for the production and reading of political theory.

  10. Effects of work and life stress on semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Teresa; Kahn, Linda G; Landsbergis, Paul; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Liu, Xinhua; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate associations between work-related stress, stressful life events, and perceived stress and semen quality. Cross-sectional analysis. Northern California. 193 men from the Child Health and Development Studies evaluated between 2005-2008. None. Measures of stress including job strain, perceived stress, and stressful life events; outcome measures of sperm concentration, percentage of motile sperm, and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. We found an inverse association between perceived stress score and sperm concentration (estimated coefficient b=-0.09×10(3)/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.18, -0.01), motility (b=-0.39; 95% CI=-0.79, 0.01), and morphology (b=-0.14; 95% CI, -0.25, -0.04) in covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses. Men who experienced two or more stressful life events in the past year compared with no stressful events had a lower percentage of motile sperm (b=-8.22; 95% CI, -14.31, -2.13) and a lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm (b=-1.66; 95% CI, -3.35, 0.03) but a similar sperm concentration. Job strain was not associated with semen parameters. In this first study to examine all three domains of stress, perceived stress and stressful life events but not work-related stress were associated with semen quality. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in overweight and obesity in Danish children and adolescents: 2000-2008 – exploring changes according to parental education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Stockmarr, Anders; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the hypotheses that an overall levelling off in the prevalence of overweight and obesity during the period 2000-2008 has occurred, and that increasing social inequality in overweight and obesity exists in a nationally representative sample of Danish children and adolescents. Meth...... inequality in overweight among boys. Public health initiatives aimed at preventing and reducing overweight and obesity should consider gender difference and especially target boys with parents of low educational level........ Methods: The population comprised a random sample of 1849 children aged 4-14 years who participated in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity in 2000-2002, 2003-2004 and 2005-2008. Parental education was chosen as an indicator of children's socioeconomic status. Body mass index (BMI...... educational level only. A strong inverse social gradient in overweight and obesity was documented for boys and girls during the whole survey period. Conclusions: The present study showed an increase in the prevalence of overweight in Danish boys, but not in girls. This increase was due to increasing social...

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation in vitro bulbiets storage ability and genetic variation of six garlic genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.F.; Gharib, A.A.; El-Shamy, M.R.; Abd El-Wadod, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was carried out in the Tissue Culture Laboratory of Potato and Vegetatively Propagated Crops, Vegetable Research Department, Agricultural Research Center (A.R.C.), during the period of 2005-2008 to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays (0, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 14 Gy) on the in vitro bulblets production from shoot basal plate (Sbp) explants of six garlic genotypes including three cultivars (Balady, American and Omani) and three clones (Sids-40, EgaSeedl and EgaSeed2) on a bulblets production medium (MS + 120 g/1 sucrose + 5 g/l activated charcoal + 0.1 mg BA/1). The present investigation also studied the storage ability of the in vitro produced bulblets stored in a growth chamber at 25° C during four months of storage. The random amplified polumorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis confirmed the genetic background of irradiated garlic genotypes. All garlic genotypes were able to produce bulblets from Sbp explants. At the end of storage period (4 months) the bulblets were healthy and suitable for cultivation in the field. RAPD analysis indicated that the six garlic genotypes are different in the number of bands and this was attributed to the gamma ray doses

  13. Práctica y significado del consentimiento informado en hospitales de Colombia y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Ovalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparo el significado y la práctica del consentimiento informado (CI en doshospitales de Colombia y Chile, mediante el método cualitativo de estudio de casos. Los resultadosempíricos los contrasté inductivamente con las tensiones, diferencias y vínculos entre los presupuestosteóricos de la bioética con los jurídicos en el período 2005-2008, en el marco de sus respectivaspolíticas públicas. Confirmé el incumplimiento del CI y el no reconocimiento de la autonomía de lospacientes y de las pacientes en la práctica del CI. Propongo como una manera de dirimir el conflictoentre los aspectos legales y bioéticos del CI, la fundamentación de un enfoque de derechos con unaperspectiva bioética, y planteo pautas a seguir durante el proceso de CI.

  14. Implementation of an automated system for monitoring adherence to hemodialysis treatment: a report of seven years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Sacchi, Lucia; Caffi, Ezio; de Vincenzi, Amedeo; Nai, Maurizio; Manicone, Francesco; Larizza, Cristiana; Bellazzi, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we present the clinical deployment and evaluation of a computerized system, EMOSTAT, aimed at improving the quality of hemodialysis sessions. EMOSTAT automatically imports data from the hemodialysis monitoring software tools and analyzes the delivered treatment looking at six clinically relevant parameters. Failures-to-adhere (FtAs) to the planned treatment are detected and reported to the care-givers. EMOSTAT has been used for more than seven years in the management of a dialysis service located in Mede, Italy. A total of 72 patients were monitored and 21251 dialyses were collected. Data analysis is performed on the periods 2002-2005 and 2005-2008, corresponding to two different software releases. The system had been exploited into everyday clinical practice for the entire considered period. The number of FtAs significantly decreased along the first period: the bulk blood flow FtAs decreased after the introduction of the system. Hemodialysis sessions lasted longer in the second period. Co-occurring FtAs, highlighting the presence of complex FtAs patterns, were also detected. EMOSTAT provides an effective way to re-focus the attention of the dialysis department on the treatment plan and on its implementation. The automatic data collection and the design philosophy of EMOSTAT allowed the routine use of the system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Resolution Mid-IR Imaging of Jupiter's Great Red Spot: Comparing Cassini, VLT and Subaru Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G. S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Baines, K. H.; Edkins, E.; Line, M. R.; Mousis, O.; Parrish, P. D.; Vanzi, L.; Fuse, T.; Fujoyoshi, T.

    2008-09-01

    In the eight years since the Cassini fly-by of Jupiter, the spatial resolution of ground-based observations of Jupiter's giant anticyclonic storm systems (the Great Red Spot, Oval BA and others) using 8m-class telescopes has surpassed the resolution of the Cassini/CIRS maps. We present a time-series of mid-IR imaging of the Great Red Spot (GRS) and its environs from the VISIR instrument on the Very Large Telescope (UT3/Melipal) and the COMICS instrument on the Subaru telescope (Hawaii). The NEMESIS optimal-estimation retrieval algorithm (Irwin et al., 2008) is used to analyse both the 7-25 micron filtered imaging from 2005-2008 and Cassini/CIRS 7-16 micron data from 2000. We demonstrate the ability to map temperatures in the 100-400 mbar range, NH3, aerosol opacity and the para-H2 fraction from the filtered imaging. Furthermore, the Cassini/CIRS spectra are used to map the PH3 mole fraction around the GRS. The thermal field, gaseous composition and aerosol distribution are used as diagnostics for the atmospheric motion associated with the GRS. Changes in the atmospheric state in response to close encounters with Oval BA and other vortices will be assessed. These results will be discussed in light of their implications for the planning of the Europa-Jupiter System Mission.

  16. [REAL AND UNREAL BACKLASHES OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITY FOR THE HEALTH OF POPULATION RESIDING NEAR AREAS OF FALL OF BEING SEPARATED PARTS OF CARRIER ROCKETS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, N A; Valtseva, E A; Kharlamova, E N; Kulikova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, the ongoing debate about the consequences of the rocket-space activities for the health of people residing near areas offall ofseparatingfrom parts of rockets. Some scientists (Kolyado IB et al., 2001, 2013; Shoikhet YN et al., 2005, 2008; Skrebtsova NV 2005, 2006, Sidorov PI et al., 2007) argue that the main cause of morbidity is the effect of unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). However, environmentalists find it only in areas offalling fragments of separated parts of carrier rockets. Presented in the article data were obtained as a result of perennial epidemiological and hygienic research. There was performed a hygienic assessment of the content of chemical substances in water soil andfood, nutritional status and health risk near areas of the district of falling 310 and 326. There were studied conditions of work and the health of military personnel at the sites of storage of propellant components. The relationship between revealed diseases and UDMH was not established, but there was their causality due to the influence of environmental factors characteristic of territories and living conditions. In the settlements near the area of falling district 310 the share of extremely anxious persons was shown to be 1.8 times higher than in controls, which is caused by cases of falling fragments stages of carrier rockets in the territory of settlements.

  17. I-tese newsletter. Number 1 (quarterly - June 2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    I-tese, the Institute of technico-economy of energy systems of the French atomic energy and alternate energies commission (CEA), carries out technical-economical studies and multi-criteria and prospective analyses of energy technologies or systems from the primary sources to the end-use. The quarterly I-tese newsletters present some news elements allowing to better understand the stakes of the new energy supply challenges under its different aspects: economy, energy independence, environment and Earth preservation. This issue treats of the following topics: The MIT report about coal: an energy of the future but at what price; hydrogen and fuel cells: what place in tomorrow's energy world; energy and CO 2 markets: drop of the CO 2 price during the 2005-2008 period but high rate for the 2008-2012 era, day-to-day extreme volatility of electric power prices between Germany and France, 2008 delivery power prices, influence of CO 2 prices on electricity prices, uranium market and prices change, enrichment market; news in brief: energy storage: creation of the Edelveiss project, taking into account of environmental criteria in the design of a process, Energy regulation authority's cost evaluation of the cost of the support to renewable energy sources; special issue: climatic change, reality, consequences, European overview and commitments. (J.S.)

  18. [A school-level longitudinal study of clinical performance examination scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Hee

    2015-06-01

    This school-level longitudinal study examined 7 years of clinical performance data to determine differences (effects) in students and annual changes within a school and between schools; examine how much their predictors (characteristics) influenced the variation in student performance; and calculate estimates of the schools' initial status and growth. A school-level longitudinal model was tested: level 1 (between students), level 2 (annual change within a school), and level 3 (between schools). The study sample comprised students who belonged to the CPX Consortium (n=5,283 for 2005~2008 and n=4,337 for 2009~2011). Despite a difference between evaluation domains, the performance outcomes were related to individual large-effect differences and small-effect school-level differences. Physical examination, clinical courtesy, and patient education were strongly influenced by the school effect, whereas patient-physician interaction was not affected much. Student scores are influenced by the school effect (differences), and the predictors explain the variation in differences, depending on the evaluation domain.

  19. Quantum Field Thoery at the Limits

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Helmholtz International Summer School (HISS) - Dubna International Advanced School of Theoretical Physics (DIAS-TH) "Physics of Heavy Quarks and Hadrons", organized by the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, will be held from 18 to 30 July, 2016 in Dubna. It continues a series of workshops and schools held in Dubna (1993, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2013) and Bad Honnef (1994) and Rostock (1997). The School will cover the main topics in heavy flavor physics. It will provide a first hand opportunity to a good number of graduate students and postdocs in high energy physics to hear the latest results on heavy quark physics from all four experimental collaborations at the LHC (ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, ALICE) and from the B-factory at the KEK. Leading experts in this field will read a series of lectures devoted to theoretical analysis of the experimental results. Some lectures will be devoted to strong-field QED and high-intensity plasma physics. The lecture...

  20. The relationship between insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with hypercholesterolemia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Yu-Hsia; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2016-02-01

    To examine the association between insomnia with short sleep duration and hypercholesterolemia in Taiwanese adults. Previous studies mostly focused on the association between sleep duration and hyperlipidemia, but the results were not consistent. Besides, very few studies extensively examined the association between insomnia and hypercholesterolemia. This study hypothesized that insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with hypercholesterolemia. Secondary data analysis. This study analysed the latest database of the cross-sectional Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan which was released on 2011 (data collected between 2005-2008) and collected data using stratified three-staged probability sampling design. This study analysed 1533 participants aged between 19-64 (733 males and 800 females) and used logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval of insomnia with short sleep duration to hypercholesterolemia. Controlled confounders included age, gender, sample weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hypertension and diabetes. Insomnia with 5-6 hours of sleep duration was significantly associated with hypercholesterolemia. The odds ratio of mild insomnia or moderate/severe insomnia with 5-6 hours of sleep duration to hypercholesterolemia was higher, compared with the reference group (without insomnia and >6 hours of sleep duration). Insomnia with short sleep duration was associated with increased odds of hypercholesterolemia. Caregivers in clinical practice should watch out for the effect brought by this novel factor. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Associations of sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in children with a family history of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Travis John; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Mathieu, Marie-Ève; Henderson, Mélanie; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children. To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8-11 years with a family history of obesity. Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort) were collected from 2005-2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score. After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1-4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all pfasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all pobesity.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of Multi-Sector Partnerships to manage droughts: The case of the Jucar river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, María.; Máñez Costa, María.; Andreu, Joaquín.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Haro-Monteagudo, David; Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Cremades, Roger

    2017-07-01

    South-east Spain is a drought prone area, characterized by climate variability and water scarcity. The Jucar River Basin, located in Eastern Spain, has suffered many historical droughts with significant socio-economic impacts. For nearly a hundred years, the institutional and non-institutional strategies to cope with droughts have been successful through the development of institutions and partnerships for drought management including multiple actors. In this paper, we show how the creation and institutionalisation of Multi-Sector Partnerships (MSPs) has supported the development of an efficient drought management. Furthermore, we analyze the performance of one of the suggested instruments by the partnership related to drought management in the basin. Two methodologies are used for these purposes. On one hand, the Capital Approach Framework to analyze the effectiveness of the governance processes in a particular partnership (Permanent Drought Commission), which aims to highlight the governance strength and weakness of the MSP for enhancing drought management in the Jucar River Basin. Through a dynamic analysis of the changes that the partnership has undergone over time to successfully deal with droughts, its effectiveness on drought management is demonstrated. On the other hand, an econometric approach is used to analyze the economic efficiency of the emergency drought wells as one of the key drought mitigation measures suggested by the Permanent Drought Commission and implemented. The results demonstrate the potential and efficiency of applying drought wells as mitigation measures (significant reduction of economic losses, around 50 M€ during the drought period, 2005-2008).

  3. Effect of smoke-free legislation on Ticino gastronomy revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Peter J; Hartung, Uwe; Fiordelli, Maddalena

    2012-12-01

    To provide evidence on the effects of smoke-free laws on gastronomy revenue in a European setting based on objective data. Damage to gastronomy revenue is a widely used argument against smoke-free legislation. Gastronomy revenue in Ticino is compared with the rest of Switzerland before and after Ticino banned smoking from gastronomy in April 2007, being the first (and at the time of the study only) Swiss canton to do that. The study uses breakdowns by cantons of taxable revenue of gastronomy branches and retailers (for comparison) provided by the Swiss tax authorities for the years 2005-2008. Revenues of restaurants and bars were not damaged by the Ticino smoke-free law. Decreases in Ticino happened before the smoke-free law came into effect. Evidence for night clubs is inconclusive. The absence of detrimental effects on restaurant and bar revenue corroborates the gist of research on the subject from other countries. The argument that the decline of bar and restaurant sales prior to the implementation of the ban might have occurred in anticipation of the new regulation is not considered tenable.

  4. PERFORMANCE OF COLD-BLOODED HORSES IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURAJ MLYNEK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding program is based on an assessment of their exterior, and is largely influenced by the performance. The objective of the work was to analyze the performance characteristics of cold-blooded horses in Slovakia using test of performance characteristics through carriage race. By evaluating the higher forms of utility control we concluded that scores in individual disciplines were very balanced during 2005-2008, which was due to a steady track of the horses involved and the carriagers. By increasing the number of new horses and new competitors in 2009 the average value of scores marked substantial deterioration, but this cannot be seen as degradation of performance of studied horses. By analysis of the factors affecting the score we found out, that gender as the only factor, did not have any significant impact on the studied disciplines of utility control. Carriager and the year of competition were amongst the factors mostly influencing the score. As the most successful line, whose representatives were most frequently and best ranked on the carriage races, we can choose the line of Bayard de Heredia. Its seven representatives participated in the period 2005-2011 altogether for 141-times and their average ranking ranged from 2.2 to 5.4.

  5. Urban-rural differences in the association between access to healthcare and health outcomes among older adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xufan; Dupre, Matthew E; Qiu, Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yuan; Gu, Danan

    2017-07-19

    Studies have shown that inadequate access to healthcare is associated with lower levels of health and well-being in older adults. Studies have also shown significant urban-rural differences in access to healthcare in developing countries such as China. However, there is limited evidence of whether the association between access to healthcare and health outcomes differs by urban-rural residence at older ages in China. Four waves of data (2005, 2008/2009, 2011/2012, and 2014) from the largest national longitudinal survey of adults aged 65 and older in mainland China (n = 26,604) were used for analysis. The association between inadequate access to healthcare (y/n) and multiple health outcomes were examined-including instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability, ADL disability, cognitive impairment, and all-cause mortality. A series of multivariate models were used to obtain robust estimates and to account for various covariates associated with access to healthcare and/or health outcomes. All models were stratified by urban-rural residence. Inadequate access to healthcare was significantly higher among older adults in rural areas than in urban areas (9.1% vs. 5.4%; p China. The associations between access to healthcare and health outcomes were generally stronger among older adults in rural areas than in urban areas. Our findings underscore the importance of providing adequate access to healthcare for older adults-particularly for those living in rural areas in developing countries such as China.

  6. Impact of a health safety warning and prior authorisation on the use of piroxicam: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Pia-Morandeira, Agustin; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quantitative changes in systemic use of piroxicam after the issue of a health safety warning about its risks and the subsequent implementation of prior authorisation. We determined the number of monthly daily defined doses/1000 inhabitants/day (DHDs) of piroxicam in the period 2005-2008 in a health area in Spain. The data were analysed graphically, and the impact of the safety warning and introduction of prior authorisation were estimated by using segmented regression analysis. The graph showed that the number of DHDs of piroxicam was stable both before and after the health safety warning but registered a very marked decrease after implementation of prior authorisation, after which DHDs of piroxicam remained stable at a 98% inferior level compared with previous to prior authorisation. Segmented regression analysis showed no statistically significant immediate jump in piroxicam utilisation after the safety warning nor a change in the slope afterwards, but it did show a significant immediate jump after prior authorisation. Population exposure to systemic piroxicam remained unaffected by a previous health safety warning but declined sharply after the introduction of prior authorisation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Extraluminal venous interruption for free-floating thrombus in the deep veins of lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casian, D; Gutsu, E; Culiuc, V

    2010-01-01

    The free-floating thrombus (FFT) represents a particular form of deep vein thrombosis with extremely high potential of fatal pulmonary embolism. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the early results of aggressive surgical approach to FFT. During the period 2005-2008 years FFT was diagnosed in 13 patients. Demographic characteristics of patients: medium age--54.7 years, male--76.9%, significant comorbidity--5 (38.5%) cases. Localization of FFT: superficial femoral vein (SFV)--5 (38.5%), common femoral vein (CFV)--4 (30.7%), external iliac vein (EIV)--2 (15.4%), inferior cava vein (ICV)--2 (15.4%). Manifestations of previous pulmonary embolism were documented preoperatively in 3 (23.1%) cases. The following emergency surgical procedures were performed: ligation--3 (23.1%) or plication--2 (15.4%) of SFV; plication of CFV--5 (38.5%) patients, combined in 4 cases with partial thrombectomy (free-floating part of thrombus); plication of common iliac vein--1 (7.6%); plication of ICV--2 (15.4%) cases. Primary or recurrent cases of clinically significant pulmonary embolism were not detected in the postoperative period. The accumulated experience of surgical management of patients with FFT reveals the important role of deep vein ligation/plication in prevention of fatal pulmonary embolism.

  8. Subsurface signature of North Anatolian Fault Zone and its relation with old sutures: New insight from receiver function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özacar, Arda A.; Abgarmi, Bizhan

    2017-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is an active continental transform plate boundary that accommodates the westward extrusion of the Anatolian plate. The central segment of NAFZ displays northward convex surface trace which coincides partly with the Paleo-Tethyan suture formed during the early Cenozoic. The depth extent and detailed structure of the actively deforming crust along the NAF is still under much debate and processes responsible from rapid uplift are enigmatic. In this study, over five thousand high quality P receiver functions are computed using teleseismic earthquakes recorded by permanent stations of national agencies and temporary North Anatolian Fault Passive Seismic experiment (2005-2008). In order to map the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs variations accurately, the study area is divided into grids with 20 km spacing and along each grid line Moho phase and its multiples are picked through constructed common conversion point (CCP) profiles. According to our results, nature of discontinuities and crustal thickness display sharp changes across the main strand of NAFZ supporting a lithospheric scale faulting that offsets Moho discontinuity. In the southern block, crust is relatively thin in the west ( 35 km) and becomes thicker gradually towards east ( 40 km). In contrast, the northern block displays a strong lateral change in crustal thickness reaching up to 10 km across a narrow roughly N-S oriented zone which is interpreted as the subsurface signature of the ambiguous boundary between Istanbul Block and Pontides located further west at the surface.

  9. The Colombian conflict: a description of a mental health program in the Department of Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grais Rebecca F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colombia has been seriously affected by an internal armed conflict for more than 40 years affecting mainly the civilian population, who is forced to displace, suffers kidnapping, extortion, threats and assassinations. Between 2005 and 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières-France provided psychological care and treatment in the region of Tolima, a strategic place in the armed conflict. The mental health program was based on a short-term multi-faceted treatment developed according to the psychological and psychosomatic needs of the population. Here we describe the population attending during 2005-2008, in both urban and rural settings, as well as the psychological treatment provided during this period and its outcomes. We observed differences between the urban and rural settings in the traumatic events reported, the clinical expression of the disorders, the disorders diagnosed, and their severity. Although the duration of the treatment was limited due to security reasons and access difficulties, patient condition at last visit improved in most of the patients. These descriptive results suggest that further studies should be conducted to examine the role of short-term psychotherapy, adapted specifically to the context, can be a useful tool to provide psychological care to population affected by an armed conflict.

  10. Seasonal and biogeographical patterns of gastrointestinal parasites in large carnivores: wolves in a coastal archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Hill, Janet E; Paquet, Paul C; Thompson, R C Andrew; Wagner, Brent; Smits, Judit E G

    2012-05-01

    Parasites are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population and ecosystem health. We provide the first report of gastrointestinal parasites in gray wolves from the central and north coasts of British Columbia, Canada. Across 60 000 km(2), wolf feces were collected from 34 packs in 2005-2008. At a smaller spatial scale (3300 km(2)), 8 packs were sampled in spring and autumn. Parasite eggs, larvae, and cysts were identified using standard flotation techniques and morphology. A subset of samples was analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify tapeworm eggs (n=9) and Giardia cysts (n=14). We detected ≥14 parasite taxa in 1558 fecal samples. Sarcocystis sporocysts occurred most frequently in feces (43·7%), followed by taeniid eggs (23·9%), Diphyllobothrium eggs (9·1%), Giardia cysts (6·8%), Toxocara canis eggs (2·1%), and Cryptosporidium oocysts (1·7%). Other parasites occurred in ≤1% of feces. Genetic analyses revealed Echinococcus canadensis strains G8 and G10, Taenia ovis krabbei, Diphyllobothrium nehonkaiense, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B. Parasite prevalence differed between seasons and island/mainland sites. Patterns in parasite prevalence reflect seasonal and spatial resource use by wolves and wolf-salmon associations. These data provide a unique, extensive and solid baseline for monitoring parasite community structure in relation to environmental change.

  11. Changes in the food environment over time: examining 40 years of data in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Seward, Michael W; James O'Malley, A; Subramanian, S V; Block, Jason P

    2017-06-24

    Research has explored associations between diet, body weight, and the food environment; however, few studies have examined historical trends in food environments. In the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (N = 3321) and Omni (N = 447) cohorts, we created food environment metrics in four Massachusetts towns utilizing geocoded residential, workplace, and food establishment addresses from 1971 to 2008. We created multilevel models adjusted for age, sex, education, and census tract poverty to examine trends in home, workplace, and commuting food environments. Proximity to and density of supermarkets, fast-food, full service restaurants, convenience stores, and bakeries increased over time for residential, workplace, and commuting environments; exposure to grocery stores decreased. The greatest increase in access was for supermarkets, with residential distance to the closest supermarket 1406 m closer (95% CI 1303 m, 1508 m) by 2005-2008 than in 1971-1975. Although poorer census tracts had higher access to fast-food restaurants consistently across follow-up, this disparity dissipated over time, due to larger increases in proximity to fast-food in wealthier neighborhoods. Access to most food establishment types increased over time, with similar trends across home, workplace, and commuter environments.

  12. Effect of oral IQoro R and palatal plate training in post-stroke, four-quadrant facial dysfunction and dysphagia: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägg, Mary; Tibbling, Lita

    2015-09-01

    Training with either a palatal plate (PP) or an oral IQoro(R) screen (IQS) in patients with longstanding facial dysfunction and dysphagia after stroke can significantly improve facial activity (FA) in all four facial quadrants as well as swallowing capacity (SC). Improvements remained at late follow-up. The training modalities did not significantly differ in ameliorating facial dysfunction and dysphagia in these patients. However, IQS training has practical and economic advantages over PP training. This study compared PP and oral IQS training in terms of (i) effect on four-quadrant facial dysfunction and dysphagia after a first-ever stroke, and (ii) whether the training effect persisted at late follow-up. Patients were included during two periods; 13 patients in 2005-2008 trained with a PP, while 18 patients in 2009-2012 trained with an IQS. Four-quadrant facial dysfunction was assessed with an FA test and swallowing dysfunction with a SC test: before and after a 3-month training period and at late follow-up. FA and SC significantly improved (p stroke incidence and the start of training was long or short.

  13. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Earnings Management: Empirical Evidence from the Top 5,000 Non-Listed Stock Italian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Account manipulation has been the subject of accounting discussions not only in the U.S. but across the world, especially during times of financial crises. This paper investigates the impact of the recent financial crisis on account manipulation probability by adopting the Beneish Model (1999, 2013 of eight performance ratios. The analysis has been conducted using the Top 5,000 Non-Listed Stock Italian Companies (Società Per Azioni ranked by revenues during the time period 2005-2012. We use the AIDA Bureau Van Dijk database. We test the existence of earnings management (EM within the Top Non-Listed Stock Italian Companies through a comparison between the pre-crisis period (2005-2008 and the crisis period (2009-2012. Our findings show that the number of firms with a higher likelihood of earnings manipulation decreases by 4.53% from the pre-crisis to crisis period. As a consequence, we argue that EM increases when the crisis is weak while EM decreases during the crisis period.

  14. Outcome of graves' disease after anti-thyroid drug treatment in South West of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazian, H.; Saiedinia, S.; Aleali, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to observe the optimal results of long term treatment with antithyroid drugs in patients with graves' disease. Methodology: Total of 268 patients with graves' disease who were referred to endocrinology clinic during 2005 - 2008 and treated with anti-thyroid drugs for a long term were studied. Data about the age, gender, estimated weight of thyroid before and after the treatment, level of thyroid hormones, disease relapse, hypothyroidism and the drug side-effects were collected and analyzed. Results: Eighty two (31%) patients were males, 186 (69%) females, mean age of 35 +- 27 years and follow-up course of 31+- 16 months], were studied. After the discontinuation of long term treatment, 53% were affected with relapse of hyperthyroidism. The mean duration of hyperthyroidism relapse after the treatment was 8.3 +- 7.3 months. The relapse rate was and patients with large thyroid and lower TSH level at the end of treatment, the rate of relapse treatment was about 6%. More decrease of thyroid size during the treatment course, higher level of serum TSH after discontinuation of the treatment, and lower thyroid hormone levels before the treatment were some of the effective factors in hypothyroidism incidence (P=0.005, patients (39%) remained euthyroid in the follow-up course. Conclusion: patients with graves' especially in middle-aged women with smaller goiters. (author)

  15. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute otitis media (AOM) in children in Japan - 2013 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Ken; Iino, Yukiko; Kamide, Yosuke; Kudo, Fumiyo; Nakayama, Takeo; Suzuki, Kenji; Taiji, Hidenobu; Takahashi, Haruo; Yamanaka, Noboru; Uno, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    To (1) indicate methods of diagnosis and testing for childhood (otitis media (AOM) and (2) recommend methods of treatment in accordance with the evidence-based consensus reached by the Subcommittee of Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnosis and Management of AOM in Children (Subcommittee of Clinical Practice Guideline), in light of the causative bacteria and their drug sensitivity of AOM in Japan. We investigated the most recently detected bacteria causing childhood AOM in Japan as well as antibacterial sensitivity and the worldwide distinct progress of vaccination, produced Clinical Questions concerning the diagnosis, testing methods, and treatment of AOM, searched literature published during 2000-2004, and issued the 2006 Guidelines. In the 2009 and 2013 Guidelines, we performed the same investigation with the addition of literature, which were not included in the 2006 Guidelines and published during 2005-2008 and during 2009-2012, respectively. We categorized AOM as mild, moderate, or severe on the basis of tympanic membrane findings and clinical symptoms, and presented recommended treatment for each degree of severity. Accurate assessment of tympanic membrane findings is important for judging the degree of severity and selecting a method of treatment. Some of new antimicrobial agents and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended as new treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Deregulation - precondition for distributed energy in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper holds that deregulation, i.e. restructuring, competition and privatisation, is the main precondition for a more pronounced development of distributed power (DP) in the economies in transition in central and eastern Europe. This, then, raises the question how far the electricity, gas, steam and heat generating industries have presently moved on their way towards more market-oriented frameworks, competition and private ownership. A good benchmark for measuring progress is the existence (or lack thereof), and nature, of regulatory regimes enabling fair competition among large centralised and small decentralised power, and between wholesale generators and distributors on the one hand and customers or ''autoproducers'' or power merchants on the other. The paper describes the regulatory models applied or contemplated in the winter 2000/2001 in the various countries of central and eastern Europe and identifies fifteen general issues that require attention and solution. With regard to DP, it concludes that a major upswing is unlikely to occur before 2005-2008. While technological options abound, the institutional frameworks for customer-owned competitive DP systems are only being contemplated at present and only rarely put in place.(author)

  17. Growth response of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani) plantations to thinning intensity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Serdar; Catal, Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the growth response of 25 yr old Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) plantation to thinnings of different intensities in Isparta in western Turkey. The thinning intensity was measured by using the residual basal area (%) as parameter. In spring of 2005, three treatments were tested; light, moderate and heavy thinning with respectively 10, 25 and 35% of basal area removed. The statistical design of the experiment was a randomized incomplete block with two blocks and three treatments. Variables such as diameter at breast height (diameter) and height were measured. Growth rate ratios of diameter in moderately thinned and heavily thinned stands were 1.02 and 1.03, respectively. Basal area growth rates in moderately thinned and heavily thinned plots were 0.93 and 1.05, respectively. The largest values for the mean tree were observed with the heaviest thinning treatment. Absolute diameter increment was positively correlated with initial diameter in all plots. Relative diameter growth was negatively correlated with initial diameter. Growth rate interpretations were supported by analysis of variance using Duncan's test of range multiple. The results obtained show significant differences between treatments for tree height growth, for the two inventories carried out (2005, 2008). However diameter basal area and volume were no found between treatments for tree.

  18. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  19. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. R and D policy of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berki, Tamas; Macsuga, Geza; Neubauer, Istvan

    2010-01-01

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) is authorised by the prescriptions of the law on Atomic Energy to support research and development activities in those scientific and technical areas, which primarily contribute to performing the nuclear safety regulatory responsibility and improving effectiveness and efficiency of licensing, inspection and assessment activities. HAEA's Research and Development program is an essential one: it is run on significant financial resources and with the involvement of a wide range of Technical Support Organisations (TSO). Therefore appropriate priorities have to be applied and directions have to be followed when decisions are made on activities to be supported by the HAEA. These priorities and strategic directions for the R and D activities are defined in the Research and Development Policy of HAEA, which was lastly revised in 2008. The report introduces the summary evaluation and major results of R and D activities sponsored by the HAEA in the previous 2005-2008 cycle and the directions and general elements of the R and D Policy of the ongoing period 2009-2012. (author)

  1. The Australian methane budget: Interpreting surface and train-borne measurements using a chemistry transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Annemarie; Chan Miller, Christopher; Palmer, Paul I.; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Jones, Nicholas B.; Griffith, David W. T.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the Australian methane budget from 2005-2008 using the GEOS-Chem 3D chemistry transport model, focusing on the relative contribution of emissions from different sectors and the influence of long-range transport. To evaluate the model, we use in situ surface measurements of methane, methane dry air column average (XCH4) from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs), and train-borne surface concentration measurements from an in situ FTS along the north-south continental transect. We use gravity anomaly data from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of wetland emissions and scale it to a prior emission estimate, which better describes observed atmospheric methane variability at tropical latitudes. The clean air sites of Cape Ferguson and Cape Grim are the least affected by local emissions, while Wollongong, located in the populated southeast with regional coal mining, samples the most locally polluted air masses (2.5% of the total air mass versus Asia, accounting for ˜25% of the change in surface concentration above background. At Cape Ferguson and Cape Grim, emissions from ruminant animals are the largest source of methane above background, at approximately 20% and 30%, respectively, of the surface concentration. At Wollongong, emissions from coal mining are the largest source above background representing 60% of the surface concentration. The train data provide an effective way of observing transitions between urban, desert, and tropical landscapes.

  2. Improvement of Measurement and Evaluation of Regional Authorities Activity: Model and Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Elena Аleksandrovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of strategy of long-term social and economic development is a basis for effective functioning of executive authorities and the assessment of its efficiency in general. Modern theories of assessment of public administration productivity are guided by the process approach when it is expedient to carry out the formation of business processes of regional executive authorities according to strategic indicators of territorial development. In this regard, there is a problem of modeling of interrelation of indicators of social and economic development of the region and quantitative indices of results of business processes of executive authorities. At the first stage of modeling, two main directions of strategic development, namely innovative and investment activity of regional economic systems are considered. In this regard, the work presents the results of modeling the interrelation between the indicators of regional social and economic development and innovative and investment activity. Therefore, for carrying out the analysis, the social and economic system of the region is presented in space of the main indicators of social and economic development of the territory and indicators of innovative and investment activity. The analysis is made on values of the indicators calculated for regions of the Russian Federation during 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010 and 2011. It was revealed that strategic indicators of innovative and investment activity have the most significant impact on key signs of social and economic development.

  3. Organizational and environmental correlates of the adoption of a focus strategy in U.S. hospices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Nayar, Preethy; Yu, Fang; Adams, John; Opoku, Samuel T

    2015-01-01

    The hospice industry has experienced rapid growth in the last decade and has become a prominent component of the U.S. health care delivery system. In recent decades, the number of hospices serving nursing facility residents has increased. However, there is paucity of research on the organizational and environmental determinants of this strategic behavior. The aim of this study was to empirically identify the factors associated with the adoption of a nursing facility focus strategy in U.S. hospices. A nursing facility focus strategy was defined in this study as a strategic choice to target the provision of hospice services to skilled nursing facility or nursing home residents. This study employed a longitudinal study design with lagged independent variables in answering its research questions. Data for the study's dependent variables are obtained for the years 2005-2008, whereas data for the independent variables are obtained for the years 2004-2007, representing a 1-year lag. Mixed effects regression models were used in the multivariate regression analyses. Using a resource dependence framework, the findings from this study indicate that organizational size, community wealth, competition, and ownership type are important predictors of the adoption of a nursing facility focus strategy. Hospices may be adopting a nursing facility focus strategy in response to increasing competition. The decision to focus the provision of care to nursing facility residents may be driven by the need to secure stability in referrals. Further empirical exploration of the performance implications of adopting a nursing facility focus strategy is warranted.

  4. The economics of power generation in Alberta : the pool price impact of Genesee Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topping, D.

    2003-01-01

    Alberta power pool prices for year 2000 were reviewed. The model assumptions were: studies based on PROSYM market simulations; base-load units offered at incremental cost; and, considerations in those cases where system gas units were modeled as coal units. The current situation in Alberta was reviewed. The Genesee 3 coal-fired facility is expected to be completed in the Winter 2004-2005 with an efficiency of 8 to 18 per cent better than other coal units. A graph was shown to examine the expected impact of Genesee 3 on Alberta prices. Electricity prices would increase during the period 2005-2008 without Genesee 3. Alberta prices are affected by factors such as: load-resource balance, fuel prices, cost of new capacity, offer strategy, available transmission, and tie lines. A capacity surplus is expected for the period 2003-2008. In addition, good correlation is expected for pool prices with gas prices. With Genesee 3 in operation, lower pool prices are expected in Alberta. figs

  5. Test location Guetsch, Switzerland for wind-power installations; Teststandort fuer Windkraftanlagen Guetsch. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R.; Schilter, Ch.

    2007-07-15

    This illustrated technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done on the preliminary project for providing test facilities for wind-power installations on the 'Guetsch' location in the Swiss Alps. In the context of the Alpine Test Site Guetsch project, which involves meteorological measurements and wind turbine performance analysis research, a comprehensive infrastructure for the acquisition of climate data and the performance of wind turbines has been defined. This work is to be carried out by the Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss and the company Meteotest within the framework of the COST Action 727 2005 - 2008 of the European Union. The aim of this preliminary study is to identify the possibilities for the realisation of an alpine test site for wind turbines based on the existing infrastructure. The economic and technical conditions for the testing of both large and small wind turbines are discussed. Topics examined include site ownership and access, infrastructure and measurement systems, financing possibilities and a timeline for implementation.

  6. Genetic characterization of UCS region of Pneumocystis jirovecii and construction of allelic profiles of Indian isolates based on sequence typing at three regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Guleria, Randeep; Kumar, Lalit; Luthra, Kalpana; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2013-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. To study the genetic diversity of P. jirovecii in India the upstream conserved sequence (UCS) region of Pneumocystis genome was amplified, sequenced and genotyped from a set of respiratory specimens obtained from 50 patients with a positive result for nested mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU rRNA) PCR during the years 2005-2008. Of these 50 cases, 45 showed a positive PCR for UCS region. Variations in the tandem repeats in UCS region were characterized by sequencing all the positive cases. Of the 45 cases, one case showed five repeats, 11 cases showed four repeats, 29 cases showed three repeats and four cases showed two repeats. By running amplified DNA from all these cases on a high-resolution gel, mixed infection was observed in 12 cases (26.7%, 12/45). Forty three of 45 cases included in this study had previously been typed at mtLSU rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region by our group. In the present study, the genotypes at those two regions were combined with UCS repeat patterns to construct allelic profiles of 43 cases. A total of 36 allelic profiles were observed in 43 isolates indicating high genetic variability. A statistically significant association was observed between mtLSU rRNA genotype 1, ITS type Ea and UCS repeat pattern 4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mandatory adoption of IFRS in emerging markets: the case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Temiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available European-listed companies and many emerging countries have been required to present their consolidated financial statements in compliance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS since 2005. Having cross-border comparability and transparency with this uniform accounting system is expected to provide higher accounting quality and value relevance. Evaluation of financial performance in terms of value relevance of IFRS is not only vital for existing investors or stakeholders but also for those who want to invest at the international level. Thus, in this study, we examine the value relevance of earnings and book value of equity on share prices through using Ohlson (1995 valuation model. While 2001 to 2004 is conducted as the pre-IFRS period, 2005-2008 is a post-IFRS period to display the change in value relevance in the same number of years. Our sample includes only nonfinancial firms that operate on BIST index. Since financial firms are subject to different regulations, we exclude them from the sample. The results show that the accounting information produced under IFRS is more value relevant. We test the value relevance with both cross-sectional and pooled regression for the periods. In addition, we use panel data analysis (survival analysis to validate the increase in value relevance between the periods. We also test the firm size and earnings announcement effect on value relevance for robustness.

  8. DAMPAK PENGOPERASIAN INDUSTRI TERHADAP KUALITAS UDARA DAN KEBISINGAN DI KAWASAN SIMONGAN KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuri Zaenuri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pengoperasian industri berpotensi menimbulkan dampak terhadap penurunan kualitas udara dan peningkatan kebisingan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak pengoperasian industri terhadap kualitas udara dan kebisingan. Penelitian dilakukan di Kawasan Industri Simongan Kota Semarang. Data penelitian merupakan data sekunder, berupa hasil pengujian emisi dan udara ambien, serta kebisingan yang diperoleh yang dilakukan perusahaan, kemudian dilakukan cross check dengan Badan Lingkungan Hidup (BLH Kota Semarang dan Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif-komparatif dan inferensial dengan uji-t. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, pengoperasian industri relatif tidak berdampak pada penurunan kualitas udara di Kawasan Simongan Kota Semarang. Hasil pengujian semua parameter kunci pada periode 20042009 menunjukkan, konsentrasi semua parameter kunci berada di bawah baku mutu yang ditetapkan, sehingga udara ambien di Kawasan Simongan relatif tidak tercemar. Hasil pengujian tingkat kebisingan permukiman di Kawasan Simongan berada di atas baku mutu, khususnya untuk tahun 2005-2008, tetapi hasil uji-t menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan yang signfikan antara tingkat kebisingan hasil pengukuran dengan baku mutu permukiman. Dengan demikian pengoperasian industri relatif tidak berdampak pada peningkatan kebisingan di Kawasan Simongan Kota Semarang.

  9. Changing patterns in deforestation avoidance by different protection types in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusys, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    This study quantifies how much deforestation was avoided due to legal protection in Legal Amazon in strictly protected areas, sustainable use areas, and indigenous lands. Only regions that are protected de jure (i.e., where deforestation is avoided due to effective laws rather than remoteness) were considered, so that the potential of legal protection could be better assessed. This is a cross-sectional approach, which allows comparisons in terms of avoided deforestation among the different types of protection in the same period. This study covers three different periods. Regions protected de jure were sampled by estimating a threshold distance at which deforestation starts to diminish and retaining all pixels up to that distance, and deforestation that has been avoided due to legal protection was estimated by matching. Indigenous lands avoided the highest percentage of deforestation during the 2001-2004 and 2005-2008 periods, followed by those under strict protection and sustainable use areas, in respective order. Shifting patterns in deforestation avoidance are clearly noticeable for the 2009-2014 period when 1) strictly protected areas outperformed indigenous lands in terms of the percentage of saved forests, 2) some protected regions began to attract deforestation instead of avoiding it, and 3) sustainable use areas, on average, did not avoid deforestation.

  10. Personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11. Now in it's fourth edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). One of the goals of this current revision was the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonization to U.S. personal dosemeter performance testing. The testing philosophy of ANSI/HPS N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing and is thus different from the testing philosophy used in the rest of the world. In this paper, the history of performance testing in the U.S. is briefly reviewed. Also described is the revision that produced the fourth edition of this standard, which has taken place over the last three years (2005-2008) by a working group representing national standards laboratories, government laboratories, the military, dosimetry vendors, universities and the nuclear power industry. (author)

  11. AQUA-motion domain and metaphorization patterns in European Portuguese: AQUA-motion metaphor in AERO-motion and abstract domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Jakubowicz Batoréo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The AQUA-motion verbs – as studied by Majsak & Rahilina 2003 and 2007, Lander, Majsak & Rahilina [2005] 2008, 2012 and 2013, and Divjak & Lemmens 2007, and in European Portuguese (EP by Batoréo, 2007, 2008, 2009; Batoréo et al., 2007; Casadinho, 2007 – allow typically metaphorical uses, which we postulate can be organized in patterns. Our study shows that in European Portuguese there are two metaphorization patterns to be observed: (i AQUA-motion metaphor in AERO-motion domain and (ii AQUA-motion metaphor in abstract domain (e.g. abundance, arts, politics, etc.. In the first case, where the target domain of the metaphorization is the air, in EP we navigate through a crowd or we float in a waltz, whereas in the second, where it is abstract, we swim in money or in blood, and politicians navigate at sea or face floating currency in finances. In the present paper we survey the EP verbs of AQUA-motion metaphors in non-elicited data from electronically available language corpora (cf. Linguateca. In some cases comparisons are made with typologically diferent languages (as, e.g. Polish, cf. Prokofjeva’s 2007, Batoréo 2009.

  12. Three-dimensional patient setup errors at different treatment sites measured by the Tomotherapy megavoltage CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, S.K.; Lusczek, E.; Dusenbery, K. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology - Radiation Oncology; DeFor, T. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Biostatistics and Informatics Core; Levitt, S. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology - Radiation Oncology; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Onkol-Patol

    2012-04-15

    Reduction of interfraction setup uncertainty is vital for assuring the accuracy of conformal radiotherapy. We report a systematic study of setup error to assess patients' three-dimensional (3D) localization at various treatment sites. Tomotherapy megavoltage CT (MVCT) images were scanned daily in 259 patients from 2005-2008. We analyzed 6,465 MVCT images to measure setup error for head and neck (H and N), chest/thorax, abdomen, prostate, legs, and total marrow irradiation (TMI). Statistical comparisons of the absolute displacements across sites and time were performed in rotation (R), lateral (x), craniocaudal (y), and vertical (z) directions. The global systematic errors were measured to be less than 3 mm in each direction with increasing order of errors for different sites: H and N, prostate, chest, pelvis, spine, legs, and TMI. The differences in displacements in the x, y, and z directions, and 3D average displacement between treatment sites were significant (p < 0.01). Overall improvement in patient localization with time (after 3-4 treatment fractions) was observed. Large displacement (> 5 mm) was observed in the 75{sup th} percentile of the patient groups for chest, pelvis, legs, and spine in the x and y direction in the second week of the treatment. MVCT imaging is essential for determining 3D setup error and to reduce uncertainty in localization at all anatomical locations. Setup error evaluation should be performed daily for all treatment regions, preferably for all treatment fractions. (orig.)

  13. Will the US economy recover in 2010? A minimal spanning tree study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiting; Lee, Gladys Hui Ting; Wong, Jian Cheng; Kok, Jun Liang; Prusty, Manamohan; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2011-06-01

    We calculated the cross correlations between the half-hourly times series of the ten Dow Jones US economic sectors over the period February 2000 to August 2008, the two-year intervals 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and also over 11 segments within the present financial crisis, to construct minimal spanning trees (MSTs) of the US economy at the sector level. In all MSTs, a core-fringe structure is found, with consumer goods, consumer services, and the industrials consistently making up the core, and basic materials, oil & gas, healthcare, telecommunications, and utilities residing predominantly on the fringe. More importantly, we find that the MSTs can be classified into two distinct, statistically robust, topologies: (i) star-like, with the industrials at the center, associated with low-volatility economic growth; and (ii) chain-like, associated with high-volatility economic crisis. Finally, we present statistical evidence, based on the emergence of a star-like MST in Sep 2009, and the MST staying robustly star-like throughout the Greek Debt Crisis, that the US economy is on track to a recovery.

  14. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy. The performance of Surface Renewal (SR analysis for estimating sensible heat flux (H was analysed and evaluated in terms of correlation with H fluxes from the eddy covariance (EC method. Study revealed that the mean available energy (RN- G and latent heat flux (LE were of about 300 W m-2 and 237 W m-2, respectively, during dry periods and unstable-case atmospheric conditions. The estimated crop coefficient Kc values for the orchard crop averaged close to 0.80, which is considerably higher than previous FAO studies that found the value to be 0.65 for citrus with 70% of ground cover. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (LI PAR by the crop was measured and relationships between LAI and crop coefficient (Kc were established.

  16. Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norström Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990, and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006 and drug prescription (2005-2008, for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health.

  17. Historia de vida de un militante mexicano de izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Patricia Pensado Leglise

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto plantea una reflexión teórico- metodológica sobre la historia de vida en el marco conceptual de la Historia oral, señalando los aportes a los estudios históricos contemporáneos. Se presenta la historia de vida de un socialista mexicano, Adolfo Sánchez Rebolledo, cuya praxis ha sido significativa para comprender el desarrollo de la política de izquierda en México y su intervención en las principales movilizaciones sociales que tuvieron lugar durante la segunda mitad del siglo xx. También da cuenta de los cambios ylas organizaciones políticas, desde las rupturas con el estalinismo, la influencia de la revolución cubana, los movimientos por los derechos civiles y contra la guerra de Vietnam hasta llegar a la revaloración de la democracia formal y el abandono de la militancia partidaria para formar parte del movimiento social. Los testimonios que aparecen a lo largo del artículo se seleccionaron y editaron de las once sesiones de entrevistas que se hicieron con Sánchez Rebolledo en el lapso de tres años (2005-2008.

  18. Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units) and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990), and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006) and drug prescription (2005-2008), for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare) have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare) have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health. PMID:22463683

  19. Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008 in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ≤ 0.05 in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ≤ 0.05. It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.

  20. Incorporating and evaluating an integrated gender-specific medicine curriculum: a survey study in Dutch GP training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Bottema, Ben JAM; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Toine LM

    2009-01-01

    Background We recently set standards for gender-specific medicine training as an integrated part of the GP training curriculum. This paper describes the programme and evaluation of this training. Methods The programme is designed for GP registrars throughout the 3-year GP training. The modules emphasize interaction, application, and clinically integrated learning and teaching methods in peer groups. In 2005 - 2008, after completion of each tutorial, GP registrars were asked to fill in a questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale to assess the programme's methods and content. GP registrars were also asked to identify two learning points related to the programme. Results The teaching programme consists of five 3-hour modules that include gender themes related to and frequently seen by GPs such as in doctor-patient communication and cardiovascular disease. GP registrars evaluated the training course positively. The written learning points suggest that GP registrars have increased their awareness of why attention to gender-specific information is relevant. Conclusion In summary, gender-specific medicine training has been successfully integrated into an existing GP training curriculum. The modules and teaching methods are transferable to other training institutes for postgraduate training. The evaluation of the teaching programme shows a positive impact on GP registrars' gender awareness. PMID:19737396

  1. Incorporating and evaluating an integrated gender-specific medicine curriculum: a survey study in Dutch GP training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagro-Janssen Toine LM

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently set standards for gender-specific medicine training as an integrated part of the GP training curriculum. This paper describes the programme and evaluation of this training. Methods The programme is designed for GP registrars throughout the 3-year GP training. The modules emphasize interaction, application, and clinically integrated learning and teaching methods in peer groups. In 2005 - 2008, after completion of each tutorial, GP registrars were asked to fill in a questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale to assess the programme's methods and content. GP registrars were also asked to identify two learning points related to the programme. Results The teaching programme consists of five 3-hour modules that include gender themes related to and frequently seen by GPs such as in doctor-patient communication and cardiovascular disease. GP registrars evaluated the training course positively. The written learning points suggest that GP registrars have increased their awareness of why attention to gender-specific information is relevant. Conclusion In summary, gender-specific medicine training has been successfully integrated into an existing GP training curriculum. The modules and teaching methods are transferable to other training institutes for postgraduate training. The evaluation of the teaching programme shows a positive impact on GP registrars' gender awareness.

  2. RECENT TRENDS IN GENDER RATIO AT BIRTH IN HANGZHOU, CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Qiu, L Q; Yau, Kkw; Hui, Y V; Binns, C W; Lee, A H

    2015-12-01

    Higher than normal sex ratios at birth in China have been reported since the early 1980's. This study aimed to investigate recent trends in sex ratio at birth in Hangzhou, capital of Zhejiang Province in southeast China. Information on selected maternal and birth-related characteristics was extracted from the Hangzhou Birth Information Database for all pregnant women who delivered live births during 2005-2014. The sex ratios at birth were calculated after excluding infants with missing data on gender and those born with ambiguous genitalia. A total of 478,192 male births and 430,852 female births were recorded giving an overall ratio of 111.0. The sex ratio at birth was almost constant at around 110.7 during the period 2005-2008, followed by an increase to the peak at 113.1 in 2010 and then declined back to 109.6 in 2014. The gender ratio at birth in Hangzhou remained unbalanced for the past decade.

  3. Effect of the new standards for case logging on resident operative volume: doing better cases or better numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Raghav; Shepard, Alex; Swartz, Andrew; Woodward, Ann; Reickert, Craig; Horst, Mathilda; Rubinfeld, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) modified the designation of major (index) operative cases to include those previously considered "minor." This study assessed the potential effect of these changes on resident operative experience. With Institutional Review Board approval, we analyzed National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant use files for 2005-2008 for general and vascular surgery cases. Primary CPT case coding was mapped to the ACGME major case category using both the old and new classification schemes. The variables were analyzed using χ(2) analysis in SPSS IBM 19 (IBM, Armonk, New York). A total of 576,019 cases were reviewed. Major cases as defined by the new classification represented an increasing proportion of the cases each year, rising from 88.3% in 2005 to 95% by 2008 (p top procedures to include excision of breast lesion (22,175 [12.7%]), laparoscopic gastric bypass (18,825 [10.8%]), ventral hernia repair (14,732 [8.5%]), and appendectomy (10,190 [5.9%]). Of these newly designated major cases, the proportion not covered by residents increased from 22% in 2005 to 44% in 2007 and 2008 (p quality. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2010 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The global power deal market is finally seeing an upward trend in momentum from the lows reached in 2009, with the total deal value in the non-renewable electricity and gas sectors up 19% year on year from USD 97.6bn to USD 116bn in 2010 - a year which also saw an end to the deal stalemate in the US with a renewed deal flow that looks set to continue this year. Compared to the heady mountain of power deals transacted between 2005-2008, deal values remain low but conditions are in place for a return at least to the foothills of these peaks, according to PwC's annual Power Deals review. Globalisation of the power sector is moving forward on a number of fronts with, for example, companies looking at gaining a larger presence in growth markets, acquisitions of global network asset portfolios with strong international interest in infrastructure assets and signs of greater Chinese involvement, not just from grid companies but also independent power producers.

  5. How abnormal is binge eating? 18-Year time trends in population prevalence and burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, D; Touyz, S; González-Chica, D A; Stocks, N; Hay, P

    2017-08-01

    Although findings suggest that binge eating is becoming increasingly normative, the 'clinical significance' of this behaviour at a population level remains uncertain. We aimed to assess the time trends in binge-eating prevalence and burden over 18 years. Six cross-sectional face-to-face surveys of the Australian adult population were conducted in 1998, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2014, and 2015 (N total = 15 126). Data were collected on demographics, 3-month prevalence of objective binge eating (OBE), health-related quality of life, days out of role, and distress related to OBE. The prevalence of OBE increased six-fold from 1998 (2.7%) to 2015 (13.0%). Health-related quality of life associated with OBE improved from 1998 to 2015, where it more closely approximated population norms. Days out of role remained higher among participants who reported OBE, although decreased over time. Half of participants who reported weekly (56.6%) and twice-weekly (47.1%) OBE reported that they were not distressed by this behaviour. However, the presence of distress related to OBE in 2015 was associated with greater health-related quality-of-life impairment. As the prevalence of binge eating increases over time, associated disability has been decreasing. Implications for the diagnosis of disorders associated with binge eating are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The use of tax planning schemes based on the differential taxation of labor income and capital income. Tööjõu ja kapitali maksustamise erinevustel põhinevate maksude planeerimise skeemide kasutamine Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper covers one of the tax optimization schemes popular in Estonia – full or partial replacement of labor income with dividends. Such scheme is used by some owner-managers as the regulation concerning emoluments of members of management body is very flexible. The main incentive to use the scheme is to reduce tax burden as dividends are only subject to income tax but emoluments to the members of management body are also taxed with the social tax. Basic results show that considered schemes are widespread. We estimate that due to replacement of salaries and wages with dividends there was a significant loss in social tax revenues in Estonia during 2005-2008. In majority of the sectors average dividends of ownermanagers in 2008 were higher than their average salaries. Also, the average amount of owner-managers’ emoluments in majority of the sectors was below the national monthly average salary, in some cases it was even below subsistence level

  7. [Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitosis in child populations in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Graciela Teresa; Zonta, María Lorena; Cociancic, Paola; Garraza, Mariela; Gamboa, María Inés; Giambelluca, Luis Alberto; Dahinten, Silvia; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2017-06-08

    Determine the distribution of intestinal parasitosis in children in nine provinces representative of Argentina's mosaic of contrasting environments. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of preschool children (5 years old or under) and school-age children (6-14 years) in the provinces of Buenos Aires (sample taken between 2005 and 2013), Chubut (2010-2013), Corrientes (2012), Entre Ríos (2010-2012), Formosa (2014), La Pampa (2006), Mendoza (2008-2011), Misiones (2005-2008 and 2013), and Salta (2012-2013). Serial samples, fecal samples, and anal swabs were processed using concentration techniques. The results were analyzed by sex, age interval, and province. Frequency of parasitosis (monoparasitosis and multiple parasitoses), wealth of species, and Sørensen similarity coefficient were calculated. Misiones presented the highest frequency of parasitized children and Chubut the lowest (82.0% vs 38.4%; p parasitosis in Formosa (69.2%). The most frequent species in the majority of provinces were Blastocystis sp. and Enterobius vermicularis. Misiones presented the highest frequency of soil-transmitted helminthes (23.3%) and Mendoza the lowest (0.6%); none were found in Chubut, La Pampa, or Salta. Buenos Aires, Formosa, and Misiones presented a similar species composition, as did Chubut and La Pampa. The frequency of parasitosis in Argentina corresponds to the country's complex mosaic of climatic and socioeconomic variability and shows a declining trend from north to south and from east to west.

  8. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  9. Organisation of biological research carried out in the United States by the A.E.C. or under her contract (1960); Organisation des recherches biologiques menees aux Etats-Unis par l'A.E.C. ou sous son egide. Compte-rendu sommaire d'une mission d'etude (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report is based on information gathered in the course of a trip to the United States, in November and December 1958 which consisted chiefly of visits to the main biological and medical research laboratories and discussions with the heads of these establishments. A description is given of the general organisation of the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine, and of the distribution of responsibility for radiation protection work and for biological, medical and agricultural research amongst the various Services attached to it; this is followed by a more detailed account of the activities carried on in this field at the great national laboratories. Finally, the systems of collaboration set up with external research organisations in the form of research contracts are examined, together with the substantial help provided by the A.E.C. for biological, medical and agricultural research in general, owing to a systematic policy of subsidising the distribution of radioisotopes for this purpose. (author) [French] Le present rapport a ete etabli sur la base des renseignements recueillis au cours d'un voyage d'etude aux Etats-Unis, en novembre et decembre 1958, comportant notamment la visite des principaux laboratoires de recherche biologique et medicale et des entretiens avec les principaux responsables de ces laboratoires. Apres une description de l'organisation generale de la 'Division of Biology and Medicine' de l'Atomic Energy Commission et de la repartition entre les divers Services qui lui sont rattaches des responsabilites concernant la protection contre les radiations et la Recherche biologique, medicale et agronomique, des indications plus detaillees sont donnees au sujet des activites poursuivies dans ce domaine au sein des grands laboratoires nationaux. Sont examinees enfin, l'importance et les modalites de la collaboration instituee avec les Organismes de Recherche exterieurs sous la forme de contrats de recherche ainsi que l

  10. Organisation of biological research carried out in the United States by the A.E.C. or under her contract (1960); Organisation des recherches biologiques menees aux Etats-Unis par l'A.E.C. ou sous son egide. Compte-rendu sommaire d'une mission d'etude (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    contrats de recherche ainsi que l'aide substantielle apportee par l'A.E.C. a la recherche biologique, medicale et agronomique en general grace a une politique systematique de subvention a la distribution des radioisotopes destines a cet objet. (auteur)

  11. Use of hydraulic and aerial mock up to study atmospheric pollution; L'utilisation des maquettes aeriennes et hydrauliques pour l'etude de la pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facy, L; Perrin De Brichambaut, C; Doury, A; Le Quinio, R

    1962-07-01

    Fundamental studies on turbulent atmospheric diffusion of finely divided particles, cannot remain on a purely theoretical basis. Further experimental studies must be considered. - In full scale, from accidental and induced releases. - On a reduced scale, in aerodynamic wind tunnels or hydraulic water tunnels. A first set of studies on reduced scale models has been worked out according to a contract between French 'Meteorologie Nationale' and French 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' and with the Collaboration of Saint-Cyr 'Institut Aerotechnique'. Essentially two kinds of results have been obtained: - The mathematical model of SUTTON for the turbulent diffusion in the atmosphere, deduced from the SUTTON theory, generally used by us, has been correctly verified, qualitatively and quantitatively whenever experiments were consistent with the theory conditions. - The quantitative assays of photographic and cinematographic visualization have given precise details on the phenomena inaccessible to calculations, due to the influence of obstacles and release conditions. - Generally, it can be asserted, that the atmospheric pollution studies are worked out by mock up experimentations and that, in some cases these experiments never can be replaced by mathematically pure models. (authors) [French] Les etudes fondamentales portant sur la diffusion turbulente dans l'atmosphere de quantites de matieres finement divisees, ne peuvent se maintenir sur un plan exclusivement theorique. C'est pourquoi des etudes experimentales complementaires doivent etre obligatoirement envisagees: - en vraie grandeur, a partir d'emissions accidentelles ou provoquees; - sur modeles reduits, en soufflerie aerodynamique ou en veine hydraulique. En ce qui concerne les modeles reduits, une premiere serie d'etudes a pu etre menee a bien, dans le cadre d'un contrat passe entre la Meteorologie Nationale et le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, et avec la collaboration de l'Institut Aerotechnique de Saint

  12. L’Asie insulaire, forte exportatrice de main-d’oeuvre féminine possède-t-elle un système migratoire propre ? Les cas indonésien, philippin et sri-lankais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Husson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available L'Asie insulaire, forte exportatrice de main-d'oeuvre féminine possède-t-elle un système migratoire propre ? Les cas indonésien, philippin et sri-lankais.Les migrations de travail ont une longue tradition en Asie. Instaurées par les puissances coloniales européennes par le biais des contrats de travail, après l'abolition de l'esclavage, elles ont ainsi favorisé l'expansion de deux solides diasporas, l'une chinoise, l'autre indienne.Ce vaste continent qui abrite désormais 60 % de la population mondiale et les deux tiers de la force de travail mondiale demeure, pour longtemps encore, une zone de très forte mobilité.Trois pays, dont deux archipels et une île, les Philippines, l'Indonésie et le Sri Lanka, sont devenus, en l'espace d'une à trois décennies, les principaux exportateurs de main-d'œuvre à l'échelle mondiale. Ces politiques migratoires visent d'une part à réduire la pauvreté et le chômage et d'autre part à accroître les indispensables rentrées de devises par le biais des transferts financiers des migrants.La féminisation des flux migratoires est particulièrement marquée en Asie insulaire où la proportion de femmes avoisine les 70 % du total des migrantsThe labour migration have a long tradition in Asia. Migration, which were introduced by European colonial powers (through employment contracts, after the abolition of slavery, have encouraged the expansion of two solid diasporas, 'One China, one Indian. This vast continent, home now 60% of the world's population and two thirds of the global labor force, remains for a long time, a zone of very high mobility. Three countries, including two archipelagos and one island, the Philippines, Indonesia and Sri Lanka are now in the space of one to three decades, the main exporters of labour globally . The objective of these policies migration is a part of reducing poverty and unemployment, and secondly to increase the necessary cash currency,with financial transfers of

  13. Le travail, marchandise fictive ? 100 ans de marchandisation de la main d’œuvre mexicaine aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves-Marie Abraham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pour Karl Polanyi, la société de marché est impossible, car elle suppose de traiter le travail, la terre et la monnaie comme des marchandises, ce qui ne peut qu’être destructeur de la société. A partir d’une analyse de l’utilisation de la main d’œuvre mexicaine par les employeurs américains depuis 100 ans, nous tentons de montrer que cette marchandisation est tout à fait possible en ce qui concerne le travail. Elle consiste, dans son principe, à réduire l’être humain à sa seule force de travail, tout en restant dans le cadre formel du salariat. Dans le cas des travailleurs mexicains, qu’il s’agisse d’ouvriers agricoles bénéficiant d’un contrat de travail temporaire sur le sol américain, d’employés de maquiladoras sur le sol mexicain ou de travailleurs sans-papiers vivant aux États-Unis, la frontière territoriale entre les deux pays apparaît comme un moyen particulièrement efficace pour accomplir cette réduction. C’est dire aussi que cette marchandisation du travail n’est pas forcément la conséquence de la mise en place de marchés autorégulateurs, contrairement à ce que soutient Polanyi.For Karl Polanyi, market society is impossible, since it supposes that work, land and money be treated as merchandise, which can only destroy society. On the basis of the analysis of the utilisation of Mexican labor by US firms over 100 years, this paper tries to show that merchandisation is quite possible as concerns work. It reduces the human being to his sole work force, while staying in the formal context of salaried work. In the case of Mexican workers, whether it be farm workers with temporary contracts in the US, or employees of maquiladoras on the Mexican soil, or illegal workers in the US, the territorial frontier between the two countries apears a particularly efficient way to accomplish this redcuction. The merchandisation of work is not necessarily the consequence of the establishment of autoregulating

  14. La “clause auteur” : l’écrivain, l’ethos et le discours littéraire The “clause author”: The writer, ethos, and literary discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melliandro Mendes Gallinari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article élabore une réflexion sur la question de l’auctorialité, plus précisément sur les conceptions variables de l’auteur et ses espaces de production, en prenant en considération le discours littéraire, mais aussi d’autres discours sociaux. Le terme d’« auteur » est compris ici comme un accord entre sujets sociaux, c’est-à-dire comme une convention qui varie perpétuellement en fonction des moments historiques et des espaces institutionnels. Pour développer ce point de vue, on s’appuie sur des catégories centrales de l’analyse du discours comme le contrat de communication et l’ethos. Par rapport à ce concept, on examine comment le discours littéraire présente un ethos auctorial qui lui est particulier, et qui n’est pas à confondre avec la production d’images de l’auteur dans d’autres dispositifs comme les médias ou la critique. En fin de parcours, on s’interroge sur la construction moderne et spectaculaire de l’auteur - célébrité dans son rapport problématique à l’ethos auctorial et à la lecture de l’œuvre.This essay develops a reflection on the question of authorship, more specifically on the various conceptions of authorship and its places of production, by investigating literary discourse, but also other kinds of social discourses. The term “author” is here understood as the result of an agreement between social subjects, namely as a convention endlessly varying according to historical moments and institutional spaces. In order to develop this point of view, we will draw on central categories of discourse analysis like communication contract or ethos.  We show how literary discourse constructs a peculiar “authorial ethos”  not to be confused with the production of authorial images in other frameworks like the media or literary criticism. Eventually, we question the modern and spectacular construction of the celebrity-author in its problematic relation to the authorial

  15. [Development and comparative evaluation of up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow assay for rapid detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfeng; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Yong; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Chengbin; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    To develop an up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow (UPT-LF) assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp.and make the comparison with BioThreat Alert (BTA) test strips (Tetracore Inc., USA). Using up-converting phosphor nano-particles (UCP-NPs) as the bio-marker, three double-antibody-sandwich model based UPT-LF strips including Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF, Brucella-UPT-LF were prepared and its sensitivity, accuracy, linearity and specificity were determined by detecting 10(10), 10(9), 10(8), 10(7), 10(6), 10(5) and 0 CFU/ml series of concentrations of Y.pestis, B.anthracis, Brucella standards and other 27 kinds of 10(9) CFU/ml series of contrations of bacteria strains.Furthermore, the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of bacteria standards and simulated sample detection were compared between UPT-LF and BTA system. The detection limit of Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF and Brucella-LF was 10(5) CFU/ml. The CV of series of bacteria concentrations was ≤ 15%, and the r between lg (T/C-cut-off) and lg (concentration) was 0.996,0.998 and 0.999 (F values were 1 647.57, 743.51 and 1 822.17. All the P values were Brucella-LF were excellent, while that of Anthrax-UPT-LF was a little bit regretful because of non-specific reaction with two isolates of B. subtilis and one B.cereus. On-site evaluation showed the detection time of UPT-LF for all Y.pestis, B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp.was 33, 36 and 37 min, while BTA was 115, 115 and 111 min, which revealed the higher detection speed and sensitivity of UPT-LF comparing with BTA. The negative rate of two methods for blank standard was both 5/5, the sensitivity of UPT-LF for Y.pestis,B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp. was all 10(5) CFU/ml, then BTA was 10(6), 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively. The detection rate of UPT-LF for all three bacteria analog positive samples was 16/16, while BTA for B.anthracis was 7/16 only. The good performance

  16. Estacionamientos subterráneos, en Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Saiz, J. M.

    1969-02-01

    Full Text Available Work on five underground parking sites in Madrid was initiated in September 1967. These parking sites were rented by the Madrid Town Council to the firm Estacionamientos Subterráneos, S. A. The engineering, design, and traffic and construction planning of these parking sites was allocated to Viales y Estacionamientos, S. A., whilst the actual construction was carried out by the firm Huarte y Cía., S. A. The five parking sites were located at the Paseo Calvo Sotelo, Plaza del Marqués de Salamanca, Plaza Mayor, Plaza de las Cortes and at Calle de Fuencarral, all within the centre of Madrid. These projects are of special interest, since each design represents an advance with respect to the earlier ones in regard to their structural and functional arrangements, with a view to achieving easier construction and less interference with road and pedestrian traffic. In the present article a description is given of each the five parking sites, following the sequence of their construction, which corresponds to the order in which they were design and planned.En septiembre de 1967 comenzaron las obras de cinco estacionamientos subterráneos en Madrid, adjudicadas por el Ayuntamiento en régimen de concesión a Estacionamientos Subterráneos, S. A. Los trabajos de ingeniería de tráfico, proyecto y control fueron encomendados a Viales y Estacionamientos, Sociedad Anteima (VIESA, y la ejecución de las obras se contrató con Huarte y Cía., S. A. Las ubicaciones de los estacionamientos cuya realización se comenta en este artículo son: Paseo de Calvo Sotelo, Plaza del Marqués de Salamanca - Plaza Mayor - Plaza de las Cortes - Calle de Fuencarral. Nos parece muy interesante exponer estas realizaciones, en las que se ve una clara evolución en su esquema estructural y la relación de éste con el esquema funcional, para lograr una mayor facilidad en la ejecución de las obras, junto con una interferencia mínima en superficie con los tráficos rodado y de

  17. Echangeurs à condensation sur fumées corrosives Condensation Heat Exchangers of Corrosive Fumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grehier A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les échangeurs gaz-liquide et gaz-gaz respectivement développés par la Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA et l'institut Français du Pétrole (IFP dans le cadre d'un contrat AFME d'aide à l'innovation permettent, grâce au recours à des matériaux plastiques, de s'affranchir du seuil de condensation sulfurique, 180°C, en deçà duquel apparaissent les problèmes de corrosion sur les récupérateurs classiques. Il en résulte un accroissement de chaleurs sensible et latente récupérées permettant, en moyenne, de doubler l'économie habituellement réalisée. Ces travaux ont démontré la faisabilité technique des solutions proposées dont la pénétration sur le marché doit être favorisée par leur faible coût d'insertion dans les installations existantes et leur temps de retour voisin de 2 ans. The gas-liquid and gas-gas heat exchangers developed respectively by the Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA and the Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, within the framework of an AFME contract to promote innovation, make use of plastics to overcome the sulfuric condensation threshold of 180°C. Beyond this threshold, corrosion problems appear for conventional heat recovery processes. This results in an increase in the recovery of sensible and latent heat, so that the saving normally achieved can be doubled, on the average. This research has shown the technical feasibility of the solution proposed. The market penetration of these solutions should be enhanced by their low cost of insertion in existing installations and their payout time of about two years.

  18. Présentation des phénomènes de corrosion et des différents moyens de lutte disponibles. Description of Corrosion Phenomena and Different Ways of Combating Them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crolet J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article donne une présentation générale des phénomènes de corrosion des matériaux métalliques. II s'attache à montrer comment les moyens de lutte contre la corrosion découlent très naturellement de la bonne compréhension de ces phénomènes.Les aspects électrochimiques, indispensables pour cette compréhension, sont présentés de manière aussi directe et brève que possible. Les divers modes de résistance à la corrosion sont décrits, qu'il s'agisse de modes a naturels » comme l'inertie chimique, la passivité, la pseudo-passivité ou les couches de patine, ou bien encore de modes a provoqués » comme le contrôle du milieu corrosif, l'inhibition, la protection cathodique ou la protection par revêtement.Enfin, les principales interactions entre effets mécaniques et corrosion sont abordées, et en particulier l'érosion-corrosion et la fragilisation par H.S. Des conjugaisons de phénomènes comme la corrosion galvanique, la corrosion inter-granulaire, la corrosion bactérienne sont également présentées. This article gives a general description of corrosion phenomena affecting metallic materials. It attempts ta show how corrosion control and prevention methods quite naturally require a good understanding of these phenomena.The electrochemical aspects indispensable for this understanding are described as directly and briefly as possible.Various types of corrosion resistance are described, whether concerning a natural » types such as chemical inertia, passivity, pseudo-passivity or patina loyers, or else c induced types » such as contrat of the corrosive medium, inhibition, cathodic protec-tion or protection by coating.The principal` interactions between mechanical effects and corrosion are taken up, and especially erosion corrosion and H2S embrittlement. Combinations of pheno-mena are also described, such as galvanic corrosion, intergranular corrosion and bacterial corrosion.

  19. Entre fermeture et perméabilité, analyse des contrôles d’accès des résidences sécurisées en France From closure to permeability: analysis of acces control  in french gated communities

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    Gérald Billard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Le déploiement d’un arsenal sécuritaire (grille, portail, digicode, caméra, etc. est devenu depuis quelques années en France un élément central de nombreux produits mis sur le marché par les promoteurs immobiliers. Des travaux collectifs réalisés par Billard, Madoré (dir., Chevalier, Raulin, Taburet et Vuaillat – dans le cadre d’un contrat de recherche financé par l’Institut National des Hautes Études de Sécurité (2008 – montrent à la fois la diffusion nationale de ces offres immobilières sécurisées et leur banalisation dans certaines régions (Ile de France, Couloir rhodanien, Midi-Pyrénées, Côte d’Azur. Dans ces conditions, il apparaît légitime de s’interroger sur la fragmentation urbaine induite par la multiplication des enclaves fermées. Entre production de frontières imperméables, barrières symboliques ou partielles, et pragmatisme des résidents, le gradient de fermeture oscille d’une opération résidentielle à l’autre, complexifiant indéniablement la vision d’un espace urbain de plus en plus carcéral.    For several years, the display of a security arsenal (gate, fence, digicode, video-camera has become the central criterion for many new real estate operations. A collective study conducted by Billard, Madoré (dir., Chevalier, Raulin, Taburet and Vuaillat – financed by the Institut National des Hautes Etudes de Sécurité (2008 – shows the national spread of this kind of secured real estate products as well as their standardization in some french regions (Paris metropolitan area, Rhône Valley,  Midi-Pyrénées, French Riveria…. Regarding this situation, it would be appropriate to focus our attention on the urban fragmentation induced by this large implementation of gated communities. Due to the production of impassable frontiers, symbolic or partial gates and the pragmatism of the inhabitants, the degree of enclosure differs from one real estate offer to another, making

  20. SAETTA: high resolution 3D mapping of the lightning activity around Corsica Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Defer, Eric; Lambert, Dominique; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Véronique; Prieur, Serge

    2017-04-01

    campaign of the EXAEDRE project during fall 2018 (ANR). Corsica Island becomes now a very interesting area to host field campaigns dedicated to thunderstorm and lightning studies. Acknowledgements: Collectivité Territoriale de Corse through the Fonds Européen de Développement Régional of the European Operational Program 2007-2013 and the Contrat de Plan Etat Région; HyMeX/MISTRALS; Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées; Laboratoire d'Aérologie) and many individuals and regional institutions in Corsica that are hosting the 12 stations of the network or helped us to find sites.

  1. A regionalização intramunicipal do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: um estudo de caso do município de São Paulo-SP, Brasil The intramunicipal regionalization of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS: a case study in the city of São Paulo (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Spedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A regionalização tem sido apontada como um dos principais desafios para viabilizar a equidade e a integralidade do SUS. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o processo de implementação de um projeto de organização de regiões de saúde no município de São Paulo. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma região selecionada desse município, a partir do referencial da análise de implantação, utilizando-se como fonte de dados documentos da gestão e entrevistas semiestruturadas com informantes-chave da gestão municipal 2005-2008. A análise temática evidenciou que o projeto de regionalização idealizado no início da gestão não foi efetivamente implementado. Dentre os fatores que interferiram nesse insucesso, destacam-se: a a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde (SMS, além de seu caráter centralizador, manteve estruturas político-administrativas independentes para a gestão da atenção básica e da assistência hospitalar; b a SMS não assumiu a gestão, de fato, de ambulatórios e hospitais estaduais; c o poder institucional e a resistência dos hospitais em se integrar ao sistema de saúde. Discute-se, ainda, a necessidade de avançar na descentralização intramunicipal do SUS e buscar novas estratégias para a construção de pactos que consigam superar as resistências e articular instituições historicamente consolidadas, visando uma regionalização cooperativa e solidária.Regionalization has been pointed out as one of the most important challenges concerning the achievement of integrality and equity in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. This study aims to evaluate the implementation process of a regional health project in the city of São Paulo. A case study was carried out in a selected region in the city based on the implementation assessment methodology. The data sources were management reports and interviews with key informants, and the period of analysis was 2005-2008. The thematic analysis showed

  2. Cartas de aconselhamento: espaço dialógico da socioconstrução da imagem de si=Counselling letters: a dialogical space for the self's social construction

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    Maria do Socorro de Almeida Farias-Marques

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é resultado do trabalho final de Mestrado desenvolvido na linha de pesquisa Linguagem no contexto social do Programa de Pós-Graduação da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - RS (UFSM. Tivemos como objetivos principais analisar os índices de modalização presentes no gênero discursivo carta de aconselhamento a fim de observar como eles auxiliam na construção da imagem de si. Estamos interessadas na análise da imagem que as autoras dessas cartas constroem no seu discurso. Objetivamos verificar se os discursos dessas cartas rompem com o estereótipo tradicional da figura feminina e seu papel social ou pontuam papéis tradicionais. O corpus deste trabalho foi composto por duas cartas de aconselhamento, publicadas na coluna Consultório Sentimental da Revista Veja disponibilizada na internet e assinada pela colunista Betty Milan (2007a, b e c. A análise foi realizada com base nos preceitos de Bakhtin (1986, 1992 acerca da concepção de linguagem, dos gêneros do discurso e de seus constituintes, da noção de ethos discutida por Amossy (2005 e Maingueneau (2001, 2005, 2008 e de Kerbrat-Orecchioni (1986 acerca dos índices de modalização. Os estudos sobre mídia e construção social de gênero nos ajudaram a verificar o papel da mídia na veiculação dos papéis sociais de mulheres e homens nas relações sociais.The aim of this work is analyze the rates of modalization in the discursive genre advice letter, in order to observe how they help in the construction of self image. We are interested in the analysis of images that the authors of letters build in their discourses. As second objective, we intend to verify if the discourses of the letters break with the traditional stereotype of female figure and its social role or pointed traditional roles. The corpus of that work is compound for six advice letters published in the column Consultório Sentimental of Veja.com Magazine and signed by the columnist Betty Milan (2007a

  3. Propostas de acessibilidade para a inclusão de pessoas com deficiências no ensino superior Accessibility proposals for the inclusion of people with disabilities in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inajara Mills Siqueira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available foi objetivo do estudo conhecer e descrever as ações contidas nas propostas contempladas pelo "Projeto Incluir/MEC-Acessibilidade na Educação Superior" nos anos 2005-2008. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo do tipo documental. Contou com as seguintes etapas de revisão de literatura, levantamento das propostas de acessibilidade submetidas por Instituições Federais de Ensino Superior-IFES, contato com os coordenadores dos programas e busca sistemática para acesso aos projetos na íntegra, leitura dos projetos obtidos, organização dos dados em categorias previamente estabelecidas a partir dos Fatores Contextuais da Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde-CIF. Identificou-se 115 projetos envolvendo 58 IFES, porém apenas 11 projetos foram acessados na íntegra, constituindo a amostra deste estudo. As ações se enquadravam na Parte 2 da CIF - Fatores Contextuais Pessoais/ambientais, e descrevem ações voltadas à aquisição e desenvolvimento de produtos, incluídos no componente "Produtos e Tecnologias", ações no componente "Atitudes" visando conscientizar a comunidade acadêmica/não-acadêmica, e ações voltadas aos "Serviços, Sistemas e Políticas", objetivando a adequação do processo seletivo/vestibular, contratação de intérpretes, capacitação de funcionários/docentes, articulação com outras instâncias da comunidade. Conclui-se que as ações propostas mostram que a inclusão de pessoas com deficiência no ES diz respeito a tudo que envolve o sujeito em suas relações cotidianas e devem estar voltadas para as atitudes frente à pessoa com deficiência, às políticas de inclusão e aquisição de produtos e tecnologias assistivas.To research and describe the actions contained in the proposals offered by the "Project Include / MEC-Accessibility in Higher Education" in the years 2005-2008. This is a descriptive documentary study. It includes the following stages of literature review, survey

  4. Secuelas de la violencia colectiva: hablan las víctimas del estudio ISAVIC Sequelae of collective violen victims' voices in the ISAVIC study

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    Itziar Larizgoitia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A pesar de la importancia de la violencia colectiva en la salud, aún quedan muchas lagunas sobre la naturaleza de las lesiones que produce y su relación con el bienestar y la calidad de vida de sus víctimas. Durante los años 2005-2008 se realizó en el País Vasco el estudio ISAVIC para estimar los efectos de este tipo de violencia en la salud. El estudio intentó comprender las características de las secuelas de la violencia colectiva en la salud de las víctimas a partir de sus percepciones. Métodos: Se seleccionó una muestra intencional de 36 víctimas primarias, a través de redes de contactos y mediadores. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas, analizadas en función del modelo conceptual del estudio. Resultados: Los testimonios sugieren que las víctimas han experimentado un proceso traumático de gran intensidad que no han superado en su totalidad y que es causa de una importante pérdida de calidad de vida. Se describen las principales limitaciones funcionales observadas en términos físicos, emocionales y sociales. Conclusiones: Los resultados cualitativos son coherentes con los obtenidos mediante instrumentos estandarizados, a los que dotan de mayor sentido al explicar la naturaleza de las limitaciones de la salud. También permiten intuir algunas de las relaciones entre las diferentes limitaciones funcionales y su impacto en la calidad de vida. Conviene verificar los resultados con muestras más amplias de víctimas y profundizar en el estudio de la relación entre violencia y salud, incluyendo el impacto del contexto social.Objective: Despite the significant influence of collective violence on the health status of its victims, there are still many gaps in our understanding of the nature of the functional limitations this violence produces and its impact on victims' wellbeing and quality of life. The ISAVIC study was carried out in the autonomous region of the Basque Country from 2005-2008 to

  5. Mortalidad por cáncer infantil en Colombia durante 1985 a 2008 Child mortality from cancer in Colombia, 1985-2008

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    Marion Piñeros

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la magnitud de la mortalidad por cáncer infantil en Colombia y evaluar las tendencias en su evolución entre 1985 y 2008. MÉTODOS: Se analizó durante dicho período la mortalidad en la población colombiana de 0 a 14 años provocada por cáncer en todas las localizaciones -leucemias, tumores malignos del sistema nervioso central (SNC, linfomas no Hodgkin, linfomas Hodgkin, tumores óseos y tumores renales. Se calculó el cambio promedio en las variaciones de las tendencias de mortalidad por cáncer en dicho grupo etario. RESULTADOS: Las muertes por cáncer constituyeron el 3,5% de la mortalidad en menores de 15 años. Entre los períodos 1985-1989 y 2005-2008 las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer mostraron un descenso en ambos sexos, pasando de 54,4 muertes por millón a 44,8 muertes por millón en niños y de 40,9 muertes por millón a 37,9 muertes por millón en niñas. La mortalidad por leucemias y linfomas registró un descenso estadísticamente significativo, mientras que la mortalidad por cánceres del SNC, contrariamente, aumentó también de manera significativa. CONCLUSIONES: Pese a leves tendencias a la baja en la mortalidad por leucemias y linfomas no Hodgkin, las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer infantil en Colombia permanecen altas y requieren esfuerzos importantes en los tratamientos para obtener mayores logros.OBJECTIVE: Determine the magnitude of child mortality from cancer in Colombia and evaluate the trends in its evolution from 1985 to 2008. METHODS: Mortality in the Colombian population aged 0-14 years from cancer in any site (e.g., leukemia, malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS, nonHodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, bone tumors, kidney tumors during this period was analyzed. The mean change in the variations of cancer mortality trends in this age group was calculated. RESULTS: Deaths from cancer accounted for 3.5% of mortality in children under 15 years of age. During the periods 1985

  6. Femmes, militance et vieillissement

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    Anne Quéniart

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’aborder la question de la militance chez les femmes aînées à partir des résultats d’une recherche qualitative menée au Québec, Canada, sur trois ans (2005-2008. Alors que les aînées d’aujourd’hui appartiennent à une génération de femmes qui ont ouvert de multiples portes et ont investi de nouveaux espaces publics, on s’est peu intéressé à leurs pratiques et au sens de leurs engagements après 65 ans. Après avoir introduit la question de la participation sociale et citoyenne des personnes âgées en général, et plus particulièrement des femmes âgées, les auteures mettent en évidence les principales caractéristiques de leurs engagements militants et de leurs conceptions du monde ; un monde qu’elles rêvent encore de changer. Une attention particulière est portée à la perception qu’ont les aînées des différences liées au genre et à la génération. En effet, bien que la plupart d’entre elles ne se définissent pas comme étant des retraitées ni des féministes, elles considèrent que leurs formes et leurs pratiques de militance se distinguent de celles des jeunes militantes et de leurs homologues masculins.Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la cuestión de la militancia de las mujeres mayores de 65 años. Propone un estudio llevado a cabo en Québec, Canadá, sobre un período de 3 años (2005-2008. Sabemos que las mujeres mayores de 65 años pertenecen a una nueva generación que ha abierto muchas puertas y se ha introducido en espacios públicos nuevos. Sin embargo, poco nos hemos interesado por sus actividades y sus compromisos después de los 65 años. En este estudio, se introducirá de forma general el problema de la participación social y ciudadana de las personas mayores para después comprobar las principales características de su militancia y de su concepción del mundo. Se prestará especial atención a la percepción que tienen estas mujeres de las

  7. Simulation of effects of warming on carbon budget in alpine meadow ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau%增温对青藏高原高寒草甸生态系统固碳通量影响的模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓伟伟; 牛海山; 汪诗平; 刘艳杰; 张立荣

    2012-01-01

    低温被广泛认为是高寒草甸生态系统首要限制性因子,因此增温可能会在某种程度上促进初级生产力,但是也可能由于土壤水分、N素营养状况的改变形成新胁迫而抑制生产力提高.此外,生态系统呼吸由于增温而提高的幅度也可能高于初级生产力提高的幅度,造成总碳库平衡的改变.利用青藏高原海北高寒草甸实测数据对生态系统过程模型Biome-BGC(V.4.2)进行了参数化,并利用研究区实测土壤水分(0-40 cm)和其它观测数据对模型进行了检验,证明模型模拟结果较为可靠.模型使用2005-2008年的海北气象站实测气象数据包括气温、降水等作为驱动数据,模拟了增温1.2-1.7℃下青藏高原海北定位站高寒草甸生态系统碳通量的变化,并整合分析增温试验平台上已发表的试验,与模拟结果进行对比,探讨增温对海北高寒草甸生态系统碳收支的可能影响.结果表明:2005-2008年青藏高原高寒草甸生态系统为弱的碳汇,短期增温导致系统净碳固定增加.增温直接影响系统碳通量,也通过土壤水分和土壤矿化氮变化间接影响碳通量,相比土壤水分和氮素,增温对影响碳通量变化过程中的效应更大;研究也揭示,在增温条件下,植物对土壤矿化氮的吸收量小于有机质分解产生的土壤矿化氮量,土壤矿化氮含量增加.

  8. A Population-based Study of Invasive Cervical Cancer Patients in Beijing: 1993-2008

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    Tong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the incidence of cervical cancer has been rising, particularly in young adults, as the second most common gynecological cancer in China. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence change and the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer in Beijing over the past 16 years. Methods: All the cases of the study were limited to Beijing residents diagnosed with cervical cancer and registered in Beijing from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2008. A total of 4100 patients with cervical cancer were obtained from the Statistics Database of Beijing Cancer Registry (BJCaR. According to the registered data, we retrospectively reviewed all original cases which we can acquired in reported hospital. Cervical situ cancer, cervical metastatic cancer, non-Beijing residents and repeatedly registered cases were excluded. Totally, 3641 registered cases were verified correctly. Meanwhile, we also collected the following data: Age, occupation, detected methods, histological type, and staging. The trends of incidence and mortality were analyzed by Joinpoint Regression Program 4.1.1.1 produced by National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA. The annual percent change (APC was calculated using the Joinpoint regression model. Results: The crude rates of incidence and mortality were 10.4 and 1.0 per 100,000 women, respectively during 1993 to 2008. The average WHO age-standardized incidence rates were 11.5 per 100,000 women. There was a decrease in incidence annually by 8.0% (P = 0.3 during 1993-1996 and a rapid increase annually by 18.9% after 1999 (P < 0.01. The median age was 67 years in 1993, but the median age decreased to 45 years in 2008. The peak of the age-specific incidence curve was at 40 years in the most recent period (2005-2008, which was 25-30 years earlier than that in previous periods (1993-1996. In the 2224 cases, the numbers of patients with stage I, II, III and IV were 910 (40.9%, 601 (27%, 542 (24.4%, 171 (7

  9. Disposition of Patients Before and After Establishment of Emergency Medicine Specialists

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    Payman Asadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency department (ED as the fundamental part of hospital has a specific importance due to admitting the most various and sensitive group of patients. The aim of the ED is presenting services with highest quality in the least time. To reach this goal establishment of an emergency medicine specialist who performs assessment, resuscitation, stabilization, detection, and maintenance of emergency patients is noteworthy. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of establishing the emergency medicine specialists on the performance of ED in Poursina Hospital, Rasht, Iran.  Methods: In this cross-sectional study files of all patients hospitalized in the ED of Poursina, Rasht, Iran, through 2005-2012 were evaluated. Variables such as age, gender, cause of refer and number of hospitalization, number of discharging from department, percentage of bed occupation and daily bed occupation, time of hospitalization, number of discharging under six hours, number of transportation to other wards or hospitals, and the rate of bed circulation in the ED were assessed, too. Data was gathered through hospital information system and analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: Through 2005 to 2012 number of admitted patients in the ED has increased so that the most admitted number was related to 2012 (p=0.0001. The present of discharged patients under six hours and the rate of direct discharging before the presence of emergency medicine specialists have increased from 15.5% and 58.9% to 23.4% and 61.2% in after their presence, respectively(p=0.001. Transporting to other wards and hospitals were also decreased from 41.1% to 38.8% (p=0.0001. The occupied beds percentage after presenting of emergency medicine specialists has noticeably decreased compared to the past, while bed turnover rate increased. In other words, the bed turnover mean has increased from 354.5±108.4 during 2005-2008 to 637.7±30.8 through 2009-2012 (p=0.002. Also, during 2005-2008 the

  10. A Revista Plural no contexto de profissionalização da Sociologia no Brasil: entrevista com Maria Arminda do Nascimento Arruda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria Arminda do Nascimento Arruda é professora titular da Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas da Universidade de São Paulo, livre-docente na área de Sociologia, com ênfase em Sociologia da cultura, história social dos intelectuais, da literatura e das artes; Sociologia da comunicação de massas; e teoria sociológica. Dentre suas contribuições mais significativas para a construção de uma agenda de estudos para a Sociologia da cultura no Brasil, destacam-se as obras: Metrópole e cultura: São Paulo no meio século XX (São Paulo: Edusp, 2001, Prêmio Jabuti de 2002; Mitologia da mineiridade: o imaginário mineiro na vida política e cultural do Brasil (São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1990; e A embalagem do sistema: a publicidade no capitalismo brasileiro (São Paulo: Duas Cidades, 1985. Arruda notabilizou-se, ainda, por seus estudos sobre a Escola Paulista de Sociologia e, mais especificamente, a Sociologia de Florestan Fernandes. Dentro dos reconhecimentos que sua produção tem recebido junto à comunidade acadê- mica, ganhou, em 2012, a Medalha Cultural e Comemorativa da trasladação dos despojos da Imperatriz Leopoldina, pelo Instituto Histórico e Geográfico de São Paulo, e, em 2014, o Prêmio Anpocs de Excelência Acadêmica “Antônio Flávio Pierucci” em Sociologia. Atualmente, é bolsista de produtividade em pesquisa do CNPq – Nível 1A. Arruda tem atuado, por outro lado, pela institucionalização do campo acadêmico no Brasil, desempenhando diferentes funções. Desde 2010, é Pró-Reitora de Cultura e Extensão Universitária da Universidade de São Paulo e membro do Comitê Institucional da Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Ciências Sociais – Anpocs. Foi chefe do Departamento de Sociologia (2005-2008, coordenadora da Pós-Graduação em Sociologia (2000-2004, representante da área de Ciências Humanas no Conselho Técnico Científico da Capes (1998-2001, Secretária Executiva da

  11. Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Sàlim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

  12. Doctors' enjoyment of their work and satisfaction with time available for leisure: UK time trend questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, Geraldine; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Doctors' job satisfaction is important to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their personal happiness, fulfilment, service to patients and duty to employers. Monitoring job satisfaction trends informs workforce planning. We surveyed UK-trained doctors up to 5 years after graduation for six graduation year cohorts: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012. Doctors scored their job enjoyment (Enjoyment) and satisfaction with time outside work (Leisure) on a scale from 1 (lowest enjoyment/satisfaction) to 10 (highest). Overall, 47% had a high level of Enjoyment (scores 8-10) 1 year after graduation and 56% after 5 years. For Leisure, the corresponding figures were 19% and 37% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For Leisure at 1 year, high scores were given by about 10% in the 1990s, rising to about 25% in the mid-2000s. Low scores (1-3) for Enjoyment were given by 15% of qualifiers of 1996, falling to 5% by 2008; corresponding figures for Leisure were 42% and 19%. At 5 years, the corresponding figures were 6% and 4%, and 23% and 17%. Enjoyment and Leisure were scored higher by general practitioners than doctors in other specialties. Both measures varied little by sex, ethnicity or medical school attended. Scores for Enjoyment were generally high; those for Leisure were lower. Policy initiatives should address why this aspect of satisfaction is low, particularly in the first year after graduation but also among hospital doctors 5 years after graduation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Optical properties of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) on the East Siberian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Pugach, S.; Pipko, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Siberian Rivers integrate meteorological and hydrological changes in their watersheds and play a significant role in the physical and biogeochemical regime of the Arctic Ocean. Given the magnitude of Siberian Arctic dissolved organic matter (DOM) export and the uncertain extent to which it is degraded to greenhouse gases, intensified studies to better quantify and understand this large carbon pool and processes acting on it are urgently needed. The East Siberian Arctic shelf is characterized by the highest rate of coastal erosion and significant volume of the riverine discharge which derived terrigenous DOM in the Arctic Ocean. DOM plays a significant role in freshwater and marine aquatic ecosystems including its effects on nutrients and carbon cycling. The colored fraction of DOM, CDOM, directly affects the quantity and spectral quality of available light, thereby impaction both primary production and UV exposure in aquatic ecosystems. Since 2003 we measure CDOM in the East Siberian Arctic Seas (ESAS) in situ using the WETStar fluorometer which doesn't require prefiltration of sample. Combined analysis of CDOM and DOC data obtained at near-annual basis in (2003-2011) demonstrate a high degree of correlation between these parameters. For all the measured samples taken during the ISSS cruises (2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2011), there is an overall linear relationship between DOC concentration, CDOM, and salinity. Here we report the spatial-time variability of river-borne DOM in the ESAS using CDOM as a proxy parameter. Higher absorption coefficients (a254), spectral slope parameter over range 275-295 nm (S275-295) and CDOM concentrations reflect the dominant contribution of terrigenous DOM. It is shown that the attenuation light coefficient in the shallow ESAS is mostly determined by riverine CDOM.

  14. Otosclerosis surgery: approaches, profits and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japaridze, Sh; Lomidze, L; Jashi, M; Kekelidze, I; Gegenava, Kh

    2009-05-01

    A systematic analysis of stapedoplasty output in otosclerosis cases was carried out. The operations were done during the period of 2005-2008 years at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the Tbilisi State Medical University. From the overall number of 107 patients, 78 were females and 29 males, 72.9% and 27.1%, respectively. The ages ranged from 16 to 57 years. The mean age was 35 years. The conductive and mixed forms of hearing losses were diagnosed in 70 and 37 cases, 65.4% and 34.6%, respectively. Right ear was operated in 46 patients, left ear in 57, and both ears in four, 43.3%, 53.0%, and 3.7%, respectively. 111 ears have been cured thus in sum. Intumescences of external ear tube were observed during the operation in 22 patients, 20.6%. In 7, 6.5%, the facial nerve was located downward. Particularly abnormal placement of the facial nerve was the case in two patients, 1.9%. The endaural approach has been proved to own advantages over the transmeatal one. The data generally confirmed that stapedotomy, as compared to stapedectomy, is a better choice for the surgery output. In beneficial cases the air/bone gaps after the operation closed totally or nearly totally. Such a proper outcome was reached in 93 out of 111 ears operated, 83.8%. In most of remainder ears the gaps after the operation narrowed significantly but far not completely. The definite surgery failure happened in one case only, 0.9%. To balance the preserved middle-ear problems in non-perfect surgery cases, the hearing aids of bone-conduction types have been recommended. In mixed otosclerosis cases, conversely, the aids of air-conduction types were advised to overcome the coexisted inner-ear pathologies.

  15. The Contribution of Beverages to Intakes of Energy and MyPlate Components by Current, Former, and Never Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizza, Claire A; Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; ISIK, Zeynep; Goldman, Joseph D; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-12-01

    Although beverage intake patterns have been shown to differ by smoking status, it is unknown whether the contributions of beverages to intakes of energy and MyPlate components also differ. The purpose of this study was to compare beverage intakes and contributions of energy and MyPlate components by source (food alone, beverages alone, and food and beverages together) in diets of adult current, former, and never smokers. Dietary data from 4,823 men and 4,672 women aged ≥20 years who participated in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, were analyzed. Beverage intake and the contributions to energy and MyPlate components by beverages. Regression analyses identified differences in intake among groups. Current smokers consumed more total beverages, coffee, and sugar-sweetened beverages than never and former smokers (Pnever and former smokers, whereas female current and former smokers both consumed more alcoholic beverages than never smokers. Current smokers obtained more energy from beverages than their nonsmoking counterparts, although total energy intake did not differ. Intakes of added sugars, alcohol, and empty calories were higher for current than never smokers, and differences were accounted for by current smokers' beverage choices. This study adds to the body of research on smoking and dietary behavior by showing that not only do smokers consume a higher volume of beverages, but they also have a higher intake of energy provided by beverages, mainly empty calories from added sugars and alcohol. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing beverages' contribution to the total diet. Recognizing the common co-occurrence of smoking and specific beverage choices can help target health promotion and disease prevention efforts for this subpopulation. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GIS-measured walkability, transit, and recreation environments in relation to older Adults' physical activity: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Michael; Adams, Marc A; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Buman, Matthew P; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    An infrequently studied question is how diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features relate to physical activity (PA) for older adults. We derived patterns of geographic information systems- (GIS) measured BE features and explored how they accounted for differences in objective and self-reported PA, sedentary time, and BMI in a sample of older adults. Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=714, aged 66-97years, 52.1% women, 29.7% racial/ethnic minority) were sampled in 2005-2008 from the Seattle-King County, WA and Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC regions. Participants' home addresses were geocoded, and net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit density, and public park and private recreation facility density measures for 1-km network buffers were derived. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these GIS-based measures. In multilevel regression models, profiles were compared on accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. LPAs yielded three profiles: low walkability/transit/recreation (L-L-L); mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M); and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-H-H). Three PA outcomes were more favorable in the HHH than the LLL profile group (difference of 7.2min/day for MVPA, 97.8min/week for walking for errands, and 79.2min/week for walking for exercise; all pswalkability index, suggesting that diverse BE features are important for healthy aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced scoring method of eco-efficiency in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor; Madaleno, Mara; Robaina, Margarita; Villar, José

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes a set of selected German and French cities' performance in terms of the relative behavior of their eco-efficiencies, computed as the ratio of their gross domestic product (GDP) over their CO 2 emissions. For this analysis, eco-efficiency scores of the selected cities are computed using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique, taking the eco-efficiencies as outputs, and the inputs being the energy consumption, the population density, the labor productivity, the resource productivity, and the patents per inhabitant. Once DEA results are analyzed, the Malmquist productivity indexes (MPI) are used to assess the time evolution of the technical efficiency, technological efficiency, and productivity of the cities over the window periods 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2008. Some of the main conclusions are that (1) most of the analyzed cities seem to have suboptimal scales, being one of the causes of their inefficiency; (2) there is evidence that high GDP over CO 2 emissions does not imply high eco-efficiency scores, meaning that DEA like approaches are useful to complement more simplistic ranking procedures, pointing out potential inefficiencies at the input levels; (3) efficiencies performed worse during the period 2000-2005 than during the period 2005-2008, suggesting the possibility of corrective actions taken during or at the end of the first period but impacting only on the second period, probably due to an increasing environmental awareness of policymakers and governors; and (4) MPI analysis shows a positive technological evolution of all cities, according to the general technological evolution of the reference cities, reflecting a generalized convergence of most cities to their technological frontier and therefore an evolution in the right direction.

  18. Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Genevieve; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hall, Peter A; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Mons, Ute; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Yong, Hua-Hie; Thompson, Mary E; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Prior studies have demonstrated that time perspective-the propensity to consider short-versus long-term consequences of one's actions-is a potentially important predictor of health-related behaviors, including smoking. However, most prior studies have been conducted within single high-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine whether time perspective was associated with the likelihood of being a smoker or non-smoker across five countries that vary in smoking behavior and strength of tobacco control policies. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in five countries with large probability samples of both smokers (N=10,341) and non-smokers (N=4,955): Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia. The surveys were conducted between 2005-2008. Survey respondents indicated their smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker) and time perspective (future oriented vs. not future-oriented) and provided demographic information. Across all five countries, non-smokers were significantly more likely to be future-oriented (66%) than were smokers (57%), χ(2)(1, N = 15,244) = 120.64, p perspective and smoking status held in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for country, age, sex, income, education, and ethnicity (language in France), those who were future-oriented had 36% greater odds of being a non-smoker than a smoker (95% CI: 1.22 to 1.51, pperspective as an important predictor of smoking status across multiple countries and suggest the potential value of incorporating material to enhance future orientation in smoking cessation interventions.

  19. Analysis of the ENADE items complexity based on the Revised Bloom Taxonomy: contributions to physics teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Castro Costa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Student Performance Exam (ENADE is the main component of the National Higher Education Evaluation System (SINAES that deals with the Brazilian Higher Education Degrees. This article deals with 120 (one hundred and twenty objectives and discursive items from four ENADE editions for Teaching Physics Degree, applied in 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014. We search for the Exam complexity throughout cognitive aspects mobilized to solve each item, according to the Bloom Taxonomy Revised (BTR. The BTR proposes a two-dimensional matrix classification that crosses a knowledge dimension, which means, “what” students must know in order to answer the questions, with the cognitive process involved in the task, reflecting “how” the problem was solved. According the BTR theory, the knowledge has been understood in the dimensions: effective, conceptual, procedure and metacognitive, which deals, respectively with basics terminology knowledge, concepts knowledge, procedure methodology knowledge and reflexive/analytical knowledge. The cognitive process described in verbs at the BTR presents the student´s skills in the resolutions ranked as: to remember, to understand, to apply, to analyze, to evaluate and to create. To classify discursive items, pattern answers were used, and to classify multiple choice items, our resolutions of the questions were used. The items were located at the two-dimensional BTR matrix, which gives us an Exam complexity overview. We observe that only 17 (14% items are in the effective knowledge domain, while 103 (86% items require the conceptual and procedure knowledge domain, which demands higher complexity. We consider these results compatible with the ENADE role as a Higher Brazilian Education quality referential. We intend to update Physics professors throughout Physics Teaching Examination in order to increase their commitment to the Higher Education Evaluation. We also believe that understanding the examination could

  20. Taxonomic composition of phytoplankton in the Vakh River (Western Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatova, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides data on the hydrological and hydrochemical parameters of the Vakh River in the Middle Ob region. In 2005-2008 we have identified 404 taxonomic units represented by 463 species, types and forms of algae, belonging to 140 genera, 52 families, 13 classes and 7 divisions. 386 species were identified for the first time, 141 taxa were identified as rare and 22 taxa as new for Western Siberia. Leading divisions, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta, make up for 78.9% of total phytoplankton diversity. Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Euglenophyta form a community of 88 taxonomic units having a rank lower than genus level, and represent 19.0% of the total number. The floral role of Xanthophyta and Dinophyta is insignificant (2.1%). The main structure-forming species are 14: vegetating throughout the year (Aulacoseira italica, Asterionella formosa), summer taxa (Microcystis aeruginosa, Melosira varians, Aulacoseira granulata, Pandorina morum, Pediastrum boryanum, P. duplex, Lacunastrum gracillimum, Scenedesmus quadricauda) and summer-autumn (Microcystis pulverea, Tabellaria fenestrata, T. flocculosa, Mucidosphaerium pulchellum). The Vakh River demonstrates specific characteristics of boreal flowing waterways. The northern composition is represented in a big rate of families (44.2%) and genera (109 77.9) with one to three species. The richest genera Closterium (31 taxa), Eunotia (27 taxa), Pinnularia (22 taxa), Desmidium (11 taxa) and the family Desmidiaceae (45 taxa) ensure diversity of phytoplankton. Ecological and geographical analysis demonstrates predominance of cosmopolitan algae (56.6%). Plankton represents 44.7% of all algae, oligogalobs - 78.8% and indifferent algae – 36.7%. Water meets the requirements for β-mezosaprobian pollution zone, class of satisfactory purity (III class).

  1. A equidade no sistema de saúde na visão de bioeticistas brasileiros Equity in the health system according to brazilian bioethicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio de Carvalho Fortes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a atribuição de significado dada por bioeticistas brasileiros quanto à equidade no sistema de saúde. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória. Entre julho de 2007 e julho de 2008, foram entrevistados 20 bioeticistas, dirigentes e ex-dirigentes da Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética e de suas regionais (2005-2008. O tratamento dos dados foi realizado por análise de discurso. RESULTADOS: Os discursos levaram ao estabelecimento das seguintes ideias centrais: tratar desigualmente os desiguais conforme suas necessidades; equidade e desigualdades compensadas; equidade e maximização dos benefícios; equidade e mérito social; equidade e direitos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam a existência entre os bioeticistas pesquisados de uma diversidade de interpretações sobre equidade no sistema de saúde, reforçando a noção de que é difícil, no mundo contemporâneo, decidir sobre o que seria um sistema justo e equânime.OBJECTIVE: To understand the meaning assigned to ethical thought that should guide Brazilian bioethicists regarding the equity of a Health System. METHODS: Between July 2007 and July 2008, 20 bioethicists, directors and former directors of the 'Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética' (Bioethics Brazilian Society and their regional administrations were interviewed. RESULTS: Discourse analysis led to definition of these main points: To treat the unequals unequally according to their needs; Compensate equity and inequalities; Distributive justice and maximization of benefits; Justice and social merit and Justice and rights. CONCLUSION: Research results disclose a pluralism of values that jeopardizes determination of moral equity in the health system., Exhausting dialogues among all interested parties are necessary to reach a possible consensus.

  2. Complications Following Primary and Revision Transsphenoidal Surgeries for Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, James G.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Wineland, Andre; Nepple, Kenneth G.; Piccirillo, Jay F.; Getz, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the incidence of major complications following both primary and revision transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Major complications included endocrinopathic, skull base, orbital, hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications, respiratory failure, and death. Secondarily, this study aimed to examine factors associated with the occurrence of complications. Study Design Retrospective cohort analysis of California and Florida all-payer databases from 2005-2008. Methods The major complication rate following both primary and revision transsphenoidal pituitary surgery was calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed to investigate the relationship of patient characteristics with complication occurrence, and a multivariate model was constructed to determine risk factors associated with these complications. Results 5,277 primary cases and 192 revision cases met inclusion criteria. There was a non-significant absolute difference of 3.09% (95% CI −11.00 to 16.14) between the rate of complications following primary (n=443; 8.39%) and revision (n=22; 11.46%) surgeries. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with Medicare (OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.61), Medicaid (OR=2.13; 95% CI 1.59 to 2.86), or a malignant neoplasm (OR=3.10; 95% CI 1.62 to 5.93) were more likely to have complications. Conclusions The rate of major complications following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is lower than earlier retrospective reports. The overall complication rate following revision surgery was not significantly different from primary surgery. Insurance status and a diagnosis of a malignant neoplasm were associated with a higher rate of complications. PMID:25263939

  3. Carbon dioxide effects of ethanol. A state-of-the-art review; Etanolens koldioxideffekter. En oeversikt av forskningslaeget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibe, Soeren

    2010-01-15

    The main result of the study is that the programs for increased ethanol use in place, especially in the US and EU, have a significant effect on carbon emissions. In broad terms, the result is that ethanol leads to an increase in emissions (compared with the corresponding transport work performed with gasoline) during the first 50-60 years. Only then will ethanol programs lead to emission reductions. The effects on the food (and feed) prices from the programs are not clear with regard to quantity, but a large majority of the reports indicate that the increasing use of ethanol has increased commodity prices significantly. An overall assessment is that increased alcohol use explains 20-40% of the price rises that has occurred during the years 2005-2008 for goods such as rice, maize, soya and feed wheat. The report is based primarily on a series of large survey studies. These studies contain a wealth of empirical material and an abundance of source references. The most important studies for this presentation are, however, two scientific reports published in the spring of 2008 in the journal Science: Fargione et al and Search Inger et al. After this report was completed, two new reports were published in Science, both of which support the conclusions drawn in this report. A main impression is that research shows an increasingly negative image of ethanol (and for the part even biodiesel) programs. They are expensive, have a negative impact on the environment for a long time and leads to increased food costs. Should we judge by the past years of research reports, particularly the large overview reports, ethanol does not appear to be a solution to the world's environmental problems

  4. Anti-social personality characteristics and psychotic symptoms: Two pathways associated with offending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; Barendregt, Marko; Van Beveren, Nico M; De Beurs, Edwin; Van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2015-07-01

    Several research groups have shown that people with schizophrenia who offend do not form a homogenous group. A three-group model claimed by Hodgins proposes distinguishing between people who start offending before the onset of psychosis (early starters), after psychosis onset but at age 34 years or under (late starters) and after psychosis onset but at age 35 years or older (late first offenders). This study aimed to test the hypotheses (1) that the personality of early starters and non-psychotic offenders would be similar, but different from either late-starter group; (2) that the late-starter groups would be more likely to have positive psychotic symptoms than non-criminal patients with schizophrenia; and (3) that symptom types would differentiate the psychotic groups. A retrospective file study was conducted on cases of 97 early starters, 100 late starters and 26 late first offenders all drawn from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (NIFP) archives 1993-2008, 115 non-psychotic offenders from 2005-2008 NIFP archives and 129 patients with schizophrenia and no criminal history from one general service in Rotterdam. Early starters closely resembled the non-psychotic offenders in their premorbid anti-social personality characteristics. The two late-onset offending psychosis groups were more likely to have persecutory and/or grandiose delusions than non-offenders with psychosis, but so were the early starters. In a first study to compare subgroups of offenders with psychosis directly with non-psychotic offenders and non-offenders with psychosis, we found such additional support for a distinction between early and late starters with psychosis that different treatment strategies would seem indicated, focusing on personality and substance misuse for the former but psychotic symptoms for all. It remains to be seen whether the higher rate of alcohol misuse amongst late first offenders is a fundamental distinction or a function of age

  5. Clinical characteristics, drug resistance, and treatment outcomes among tuberculosis patients with diabetes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, M J; Bloss, E; Shin, S S; Contreras, C; Huaman, H Arbanil; Ticona, J Calderon; Bayona, J; Bonilla, C; Yagui, M; Jave, O; Cegielski, J P

    2013-06-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for active tuberculosis (TB). Data are limited regarding the association between diabetes and TB drug resistance and treatment outcomes. We examined characteristics of TB patients with and without diabetes in a Peruvian cohort at high risk for drug-resistant TB. Among TB patients with diabetes (TB-DM), we studied the association between diabetes clinical/management characteristics and TB drug resistance and treatment outcomes. During 2005-2008, adults with suspected TB with respiratory symptoms in Lima, Peru, who received rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST), were prospectively enrolled and followed during treatment. Bivariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to examine the relationships of diabetes characteristics with drug-resistant TB and TB outcomes. Of 1671 adult TB patients enrolled, 186 (11.1%) had diabetes. TB-DM patients were significantly more likely than TB patients without diabetes to be older, have had no previous TB treatment, and to have a body mass index (BMI) >18.5 kg/m(2) (pdiabetes, and 12% and 28%, respectively, among TB-DM patients. Among 149 TB-DM patients with DST results, 104 (69.8%) had drug-susceptible TB and 45 (30.2%) had drug-resistant TB, of whom 29 had multidrug-resistant TB. There was no association between diabetes characteristics and drug-resistant TB. Of 136 TB-DM patients with outcome information, 107 (78.7%) had a favorable TB outcome; active diabetes management was associated with a favorable outcome. Diabetes was common in a cohort of TB patients at high risk for drug-resistant TB. Despite prevalent multidrug-resistant TB among TB-DM patients, the majority had a favorable TB treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders (WAIST Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Richardson, Caroline R; Holleman, Rob G; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Kriska, Andrea M

    2013-04-01

    Examine the association between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms among overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Randomized clinical trial; Weight Assessment and Intervention in Schizophrenia Treatment (WAIST) Study: baseline data collected 2005-2008. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Community-dwelling adults diagnosed with SZO/SA, with mild symptom severity [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)losing weight, age 18-70years, BMI>27kg/m(2). Objectively measured sedentary behavior by accelerometry, and psychopathology assessed by PANSS. Participants wore the actigraphs for 7 consecutive days during their waking hours. Sedentary behavior was defined as ≤100 counts per minute during wear-time and excluded sleep and non-wear time. On average, 81% of the participant's monitoring time or 756min/day was classified as sedentary behavior using accelerometry. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and PANSS psychiatric symptoms [total (p≥0.75), positive (p≥0.81), negative (p≥0.59) and general psychopathology (p≥0.65) subscales]. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and age, race, gender and BMI. From a clinical and public health perspective, the amount of time (approximately 13h) and percentage of time (81% excluding non-wear time associated with sleeping) engaged in sedentary behavior among overweight and obese adults in this population is alarming, and points to an urgent need for interventions to decrease sedentary behaviors. The lack of associations between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms may be due to a ceiling effect for sedentary behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrative Modeling of cap-rock Integrity in the Context of CO2 Storage: Evolution of Transport and Geochemical Properties and Impact on Performance and Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.; Credoz, A.; Jullien, M.; Kervevan, C.; Audigane, P.; Jacquemet, N.; Lagneau, V.; Delaplace, P.; Perfetti, E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the 'Geocarbone-INTEGRITE' project (2005-2008) was to develop a methodology to assess the integrity of the cap-rock involved in the geological storage of CO 2 . A specific work package of the project (WP5) was dedicated to the integration of (1) the phenomenology describing the evolution of the storage system with a focus on the mechanisms occurring in the cap-rock and at the interface with the cap-rock, and (2) the data obtained from the investigation of petrographical, geomechanical, and geochemical properties, before and after reaction with CO 2 -rich solutions, performed in the other work packages (WP1 to WP4). This knowledge was introduced in numerical models and specific safety scenarios were defined in order to assess the performance of the CO 2 storage system. The results of the modeling show that the injection of CO 2 can potentially have a significant effect on the cap-rock by changing the porosity due to the dissolution and precipitation of minerals, but that the impact is limited to a zone from several decimeters to several meters of the cap-rock close to the interface with the reservoir depending on whether the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) plume enters into the cap-rock and if fractures are present at this location. The methodology used in this project can be applied to a pilot site for the injection of CO 2 in the Paris Basin. A key aspect of the safety of such a facility will be to look at the coupling of geochemical alteration and the evolution of geomechanical properties in the short and medium terms (several hundreds of years). The challenge for the future will be to structure and apply the safety assessment methodology with an operational finality, in order to support the robustness of the transition step to CGS projects at the industrial scale. (authors)

  8. Soil disturbance as a driver of increased stream salinity in a semiarid watershed undergoing energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Clark, Melanie L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Mcdougal, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is a global threat to the quality of streams and rivers, but it can have many causes. Oil and gas development were investigated as one of several potential causes of changes in the salinity of Muddy Creek, which drains 2470 km2 of mostly public land in Wyoming, U.S.A. Stream discharge and salinity vary with seasonal snowmelt and define a primary salinity-discharge relationship. Salinity, measured by specific conductance, increased substantially in 2009 and was 53-71% higher at low discharge and 33-34% higher at high discharge for the years 2009-2012 compared to 2005-2008. Short-term processes (e.g., flushing of efflorescent salts) cause within-year deviations from the primary relation but do not obscure the overall increase in salinity. Dissolved elements associated with increased salinity include calcium, magnesium, and sulfate, a composition that points to native soil salts derived from marine shales as a likely source. Potential causes of the salinity increase were evaluated for consistency by using measured patterns in stream chemistry, slope of the salinity-discharge relationship, and inter-annual timing of the salinity increase. Potential causes that were inconsistent with one or more of those criteria included effects from precipitation, evapotranspiration, reservoirs, grazing, irrigation return flow, groundwater discharge, discharge of energy co-produced waters, and stream habitat restoration. In contrast, surface disturbance of naturally salt-rich soil by oil and gas development activities, such as pipeline, road, and well pad construction, is a reasonable candidate for explaining the salinity increase. As development continues to expand in semiarid lands worldwide, the potential for soil disturbance to increase stream salinity should be considered, particularly where soils host substantial quantities of native salts.

  9. Quantifying the Impact of geographically isolated wetlands on the downstream hydrology of a Canadian Prairie watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A.; Evenson, G. R.; Boluwade, A.; Jha, S. K.; Rasmussen, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrological processes are highly complex and strongly nonlinear and cannot be represented through simple means. Models are built to replicate these processes. However, models due to various sources of uncertainty including their structural capability often lead to inaccurate results. The aim of this study is to setup the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) for a watershed that is dominated by potholes in the Prairie region of Canada. The potholes not connected to the stream, also known as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), are dynamic in nature leading to a fill and spill situation due to varying surface runoff conditions. Significant land use changes have resulted in almost 70% of wetlands being lost and have posed threat of flooding to downstream areas. While some studies were devoted to identify the presence of potholes only few have explored the impacts of wetlands on the downstream hydrology. In this study, we follow Evenson et al., (2016) approach of modifying SWAT model. The modification enhances structural capability of SWAT while depicting the dynamics of wetlands at HRUs level. Redefining the formation of HRUs in such way effectively captures the spatial presence of potholes. We then routed the potholes' fill and spill hydrology to direct the flow to the potholes immediately downstream. The model was calibrated for 2005-2008 and verified over 2009-2011 at a daily time step. We tested our model with three land use change scenarios by varying the presence of potholes and evaluated its impact on the downstream hydrograph. We foresee a significant improvement in replicating stream flow using this novel approach. We believe that it will effectively improve the predictive power of SWAT for this highly complex sub basin (Upper Assiniboine catchment at Kamsack) located in Canadian Prairie.

  10. Using electronic health records to save money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Dayan, Yosefa; Saed, Halil; Boaz, Mona; Misch, Yehudith; Shahar, Talia; Husiascky, Ilan; Blumenfeld, Oren

    2013-06-01

    Health information technology, especially electronic health records (EHRs), can be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare providers. This study assessed the cost-savings of incorporating a list of preferred specialty care providers into the EHRs used by all primary care physicians (PCPs), accompanied by a comprehensive implementation plan. On January 1, 2005, all specialty clinic providers at the Israeli Defense Forces were divided into one of four financial classes based on their charges, class 1, the least expensive, being the most preferred, followed by classes 2-4. This list was incorporated into the EHRs used by all PCPs in primary care clinics. PCPs received comprehensive training. Target referral goals were determined for each class and measured for 4 years, together with the total cost of all specialist visits in the first year compared to the following years. Quality assessment (QA) scores were used as a measure of the program's effect on the quality of patient care. During 2005-2008, a marginally significant decline in referrals to class 1 was observed (r=-0.254, p=0.078), however a significant increase in referral rates to class 2 was observed (r=0.957, p=0.042), concurrent with a decrease in referral rates to classes 3 and 4 (r=-0.312, p=0.024). An inverse correlation was observed between year and total costs for all visits to specialists (2008 prices; r=-0.96, p=0.04), and between the mean cost of one specialist visit over the 4 years, indicating a significant reduction in real costs (2008 prices; r=-0.995, p=0.005). QA was not affected by these changes (r=0.94, p=0.016). From a policy perspective, our data suggest that EHR can facilitate effective utilization of healthcare providers and decrease costs.

  11. Spatial and temporal trends of selected trace elements in liver tissue from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routti, H.; Letcher, R.J.; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Fisk, A.T.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial trends and comparative changes in time of selected trace elements were studied in liver tissue from polar bears from ten different subpopulation locations in Alaska, Canadian Arctic and East Greenland. For nine of the trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se and Zn) spatial trends were investigated in 136 specimens sampled during 2005-2008 from bears from these ten subpopulations. Concentrations of Hg, Se and As were highest in the (northern and southern) Beaufort Sea area and lowest in (western and southern) Hudson Bay area and Chukchi/Bering Sea. In contrast, concentrations of Cd showed an increasing trend from east to west. Minor or no spatial trends were observed for Cu, Mn, Rb and Zn. Spatial trends were in agreement with previous studies, possibly explained by natural phenomena. To assess temporal changes of Cd, Hg, Se and Zn concentrations during the last decades, we compared our results to previously published data. These time comparisons suggested recent Hg increase in East Greenland polar bears. This may be related to Hg emissions and/or climate-induced changes in Hg cycles or changes in the polar bear food web related to global warming. Also, Hg:Se molar ratio has increased in East Greenland polar bears, which suggests there may be an increased risk for Hg 2+-mediated toxicity. Since the underlying reasons for spatial trends or changes in time of trace elements in the Arctic are still largely unknown, future studies should focus on the role of changing climate and trace metal emissions on geographical and temporal trends of trace elements. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Impact of comprehensive insurance parity on follow-up care after psychiatric inpatient treatment in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Neal T; McConnell, K John

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of Oregon's 2007 parity law, which required behavioral health insurance parity, on rates of follow-up care provided within 30 days of psychiatric inpatient care. Data sources were claims (2005-2008) for 737 individuals with inpatient stays for a mental disorder who were continuously enrolled in insurance plans affected by the parity law (intervention group) or in commercial, self-insured plans that were not affected by the law (control group). A difference-in-difference analysis was used to compare rates of follow-up care before and after the parity law between discharges of individuals in the intervention group and the control group and between discharges of individuals in the intervention group who had or had not met preparity quantitative coverage limits during a coverage year. Estimates of the marginal effects of the parity law were adjusted for gender, discharge diagnosis, relationship to policy holder, and calendar quarter of discharge. The study included 353 discharges in the intervention group and 535 discharges in the control group. After the parity law, follow-up rates increased by 11% (p=.042) overall and by 20% for discharges of individuals who had met coverage limits (p=.028). The Oregon parity law was associated with a large increase in the rate of follow-up care, predominantly for discharges of individuals who had met preparity quantitative coverage limits. Given similarities between the law and the 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act, the results may portend a national effect of more comprehensive parity laws.

  13. [How does type of health insurance affect receipt of Pap testing in Peru?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo-Rosas, Leslie; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme

    2013-12-01

    Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear--1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively--than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.

  14. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-08-10

    To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Ontario, Canada. 219,276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205,326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p = 0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p = 0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p = 0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p = 0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Menopausal symptoms in an intercultural context: a comparison between German women, Chinese women and migrant Chinese women using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Grete; Wernecke, Klaus-D; Schalinski, Adelheid; Borde, Theda; David, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    What are the differences between the occurrence of menopausal symptoms in German women, migrant Chinese women in Germany and Chinese women in their native country? Can these potential discrepancies be explained by sociocultural differences? What are the differences in menopausal symptoms in connection with the consumption of soya? Cross-sectional study 2005-2008. Survey of three groups of women aged between 45 and 60 years (native German women in Berlin, migrant Chinese women in several German cities, Chinese women in Beijing) with an evaluated set of questionnaires surveying socio-demographic data, use of hormone therapy, migration/acculturation, MRS II and other areas. A total of 2,109 questionnaires were sent out and a 41 % response rate was achieved, although this varied greatly across the three individual study groups. The results of the MRS II factor analysis were almost identical for German women and migrant Chinese women, but there were some differences in content compared to the Chinese study group. Chinese women surveyed in Beijing reported severe symptoms significantly less frequently in all three symptom groups (factors) of MRS II than the German women and the migrant Chinese women, but the values from the German women and migrant Chinese women surveyed are relatively similar. In all three study groups there are no significant differences in the stated severity of the symptoms, regardless of whether soya is consumed frequently or less frequently. The question whether the differences found are solely cultural or migration-related must be examined in further studies. The special experiences and situation in life of migrant women should be taken into particular account by attending physicians during the care and treatment of women in this phase of life.

  16. Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008. The study demonstrated a 45% reduction in neonatal mortality in the last two years of the intervention, largely driven by improvements in safe practices for home deliveries. Methods A participatory learning and action cycle with 244 women's groups was implemented in 18 intervention clusters covering an estimated population of 114 141. We describe the context, content, and implementation of this intervention, identify potential mechanisms behind its impact, and report challenges experienced in the field. Methods included a review of intervention documents, qualitative structured discussions with group members and non-group members, meeting observations, as well as descriptive statistical analysis of data on meeting attendance, activities, and characteristics of group attendees. Results Six broad, interrelated factors influenced the intervention's impact: (1 acceptability; (2 a participatory approach to the development of knowledge, skills and 'critical consciousness'; (3 community involvement beyond the groups; (4 a focus on marginalized communities; (5 the active recruitment of newly pregnant women into groups; (6 high population coverage. We hypothesize that these factors were responsible for the increase in safe delivery and care practices that led to the reduction in neonatal mortality demonstrated in the Ekjut trial. Conclusions Participatory interventions with community groups can influence maternal and child health outcomes if key intervention characteristics are preserved and tailored to

  17. Occurrence in Mexico, 1998-2008, of Vibrio cholerae CTX+ El Tor carrying an additional truncated CTX prophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Mannan, Shahnewaj Bin; Islam, Tarequl; Lizarraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hasan, Nur A; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2014-07-08

    The seventh cholera pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor (ET) has been superseded in Asia and Africa by altered ET possessing the cholera toxin (CTX) gene of classical (CL) biotype. The CL biotype of V. cholerae was isolated, along with prototypic and altered ET, during the 1991 cholera epidemic in Mexico and subsequently remained endemic until 1997. Microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2008 revealed important genetic events favoring predominance of ET over CL and altered ET. V. cholerae altered ET was predominant after 1991 but not after 2000. V. cholerae strains isolated between 2001 and 2003 and a majority isolated in 2004 lacked CTX prophage (Φ) genes encoding CTX subunits A and B and repeat sequence transcriptional regulators of ET and CL biotypes: i.e., CTXΦ(-). Most CTXΦ(-) V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 2001 and 2003 also lacked toxin coregulated pili tcpA whereas some carried either tcpA(ET) or a variant tcpA with noticeable sequence dissimilarity from tcpA(CL). The tcpA variants were not detected in 2005 after CTXΦ(+) ET became dominant. All clinical and environmental V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 2005-2008 in Mexico were CTXΦ(+) ET, carrying an additional truncated CTXΦ instead of RS1 satellite phage. Despite V. cholerae CTXΦ(-) ET exhibiting heterogeneity in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, CTXΦ(+) ET isolated during 2004-2008 displayed homogeneity and clonal relationship with V. cholerae ET N16961 and V. cholerae ET isolated in Peru.

  18. Childhood cancer incidence and survival in Japan and England: A population-based study (1993-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kayo; Ito, Yuri; Magadi, Winnie; Bonaventure, Audrey; Stiller, Charles A; Katanoda, Kota; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Rachet, Bernard

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare cancer incidence and trends in survival for children diagnosed in Japan and England, using population-based cancer registry data. The analysis was based on 5192 children with cancer (age 0-14 years) from 6 prefectural cancer registries in Japan and 21 295 children diagnosed in England during 1993-2010. Differences in incidence rates between the 2 countries were measured with Poisson regression models. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Incidence rates for Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors and Ewing sarcomas in England were more than twice as high as those in Japan. Incidence of germ cell tumors, hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was higher in Japan than in England. Incidence of all cancers combined decreased in Japan throughout the period 1993 to 2010, which was mainly explained by a decrease in registration of neuroblastoma in infants. For many cancers, 5-year survival improved in both countries. The improvement in survival in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was particularly dramatic in both countries. However, 5-year survival remained less than 80% in 2005-2008 in both countries for AML, brain tumors, soft tissue sarcomas, malignant bone tumors and neuroblastoma (age 1-14 years). There were significant differences in incidence of several cancers between countries, suggesting variation in genetic susceptibility and possibly environmental factors. The decrease in incidence for all cancers combined in Japan was related to the cessation of the national screening program for neuroblastoma. The large improvement in survival in CML coincided with the introduction of effective therapy (imatinib). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Not just a rural occurrence: differences in agricultural equipment crash characteristics by rural-urban crash site and proximity to town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Karisa K; Greenan, Mitchell; Ramirez, Marizen

    2014-09-01

    Although approximately one-third of agricultural equipment-related crashes occur near town, these crashes are thought to be a rural problem. This analysis examines differences between agricultural equipment-related crashes by their urban-rural distribution and distance from a town. Agricultural equipment crashes were collected from nine Midwest Departments of Transportation (2005-2008). Crash zip code was assigned as urban or rural (large, small and isolated) using Rural-Urban Commuting Areas. Crash proximity to a town was estimated with ArcGIS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of crashing in an urban versus rural zip codes and across rural gradients. ANOVA analysis estimated mean distance (miles) from a crash site to a town. Over four years, 4444 crashes involved agricultural equipment. About 30% of crashes occurred in urban zip codes. Urban crashes were more likely to be non-collisions (aOR=1.69[1.24-2.30]), involve ≥2 vehicles (2 vehicles: aOR=1.58[1.14-2.20], 3+ vehicles: aOR=1.68[0.98-2.88]), occur in a town (aOR=2.06[1.73-2.45]) and within one mile of a town (aOR=1.65[1.40-1.95]) than rural crashes. The proportion of crashes within a town differed significantly across rural gradients (Purban-rural distribution (Pagricultural equipment are unexpectedly common in urban areas and near towns and cities. Education among all roadway users, increased visibility of agricultural equipment and the development of complete rural roads are needed to increase road safety and prevent agricultural equipment-related crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Van Lake (Turkey) about radiological and hydrogeological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyil, S.; Aytas, S.; Yusan, S.; Aslani, M. A. A.; Aycan, H. A.; Eral, M.; Tuerkoezue, D. A.; Isik, M. A.; Oelgen, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    Basins which are grow in the continent and not discharge to open sea are named as a close basin. Lead, uranium and thorium are high levels in respect to open basins. Lake of Van is a close basin. In the lake basins, rivers which are discharge basin are the most important source of the heavy metal concentration. In this study, surface water, coast and deep sediments of Van Lake and Inci Kefal (fish) were analyzed as a radiological and evaluated in terms of hydrogeological. Data was obtained for natural radioactivity concentration of this lake and evaluated using geostatistical methods in a geographical information system environment and fitted for isoradioactivity contour maps. The concentration and distribution of natural radionuclides in Van Lake were investigated with the aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity. Sixty three coastal and deep sediments, 228 lake surface waters and 12 fish samples were taken in Van Lake over the time period 2005-2008 and the distribution pattern of the measured radionuclides was presented. The mean concentrations of gross alpha and beta, eU, eTh and K-40 activities in sediments were 207±96, 1046±60, 207±96, 70±29 and 399±231 Bq/kg, respectively. On the other hand, water samples from Van Lake had mean concentrations of 0.74±0.46 Bq/L for gross alpha activity concentration, 0.02±0.01 Bq/L for gross beta activity concentration, 0.06±0.04 Bq/L for gross radium isotopes, respectively. The mean gross alpha and beta, eU, eTh and K-40 activities in fish samples were 47±18, 470±12, 0.57±0.22, 0.022±0.006, 319±11 Bq/kg, respectively. An average annual effective dose equivalent (mSv/y) was calculated.

  1. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  2. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  3. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  4. Evaluation of the possibility of using the water of the Bystrytsya-Nadvirnyans'ka River in Cherniiv (Ukraine) to supply the population with drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, D.; Mandryk, O.; Wątor, K.; Kmiecik, E.; Zelmanowych, A.

    2018-02-01

    The article presents the results of the research carried out in order to assess the possibility of using surface water of the Bystrytsya-Nadvirnyans'ka River in Cherniiv (western Ukraine), for the public supply of water intended for human consumption. For this purpose an existing database that contains the results of analyses of surface water samples collected in 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014 was used. Each year, from 8 to 13 samples were collected from the Bystrytsya-Nadvirnyans'ka River in Cherniiv. Physicochemical analyses of the samples taken included the determination of pH value, temperature, TDS, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen, BOD5, COD, suspended solids and ions: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+, NH4+, Cu2+, Cl-, SO42-, PO43-, HCO3-, NO2-, NO3-. These chemical analyses were verified by calculation of errors based on the ionic balance. The results of the analyses were referred to the polish applicable requirements for surface water used for public supply of water intended for human consumption and to the regulation regarding the classification of the surface water status and environmental quality standards for priority substances. The results indicate that water of the Bystrytsya-Nadvirnyans'ka River in the area of Cherniiv was out of the class in the years 1999 and 2002 due to exceeding the limit values for category A3 for Cu2+. On the basis of incomplete assessment of the status of the Bystrytsya-Nadvirnyans'ka River water (due to the tests limitation to the physical and chemical components) determined that the water has a bad status because it exceeded the limits for class II for Cl-, SO42-, NO3- and TDS. In the samples collected in 1999 and 2002 it is also observed exceeding the maximum limit concentrations for Cu2+.

  5. Characterizing older adult patients suffering from epilepsy in two hospitals in Bogotá (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Álvarez AM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy’s overall prevalence in Colombia is 1.13%. Its prevalence in patients aged over 65 could be around 1.5%. Objective: describe demographic and clinical characteristics of patients older than 65 years of age with epilepsy. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in two high complexity hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia during 2005-2008. Demographic data were compiled and patients characterized regarding the type, frequency and diagnosis of seizures (based on ILAE classification, probable etiology, having a family background of epilepsy, and current pharmacological management. Results: 211 clinical histories were reviewed and 179 of them selected. Mean patient age was 75 (65-98 and average age at onset of epilepsy was 67.5 (7-93. 84% of the seizures were classified as being focal. The most frequently occurring diagnosis was symptomatic focal epilepsy (94.4%. 74 cases (41.3% had an etiological diagnosis. The most important cause was cerebrovascular disease (61 patients. First generation anti-epileptic drugs were the most used ones (99%. 81/104 patients were found not to be free from epileptic episodes. Conclusions: Most seizures have a partial beginning, resulting from symptomatic partial epilepsy as a consequence of a vascular lesion. Pharmacological treatment must be considered following the first seizure. Treatment with second generation anti-epileptic drugs such as Lamotrigine, Gabapentin, Levetiracetam and Topiramate must be begun for minimizing secondary effects and low doses must be maintained from the start of treatment. Costs may limit the use of the above antiepileptic drugs, in such cases Phenytoin and Carbamazepine may be used with extreme caution.

  6. Deer browsing delays succession by altering aboveground vegetation and belowground seed banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio DiTommaso

    Full Text Available Soil seed bank composition is important to the recovery of natural and semi-natural areas from disturbance and serves as a safeguard against environmental catastrophe. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus populations have increased dramatically in eastern North America over the past century and can have strong impacts on aboveground vegetation, but their impacts on seed bank dynamics are less known. To document the long-term effects of deer browsing on plant successional dynamics, we studied the impacts of deer on both aboveground vegetation and seed bank composition in plant communities following agricultural abandonment. In 2005, we established six 15 × 15 m fenced enclosures and paired open plots in recently followed agricultural fields near Ithaca, NY, USA. In late October of each of six years (2005-2010, we collected soil from each plot and conducted seed germination cycles in a greenhouse to document seed bank composition. These data were compared to measurements of aboveground plant cover (2005-2008 and tree density (2005-2012. The impacts of deer browsing on aboveground vegetation were severe and immediate, resulting in significantly more bare soil, reduced plant biomass, reduced recruitment of woody species, and relatively fewer native species. These impacts persisted throughout the experiment. The impacts of browsing were even stronger on seed bank dynamics. Browsing resulted in significantly decreased overall species richness (but higher diversity, reduced seed bank abundance, relatively more short-lived species (annuals and biennials, and fewer native species. Both seed bank richness and the relative abundance of annuals/biennials were mirrored in the aboveground vegetation. Thus, deer browsing has long-term and potentially reinforcing impacts on secondary succession, slowing succession by selectively consuming native perennials and woody species and favoring the persistence of short-lived, introduced species that continually

  7. Are area-based initiatives able to improve area safety in deprived areas? A quasi-experimental evaluation of the Dutch District Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Stronks, Karien; Droomers, Mariël; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-07-28

    Numerous area-based initiatives have been implemented in deprived areas across Western-Europe with the aim to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions in these areas. Only few of these initiatives have been scientifically evaluated for their impact on key social determinants of health, like perceived area safety. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of a Dutch area-based initiative called the District Approach on trends in perceived area safety and underlying problems in deprived target districts. A quasi-experimental design was used. Repeated cross-sectional data on perceived area safety and underlying problems were obtained from the National Safety Monitor (2005-2008) and its successor the Integrated Safety Monitor (2008-2011). Study population consisted of 133,522 Dutch adults, including 3,595 adults from target districts. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to assess trends in self-reported general safety, physical order, social order, and non-victimization before and after the start of the District Approach mid-2008. Trends in target districts were compared with trends in various control groups. Residents of target districts felt less safe, perceived less physical and social order, and were victimized more often than adults elsewhere in the Netherlands. For non-victimization, target districts showed a somewhat more positive change in trend after the start of the District Approach than the rest of the Netherlands or other deprived districts. Differences were only statistically significant in women, older adults, and lower educated adults. For general safety, physical order, and social order, there were no differences in trend change between target districts and control groups. Results suggest that the District Approach has been unable to improve perceptions of area safety and disorder in deprived areas, but that it did result in declining victimization rates.

  8. Utilizing remote sensing to supplement ground monitoring of Diorhabda elongata as a control agent for Tamarix ramosissima in Dinosaur National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, V.; Auch, J.; Landy, J.; Rudy, G.; Seifert, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    The plant Tamarix ramosissima has invaded significant riparian habitat along the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument. Commonly known as salt cedar or tamarisk, it was introduced from Eurasia to the Southwestern United States to prevent soil erosion along riverbanks and as an ornamental plant. It has since come to affect water resources, recreation, wildlife, and ecosystem services. Various methods used to control tamarisk's spread have had moderate success but have drained National Park Service of human and monetary resources. In June 2006, the salt cedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a biological control agent within the park to defoliate and ultimately eradicate the invasive species. This study examines the efficacy of using Landsat TM imagery to supplement ground monitoring of the beetle's spread and its effects on tamarisk in Dinosaur National Monument, and discusses the development of a GIS model to predict annual change in tamarisk cover and beetle populations. Through fieldwork, we determined four areas of interest with favorable attributes for satellite detection. A change detection model was created by layering 2005-2008 data and quantifying mean NDVI. Results show that intra-year NDVI trends may be more effective for accurate detection than single-image year-to-year comparisons largely because intra-year environmental variability is significantly smaller. Additionally, our GIS model predicted significant growth of beetle population, implying that defoliation will become more apparent in future years. However, challenges to detecting this defoliation include the year-to-year variability of environmental factors, low spatial resolution of Landsat TM data, low visibility into parts of the Green River canyon, and the spectral mixing of tamarisk and native vegetation.

  9. Impact of surgeon experience on the rate of blood transfusion in off-pump coronary artery bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeng-Wei; Hsu, Ron-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) reduces the rate of blood transfusion. No studies have focused on the effect of surgeon experience on the transfusion rate. We sought to assess the transfusion rate in OPCAB and to evaluate the effect of surgeon experience. Retrospective review of 1055 consecutive patients undergoing OPCAB between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into tripartites by the year of operation (2000-2004, 2005-2008, and 2009-2012). Surgeon experience was evaluated with revascularization index and conversion rate. Mode of intervention was elective in 768, urgency in 185, and emergency in 102 patients (10%). Blood transfusion was associated with increased rates of hospital mortality and sternal wound/bloodstream infections. Revascularization index was 1.22 ± 0.29 per patient and increased over time, from 1.05 ± 0.21 in 2000-2004 to 1.39 ± 0.26 in 2009-2012. Conversion rate was 10% and decreased over time, from 17% in 2000-2004 to 6% in 2009-2012. The average rate of blood transfusion was 58% and decreased over time, from 74% in 2000-2004 to 41% in 2009-2012. Rate of red blood cell transfusion was 56% and decreased from 72% in 2000-2004 to 40% in 2009-2012. Rate of platelet transfusion was 21% and decreased from 25% in 2000-2004 to 15% in 2009-2012.The most significant decrease in the transfusion rate was observed in nonemergency cases. Surgeon experience reduced the need of blood transfusion after OPCAB. Increasing surgeon experience was associated with a 33% reduction in blood transfusion rate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Associations of sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in children with a family history of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis John Saunders

    Full Text Available Although reports in adults suggest that breaks in sedentary time are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk, these findings have yet to be replicated in children.To investigate whether objectively measured sedentary behavior, sedentary bouts or breaks in sedentary time are independently associated with cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Canadian children aged 8-11 years with a family history of obesity.Data from 286 boys and 236 girls living in Quebec, Canada, with at least one biological parent with obesity (QUALITY cohort were collected from 2005-2008, and analyzed in 2013. Sedentary behavior, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured over 7 days using accelerometry. Leisure time computer/video game use and TV viewing over the past 7 days were self-reported. Outcomes included waist circumference, body mass index Z-score, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and a continuous cardiometabolic risk score.After adjustment for confounders, breaks in sedentary time and the number of sedentary bouts lasting 1-4 minutes were associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk score and lower BMI Z-score in both sexes (all p<0.05. The number of sedentary bouts lasting 5-9 minutes was negatively associated with waist circumference in girls only, while the number of bouts lasting 10-14 minutes was positively associated with fasting glucose in girls, and with BMI Z-score in boys (all p<0.05. Leisure time computer/video game use was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk score and waist circumference in boys, while TV viewing was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, waist circumference, and BMI Z-score in girls (all p<0.05.These results suggest that frequent interruptions in sedentary time are associated with a favourable cardiometabolic risk profile and highlight the deleterious relationship between screen time and cardiometabolic risk among children with a family

  11. Drilling a crater at the Equator-insides from ICDP DeepCHALLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Inka; Van Daele, Maarten; Tanghe, Niels; Eloy, Jonas; Verschuren, Dirk; De Batist, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Long and continuous sediment records from equatorial Africa are rare, resulting in a so far fragmentary understanding of the effects of a warming atmosphere on the tropical hydrological cycle at the regional scale. Serve and recurrent droughts is the principle weather-related hazard throughout sub-Saharan Africa, and the quality of long-term weather prediction a principle bottleneck hampering drought mitigation and adaptation. The impact of 21st-century anthropogenic climate change on the African rainfall is highly uncertain, implying unforeseeable effects on freshwater resources. During the "CHALLACEA" project (2005-2008) detailed investigations of Lake Challa, a relatively small and deep crater lake on the border between Kenya and Tanzania, revealed the lake is a key site for reconstructing the climate and environmental history of equatorial East Africa. Various biological, bio-geochemical and sedimentological investigations of the 22 long CHALLACEA-core helped to understand the systematics of Lake Challa under present-day conditions as well as to reconstruct environmental changes over the past 25,000 years. Due to the good quality of the Lake Challa sediment and the high scientific outcome of the record, a new International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP) project "DeepCHALLA" was established to drill a longer sediment record, going further back in time. During the drilling campaign in November 2016 a 215 m long sediment sequence was obtained which will provide unique information about environmental changes in low-latitudes over a complete glacial - interglacial cycle. Therefore, the record opens new opportunities to study East African environmental changes and paleo-hydrological conditions much further back in time, encompassing the entire known existence of modern humans (Homo sapiens) in East Africa. Here we present a compilation of the environmental reconstructions based on the CHALLACEA sediment sequence and will give an outline of future

  12. Overview of the geophysical studies in the Dead Sea coastal area related to evaporite karst and recent sinkhole development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Ezersky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 80s, a progressively increasing number of sinkholes appeared along the Dead Sea coastal line. It has been found that their appearance is strongly correlating with the lowering of the Dead Sea level taking place with the rate of approximately 1 m/yr. Location of areas affected by sinkhole development corresponds to location of the salt formation deposited during the latest Pleistocene, when the Lake Lisan receded to later become the Dead Sea. Water flowing to the Dead Sea from adjacent and underlying aquifers dissolves salt and creates caverns that cause ground subsidence and consequent formation of sinkholes. Before subsidence, these caverns are not visible on the surface but can be investigated with surface geophysical methods. For that, we applied Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR, Transient Electromagnetic (TEM Seismic refraction and reflection, Multichannel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW, microgravity and magnetic surveys and their combinations. Our geophysical results allowed us to locate the salt formation and to detect caverns in salt thus contributing to better understanding sinkhole development mechanisms. Comparison of sinkhole appearance along the western DS shore derived from the recent database (2017 shows that predictions made on the base of geophysical data (2005-2008 are now confirmed thus demonstrating efficiency of our study. In this paper, we briefly present a summary of up to date knowledge of the geology and hydrogeology of Dead Sea basin, of the physical properties of the salt rock and the most popular models explaining mechanisms of sinkhole development. We also share our experience gained during geophysical studies carried out in the framework of national and international research projects in this area for the last 20 years.

  13. Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Wilker, Elissa H; Dorans, Kirsten S; Rice, Mary B; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R; Keaney, John F; Lin, Honghuang; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mittleman, Murray A

    2016-04-28

    Short-term exposure to elevated air pollution has been associated with higher risk of acute cardiovascular diseases, with systemic oxidative stress induced by air pollution hypothesized as an important underlying mechanism. However, few community-based studies have assessed this association. Two thousand thirty-five Framingham Offspring Cohort participants living within 50 km of the Harvard Boston Supersite who were not current smokers were included. We assessed circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress including blood myeloperoxidase at the seventh examination (1998-2001) and urinary creatinine-indexed 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α) at the seventh and eighth (2005-2008) examinations. We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, sulfate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone at the Supersite and calculated 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 7-day moving averages of each pollutant. Measured myeloperoxidase and 8-epi-PGF2α were loge transformed. We used linear regression models and linear mixed-effects models with random intercepts for myeloperoxidase and indexed 8-epi-PGF2α, respectively. Models were adjusted for demographic variables, individual- and area-level measures of socioeconomic position, clinical and lifestyle factors, weather, and temporal trend. We found positive associations of PM2.5 and black carbon with myeloperoxidase across multiple moving averages. Additionally, 2- to 7-day moving averages of PM2.5 and sulfate were consistently positively associated with 8-epi-PGF2α. Stronger positive associations of black carbon and sulfate with myeloperoxidase were observed among participants with diabetes than in those without. Our community-based investigation supports an association of select markers of ambient air pollution with circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Sunburn and sun protective behaviors among adults aged 18-29 years--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Skin cancer is an important public health concern. Nonmelanoma skin cancers, comprised mainly of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are the most common malignancies in the United States. Melanoma, although less common, is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers can be disfiguring, negatively affect quality of life, and create economic burden. Furthermore, age-adjusted incidence rates of both have increased in recent years. Different patterns of sun exposure are associated with different types of skin cancer. Continuous, chronic sun exposure, such as that observed among outdoor workers is associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Intermittent exposure, such as recreational exposure, is associated with melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Sunburn typically occurs after intermittent exposure, and the risk for melanoma increases with an increasing number of sunburns during all periods of life. Sunburn is more common among persons aged 18-29 years compared with older adults. To evaluate trends in sunburn and sun protective behaviors among persons aged 18-29 years, CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The results indicated that although protective behaviors such as sunscreen use, shade use, and wearing long clothing to the ankles have increased in recent years, sunburn prevalence remains high, with 50.1% of all adults and 65.6% of whites aged 18-29 years reporting at least one sunburn in the past 12 months. These results suggest that additional efforts are needed to identify and implement effective strategies targeting younger adults to improve their sun protective behaviors and prevent sunburn and ultimately skin cancer.

  15. Distance to parks and non-residential destinations influences physical activity of older people, but crime doesn't: a cross-sectional study in a southern European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Pires, Andrea; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Pina, Maria Fátima

    2015-06-27

    Physical activity (PA) has numerous health benefits, but older adults live mostly sedentary lifestyles. The physical and social neighborhood environment may encourage/dissuade PA. In particular, neighborhood crime may lead to feeling unsafe and affect older adults' willingness to be physically active. Yet, research on this topic is still inconclusive. Older population, probably the age group most influenced by the neighborhood environment, has been understudied, especially in Southern Europe. In this study, we aimed to analyze the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in older adults and objective crime, alongside other neighborhood characteristics. We obtained data from a population-based cohort from Porto (2005-2008) to assess LTPA. Only adults aged 65 years or more were included (n = 532). A Geographic Information System was used to measure neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood crime was expressed as crime rates by category (incivilities, criminal offenses with and without violence and traffic crime). Neighborhood characteristics such as socioeconomic deprivation, land gradient, street density, transportation network, distance to parks, non-residential destinations and sport spaces were also included. Generalized Additive Models were fitted to estimate the association between neighborhood characteristics and the participation (being active vs. inactive) and frequency (min/day) of LTPA. Forty-six percent of the men and 61 % of the women did not engage in any kind of LTPA. Among the active participants, men spent on average 50.5 (35.2 Standard Deviation, SD) min/day in LTPA, whereas the average among women was 36.9 (35.1 SD) min/day (p big issue.

  16. Yasuní - a hotspot for jaguars Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae? Camera-traps and jaguar activity at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Blake

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jaguars (Panthera onca are the largest predator in lowland forests of Amazonia but there have been few studies on their occurrence and activity in such forests. Here, we used camera traps to document the occurrence and activity of jaguars within a local area (~650ha of lowland forest of Eastern Ecuador, over two sample periods (2005-2008, 7 222 trap days; 2010-2012, 6 199 trap days. We accumulated 151 independent photos of jaguars (189 total photographs that represented 21 different individuals, including 11 males (114 photographs, seven females (32 photographs, and three that could not be assigned to a sex. Individual jaguars varied in the number of months they were recorded in the area; ten were photographed in only one month; five were photographed over periods of 8 to 22 months; and five from 45 to 81 months. Capture rates across all camera stations averaged 10.6/1 000 trap days; capture rates did not differ between the two sample periods. Male jaguars were more active during the day (06:00am-18:00pm; 71% of photographs, whereas females were equally active during the day and night. Monthly activity was variable but showed no consistent pattern. Although the study area is much smaller than typical home ranges of jaguars, the area is clearly visited by a large number of different individuals, some of whom repeatedly visit the area, indicating that it forms part of their home range. Other individuals likely were simply passing through the area. Based on the number of jaguars recorded during this study, it is clear that the region is an important area for conservation. Continued protection will be needed to ensure that populations of jaguars and other species remain viable. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 689-698. Epub 2014 June 01.

  17. The Czech Labour Market and Flexicurity

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    Potužáková Zuzana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity reflects the current basic trend within the EU in guaranteeing high employment levels and attainability of national fiscal systems. It was introduced in Denmark in 90ties and helped to reduce the (long-term unemployment levels significantly. The Czech labour market, despite the transformation process, has still a space for further improvement, especially in the time of economic slow-down. The aim of the paper is to describe the flexicurity elements in the Czech Republic. First of all, we describe the general economical background and compare it with other Central European economies and with situation in Denmark where the concept comes from. In other parts of the paper we analyze the particular elements of the so called golden triangle of flexicurity – flexible labour market, generous welfare system and active labour market policies. We also focus on the components of the flexicurity, which the Czech labour market still lacks and would be useful to implement them. Despite the fact that the previous period (years 2005-2008 was very successful, the period was not used effectively to reform the labour market deeper. The Czech labour market faces nowadays several crucial problems such as too high employment protection of the regular workers or small incentives for the long-term unemployed to re-enter the labour market. As a result of these features we can speak without doubt about dual labour market protecting part of labour force too generously and leaving too many people outside the market. Further the construction of the social system does not motivate the long-term unemployed to enter the labour market again or to get further qualification to boost their chances to get a job again. All these facts lead to the ineffective operation with the human capital in the Czech Republic and deepen the costs on social and relating policies.

  18. Concurrent Exposure of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to Multiple Algal Toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiner, Michael J.; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K.; Wells, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000–2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n = 118) and 53% positive for DA (n = 83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p = 0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

  19. Declining rates of sterilization procedures in Western Australian women from 1990 to 2008: the relationship with age, hospital type, and government policy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama-Alol, Khadra A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Stewart, Louise M; Kemp-Casey, Anna; Malacova, Eva; Moorin, Rachael; Shirangi, Adeleh; Preen, David B

    2016-09-01

    To describe trends in age-specific incidence rates of female sterilization (FS) procedures in Western Australia and to evaluate the effects of the introduction of government-subsidized contraceptive methods and the implementation of the Australian government's baby bonus policy on FS rates. Population-based retrospective descriptive study. Not applicable. All women ages 15-49 undergoing an FS procedure during the period January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2008 (n = 47,360 procedures). Records from statutory statewide data collections of hospitals separations and births were extracted and linked. Trends in FS procedures and the influence on these trends of the introduction of government policies: subsidization of long-acting reversible contraceptives (Implanon and Mirena) and the Australian baby bonus initiative. The annual incidence rate of FS procedures declined from 756.9 per 100,000 women in 1990 to 155.2 per 100,000 women in 2008. Compared with the period 1990-1994, women ages 30-39 years were 47% less likely (rate ratio [RR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.72) to undergo sterilization during the period 2005-2008. Adjusting for overall trend, there were significant decreases in FS rates after government subsidization of Implanon (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97) and Mirena (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73-0.91) and the introduction of the baby bonus (RR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81). Rates of female sterilization procedures in Western Australia have declined substantially across all age groups in the last two decades. Women's decisions to undergo sterilization procedures may be influenced by government interventions that increase access to long-term reversible contraceptives or encourage childbirth. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of radon activity concentration in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Pineau, C.; Dechaux, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon exposure, along with medical-related exposure, is the leading source of exposure to ionising radiation for the French population. Measurement campaigns are done in the action plan, drawn up by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), in cooperation with the French directorate for housing, town planning and countryside (DHUP), the French radiation protection and nuclear safety institute (IRSN), the French health monitoring institute (InVS) and the French scientific and technical centre for construction (CSTB). The review of 2005-2008 measurement campaign shows that of the 7356 buildings screened, 84.8% had activity concentration levels below the 400 Bq/m 3 action level. For the other buildings (15.2%), action will be required to reduce human exposure to radon, possibly including building renovation/redevelopment work. In the 1999-2002 measurement campaign,12% of the 13,000 buildings screened had a radon activity concentration level higher than 400 Bq/m 3 . In addition, the ASN and the French general directorate of labour (DGT) are continuing to work on drawing up regulations for occupational risk management. The second national health and environment plan (PNSE 2) was published on 26 June 2009. It follows on from the actions initiated in PNSE 1, a document provided for under the Public Health Act dated 9 August 2004 and under the French 'Grenelle' environmental agreements. On the basis of guidelines laid out in PNSE 2, a radon action plan for 2009-2012 will be drawn up, enabling some of the actions to be continued, particularly in the fields of new building projects and dwellings. (author)