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Sample records for contrasting salinity tolerance

  1. Elucidating the role of osmotic, ionic and major salt responsive transcript components towards salinity tolerance in contrasting chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jogendra; Singh, Vijayata; Sharma, P C

    2018-05-01

    The growth of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) is extremely hampered by salt stress. Understanding of physio-biochemical and molecular attributes along with morphological traits contributing to the salinity tolerance is important for developing salt tolerant chickpea varieties. To explore these facts, two genotypes CSG8962 and HC5 with contrasting salt tolerance were evaluated in the salinity stress (Control and 120 mM NaCl) conditions. CSG8962 maintained lower Na/K ratio in root and shoot, trammeled Na translocation to the shoots from roots compared to HC5 which ascribed to better exclusion of salt from its roots and compartmentation in the shoot. In chickpea, salt stress specifically induced genes/sequences involved at several levels in the salt stress signaling pathway. Higher induction of trehalose 6 phosphate synthase and protein kinase genes pertaining to the osmotic and signaling modules, respectively, were evident in CSG8962 compared to HC5. Further transcripts of late embryogenesis abundant, non-specific lipid transfer protein, HI and 219 genes/sequences were also highly induced in CSG8962 compared to HC5 which emphasizes the better protection of cellular membranous network and membrane-bound macromolecules under salt stress. This further suppressed the stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, loss of turgidity, promoted the higher compatible solute accumulation and maintained better cellular ion homoeostasis in CSG8962 compared to HC5. Our study further adds to the importance of these genes in salt tolerance by comparing their behavior in contrasting chickpea genotypes.

  2. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC 50 values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC 50 obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC 50 ). This LC 50 value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC 50 . For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC 50 and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC 50 of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC 50 values. In contrast, LC 50 determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature

  3. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC{sub 50} values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC{sub 50} obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC{sub 50}). This LC{sub 50} value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC{sub 50}. For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC{sub 50} and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC{sub 50} of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC{sub 50} values. In contrast, LC{sub 50} determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature.

  4. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... 2Department of Molecular Physiology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran ... indexes for screening bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance. ... published on screening methods in salinity tolerance in.

  5. Identification of Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Salicornia bigelovii

    KAUST Repository

    Salazar Moya, Octavio Ruben

    2017-01-01

    by providing a genome, transcriptomes, and organellar proteomes, contributing to salinity tolerance research overall. We identified a set of candidate genes for salinity tolerance with the aim of shedding some light on the mechanisms by which this plant thrives

  6. Salinity tolerance of the South African endemic amphipod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinities were prepared using natural seawater and synthetic sea salt. Grandidierella lignorum tolerated all salinities, but showed highest survival at salinities of 7–42. Salinity tolerance was modified by temperature, with highest survival occurring between 10 and 25 °C. These represent the range of conditions at which ...

  7. Identification of Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Salicornia bigelovii

    KAUST Repository

    Salazar Moya, Octavio Ruben

    2017-11-01

    With a global growing demand in food production, agricultural output must increase accordingly. An increased use of saline soils and brackish water would contribute to the required increase in world food production. Abiotic stresses, such as salinity and drought, are also major limiters of crop growth globally - most crops are relatively salt sensitive and are significantly affected when exposed to salt in the range of 50 to 200 mM NaCl. Genomic resources from plants that naturally thrive in highly saline environments have the potential to be valuable in the generation of salt tolerant crops; however, these resources have been largely unexplored. Salicornia bigelovii is a plant native to Mexico and the United States that grows in salt marshes and coastal regions. It can thrive in environments with salt concentrations higher than seawater. In contrast to most crops, S. bigelovii is able to accumulate very high concentrations (in the order of 1.5 M) of Na+ and Cl- in its photosynthetically active succulent shoots. Part of this tolerance is likely to include the storage of Na+ in the vacuoles of the shoots, making S. bigelovii a good model for understanding mechanisms of Na+ compartmentalization in the vacuoles and a good resource for gene discovery. In this research project, phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches have been used for the identification of candidate genes involved in salinity tolerance in S. bigelovii. The genomes and transcriptomes of three Salicornia species have been sequenced. This information has been used to support the characterization of the salt-induced transcriptome of S. bigelovii shoots and the salt-induced proteome of various organellar membrane enriched fractions from S. bigelovii shoots, which led to the creation of organellar membrane proteomes. Yeast spot assays at different salt concentrations revealed several proteins increasing or decreasing yeast salt tolerance. This work aims to create the basis for

  8. Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  9. Optimizing silicon application to improve salinity tolerance in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity often suppresses the wheat performance. As wheat is designated as silicon (Si accumulator, hence Si application may alleviate the salinity induced damages. With the objective to combat the salinity stress in wheat by Si application (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1 using calcium silicate, an experiment was conducted on two contrasting wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5 in salinized (10 dS m-1 and non-salinized (2 dS m-1 solutions. Plants were harvested 32 days after transplanting and evaluation was done on the basis of different morphological and analytical characters. Silicon supplementation into the solution culture improved wheat growth and K+/Na+ with reduced Na+ and enhanced K+ uptake. Concomitant improvement in shoot growth was observed; nonetheless the root growth remained unaffected by Si application. Better results were obtained with 150 and 200 mg L-1 of Si which were found almost equally effective. It was concluded that SARC-5 is better than Auqab-2000 against salt stress and Si inclusion into the solution medium is beneficial for wheat and can improve the crop growth both under optimal and salt stressful conditions.

  10. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening a large number of plants for salinity tolerance is not easy, therefore this investigation was performed to evaluate and screen 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Superhead#2 (Super Seri) and Roshan wheat varieties for salinity tolerance. All the individuals were evaluated under ...

  11. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi My Linh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  12. Genome interrogation for novel salinity tolerant Arabidopsis mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Niels; Pinas, Johan; Schat, Henk; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2016-12-01

    Soil salinity is becoming an increasingly large problem in agriculture. In this study, we have investigated whether a capacity to withstand salinity can be induced in the salinity sensitive plant species Arabidopsis thaliana, and whether it can be maintained in subsequent generations. To this end, we have used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATFs) mediated genome interrogation. Already within a relatively small collection Arabidopsis lines expressing ZF-ATFs, we found 41 lines that were tolerant to 100 mM NaCl. Furthermore, ZF-ATF encoding gene constructs rescued from the most strongly salinity tolerant lines were indeed found to act as dominant and heritable agents for salinity tolerance. Altogether, our data provide evidence that a silent capacity to withstand normally lethal levels of salinity exists in Arabidopsis and can be evoked relatively easily by in trans acting transcription factors like ZF-ATFs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A potato NOA gene increased salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... in Arabidopsis thaliana salt stress responses and increased its salinity tolerance. Key words: StNOA1 ... (NR)-dependent pathways (Cueto et al., 1996; Delledonne ..... plastome-encoded proteins uncovers a mechanism for the.

  14. Identification of RAPD markers linked to salinity tolerance in wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    armghan_shehzad

    The individual plants from F2 population segregation for salinity tolerance and the parents ..... plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporters that are energized by proton gradients ... tonoplast by vascular Na+/ H+ antiporters into the cell vacuoles ...

  15. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

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    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  16. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two consecutive seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09), field experiments were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and Biosaline Agricultural Research Station, Pakka Aana, Pakistan. During 2007-08, 103 wheat landrace genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance. During 2008-09, 47 selected ...

  17. Salinity induced differential methylation patterns in contrasting cultivars of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Garima; Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Prasad, Manoj

    2017-05-01

    Genome-wide methylation analysis of foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in salinity tolerance revealed DNA demethylation events occurring in tolerant cultivar under salinity stress, eventually modulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. Reduced productivity and significant yield loss are the adverse effects of environmental conditions on physiological and biochemical pathways in crop plants. In this context, understanding the epigenetic machinery underlying the tolerance traits in a naturally stress tolerant crop is imperative. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is known for its better tolerance to abiotic stresses compared to other cereal crops. In the present study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to quantify the salt-induced methylation changes in two foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in their tolerance levels to salt stress. The study highlighted that the DNA methylation level was significantly reduced in tolerant cultivar compared to sensitive cultivar. A total of 86 polymorphic MSAP fragments were identified, sequenced and functionally annotated. These fragments showed sequence similarity to several genes including ABC transporter, WRKY transcription factor, serine threonine-protein phosphatase, disease resistance, oxidoreductases, cell wall-related enzymes and retrotransposon and transposase like proteins, suggesting salt stress-induced methylation in these genes. Among these, four genes were chosen for expression profiling which showed differential expression pattern between both cultivars of foxtail millet. Altogether, the study infers that salinity stress induces genome-wide DNA demethylation, which in turn, modulates expression of corresponding genes.

  18. Linking salinity stress tolerance with tissue-specific Na+ sequestration in wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong eWu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress tolerance is a physiologically complex trait that is conferred by the large array of interacting mechanisms. Among these, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has always been considered as one of the key components differentiating between sensitive and tolerant species and genotypes. However, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has been rarely considered in the context of the tissue-specific expression and regulation of appropriate transporters contributing to Na+ removal from the cytosol. In this work, six bread wheat varieties contrasting in their salinity tolerance (three tolerant and three sensitive were used to understand the essentiality of vacuolar Na+ sequestration between functionally different root tissues, and link it with the overall salinity stress tolerance in this species. Roots of 4-d old wheat seedlings were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 3 days, and then Na+ distribution between cytosol and vacuole was quantified by CoroNa Green fluorescent dye imaging. Our major observations were as follows: 1 salinity stress tolerance correlated positively with vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability in the mature root zone but not in the root apex; 2 Contrary to expectations, cytosolic Na+ levels in root meristem were significantly higher in salt tolerant than sensitive group, while vacuolar Na+ levels showed an opposite trend. These results are interpreted as meristem cells playing a role of the salt sensor; 3 No significant difference in the vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability was found between sensitive and tolerant group in either transition or elongation zones; 4 The overall Na+ accumulation was highest in the elongation zone, suggesting its role in osmotic adjustment and turgor maintenance required to drive root expansion growth. Overall, the reported results suggest high tissue-specificity of Na+ uptake, signalling, and sequestration in wheat root. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of salinity responsiveness in contrasting genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) through RNA-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hifzur; Jagadeeshselvam, N; Valarmathi, R; Sachin, B; Sasikala, R; Senthil, N; Sudhakar, D; Robin, S; Muthurajan, Raveendran

    2014-07-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is a hardy cereal known for its superior level of tolerance against drought, salinity, diseases and its nutritional properties. In this study, attempts were made to unravel the physiological and molecular basis of salinity tolerance in two contrasting finger millet genotypes viz., CO 12 and Trichy 1. Physiological studies revealed that the tolerant genotype Trichy 1 had lower Na(+) to K(+) ratio in leaves and shoots, higher growth rate (osmotic tolerance) and ability to accumulate higher amount of total soluble sugar in leaves under salinity stress. We sequenced the salinity responsive leaf transcriptome of contrasting finger millet genotypes using IonProton platform and generated 27.91 million reads. Mapping and annotation of finger millet transcripts against rice gene models led to the identification of salinity responsive genes and genotype specific responses. Several functional groups of genes like transporters, transcription factors, genes involved in cell signaling, osmotic homeostasis and biosynthesis of compatible solutes were found to be highly up-regulated in the tolerant Trichy 1. Salinity stress inhibited photosynthetic capacity and photosynthesis related genes in the susceptible genotype CO 12. Several genes involved in cell growth and differentiation were found to be up-regulated in both the genotypes but more specifically in tolerant genotype. Genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were found to be down-regulated specifically in the salinity tolerant Trichy 1. This study provides a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two finger millet genotypes differing in their level of salinity tolerance during a gradually progressing salinity stress under greenhouse conditions.

  20. Is salinity tolerance of rice lines concerned to endogenous ABA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we tested its putative relationship of Abscisic acid with the degree of tolerance to this abiotic stress. For this purpose, we have examined the responses of sensitive (IR29) and tolerant (IR651) varieties of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) to a range of salinity (0 (control) and 90 mM NaCl. Shoot and root dry weight ...

  1. Identification of RAPD markers linked to salinity tolerance in wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity can be measured by a number of ways, including pedigree, phenotype and allelic diversity at loci controlling phenotypes of interest. A DNA marker for root length in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was identified. The individual plants from F2 population segregation for salinity tolerance and the parents (S-24 ...

  2. Temperature and salinity tolerance of adult hermit crabs, Diogenes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-11-04

    Nov 4, 1987 ... estuary may not limit the distribution of hermit crabs. Because of their broad tolerance they should be able to survive near the head of the estuary. However, this continuous exposure to low salinity may be intolerable during moult and limit normal growth and metamorphosis, so although there may not be a.

  3. Comparing test systems to measure the salinity tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have recently been several studies into acute salinity tolerance of freshwater invertebrates using different methods, making comparisons between studies difficult. The alternatives focus on experimental flow regimes and ionic proportions. In this study non-rheophilic riverine taxa collected in South Africa and ...

  4. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Schmöckel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum. We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  5. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2017-06-21

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  6. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    KAUST Repository

    Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Lightfoot, Damien; Razali, Rozaimi; Tester, Mark A.; Jarvis, David Erwin

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  7. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöckel, Sandra M; Lightfoot, Damien J; Razali, Rozaimi; Tester, Mark; Jarvis, David E

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa , 5 C. berlandieri , and 2 C. hircinum ). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  8. Genetically modified plants for salinity stress tolerance (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopory, S.K.; Singia-Pareek, S.I.; Kumar, S.; Rajgopal, D.; Aggarwal, P.; Kumar, D.; Reddy, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reports have indicated that the area under salinity is on the increase and currently very few genotypes of important crop plants are available for cultivation under these conditions. In this regard, identification of novel stress responsive genes and transgenic approach offers an important strategy to develop salt tolerant plants. Using an efficient PCR-based cDNA subtraction method a large number of genes upregulated under salinity and dehydration stress have been identified also in rice and Pennisetum. Functional analysis of some of these genes is being done using transgenic approach. Earlier, we reported on the role of one of the stress regulated genes, glyoxalse I in conferring salinity tolerance. We now show that by manipulating the expression of both the genes of the glyoxalse pathway, glyoxalse I and II together, the ability of the double transgenic plants to tolerate salinity stress is greatly enhanced as compared to the single transgenic plants harbouring either the glyoxalse I or glyoxalse II. The cDNA for glyoxalse II was cloned from rice and mobilized into pCAMBIA vector having hptII gene as the selection marker. The seedlings of the T1 generation transgenic plants survived better under high salinity compared to the wild type plants; the double transgenics had higher limits of tolerance as compared to the lines transformed with single gene. A similar trend was seen even when plants were grown in pots under glass house conditions and raised to maturity under the continued presence of NaCl. In this, the transgenic plants were able to grow, flower and set seeds. The overexpression of glyoxalse pathway was also found to confer stress tolerance in rice. We have also isolated a gene encoding vacuolar sodium/proton antiporter from Pennisetum and over expressed in Brassica juncea and rice. The transgenic plants were able to tolerate salinity stress. Our work along with many others' indicates the potential of transgenic technology in developing

  9. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  10. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  11. Rehabilitation of saline ecosystems through cultivation of salt tolerant plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, R.; Mahmood, K.

    2012-01-01

    In Pakistan, salt-affected regions have been drastically disturbed by unchecked activities of local populations. Removal of deep-rooted perennials and overgrazing destroy the native vegetation leading to rapid desertification. Shallow-rooted agricultural crops are grown on marginal soils on limited area that is not enough with respect to the spread of salinity problem. Sustainable restoration of these ecosystems requires a large scale integration of perennial plants (trees, shrubs and herbs) back in to farming systems. However, selenization processes continue because the available options for cultivation of perennial plants prove less profitable than agricultural crops. This study relates to resort the salt-affected lands for plant production and develop a technology for sustainable saline ecosystem. Plants, having salt tolerance potential, have been identified and introduced on salt-affected wastelands to develop a sustainable ecosystem with increased productivity. The biomass so produced can be used directly as forage, fuel, and even as food or feed. In addition, fish aquaculture, and some value-added products make this ecosystem more sustainable. This technology is practically demonstrated at Biosaline Research Station of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Pakka Anna, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The marginally saline soils and wastelands ameliorated as a result of growing salt tolerant perennials can also be used for growing salt tolerant cultivars of conventional crops like wheat, barley and mustard. So, through proper management the saline ecosystem can become economical and profitable. (author)

  12. Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Kibria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the role of antioxidant responses in salinity tolerance in rice genotypes under salt stress, experiments were conducted using four rice varieties, including salt-sensitive BRRI dhan 28 and three salt-tolerant varieties BRRI dhan 47, BINA dhan 8 and BINA dhan 10. Thirty-day-old rice seedlings were transplanted into pots. At the active tillering stage (35 d after transplanting, plants were exposed to different salinity levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 mmol/L NaCl. Salt stress caused a significant reduction in growth for all the rice genotypes. Growth reduction was higher in the salt-sensitive genotype than in the salt-tolerant ones, and BINA dhan 10 showed higher salt tolerance in all measured physiological parameters. The reduction in shoot and root biomass was found to be minimal in BINA dhan 10. Chlorophyll content significantly decreased under salt stress except for BINA dhan 10. Proline content significantly increased in salt-tolerant rice genotypes with increased salt concentration, and the highest proline content was obtained from BINA dhan 10 under salt stress. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities significantly decreased in salt-sensitive genotype whereas significantly increased in salt-tolerant ones with increasing salt concentration. However, salt stress significantly decreased guaiacol peroxidase activity in all the rice genotypes irrespective of salt tolerance. K+/Na+ ratio also significantly decreased in shoots and roots of all the rice genotypes. The salt-tolerant genotype BINA dhan 10 maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and proline contents as well as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities under salt stress, thus, this might be the underlying mechanism for salt tolerance.

  13. Evaluation of Different Rice Genotypes Tolerance to Saline Irrigation Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jafari Rad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the responses of seven rice genotypes (Khazar, SA13, Deylam, Sange Joe, Sepidrud, 831 and T5 to different levels of irrigation water salinity, and determining grain yield based on tolerance indices, a CRD based factorial pot experiment with five levels of irrigation water salinity (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dSm-1 and three replications was carried out at Rice Research Institute of Iran in 2011. Indices such as SSI, TOL, MP, GMP, HM, STI, YI and YSI were calculated and their correlations with grain yield were estimated for both stress and non-stress conditions. Results indicated significant differences among genotypes and the indices within both conditions. Results also showed that STI and MP indices could be considered as the best indices to screen salt tolerant genotypes. Among the genotypes used in the experiment, T5 produced the highest yield in both non-stress (19.71 g/plant and stress (10.69 g/plant conditions, while the lowest yield in normal (11.84 g/plant and stressful (4.29 g/plant conditions was recorded for Deylam and Khazar, respectively. The highest and the lowest percentage of yield reduction were found in Khazar (69.49% and Sange Joe (31.48% in stressful conditions, respectively. Overall, genotypes T5, 831, Sepidrud and Sange Joe can probably be considered as superior high yielding genotypes in both saline and non-saline conditions for further research.

  14. Genotypic variation for salinity tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005. The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m-1. The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW were in the range from 122.5 – 148.9 g pot-1 in control; 96.4 – 133.8 g pot-1 at 10 dS m-1; 65.6 – 80.4 g pot-1 at 15 dS m-1, and 55.4- 65.6 g pot-1 at 20 dS m-1. The highest DW (148.9 g pot-1 was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8 % of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal land and arid regions to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  15. On the methods for the estimation of salinity tolerance of ciliates

    OpenAIRE

    Smurov, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    Critical review of research methods for tolerance and potential tolerance of ciliates is given. Using several Paramecium species as an example the original approaches to potential tolerance estimation is presented. Connection between resistance, tolerance and potential tolerance is shown. Model for explanation of the connection is proposed. Several application aspects of diagrams of the connection between acclimation salinity and value of upper salinity tolerant limit in the ciliates are cons...

  16. Triple test cross analysis for salinity tolerance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.; Khan, A.S.; Chowdhry, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Triple test cross analysis applied to study additive, dominance and epistatic components of genetic variation for five seedling traits namely shoot length, fresh shoot weight, root length, fresh root weight and root shoot ratio at two salinity levels 0 (control) and 10 dSm/sup -1/ in wheat. The results revealed that the epistatic component is an important element for salinity tolerance at seedling stage in wheat. Both additive and dominance gene effects were involved in the inheritance of shoot length, fresh shoot weight, root length fresh root weight and root shoot ratio Complete dominance was indicated for shoot length, fresh root weight and root/shoot ratio and partial dominance was observed for other traits at control and over dominance was observed for shoot length, fresh shoot weight and root/shoot ratio, complete dominance for fresh root weight and partial dominance for root length at 10 dSm/sup -1/ salinity level. Significant epitasis was observed for all the traits except shoot length at both the salinity treatments. (author)

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa YILDIZ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress limits plant productivity in arid and semi arid regions. Salt stress causes decrease in plant growth by adversely affecting physiological processes, especially photosynthesis. Salinity tolerance is defined as the ability of plant to maintain normal rowth and development under salt conditions. Salt stress results in accumulation of low molecular weight compounds, termed compatible solutes, which do not interfere with the normal biochemical reactions. These compatible solutes such as carbohydrates, polyols, amino acids and amides, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines andsoluble proteins may play a crucial role in osmotic adjustment, protection of macromolecules, maintenance of cellular pH and detoxification of free radicals. On the other hand, plants subjected to environmental stresses such as salinity produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and these ROS are efficiently eliminated by antioxidant enzyme systems. In plant breeding studies, the use of some physiological and biochemical markers for improving the salt tolerance in plants is crucial. In this review, the possibility of using some physiological and biochemical markers as selection criteria for salt tolerance is discussed.

  18. Varietal differences of quinoa's tolerance to saline conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Shabala, Sergey; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2012-01-01

    varieties, the Danish variety Titicaca and the Bolivian variety Utusaya gas exchange, chlorophyll content index (CCI), fluorescence and ion relations were studied. Results Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties; least affected were two varieties from the Bolivian altiplano and a variety...... from Peru. Titicaca and Utusaya both had substantially increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap. But, Utusaya was much more efficient in restricting xylem Na+ loading. Xylem Na+ and K+ loading were found to be uncoupled. Utusaya maintained a relatively high stomatal conductance resulting in an only...... 25% NaCl-induced reduction in net CO2 assimilation compared to a 67% reduction in salt treated Titicaca plants. Maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII was not affected by salinity. Conclusion In addition to maintaining high gas exchange, tolerant varieties better control xylem Na+ loading. To what...

  19. Salinity tolerances and use of saline environments by freshwater turtles: implications of sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Ennen, Joshua R; Bower, Deborah S; Nowakowski, A Justin; Sweat, Sarah C; Todd, Brian D

    2018-03-25

    The projected rise in global mean sea levels places many freshwater turtle species at risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. Freshwater turtles are disproportionately more threatened than other taxa; thus, understanding the role of salinity in determining their contemporary distribution and evolution should be a research priority. Freshwater turtles are a slowly evolving lineage; however, they can adapt physiologically or behaviourally to various levels of salinity and, therefore, temporarily occur in marine or brackish environments. Here, we provide the first comprehensive global review on freshwater turtle use and tolerance of brackish water ecosystems. We link together current knowledge of geographic occurrence, salinity tolerance, phylogenetic relationships, and physiological and behavioural mechanisms to generate a baseline understanding of the response of freshwater turtles to changing saline environments. We also review the potential origins of salinity tolerance in freshwater turtles. Finally, we integrate 2100 sea level rise (SLR) projections, species distribution maps, literature gathered on brackish water use, and a phylogeny to predict the exposure of freshwater turtles to projected SLR globally. From our synthesis of published literature and available data, we build a framework for spatial and phylogenetic conservation prioritization of coastal freshwater turtles. Based on our literature review, 70 species (∼30% of coastal freshwater turtle species) from 10 of the 11 freshwater turtle families have been reported in brackish water ecosystems. Most anecdotal records, observations, and descriptions do not imply long-term salinity tolerance among freshwater turtles. Rather, experiments show that some species exhibit potential for adaptation and plasticity in physiological, behavioural, and life-history traits that enable them to endure varying periods (e.g. days or months) and levels of saltwater exposure. Species that specialize on

  20. Pharmacodynamics and tolerance of X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, E.

    1987-01-01

    The improved tolerance of nonionic contrast media compared with conventional contrast media is mainly due to their lower osmolality and reduced allergoid potential. Tolerance advantages that have been definitely proven are, for example, low-pain contrast medium injection and superior systemic tolerance; side effects of an allergic pattern occur less often. Animals experiments have established that nonionic contrast media exercise a comparatively lower influence on the cardiovascular system. The haemodynamics of pulmonary circulation are less adversely affected on intravenous bolus injection. Reduced potential risk is to be expected especially in cardiac and bronchopulmonary high-risk patients. The reduced nephrotoxicity of nonionic contrast media was definitely established by clinical studies. Further systematic studies will however be required to provide an answer to the question whether this also entails a reduction in the incidence of renal failures induced by contrast media. (orig.) [de

  1. Halotolerant rhizobacteria promote growth and enhance salinity tolerance in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is a promising strategy to improve the crop production under optimal or sub-optimal conditions. In the present study, five diazotrophic salt tolerant bacteria were isolated from the roots of a halophyte, Arthrocnemum indicum. The isolates were partially characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and evaluated for their potential to promote growth and enhanced salt tolerance in peanut. The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology indicated that these bacterial isolates belong to the genera, Klebisiella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Ochrobactrum. All isolates were nifH positive and able to produce indole -3-acetic acid (ranging from 11.5 to 19.1 µg ml-1. The isolates showed phosphate solubilisation activity (ranging from 1.4 to 55.6 µg phosphate /mg dry weight, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (0.1 to 0.31 µmol α-kB/µg protein/h and were capable of reducing acetylene in acetylene reduction assay (ranging from 0.95 to 1.8 µmol C2H4 mg protein/h. These isolates successfully colonized the peanut roots and were capable of promoting the growth under non-stress condition. A significant increase in total nitrogen (N content (up to 76% was observed over the non-inoculated control. All isolates showed tolerance to NaCl ranging from 4-8% in nutrient broth medium. Under salt stress, inoculated peanut seedlings maintained ion homeostasis, accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS and showed enhanced growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the present study has characterized several potential bacterial strains that showed an enhanced growth promotion effect on peanut under control as well as saline conditions. The results show the possibility to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and may promote the use of bio-inoculants.

  2. Role of mycorrhizal fungi and salicylic acid in salinity tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most researchers showed that inoculation of plants with mycorrhizal fungi and using salicylic acid increase tolerance of plants due to salinity. In this study, the effect of mycorrhizal fungi, including Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, and salicylic acid (0.2 mM) on tolerance of green basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) to salinity ...

  3. PDH45 overexpressing transgenic tobacco and rice plants provide salinity stress tolerance via less sodium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Garg, Bharti; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress negatively affects the crop productivity worldwide, including that of rice. Coping with these losses is a major concern for all countries. The pea DNA helicase, PDH45 is a unique member of helicase family involved in the salinity stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanism of the PDH45 in salinity stress tolerance is yet to be established. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of PDH45-mediated salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco and rice lines along with wild type (WT) plants using CoroNa Green dye based sodium localization in root and shoot sections. The results showed that under salinity stress root and shoot of PDH45 overexpressing transgenic tobacco and rice accumulated less sodium (Na(+)) as compared to their respective WT. The present study also reports salinity tolerant (FL478) and salinity susceptible (Pusa-44) varieties of rice accumulated lowest and highest Na(+) level, respectively. All the varieties and transgenic lines of rice accumulate differential Na(+) ions in root and shoot. However, roots accumulate high Na(+) as compared to the shoots in both tobacco and rice transgenic lines suggesting that the Na(+) transport in shoot is somehow inhibited. It is proposed that the PDH45 is probably involved in the deposition of apoplastic hydrophobic barriers and consequently inhibit Na(+) transport to shoot and therefore confers salinity stress tolerance to PDH45 overexpressing transgenic lines. This study concludes that tobacco (dicot) and rice (monocot) transgenic plants probably share common salinity tolerance mechanism mediated by PDH45 gene.

  4. [Efficiency of saline contrast hysterosonography for evaluating the uterine cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kroon, C D; Jansen, F W; Trimbos, J B

    2003-08-09

    Diagnostic hysteroscopy is the standard investigation performed in the case of abnormal vaginal blood loss. More recently there has been increasing interest for minimal invasive saline contrast hysterosonography (SCHS) as this technique is less painful and less expensive. SCHS is indicated in case of abnormal uterine bleeding (premenopausal and postmenopausal), bleeding while using tamoxifen, suspicion of a congenital uterine abnormality and Asherman's syndrome. As well as intracavity abnormalities (polyps and myomas) SCHS can also be used to evaluate the intramural extension of myomas, which is necessary to assess whether hysteroscopic resection is possible. The sensitivity and specificity of SCHS for demonstrating intracavity abnormalities (with a prevalence of 54%) are 94% (95%-CI; 91-97) and 89% (95%-CI: 85-94) respectively. The positive and negative predictive values are 91% (95%-CI: 87-95) and 92% (95%-CI: 89-97) respectively. SCHS has a short learning curve and can be performed in an outpatient setting. SCHS fails more frequently in postmenopausal women than premenopausal women (12.5% vs. 4.7%; p = 0.03). The chance of a non-conclusive SCHS is 7.6% and is higher if the uterine volume is greater than 600 cm3 (relative risk: 2.63; 95%-CI: 1.05-6.60) and if two or more myomas are present: (RR 2.65; 95%-CI: 1.16-6.10). SCHS is 2 to 9 times cheaper than diagnostic hysteroscopy. It can replace 84% of the diagnostic hysteroscopies. SCHS, in combination with endometrial sampling, whenever indicated, might be able to replace diagnostic hysteroscopy as gold standard in the evaluation of the uterine cavity.

  5. Role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in Sunflower (helianthus annusl.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Iftikhar, I.I.; Nawaz, H.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The potted experiment was conducted to determine the exogenous role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Salinity levels (0, 60 and 120 mmol) were created according to the saturation percentage of soil. Different levels (0, 30, 60 mmol) of proline were applied as a foliar spray on sunflower under saline and non saline conditions. Application of proline as a foliar spray ameliorated the toxic effects of salinity on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of sunflower. Among different levels of proline, 60 mmol was found to be the most effective in ameliorating the toxic effects of salinity on sunflower. (author)

  6. Saline Contrast Echocardiography in the Era of Multimodality Imaging--Importance of "Bubbling It Right".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Shetkar, Sudhir S; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam S

    2015-11-01

    Saline contrast echocardiography is an established imaging modality. Logical interpretation of a carefully performed study is vital to realize its diagnostic potential. In this review, we discuss utility of saline contrast echocardiography in evaluation of various pathologies within and outside the heart other than a patent foramen ovale. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Saline contrast hysterosonography in abnormal uterine bleeding : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, CD; de Bock, GH; Dieben, SWM; Jansen, FW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast hysterosonography in the evaluation of the uterine cavity in women complaining of abnormal uterine bleeding. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies that compared saline contrast hysterosonography to a gold

  8. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.

  9. Residual transpiration as a component of salinity stress tolerance mechanism: a case study for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Md; Davies, Noel W; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Brodribb, Tim J; Shabala, Sergey

    2017-06-19

    While most water loss from leaf surfaces occurs via stomata, part of this loss also occurs through the leaf cuticle, even when the stomata are fully closed. This component, termed residual transpiration, dominates during the night and also becomes critical under stress conditions such as drought or salinity. Reducing residual transpiration might therefore be a potentially useful mechanism for improving plant performance when water availability is reduced (e.g. under saline or drought stress conditions). One way of reducing residual transpiration may be via increased accumulation of waxes on the surface of leaf. Residual transpiration and wax constituents may vary with leaf age and position as well as between genotypes. This study used barley genotypes contrasting in salinity stress tolerance to evaluate the contribution of residual transpiration to the overall salt tolerance, and also investigated what role cuticular waxes play in this process. Leaves of three different positions (old, intermediate and young) were used. Our results show that residual transpiration was higher in old leaves than the young flag leaves, correlated negatively with the osmolality, and was positively associated with the osmotic and leaf water potentials. Salt tolerant varieties transpired more water than the sensitive variety under normal growth conditions. Cuticular waxes on barley leaves were dominated by primary alcohols (84.7-86.9%) and also included aldehydes (8.90-10.1%), n-alkanes (1.31-1.77%), benzoate esters (0.44-0.52%), phytol related compounds (0.22-0.53%), fatty acid methyl esters (0.14-0.33%), β-diketones (0.07-0.23%) and alkylresorcinols (1.65-3.58%). A significant negative correlation was found between residual transpiration and total wax content, and residual transpiration correlated significantly with the amount of primary alcohols. Both leaf osmolality and the amount of total cuticular wax are involved in controlling cuticular water loss from barley leaves under well

  10. Genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra (abelmoschus esculentus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram-ul-Haq; Khan, A.A.; Azhar, F.M.; Ullah, E.

    2010-01-01

    The development of salt tolerant plants through selection and breeding depends on the presence of the genetic variability within the crop species in response to salt stress, which must have significant genetic component. Such information is not extensively available in vegetable crops. The present study was carried out to gain some information on the genetic basis of variation for salinity tolerance in okra. North Carolina Mating Design II (NCM II) was used for the estimation of genetic components of variation in the traits affecting salinity tolerance. The inheritance of the traits affecting salinity tolerance at the seedling stage appeared to be controlled by both additive and non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis). The narrow sense heritability estimates ranged from 40 to 65% and 7 to 70% and the estimates of broad sense heritability ranged from 65 to 99% and 20 to 99% for absolute and relative values. The additive effects were relatively more prominent and narrow sense heritability was moderate. The high additive component for absolute Na/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio at 60 and 80 mM NaCl, relative Na+ at 80 mM NaCl suggested that improvement for salinity tolerance in okra would be possible on the basis of these characteristics through selection and breeding. The genetic variation for tolerance to NaCl salinity existed among the okra genotypes, which had considerable heritable component and, therefore, genetic improvement of okra genotypes for salinity tolerance through recurrent selection method is possible. (author)

  11. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deli, Martin; Fritz, Jan; Mateiescu, Serban; Busch, Martin; Carrino, John A.; Becker, Jan; Garmer, Marietta; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 ± 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 ± 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  12. Physiological and Growth Responses of Six Turfgrass Species Relative to Salinity Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for salinity-tolerant turfgrasses is increasing due to augmented use of effluent or low-quality water (sea water for turf irrigation and the growing turfgrass industry in coastal areas. Experimental plants, grown in plastic pots filled with a mixture of river sand and KOSASR peat (9 : 1, were irrigated with sea water at different dilutions imparting salinity levels of 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, or 48 dS m-1. Salinity tolerance was evaluated on the basis of leaf firing, shoot and root growth reduction, proline content, and relative water content. Paspalum vaginatum was found to be most salt tolerant followed by Zoysia japonica and Zoysia matrella, while Digitaria didactyla, Cynodon dactylon “Tifdwarf,” and Cynodon dactylon “Satiri” were moderately tolerant. The results indicate the importance of turfgrass varietal selection for saline environments.

  13. Image-based phenotyping for non-destructive screening of different salinity tolerance traits in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Hairmansis, Aris; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an abiotic stress wide spread in rice producing areas, limiting both plant growth and yield. The development of salt-tolerant rice requires efficient and high-throughput screening techniques to identify promising lines

  14. The role of hull in germination and salinity tolerance in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hulled and dehulled) of sunflower seeds of Opal, Shelly (Confectionary) and Pactol (Oily) were tested to determine the effects of the hull on salinity tolerance during germination. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time (day), root and ...

  15. Evaluation of wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance using physiological indices as screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Niaz, M.; Kausar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major threat to world food security, to ensure future food needs of an increasing world population, development of salt tolerant crop varieties are necessary. Effective screening techniques for salinity tolerance would be beneficial in developing high yielding and salt tolerant wheat varieties. In the present study, an attempt for rapid screening of wheat genotypes for salt tolerance was made. Twenty wheat genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance under laboratory/green-house conditions using different physiological indices like germination stress tolerance index (GSI), shoot length stress tolerance index (SLSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) , shoot dry biomass stress tolerance index (SDSI). The data was pooled together to different multivariate techniques including correlation and cluster analysis to assess the diversity for salt tolerance in wheat genotypes. Highly significant and positive correlations were found between GSI, SDWSI and RDWSI. Cluster analysis classified 20 genotypes into three divergent groups. The members of first cluster (Abadgharr, Bhakkar-2000, Chakwal-86, Kiran-95, LU-26-S, Margalla-99, Marvi Pak-81, Sarsabaz) exhibited adequate degree of salt tolerance on the basis of various physiological stress tolerance indices, whereas, cluster-2 included genotypes (Bhattai, Pasban-90, Shafaq-2006, Soghat-90) with medium level of salt tolerance and cluster-3 consisted of wheat genotypes (Inqilab-91, Iqbal-2000, Kohistan-97, PARI-73, Punjab-90, Sehar-2006 and Uqab-6) with lower level of salt tolerance and did not perform upto the mark. On the basis of results and scores obtained, indicated that physiological indices can be used as a selection tool for salinity tolerance in wheat. (author)

  16. Salinity and temperature tolerance of an emergent alien species, the Amazon fish Astronotus ocellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrel, Silvia M M; Schofield, Pam; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Astronotus ocellatus (oscar), is native to the Amazon basin and, although it has been introduced to many countries, little is known regarding its tolerances for salinity and temperature. In this report, we provide data on the tolerance of A. ocellatus to abrupt and gradual changes in salinity, its high and low temperature tolerance, and information on how salinity, temperature, and fish size interact to affect survival. Fish were able to survive abrupt transfer to salinities as high as 16 ppt with no mortality. When salinity change was gradual (2 ppt/day), fish in the warm-temperature experiment (28°C) survived longer than fish in the cool-temperature experiment (18°C). Larger fish survived longer than smaller ones at the higher salinities when the temperature was warm, but when the temperature was cool fish size had little effect on survival. In the temperature-tolerance experiments, fish survived from 9 to 41°C for short periods of time. Overall, the species showed a wide range of temperature and salinity tolerance. Thus, in spite of the tropical freshwater origin of this species, physiological stress is not likely to hinder its dispersal to brackish waters, especially when temperatures are warm.

  17. Salt tolerance of halophytes, research questions reviewed in the perspective of saline agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Halophytes of the lower coastal salt marsh show increased salt tolerance, and under high salinity they grow faster than upper marsh species. We could not show reduced growth rate of halophytes compared with glycophytes when grown under non-saline conditions. This indicates limited energy costs

  18. North Atlantic near-surface salinity contrasts and intra-basin water vapor transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, J. R.; Seidov, D.; Boyer, T.

    2017-12-01

    The geographic distribution of near-surface salinity (NSS) in the North Atlantic is characterized by a very salty (>37) subtropical region contrasting with a much fresher (NSS. Additional results and potential implications will be presented and discussed.

  19. Tolerance for salinity and morphoagronomic characterization of rice mutants obtained by radioinduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, L.M.; Ramirez Fernandez, R.; Perez Talavera, S.

    1997-01-01

    Tolerance for salinity, agroindustrial efficiency, and resistance to diseases were appraised in a group of rice mutants obtained by means of mutation radioinduction, starting from the J-112 variety. Results show significant differences in the analyzed characteristics of radio mutants, and differences between those radio mutans and the donating variety. Radio mutants RM-12, RM-41, and RM-42, besides standing out for their high tolerance for salinity, boasted the highest agroindustrial efficiency and a good behaviour against the main plagues and diseases, which makes of them likely candidates for new varieties in the production from areas affected by salinity

  20. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro induction, isolation, and selection of potato mutants tolerant to salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2008-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to salinity. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, and Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection of plants tolerant to salinity. Around 1300 MV 4 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure. MV 4 explants were cultured on an MS medium supplemented with NaCl in varying concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mM. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-cultured on a similar medium to insure their tolerance to salinity. Salt tolerant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under greenhouse conditions. Mutant and control plants were later subjected to a second selection pressure by irrigating them with water containing NaCl in concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mM. Cultivar Spunta produced the highest number of tolerant plants. Four plants of Spunta appeared to be tolerant to salinity whereas only one plant from Diamant was tolerant and no plants from cultivar Draga were tolerant. The average number of produced minitubers per plant varied in the mutant plants from eight to 14. Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 31 grams. (author)

  2. Durum and bread wheat differ in their ability to retain potassium in leaf mesophyll: implications for salinity stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honghong; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the intrinsic mechanisms involved in the differential salinity tolerance between bread wheat and durum wheat is essential for breeding salt-tolerant varieties to cope with the global salinity issue threatening future food supply. In the past, higher salinity tolerance in bread wheat compared with durum wheat has been attributed to its better ability to exclude Na(+) from uptake. Here we show that another mechanism, namely more superior K(+) retention ability in the leaf mesophyll, also contributes to this difference. A strong positive correlation (R(2) > 0.41, P varieties. However, while the above correlation was strong in bread wheat, it was statistically insignificant in durum wheat. Consistent with these findings, a significantly higher relative leaf K(+) content was found in bread wheat than in durum wheat. In contrast to root tissues, the role of voltage-gated K(+) channels in K(+) retention in the wheat mesophyll was relatively small, and non-selective cation channels played a major role in controlling intracellular K(+) homeostasis. Moreover, a significant negative correlation between NaCl-induced mesophyll H(+) flux and mesophyll K(+) retention was found, and interpreted as a compensatory mechanism employed by sensitive varieties to regain K(+) leaked into the apoplast. It is concluded that bread wheat and durum wheat show different strategies of coping with salinity, and that targeting mechanisms conferring K(+) retention in the leaf mesophyll may be a promising way to improve the overall salinity tolerance in these species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. High salinity tolerance in eggs and fry of a brackish Esox lucius population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.T.; Hansen, B.W.; Vismann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on the biology and physiology of pike, Esox lucius L., populations inhabiting saline environments is scarce. An experimental setup was used to examine egg development and fry behaviour and growth under varying salinity levels in a brackish-water pike population from the western Baltic Sea....... Eggs and fry developed at 8.5 psu, which is higher than hitherto reported for other populations. Fry exhibited stress behaviour and reduced growth when subjected to salinities above 13 psu. This indicates that early life stages of E. lucius tolerate ambient salinity conditions equivalent to the natural...

  4. Larval tolerance to salinity in three species of Australian anuran: an indication of saline specialisation in Litoria aurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kearney

    Full Text Available Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival and N sudelli (0% survival, while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival. L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival.

  5. Cadmium tolerance and phytoremediation potential of acacia (Acacia nilotica L.) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Rahat; Abbas, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Akram, Muhammad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Munawar; Ashraf, Farah

    2018-06-07

    In this study, we explored the effect of salinity on cadmium (Cd) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Acacia nilotica. Two-month-old uniform plants of A. nilotica were grown in pots contaminated with various levels of Cd (0, 5, 10, and 15 mg kg -1 ), NaCl (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% (hereafter referred as salinity), and all possible combinations of Cd + salinity for a period of six months. Results showed that shoot and root growth, biomass, tissue water content and chlorophyll (chl a, chl b, and total chl a+b) contents decreased more in response to salinity and combination of Cd + salinity compared to Cd alone. Shoot and root K concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Cd levels, whereas Na and Cl concentrations were not affected significantly. Shoot and root Cd concentrations, bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) increased with increasing soil Cd and Cd + salinity levels. At low level of salinity (0.5%), shoot and root Cd uptake enhanced, while it decreased at high level of salinity (1.0%). Due to Cd tolerance, high shoot biomass and shoot Cd uptake, this tree species has some potential for phytoremediation of Cd from the metal contaminated saline and nonsaline soils.

  6. Salinity tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the use of salinity for contamination control by the freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas von Alvensleben

    Full Text Available Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and -water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles--an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass.

  7. Valuation of using saline flush technique of contrast medium on abdominal multidetector row CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hong; Wang Ying; He Yanli; Liu Xiaobing; Bao Shiliang; Han Mingjun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the enhancement degree of abdomen organs and vessels after different amount of contrast medium using saline flush in abdomen MDCT scanning, which aimed to not affect contrast enhancement, decreased the amount of contrast medium, and reduced the side-effect. Methods: This study group consisted of 75 patients who were referred for contrast enhanced abdominal MDCT for various reasons. Patients were allocated into three groups: injection of 100ml of contrast medium only (A group), injection of 80ml pushed with 20ml of saline solution (B group), and injection of 70ml pushed with 30ml of saline solution (C group). Attenuation values were measured from the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, aorta, portal vein, and inferior vena cava in 33 second and 80 second of imaging after injection contrast medium. Results: The portal venous phases of the spleen, pancreas, kidney, aorta, portal vein had statistically significant difference among groups A, B and C. Post hoc test showed statistically significant difference between A group and C group, But no statistically significant difference during the portal venous phases of the pancreas and the kidney between A group and B group. Conclusion: Using a saline flush technique after the injection contrast medium in abdominal MDCT reduced waste of contrast medium and decrease in nephrotoxicity, at the same time, it would not lose important diagnostic information and saved patients cost for the contrast medium. (authors)

  8. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys sp.) from Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. Biju; Schofield, Pam; Raj, Smrithy; Satheesh, Sima

    2018-01-01

    Loricariid catfishes of the genus Pterygoplichthys are native to South America and have been introduced in many localities around the world. They are freshwater fishes, but may also use low-salinity habitats such as estuaries for feeding or dispersal. Here we report results of a field survey and salinity-tolerance experiments for a population of Pterygoplichthys sp. collected in Kerala, India. In both chronic and acute salinity-tolerance trials, fish were able to withstand salinities up to 12 ppt with no mortality; however, fish transferred to salinities > 12 ppt did not survive. The experimental results provide evidence that nonnative Pterygoplichthys sp. are able to tolerate mesohaline conditions for extended periods, and can easily invade the brackish water ecosystems of the state. Further, Pterygoplichthys sp. from Kerala have greater salinity tolerance than other congeners. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes such as Pterygoplichthys spp. into coastal systems in Kerala and worldwide. This is particularly important as estuarine ecosystems are under threat of global climate change and sea-level rise. In light of the results of the present study and considering the reports of negative impacts of the species in invaded water bodies, management authorities may consider controlling populations and/or instituting awareness programmes to prevent the spread of this nuisance aquatic invasive species in Kerala.

  9. High salinity tolerance of the Red Sea coral Fungia granulosa under desalination concentrate discharge conditions: an in situ photophysiology experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan; Rö thig, Till; Voolstra, Christian R.; Ochsenkuhn, Michael A.; Lattemann, Sabine; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    - specific, and also depends on the salinity tolerance of the organisms inhabiting the water column in and around a discharge environment. Scientific studies that aim to understand possible impacts of elevated salinity levels are important to assess

  10. New evidence of QTLs attributed to salinity tolerance in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... 1Department of Plant Production, Gonbad High Education Center, Gorgan University of Agriculture Science ... QTL analysis of salt tolerance has been conducted by ..... value (24.40) and explained 22.17% of the phenotypic.

  11. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Hasna Habib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  12. Tolerance of Hordeum marinum accessions to O2 deficiency, salinity and these stresses combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Al Imran; English, Jeremy Parker; Colmer, Timothy David

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims When root-zone O2 deficiency occurs together with salinity, regulation of shoot ion concentrations is compromised even more than under salinity alone. Tolerance was evaluated amongst 34 accessions of Hordeum marinum, a wild species in the Triticeae, to combined salinity and root-zone O2 deficiency. Interest in H. marinum arises from the potential to use it as a donor for abiotic stress tolerance into wheat. Methods Two batches of 17 H. marinum accessions, from (1) the Nordic Gene Bank and (2) the wheat belt of Western Australia, were exposed to 0·2 or 200 mol m−3 NaCl in aerated or stagnant nutrient solution for 28–29 d. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was included as a sensitive check species. Growth, root porosity, root radial O2 loss (ROL) and leaf ion (Na+, K+, Cl−) concentrations were determined. Key Results Owing to space constraints, this report is focused mainly on the accessions from the Nordic Gene Bank. The 17 accessions varied in tolerance; relative growth rate was reduced by 2–38 % in stagnant solution, by 8–42 % in saline solution (aerated) and by 39–71 % in stagnant plus saline treatment. When in stagnant solution, porosity of adventitious roots was 24–33 %; salinity decreased the root porosity in some accessions, but had no effect in others. Roots grown in stagnant solution formed a barrier to ROL, but variation existed amongst accessions in apparent barrier ‘strength’. Leaf Na+ concentration was 142–692 µmol g−1 d. wt for plants in saline solution (aerated), and only increased to 247–748 µmol g−1 d. wt in the stagnant plus saline treatment. Leaf Cl− also showed only small effects of stagnant plus saline treatment, compared with saline alone. In comparison with H. marinum, wheat was more adversely affected by each stress alone, and particularly when combined; growth reductions were greater, adventitious root porosity was 21 %, it lacked a barrier to ROL, leaf K+ declined to lower levels, and leaf Na+ and

  13. Salinity tolerance of larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus ( ) X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen and twenty one day larvae were exposed to abrupt stepwise change in salinity (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 ppt) for 96 hours to determine mortality, median lethal mortality, MLS and median lethal time, MLT. The fourteen day-old fry that were exposed to 0 – 6 ppt recorded 90%, 87.5% 77.5% and 10% survival at the end of ...

  14. Crop improvement for salinity and drought tolerance using nuclear and related techniques (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serraj, R.; Lagoda, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Although drought and salinity stresses have long been recognised as major constraints of crop productivity, the genetic advances in breeding programs for drought-prone and saline environments have been slow. An important reason for this is that dry environments are often characterized by unpredictable and highly variable seasonal rainfall, and hence highly variable yields and genotype-by-environment interaction (G x E). Similarly, saline environments show large spatial and temporal variability in the nature and degree of sanotiazol. Another major constraint to the genetic improvement of drought and salinity tolerance traits is the lack of understanding of their complex physiological and genetic bases, and the difficulty in combining favourable alleles into adapted and high yielding genotypes. Many claims have been made for the improvement of drought and salinity tolerance through biotechnology and genetic engineering, but there have been few if any successful examples of these resulting in increased yields in farmers' fields. Conventional breeding for drought has been slightly successful, although for salinity only a few examples of improved cultivars have been released. Similarly, marker assisted breeding (MAB) can be effective in a trait-based approach to crop improvement for stress environments, as it allows the incorporation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for superior expression of major yield components under stress, where there are regular associations between such components and overall grain yield. MAB provides opportunities for both the introgression of various individual physiological or biochemical tolerance traits and/or for selection for complex, whole crop responses involved In crop tolerance to stress. Systematically pyramiding tolerance traits, which individually may have only a limited effect on the overall phenotype, in selected genotypes can provide a significant cumulative effect on crop yield under stress. In view of the multigenic and

  15. Differential activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana

    2013-01-01

    quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa....... These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce......Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow...

  16. Improvement of potato tolerance to salinity using tissue culture techniques and irradiation with in vitro selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2005-06-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to salinity. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy.Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4th generation (MV 4 ) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3000 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure. MV 4 explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with the NaCl in varying concentrations ranging between 50 to 200 mM. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-cultured on a similar medium to insure their tolerance to salinity. Tolerant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later subjected to another selection pressure, by irrigating them using water containing NaCl in concentrations ranging between 50-250 mM in addition to controls irrigated with normal water. Cultivar Spunta produced the highest number of tolerant plants. Four plants of Spunta appeared to be tolerant to salinity whereas only one plant from Diamant and was tolerant and no plants from cultivar Draga were tolerant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 8 - 14. Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 31 grams. (author)

  17. Seed priming improves salinity tolerance of wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Y.; Shafi, M.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the response of wheat varieties to seed priming and salinity, an experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The performance of 6 wheat varieties (Tatara-96, Ghaznavi-98, Fakhri Sarhad, Bakhtawar-92, Pirsabaq-2004 and Auqab-2000) at two seed conditions (primed with 30 mM NaCl and un primed) under four salinity levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM) was studied. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that salinity, seed priming and varieties had significantly (P= 0.05) affected shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/, shoot Na/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight), shoot K/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/Na/sup +/ ratio. Maximum shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ (7.71 g), shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/ (1.68 g), shoot K/sup +/ contents (1.39 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ratio (1.45) were recorded from Bakhtawar-92 as compared with other varieties. Highest shoot Na/sup +/ contents (1.43 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) were recorded from Auqab-2000 when compared with other varieties. All parameters were enhanced with seed priming except shoot Na/sup +/ contents, which reduced significantly (p= 0.05) with seed priming. (author)

  18. RNAseq analysis reveals pathways and candidate genes associated with salinity tolerance in a spaceflight-induced wheat mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Huijun; Xie, Yongdun; Zhao, Linshu; Gu, Jiayu; Zhao, Shirong; Li, Junhui; Liu, Luxiang

    2017-06-02

    Salinity stress has become an increasing threat to food security worldwide and elucidation of the mechanism for salinity tolerance is of great significance. Induced mutation, especially spaceflight mutagenesis, is one important method for crop breeding. In this study, we show that a spaceflight-induced wheat mutant, named salinity tolerance 1 (st1), is a salinity-tolerant line. We report the characteristics of transcriptomic sequence variation induced by spaceflight, and show that mutations in genes associated with sodium ion transport may directly contribute to salinity tolerance in st1. Furthermore, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between salinity-treated st1 and wild type suggested that the homeostasis of oxidation-reduction process is important for salt tolerance in st1. Through KEGG pathway analysis, "Butanoate metabolism" was identified as a new pathway for salinity responses. Additionally, key genes for salinity tolerance, such as genes encoding arginine decarboxylase, polyamine oxidase, hormones-related, were not only salt-induced in st1 but also showed higher expression in salt-treated st1 compared with salt-treated WT, indicating that these genes may play important roles in salinity tolerance in st1. This study presents valuable genetic resources for studies on transcriptome variation caused by induced mutation and the identification of salt tolerance genes in crops.

  19. Plasma membrane and salinity tolerance of barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rahmani, F. H.; Al-Mashhadani, M. S.; Al-Delemee, N. H.

    1997-01-01

    Barley cultivar, California Mario ut, was grown in a nutrient solution containing increasing Nacl concentrations up to 250 mm. The effect of Nacl on growth, mineral compost ion ant integrity of the plasma membrane was studied. Growth of the shoot'and root was stimulated or little affected by 10 and 20 ml Nacl. Further increase in Nacl concentrations depressed the growth. The depression was conspicuous between 100 and 250 mm Nacl. Increasing Nacl concentration decreased potassium content in the shoots and roots and led to steep increase in sodium accumulation. The integrity of the plasma membrane was measured in term of potassium leakage from the root tips. Rapid leakage of potassium was obtained at Nacl concentrations ranging from 100 to 250 mm. At the same concentrations of Nacl, adenosine triphosphatase activity in the root tips was increased. Results indicate that the plasma membrane of root cells was damaged by the increased levels of salinity. It was concluded that the plasma membrane of root cells is the primary site of salinity toxicity. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs. 3 figs

  20. Improvement of potato tolerance to salinity using tissue culture techniques and irradiation with in vitro selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2006-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to salinity. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Mutants were isolated to get rid of chimeral tissues and subsequently propagated for in vitro and pot selection pressure. Cultivar Sponta produced the highest number of tolerant plants (4) and only one plant was obtained from Diamant. (authors)

  1. Multislice CT of the liver. Effects of contrast material pushed with saline solution on hepatic enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Ryuzo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Tsukamoto, Tatsuaki; Kuroki, Yoshinori; Nasu, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Koji; Nawano, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a method of power injection of contrast material pushed with saline solution for hepatic multislice CT using a dual-head power injector. One hundred twenty-one patients who underwent multislice CT to detect liver metastases were divided into two groups, depending on the protocol of contrast material administration: 100 mL of non-ionic contrast material (370 mgI/mL) or 100 mL of the same contrast material pushed with 30 mL of saline solution. Both contrast material and saline solution were administered at a rate of 2.5 mL/sec using a dual-head power injector. Attenuation values for the two protocols were obtained from the liver, portal vein, and descending aorta. Hepatic enhancement above 50 Hounsfield unit (HU), which is needed for the diagnosis of liver metastases, was achieved in 76.5% of patients given 100 mL of contrast material and 92.5% of those given 100 mL of contrast material pushed with a 30 mL saline solution. In contingency-table analysis, the CT attenuation value of liver categorized as less than 50 HU or more than 50 HU, showed a good relation between the categorized group and the protocol (p=0.0437). In patients with a body weight of 50 kg or more, 100 mL of contrast material pushed with saline solution provided significantly better CT attenuation values in the liver (p=0.0113), portal vein (p=0.0094), and descending aorta (p=0.0394) than those provided by the injection of 100 mL of contrast material alone. When contrast material pushed with saline solution was used, CT attenuation values in the liver were significantly increased, especially in patients with a body weight of 50 kg or more. This technique will provide a decrease in the volume of contrast material administered and a potential decrease in the side effects of contrast material. (author)

  2. Salinity and temperature tolerance of the invasive freshwater gastropod Tarebia granifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aquatic species, such as the gastropod Tarebia granifera, can cause ecological isturbances and potentially reduce biodiversity by displacing indigenous invertebrates. In South Africa, T. granifera was first recorded in an estuarine environment in the St Lucia Estuary. Its tolerance to salinity and temperature was investigated through the experimental manipulation of these factors. T. granifera can tolerate temperatures between 0 ºC and 47.5 ºC, allowing it to survive high temperature extremes. The species may also survive cold snaps and invade higher altitude areas. More remarkably, this snail survives high salinity for a relatively long time, as LS50 (lethal salinity for 50% of the population was reached at 30 psu over 65–75 days. However, higher salinity adversely affected the T. granifera population. Snails acclimated to freshwater conditions and suddenly transferred to 30 psu experienced 100% mortality within 48 h. Snail activity also declined with increasing salinity. T. granifera’s environmental tolerance and parthenogenetic characteristics are the keys to successful introduction and establishment. Therefore, the management of T. granifera may prove diffcult in the short to medium term. The present findings constitute a contribution to the knowledge of biological invasions in Africa and to the understanding of estuarine invasions by T. granifera.

  3. Ionic and photosynthetic homeostasis in quinoa challenged by salinity and drought - mechanisms of tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2015-01-01

    homeostatic mechanisms which contributed to quinoa's extraordinary tolerance. Salinity increased K+ and Na+ uptake by 60 and 100kgha-1, respectively, resulting in maintenance of cell turgor by osmotic adjustment, and a 50% increase of the leaf's fresh weight (FW):dry weight (DW) ratio and non...

  4. Ocean acidification narrows the acute thermal and salinity tolerance of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laura M; Scanes, Elliot; O'Connor, Wayne A; Coleman, Ross A; Byrne, Maria; Pörtner, Hans-O; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-09-15

    Coastal and estuarine environments are characterised by acute changes in temperature and salinity. Organisms living within these environments are adapted to withstand such changes, yet near-future ocean acidification (OA) may challenge their physiological capacity to respond. We tested the impact of CO 2 -induced OA on the acute thermal and salinity tolerance, energy metabolism and acid-base regulation capacity of the oyster Saccostrea glomerata. Adult S. glomerata were acclimated to three CO 2 levels (ambient 380μatm, moderate 856μatm, high 1500μatm) for 5weeks (24°C, salinity 34.6) before being exposed to a series of acute temperature (15-33°C) and salinity (34.2-20) treatments. Oysters acclimated to elevated CO 2 showed a significant metabolic depression and extracellular acidosis with acute exposure to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, especially at the highest CO 2 of 1500μatm. Our results suggest that the acute thermal and salinity tolerance of S. glomerata and thus its distribution will reduce as OA continues to worsen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Bonales-Alatorre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV and fast (FV tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013 Plant Physiology. This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  6. Differential activity of plasma and vacuolar membrane transporters contributes to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zeng, Fanrong; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-04-29

    Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  7. In vitro mutation breeding for salinity tolerance in Citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhanao; Zhang Wencai; Wan Shuyan

    1989-01-01

    density of 80,000-100,000 protoplasts/ml and kept in liquid MT containing 0.14 M sucrose and 0.46 M mannitol. After 4 days, a few protoplasts resumed division, 2 weeks later, about 15% of the protoplasts have divided once to three times, looking like proembryos. After 2 months, they formed visible globular embryoids, which would develop plantlets after transfer. For plant proliferation, the appropriate media were MT supplemented with BR (Brassinolide) 0.001 mg/ml - 0.02 mg/l and 6BA 3 mg/l - 5 mg/l or 6BA 1 mg/l - 5 mg/l and NAA 0.25 mg/l - 1.0 mg/l. With the combinations of BR and 6BA, even root segments could develop adventitious buds. II. Mutagenic treatment. The mutagens used include gamma radiation, EMS, SA and PYM (Penyanmycin). PYM, a kind of antibiotic, was discovered by the Genetics Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Science. It is a stronger mutagen than EMS and can induce a large amount of chromosome aberrations. But application of gamma radiation to cells and protoplasts seems to operate more easily, since chemical mutagens usually give rise to breaks in protoplast membrane and loss of protoplasts. The LD50 of gamma radiation, EMS, PYM and SA for Citrus callus cells were 5-7 Krad, 0.3% (25 deg. C, 12-24 hrs.), 0.5-2.5 μg/ml (25 deg. C, 8 hrs.) and 0.01 M - 0.05 M (25 deg. C, 8 hrs.), respectively. Protoplasts were much more sensitive. Decrease of cell and protoplast viability, delay in cell wall regeneration of protoplasts and the first division of cells derived from protoplasts, and reduction in colony formation were effects of mutagenic treatments. Gamma radiation of 7 krad and EMS at 0.2%-0.5% produced 6.50% and 5.98% chromosome aberrations, respectively, but SA very few. Among the aberrations were lagging chromosomes, fragments, bridges, unequal divisions and micronucleates, some of which could lead to sterility and seedless fruit mutants. III. Selection for salt tolerance. The habituated callus cells, having recovered after treatment with

  8. Tolerance of photoperiod insensitive mutant of Sesbania rostrata to salinity and pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, Saradha; Joshua, D.C.; Shaikh, M.S.; Athalye, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The photoperiod insensitive mutant, TSR-1 of Sesbania rostrata was compared with the parent variety for its response to soil salinity and different levels of pH in hydroponics. The plant growth and stem nodulation were not significantly affected by salinity. However, salinity in soil without farmyard manure stimulated plant growth. Radiotracer studies showed that the translocation of Na to stem and leaves was much less compared to uptake in both parent and mutant. The growth of TSR-1 was comparable to or marginally better than that of the parent variety in the pH range of 3.5-8.0. Root nodulation was less with low pH. The nitrogen content was not adversely affected by pH, but it was reduced with 200 mM NaCl. This mutant in addition to being short-day insensitive, is tolerant to low to moderate salinity levels and pH like its parent. (author)

  9. Evaluating relative contribution of osmotolerance and tissue tolerance mechanisms toward salinity stress tolerance in three Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Eyles, Alieta; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    Three different species of Brassica, with differential salt sensitivity were used to understand physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance operating in these species and to evaluate the relative contribution of different strategies to cope with salt load. Brassica napus was the most tolerant species in terms of the overall performance, with Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea being much more sensitive to salt stress with no obvious difference between them. While prominent reduction in net CO2 assimilation was observed in both sensitive species, physiological mechanisms beyond this reduction differed strongly. Brassica juncea plants possessed high osmotolerance and were able to maintain high transpiration rate but showed a significant reduction in leaf chlorophyll content and efficiency of leaf photochemistry. On the contrary, B. oleracea plants possessed the highest (among the three species) tissue tolerance but showed a very significant stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the high tissue tolerance in B. oleracea was related to the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to maintain highly negative membrane potential in the presence of high apoplastic Na(+) . In addition to high osmotolerance, the most tolerant B. napus showed also lesser accumulation of toxic Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leaf, possessed moderate tissue tolerance and had a superior K(+) retention ability. Taken together, the results from this study indicate that the three Brassica species employ very different mechanisms to cope with salinity and, despite its overall sensitivity to salinity, B. oleracea could be recommended as a valuable 'donor' of tissue tolerance genes to confer this trait for marker-assisted breeding programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. The Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in the Xero-halophyte Blue Panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. ESHGHIZADEH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the physiological traits associated with salt tolerance is important in optimal management of biosaline systems and optimum utilization of saline water resources in dry and saline areas. Therefore, some indices of photosynthetic activity, dry matter production and accumulation of sodium and potassium ions in Blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz were evaluated in five levels of salinity treatment (0, 70, 140, 210 and 280 mM NaCl solution under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that at 28 and 35 days after salt stress, plant leaf area reduced in the highest salinity treatment, 93 and 96% respectively, compared with control. Leaf stomatal conductance, CO2 fixation and quantum efficiency of photosystem II were decreased by increasing salinity. It caused also a reduction in chlorophyll content (Chl a, Chl b in leaves of Blue panicgrass. Content of carotenoids showed binary patterns to different salinity levels, slightly increased in 70-140 mM NaCl and decreased again in 210-280 mM, respectively. Increasing levels of salinity, increased sodium content in both roots and shoots but the shoots potassium content decreased. Decline in photosynthesis indices caused the reduction of root and shoot dry weight. This decrease resulted from lower leaf area (r=0.91**, lower stomatal conductance (r=0.78**, lower CO2 fixed in photosynthesis (r=0.63**, lower quantum efficiency of photosystem II (r=0.54** and lower Chl a (r=0.45**, respectively. Data analysis base on using stepwise regression introduced leaf area (?=0.560, chlorophyll a content (?=0.245 and shoot potassium content (?= 0.264 as main effective components of salinity tolerance in Blue panicgrass.

  11. Effect of spatial variation on salinity tolerance of macroinvertebrates in Eastern Australia and implications for ecosystem protection trigger values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, Jason E.; Horrigan, Nelli; McGregor, Glenn; Kefford, Ben J.; Choy, Satish; Prasad, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Salinisation of freshwater has been identified as a serious environmental issue in Australia and around the world. Protective concentrations (trigger values) for salinity can be used to manage salinity impacts, though require locally relevant salinity tolerance information. 72-h acute salinity tolerance values were determined for 102 macroinvertebrates collected from 11 locations in four biologically distinct freshwater bio-regions in Northeast Australia and compared with sensitivities observed in Southeast Australia. The salinity tolerance of individual taxa was consistent across Northeast Australia and between Northeast and Southeast Australia. However, two distinct communities were identified in Northeast Australia using distributions of the acute tolerance values and a calculated index of salinity sensitivity. Salinity trigger values should therefore be representative of local or regionally relevant communities and may be adequately calculated using sensitivity values from throughout Eastern Australia. The results presented provide a basis for assessing salinity risk and determining trigger values for salinity in freshwater ecosystems at local and regional scales in Eastern Australia. - Salinity tolerance of macroinvertebrate communities vary in Eastern Australia hence water quality guidelines should be developed at a local or regional scale

  12. Effect of salinity on the upper lethal temperature tolerance of early-juvenile red drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Dusty; Bumguardner, Britt; Cason, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Previous work investigating the temperature tolerance of juvenile red drum ranging 18-50mm TL found evidence for positive size dependence (smaller fish less tolerant to higher temperatures) suggesting smaller size classes (temperatures. Here, we explored the upper lethal temperature tolerance (ULT) in smaller-sized red drum which ranged from 10 to 20mm TL across multiple salinities to further understand the thermal limitations of this propagated game fish. In order to investigate the combined effect of temperature and salinity on ULT, temperature trials were conducted under three levels of salinity which commonly occur along the coast of Texas (25, 35, and 45ppt). The rate of temperature increase (+0.25°C/h) was designed to mimic a natural temperature increase of a summer day in Texas. We determined that the lethal temperature at 50% (LT50) did not differ between the three salinities examined statistically; median lethal temperature for individuals exposed to 25ppt ranged from 36.4 to 37.7°C, 35ppt ranged from 36.4 to 37.7°C, and 45ppt ranged from 36.1 to 37.4°C. Further, LT50 data obtained here for early-juvenile red drum did not differ from data of a similar experiment examining 25mm TL sized fish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Supplementary Material for: Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  14. Selection and characterizations of radiation-induced salinity-tolerant lines in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.S.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, S.J.; Song, H.S.; Lim, Y.P.; Lee, Y.I.

    2003-01-01

    NaCl tolerant cell lines were selected from irradiated callus, which were generated from seed cultures. M 1 -regenerates were obtained from the salt-tolerant callus cultured on the auxin-free medium for 30 days. Some regenerants were more tolerant than the parent variety (Dongjinbyeo) on a medium containing 0.75 % NaCl. Seeds (M 3 5,000 lines) derived from M 2 lines were grown to the 3 leaf stage. M 3 lines were soaked with a 0.75 % salt solution for 3 weeks and 350 salt-tolerant genotypes were selected. Among the M 3 350 lines, forty tolerant lines were selected from a saline field (10~14 mS) near the sea coast. Of the forty lines, two lines (18-1 and 50-1) showed more improved plant height, panicle length, tillering number, spikelet number and yield than those of the original variety. Thirty primers were screened and two RAPD markers were identified, which appeared in both the salt-tolerant lines (18-1 and 50-1). From DNA-hybridization experiments, it appeared that the fragment arose from the middle-repetitive copy sequences. The transcript involved in the marker showed a higher expression in the salt-tolerant lines than the sensitive lines. The salt-tolerant lines would be useful as a resource for salt-tolerant breeding. (author)

  15. Short-term salinity tolerance of northern pike, Esox lucius , fry, related to temperature and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity in combi......The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity...... in combination with temperatures of 10, 14 and 18 degrees C. A parametric survival model found a significant correlation between survival of pike fry and temperature and salinity, respectively. L(C)50 values after 72 h were between 11.2 and 12.2 ppt, being lowest at 10 degrees C. Pike fry did not survive more...

  16. Enhancement of salinity tolerance in wheat through soil applied calcium carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ahmad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbide (CaC2 has been reported to increase growth and yield of crops under normal soil conditions. This study assessed its capacity to enhance salinity tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; cv- 1076 under saline conditions. Three levels of salinity: 0, 7 and 12 dS m-1 were created using NaCl. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulphate and KH2PO4 at 50 and 25 mg kg-1 soil, respectively. The encapsulated calcium carbide (ECC at 45 mg kg-1 soil produced 1291.8 µmols of acetylene (C2H2 and 257.5 µmols of its product ethylene (C2H4 over a period of 80 days. The results of the pot study indicated that ECC increased the weight of spike, weight of grains per spike, length of spike, total water concentration, root/shoot ratio and relative leaf water content up to 17, 23, 22, 35, 33 and 3%, respectively, over the control. Contrary to this, salinity (at 12 dS m -1 decreased all these parameters up to 68, 60, 26, 30, 28 and 8%, respectively, compared to the control. These results indicate that ECC enhances salinity tolerance in wheat by improving uptake of nutrients through enhanced root growth, increased hydraulic conductivity and hormonal action of ethylene released by ECC. Total water concentration was positively correlated (0.73 with grains spike-1 at P ≤ 0.05

  17. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  18. The genome sequence of the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium provides insights into salinity tolerance

    KAUST Repository

    Razali, Rozaimi; Bougouffa, Salim; Morton, Mitchell J. L.; Lightfoot, Damien; Alam, Intikhab; Essack, Magbubah; Arold, Stefan T.; Kamau, Allan; Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Pailles, Yveline; Shahid, Mohammed; Michell, Craig; Al-Babili, Salim; Ho, Yung Shwen; Tester, Mark A.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Negrã o, Só nia

    2017-01-01

    Solanum pimpinellifolium, a wild relative of cultivated tomato, offers a wealth of breeding potential for several desirable traits such as tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we report the genome and annotation of S. pimpinellifolium LA0480. The LA0480 genome size (811 Mb) and the number of annotated genes (25,970) are within the range observed for other sequenced tomato species. We developed and utilized the Dragon Eukaryotic Analyses Platform (DEAP) to functionally annotate the LA0480 protein-coding genes. Additionally, we used DEAP to compare protein function between S. pimpinellifolium and cultivated tomato. Our data suggest enrichment in genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Moreover, we present phenotypic data from one field experiment that demonstrate a greater salinity tolerance for fruit- and yield-related traits in S. pimpinellifolium compared with cultivated tomato. To understand the genomic basis for these differences in S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum, we analyzed 15 genes that have previously been shown to mediate salinity tolerance in plants. We show that S. pimpinellifolium has a higher copy number of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase and phosphatase genes, which are both key enzymes in the production of inositol and its derivatives. Moreover, our analysis indicates that changes occurring in the inositol phosphate pathway may contribute to the observed higher salinity tolerance in LA0480. Altogether, our work provides essential resources to understand and unlock the genetic and breeding potential of S. pimpinellifolium, and to discover the genomic basis underlying its environmental robustness.

  19. The genome sequence of the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium provides insights into salinity tolerance

    KAUST Repository

    Razali, Rozaimi

    2017-11-14

    Solanum pimpinellifolium, a wild relative of cultivated tomato, offers a wealth of breeding potential for several desirable traits such as tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we report the genome and annotation of S. pimpinellifolium LA0480. The LA0480 genome size (811 Mb) and the number of annotated genes (25,970) are within the range observed for other sequenced tomato species. We developed and utilized the Dragon Eukaryotic Analyses Platform (DEAP) to functionally annotate the LA0480 protein-coding genes. Additionally, we used DEAP to compare protein function between S. pimpinellifolium and cultivated tomato. Our data suggest enrichment in genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Moreover, we present phenotypic data from one field experiment that demonstrate a greater salinity tolerance for fruit- and yield-related traits in S. pimpinellifolium compared with cultivated tomato. To understand the genomic basis for these differences in S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum, we analyzed 15 genes that have previously been shown to mediate salinity tolerance in plants. We show that S. pimpinellifolium has a higher copy number of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase and phosphatase genes, which are both key enzymes in the production of inositol and its derivatives. Moreover, our analysis indicates that changes occurring in the inositol phosphate pathway may contribute to the observed higher salinity tolerance in LA0480. Altogether, our work provides essential resources to understand and unlock the genetic and breeding potential of S. pimpinellifolium, and to discover the genomic basis underlying its environmental robustness.

  20. DNA markers linked to the major salinity tolerance locus of traditional rice, Pokkali (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Seraj, Z.I.; Das, D.K.; Salam, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The major QTL for salinity tolerance traits, of the traditional rice salt tolerant benchmark Pokkali, referred to as 'Saltol' was located within a large 16cM loci of rice chromosome 1 by previous workers at IRRI. This was done by using a recombinant inbred population between Pokkali and sensitive IR29 (Total RILs=275). These workers had identified the flanking markers, RM23 and RM9, as the limits of 'Saltol'. By designing primers between these two markers, and using a subset of the same RILs, we were able to identify a 5cM region, which was completely linked to the tolerance of seedlings. Further work with a subset of another NIL population raised at IRRI between Pokkali and recurring IR29 at the BC/sub 3/F/sub 2/ stage has narrowed down the linked region to about 0.3cM, each at 4 different locations within the 5cM loc. This was done by scoring the tolerance of the seedlings and determining the percent of progeny that showed the tolerant allele at the specified maker locus. Thirty seedlings from each of 10 BC/sub 3/F/sub 2/ progeny were scored. Only the most tolerant and sensitive seedlings were used for DNA isolation and amplification. The work was derived from complex crosses involving Pokkali as the tolerance donor. Three common loci linked to salinity tolerance were found to be the same in the NILs and the breeding population. DNA markers homologous to these 3 loci will be confirmed for their ability to identify tolerant progeny in breeding populations. (author)

  1. International Conference on Biotechnology for Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.; Mahmood, K.

    2005-01-01

    International Conference on Biotechnology for Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Plants was held from 28-29 March, 2005 at Islamabad, Pakistan. Abstracts of this conference have been presented in this proceeding. There were six technical sessions like 1) Stress Physiology/Ion Transport, 2) Stress Sensing and Signaling, 3) Genomis, Metabolomics and Proteomics, 4) Genetic Engineering, 5) Gene Expression, 6) Field Studies and Management. This seminar was quite useful specially drought resistance and salinity in the soil. Researches exchange their views in the seminar. (A.B.)

  2. Dextran or Saline Can Replace Contrast for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography in Lower Extremity Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Daniel E; Allemang, Matthew T; Gosling, Andre F; Nagavalli, Anil; Kim, Ann H; Nishino, Setsu; Parikh, Sahil A; Bezerra, Hiram G; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2016-10-01

    To examine the hypothesis that alternative flush media could be used for lower extremity optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in long lesions that would normally require excessive use of contrast. The OPTical Imaging Measurement of Intravascular Solution Efficacy (OPTIMISE) trial was a single-center, prospective study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01743872) that enrolled 23 patients (mean age 68±11 years; 14 men) undergoing endovascular intervention involving the superficial femoral artery. Four flush media (heparinized saline, dextran, carbon dioxide, and contrast) were used in succession in random order for each image pullback. Quality was defined as ≥270° visualization of vessel wall layers from each axial image. Mean proportions (± standard deviation) of image quality for each flush medium were assessed using 1-way analysis of variance and are reported with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Four OCT catheters failed, leaving 19 patients who completed the OCT imaging protocol; from this cohort, 51 highest quality runs were selected for analysis. Average vessel diameter was 3.99±1.01 mm. OCT imaging allowed 10- to 15-μm resolution of the lumen border, with diminishing quality as vessel diameter increased. Plaque characterization revealed fibrotic lesions. Mean proportions of image quality were dextran 87.2%±12% (95% CI 0.81 to 0.94), heparinized saline 74.3%±24.8% (95% CI 0.66 to 0.93), contrast 70.1%±30.5% (95% CI 0.52 to 0.88), and carbon dioxide 10.0%±10.4% (95% CI 0.00 to 0.26). Dextran, saline, and contrast provided better quality than carbon dioxide (pDextran or saline flush media can allow lesion characterization, avoiding iodinated contrast. Carbon dioxide is inadequate for peripheral OCT imaging. Axial imaging may aid in enhancing durability of peripheral endovascular interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Efficacy of high iodine concentration contrast medium with saline pushing in hepatic CT in patients with chronic liver disease. Comparison of high doses-standard contrast medium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Munetaka; Kondo, Tamaki; Nishikawa, Takahiro; Kuginuki, Yasuaki; Yokota, Hajime; Higashi, Kotaro; Tonami, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the enhancement of liver parenchyama with high iodine concentration contrast medium with saline pushing to that with high doses standard iodine concentration in hepatic CT in patients with chronic liver disease. There was no statistically significant difference regarding to the enhancement of liver parenchyama between the 370 mgI/ml of contrast medium with saline pushing and high doses standard iodine concentration contrast medium. (author)

  4. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes under Salinity Stress during the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop productivity. Identification of the potential novel genes responsible for salt tolerance in barley will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of barley responses to salt stress. We compared changes in transcriptome between Hua 11 (a salt-tolerant genotype and Hua 30 (a salt sensitive genotype in response to salt stress at the seedling stage using barley cDNA microarrays. In total, 557 and 247 salt-responsive genes were expressed exclusively in the shoot and root tissue of the salt-tolerant genotype, respectively. Among these genes, a number of signal-related genes, transcription factors and compatible solutes were identified and some of these genes were carefully discussed. Notably, a LysM RLK was firstly found involved in salt stress response. Moreover, key enzymes in the pathways of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, lipid metabolism and indole-3-acetic acid homeostasis were specifically affected by salt stress in salt tolerance genotype. These salt-responsive genes and biochemical pathways identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of salt tolerance in barley.

  5. Image-based phenotyping for non-destructive screening of different salinity tolerance traits in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Hairmansis, Aris

    2014-08-14

    Background Soil salinity is an abiotic stress wide spread in rice producing areas, limiting both plant growth and yield. The development of salt-tolerant rice requires efficient and high-throughput screening techniques to identify promising lines for salt affected areas. Advances made in image-based phenotyping techniques provide an opportunity to use non-destructive imaging to screen for salinity tolerance traits in a wide range of germplasm in a reliable, quantitative and efficient way. However, the application of image-based phenotyping in the development of salt-tolerant rice remains limited. Results A non-destructive image-based phenotyping protocol to assess salinity tolerance traits of two rice cultivars (IR64 and Fatmawati) has been established in this study. The response of rice to different levels of salt stress was quantified over time based on total shoot area and senescent shoot area, calculated from visible red-green-blue (RGB) and fluorescence images. The response of rice to salt stress (50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl) could be clearly distinguished from the control as indicated by the reduced increase of shoot area. The salt concentrations used had only a small effect on the growth of rice during the initial phase of stress, the shoot Na+ accumulation independent phase termed the ‘osmotic stress’ phase. However, after 20 d of treatment, the shoot area of salt stressed plants was reduced compared with non-stressed plants. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the concentration of Na+ in the shoot. Variation in the senescent area of the cultivars IR64 and Fatmawati in response to a high concentration of Na+ in the shoot indicates variation in tissue tolerance mechanisms between the cultivars. Conclusions Image analysis has the potential to be used for high-throughput screening procedures in the development of salt-tolerant rice. The ability of image analysis to discriminate between the different aspects of salt stress (shoot ion

  6. Selection of rice mutants Oryza Sativa L. with tolerance to saline grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Aguero, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    A selection of rice mutants with tolerance to salinity, took place in the Escuela de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Heredia, in conditions of hothouse starting from a population of M2 segregative seed, coming from commercial seed radiated with Co 60 gamma rays. The studied segregatives were: Setesa-9, Experimental II and Experimental I. For making this selection, the seed M2 was planted in plastic trays with saline soil with electrical conductivity values from 8 to 10 mmhos/cm. In each case, non-radiated original seed was used as control. After 22 days the seedling germinated, an evaluation was made and it was seen that any of the controls had resisted to the saline stress, and only those segregatives resistent to salinity survived. These were the next ones: 9 individuals of Setesa, 10 of the Experimental II, and 9 of Experimental I. The index of selection obtained was: 3.6, 4.0 y 3.6 respectively. In a second phase of the experiment, the seedling selected as salinity resistant, were taken to the ground were they were developed for getting the M3 mutant seed tolerant to salinity. The plants were individually harvested in the ground and each one had a specific identification. Then, weight and number data, fertile grain and ineffectives of the M3 seed were taken. After, for corroborating the capacity of tolerance to salinity, M3 seed was planted in flowerpots with saline soil with a value of electrical conductivity between 8 and 10 mmhos/cm. After data were analyzed, it was proved that some rice mutants had a profit of even 28 grams for 1000 grams as: ExpI-17, ExpI-15, ExpI-08, ExpII-22, ExpII-08, ExpII-30 and Se-9-14, Se-9-39 and Se-9-10. Therefore, the methodology utilized showed being effective and efficient for the objectives of the work [es

  7. Unwinding after high salinity stress: Pea DNA helicase 45 over- expression in tobacco confers high salinity tolerance without affecting yield (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuteja, N.

    2005-01-01

    Soil salinity is an increasing threat for agriculture and is a major factor in reducing plant productivity; therefore, it is necessary to obtain salinity-tolerant varieties. A typical characteristic of soil salinity is the induction of multiple stress- inducible genes. Some of the genes encoding osmolytes, ion channels or enzymes are able to confer salinity-tolerant phenotypes when transferred to sensitive plants. As salinity stress affects the cellular gene-expression machinery, it is evident that molecules involved in nucleic acid processing including helicases, are likely to be affected as well. DNA helicases unwind duplex DNA and are involved in replication, repair, recombination and transcription while RNA helicases unfold the secondary structures in RNA and are involved in transcription, ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation. We have earlier reported the isolation of a pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH45) that exhibits striking homology with eIF-4A (Plant J. 24:219-230,2000). Here we report that PDH45 mRNA is induced in pea seedlings in response to high salt and its over- expression driven by a constitutive CAMV-355-promoter in tobacco plants confers salinity tolerance, thus suggesting a new pathway for manipulating stress tolerance in crop plants. The T0 transgenic plants showed high-levels of PDH45 protein in normal and stress conditions, as compared to wild type (WT) plants. The T0 transgenics also showed tolerance to high salinity as tested by a leaf disc senescence assay. The T1 transgenics were able to grow to maturity and set normal viable seeds under continuous salinity stress, without any reduction in plant yield, in terms of seed weight. Measurement of Na/sup +/ ions in different parts of the plant showed higher accumulation in the old leaves and negligible in seeds of T1 transgenic lines as compared with the WT plants. The possible mechanism of salinity tolerance will be discussed. Over-expression of PDH45 provides a possible example of the

  8. Humic Acid Confers HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1-Mediated Salinity Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleda, Laila; Park, Hee Jin; Yun, Dae-Jin; Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Min Gab; Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2017-12-31

    Excessive salt disrupts intracellular ion homeostasis and inhibits plant growth, which poses a serious threat to global food security. Plants have adapted various strategies to survive in unfavorable saline soil conditions. Here, we show that humic acid (HA) is a good soil amendment that can be used to help overcome salinity stress because it markedly reduces the adverse effects of salinity on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. To identify the molecular mechanisms of HA-induced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, we examined possible roles of a sodium influx transporter HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1 (HKT1). Salt-induced root growth inhibition in HKT1 overexpressor transgenic plants (HKT1-OX) was rescued by application of HA, but not in wild-type and other plants. Moreover, salt-induced degradation of HKT1 protein was blocked by HA treatment. In addition, the application of HA to HKT1-OX seedlings led to increased distribution of Na+ in roots up to the elongation zone and caused the reabsorption of Na+ by xylem and parenchyma cells. Both the influx of the secondary messenger calcium and its cytosolic release appear to function in the destabilization of HKT1 protein under salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that HA could be applied to the field to enhance plant growth and salt stress tolerance via post-transcriptional control of the HKT1 transporter gene under saline conditions.

  9. Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K to sodium (Na ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination.

  10. Evaluation of Indigenous Potato Challisha (Solanum tuberosum L. Cv. Challisha Somaclonals Tolerance to Salinity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanaullah Biswas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important food crops in the world. It is generally sensitive to salinity and likes to grow in neutral soil. On the other hand, salinity is increasing alarmingly in the ever changing climatic conditions. Thus, the selection of salt tolerant potato cultivars is necessary to keep pace the production of potato. To select salt tolerant cultivars, here we attempt to compare the salinity level between indigenous and modern cultivars. In vitro selection of local and modern potato cultivars were investigated with five levels of NaCl (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM. The indigenous potato Challisha and modern cultivars Diamant and Felsina were used as plant materials. Significant differences were noticed among the cultivars in response to different levels of NaCl. Plant growth and root development were gradually reduced with increased concentration of NaCl. All three cultivars were survived well with exhibiting different growth status up to 60 mM NaCl, but they performed poorly at 120 mM of NaCl. Cultivar Challisha performed better regarding shoot length, root length, the number of nodes per plantlet and the fresh weight per plant up to 90 mM of NaCl. Thus, we can conclude that local indigenous variety Challisha is salt tolerant comparing with the modern cultivated varieties.

  11. Ectopic expression of phloem motor protein pea forisome PsSEO-F1 enhances salinity stress tolerance in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Raikwar, Shailendra; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-05-01

    PsSEOF-1 binds to calcium and its expression is upregulated by salinity treatment. PsSEOF - 1 -overexpressing transgenic tobacco showed enhanced salinity stress tolerance by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating ROS-scavenging pathway. Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays important role in growth, development and stress tolerance in plants. Cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is achieved by the collective action of channels, pumps, antiporters and by Ca(2+) chelators present in the cell like calcium-binding proteins. Forisomes are ATP-independent mechanically active motor proteins known to function in wound sealing of injured sieve elements of phloem tissue. The Ca(2+)-binding activity of forisome and its role in abiotic stress signaling were largely unknown. Here we report the Ca(2+)-binding activity of pea forisome (PsSEO-F1) and its novel function in promoting salinity tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Native PsSEO-F1 promoter positively responded in salinity stress as confirmed using GUS reporter. Overexpression of PsSEO-F1 tobacco plants confers salinity tolerance by alleviating ionic toxicity and increased ROS scavenging activity which probably results in reduced membrane damage and improved yield under salinity stress. Evaluation of several physiological indices shows an increase in relative water content, electrolyte leakage, proline accumulation and chlorophyll content in transgenic lines as compared with null-segregant control. Expression of several genes involved in cellular homeostasis is perturbed by PsSEO-F1 overexpression. These findings suggest that PsSEO-F1 provides salinity tolerance through cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis which in turn modulates ROS machinery providing indirect link between Ca(2+) and ROS signaling under salinity-induced perturbation. PsSEO-F1 most likely functions in salinity stress tolerance by improving antioxidant machinery and mitigating ion toxicity in transgenic lines. This finding should make an important contribution in our better

  12. High salinity tolerance of the Red Sea coral Fungia granulosa under desalination concentrate discharge conditions: an in situ photophysiology experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2014-11-10

    Seawater reverse osmosis desalination concentrate may have chronic and/or acute impacts on the marine ecosystems in the near-field area of the discharge. Environmental impact of the desalination plant discharge is supposedly site- and volumetric- specific, and also depends on the salinity tolerance of the organisms inhabiting the water column in and around a discharge environment. Scientific studies that aim to understand possible impacts of elevated salinity levels are important to assess detrimental effects to organisms, especially for species with no mechanism of osmoregulation, e.g., presumably corals. Previous studies on corals indicate sensitivity toward hypo- and hyper-saline environments with small changes in salinity already affecting coral physiology. In order to evaluate sensitivity of Red Sea corals to increased salinity levels, we conducted a long-term (29 days) in situ salinity tolerance transect study at an offshore seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) discharge on the coral Fungia granulosa. While we measured a pronounced increase in salinity and temperature at the direct outlet of the discharge structure, effects were indistinguishable from the surrounding environment at a distance of 5 m. Interestingly, corals were not affected by varying salinity levels as indicated by measurements of the photosynthetic efficiency. Similarly, cultured coral symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium displayed remarkable tolerance levels in regard to hypo- and hypersaline treatments. Our data suggest that increased salinity and temperature levels from discharge outlets wear off quickly in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, F. granulosa seem to tolerate levels of salinity that are distinctively higher than reported for other corals previously. It remains to be determined whether Red Sea corals in general display increased salinity tolerance, and whether this is related to prevailing levels of high(er) salinity in the Red Sea in comparison to other oceans.

  13. Broad plasticity in the salinity tolerance of a marine copepod species, Acartia longiremis, in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Christensen, Anette Maria

    2018-01-01

    , but decreased significantly at a lower salinity. Survival experiments showed a broad physiological plasticity with no increase in mortality upon immediate exposure to salinities of 16–7. Acclimation of females to low salinity extended the survival range to a salinity of 5. While the response in vital rates...... was characteristic of a tolerant, brackish water species, unusually high respiration rates at a salinity of 7–16 indicated that the species experienced osmotic stress, and that the mechanism maintaining physiological integrity was energetically expensive. Divergent responses of an increase in respiration rate...

  14. Over-expression of a NAC 67 transcription factor from finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) confers tolerance against salinity and drought stress in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hifzur; Ramanathan, Valarmathi; Nallathambi, Jagedeeshselvam; Duraialagaraja, Sudhakar; Muthurajan, Raveendran

    2016-05-11

    NAC proteins (NAM (No apical meristem), ATAF (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor) and CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)) are plant-specific transcription factors reported to be involved in regulating growth, development and stress responses. Salinity responsive transcriptome profiling in a set of contrasting finger millet genotypes through RNA-sequencing resulted in the identification of a NAC homolog (EcNAC 67) exhibiting differential salinity responsive expression pattern. Full length cDNA of EcNAC67 was isolated, characterized and validated for its role in abiotic stress tolerance through agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation in a rice cultivar ASD16. Bioinformatics analysis of putative NAC transcription factor (TF) isolated from a salinity tolerant finger millet showed its genetic relatedness to NAC67 family TFs in related cereals. Putative transgenic lines of rice over-expressing EcNAC67 were generated through Agrobacterium mediated transformation and presence/integration of transgene was confirmed through PCR and southern hybridization analysis. Transgenic rice plants harboring EcNAC67 showed enhanced tolerance against drought and salinity under greenhouse conditions. Transgenic rice plants were found to possess higher root and shoot biomass during stress and showed better revival ability upon relief from salinity stress. Upon drought stress, transgenic lines were found to maintain higher relative water content and lesser reduction in grain yield when compared to non-transgenic ASD16 plants. Drought induced spikelet sterility was found to be much lower in the transgenic lines than the non-transgenic ASD16. Results revealed the significant role of EcNAC67 in modulating responses against dehydration stress in rice. No detectable abnormalities in the phenotypic traits were observed in the transgenic plants under normal growth conditions. Results indicate that EcNAC67 can be used as a novel source for engineering tolerance against drought and salinity

  15. Evaluation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Somaclonals Tolerance to Salinity Via In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMID RAJABI MEMARI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture technique was used to obtain salt tolerant variants from embryogenic calluses of sugarcane (Saccharum sp. var. CP48-103 that cultured on a selective medium containing different levels of NaCl (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8% NaCl. A total of four plants regenerated from the tolerant calluses were selected but the best of them in vigor grown in in vitro and hydroponic systems under salinity stress to comparison with source variety. With increasing supply of NaCl in both systems, root growth was more adversely affected than was shoot growth. Chlorophyll contents showed a decreasing trend and dry matter yield of plants reduced but in a slow rate in tolerant somaclonal than source variety. The biochemical analysis showed that at high salt concentration, Cl- and Na+ content in shoot and root increased. With rising salt concentration from 0 to 0.8%, content of Cl- in shoot and root of tolerant variant changed lower than parent showed that this variant had genetic lowest ratio of shoot/root chloride and had minimum transport of Cl- to shoots. Also this variant had high content of Ca2+ in shoot and high K+/Na+ ratio at all salinity levels. Thus it probably has genetic potential to avoid harmful ions uptake.

  16. Simultaneous Expression of PDH45 with EPSPS Gene Improves Salinity and Herbicide Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Bharti; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Biswas, Dipul K; Sahoo, Ranjan K; Kunchge, Nandkumar S; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the problem of salinity- and weed-induced crop losses, a multi-stress tolerant trait is need of the hour but a combinatorial view of such traits is not yet explored. The overexpression of PDH45 (pea DNA helicase 45) and EPSPS (5-enoylpruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase) genes have been reported to impart salinity and herbicide tolerance. Further, the understanding of mechanism and pathways utilized by PDH45 and EPSPS for salinity and herbicide tolerance will help to improve the crops of economical importance. In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of salinity and herbicide tolerance to check the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of tobacco transgenic plants. Collectively, the results showed that PDH45 overexpressing transgenic lines display efficient tolerance to salinity stress, while PDH45+EPSPS transgenics showed tolerance to both the salinity and herbicide as compared to the control [wild type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants. The activities of the components of enzymatic antioxidant machinery were observed to be higher in the transgenic plants indicating the presence of an efficient antioxidant defense system which helps to cope with the stress-induced oxidative-damages. Photosynthetic parameters also showed significant increase in PDH45 and PDH45+EPSPS overexpressing transgenic plants in comparison to WT, VC and EPSPS transgenic plants under salinity stress. Furthermore, PDH45 and PDH45+EPSPS synergistically modulate the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid mediated signaling pathways for combating salinity stress. The findings of our study suggest that pyramiding of the PDH45 gene with EPSPS gene renders host plants tolerant to salinity and herbicide by enhancing the antioxidant machinery thus photosynthesis.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  18. Cloning of genes and developing transgenic crops with enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, K.C.; Chinnusamy, V.; Tayal, D.; Das, A.; Goel, D.; Yadav, V.; Singh, A.K.; Lakhshmi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Abiotic stresses represent the most limiting factors affecting agricultural productivity. In India more than 60% of total cultivated land is still rainfed and crops experience frequent droughts. Thus, we need to develop transgenic crops tolerant to drought, and other related abiotic stress factors such as salinity, low and high temperature stresses. At the National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR), we have initiated a programme on developing transgenic crops tolerant to a range of abiotic stresses. The major emphasis is on developing transgenic potato, tomato, mustard, rice and wheat. While, transgenic plants of potato. tomato and mustard have already been generated with osmotin gene and are at different stages of testing, other key genes imparting tolerance to abiotic stresses are being isolated from different species for producing transgenic rice and wheat cultivars tolerant to multiple stresses. Genes that have been isolated in our laboratory include ascorbate peroxidase gene (TaApx) and genes encoding transcription factor, CBFs (TaCBF2 and TaCBP3) from a drought tolerant wheat cultivar (C306), Lea1 cDNA from Brassica species, codA from Arthrobacter globiformis, and otsBA operon from E. coli. Apart from these stress-related genes, we have isolated a few stress-inducible promoters for deploying them in gene stacking in developing transgenic crops with enhanced tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. The results will be presented. (author)

  19. Effect of Saline Pushing after Contrast Material Injection in Abdominal Multidetector Computed Tomography with the Use of Different Iodine Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsugami, F.; Matsuki, M.; Kani, H.; Tanikake, M.; Miyao, M.; Yoshikawa, S.; Narabayashi, I.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether saline pushing after contrast material improves hepatic vascular and parenchymal enhancement, and to determine whether this technique permits decreased contrast material concentration. Material and Methods: 120 patients who underwent hepatic multidetector computed tomography were divided randomly into four groups (Groups A-D): receiving 100 ml of contrast material (300 mgI/ml) only (A) or with 50 ml of saline solution (B); or 100 ml of contrast material (350 mgI/ml) only (C) or with 50 ml of saline solution (D). Computed tomography (CT) values of the aorta in the arterial phase, the portal vein in the portal venous inflow phase, and the liver in the hepatic phase were measured. Visualization of the hepatic artery and the portal vein by 3D CT angiography was evaluated as well. Results: Although the enhancement values of the aorta were not improved significantly with saline pushing, they continued at a high level to the latter slices with saline pushing. The enhancement value of the portal vein increased significantly and CT portography was improved with saline pushing. The enhancement value of the liver was not improved significantly using saline pushing. In a comparison between groups B and C, the enhancement values of the aorta and portal vein and the visualization of CT arteriography and portography were not statistically different. Conclusion: The saline pushing technique can contribute to a decrease in contrast material concentration for 3D CT arteriography and portography

  20. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance of the Nemertean Worm Carcinonemertes errans, an Egg Predator of the Dungeness Crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Paul H; Young, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries can be harsh habitats for the marine animals that enter them, but they may also provide these species with sub-saline refuges from their parasites. The nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans is known to occur less frequently and in smaller numbers on its host, the Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister, when the hosts are found within estuaries. We examined the temperature and salinity tolerances of C. errans to determine if this observed distribution represents a true salinity refuge. We monitored the survival of juvenile and larval worms exposed to ecologically relevant salinities (5-30) and temperatures (8-20 °C) over the course of several days under laboratory conditions. Juvenile worms were unaffected by the experimental temperature levels and exhibited robustness to salinity treatments 25 and 30. However, significant mortality was seen at salinity treatments 20 and below. Larvae were less tolerant than juveniles to lowered salinity and were also somewhat more susceptible to the higher temperatures tested. Given that the Dungeness crab can tolerate forays into mesohaline (salinity 5-18) waters for several days at a time, our findings suggest that salinity gradients play an important role in creating a parasite refuge for this species within the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  1. Role of abscisic acid and proline in salinity tolerance of wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, M.; Bakht, J.; Khan, M.J.; Raziuddin; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Wheat genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance under 3 diverse environments of Yar Hussain, Baboo Dehari (District Swabi KPK Pakistan) and Khitab Koroona (District Charsadda KPK Pakistan). Eleven genotypes (Local, SR-24, SR-25, SR-7, SR-22, SR-4, SR-20, SR-19, SR-2, SR-23 and SR-40) were tested for their salinity tolerance. These locations had different salinity profile (i.e. Yar Hussain, EC. 3-3.5 dS m/sup -1/; Baboo Dehari, EC. 4-4.5 dS m/sup -1/ and Khitab Koroona, EC. 5-5.30 dSm/sup -1/). Different locations and wheat genotypes had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on endogenous shoot proline, shoot ABA (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) and straw yield. Maximum endogenous shoot proline and ABA levels (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded in genotype SR-40 followed by genotype SR-23. The results further indicated that minimum endogenous shoot proline and ABA concentrations (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded at Yar Hussain. Maximum endogenous shoot proline and ABA concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were observed at Khitab Koroona. (author)

  2. Hydrogen sulfide: a new endogenous player in an old mechanism of plant tolerance to high salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane J. da-Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High salinity affects plants due to stimulation of osmotic stress. Cell signaling triggered by nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S activates a cascade of biochemical events that culminate in plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. For instance, the NO/H2S-stimulated biochemical events that occur in plants during response to high salinity include the control of reactive oxygen species, activation of antioxidant system, accumulation of osmoprotectants in cytosol, induction of K+ uptake and Na+ cell extrusion or its vacuolar compartmentation among others. This review is a compilation of what we have learned in the last 10 years about NO participation during cell signaling in response to high salinity as well as the role of H2S, a new player in the mechanism of plant tolerance to salt stress. The main sources of NO and H2S in plant cells is also discussed together with the evidence of interplay between both signaling molecules during response to stress.

  3. Comparative 2D-DIGE analysis of salinity responsive microsomal proteins from leaves of salt-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana and salt-tolerant Thellungiella salsuginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Pantoja, Omar

    2014-12-05

    Halophytes have evolved unique molecular strategies to overcome high soil salinity but we still know very little about the main mechanisms that these plants use to complete their lifecycle under salinity stress. One useful approach to further our understanding in this area is to directly compare the response to salinity of two closely related species which show diverse levels of salt tolerance. Here we present a comparative proteomic study using DIGE of leaf microsomal proteins to identify salt-responsive membrane associated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (a glycophyte) and Thellungiella salsuginea (a halophyte). While a small number of distinct protein abundance changes were observed upon salt stress in both species, the most notable differences were observed between species and specifically, in untreated plants with a total of 36 proteins displaying significant abundance changes. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis showed that the majority of these proteins were distributed into two functional categories; transport (31%) and carbohydrate metabolism (17%). Results identify several novel salt responsive proteins in this system and support the theory that T. salsuginea shows a high degree of salt-tolerance because molecular mechanisms are primed to deal with the stress. This intrinsic ability to anticipate salinity stress distinguishes it from the glycophyte A. thaliana. There is significant interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms that plants use to tolerate salinity as soil salinization is becoming an increasing concern for agriculture with high soil Na(+) levels leading to reduced yields and economic loss. Much of our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms employed by plants to combat salinity stress has come from work on salt-sensitive plants, but studies on naturally occurring highly salt-resistant plants, halophytes, and direct comparisons between closely related glycophytes and halophytes, could help to further our understanding of salinity

  4. Reproducibility of saline contrast sonohysterography for the detection of intracavitary abnormalities in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemsterboer, S. N.; Thurkow, A. L.; Verstraeten, R.; Brölmann, H. A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) is a diagnostic test for the examination of intracavitary abnormalities. The objective of this study was to calculate interobserver and intraobserver agreement for the interpretation of video recordings of SCSH procedures according to different levels of

  5. Critical osmotic, ionic and physiological indicators of salinity tolerance in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) for cultivar selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munis, M.F.H.; Tu, L.; Ziaf, K; Tan, J.; Deng, F.; Zhang, X.

    2010-01-01

    Salinity affects the germination, growth and ultimately the yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) which demands reliable traits for the evaluation and selection of salt tolerant cultivars. Here, ten major osmotic, ionic and physiological parameters have been studied to distinguish the effect of salinity in two different cultivars of cotton. Plants were grown in hydroponic system and exposed to different salinity levels of NaCl followed by its recovery under non saline conditions. Data was recorded at three different stages i.e., before stress, after stress and after recovery for comparative study. Recovery assay proved to be very helpful in extracting reliable results. Both cultivars showed significantly different response to Na+ and K+ accumulation and phenotypically salt tolerant cultivar (Coker 312) accumulated less Na+ and more K+ in comparison with susceptible (Simian 3). Decrease in leaf area, seed germination and seedling growth were also conclusive to differentiate these cultivars. We also found other physiological parameters like relative leaf water content (RLWC), plant fresh-weight (PFW), plant dry-weight (PDW), relative growth rate (RGR) and stomatal behavior as good indicators of salinity but could not find their significant role to differentiate two closely relevant cultivars regarding salinity tolerance. Our studies revealed that proline accumulation and chlorophyll concentration are not significant to be used as accurate indicators to characterize the sensitivity of cotton cultivars to salinity. We found post-recovery analysis to be very useful in understanding the role and behavior of different indicators of salinity. (author)

  6. Effect of x-ray low doses on tolerance to salinity in Latuca Sativa plantules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, R.; Gonzalez Nunez, L.M.; Perez Talavera, S.

    1998-01-01

    The work presents the effect of different radiation doses (ranging from 50 to 200 Gy) applied on irradiated lettuce seeds in a ray source for surface therapy, with a working regime of 30 k and 10 m and a dose rate of 12,9 Gy/mins on the germination and growth of plantules in the presence or absence of salinity. The results indicated meaningful differences in the magnitude of the stimulation effect and the doses that caused it for normal conditions, as well as substantial increments in plantules tolerance from irradiated seeds

  7. Inter-population differences in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation of juvenile wild and hatchery-born Sacramento splittail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhille, Christine E.; Dabruzzi, Theresa F.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mahardja, Brian; Feyrer, Frederick V.; Foin, Theodore C.; Baerwald, Melinda R.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2016-01-01

    The Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus) is a minnow endemic to the highly modified San Francisco Estuary of California, USA and its associated rivers and tributaries. This species is composed of two genetically distinct populations, which, according to field observations and otolith strontium signatures, show largely allopatric distribution patterns as recently hatched juveniles. Juvenile Central Valley splittail are found primarily in the nearly fresh waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and their tributaries, whereas San Pablo juveniles are found in the typically higher-salinity waters (i.e. up to 10‰) of the Napa and Petaluma Rivers. As the large salinity differences between young-of-year habitats may indicate population-specific differences in salinity tolerance, we hypothesized that juvenile San Pablo and Central Valley splittail populations differ in their response to salinity. In hatchery-born and wild-caught juvenile San Pablo splittail, we found upper salinity tolerances, where mortalities occurred within 336 h of exposure to 16‰ or higher, which was higher than the upper salinity tolerance of 14‰ for wild-caught juvenile Central Valley splittail. This, in conjunction with slower recovery of plasma osmolality, but not ion levels, muscle moisture or gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, in Central Valley relative to San Pablo splittail during osmoregulatory disturbance provides some support for our hypothesis of inter-population variation in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. The modestly improved salinity tolerance of San Pablo splittail is consistent with its use of higher-salinity habitats. Although confirmation of the putative adaptive difference through further studies is recommended, this may highlight the need for population-specific management considerations.

  8. Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

    2009-07-01

    Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium with high salinity tolerance: Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunli; Qu, Baocheng; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Lu, Hong

    2009-06-15

    Strain Z3 was isolated from nitrobenzene-contaminated sludge. Strain Z3 was able to utilize nitrobenzene as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy under aerobic condition. Based on the morphology, physiological biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence, strain Z3 was identified as Micrococcus luteus. Strain Z3 completely degraded nitrobenzene with initial concentration of 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg L(-1) within 70, 96, 120 and 196 h, respectively. Kinetics of nitrobenzene degradation was described using the Andrews equation. The kinetic parameters were as follows: q(max)=1.19 h(-1), K(s)=29.11 mg L(-1), and K(i)=94.00 mg L(-1). Strain Z3 had a high salinity tolerance. It degraded 200 mg L(-1) nitrobenzene completely in 5% NaCl (w/w%). Strain Z3 therefore could be an excellent candidate for the bio-treatment of nitrobenzene industrial wastewaters with high salinity. This is the first report on the degradation of nitrobenzene by M. luteus and the degradation of nitrobenzene achieved in such a high salinity.

  10. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  11. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  12. Evidence for nuclear interaction of a cytoskeleton protein (OsIFL) with metallothionein and its role in salinity stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Neelam; Sharan, Ashutosh; Gupta, Brijesh K.; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Pareek, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is being perceived as a major threat to agriculture. Plant breeders and molecular biologist are putting their best efforts to raise salt-tolerant crops. The discovery of the Saltol QTL, a major QTL localized on chromosome I, responsible for salt tolerance at seedling stage in rice has given new hopes for raising salinity tolerant rice genotypes. In the present study, we have functionally characterized a Saltol QTL localized cytoskeletal protein, intermediate filament like protein (OsIFL), of rice. Studies related to intermediate filaments are emerging in plants, especially with respect to their involvement in abiotic stress response. Our investigations clearly establish that the heterologous expression of OsIFL in three diverse organisms (bacteria, yeast and tobacco) provides survival advantage towards diverse abiotic stresses. Screening of rice cDNA library revealed OsIFL to be strongly interacting with metallothionein protein. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay further confirmed this interaction to be occurring inside the nucleus. Overexpression of OsIFL in transgenic tobacco plants conferred salinity stress tolerance by maintaining favourable K+/Na+ ratio and thus showed protection from salinity stress induced ion toxicity. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of a cytoskeletal protein in salinity stress tolerance in diverse organisms. PMID:27708383

  13. Ontogeny of salinity tolerance and evidence for seawater-entry preparation in juvenile green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; McEnroe, Maryann; Forostyan, Tetyana; Cole, Stephanie; Nicholl, Mary M; Hodge, Brian; Cech, Joseph J

    2011-12-01

    We measured the ontogeny of salinity tolerance and the preparatory hypo-osmoregulatory physiological changes for seawater entry in green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species occurring along the Pacific Coast of North America. Salinity tolerance was measured every 2 weeks starting in 40-day post-hatch (dph) juveniles and was repeated until 100% survival at 34‰ was achieved. Fish were subjected to step increases in salinity (5‰ 12 h(-1)) that culminated in a 72-h exposure to a target salinity, and treatment groups (0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 34‰; and abrupt exposure to 34‰) were adjusted as fish developed. After 100% survival was achieved (134 dph), a second experiment tested two sizes of fish for 28-day seawater (33‰) tolerance, and gill and gastrointestinal tract tissues were sampled. Their salinity tolerance increased and plasma osmolality decreased with increasing size and age, and electron microscopy revealed three types of mitochondria-rich cells: one in fresh water and two in seawater. In addition, fish held on a natural photoperiod in fresh water at 19°C showed peaks in cortisol, thyroid hormones and gill and pyloric ceca Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities at body sizes associated with seawater tolerance. Therefore, salinity tolerance in green sturgeon increases during ontogeny (e.g., as these juveniles may move down estuaries to the ocean) with increases in body size. Also, physiological and morphological changes associated with seawater readiness increased in freshwater-reared juveniles and peaked at their seawater-tolerant ages and body sizes. Their seawater-ready body size also matched that described for swimming performance decreases, presumably associated with downstream movements. Therefore, juvenile green sturgeon develop structures and physiological changes appropriate for seawater entry while growing in fresh water, indicating that hypo-osmoregulatory changes may proceed by multiple routes in sturgeons.

  14. Effect of different saline chaser volumes and flow rates on intravascular contrast enhancement in CT using a circulation phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, Florian F.; Bruners, Philipp; Keil, Sebastian; Plumhans, Cedric; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Das, Marco; Ackermann, Diana; Guenther, Rolf W.; Muehlenbruch, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of different saline chaser volumes and different saline chaser flow rates on the intravascular contrast enhancement in MDCT. Materials and methods: In a physiological flow phantom contrast medium (120 ml, 300 mgI/ml, Ultravist 300) was administered at a flow rate of 6 ml/s followed by different saline chaser volumes (0, 30, 60 and 90 ml) at the same injection rate or followed by a 30-ml saline chaser at different injection rates (2, 4, 6 and 8 ml/s). Serial CT-scans at a level covering the pulmonary artery, the ascending and the descending aorta replica were obtained. Time-enhancement curves were computed and both pulmonary and aortic peak enhancement and peak time were determined. Results: Compared to contrast medium injection without a saline chaser the pushing with a saline chaser (30, 60, and 90 ml) resulted in a statistically significant increased pulmonary peak enhancement (all p = 0.008) and prolonged peak time (p = 0.032, p = 0.024 and p = 0.008, respectively). Highest aortic peak enhancement values were detected for a saline chaser volume of 30 ml. A saline chaser flow rate of 8 ml/s resulted in the highest pulmonary peak enhancement values compared to flow rates of 2, 4 and 6 ml/s (all p = 0.008). Aortic peak enhancement showed the highest values for a flow rate of 6 ml/s. Conclusion: A saline chaser volume of 30 ml and an injection rate of 6 ml/s are sufficient to best improve vascular contrast enhancement in the pulmonary artery and the aorta in MDCT.

  15. Is salinity tolerance related to osmolytes accumulation in Lygeum spartum L. seedlings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzid Nedjimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae is a plant of commercial relevance used as raw material for manufacturing paper. This species is a newly found salt tolerant species, but its physiological responses to salinity are poorly understood. The effect of salt stress (50 and 100 mM NaCl on growth, leaf water relations, soluble sugars and free amino acids in L. spartum has been investigated. Fresh and dry weights were reduced significantly above 50 mM NaCl. Transpiration, water potential (Ψω and osmotic potential (Ψπ decreased with elevated NaCl. No change was observed in the turgor potential (Ψτ. Subsequently, the composition of free amino acids estimated by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC indicated a significant increase in free amino acid content. It appears that valine was the main amino acid accumulated significantly by the plants for both NaCl treatments. However, tyrosine levels decrease by salt treatment compared to control. Contents of Na+ and Cl− increased with an increase in salinity. The concentration of Na+ of salinized plants (100 mM NaCl was ∼70-fold greater than that measured in control plants, and this was associated with significant reductions in leaf K+ and Ca2+ concentrations. In addition, a significant accumulation of soluble sugars, probably associated with osmotic adjustment and protection of membrane stability, occurred in roots of salinized plants. Based upon these results, a possible physiological role of soluble sugars and free amino acids was suggested in L. spartum to maintain turgor.

  16. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Hariadi, Yuda; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    old seedlings. Six weeks after the treatment commenced, leaf sap Na and K content and osmolality, stomatal density, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and xylem sap Na and K composition were measured. Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties. All cultivars had substantially...... increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap, but the most tolerant cultivars had lower xylem Na+ content at the time of sampling. Most tolerant cultivars had lowest leaf sap osmolality. All varieties reduced stomata density when grown under saline conditions. All varieties clustered into two groups...... to the xylem, and reduced stomata density are important physiological traits contributing to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa, a halophyte species from Chenopodium family....

  17. Radiation induced variation in potato for tolerance to salinity using tissue culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Meristem-tips of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. 'Diamant', obtained from tuber sprouts, were cultured on MS medium, and multiplied into plantlets through micropropagation. To induce variation for salt tolerance, the obtained plantlets were irradiated with 0, 20, and 40 Gy gamma rays at 27.7 rad/sec. Irradiated plantlets were cut into single nodes and cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 2000 and 4000 ppm NaCI. Salt tolerant plantlets were transferred for tuberization on MS liquid medium supplemented with the same concentration of NaCI. Micro-tubers, collected after 6 weeks of culture, had fresh weight between 0.03 to 0.3 g. Mini-tubers were obtained by planting micro-tubers in 25 cm pots under insect proof greenhouse. Mini-tuber number per plant ranged from 3 to 6, and the mini-tuber weight ranged from 0.5-3.0 g, depending upon the treatment. Further studies are in progress to produce conventional tubers under salinity stress from the promising variants, specially those tolerant to 4000 ppm, and to assure the stability of the obtained variants. (author)

  18. Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannika Chookietwattana* and Kedsukon Maneewan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For successful application of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB in salt-affected soil, bioinoculant with salt-tolerant property is required in order to provide better survival and perform well in the field. The present study aimed to select the most efficient salt-tolerant bacterium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase from eighty four bacterial strains and to investigate the effects of the selected bacterium on the germination and growth of tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Seeda under saline conditions. The Bacillus licheniformis B2r was selected for its ability to utilize ACC as a sole nitrogen source under salinity stress. It also showed a high ACC deaminase activity at 0.6 M NaCl salinity. Tomato plants inoculated with the selected bacterium under various saline conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl revealed a significant increase in the germination percentage, germination index, root length, and seedling dry weight especially at salinity levels ranging from 30-90 mM NaCl. The work described in this report is an important step in developing an efficient salt-tolerant bioinoculant to facilitate plant growth in saline soil.

  19. Allylglucosinolate and herbivorous caterpillars: a contrast in toxicity and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, P A; Feeny, P; Contardo, L; Robson, D S

    1978-06-16

    Allylglucosinolate, found in many cruciferous plants, is acutely toxic to Papilio polyxenes larvae, which do not normally attack crucifers. By contrast, larval growth of Pieris rapae, a crucifer specialist, is not affected even by artificially high concentrations of allylglucosinolate. Larval growth of Spodoptera eridania, a generalist feeder, is inhibited by high but not by low concentrations of the compound.

  20. Clinical application of multislice CT enterography with hypertonic mannitol saline as oral contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guixin; Wang Haitao; Chen Wenjing; Liu Wenya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and value of multislice CT enterography (MSCTE) with large dose economy and convenience orally administered hypertonic mannitol salt water (2.5% mannitol and 1.5% NaCl salt water) as negative contrast in demonstrating normal and abnormal small bowel. Methods: 81 patients suffered from digestive disease and suspected of various kinds of small intestinal diseases were examined (male/female=47/34, 26-81 years old, average 57.8 years). About 1500 ml∼3000 ml hypertonic mannitol saline was oral administered within 90 minutes and 20 mg of raceanisodamine hydrochloride injection was injected intramuscularly. CT scanning was performed 20 minutes later. Imaging data were post processed with coronal, sagittal and oblique reconstruction, multiplanar reformation (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and volumer rendering technique (VRT). The filling degree of stomach, intestine and colon was classified as satisfactory, better and unsatisfactory. The length and superposition of small intestine was classified as dense-type, uniformity-type and straggling-type. The maximum outer diameters of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured respectively in different segments. The degree of bowel wall enhancement in arterial phase and venous phase was classified as obvious enhancement (>90 HU), medium enhancement (60-90 HU) and mild enhancement (<60 HU). CT features of various kinds of small bowel diseases were analyzed. Results: The hypertonic mannitol saline was acceptable by patients, except 5 patients with diarrhea. The filling degree of stomach, intestine and and colon was classified as satisfactory in 46 cases, better in 23 cases and unsatisfactory in 12 cases. The maximum outer diameters of small bowel in different segments were 24 mm ± 4.5 mm at duodenum, 24 mm ±3.9 mm at jejunum and 23 mm ±3.3 mm at ileum respectively. The length and superposition of small intestine were classified as dense-type in 7 cases, uniformity-type in 58

  1. The extent of variation in salinity tolerance of the minicore collection of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Upadhyaya, Hari Deo; Purushothaman, Ramamoorthy; Gowda, Cholenahalli Lakkegowda Laxmipathi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Dwivedi, Sangam Lal; Singh, Sube; Vadez, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) ranks third in production among the dry land cereals. It is widely cultivated in Africa and South Asia where soil salinization is a major production constraint. It is a potential crop for salt affected soils. To identify salt tolerant germplasm, the minicore finger millet germplasm (n=80) was screened for grain yield performance in a soil saturated with NaCl solution of 100 or 125mM. Genotype effect was significant for most traits, while salinity×genotype interaction was significant only in one year. Salinity delayed phenology, marginally reduced shoot biomass and grain yield. There was a large range of genotypic variation in grain yield under salinity and other traits. The yield loss was higher in accessions with prolific growth and yield potential was associated with saline yields. Based on saline yields, accessions were grouped in to four groups and the top tolerant group had 22 accessions with IE 4797 remaining at the top. Salinity had no adverse impact on grain yield of five accessions. Root anatomy in selected genotype of pearl and finger millet showed presence of porous cortex and well fortified endodermis in finger millet that can exclude Na(+) and enhance N absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley

    KAUST Repository

    Saade, Stephanie

    2016-09-02

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Salt-tolerant rootstock increases yield of pepper under salinity through maintenance of photosynthetic performance and sinks strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Nebauer, Sergio G; Pellegrini, Elisa; San Bautista, Alberto; Remorini, Damiano; Nali, Cristina; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Angeles

    2016-04-01

    The performance of a salt-tolerant pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) accession (A25) utilized as a rootstock was assessed in two experiments. In a first field experiment under natural salinity conditions, we observed a larger amount of marketable fruit (+75%) and lower Blossom-end Root incidence (-31%) in commercial pepper cultivar Adige (A) grafted onto A25 (A/A25) when compared with ungrafted plants. In order to understand this behavior a second greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine growth, mineral partitioning, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, antioxidant systems and proline content in A and A/A25 plants under salinity conditions (80 mM NaCl for 14 days). Salt stress induced significantly stunted growth of A plants (-40.6% of leaf dry weight) compared to the control conditions, while no alterations were observed in A/A25 at the end of the experiment. Accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in leaves and roots was similar in either grafted or ungrafted plants. Despite the activation of protective mechanisms (increment of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase activity and non-photochemical quenching), A plants showed severely reduced photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (-45.6% of AN390) and substantial buildup of malondialdehyde (MDA) by-product, suggesting the inability to counteract salt-triggered damage. In contrast, A/A25 plants, which had a constitutive enhanced root apparatus, were able to maintain the shoot and root growth under salinity conditions by supporting the maintained photosynthetic performance. No increases in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were observed in response to salinity, and MDA levels increased only slightly; indicating that alleviation of oxidative stress did not occur in A/A25 plants. In these plants the increased proline levels could protect enzymatic stability from salt-triggered damage, preserving the photosynthetic performance. The results could indicate that salt stress was vanished by

  4. The Effects of Cation Ratios on Root Lamella Suberization in Rice (Oryza sativa L. with Contrasting Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Momayezi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important produced cereal in the world. We evaluated the effect of salt compositions including NaCl and Na2SO4 on suberin lamellae as a major barrier to radial ion and water movements in two rice genotypes representing contrasting salt tolerance levels under salinity stress. Two rice genotypes, Fajr as salt tolerant and Khazar as salt sensitive, were transplanted in sand culture under glasshouse condition. Rice seedlings were treated with five salt compositions including NaCl, Na2SO4, 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 molar ratios for 40 days. It was proven that suberin lamellae in endodermis of root cell wall were thickened with Na2SO4 treatment. The results demonstrated that the number of passage cells was higher in Fajr genotype than that in Khazar genotype under saline condition. Calcium concentration in root tissue decreased as the SO42- concentration in root media increased. It can be concluded that Fajr genotype is able to keep some passage cells open to maintain Ca2+ uptake. The Ca2+/Na+ ratio in shoot tissue can be also a reliable index for the early recognition of salt stress in these rice genotypes.

  5. Hydraulic lift and tolerance to salinity of semiarid species: consequences for species interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Cristina; Padilla, Francisco M; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Jackson, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    The different abilities of plant species to use ephemeral or permanent water sources strongly affect physiological performance and species coexistence in water-limited ecosystems. In addition to withstanding drought, plants in coastal habitats often have to withstand highly saline soils, an additional ecological stress. Here we tested whether observed competitive abilities and C-water relations of two interacting shrub species from an arid coastal system were more related to differences in root architecture or salinity tolerance. We explored water sources of interacting Juniperus phoenicea Guss. and Pistacia lentiscus L. plants by conducting physiology measurements, including water relations, CO2 exchange, photochemical efficiency, sap osmolality, and water and C isotopes. We also conducted parallel soil analyses that included electrical conductivity, humidity, and water isotopes. During drought, Pistacia shrubs relied primarily on permanent salty groundwater, while isolated Juniperus plants took up the scarce and relatively fresh water stored in upper soil layers. As drought progressed further, the physiological activity of Juniperus plants nearly stopped while Pistacia plants were only slightly affected. Juniperus plants growing with Pistacia had stem-water isotopes that matched Pistacia, unlike values for isolated Juniperus plants. This result suggests that Pistacia shrubs supplied water to nearby Juniperus plants through hydraulic lift. This lifted water, however, did not appear to benefit Juniperus plants, as their physiological performance with co-occurring Pistacia plants was poor, including lower water potentials and rates of photosynthesis than isolated plants. Juniperus was more salt sensitive than Pistacia, which withstood salinity levels similar to that of groundwater. Overall, the different abilities of the two species to use salty water appear to drive the outcome of their interaction, resulting in asymmetric competition where Juniperus is negatively

  6. Proteome Analysis for Understanding Abiotic Stress (Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the proteome of date palm under salinity and drought stress conditions to possibly identify proteins involved in stress tolerance. For this purpose, three-month-old seedlings of date palm cultivar “Sagie” were subjected to drought (27.5 g/L polyethylene glycol 6000 and salinity stress conditions (16 g/L NaCl for one month. DIGE analysis of protein extracts identified 47 differentially expressed proteins in leaves of salt- and drought-treated palm seedlings. Mass spectrometric analysis identified 12 proteins; three out of them were significantly changed under both salt and drought stress, while the other nine were significantly changed only in salt-stressed plants. The levels of ATP synthase alpha and beta subunits, an unknown protein and some of RubisCO fragments were significantly changed under both salt and drought stress conditions. Changes in abundance of superoxide dismutase, chlorophyll A-B binding protein, light-harvesting complex1 protein Lhca1, RubisCO activase, phosphoglycerate kinase, chloroplast light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, phosphoribulokinase, transketolase, RubisCO, and some of RubisCO fragments were significant only for salt stress.

  7. Hyaluronic acid improves "pleasantness" and tolerability of nebulized hypertonic saline in a cohort of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonpensiero, Paolo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Sepe, Angela; Di Pasqua, Antonio; Ferri, Pasqualina; Siano, Maria; Terlizzi, Vito; Raia, Valeria

    2010-11-01

    Inhaled hypertonic saline improves lung function and decreases pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis. However, side effects such as cough, narrowing of airways and saltiness cause intolerance of the therapy in 8% of patients. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of an inhaled solution of hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline with hypertonic solution alone on safety and tolerability. A total of 20 patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6 years and over received a single treatment regimen of 7% hypertonic saline solution or hypertonic solution with 0.1% hyaluronate for 2 days nonconsecutively after a washout period in an open crossover study. Cough, throat irritation, and salty taste were evaluated by a modified ordinal score for assessing tolerability; "pleasantness" was evaluated by a five-level, Likert-type scale. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second was registered before and after the end of the saline inhalations. All 20 patients (nine males, 11 females, mean age 13 years, range 8.9-17.7) completed the study. The inhaled solution of 0.1% hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline significantly improved tolerability and pleasantness compared to hypertonic saline alone. No major adverse effects were observed. No difference was documented in pulmonary function tests between the two treatments. Hyaluronic acid combined with hypertonic saline solution may contribute to improved adherence to hypertonic saline therapy. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings. Considering the extraordinary versatility of hyaluronic acid in biological reactions, perspective studies could define its applicability to halting progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

  8. Sodium bicarbonate versus isotonic saline solution to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy : a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Chica, Carlos Andres; Bello Marquez, Diana; Serna-Higuita, Lina Maria; Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Casas-Arroyave, Fabian David; Donado-Gómez, Jorge Hernando

    2015-09-30

    Contrast-induced nephropathy is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury and increased hospital-acquired morbidity and mortality. The use of sodium bicarbonate for nephroprotection has emerged as a preventative strategy; however, its efficacy is controversial compared to other strategies, such as hydration using 0.9% saline solution. To compare the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate vs. hydration using 0.9% saline solution to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury. A systematic review of studies registered in the COCHRANE, PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO and EMBASE databases was conducted. Randomized controlled studies that evaluated the use of 0.9% saline solution vs. sodium bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy were included. A total of 22 studies (5,686 patients) were included. Sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.02 to 0.03; p= 0.83; I(2)= 0%). No significant differences were found in the demand for renal replacement therapy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.01 to 0-01; I(2)= 0%; p= 0.99) or in mortality (RD= -0.00; 95% CI= -0.001 to 0.001; I(2)= 0%; p= 0.51). Sodium bicarbonate administration is not superior to the use of 0.9% saline solution for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with risk factors, nor is it better at reducing mortality or the need for renal replacement therapy.

  9. Cell-Based Phenotyping Reveals QTL for Membrane Potential Maintenance Associated with Hypoxia and Salinity Stress Tolerance in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Gill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging and salinity are two major abiotic stresses that hamper crop production world-wide resulting in multibillion losses. Plant abiotic stress tolerance is conferred by many interrelated mechanisms. Amongst these, the cell’s ability to maintain membrane potential (MP is considered to be amongst the most crucial traits, a positive relationship between the ability of plants to maintain highly negative MP and its tolerance to both salinity and waterlogging stress. However, no attempts have been made to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring this trait. In this study, the microelectrode MIFE technique was used to measure the plasma membrane potential of epidermal root cells of 150 double haploid (DH lines of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. from a cross between a Chinese landrace TX9425 and Japanese malting cultivar Naso Nijo under hypoxic conditions. A major QTL for the MP in the epidermal root cells in hypoxia-exposed plants was identified. This QTL was located on 2H, at a similar position to the QTL for waterlogging and salinity tolerance reported in previous studies. Further analysis confirmed that MP showed a significant contribution to both waterlogging and salinity tolerance. The fact that the QTL for MP was controlled by a single major QTL illustrates the power of the single-cell phenotyping approach and opens prospects for fine mapping this QTL and thus being more effective in marker assisted selection.

  10. Salinity tolerance of cultured Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis L.: Effects on growth and on survival as a function of temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Bayley, M.; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    Eurasian perch is generally only considered to be a candidate for freshwater aquaculture even though wild populations are found in estuarine and brackish water habitats. Little knowledge exists on two issues a) the effect of temperature on the salinity tolerance of perch and b) the long-term effe...

  11. Conserved effects of salinity acclimation on thermal tolerance and hsp70 expression in divergent populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C H; Healy, Timothy M; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-10-01

    In natural environments, organisms must cope with complex combinations of abiotic stressors. Here, we use threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to examine how changes in salinity affect tolerance of high temperatures. Threespine stickleback inhabit a range of environments that vary in both salinity and thermal stability making this species an excellent system for investigating interacting stressors. We examined the effects of environmental salinity on maximum thermal tolerance (CTMax) and 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) gene expression using divergent stickleback ecotypes from marine and freshwater habitats. In both ecotypes, the CTMax of fish acclimated to 20 ppt was significantly higher compared to fish acclimated to 2 ppt. The effect of salinity acclimation on the expression of hsp70-1 and hsp70-2 was similar in both the marine and freshwater stickleback ecotype. There were differences in the expression profiles of hsp70-1 and hsp70-2 during heat shock, with hsp70-2 being induced earlier and to a higher level compared to hsp70-1. These data suggest that the two hsp70 isoforms may have functionally different roles in the heat shock response. Lastly, acute salinity challenge coupled with heat shock revealed that the osmoregulatory demands experienced during the heat shock response have a larger effect on the hsp70 expression profile than does the acclimation salinity.

  12. Mining Halophytes for Plant Growth-Promoting Halotolerant Bacteria to Enhance the Salinity Tolerance of Non-halophytic Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Etesami

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Interest is increasing in the application of PGPRs (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to ameliorate stresses such as salinity stress in crop production. The identification of salt-tolerant, or halophilic, PGPRs has the potential to promote saline soil-based agriculture. Halophytes are a useful reservoir of halotolerant bacteria with plant growth-promoting capabilities. Here, we review recent studies on the use of halophilic PGPRs to stimulate plant growth and increase the tolerance of non-halophytic crops to salinity. These studies illustrate that halophilic PGPRs from the rhizosphere of halophytic species can be effective bio-inoculants for promoting the production of non-halophytic species in saline soils. These studies support the viability of bioinoculation with halophilic PGPRs as a strategy for the sustainable enhancement of non-halophytic crop growth. The potential of this strategy is discussed within the context of ensuring sustainable food production for a world with an increasing population and continuing climate change. We also explore future research needs for using halotolerant PGPRs under salinity stress.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemanna S Ramu

    Full Text Available In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses.

  14. Population specific salinity tolerance in eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Boström, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    and that the lowsaline population is better adapted to hyposaline conditions. Despite the long-term adaptation of the low saline population to stable, low salinity, these plants were still able to function normally in high salinities, indicating remarkable plasticity. The results further suggest that altered salinity...

  15. Assessment of salinity tolerance in bell pepper (capsicum annuum l.) genotypes on the basis of germination, emergence and growth attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehseen, S.; Ayyub, C.M.; Amjad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are principal threat to crop growth and productivity all over the world. The most devastating one is soil salinity which adversely affects the plants, so a comprehensive study was conducted to categorize different available bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes into salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive ones on the basis of germination and emergence parameters. Genotypes were exposed to different saline treatments (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1) along with control (0 dS m-1). Germination test, conducted in petri dishes in incubator, revealed that salinity stress significantly decreased final germination percentage, germination index and embryo axis length of tested genotypes. On the other hand, mean germination time and time to 50% seeds germination were increased with the increasing salinity level from 2 to 8 dS m-1. Emergence test of bell pepper genotypes conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions, shown that salinity decreased the seedlings fresh and dry biomass, number of leaves, leaf area and root and shoot length. On the basis of overall percent decrease ranking table, genotypes were grouped into comparatively salt tolerant (Zard, Tasty, Super shimla, Aristotle), moderately tolerant (Capistrano, CW-03, Kaka-01, Orable, Yolo wonder, Crusadar) and sensitive ones (PEP-311, Admiral, Lafayette, Colossol). From these results, it can be extracted that germination and emergence tests are reliable screening tools for evaluating pepper genotypes for salt stress at seedling stage. Moreover, results of this study can be useful for local farmers to utilize their marginal soils by growing relatively salt tolerant bell pepper genotypes. (author)

  16. Gel instillation sonohysterography (GIS) and saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH): comparison of two diagnostic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bij de Vaate, A J M; Brölmann, H A M; van der Slikke, J W; Emanuel, M H; Huirne, J A F

    2010-04-01

    To compare gel instillation sonohysterography (GIS) with saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) as diagnostic methods for the evaluation of the uterine cavity. A prospective cohort study was performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, between September 2007 and April 2008. We included 65 women suspected of having an intrauterine abnormality with an indication for SCSH/GIS. First SCSH and subsequently GIS were performed in all women. Distension of the uterine cavity, image quality, visualization of intrauterine abnormalities and pain experienced on a visual analog scale (VAS score) were recorded for both procedures. The mean distension with GIS was 9.0 mm and with SCSH it was 8.5 mm (P = 0.15). The mean image quality, on a scale from 0 to 5, for SCSH was 4.0 and for GIS it was 3.6 (P = 0.01). No difference was found for the visualization of intrauterine abnormalities, and the VAS scores for pain experienced on SCSH and GIS were 1.5 and 1.6, respectively (P = 0.62). The image quality of SCSH is slightly better than that of GIS. This difference is likely to be attributable to the presence of air bubbles in the gel. The small difference in uterine cavity distension in favor of GIS and comparable stable distension during at least 4 min make GIS a suitable alternative for SCSH if air bubbles can be prevented. Copyright 2009 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Improving tolerance of sunflower and safflower during growth stages to salinity through foliar spray of nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Ahmad, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salinity and foliar application of nutrient solutions on sunflower and safflower in vegetative and reproductive phases of the growth were investigated in Bio saline Research Field, University of Karachi, Pakistan. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water were made by dissolving 3g and 6g sea salt per litre of tap water, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively. Nutrient solution (KNO/sub 3 /, H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA or its mixture) was sprayed thrice, i.e., 45, 75 and 95 days after planting. KNO/sub 3/ was given at the rate 250 ppm and other H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA was given at the rate 5 ppm. Salinity caused a significant reduction in nutrient uptake, height, biomass and yield of both sunflower and safflower. Foliar application of macro and micro nutrients (i.e. KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA and mixture of KNO/sub 3/ + H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA) partially minimized the salt induced deficiency and showed significant increase in height, fresh and dry biomass, number and weight of seeds, and amount of oil per sunflower and safflower plant irrespective to their growth under non saline or saline conditions. Among the nutrient solutions, mixture of KNO/sub 3/+ H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA seemed to be the most effective followed by H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA. These results suggested that foliar application of nutrients could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity by alleviating the adverse effects of salinity on growth and reproductive yield. (author)

  18. Using euhalophytes to understand salt tolerance and to develop saline agriculture: Suaeda salsa as a promising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Wang, Baoshan

    2015-02-01

    As important components in saline agriculture, halophytes can help to provide food for a growing world population. In addition to being potential crops in their own right, halophytes are also potential sources of salt-resistance genes that might help plant breeders and molecular biologists increase the salt tolerance of conventional crop plants. One especially promising halophyte is Suaeda salsa, a euhalophytic herb that occurs both on inland saline soils and in the intertidal zone. The species produces dimorphic seeds: black seeds are sensitive to salinity and remain dormant in light under high salt concentrations, while brown seeds can germinate under high salinity (e.g. 600 mm NaCl) regardless of light. Consequently, the species is useful for studying the mechanisms by which dimorphic seeds are adapted to saline environments. S. salsa has succulent leaves and is highly salt tolerant (e.g. its optimal NaCl concentration for growth is 200 mm). A series of S. salsa genes related to salt tolerance have been cloned and their functions tested: these include SsNHX1, SsHKT1, SsAPX, SsCAT1, SsP5CS and SsBADH. The species is economically important because its fresh branches have high value as a vegetable, and its seed oil is edible and rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Because it can remove salts and heavy metals from saline soils, S. salsa can also be used in the restoration of salinized or contaminated saline land. Because of its economic and ecological value in saline agriculture, S. salsa is one of the most important halophytes in China. In this review, the value of S. salsa as a source of food, medicine and forage is discussed. Its uses in the restoration of salinized or contaminated land and as a source of salt-resistance genes are also considered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Overexpression of yeast ArDH gene in chloroplasts confers salinity tolerance in plants (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Kanwal, B.; Khalid, A.M.; Zafar, Y.; Malik, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Water stress due to salinity and drought is the main limiting factor for plant growth, productivity and quality. A common response to water deficit is the accumulation of osmoprotectants such as sugars and amino acids. In yeast, arabitol dehydrogenase is found responsible for the production of arabitol from ribulose-5-phosphate. All plants synthesize ribulose-5-phosphate via pentose pathway in chloroplasts.. Therefore, osmotolerance of the plants could be enhanced through metabolic engineering of chloroplasts by introducing ArDH gene into the plastome, which is responsible for the conversion of ribulose-5- phosphate to arabitol. Here we report high-level expression of arabitol dehydrogenase (ArDH) in chloroplasts. Homoplasmic transgenic plants were recovered on spectinomycin-containing regeneration medium. Transformed tobacco plants survived whereas non-transformed were severely stressed or killed when two weeks old seedlings were exposed to NaCl (up to 400 mM), suggesting a role for arabitol in salt tolerance. Seedlings survived up to five weeks on medium containing high salt concentrations (350-400 mM). Nevertheless, seedlings remained green and grew normal on concentrations up to 350 mM NaCl for several weeks. Hypothesis that membranes are protected under stress conditions due to the arabitol accumulation in chloroplasts, seedlings were grown in liquid medium containing polyethylene glycol (PEG, up to 6%). Seedlings were tolerant to 6% PEG, suggesting that ArDH enzyme protects membranes integrity under stress. Therefore, it is concluded that ArDH gene could be expressed in crop plants to withstand abiotic stresses. (author)

  20. Utilization of Gamma Irradiation for Improving Salinity Tolerance of Two Exotic Hull-less Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The development of hull-less (naked) barley genotypes with the ability to grow under stressed environmental conditions becomes essential to increase the national production of the crop to supplement wheat production for bread making , which in turn will decrease our imports of wheat grains and flour. Thus, a selection breeding program was conducted to enhancement salt tolerance of the two local hull-less barley varieties Giza 129 and Giza 131. Grains of the both genotypes were exposed to gamma rays at doses of 0.0, 250 Gy and 350 Gy aiming to create genetic variability and selection within the induced variation. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between yield and its components for M2 populations indicated the possibility of using number of spikes/plant, biological yield/plant and harvest index as a selection criterion to pick out high yielding variants with improving tolerance to salt stress. On this basis, a considerable number of plants were selected and carried forward to the next generation to raise M3 progenies. The obtained results indicated that means of grain yield/plant for Giza 129 progenies derived from 250 and 350 Gy mutagenic treatments located between 10.37 gram and 13.90 gram for the former treatment and between 9.81 gram to 13.84 gram for the latter one compared to 8.01 gram for the average of the superior control populations. On the other hand, Averages of grain yield for Giza 131 progenies ranged from 11.10 gram to 14.17 gram (250 Gy treatment) and from 11.32 gram to 13.50 gram (350 Gy treatment) vs.8.92 gram for the better untreated control plants. Results also revealed that 250 Gy mutagenic treatment was superior to 350 Gy for improving yield potentiality of the materials at hand under salinity stressed conditions

  1. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) and contrast enhanced MRI (CEMRI): Patient preferences and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Max M; Taylor, Donna B; Buzynski, Sebastian; Peake, Rachel E

    2015-06-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) may have similar diagnostic performance to Contrast-enhanced MRI (CEMRI) in the diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. To date, research has focused exclusively on diagnostic performance when comparing these two techniques. Patient experience is also an important factor when comparing and deciding on which of these modalities is preferable. The aim of this study is to compare patient experience of CESM against CEMRI during preoperative breast cancer staging. Forty-nine participants who underwent both CESM and CEMRI, as part of a larger trial, completed a Likert questionnaire about their preference for each modality according to the following criteria: comfort of breast compression, comfort of intravenous (IV) contrast injection, anxiety and overall preference. Participants also reported reasons for preferring one modality to the other. Quantitative data were analysed using a Wilcoxon sign-rank test and chi-squared test. Qualitative data are reported descriptively. A significantly higher overall preference towards CESM was demonstrated (n = 49, P < 0.001), with faster procedure time, greater comfort and lower noise level cited as the commonest reasons. Participants also reported significantly lower rates of anxiety during CESM compared with CEMRI (n = 36, P = 0.009). A significantly higher rate of comfort was reported during CEMRI for measures of breast compression (n = 49, P = 0.001) and the sensation of IV contrast injection (n = 49, P = 0.003). Our data suggest that overall, patients prefer the experience of CESM to CEMRI, adding support for the role of CESM as a possible alternative to CEMRI for breast cancer staging. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  2. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) and contrast enhanced MRI (CEMRI): Patient preferences and tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, Max; Buzynski, Sebastian; Taylor, Donna B.; Peake, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) may have similar diagnostic performance to Contrast-enhanced MRI (CEMRI) in the diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. To date, research has focused exclusively on diagnostic performance when comparing these two techniques. Patient experience is also an important factor when comparing and deciding on which of these modalities is preferable. The aim of this study is to compare patient experience of CESM against CEMRI during preoperative breast cancer staging. Forty-nine participants who underwent both CESM and CEMRI, as part of a larger trial, completed a Likert questionnaire about their preference for each modality according to the following criteria: comfort of breast compression, comfort of intravenous (IV) contrast injection, anxiety and overall preference. Participants also reported reasons for preferring one modality to the other. Quantitative data were analysed using a Wilcoxon sign-rank test and chi-squared test. Qualitative data are reported descriptively. A significantly higher overall preference towards CESM was demonstrated (n = 49, P < 0.001), with faster procedure time, greater comfort and lower noise level cited as the commonest reasons. Participants also reported significantly lower rates of anxiety during CESM compared with CEMRI (n = 36, P = 0.009). A significantly higher rate of comfort was reported during CEMRI for measures of breast compression (n = 49, P = 0.001) and the sensation of IV contrast injection (n = 49, P = 0.003). Our data suggest that overall, patients prefer the experience of CESM to CEMRI, adding support for the role of CESM as a possible alternative to CEMRI for breast cancer staging.

  3. Constitutive expression of a salinity-induced wheat WRKY transcription factor enhances salinity and ionic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yuxiang, E-mail: yuxiangqin@126.com [Department of Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Tian, Yanchen [The Key Laboratory of Plant Cell Engineering and Germplasm Innovation, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Han, Lu; Yang, Xinchao [Department of Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A class II WRKY transcription factor, TaWRKY79 was isolated and characterized. •TaWRKY79 was induced by NaCl or abscisic acid. •843 bp regulatory segment was sufficient to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. •TaWRKY79 enhanced salinity and ionic tolerance while reduced sensitivity to ABA. •TaWRKY79 increased salinity and ionic tolerance in an ABA-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: The isolation and characterization of TaWRKY79, a wheat class II WRKY transcription factor, is described. Its 1297 bp coding region includes a 987 bp long open reading frame. TaWRKY79 was induced by stressing seedlings with either NaCl or abscisic acid (ABA). When a fusion between an 843 bp segment upstream of the TaWRKY79 coding sequence and GUS was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana, GUS staining indicated that this upstream segment captured the sequence(s) required to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. When TaWRKY79 was constitutively expressed as a transgene in A. thaliana, the transgenic plants showed an improved capacity to extend their primary root in the presence of either 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM LiCl or 2 μM ABA. The inference was that TaWRKY79 enhanced the level of tolerance to both salinity and ionic stress, while reducing the level of sensitivity to ABA. The ABA-related genes ABA1, ABA2 ABI1 and ABI5 were all up-regulated in the TaWRKY79 transgenic plants, suggesting that the transcription factor operates in an ABA-dependent pathway.

  4. Constitutive expression of a salinity-induced wheat WRKY transcription factor enhances salinity and ionic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Tian, Yanchen; Han, Lu; Yang, Xinchao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A class II WRKY transcription factor, TaWRKY79 was isolated and characterized. •TaWRKY79 was induced by NaCl or abscisic acid. •843 bp regulatory segment was sufficient to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. •TaWRKY79 enhanced salinity and ionic tolerance while reduced sensitivity to ABA. •TaWRKY79 increased salinity and ionic tolerance in an ABA-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: The isolation and characterization of TaWRKY79, a wheat class II WRKY transcription factor, is described. Its 1297 bp coding region includes a 987 bp long open reading frame. TaWRKY79 was induced by stressing seedlings with either NaCl or abscisic acid (ABA). When a fusion between an 843 bp segment upstream of the TaWRKY79 coding sequence and GUS was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana, GUS staining indicated that this upstream segment captured the sequence(s) required to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. When TaWRKY79 was constitutively expressed as a transgene in A. thaliana, the transgenic plants showed an improved capacity to extend their primary root in the presence of either 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM LiCl or 2 μM ABA. The inference was that TaWRKY79 enhanced the level of tolerance to both salinity and ionic stress, while reducing the level of sensitivity to ABA. The ABA-related genes ABA1, ABA2 ABI1 and ABI5 were all up-regulated in the TaWRKY79 transgenic plants, suggesting that the transcription factor operates in an ABA-dependent pathway

  5. Study of Salinity Tolerance in an Advanced Back Cross Rice Population Based on Some Inorganic Ions at Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi Chamnari1

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to investigate the effect of salinity stress on sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations, and Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios at seedling stage in an advanced back cross (BC2F6 rice population. The population was derived from crossing between Hashemi, an Iranian cultivar, and IR67418-110-32222 (IR-22 from IRRI. The ANOVA indicated that the effects of genotypes, salinity stress and interaction between stress and genotype were significant for all the traits, which is suggestive of high level of genetic variation, salinity effect on traits and different response of the genotypes to salinity levels. The salinity stress markedly decreased the K+ concentration in the shoot. However the shoot Na+ and Ca2+ concentration and Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios were significantly increased in saline environment. The population characteristics mean value were found to be between of parents values and it often shifted to recurrent parent (Hashemi value in both stress and non stress conditions. It shows that Hashemi variety gene’s leave more influences on the expression of the traits in the population. Transgressive segregation was observed for all the studied traits in the population lines. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among the studied traits showed the same trend. The highest correlation coefficients were related to Na+ concentration and Na+/K+ (rg= 0.89** in non stress condition. The high heritability levels of the traits provide selection possibility for salinity tolerance in the population based on these traits. According to the present findings, it is possible to candidate some lines (such as line number 139 as salt tolerant at the seedling stage.

  6. Postprocedural pain in shoulder arthrography: differences between using preservative-free normal saline and normal saline with benzyl alcohol as an intraarticular contrast diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Troy F; Gilbride, George; Clifford, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effect of benzyl alcohol, a common preservative in normal saline, on postprocedural pain after intraarticular injection for direct shoulder MR arthrography. From April 2011 through January 2013, 138 patients underwent direct shoulder MR arthrography. Using the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale, patients were asked to report their shoulder pain level immediately before and immediately after the procedure and then were contacted by telephone 6, 24, and 48 hours after the procedure. Fourteen patients did not receive the prescribed amount of contrast agent for diagnostic reasons or did not complete follow-up. Sixty-two patients received an intraarticular solution including preservative-free normal saline (control group) and 62 patients received an intraarticular solution including normal saline with 0.9% benzyl alcohol as a contrast diluent (test group). Patients were randomized as to which intraarticular diluent they received. Fluoroscopic and MR images were reviewed for extracapsular contrast agent administration or extravasation, full-thickness rotator cuff tears, and adhesive capsulitis. The effect of preservative versus control on pain level was estimated with multiple regression, which included time after procedure as the covariate and accounted for repeated measures over patients. Pain scale scores were significantly (p = 0.0382) higher (0.79 units; 95% CI, 0.034-1.154) with benzyl alcohol preservative compared with control (saline). In both study arms, the pain scale scores decreased slightly after the procedure, increased by roughly 1 unit over baseline for the test group and 0.3 unit over baseline for the control group by 6 hours after the procedure, were 0.50 unit over baseline for the test group and 0.12 unit over baseline for the control group at 24 hours, then fell to be slightly greater than baseline at 48 hours with benzyl alcohol and slightly less than baseline without benzyl alcohol. These trends

  7. The role of salinity tolerance and competition in the distribution of an endangered desert salt marsh endemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Beamguard, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Rare plants are often associated with distinctive soil types, and understanding why endemic species occur in unique environments is fundamental for their management. At Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in southern Nevada, USA, we evaluated whether the limited distribution of endangered Amargosa niterwort (Nitrophila mohavensis) is explained by this species’ tolerance of saline soils on salt-encrusted mud flats compared with the broadly distributed desert saltgrass (Distichlis spicata var. stricta). We simultaneously explored whether niterwort distribution is restricted from expanding due to interspecific competition with saltgrass. Surface soils collected throughout niterwort’s range were unexpectedly less saline with lower extractable Na, seasonal electroconductivity, and Na absorption ratio, and higher soil moisture than in adjacent saltgrass or mixed shrub habitats. Comparison of niterwort and saltgrass growth along an experimental salinity gradient in a greenhouse demonstrated lower growth of niterwort at all but the highest NaCl concentrations. Although growth of niterwort ramets was similar when transplanted into both habitats at the refuge below Crystal Reservoir, niterwort reproductive effort was considerably higher in saltgrass compared to its own habitat, implying reallocation of resources to sexual reproduction to maximize fitness when the probability of ramet mortality increases with greater salinity stress. Saltgrass was not a demonstrated direct competitor of niterwort; however, this species is known to increase soil salinity by exuding salt ions and through litterfall. Niterwort conservation will benefit from protecting hydrological processes that reduce salinity stress and preventing saltgrass colonization into niterwort habitat.

  8. Impact of salinity on element incorporation in two benthic foraminiferal species with contrasting magnesium contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerken, Esmee; de Nooijer, Lennart Jan; van Dijk, Inge; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2018-04-01

    Accurate reconstructions of seawater salinity could provide valuable constraints for studying past ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and sea level change. Controlled growth experiments and field studies have shown the potential of foraminiferal Na / Ca as a direct salinity proxy. Incorporation of minor and trace elements in foraminiferal shell carbonate varies, however, greatly between species and hence extrapolating calibrations to other species needs validation by additional (culturing) studies. Salinity is also known to impact other foraminiferal carbonate-based proxies, such as Mg / Ca for temperature and Sr / Ca for sea water carbonate chemistry. Better constraints on the role of salinity on these proxies will therefore improve their reliability. Using a controlled growth experiment spanning a salinity range of 20 units and analysis of element composition on single chambers using laser ablation-Q-ICP-MS, we show here that Na / Ca correlates positively with salinity in two benthic foraminiferal species (Ammonia tepida and Amphistegina lessonii). The Na / Ca values differ between the two species, with an approximately 2-fold higher Na / Ca in A. lessonii than in A. tepida, coinciding with an offset in their Mg content ( ˜ 35 mmol mol-2 versus ˜ 2.5 mmol mol-1 for A. lessonii and A. tepida, respectively). Despite the offset in average Na / Ca values, the slopes of the Na / Ca-salinity regressions are similar between these two species (0.077 versus 0.064 mmol mol-1 change per salinity unit). In addition, Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca are positively correlated with salinity in cultured A. tepida but show no correlation with salinity for A. lessonii. Electron microprobe mapping of incorporated Na and Mg of the cultured specimens shows that within chamber walls of A. lessonii, Na / Ca and Mg / Ca occur in elevated bands in close proximity to the primary organic lining. Between species, Mg banding is relatively similar, even though Mg content is 10 times lower and

  9. Transvaginal sonography combined with saline contrast sonohysterography in evaluating the uterine cavity in premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, M; Forman, A; Jensen, ML

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) adds additional information to that obtained by transvaginal sonography (TVS) for predicting endometrial abnormality in premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a two......-center prospective study at a university clinic and a central hospital in Denmark. The uterine cavity was evaluated with TVS and SCSH in 470 premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. One hundred and eighty-nine of the patients had operative hysteroscopy or hysterectomy within 4 months which provided...... uterine bleeding. All abnormalities except one were found at SCSH, while TVS alone missed polyps and had almost one in four equivocal findings. The use of TVS, without saline contrast, left one in five of the polyps undiagnosed in referred patients with abnormal bleeding....

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals the positive effect of exogenous spermidine on photosynthesis and salinity tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ting; Shan, Xi; Li, Bin; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-08-01

    Our results based on proteomics data and physiological alterations proposed the putative mechanism of exogenous Spd enhanced salinity tolerance in cucumber seedlings. Current studies showed that exogenous spermidine (Spd) could alleviate harmful effects of salinity. It is important to increase our understanding of the beneficial physiological responses of exogenous Spd treatment, and to determine the molecular responses underlying these responses. Here, we combined a physiological analysis with iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves, treated with 0.1 mM exogenous Spd, 75 mM NaCl and/or exogenous Spd. A total of 221 differentially expressed proteins were found and involved in 30 metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, stress response, signal transduction and antioxidant. Based on functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins and the physiological responses, we found cucumber seedlings treated with Spd under salt stress had higher photosynthesis efficiency, upregulated tetrapyrrole synthesis, stronger ROS scavenging ability and more protein biosynthesis activity than NaCl treatment, suggesting that these pathways may promote salt tolerance under high salinity. This study provided insights into how exogenous Spd protects photosynthesis and enhances salt tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  11. Comparison of saline tolerance among genetically similar species of Fusarium and Meloidogyne recovered from marine and terrestrial habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, W. H.; LaMondia, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    Successful plant pathogens co-evolve and adapt to the environmental constraints placed on host plants. We compared the salt tolerance of two salt marsh pathogens, Fusarium palustre and Meloidogyne spartinae, to genetically related terrestrial species, F. sporotrichioides and Meloidogyne hapla, to assess whether the salt marsh species had acquired selective traits for persisting in saline environments or if salt tolerance was comparable among Fusarium and Meloidogyne species. Comparisons of both species were made in vitro in vessels containing increasing concentration of NaCl. We observed that F. palustre was more tolerant to NaCl than F. sporotrichioides. The radial expansion of F. palustre on NaCl-amended agar plates was unaffected by increasing concentrations up to 0.3 M. F. sporotrichioides showed large reductions in growth at the same concentrations. Survival of M. hapla was greatest at 0 M, and reduced by half in a 0.3 M solution for 4 days. No juveniles survived exposure to 0.3 M NaCl for 12 days. M. spartinae survived at all NaCl concentrations tested, including 1.0 M for at least 12 days. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that marine organisms in the upper tidal zone must osmoregulate to withstand a wide range of salinity and provide evidence that these pathogens evolved in saline conditions and are not recent introductions from terrestrial niches.

  12. Pathogenic ability and saline stress tolerance of two Fusarium isolates from Odontesthes bonariensis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Marino, Suani G; Cabello, Marta N; Dinolfo, María I; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N; Salibián, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Several fungal species represent a potential risk to embryos of Odontesthes bonariensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835), a euryhaline freshwater fish that lives in the Pampean inland waters and has potential economic relevance. To identify two fungi isolated from O. bonariensis eggs exposed to saline conditions and to characterize their pathogenicity and tolerance to sodium chloride solutions. The isolates were identified by morphological features, and a preliminar phylogenetic analysis using sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CAM) was performed. Koch's postulates were tested to identify the causative agent of fungal infection. The influence of NaCl on the fungal growth was evaluated in in vitro assays. The isolates LPSC 1001 and 1002 were identified as representatives of the genus Fusarium, and belonging to the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex (FIESC) and the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), respectively. Histological observations on eggs exposed in vitro to both isolates in infectivity assays confirmed the ability of the fungal isolates to penetrate to egg's chorionic membrane, leading to the death of embryos. Increasing NaCl concentration in the culture medium reduced the growth of the isolates LPSC 1001 and 1002, being completely inhibited at 160 and 120g/l NaCl respectively. The isolates LPSC 1001 (FIESC) and 1002 (FSSC) were identified as fungal pathogens to O. bonariensis eggs. The use of NaCl solutions as antifungal treatment was not effective to control the infection with these strains. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Tolerance of brightness and contrast adjustments on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamasari, L.; Iskandar, H. H. B.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    In digitized radiography techniques, adjusting the image enhancement can improve the subjective image quality by optimizing the brightness and contrast for diagnostic needs. To determine the value range of image enhancement (brightness and contrast) on chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma interpretation. 30 periapical radiographs that diagnosed chronic apical abscess and 30 that diagnosed apical granuloma were adjusted by changing brightness and contrast values. The value range of brightness and contrast adjustment that can be tolerated in radiographic interpretations of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma spans from -10 to +10. Brightness and contrast adjustments on digital radiographs do not affect the radiographic interpretation of chronic apical abscess and apical granuloma if conducted within the value range.

  14. Galactinol synthase transcriptional profile in two genotypes of Coffea canephora with contrasting tolerance to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Benedito Dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased synthesis of galactinol and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs has been reported in vegetative tissues in response to a range of abiotic stresses. In this work, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of a Coffea canephora galactinol synthase gene (CcGolS1 in two clones that differed in tolerance to water deficit in order to assess the contribution of this gene to drought tolerance. The expression of CcGolS1 in leaves was differentially regulated by water deficit, depending on the intensity of stress and the genotype. In clone 109A (drought-susceptible, the abundance of CcGolS1 transcripts decreased upon exposure to drought, reaching minimum values during recovery from severe water deficit and stress. In contrast, CcGolS1 gene expression in clone 14 (drought-tolerant was stimulated by water deficit. Changes in galactinol and RFO content did not correlate with variation in the steady-state transcript level. However, the magnitude of increase in RFO accumulation was higher in the tolerant cultivar, mainly under severe water deficit. The finding that the drought-tolerant coffee clone showed enhanced accumulation of CcGolS1 transcripts and RFOs under water deficit suggests the possibility of using this gene to improve drought tolerance in this important crop.

  15. Salinity tolerance of northern Brazilian mangrove crab larvae, Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae): Necessity for larval export?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diele, Karen; Simith, Darlan J. B.

    2006-07-01

    The life cycle of the semiterrestrial mangrove crab Ucides cordatus includes pelagic larvae that are released into estuarine waters during the wet season and who may thus encounter potentially stressful low and variable salinity conditions. The effect of salinity on the survival of the zoea larvae, the number of zoeal stages and the duration of development from hatching to megalopa was experimentally studied by rearing larvae from the Caeté estuary, Northern Brazil, in seven salinity treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30). For a better interpretation of the laboratory results, estuarine salinities were measured over five consecutive years during the species' reproductive season. The survival of the zoea larvae varied significantly with salinity, while the number of stages and the duration of their development remained constant. Development to megalopa took 20.77 ± 1.57 days and comprised five zoeal stages with ZI and ZII being euryhaline and later stages stenohaline. The newly hatched larvae stayed alive for up to 6 days in freshwater (average 4.32 ± 0.82 days), but did not moult to the second zoeal stage. ZII larvae first occurred from salinity 5 onwards and later zoeal stages at all tested salinities ≥10. However, the larvae only survived to megalopa at salinities ≥15, with highest numbers at salinity 30 (72%) and lowest at 15 (16%). Lethal salinities ≤10 occurred frequently in the estuary during the reproductive season. This suggests a need for larval export to offshore and thus more saline waters to allow for significant larval survival and maintenance of viable populations of this commercially important species. A regional rather than local approach for management is suggested due to the likelihood of long distance larval dispersal by offshore currents.

  16. Investigation of Tolerance, Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Cultivars to Salinity of Irrigation Water at Sensitive Stages of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research in order to study of tolerance ability of wheat cultivates yield and yield components to salinity of irrigation water at sensitive stages of growth, was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2009. Treatments were included wheat cultivars of Alvand, Tous, Sayson and Navid and salinity of irrigation water induced by sodium chloride at five levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1. The results showed that percentage and rate of emergence, plant height, 1000-grain weight, number of seed per spike, number of spike per pot, biological and grain yield reduced by increasing salinity level. At all stress levels Navid cv. had highest emergence percentage. In non-stress and 4 dS m-1, Alvand cv. and at higher levels of stress, Tous cv. had high height in reproductive phase. At control and 4 dS m-1, Sayson cv. and at 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1, Tous cv. in majority of yield and yield components traits had significant superior than other cultivars. Tolerance index of Sayson cv. at 4 and 8 dS m-1 was more than other cultivars but at 12 and 16 dS m-1, maximum value of this index was belonged to Tous cv. At all salinity levels, Alvand cv. had least tolerance index to stress. Number of spike per pot had maximum direct effect on grain yield of wheat cultivars in stress condition. Also indirect effect of biological yield via number of spike per pot than other its indirect effects, had maximum share in wheat seed yield.

  17. Quality of roentgenological visualization and tolerance of various intravenous cholegraphic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tischendorf, P.

    1980-01-01

    The recently introduced intravenous cholegraphic contrast media produce a greater diagnostic yield in radiological routine thanks to improved roentgenological contrasting. Whereas the percentage share of roentgenologically clearly assessable cases is about 75% when using Biligrafin, this percentage is much higher with the more recent contrast media, especially Biliscopin, namely, up to 88%. These new contrast media are also superior in respect of tolerance, since they produce fewer side effects. While side effects must be expected in about 28% of the cases when injecting Biligrafin, the side effect quota is about 10% only with Biliscopin or Endomirabil. If the contrast medium is infused instead of injected, the quota of side effect drops to 2.3% with Biliscopin or 3.9% with Endomirabil. Slight and medium side effects have definitely decreased with the more recent contrast media. The slower and more continually the contrast medium is administered, the fewer are the side effects observed; this becomes particularly noticeable in the case of long-term infusions. However, the likelihood of severe incidents caused by the contrast medium remains unchanged at about 1% of the examined patients, even with the more recently introduced contrast media. (orig.) [de

  18. Leaf gas films contribute to rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance during saline floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Konnerup, Dennis; Pedersen, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Floods and salinization of agricultural land adversely impact global rice production. We investigated whether gas films on leaves of submerged rice delay salt entry during saline submergence. Two-week-old plants with leaf gas films (+GF) or with gas films experimentally removed (-GF) were submerged...

  19. Bacterial use of choline to tolerate salinity shifts in sea-ice brines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firth, E.; Carpenter, S. D.; Sørensen, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria within the brine network of sea ice experience temperature-driven fluctuations in salinity on both short and long temporal scales, yet their means of osmoprotection against such fluctuations is poorly understood. One mechanism used to withstand the ion fluxes caused by salinity shifts, w...

  20. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Burgess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephropathy following contrast media (CM exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb. The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

  1. A study of wild tomatoes endemic to the Galapagos Islands as a source for salinity tolerance traits

    KAUST Repository

    Pailles Galvez, Claudia Yveline

    2017-11-01

    Salinity is a major concern in agriculture since it adversely affects plant growth, development, and yield. Domestication of crops exerted strong selective pressure and reduced their genetic diversity. Meanwhile, wild species continued to adapt to their environment becoming valuable sources of genetic variation, with the potential for enhancing modern crops performance in today’s changing climate. Some wild species are found in highly saline environments; remarkable examples are the endemic wild tomatoes from the Galapagos Islands, forming the Solanum cheesmaniae and Solanum galapagense species (hereafter termed Galapagos tomatoes). These wild tomatoes adapted to thrive in the coastal regions of the Galapagos Islands. The present work includes a thorough characterization of a collection of 67 accessions of Galapagos tomatoes obtained from the Tomato Genetics Resource Center (TGRC). Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was performed to establish the population structure and genetic distance within the germplasm collection. Both species were genetically differentiated, and a substructure was found in S. cheesmaniae dividing the accessions in two groups based on their origin: eastern and western islands. Phenotypic studies were performed at the seedling stage, subjecting seedlings to 200 mM NaCl for 10 days. Various traits were recorded and analysed for their contribution to salinity tolerance, compared to control conditions. Large natural variation was found across the collection in terms of salt stress responses and different possible salt tolerant mechanisms were identified. Six accessions were selected for further work, based on their good performance under salinity. This experiment included scoring several plant growth and yield-related traits, as well as RNA sequencing (RNAseq) at the fruit-ripening stage, under three different NaCl concentrations. Accession LA0421 showed an increased yield of almost 50% in mild salinity (150 mM NaCl) compared to control conditions

  2. The study of salinity and drought tolerance of Sinorhizobium meliloti isolated from province of Kerman in vivo condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahboobe abolhasani zeraatkar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the host plant inoculation by native strains with high efficiency has a positive effect on plant yield and biological nitrogen fixation process. The main aim of this investigation was to based on salinity and drought experiments, four isolates of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S27K and S36K tolerant isolates, S109K semi-sensitive isolate, S56K sensitive isolate were selected for plant inoculation which was under drought stress in greenhouse condition. This experiment was carried out by using a factorial model in completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of alfalfa plants with high salinity and drought tolerant of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria could increased biological nitrogen fixation process (symbiotic efficiency, percent crude protein and yield of alfalfa under salinity and drought conditions significantly. There were not any significant differences between S27K and S36K isolates and positive control (no nitrogen limitation. Symbiotic efficiency increased 3.4 times higher than alfalfa plants were inoculated by sensitive isolates S56K when alfalfa plants were inoculated by S27K and S36K isolates.

  3. Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) vessel architecture is linked to chilling and salinity tolerance in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Eric N.; Armitage, Anna R.; López-Portillo, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the distribution of the black mangrove Avicennia germinans in the Gulf of Mexico has expanded, in part because it can survive the occasional freeze events and high soil salinities characteristic of the area. Vessel architecture may influence mangrove chilling and salinity tolerance. We surveyed populations of A. germinans throughout the Gulf to determine if vessel architecture was linked to field environmental conditions. We measured vessel density, hydraulically weighted vessel diameter, potential conductance capacity, and maximum tensile fracture stress. At each sampling site we recorded mangrove canopy height and soil salinity, and determined average minimum winter temperature from archived weather records. At a subset of sites, we measured carbon fixation rates using a LI-COR 6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System. Populations of A. germinans from cooler areas (Texas and Louisiana) had narrower vessels, likely reducing the risk of freeze-induced embolisms but also decreasing water conductance capacity. Vessels were also narrower in regions with high soil salinity, including Texas, USA and tidal flats in Veracruz, Mexico. Vessel density did not consistently vary with temperature or soil salinity. In abiotically stressful areas, A. germinans had a safe hydraulic architecture with narrower vessels that may increase local survival. This safe architecture appears to come at a substantial physiological cost in terms of reduction in conductance capacity and carbon fixation potential, likely contributing to lower canopy heights. The current distribution of A. germinans in the Gulf is influenced by the complex interplay between temperature, salinity, and vessel architecture. Given the plasticity of A. germinans vessel characters, it is likely that this mangrove species will be able to adapt to a wide range of potential future environmental conditions, and continue its expansion in the Gulf of Mexico in response to near-term climate change

  4. Avicennia germinans (black mangrove vessel architecture is linked to chilling and salinity tolerance in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric N Madrid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, the distribution of the black mangrove Avicennia germinans in the Gulf of Mexico has expanded, in part because it can survive the occasional freeze events and high soil salinities characteristic of the area. Vessel architecture may influence mangrove chilling and salinity tolerance. We surveyed populations of A. germinans throughout the Gulf to determine if vessel architecture was linked to field environmental conditions. We measured vessel density, hydraulically weighted vessel diameter, potential conductance capacity, and maximum tensile fracture stress. At each sampling site we recorded mangrove canopy height and soil salinity, and determined average minimum winter temperature from archived weather records. At a subset of sites, we measured carbon fixation rates using a LI-COR 6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System. Populations of A. germinans from cooler areas (Texas and Louisiana had narrower vessels, likely reducing the risk of freeze-induced embolisms but also decreasing water conductance capacity. Vessels were also narrower in regions with high soil salinity, including Texas, USA and tidal flats in Veracruz, Mexico. Vessel density did not consistently vary with temperature or soil salinity. In abiotically stressful areas, A. germinans had a safe hydraulic architecture with narrower vessels that may increase local survival. This safe architecture appears to come at a substantial physiological cost in terms of reduction in conductance capacity and carbon fixation potential, likely contributing to lower canopy heights. The current distribution of A. germinans in the Gulf is influenced by the complex interplay between temperature, salinity, and vessel architecture. Given the plasticity of A. germinans vessel characters, it is likely that this mangrove species will be able to adapt to a wide range of potential future environmental conditions, and continue its expansion in the Gulf of Mexico in response to near

  5. The chicken or the egg? Adaptation to desiccation and salinity tolerance in a lineage of water beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, Susana; Arribas, Paula; Bilton, David T; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa; Ribera, Ignacio

    2017-10-01

    Transitions from fresh to saline habitats are restricted to a handful of insect lineages, as the colonization of saline waters requires specialized mechanisms to deal with osmotic stress. Previous studies have suggested that tolerance to salinity and desiccation could be mechanistically and evolutionarily linked, but the temporal sequence of these adaptations is not well established for individual lineages. We combined molecular, physiological and ecological data to explore the evolution of desiccation resistance, hyporegulation ability (i.e., the ability to osmoregulate in hyperosmotic media) and habitat transitions in the water beetle genus Enochrus subgenus Lumetus (Hydrophilidae). We tested whether enhanced desiccation resistance evolved before increases in hyporegulation ability or vice versa, or whether the two mechanisms evolved in parallel. The most recent ancestor of Lumetus was inferred to have high desiccation resistance and moderate hyporegulation ability. There were repeated shifts between habitats with differing levels of salinity in the radiation of the group, those to the most saline habitats generally occurring more rapidly than those to less saline ones. Significant and accelerated changes in hyporegulation ability evolved in parallel with smaller and more progressive increases in desiccation resistance across the phylogeny, associated with the colonization of meso- and hypersaline waters during global aridification events. All species with high hyporegulation ability were also desiccation-resistant, but not vice versa. Overall, results are consistent with the hypothesis that desiccation resistance mechanisms evolved first and provided the physiological basis for the development of hyporegulation ability, allowing these insects to colonize and diversify across meso- and hypersaline habitats. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Experimentally derived salinity tolerance of hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) from the Everglades, Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Gregoire, Denise R.

    2012-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we tested the ability of 24 non-native, wild-caught hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) collected in the Florida Everglades to survive when given water containing salt to drink. After a one-month acclimation period in the laboratory, we grouped snakes into three treatments, giving them access to water that was fresh (salinity of 0, control), brackish (salinity of 10), or full-strength sea water (salinity of 35). Hatchlings survived about one month at the highest marine salinity and about five months at the brackish-water salinity; no control animals perished during the experiment. These results are indicative of a "worst-case scenario", as in the laboratory we denied access to alternate fresh-water sources that may be accessible in the wild (e.g., through rainfall). Therefore, our results may underestimate the potential of hatchling pythons to persist in saline habitats in the wild. Because of the effect of different salinity regimes on survival, predictions of ultimate geographic expansion by non-native Burmese pythons that consider salt water as barriers to dispersal for pythons may warrant re-evaluation, especially under global climate change and associated sea-level-rise scenarios.

  7. Physiological and biochemical perspectives of non-salt tolerant plants during bacterial interaction against soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Baek, Kwang Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells. Salinity also affects plant growth regulators and suppresses seed germination and root and shoot growth. Bacterial secretion of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins compensates for the salt-induced hormonal decrease in plants, and bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase synthesis decreases ethylene production to stimulate plant growth. Furthermore, bacteria modulate the redox state of salinity-affected plants by enhancing antioxidants and polyamines, which leads to increased photosynthetic efficiency. Bacteria-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in stressed plants regulates plant cellular activities and prevents salt stress damage. Plant-bacterial interaction reprograms the expression of salt stress-responsive genes and proteins in salinity-affected plants, resulting in a precise stress mitigation metabolism as a defense mechanism. Soil bacteria increase the fertility of soil and regulate the plant functions to prevent the salinity effects in glycophytes. This review explains the current understanding about the physiological changes induced in glycophytes during bacterial interaction to alleviate the adverse effects of soil salinity stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  8. Screening of sesame ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L. for salinity tolerance under field conditions: 1-Phenological and morphological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fazeli Kakhki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most restrictions in plant growth in dry and semi dry land which effects production of many crops such as sesame. In order to study the phenology and morphology characteristics of 43 ecotypes and line of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under salinity of irrigation water (5.2 dS.m-1 a field experiment was conducted at research farm of center of excellence for special crops, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010 based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that four sesame ecotypes could not emerge, 14 sesame ecotypes had appropriate emergence but died before reproductive stage and only 58 % of sesame ecotypes could alive until maturity. There was significant difference between sesame ecotypes for phenological stages and were varied from 64 to 81 days for vegetative and 60 to 65 days for reproductive stages. Plant height, number and length of branches also were different between sesame ecotypes. The highest and the lowest plant height were observed in MSC43 and MSC12 ecotypes, respectively. Number of branches per plant was from 1 to 8 and length of branches in 32 percent of ecotypes was more than 100 cm. There was a considerable correlation between seed weight in plant with reproductive growth (r=0.38** and plant height (r=0.25. In addition different response of sesame ecotypes to saline water and also better morphological indices in some sesame ecotypes may be show the tolerance of these accessions to salinity. More studies may be useful for selection of sesame salt tolerance resources.

  9. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Prakash Singh

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM. It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85% caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75% of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to

  10. Degree of mucosal coating on double contrast barium enema : comparison of distilled water and normal saline as a suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Han, Tae Il; Kim, Hyoung Jung

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the degree of mucosal coating on double contrast barium enema (DCBE), using barium suspension made with distilled water or normal saline Between June 1 and July 30, 1996, fifty-four patients prospectively underwent DCBE using 83% w/v(weight-to-volume) of barium suspension (room temperature, 24 deg C), which was made with 1,200mL of distilled water (Group 1;29cases) and normal saline (Group 2;25cases) per 1Kg of Solotop (Taejoon Pharmacy, Seoul, Korea). Bowel preparation and examination methods were the same in both groups, and four projections(erect view, supine view, both decubitus views) were taken. The mucosal coating was graded as excellent, good, ordinary, or poor by three radiologists working independently, and scored from 3 to 0. Significance was analyzed by t-test. Mean grading scores were 2.33±0.70 in group 1 and 1.56±0.99 in group 2 (P<0.003). When barium suspension made with distilled water was used, the degree of mucosal coating on DCBE was better than when the suspension was made with normal saline

  11. Long-term salinity tolerance is accompanied by major restructuring of the coral bacterial microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthig, Till; Ochsenkühn, Michael A; Roik, Anna; van der Merwe, Riaan; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-03-01

    Scleractinian corals are assumed to be stenohaline osmoconformers, although they are frequently subjected to variations in seawater salinity due to precipitation, freshwater run-off and other processes. Observed responses to altered salinity levels include differences in photosynthetic performance, respiration and increased bleaching and mortality of the coral host and its algal symbiont, but a study looking at bacterial community changes is lacking. Here, we exposed the coral Fungia granulosa to strongly increased salinity levels in short- and long-term experiments to disentangle temporal and compartment effects of the coral holobiont (i.e. coral host, symbiotic algae and associated bacteria). Our results show a significant reduction in calcification and photosynthesis, but a stable microbiome after short-term exposure to high-salinity levels. By comparison, long-term exposure yielded unchanged photosynthesis levels and visually healthy coral colonies indicating long-term acclimation to high-salinity levels that were accompanied by a major coral microbiome restructuring. Importantly, a bacterium in the family Rhodobacteraceae was succeeded by Pseudomonas veronii as the numerically most abundant taxon. Further, taxonomy-based functional profiling indicates a shift in the bacterial community towards increased osmolyte production, sulphur oxidation and nitrogen fixation. Our study highlights that bacterial community composition in corals can change within days to weeks under altered environmental conditions, where shifts in the microbiome may enable adjustment of the coral to a more advantageous holobiont composition. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Long-term salinity tolerance is accompanied by major restructuring of the coral bacterial microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2016-02-03

    Scleractinian corals are assumed to be stenohaline osmoconformers, although they are frequently subjected to variations in seawater salinity due to precipitation, freshwater runoff, and other processes. Observed responses to altered salinity levels include differences in photosynthetic performance, respiration, and increased bleaching and mortality of the coral host and its algal symbiont, but a study looking at bacterial community changes is lacking. Here we exposed the coral Fungia granulosa to strongly increased salinity levels in short- and long-term experiments to disentangle temporal and compartment effects of the coral holobiont (i.e. coral host, symbiotic algae, and associated bacteria). Our results show a significant reduction in calcification and photosynthesis, but a stable microbiome after short-term exposure to high salinity levels. By comparison, long-term exposure yielded unchanged photosynthesis levels and visually healthy coral colonies indicating long-term acclimation to high salinity levels that were accompanied by a major coral microbiome restructuring. Importantly, a bacterium in the family Rhodobacteraceae was succeeded by Pseudomonas veronii as the numerically most abundant taxon. Further, taxonomy-based functional profiling indicates a shift in the bacterial community towards increased osmolyte production, sulfur oxidation, and nitrogen fixation. Our study highlights that bacterial community composition in corals can change within days to weeks under altered environmental conditions, where shifts in the microbiome may enable adjustment of the coral to a more advantageous holobiont composition.

  13. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The activity of H(+)-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na(+) exclusion via Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H(+)-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. The kinetics of salt-induced net H(+), Na(+) and K(+) fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (-144 ± 3·3, -138 ± 5·4 and -128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux, Na(+) efflux and K(+) retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H(+) efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H(+)-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant's ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative membrane potential values and to

  14. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The activity of H+-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na+ exclusion via Na+/H+ exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H+-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. Methods The kinetics of salt-induced net H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Key Results Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (−144 ± 3·3, −138 ± 5·4 and −128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux, Na+ efflux and K+ retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H+ efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H+-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Conclusions Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant’s ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative

  15. Salt-induced stabilization of EIN3/EIL1 confers salinity tolerance by deterring ROS accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Peng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene has been regarded as a stress hormone to regulate myriad stress responses. Salinity stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses limiting plant growth and development. But how ethylene signaling is involved in plant response to salt stress is poorly understood. Here we showed that Arabidopsis plants pretreated with ethylene exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt stress. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that EIN3 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 and EIL1 (EIN3-LIKE 1, two ethylene-activated transcription factors, are necessary and sufficient for the enhanced salt tolerance. High salinity induced the accumulation of EIN3/EIL1 proteins by promoting the proteasomal degradation of two EIN3/EIL1-targeting F-box proteins, EBF1 and EBF2, in an EIN2-independent manner. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis identified a list of SIED (Salt-Induced and EIN3/EIL1-Dependent genes that participate in salt stress responses, including several genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers. We performed a genetic screen for ein3 eil1-like salt-hypersensitive mutants and identified 5 EIN3 direct target genes including a previously unknown gene, SIED1 (At5g22270, which encodes a 93-amino acid polypeptide involved in ROS dismissal. We also found that activation of EIN3 increased peroxidase (POD activity through the direct transcriptional regulation of PODs expression. Accordingly, ethylene pretreatment or EIN3 activation was able to preclude excess ROS accumulation and increased tolerance to salt stress. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the molecular action of ethylene signaling to enhance plant salt tolerance, and elucidates the transcriptional network of EIN3 in salt stress response.

  16. Salinity tolerance loci revealed in rice using high-throughput non-invasive phenotyping

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Tamimi, Nadia Ali; Brien, Chris; Oakey, Helena; Berger, Bettina; Saade, Stephanie; Ho, Yung Shwen; Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Tester, Mark A.; Negrã o, Só nia

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput phenotyping produces multiple measurements over time, which require new methods of analyses that are flexible in their quantification of plant growth and transpiration, yet are computationally economic. Here we develop such analyses and apply this to a rice population genotyped with a 700k SNP high-density array. Two rice diversity panels, indica and aus, containing a total of 553 genotypes, are phenotyped in waterlogged conditions. Using cubic smoothing splines to estimate plant growth and transpiration, we identify four time intervals that characterize the early responses of rice to salinity. Relative growth rate, transpiration rate and transpiration use efficiency (TUE) are analysed using a new association model that takes into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic marker. This model allows the identification of previously undetected loci affecting TUE on chromosome 11, providing insights into the early responses of rice to salinity, in particular into the effects of salinity on plant growth and transpiration.

  17. Salinity tolerance loci revealed in rice using high-throughput non-invasive phenotyping

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Tamimi, Nadia Ali

    2016-11-17

    High-throughput phenotyping produces multiple measurements over time, which require new methods of analyses that are flexible in their quantification of plant growth and transpiration, yet are computationally economic. Here we develop such analyses and apply this to a rice population genotyped with a 700k SNP high-density array. Two rice diversity panels, indica and aus, containing a total of 553 genotypes, are phenotyped in waterlogged conditions. Using cubic smoothing splines to estimate plant growth and transpiration, we identify four time intervals that characterize the early responses of rice to salinity. Relative growth rate, transpiration rate and transpiration use efficiency (TUE) are analysed using a new association model that takes into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic marker. This model allows the identification of previously undetected loci affecting TUE on chromosome 11, providing insights into the early responses of rice to salinity, in particular into the effects of salinity on plant growth and transpiration.

  18. Tolerância de bactérias diazotróficas simbióticas à salinidade in vitro Tolerance of diazotrophic symbiotic bacteria to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Simão Abrahão Nóbrega

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A busca de estirpes de bactérias diazotróficas simbióticas tolerantes à salinidade, em conjunto com a seleção de hospedeiros, tem por objetivo aumentar o desempenho da simbiose e manter a produtividade vegetal de forma sustentada em condições de estresse salino. Doze estirpes de bactérias diazotróficas de diferentes procedências foram estudadas quanto à tolerância a diferentes concentrações de NaCl em meios de cultura 79 e LB. As estirpes que apresentaram maior tolerância à salinidade (30 g L-1 em meio 79 foram: BR 6806 e BR 4007, ambas de crescimento rápido isoladas de solos do nordeste brasileiro, UFLA 03-51 e UFLA 03-65, de crescimento rápido e UFLA 03-84, de crescimento lento, sendo as três últimas oriundas da região Amazônica. Essas também estiveram entre as mais tolerantes em meio de cultura LB. A estirpe UFLA 03-84, selecionada em trabalhos prévios por sua alta eficiência para caupi (Vigna unguiculata, pode ser indicada para estudos de inoculação, visando a aumentar o rendimento dessa cultura em solos salinos. Os meios de cultura 79 e LB foram eficientes para avaliar a tolerância relativa de rizóbio a NaCl, mas o meio 79 é mais indicado, pois permite o crescimento de todas as estirpes. Pelos resultados, infere-se haver relação entre tolerância in vitro à salinidade e origem dos microssimbiontes, pois as estirpes BR 4007 e BR 6806, oriundas do Ceará, estiveram entre as mais tolerantes.Tolerance to salinity of diazotrophic bacteriaand their host species could increase plant growth and sustainability in salt stressed soils. Twelve diazotrophic bacteria strains were studied regarding their tolerance to different NaCl concentrations in 79 and LB media. More tolerant (30 g L-1 strains in 79 medium were: the fast growers BR 6806 and BR 4007, isolated from northeast Brazil, UFLA 03-51 and UFLA 03-65, and slow growing strain UFLA03-84, being these last three isolated from Amazon region. These strains were among

  19. Exogenous spermidine is enhancing tomato tolerance to salinity-alkalinity stress by regulating chloroplast antioxidant system and chlorophyll metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianming; Hu, Lipan; Zhang, Li; Pan, Xiongbo; Hu, Xiaohui

    2015-12-29

    Salinity-alkalinity stress is known to adversely affect a variety of processes in plants, thus inhibiting growth and decreasing crop yield. Polyamines protect plants against a variety of environmental stresses. However, whether exogenous spermidine increases the tolerance of tomato seedlings via effects on chloroplast antioxidant enzymes and chlorophyll metabolism is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous spermidine on chlorophyll synthesis and degradation pathway intermediates and related enzyme activities, as well as chloroplast ultrastructure, gene expression, and antioxidants in salinity-alkalinity-stressed tomato seedlings. Salinity-alkalinity stress disrupted chlorophyll metabolism and hindered uroorphyrinogen III conversion to protoporphyrin IX. These effects were more pronounced in seedlings of cultivar Zhongza No. 9 than cultivar Jinpengchaoguan. Under salinity-alkalinity stress, exogenous spermidine alleviated decreases in the contents of total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b in seedlings of both cultivars following 4 days of stress. With extended stress, exogenous spermidine reduced the accumulation of δ-aminolevulinic acid, porphobilinogen, and uroorphyrinogen III and increased the levels of protoporphyrin IX, Mg-protoporphyrin IX, and protochlorophyllide, suggesting that spermidine promotes the conversion of uroorphyrinogen III to protoporphyrin IX. The effect occurred earlier in cultivar Jinpengchaoguan than in cultivar Zhongza No. 9. Exogenous spermidine also alleviated the stress-induced increases in malondialdehyde content, superoxide radical generation rate, chlorophyllase activity, and expression of the chlorophyllase gene and the stress-induced decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, antioxidants, and expression of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene. In addition, exogenous spermidine stabilized the chloroplast ultrastructure in stressed tomato seedlings. The tomato cultivars examined exhibited different

  20. Exploration for the Salinity Tolerance-Related Genes from Xero-Halophyte Atriplex canescens Exploiting Yeast Functional Screening System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is limited by salinity stress, both in natural and agricultural systems. Identification of salt stress-related genes from halophyte can provide insights into mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in plants. Atriplex canescens is a xero-halophyte that exhibits optimum growth in the presence of 400 mM NaCl. A cDNA library derived from highly salt-treated A. canescens plants was constructed based on a yeast expression system. A total of 53 transgenic yeast clones expressing enhanced salt tolerance were selected from 105 transformants. Their plasmids were sequenced and the gene characteristics were annotated using a BLASTX search. Retransformation of yeast cells with the selected plasmids conferred salt tolerance to the resulting transformants. The expression patterns of 28 of these stress-related genes were further investigated in A. canescens leaves by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In this study, we provided a rapid and robust assay system for large-scale screening of genes for varied abiotic stress tolerance with high efficiency in A. canescens.

  1. Overexpression of GmDREB1 improves salt tolerance in transgenic wheat and leaf protein response to high salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyan Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB is able to improve tolerance to abiotic stress in plants by regulating the expression of downstream genes involved in environmental stress resistance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the salt tolerance of GmDREB1 transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and to evaluate its physiological and protein responses to salt stress. Compared with the wild type, the transgenic lines overexpressing GmDREB1 showed longer coleoptiles and radicles and a greater radicle number at the germination stage, as well as greater root length, fresh weight, and tiller number per plant at the seedling stage. The yield-related traits of transgenic lines were also improved compared with the wild type, indicating enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic lines overexpressing GmDREB1. Proteomics analysis revealed that osmotic- and oxidative-stress-related proteins were up-regulated in transgenic wheat leaves under salt stress conditions. Transgenic wheat had higher levels of proline and betaine and lower levels of malondialdehyde and relative electrolyte leakage than the wild type. These results suggest that GmDREB1 regulates the expression of osmotic- and oxidative-stress-related proteins that reduce the occurrence of cell injury caused by high salinity, thus improving the salt tolerance of transgenic wheat.

  2. Differential activation of genes related to aluminium tolerance in two contrasting rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló, Maite; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet; Barceló, Juan; Llugany, Mercè

    2015-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a highly Al-tolerant crop. Among other mechanisms, a higher expression of STAR1/STAR2 (sensitive to Al rhizotoxicity1/2) genes and of Nrat1 (NRAMP Aluminium Transporter 1), and ALS1 (Aluminium sensitive 1) can at least in part be responsible for the inducible Al tolerance in this species. Here we analysed the responses to Al in two contrasting rice varieties. All analysed toxicity/tolerance markers (root elongation, Evans blue, morin and haematoxylin staining) indicated higher Al-tolerance in variety Nipponbare, than in variety Modan. Nipponbare accumulated much less Al in the roots than Modan. Aluminium supply caused stronger expression of STAR1 in Nipponbare than in Modan. A distinctively higher increase of Al-induced abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation was found in the roots of Nipponbare than in Modan. Highest ABA levels were observed in Nipponbare after 48 h exposure to Al. This ABA peak was coincident in time with the highest expression level of STAR1. It is proposed that ABA may be required for cell wall remodulation facilitated by the enhanced UDP-glucose transport to the walls through STAR1/STAR2. Contrastingly, in the roots of Modan the expression of both Nrat1 coding for a plasma membrane Al-transporter and of ALS1 coding for a tonoplast-localized Al transporter was considerably enhanced. Moreover, Modan had a higher Al-induced expression of ASR1 a gene that has been proposed to code for a reactive oxygen scavenging protein. In conclusion, the Al-exclusion strategy of Nipponbare, at least in part mediated by STAR1 and probably regulated by ABA, provided better protection against Al toxicity than the accumulation and internal detoxification strategy of Modan mediated by Nrat1, ALS1 and ARS1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostic value of saline contrast sonohysterography comparing with hysteroscopy for detecting endometrial abnormalities in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Goharzad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presentation of uterine abnormalities among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for detecting the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.Materials and Methods: A total of 65 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in this study. A prior saline contrast sonohysetrography followed by a hysteroscopy was performed in all cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and test accuracy were calculated.Results: As the most common abnormality, SCSH showed hyperplasia in 19 patients while hysteroscopy diagnosed polyp in 15 cases. A sensitivity of 73.3%, 71.4% and 90.9% were reported for polyp, hyperplasia and submucous myoma respectively whereas the specificity was calculated 96% for polyps, 82.3% for hyperplasia and 90.7% for submucous myoma.Conclusion: Comparing with hysteroscopy, sonohysterography showed a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting submucous myoma but not for endometrial polyp and endometrial hyperplasia

  4. TRANSVAGINAL SONOGRAPHY COMBINED WITH SALINE CONTRAST SONOHYSTEROGRAPHY IN EVALUATING THE UTERINE CAVITY IN PREMENOPAUSAL PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. M. Premleel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH improved the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS for predicting endometrial abnormality in premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS The uterine cavity was evaluated with TVS and SCSH in 60 premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. All 58 patients underwent operative hysteroscopy or hysterectomy within 4 months which provided a detailed description of the uterine cavity and was used as the true value for exclusion of polyps and submucous myomas. RESULT Out of 60 patients, 45 had uterine abnormalities on TVS and SCSH and rest of the patients who appeared normal but had other abnormalities such as ovarian haemorrhagic cyst. Out of the 45 patients, 9 patients had submucous myomas and 9 were diagnosed as endometrial polyp. The findings were confirmed using hysterectomy/hysteroscopy/endometrial sampling. CONCLUSION The use of TVS without saline contrast left nine submucosal fibroids and five in nine of the polyps undiagnosed in referred patients with complaints of abnormal bleeding. It also helps in reducing the rate of more invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy. However, studies carried out for longer duration and large study population are required to validate our findings

  5. Reduced Tonoplast Fast-Activating and Slow-Activating Channel Activity Is Essential for Conferring Salinity Tolerance in a Facultative Halophyte, Quinoa1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Pottosin, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Halophyte species implement a “salt-including” strategy, sequestering significant amounts of Na+ to cell vacuoles. This requires a reduction of passive Na+ leak from the vacuole. In this work, we used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) to investigate the ability of halophytes to regulate Na+-permeable slow-activating (SV) and fast-activating (FV) tonoplast channels, linking it with Na+ accumulation in mesophyll cells and salt bladders as well as leaf photosynthetic efficiency under salt stress. Our data indicate that young leaves rely on Na+ exclusion to salt bladders, whereas old ones, possessing far fewer salt bladders, depend almost exclusively on Na+ sequestration to mesophyll vacuoles. Moreover, although old leaves accumulate more Na+, this does not compromise their leaf photochemistry. FV and SV channels are slightly more permeable for K+ than for Na+, and vacuoles in young leaves express less FV current and with a density unchanged in plants subjected to high (400 mm NaCl) salinity. In old leaves, with an intrinsically lower density of the FV current, FV channel density decreases about 2-fold in plants grown under high salinity. In contrast, intrinsic activity of SV channels in vacuoles from young leaves is unchanged under salt stress. In vacuoles of old leaves, however, it is 2- and 7-fold lower in older compared with young leaves in control- and salt-grown plants, respectively. We conclude that the negative control of SV and FV tonoplast channel activity in old leaves reduces Na+ leak, thus enabling efficient sequestration of Na+ to their vacuoles. This enables optimal photosynthetic performance, conferring salinity tolerance in quinoa species. PMID:23624857

  6. AtPep3 is a hormone-like peptide that plays a role in the salinity stress tolerance of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaminami, Kentaro; Okamoto, Masanori; Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Yube; Fukao, Yoichiro; Shimizu, Minami; Ohashi, Chihiro; Tanaka, Maho; Matsui, Minami; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Seki, Motoaki; Hanada, Kousuke

    2018-05-29

    Peptides encoded by small coding genes play an important role in plant development, acting in a similar manner as phytohormones. Few hormone-like peptides, however, have been shown to play a role in abiotic stress tolerance. In the current study, 17 Arabidopsis genes coding for small peptides were found to be up-regulated in response to salinity stress. To identify peptides leading salinity stress tolerance, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing these small coding genes and assessed survivability and root growth under salinity stress conditions. Results indicated that 4 of the 17 overexpressed genes increased salinity stress tolerance. Further studies focused on AtPROPEP3 , which was the most highly up-regulated gene under salinity stress. Treatment of plants with synthetic peptides encoded by AtPROPEP3 revealed that a C-terminal peptide fragment (AtPep3) inhibited the salt-induced bleaching of chlorophyll in seedlings. Conversely, knockdown AtPROPEP3 transgenic plants exhibited a hypersensitive phenotype under salinity stress, which was complemented by the AtPep3 peptide. This functional AtPep3 peptide region overlaps with an AtPep3 elicitor peptide that is related to the immune response of plants. Functional analyses with a receptor mutant of AtPep3 revealed that AtPep3 was recognized by the PEPR1 receptor and that it functions to increase salinity stress tolerance in plants. Collectively, these data indicate that AtPep3 plays a significant role in both salinity stress tolerance and immune response in Arabidopsis .

  7. Polarization-independent high-index contrast grating and its fabrication tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Kazuma; Takayose, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    also investigated the fabrication tolerances of the structure and found that, assuming careful optimizations of electron beam lithography for the precise grating width and dry-etching for the vertical sidewall, the suggested polarization-independent HCG can be fabricated using standard technologies.......A polarization-independent, high-index contrast grating (HCG) with a single layer of cross stripes allowing simple fabrication is proposed. Since the cross stripes structure can be suspended in air by selectively wet-etching the layer below, all the layers can be grown at once when implemented...

  8. Soil salinity: Germination tolerance of alternative oilseed crops for soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    World-wide, saline soils contribute to over US$27.3 billion in agricultural losses annually by reducing plant growth through osmotic imbalances and ion toxicity. Nearly 800,000 ha of salt affected land is located in the northern Great Plains. Limited information is available on the germination of al...

  9. Suspended silt and salinity tolerances of the first zoeal stage of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergo the zoeal stage of development in open-ocean waters, where they experience stable salinity levels, low turbidity and reduced predation. The St ... Despite recent attempts to improve marine connectivity, it remains limited, occurring primarily on the flood tide through channels connected to the adjacent Mfolozi River.

  10. Stress tolerance of a subtropical Crassostrea virginica population to the combined effects of temperature and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmayer, Olaf; DiGialleonardo, Julian J.; Qian, Lianfen; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2008-08-10

    The combination of salinity and temperature has synergistic effects on virtually all aspects of the biology of estuarine organisms. Of interest were site-specific characteristics in the response of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, from the St. Lucie River Estuary to the interactive effects of temperature and salinity. This estuary, one of the largest on the central east coast of Florida, is strongly influenced by anthropogenic modifications due to management needs to control the patterns of freshwater flow in the St. Lucie River watershed. C. virginica is designated a valued ecosystem component for monitoring the health of this estuary. Our approach used a multidimensional response surface design to study the effects of temperature and salinity on sublethal measures of oyster performance: (1) body condition index as an overall indicator of bioenergetic status and (2) the RNA/DNA ratio as a biochemical indicator of cellular stress. The results showed that there was a greater ability to withstand extreme salinity conditions at lower temperatures. However, there were no site-specific attributes that differentiated the response of the St. Lucie Estuary population from populations along the distribution range. Condition index was a less variable response than the RNA/DNA ratio, and the final models for mean condition index and the RNA:DNA ratios explained 77.3% and 35.8% of the respective variances.

  11. Osmoregulatory physiology and rapid evolution of salinity tolerance in threespine stickleback recently introduced to fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divino, Jeffrey N; Monette, Michelle Y.; McCormick, Stephen; Yancey, Paul H.; Flannery, Kyle G.; Bell, Michael A.; Rollins, Jennifer L.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Schultz, Eric T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Post-Pleistocene diversification of threespine stickleback in fresh water offers a valuable opportunity to study how changes in environmental salinity shape physiological evolution in fish. In Alaska, the presence of both ancestral oceanic populations and derived landlocked populations, including recent lake introductions, allows us to examine rates and direction of evolution of osmoregulation following halohabitat transition.

  12. Influence of osmolarity of contrast medium and saline flush on computed tomography angiography: Comparison of monomeric and dimeric iodinated contrast media with different iodine concentrations at an identical iodine delivery rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Miori; Doi, Shoko; Shimizu, Junichiro; Lee, Ki-Ja; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of osmolarity of iodinated contrast media and saline flush on the contrast effect in thoracic computed tomography angiography (CTA) at an identical iodine delivery rate (IDR). Materials and methods: Seven beagles were used in a cross-over experiment. The contrast media used were iohexol 350 mgI/ml (IOH350; osmolarity 844 mmol/kg) and iodixanol 320 mgI/ml (IDX320; osmolarity 290 mmol/kg). Each contrast medium was administered to groups with and without saline flush at 40.0 mgI/kg/s for all experiments. Dynamic CT scanning was performed at the ninth thoracic vertebra level. The peak value, area under the curve (AUC), and time to peak (TTP) were calculated from the time attenuation curves of the pulmonary artery and aorta. Results: There was no significant difference between IOH350 and IDX320 with or without saline flush in the peak values for the pulmonary artery and aorta. AUC was significantly higher in groups with saline flush for both contrast media and arteries (p < 0.05) with no significant difference between contrast media. TTP was significantly longer in groups with saline flush than without saline flush for both contrast media and arteries (p < 0.05), with no significant difference between contrast media. Conclusions: There were no significant differences in the contrast effects of monomeric IOH350 and dimeric IDX320 in thoracic CTA when used at an identical IDR. Moreover, saline flush prolonged the peak duration at 600 mgI/kg.

  13. Changes in the salinity tolerance of sweet pepper plants as affected by nitrogen form and high CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, María C; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2016-08-01

    The assimilation and availability of nitrogen in its different forms can significantly affect the response of primary productivity under the current atmospheric alteration and soil degradation. An elevated CO2 concentration (e[CO2]) triggers changes in the efficiency and efficacy of photosynthetic processes, water use and product yield, the plant response to stress being altered with respect to ambient CO2 conditions (a[CO2]). Additionally, NH4(+) has been related to improved plant responses to stress, considering both energy efficiency in N-assimilation and the overcoming of the inhibition of photorespiration at e[CO2]. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the response of sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) receiving an additional supply of NH4(+) (90/10 NO3(-)/NH4(+)) to salinity stress (60mM NaCl) under a[CO2] (400μmolmol(-1)) or e[CO2] (800μmolmol(-1)). Salt-stressed plants grown at e[CO2] showed DW accumulation similar to that of the non-stressed plants at a[CO2]. The supply of NH4(+) reduced growth at e[CO2] when salinity was imposed. Moreover, NH4(+) differentially affected the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency and the leaf Cl(-), K(+), and Na(+) concentrations, but the extent of the effects was influenced by the [CO2]. An antioxidant-related response was prompted by salinity, the total phenolics and proline concentrations being reduced by NH4(+) at e[CO2]. Our results show that the effect of NH4(+) on plant salinity tolerance should be globally re-evaluated as e[CO2] can significantly alter the response, when compared with previous studies at a[CO2]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological, Biochemical, Epigenetic and Molecular Analyses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum Genotypes with Contrasting Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress exerts significant impact on plant’s growth, development, and productivity. Productivity of crop plants under salt stress is lagging behind because of our limited knowledge about physiological, biochemical, epigenetic, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants. This study aimed to investigate physio-biochemical, molecular indices and defense responses of selected wheat cultivars to identify the most contrasting salt-responsive genotypes and the mechanisms associated with their differential responses. Physio-biochemical traits specifically membrane stability index, antioxidant potential, osmoprotectants and chlorophyll contents, measured at vegetative stage, were used for multivariate analysis to identify the most contrasting genotypes. Genetic and epigenetic analyses indicated the possible mechanisms associated with differential response of the wheat genotypes under salt stress. Better antioxidant potential, membrane stability, increased accumulation of osmolytes/phytophenolics, and higher K+/Na+ ratio under 200 mM NaCl stress identified Kharchia-65 to be the most salt-tolerant cultivar. By contrast, increased MDA level, reduced soluble sugar, proline, total chlorophyll, total phenolics contents, and lower antioxidant potential in HD-2329 marked it to be sensitive to the stress. Genetic and bioinformatics analyses of HKT1;4 of contrasting genotypes (Kharchia-65 and HD-2329 revealed deletions, transitions, and transversions resulting into altered structure, loss of conserved motifs (Ser-Gly-Gly-Gly and Gly-Arg and function in salt-sensitive (HD-2329 genotype. Expression analysis of HKTs rationalized the observed responses. Epigenetic variations in cytosine methylation explained tissue- and genotype-specific differential expression of HKT2;1 and HKT2;3.

  15. Temporal dynamic responses of roots in contrasting tomato genotypes to cadmium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karina Lima Reis; Salvato, Fernanda; Alcântara, Berenice Kussumoto; Nalin, Rafael Storto; Piotto, Fernando Ângelo; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2018-04-01

    Despite numerous studies on cadmium (Cd) uptake and accumulation in crops, relatively little is available considering the temporal dynamic of Cd uptake and responses to stress focused on the root system. Here we highlighted the responses to Cd-induced stress in roots of two tomato genotypes contrasting in Cd-tolerance: the tolerant Pusa Ruby and the sensitive Calabash Rouge. Tomato genotypes growing in the presence of 35 μM CdCl 2 exhibited a similar trend of Cd accumulation in tissues, mainly in the root system and overall plants exhibited reduction in the dry matter weight. Both genotypes showed similar trends for malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide accumulation with increases when exposed to Cd, being this response more pronounced in the sensitive genotype. When the antioxidant machinery is concerned, in the presence of Cd the reduced glutathione content was decreased in roots while ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased in the presence of Cd in the tolerant genotype. Altogether these results suggest APX, GR and GST as the main players of the antioxidant machinery against Cd-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals molecular mechanism of seedling roots of different salt tolerant soybean genotypes in responses to salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Ma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit agricultural yield. To understand salt-responsive protein networks in soybean seedling, the extracted proteins from seedling roots of two different genotypes (Lee 68 and Jackson were analyzed under salt stress by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sixty-eight differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. The identified proteins were involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Proteins correlated to brassinosteroid and gilbberellin signalings were significantly increased only in the genotype Lee 68 under salt stress; abscisic acid content was positively correlated with this genotype; proteins that can be correlated to Ca2+ signaling were more strongly enhanced by salt stress in the seedling roots of genotype Lee 68 than in those of genotype Jackson; moreover, genotype Lee 68 had stronger capability of reactive oxygen species scavenging and cell K+/Na+ homeostasis maintaining in seedling roots than genotype Jackson under salt stress. Since the genotype Lee 68 has been described in literature as being tolerant and Jackson as sensitive, we hypothesize that these major differences in the genotype Lee 68 might contribute to salt tolerance. Combined with our previous comparative proteomics analysis on seedling leaves, the similarities and differences between the salt-responsive protein networks found in the seedling leaves and roots of both the genotypes were discussed. Such a result will be helpful in breeding of salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  17. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  18. Effects of external potassium (k) supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiguang; Li, Caihong; Li, Yong; Jiang, Gaoming; Cheng, Guanglei; Zheng, Yanhai

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM) and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20%) for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+) content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL) and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  19. Stress-inducible GmGSTU4 shapes transgenic tobacco plants metabolome towards increased salinity tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissoudis, Christos; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Madesis, Panagiotis; Labrou, Nikolaos E.; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of glutathione transferases (GSTs) in plant’s tolerance to abiotic stresses has been extensively studied; however, the metabolic changes occurring in the plants with altered GSTs expression have not been studied in detail. We have previously demonstrated that GmGSTU4

  20. Genomic arrangement of salinity tolerance QTLs in salmonids: A comparative analysis of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Joseph D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative trait locus (QTL studies show that variation in salinity tolerance in Arctic charr and rainbow trout has a genetic basis, even though both these species have low to moderate salinity tolerance capacities. QTL were observed to localize to homologous linkage group segments within putative chromosomal regions possessing multiple candidate genes. We compared salinity tolerance QTL in rainbow trout and Arctic charr to those detected in a higher salinity tolerant species, Atlantic salmon. The highly derived karyotype of Atlantic salmon allows for the assessment of whether disparity in salinity tolerance in salmonids is associated with differences in genetic architecture. To facilitate these comparisons, we examined the genomic synteny patterns of key candidate genes in the other model teleost fishes that have experienced three whole-genome duplication (3R events which preceded a fourth (4R whole genome duplication event common to all salmonid species. Results Nine linkage groups contained chromosome-wide significant QTL (AS-2, -4p, -4q, -5, -9, -12p, -12q, -14q -17q, -22, and −23, while a single genome-wide significant QTL was located on AS-4q. Salmonid genomes shared the greatest marker homology with the genome of three-spined stickleback. All linkage group arms in Atlantic salmon were syntenic with at least one stickleback chromosome, while 18 arms had multiple affinities. Arm fusions in Atlantic salmon were often between multiple regions bearing salinity tolerance QTL. Nine linkage groups in Arctic charr and six linkage group arms in rainbow trout currently have no synteny alignments with stickleback chromosomes, while eight rainbow trout linkage group arms were syntenic with multiple stickleback chromosomes. Rearrangements in the stickleback lineage involving fusions of ancestral arm segments could account for the 21 chromosome pairs observed in the stickleback karyotype. Conclusions Salinity tolerance in

  1. Clinical application of hysterosalpingography with a double-lumen catheter of a contrast media combination consisting iohexol and saline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Jiayuan; Jiang Yong; Cao Xinhua; Zhu Ying; Lv Liang; Zhao Xinxiang; Wei Dingying; Shao Jingxuan; Hua Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of hysteosalpingographic diagnosis in infertile women. Methods: After a catheter with a double-lumen saccule was inserted into the uterine cavity, saline or air of 2.5-3.5 ml was injected to fill the saccule. The filled saccule was inserted at the isthmus of uterus for blocking the internal orifice. The contrast medium was injected through the catheter into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes to undertake hysterosalpingography and fallopian tube reopening. In case of fallopian tube obstruction, the injection pressure could be increased to obtain recanalization. All operations and selective imagings were carried out under TV supervision. Results: 2698 cases including 806 primary infertile women and 1868 secondary infertile women were examined by this method. Technical success rate was 99.5% with 2198 cases (81.9%) having normal uterus, 249 (9.3%) congenital abnormal uterus and 238 (8.9%) uterus diseases. The number of obstructed fallopian tube was 3028 with 117 serious hydropsy (3.8%). Ninety-eight cases had been examined with lipiodol hysterosalpingography in other hospitals with 35 cases still having lipiodol accumulated within the uterine cavities and fallopian tubes. No serious complications or death occurred except slight pain. Conclusions: Double-lumen cather with a contrast media combination of iohexol and saline for hysterosal pinography is safe, easy and effective, outcoming with excellent quality images. More information can be gained with this method than traditional lipiodol hyterosalpinography, and furthermore could have compression during radiogrophy and avoid the long term stasis of lipiodol. (authors)

  2. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  3. High-Throughput Non-destructive Phenotyping of Traits that Contribute to Salinity Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Awlia, Mariam

    2016-09-28

    Reproducible and efficient high-throughput phenotyping approaches, combined with advances in genome sequencing, are facilitating the discovery of genes affecting plant performance. Salinity tolerance is a desirable trait that can be achieved through breeding, where most have aimed at selecting for plants that perform effective ion exclusion from the shoots. To determine overall plant performance under salt stress, it is helpful to investigate several plant traits collectively in one experimental setup. Hence, we developed a quantitative phenotyping protocol using a high-throughput phenotyping system, with RGB and chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) imaging, which captures the growth, morphology, color and photosynthetic performance of Arabidopsis thaliana plants in response to salt stress. We optimized our salt treatment by controlling the soil-water content prior to introducing salt stress. We investigated these traits over time in two accessions in soil at 150, 100, or 50 mM NaCl to find that the plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl showed the most prominent responses in the absence of symptoms of severe stress. In these plants, salt stress induced significant changes in rosette area and morphology, but less prominent changes in rosette coloring and photosystem II efficiency. Clustering of ChlF traits with plant growth of nine accessions maintained at 100 mM NaCl revealed that in the early stage of salt stress, salinity tolerance correlated with non-photochemical quenching processes and during the later stage, plant performance correlated with quantum yield. This integrative approach allows the simultaneous analysis of several phenotypic traits. In combination with various genetic resources, the phenotyping protocol described here is expected to increase our understanding of plant performance and stress responses, ultimately identifying genes that improve plant performance in salt stress conditions.

  4. Combining zygotic embryo culture and mutation induction to improve salinity tolerance in avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, J. L.; Santiago, L.; Alvarez, A.; Valdés, Y.; Vernhe, M.; Guerra, M.; Altanez, S.; Prieto, E. F. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Miramar, Playa, C. Habana (Cuba); Rodríguez, N. N.; Arbelo, O. Coto; Velázquez, B.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sourd, D. G.; Fuentes, V. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones de Fruticultura Tropical (IICF), Miramar, Playa, C. Habana (Cuba); Leal, M. R. [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, C. Habana (Cuba)

    2009-05-15

    Mutation induction and biotechnological techniques are some of the current approaches used in plant breeding. In the present work radiation-induced mutation followed by in vitro culture of zygotic embryos and high osmotic pressure selection methods to improve salt tolerance in avocado are investigated. The in vitro germination, rooting, bud multiplication and plantlet acclimatization of Cuban avocado varieties were recorded. The germination rates of whole embryos in vitro were found to be higher when using mature rather than immature embryos. Almost 80% of the whole embryos derived plantlets produced were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. An in vitro propagation method for avocado breeding purposes was optimized and documented. However, in vitro multiplication results indicated the need to improve bud multiplication methods in avocado. The survival rates of gamma rays irradiated and salt pressured avocado embryos were also investigated. Both mutagenic (LD{sub 50} = 27-28 Gy) and selective (LD{sub 20} = 157 mM of NaCl) doses were established. A procedure combining zygotic embryo culture and mutation induction was used to obtain. Putative mutant lines derived from salt tolerant rootstocks were developed. Putative M{sub 1}V{sub 3} progenies were planted in the field for segregation analysis. An avocado gene bank was established under the same study. Therefore this methodology appears as an alternative to traditional breeding methods, particularly for improving agronomic characteristics such as salt tolerance in avocado. (author)

  5. Salt Stress in Thellungiella halophila Activates Na+ Transport Mechanisms Required for Salinity Tolerance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; García-Ramírez, Liliana; Pantoja, Omar

    2005-01-01

    Salinity is considered one of the major limiting factors for plant growth and agricultural productivity. We are using salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) to identify biochemical mechanisms that enable plants to grow in saline conditions. Under salt stress, the major site of Na+ accumulation occurred in old leaves, followed by young leaves and taproots, with the least accumulation occurring in lateral roots. Salt treatment increased both the H+ transport and hydrolytic activity of salt cress tonoplast (TP) and plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases from leaves and roots. TP Na+/H+ exchange was greatly stimulated by growth of the plants in NaCl, both in leaves and roots. Expression of the PM H+-ATPase isoform AHA3, the Na+ transporter HKT1, and the Na+/H+ exchanger SOS1 were examined in PMs isolated from control and salt-treated salt cress roots and leaves. An increased expression of SOS1, but no changes in levels of AHA3 and HKT1, was observed. NHX1 was only detected in PM fractions of roots, and a salt-induced increase in protein expression was observed. Analysis of the levels of expression of vacuolar H+-translocating ATPase subunits showed no major changes in protein expression of subunits VHA-A or VHA-B with salt treatment; however, VHA-E showed an increased expression in leaf tissue, but not in roots, when the plants were treated with NaCl. Salt cress plants were able to distribute and store Na+ by a very strict control of ion movement across both the TP and PM. PMID:16244148

  6. Salt stress in Thellungiella halophila activates Na+ transport mechanisms required for salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; García-Ramírez, Liliana; Pantoja, Omar

    2005-11-01

    Salinity is considered one of the major limiting factors for plant growth and agricultural productivity. We are using salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) to identify biochemical mechanisms that enable plants to grow in saline conditions. Under salt stress, the major site of Na+ accumulation occurred in old leaves, followed by young leaves and taproots, with the least accumulation occurring in lateral roots. Salt treatment increased both the H+ transport and hydrolytic activity of salt cress tonoplast (TP) and plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases from leaves and roots. TP Na(+)/H+ exchange was greatly stimulated by growth of the plants in NaCl, both in leaves and roots. Expression of the PM H(+)-ATPase isoform AHA3, the Na+ transporter HKT1, and the Na(+)/H+ exchanger SOS1 were examined in PMs isolated from control and salt-treated salt cress roots and leaves. An increased expression of SOS1, but no changes in levels of AHA3 and HKT1, was observed. NHX1 was only detected in PM fractions of roots, and a salt-induced increase in protein expression was observed. Analysis of the levels of expression of vacuolar H(+)-translocating ATPase subunits showed no major changes in protein expression of subunits VHA-A or VHA-B with salt treatment; however, VHA-E showed an increased expression in leaf tissue, but not in roots, when the plants were treated with NaCl. Salt cress plants were able to distribute and store Na+ by a very strict control of ion movement across both the TP and PM.

  7. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  8. Comparative study of salinity tolerance of an oceanic sea skater, Halobates micans and its closely related fresh water species, Metrocoris histrio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekimoto, T.; Osumi, Y.; Shiraki, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Emi, K.; Nakajo, M.; Moku, M.; Košťál, Vladimír; Katagiri, C.; Harada, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 14 (2014), s. 1141-1148 ISSN 2150-4091 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ocean ic sea skaters * fresh water halobatinae species * salinity tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49746

  9. GmSALT3, which Confers Improved Soybean Salt Tolerance in the Field, Increases Leaf Cl– Exclusion prior to Na+ Exclusion but does not Improve Early Vigour under Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity reduces soybean growth and yield. The recently identified GmSALT3 (Glycine max salt Tolerance-associated gene on chromosome 3 has the potential to improve soybean yields in salinized conditions. To evaluate the impact of GmSALT3 on soybean performance under saline or non-saline conditions, three sets of near isogenic lines (NILs, with genetic similarity 95.6-99.3% between each pair of NIL-T and NIL-S, were generated from a cross between two varieties, 85-140 (salt-sensitive, S and Tiefeng 8 (salt-tolerant, T by using marker-assisted selection. Each NIL; 782-T, 820-T and 860-T, contained a common ~1000 kb fragment on chromosome 3 where GmSALT3 was located. We show that GmSALT3 does not contribute to an improvement in seedling emergence rate or early vigour under salt stress. However, when 12-day-old seedlings were exposed to NaCl stress, the NIL-T lines accumulated significantly less leaf Na+ compared with their corresponding NIL-S, while no significant difference of K+ concentration was observed between NIL-T and NIL-S; the magnitude of Na+ accumulation within each NIL-T set was influenced by the different genetic backgrounds. In addition, NIL-T lines accumulated less Cl– in the leaf and more in the root prior to any difference in Na+; in the field they accumulated less pod wall Cl– than the corresponding NIL-S lines. Under non-saline field conditions, no significant differences were observed for yield related traits within each pair of NIL-T and NIL-S lines, indicating there was no yield penalty for having the GmSALT3 gene. In contrast, under saline field conditions the NIL-T lines had significantly greater plant seed weight and 100-seed weight than the corresponding NIL-S lines, meaning GmSALT3 conferred a yield advantage to soybean plants in salinized fields. Our results indicated that GmSALT3 mediated regulation of both Na+ and Cl– accumulation in soybean, and contributes to improved soybean yield through maintaining a

  10. Randomized trial of one-hour sodium bicarbonate vs standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing cardiovascular contrast procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kooiman

    Full Text Available Guidelines advise periprocedural saline hydration for prevention of contrast induced-acute kidney injury (CI-AKI. We analysed whether 1-hour sodium bicarbonate hydration administered solely prior to intra-arterial contrast exposure is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients undergoing elective cardiovascular diagnostic or interventional contrast procedures.We performed an open-label multicentre non-inferiority trial between 2011-2014. Patients were randomized to 1 hour pre-procedure sodium bicarbonate hydration (250 ml 1.4%, N = 168 or 4-12 hours saline hydration (1000 ml 0.9%, N = 165 prior to and following contrast administration (2000 ml of saline total. Primary outcome was the relative serum creatinine increase (% 48-96 hours post contrast exposure. Secondary outcomes were: incidence of CI-AKI (serum creatinine increase>25% or >44μmol/L, recovery of renal function, the need for dialysis, and hospital costs within two months follow-up.Mean relative creatinine increase was 3.1% (95%CI 0.9 to 5.2% in the bicarbonate and 1.1% (95%CI -1.2 to 3.5% in the saline arm, mean difference 1.9% (95%CI -1.2 to 5.1%, p-non-inferiority <0.001. CI-AKI occurred in 11 (6.7% patients randomized to sodium bicarbonate and 12 (7.5% to saline (p = 0.79. Renal function did not fully recover in 40.0% and 44.4% of CI-AKI patients, respectively (p = 0.84. No patient required dialysis. Mean costs for preventive hydration and clinical preparation for the contrast procedure were $1158 for sodium bicarbonate vs. $1561 for saline (p < 0.001.Short hydration with sodium bicarbonate prior to elective cardiovascular diagnostic or therapeutic contrast procedures is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in CKD patients with respect to renal safety and results in considerable healthcare savings.Netherlands Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp, Nr NTR2699.

  11. Randomized trial of one-hour sodium bicarbonate vs standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing cardiovascular contrast procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiman, Judith; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Van der Heyden, Jan; Sijpkens, Yvo W J; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Wever, Jan J; van Overhagen, Hans; Vahl, Antonie C; Aarts, Nico; Verberk-Jonkers, Iris J A M; Brulez, Harald F H; Hamming, Jaap F; van der Molen, Aart J; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Putter, Hein; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Kilicsoy, Inci; Rabelink, Ton J; Huisman, Menno V

    2018-01-01

    Guidelines advise periprocedural saline hydration for prevention of contrast induced-acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We analysed whether 1-hour sodium bicarbonate hydration administered solely prior to intra-arterial contrast exposure is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing elective cardiovascular diagnostic or interventional contrast procedures. We performed an open-label multicentre non-inferiority trial between 2011-2014. Patients were randomized to 1 hour pre-procedure sodium bicarbonate hydration (250 ml 1.4%, N = 168) or 4-12 hours saline hydration (1000 ml 0.9%, N = 165) prior to and following contrast administration (2000 ml of saline total). Primary outcome was the relative serum creatinine increase (%) 48-96 hours post contrast exposure. Secondary outcomes were: incidence of CI-AKI (serum creatinine increase>25% or >44μmol/L), recovery of renal function, the need for dialysis, and hospital costs within two months follow-up. Mean relative creatinine increase was 3.1% (95%CI 0.9 to 5.2%) in the bicarbonate and 1.1% (95%CI -1.2 to 3.5%) in the saline arm, mean difference 1.9% (95%CI -1.2 to 5.1%, p-non-inferiority <0.001). CI-AKI occurred in 11 (6.7%) patients randomized to sodium bicarbonate and 12 (7.5%) to saline (p = 0.79). Renal function did not fully recover in 40.0% and 44.4% of CI-AKI patients, respectively (p = 0.84). No patient required dialysis. Mean costs for preventive hydration and clinical preparation for the contrast procedure were $1158 for sodium bicarbonate vs. $1561 for saline (p < 0.001). Short hydration with sodium bicarbonate prior to elective cardiovascular diagnostic or therapeutic contrast procedures is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in CKD patients with respect to renal safety and results in considerable healthcare savings. Netherlands Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp), Nr NTR2699.

  12. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Jain, Parul; Pham, Xuan Hoi; Tuteja, Renu

    2014-01-01

    The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum) and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant. The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities. To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  13. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant.The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities.To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  14. Genetics of Na+ exclusion and salinity tolerance in Afghani durum wheat landraces

    KAUST Repository

    Shamaya, Nawar Jalal; Shavrukov, Yuri; Langridge, Peter; Roy, Stuart John; Tester, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundSelecting for low concentration of Na+ in the shoot provides one approach for tackling salinity stress that adversely affects crop production. Novel alleles for Na+ exclusion can be identified and then introduced into elite crop cultivars.ResultsWe have identified loci associated with lower Na+ concentration in leaves of durum wheat landraces originating from Afghanistan. Seedlings of two F2 populations derived from crossings between Australian durum wheat (Jandaroi) and two Afghani landraces (AUS-14740 and AUS-14752) were grown hydroponically and evaluated for Na+ and K+ concentration in the third leaf. High heritability was found for both third leaf Na+ concentration and the K+/Na+ ratio in both populations. Further work focussed on line AUS-14740. Bulk segregant analysis using 9 K SNP markers identified two loci significantly associated with third leaf Na+ concentration. Marker regression analysis showed a strong association between all traits studied and a favourable allele originating from AUS-14740 located on the long arm of chromosome 4B.ConclusionsThe candidate gene in the relevant region of chromosome 4B is likely to be the high affinity K+ transporter B1 (HKT1;5-B1). A second locus associated with third leaf Na+ concentration was located on chromosome 3BL, with the favourable allele originating from Jandaroi; however, no candidate gene can be identified.

  15. Genetics of Na+ exclusion and salinity tolerance in Afghani durum wheat landraces

    KAUST Repository

    Shamaya, Nawar Jalal

    2017-11-21

    BackgroundSelecting for low concentration of Na+ in the shoot provides one approach for tackling salinity stress that adversely affects crop production. Novel alleles for Na+ exclusion can be identified and then introduced into elite crop cultivars.ResultsWe have identified loci associated with lower Na+ concentration in leaves of durum wheat landraces originating from Afghanistan. Seedlings of two F2 populations derived from crossings between Australian durum wheat (Jandaroi) and two Afghani landraces (AUS-14740 and AUS-14752) were grown hydroponically and evaluated for Na+ and K+ concentration in the third leaf. High heritability was found for both third leaf Na+ concentration and the K+/Na+ ratio in both populations. Further work focussed on line AUS-14740. Bulk segregant analysis using 9 K SNP markers identified two loci significantly associated with third leaf Na+ concentration. Marker regression analysis showed a strong association between all traits studied and a favourable allele originating from AUS-14740 located on the long arm of chromosome 4B.ConclusionsThe candidate gene in the relevant region of chromosome 4B is likely to be the high affinity K+ transporter B1 (HKT1;5-B1). A second locus associated with third leaf Na+ concentration was located on chromosome 3BL, with the favourable allele originating from Jandaroi; however, no candidate gene can be identified.

  16. Silicon-mediated Improvement in Plant Salinity Tolerance: The Role of Aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Rios

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is an abundant and differentially distributed element in soils that is believed to have important biological functions. However, the benefits of Si and its essentiality in plants are controversial due to differences among species in their ability to take up this element. Despite this, there is a consensus that the application of Si improves the water status of plants under abiotic stress conditions. Hence, plants treated with Si are able to maintain a high stomatal conductance and transpiration rate under salt stress, suggesting that a reduction in Na+ uptake occurs due to deposition of Si in the root. In addition, root hydraulic conductivity increases when Si is applied. As a result, a Si-mediated upregulation of aquaporin (PIP gene expression is observed in relation to increased root hydraulic conductivity and water uptake. Aquaporins of the subclass nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins are further involved in allowing Si entry into the cell. Therefore, on the basis of available published results and recent developments, we propose a model to explain how Si absorption alleviates stress in plants grown under saline conditions through the conjugated action of different aquaporins.

  17. Influence of Rhizobacterium Inoculation on NaCl Salinity Tolerance in Pusa Sukomal and RC101 Varieties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Chaturvedi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In the present study, the effect of rhizobacterium strains BR2 and BR3 on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. varieties—Pusa Sukomal and RC101—tolerance to 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM concentrations of NaCl salinity was evaluated. The rate of growth, in general, was high in plants irrigated with 25 mM NaCl saline water as compared to control, and thereafter, the growth reduced with increase in salinity concentrations. The results revealed that treating the seeds with rhizobacteria accompanied by NaCl salinity increased growth parameters of the cowpea plant as compared to the seeds irrigated with sodium chloride alone. Treatment with rhizobacteria mitigated the harmful effect of NaCl, and the growth was significantly better than the plants growing in saline water without rhizobacterium inoculation. The overall performance of Pusa Sukomal with BR3 strain was found to be better than the other combinations tested. Flowering in field plants started within 45 days of sowing, and the seeds in plants irrigated with saline water, in the presence of rhizobacterium, were found to be healthy as compared to control seeds. Seed protein profile was analyzed by SDS PAGE gel studies.

  18. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    -arid zones. The increasing demand for water has created tremendous pressures on water resources that have resulted in lowering water level and increasing salinization. For example, in the Middle East salinity is the main factor that limits water utilization, and future prospects for water use in Israel, Palestinian Authority, and Jordan are overshadowed by the increasing salinization (Vengosh and Rosenthal, 1994; Salameh, 1996). The salinity problem has numerous grave economic, social, and political consequences, particularly in cross-boundary basins that are shared by different communities (e.g., Salinas Valley California; Vengosh et al., 2002a), friendly states (e.g., salinization of the Colorado River along Mexico-US border; Stanton et al., 2001), and hostile states (e.g., the Jordan River, Vengosh et al., 2001; Aral Basin, Weinthal, 2002; Euphrates River, Beaumont, 1996; and the Nile River, Ohlsson, 1995).Salinization of water resources also affects agricultural management. The type of irrigation water and its quality determine the salinity and fertility of the soil and eventually the quality of the underlying water resource. The use of treated wastewater or other marginal water (e.g., brackish water) depends on the salinity and the chemical composition of the water. Treated wastewater with high contents of chloride, sodium, and boron is suitable only for salt-tolerant crops and requires special treatment of the soil. Finally, high boron in irrigation water and consequently in soil water is also an important limiting factor for crops, as boron is an essential micronutrient for plants but becomes toxic at high levels (typically >0.75 mg L-1 in irrigation water).This chapter investigates the different mechanisms and geochemistry of salinization in different parts of the world. The role of the unsaturated zone in shaping the chemical composition of dryland salinization is discussed. Special emphasis is on the anthropogenic effects and to man-made fluids and reused water

  19. A moso bamboo WRKY gene PeWRKY83 confers salinity tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Liu, Huanlong; Han, Guomin; Cai, Ronghao; Pan, Feng; Xiang, Yan

    2017-09-15

    The WRKY family are transcription factors, involved in plant development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo is an important bamboo that has high ecological, economic and cultural value and is widely distributed in the south of China. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification of WRKY members in moso bamboo and identified 89 members. By comparative analysis in six grass genomes, we found the WRKY gene family may have experienced or be experiencing purifying selection. Based on relative expression levels among WRKY IIc members under three abiotic stresses, PeWRKY83 functioned as a transcription factor and was selected for detailed analysis. The transgenic Arabidopsis of PeWRKY83 showed superior physiological properties compared with the WT under salt stress. Overexpression plants were less sensitive to ABA at both germination and postgermination stages and accumulated more endogenous ABA under salt stress conditions. Further studies demonstrated that overexpression of PeWRKY83 could regulate the expression of some ABA biosynthesis genes (AtAAO3, AtNCED2, AtNCED3), signaling genes (AtABI1, AtPP2CA) and responsive genes (AtRD29A, AtRD29B, AtABF1) under salt stress. Together, these results suggested that PeWRKY83 functions as a novel WRKY-related TF which plays a positive role in salt tolerance by regulating stress-induced ABA synthesis.

  20. Overexpression of a Triticum aestivum Calreticulin gene (TaCRT1 Improves Salinity Tolerance in Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT is a highly conserved and abundant multifunctional protein that is encoded by a small gene family and is often associated with abiotic/biotic stress responses in plants. However, the roles played by this protein in salt stress responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum remain obscure. In this study, three TaCRT genes were identified in wheat and named TaCRT1, TaCRT2 and TaCRT3-1 based on their sequence characteristics and their high homology to other known CRT genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that these three genes exhibit different expression patterns in different tissues and are strongly induced under salt stress in wheat. The calcium-binding properties of the purified recombinant TaCRT1 protein were determined using a PIPES/Arsenazo III analysis. TaCRT1 gene overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum decreased salt stress damage in transgenic tobacco plants. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco plants showed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT than non-transgenic tobacco under normal growth conditions. Interestingly, overexpression of the entire TaCRT1 gene or of partial TaCRT1 segments resulted in significantly higher tolerance to salt stress in transgenic plants compared with their WT counterparts, thus revealing the essential role of the C-domain of TaCRT1 in countering salt stress in plants.

  1. Futile Na+ cycling at the root plasma membrane in rice (Oryza sativa L.): kinetics, energetics, and relationship to salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoli, Philippe; Britto, Dev T; Schulze, Lasse M; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2008-01-01

    Globally, over one-third of irrigated land is affected by salinity, including much of the land under lowland rice cultivation in the tropics, seriously compromising yields of this most important of crop species. However, there remains an insufficient understanding of the cellular basis of salt tolerance in rice. Here, three methods of 24Na+ tracer analysis were used to investigate primary Na+ transport at the root plasma membrane in a salt-tolerant rice cultivar (Pokkali) and a salt-sensitive cultivar (IR29). Futile cycling of Na+ at the plasma membrane of intact roots occurred at both low and elevated levels of steady-state Na+ supply ([Na+]ext=1 mM and 25 mM) in both cultivars. At 25 mM [Na+]ext, a toxic condition for IR29, unidirectional influx and efflux of Na+ in this cultivar, but not in Pokkali, became very high [>100 micromol g (root FW)(-1) h(-1)], demonstrating an inability to restrict sodium fluxes. Current models of sodium transport energetics across the plasma membrane in root cells predict that, if the sodium efflux were mediated by Na+/H+ antiport, this toxic scenario would impose a substantial respiratory cost in IR29. This cost is calculated here, and compared with root respiration, which, however, comprised only approximately 50% of what would be required to sustain efflux by the antiporter. This suggests that either the conventional 'leak-pump' model of Na+ transport or the energetic model of proton-linked Na+ transport may require some revision. In addition, the lack of suppression of Na+ influx by both K+ and Ca2+, and by the application of the channel inhibitors Cs+, TEA+, and Ba2+, questions the participation of potassium channels and non-selective cation channels in the observed Na+ fluxes.

  2. In vitro mutagenesis and selection for salinity tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, E.R.; Patade, V.Y.; Patil, V.D.; Suprasanna, P.; Bapat, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) is a highly polyploid plant (2n=36-170) grown in different parts of the world from the tropics to subtropics, and accounts for around 60% of the world's sugar. It is also one of the important cash crops in many developing/developed countries, with a high trade value. In this study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerance in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars CoC- 671, Co 86032 and Co 94012. Embryogenic callus cultures were subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50). Radio sensitivity estimation indicated that 20 Gy irradiated cultures exhibited almost 50 per cent survival response. Relative growth rate and cell mass accumulation were recorded after irradiation and 30 days of post- irradiation culture. The plants regenerated from the calli irradiated at 20, 30 and 40 Gy were hardened and field planted to study their performance. The embryogenic callus cultures were also exposed to inhibitory levels of NaCl (42.8, 85.6, 128.3, 171.1, 213.9, 256.7 mM). The biochemical responses to the salt stress were studied in terms of proline, glycine betaine accumulation, membrane stability and cell viability. The variegated plants were also observed following gamma irradiation and were analyzed by different molecular markers (RAPD and Ac homologous transposons). The salt selected plants were further field evaluated and the desirable clones are now being evaluated in the second generation for their genetic stability. The proper evaluation of these induced variants with desirable traits may prove useful for cultivation under stress conditions

  3. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 confers tolerance to water deficit and salinity to transgenic Arabidopsis and alfalfa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Gómez, María C; Chan, Raquel L

    2017-09-10

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom; members of subfamily I are known to be involved in abiotic stress responses. HaHB11 belongs to this subfamily and it was previously shown that it is able to confer improved yield and tolerance to flooding via a quiescent strategy. Here we show that HaHB11 expression is induced by ABA, NaCl and water deficit in sunflower seedlings and leaves. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11, controlled either by its own promoter or by the constitutive 35S CaMV, presented rolled leaves and longer roots than WT when grown under standard conditions. In addition, these plants showed wider stems and more vascular bundles. To deal with drought, HaHB11 transgenic plants closed their stomata faster and lost less water than controls, triggering an enhanced tolerance to such stress condition and also to salinity stress. Concomitantly, ABA-synthesis and sensing related genes were differentially regulated in HaHB11 transgenic plants. Either under long-term salinity stress or mild drought stress, HaHB11 transgenic plants did not exhibit yield penalties. Moreover, alfalfa transgenic plants were generated which also showed enhanced drought tolerance. Altogether, the results indicated that HaHB11 was able to confer drought and salinity tolerance via a complex mechanism which involves morphological, physiological and molecular changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Variation in the Abundance of OsHAK1 Transcript Underlies the Differential Salinity Tolerance of an indica and a japonica Rice Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity imposes a major constraint over the productivity of rice. A set of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs, derived from a cross between the japonica type cultivar (cv. Nipponbare (salinity sensitive and the indica type cv. 9311 (moderately tolerant, was scored using a hydroponics system for their salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. Two of the CSSLs, which share a ∼1.2 Mbp stretch of chromosome 4 derived from cv. Nipponbare, were as sensitive to the stress as cv. Nipponbare itself. Fine mapping based on an F2 population bred from a backcross between one of these CSSLs and cv. 9311 narrowed this region to 95 Kbp, within which only one gene (OsHAK1 exhibited a differential (lower transcript abundance in cv. Nipponbare and the two CSSLs compared to in cv. 9311. The gene was up-regulated by exposure to salinity stress both in the root and the shoot, while a knockout mutant proved to be more salinity sensitive than its wild type with respect to its growth at both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Seedlings over-expressing OsHAK1 were more tolerant than wild type, displaying a superior photosynthetic rate, a higher leaf chlorophyll content, an enhanced accumulation of proline and a reduced level of lipid peroxidation. At the transcriptome level, the over-expression of OsHAK1 stimulated a number of stress-responsive genes as well as four genes known to be involved in Na+ homeostasis and the salinity response (OsHKT1;5, OsSOS1, OsLti6a and OsLti6b. When the stress was applied at booting through to maturity, the OsHAK1 over-expressors out-yielded wild type by 25%, and no negative pleiotropic effects were expressed in plants gown under non-saline conditions. The level of expression of OsHAK1 was correlated with Na+/K+ homeostasis, which implies that the gene should be explored a target for molecular approaches to the improvement of salinity tolerance in rice.

  5. Role of the durum wheat dehydrin in the function of proteases conferring salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibi, Walid; Zouari, Nabil; Masmoudi, Khaled; Brini, Faiçal

    2016-04-01

    Dehydrins are claimed to stabilize macromolecules against freezing damage, dehydration, ionic or osmotic stresses, thermal stress and re-folding yield. However, their precise function remains unknown. In this context, we report the behavior of protease activities in dehydrin transgenic Arabidopsis lines against the wild type plant under salt stress (100mM NaCl). Indeed, proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. We proved that durum wheat DHN-5 modulates the activity of some proteases, summarized on the promotion of the Cysteinyl protease and the decrease of the Aspartyl protease activity. This fact is also upgraded in salt stress conditions. We conclude that the dehydrin transgenic context encodes salinity tolerance in transgenic lines through the modulation of the interaction not only at transcriptional level but also at protein level and also with the impact of salt stress as an endogenous and exogenous effector on some biocatalysts like proteases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on wheat plants and soil health in a saline environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, S K; Singh, D P

    2015-01-01

    Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (ST-PGPR) significantly influence the growth and yield of wheat crops in saline soil. Wheat growth improved in pots with inoculation of all nine ST-PGPR (ECe = 4.3 dS·m(-1) ; greenhouse experiment), while maximum growth and dry biomass was observed in isolate SU18 Arthrobacter sp.; simultaneously, all ST-PGPR improved soil health in treated pot soil over controls. In the field experiment, maximum wheat root dry weight and shoot biomass was observed after inoculation with SU44 B. aquimaris, and SU8 B. aquimaris, respectively, after 60 and 90 days. Isolate SU8 B. aquimaris, induced significantly higher proline and total soluble sugar accumulation in wheat, while isolate SU44 B. aquimaris, resulted in higher accumulation of reducing sugars after 60 days. Percentage nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) in leaves of wheat increased significantly after inoculation with ST-PGPR, as compared to un-inoculated plants. Isolate SU47 B. subtilis showed maximum reduction of sodium (Na) content in wheat leaves of about 23% at both 60 and 90 days after sowing, and produced the best yield of around 17.8% more than the control. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography: first-pass arterial enhancement as a function of gadolinium-chelate concentration, and the saline chaser volume and injection rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husarik, Daniela B; Bashir, Mustafa R; Weber, Paul W; Nichols, Eli B; Howle, Laurens E; Merkle, Elmar M; Nelson, Rendon C

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of the contrast medium (CM) concentration and the saline chaser volume and injection rate on first-pass aortic enhancement characteristics in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using a physiologic flow phantom. Imaging was performed on a 3.0-T magnetic resonance system (MAGNETOM Trio, Siemens Healthcare Solutions, Inc, Erlangen, Germany) using a 2-dimensional fast low angle shot T1-weighted sequence (repetition time, 500 milliseconds; echo time, 1.23 milliseconds; flip angle, 8 degrees; 1 frame/s × 60 seconds). The following CM concentrations injected at 2 mL/s were used with 3 different contrast agents (gadolinium [Gd]-BOPTA, Gd-HP-DO3A, Gd-DTPA): 20 mL of undiluted CM (100%) and 80%, 40%, 20%, 10%, 5%, and 2.5% of the full amount, all diluted in saline to a volume of 20 mL to ensure equal bolus volume. The CM was followed by saline chasers of 20 to 60 mL injected at 2 mL/s and 6 mL/s. Aortic signal intensity (SI) was measured, and normalized SI versus time (SI/Tn) curves were generated. The maximal SI (SI(max)), bolus length, and areas under the SI/Tn curve were calculated. Decreasing the CM concentration from 100% to 40% resulted in a decrease of SI(max) to 86.1% (mean). Further decreasing the CM concentration to 2.5% decreased SI(max) to 5.1% (mean). Altering the saline chaser volume had no significant effect on SI(max). Increasing the saline chaser injection rate had little effect (mean increase, 2.2%) on SI(max) when using ≥40% of CM. There was a larger effect (mean increase, 19.6%) when ≤20% of CM were used. Bolus time length was significantly shorter (P < 0.001), and area under the SI/T(n) curve was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) for the CM protocols followed by a saline chaser injected at 6 mL/s compared with a saline chaser injected at 2 mL/s. With 40% of CM and a fast saline chaser, SImax close to that with undiluted CM can be achieved. An increased saline chaser injection rate has a more pronounced effect on

  8. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley

    KAUST Repository

    Saade, Stephanie; Maurer, Andreas; Shahid, Mohammed; Oakey, Helena; Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Negrã o, Só nia; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    -validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively

  9. Multi-detector row CT of the head and neck: comparison of different volumes of contrast material with and without a saline chaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dae Young; You, Su Yeon; Choi, Chul Soon; Chang, Suk Ki; Yun, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Lan; Park, Sang Joon; Lee, Yu-Jin; Moon, Jeung Hee; Rho, Young-Soo; Kim, Jin-Hwan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different volumes of contrast material with and without a saline chaser on tissue enhancement in multidetector row CT (MDCT) of the head and neck. In a blind prospective fashion, 120 patients were randomized into the following four groups: group 1, 80 ml contrast material administered at a flow rate of 2.0 ml/s; group 2, 80 ml followed by 40 ml saline at 2.0 ml/s; group 3, 60 ml at 1.5 ml/s; and group 4, 60 ml followed by 30 ml saline at 1.5 ml/s. The attenuation values of the carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and muscle were measured at an interval of 1.5 s in each patient. The degree of perivenous artifacts was subjectively assessed. Mean attenuation values in the carotid artery and internal jugular vein were significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than in groups 3 and 4. The width of the diagnostic window (both carotid and jugular enhancement >150 HU) were significantly longer in groups 1 and 2 than in groups 3 and 4. The addition of a saline chaser did not result in improved vascular enhancement or a wider diagnostic window, but reduced perivenous artifacts, compared with using contrast material alone. Reduction of contrast material from 80 to 60 ml results in insufficient enhancement of neck vessels. In addition, the benefit of a saline chaser technique is not obvious except for its ability to reduce perivenous artifacts. (orig.)

  10. Salinity tolerance in barley (hordeum vulgare l.): effects of varying NaCl, K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ levels on cultivars differing in tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.

    2011-01-01

    Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is regarded as salt tolerant among crop plants, its growth and plant development is severely affected by ionic and osmotic stresses in salt-affected soils. To elucidate the tolerance mechanism, growth and ion uptake of three barley cultivars, differing in salt tolerance, were examined under different levels of NaCl, K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ in the root medium. The cultivars differed greatly in their responses to varying root medium conditions. Plant growth was more adversely affected by NaHCO/sub 3/ than NaCl. In general, biomass yields were comparable under control and 100 mM NaCl. However, growth of all three cultivars was significantly inhibited by NaHCO/sub 3/ even at low concentration (10 mM). Improved K/sup +/ supply in saline medium increased K/sup +/ uptake and growth of less tolerant cultivars. K/sup +/ uptake was more adversely affected by NaHCO/sub 3/ than NaCl salinity. Selective K/sup +/ uptake and lower Cl/sup -/ in shoots seemed to be associated with the growth responses. K application would help better growth of these cultivars on K-deficient saline-sodic soils and under irrigation with poor quality water having high Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and/or Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). (author)

  11. Contrast venography of the leg: diagnostic efficacy, tolerance, and complication rates with ionic and nonionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettmann, M.A.; Robbins, A.; Braun, S.D.; Wetzner, S.; Dunnick, N.R.; Finkelstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective, three-center study of two contrast agents for leg venography was performed to evaluate both the relative frequency of adverse effects and whether low-osmolality agents provided significant advantages for this procedure. Fifty-four patients were studied with the standard preparation (iothalamate meglumine) and 57 with a nonionic agent (iopamidol). Both were used at an iodine concentration of 200 mg/mL, and there were no differences in volume of contrast material, duration of infusion, percentage of positive studies, or overall diagnostic adequacy. Patient discomfort was less with iopamidol than with iothalamate (18% vs. 44%), although discomfort was generally mild in both groups. By objective follow-up studies, the frequency of postvenographic thrombosis was not significantly different in the two groups (8% vs. 9%). Contrast venography, then, had a low frequency of complications when either a dilute conventional or a low-osmolality agent was employed. Although the frequency of postvenographic thrombosis was low with both agents, patient discomfort was less with the low-osmolality formulation

  12. TaCHP: a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Lv, Jian; Zhao, Xin; Ai, Xinghui; Zhu, Xinlei; Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-09-01

    The plant response to abiotic stresses involves both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways. Here we describe TaCHP, a CHP-rich (for cysteine, histidine, and proline rich) zinc finger protein family gene extracted from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), is differentially expressed during abiotic stress between the salinity-sensitive cultivar Jinan 177 and its tolerant somatic hybrid introgression cultivar Shanrong No.3. TaCHP expressed in the roots of seedlings at the three-leaf stage, and the transcript localized within the cells of the root tip cortex and meristem. TaCHP transcript abundance was higher in Shanrong No.3 than in Jinan 177, but was reduced by the imposition of salinity or drought stress, as well as by the exogenous supply of ABA. When JN17, a salinity hypersensitive wheat cultivar, was engineered to overexpress TaCHP, its performance in the face of salinity stress was improved, and the ectopic expression of TaCHP in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) also improved the ability of salt tolerance. The expression level of a number of stress reporter genes (AtCBF3, AtDREB2A, AtABI2, and AtABI1) was raised in the transgenic lines in the presence of salinity stress, while that of AtMYB15, AtABA2, and AtAAO3 was reduced in its absence. The presence in the upstream region of the TaCHP open reading frame of the cis-elements ABRE, MYBRS, and MYCRS suggests that it is a component of the ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. We suggest that TaCHP enhances stress tolerance via the promotion of CBF3 and DREB2A expression.

  13. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarizes current data concerning Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows choosing specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX, and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between non-selective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is discussed and

  14. Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  15. Leaf Gas Exchange and Nutrient Use Efficiency Help Explain the Distribution of Two Neotropical Mangroves under Contrasting Flooding and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cardona-Olarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa cooccur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1 were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gw, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and gw and, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for A at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  16. Comparative Metabolomic Analyses of Ipomoea lacunosa Biotypes with Contrasting Glyphosate Tolerance Captures Herbicide-Induced Differential Perturbations in Cellular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2018-02-28

    Glyphosate-tolerant Ipomoea lacunosa is emerging as a problematic weed in the southeastern United States. Metabolomic profiling was conducted to examine the innate physiology and the glyphosate induced perturbations in two biotypes of I. lacunosa (WAS and QUI) that had contrasting glyphosate tolerance. Compared to the less tolerant QUI-biotype, the innate metabolism of the more tolerant WAS-biotype was characterized by a higher abundance of amino acids, and pyruvate; whereas the sugar profile of the QUI biotype was dominated by the transport sugar sucrose. Glyphosate application (80 g ae/ha) caused similar shikimate accumulation in both biotypes. Compared to QUI, in WAS, the content of aromatic amino acids was less affected by glyphosate treatment, and the content of Ala, Val, Ile, and Pro increased. However, the total sugars decreased by ∼75% in WAS, compared to ∼50% decrease in QUI. The innate, higher proportional abundance, of the transport-sugar sucrose in QUI coud partly explain the higher translocation and greater sensitivity of this biotype to glyphosate. The decrease in sugars, accompanied by an increase in amino acids could delay feedback regulation of upstream enzymes of the shikimate acid pathway in WAS, which could contribute to a greater glyphosate tolerance. Our study, through a metabolomics approach, provides complementary data that elucidates the cellular physiology of herbicide tolerance in Ipomoea lacunosa biotypes.

  17. The ecological coherence of temperature and salinity tolerance interaction and pigmentation in a non-marine vibrio isolated from Salar de Atacama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem Gallardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of microorganisms from the Vibrio genus in saline lakes from northern Chile had been evidenced using Numerical Taxonomy decades before and, more recently, by phylogenetic analyses of environmental samples and isolates. Most of the knowledge about this genus came from marine isolates and showed temperature and salinity to be integral agents in shaping the niche of the Vibrio populations. The stress tolerance phenotypes of Vibrio sp. Teb5a1 isolated from Salar de Atacama was investigated. It was able to grow without NaCl and tolerated up to 100 g/L of the salt. Furthermore, it grew between 17° and 49°C (optimum 30°C in the absence of NaCl, and the range was expanded into cold temperature (4-49°C in the presence of the salt. Other additional adaptive strategies were observed in response to the osmotic stress: pigment production, identified as the known antibacterial prodigiosin, swimming and swarming motility and synthesis of a polar flagellum. It is possible to infer that environmental congruence might explain the cellular phenotypes observed in Vibrio sp. considering that coupling between temperature and salinity tolerance, the production of antibacterial agents at higher temperatures, flagellation and motility increase the chance of Vibrio sp. to survive in salty environments with high daily temperature swings and UV radiation.

  18. Influence of N deficiency and salinity on metal (Pb, Zn and Cu) accumulation and tolerance by Rhizophora stylosa in relation to root anatomy and permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hao; Wang Youshao; Ye Zhihong; Chen Danting; Wang Yutu; Peng Yalan; Wang Liying

    2012-01-01

    Effects of N deficiency and salinity on root anatomy, permeability and metal (Pb, Zn and Cu) translocation and tolerance were investigated using mangrove seedlings of Rhizophora stylosa. The results showed that salt could directly reduce radial oxygen loss (ROL) by stimulation of lignification within exodermis. N deficiency, oppositely, would reduce lignification. Such an alteration in root permeability may also influence metal tolerance by plants. The data indicated that a moderate salinity could stimulate a lignified exodermis that delayed the entry of metals into the roots and thereby contributed to a higher metal tolerance, while N deficiency would aggravate metal toxicity. The results from sand pot trail further confirmed this issue. This study provides a barrier property of the exodermis in dealing with environments. The plasticity of root anatomy is likely an adaptive strategy to regulate the fluxes of gases, nutrients and toxins at root–soil interface. - Highlights: ► Salt induced lignified exodermis which slowed down metal entry into the plants. ► N deficiency, oppositely, aggravated metal mobility and toxicity. ► Barrier properties of the exodermis. - N deficiency and salinity regulate the apoplastic transport barrier of metals and their toxicities

  19. 64-section multidetector CT of the upper abdomen: optimization of a saline chaser injection protocol for improved vascular and parenchymal contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Daniele [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Nelson, Rendon C. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Guerrisi, Antonino; Passariello, Roberto; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Barnhart, Huiman [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Durham, NC (United States); Schindera, Sebastian T. [University Hospital of Bern, Institute for Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    To prospectively investigate the effect of varying the injection flow rates of a saline chaser on vascular and parenchymal contrast enhancement during abdominal MDCT. 100 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to four injection protocols. A fixed dose of contrast medium was administered followed by no saline (Protocol A) or 50 mL of saline at 2, 4, or 8 mL/s (Protocols B, C, and D). Peak, time-to-peak, and duration of 90% peak enhancement were determined for aorta, pancreas, and liver. Aortic peak enhancement was significantly higher for Protocol D (369.5 HU) compared with Protocols A and B (332.9 HU and 326.0 HU, respectively; P < 0.05). Pancreatic peak enhancement was significantly higher for Protocols C and D (110.6 HU and 110.9 HU, respectively) compared to Protocol A (92.5 HU; P < 0.05). Aortic and pancreatic time-to-peak enhancement occurred significantly later for Protocol D compared with Protocol A (42.8 s vs. 36.1 s [P < 0.001] and 49.7 s vs. 45.3 s [P = 0.003]). Injecting a saline chaser at high flow rates yields significantly higher peak aortic and pancreatic enhancement, with a slight longer time-to-peak enhancement. (orig.)

  20. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) in south-eastern Mexico: implications for invasion and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Nico, Leo G.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Arevalo-Frias, Wendi; Ropicki, Andrew J.; Heilpern, Sebastian A.; Rodiles-Hernandez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    1. Salinity tolerance is one of several important physiological attributes that determine invasion success and the pattern of dispersal of introduced aquatic organisms. Introduced freshwater fishes able to tolerate elevated salinities have the potential to invade and exploit brackish-water (mixohaline) environments and use estuaries and coastal waters as 'bridges' for dispersing from one coastal river system to another. 2. Several members of the neotropical suckermouth armoured catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) have established non-native populations in inland waters of North and Central America, Asia and islands in the Caribbean, and Pacific and Indian oceans. Loricariids are generally considered to be strictly freshwater; but a few naturally occur in mesohaline habitats. 3.Catch and habitat data from 2004–2005 and 2009–2011 fish surveys in the Grijalva–Usumacinta River delta region (south-eastern Mexico) confirmed that introduced Pterygoplichthys populations established in upstream freshwater sites (where these catfish are abundant) have recently dispersed into downstream oligohaline and mesohaline estuarine habitats. During 2009–2011 surveys, these non-native catfish — tentatively identified as P. pardalis or its hybrids — were found in sites with salinities ranging from 1 to 8 ppt (mean 5.2 ppt). 4.Acute-salinity experiments were conducted with Pterygoplichthys (110–302 mm standard length, N=140) captured in the Grijalva–Usumacinta Basin to determine upper salinity tolerance levels. Tests demonstrated that individuals maintained in salinities of 0.2 ppt were able to survive abrupt (acute) exposure to salinities up to 10 ppt with little mortality over 10 days (240 h experimental endpoint). A few individuals survived abrupt exposure to 11 and 12 ppt for 20 or more hours, although none survived more than a few hours at 16 ppt or greater. 5.These field and experimental results provide quantitative evidence that non

  1. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca; Tripepi, Manuela; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na + /K + -ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  2. Ontogeny of salinity tolerance and hyper-osmoregulation by embryos of the intertidal crabs Hemigrapsus edwardsii and Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Decapoda, Grapsidae): survival of acute hyposaline exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H H; Seneviratna, Deepani

    2005-04-01

    The adults of Hemigrapsus edwardsii and Hemigrapsus crenulatus are euryhaline crabs and strong hyper-osmoregulators. Their embryos are carried externally attached to the abdominal pleopods of female crabs, where they are exposed to temporal and spatial changes in salinity associated with their intertidal and estuarine habitats. Although embryos lack the branchial and excretory organs responsible for adult osmoregulation, post-gastrula embryos were highly tolerant of exposure to hypo-osmotic sea water. Detached eggs (embryos+envelopes), of both species, at all developmental stages between gastrulation and hatching, exhibited 80-100% survival for periods up to 96 h in sea water (osmolality, 1050 mmol kg(-1)) and in dilutions to 50%, 10%, and 1%. Cleavage stages were less tolerant of dilution; H. edwardsii, <50% survived 24 h in 10% sea water; H. crenulatus <50% survived 6 h in 10% sea water. Post-gastrulation stages strongly hyper-osmoregulated but cleavage stages were hyper-osmoconformers (maintaining internal osmolality approximately 150 mmol kg(-1) above external). Osmoregulatory capacity was reduced just prior hatching, particularly in H. crenulatus, although salinity tolerance remained high. Gastrulation therefore marks a critical stage in the ontogeny of osmoregulation and salinity tolerance. Total Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity increased greatly during embryogenesis of H. crenulatus (undetectable in blastulae; gastrulae 0.31+/-0.05 pmol P(i) embryo(-1) min(-1); pre-hatching 16.4+/-1.0 pmol P(i) embryo(-1) min(-1)). Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity increased in embryos exposed to dilute sea water for 24 h implicating regulation of this transporter in a short-term acclimation response.

  3. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    is linked to a different set of circumstances than the ones suggested by existing models in contemporary democratic theory. Reorienting the discussion of tolerance, the book raises the question of how to disclose new possibilities within our given context of affect and perception. Once we move away from......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  4. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  5. Multicenter analysis of tolerance and clinical safety of the extracellular MR contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance registered)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herborn, Christoph U.; Jaeger-Booth, I.; Goyen, M.; Lodemann, K.P.; Spinazzi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the occurrence of adverse events and the diagnostic efficacy of a paramagnetic contrast agent with weak intermittent protein binding and high relaxivity. Materials end methods: Postmarketing surveillance studies for gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance, BRACCO Altana Pharma, Constance) were conducted in Germany between 1998 and 2006 and then retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, relevant comorbidities, and allergies were recorded. The safety and tolerability of MultiHance were logged on a standardized data sheet. Results: A total of 38568 patients were included in the study. 829 patients (2.1%) had a known intolerance against contrast media. The examined regions included the central nervous system, the liver, and the vascular bed. The injection rate with automated injectors (n = 10456) varied between 1.0 und 3.0 ml/sec in 86.5% of patients. Adverse events totaled 1.2%. 11 patients (0.03%) experienced serious adverse events. The most frequent findings were nausea, vomiting and a feeling of warmth. Conclusion: MultiHance is a safe and very well tolerated contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a profile and frequency of adverse events similar to other extracellular MR contrast materials. (orig.)

  6. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim eVolkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarises current data concerning Na+ and K+ concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows to choose specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between nonselective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is

  7. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  8. Tolerance of image enhancement brightness and contrast in lateral cephalometric digital radiography for Steiner analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianti, R. A.; Priaminiarti, M.; Syahraini, S. I.

    2017-08-01

    Image enhancement brightness and contrast can be adjusted on lateral cephalometric digital radiographs to improve image quality and anatomic landmarks for measurement by Steiner analysis. To determine the limit value for adjustments of image enhancement brightness and contrast in lateral cephalometric digital radiography for Steiner analysis. Image enhancement brightness and contrast were adjusted on 100 lateral cephalometric radiography in 10-point increments (-30, -20, -10, 0, +10, +20, +30). Steiner analysis measurements were then performed by two observers. Reliabilities were tested by the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and significance tested by ANOVA or the Kruskal Wallis test. No significant differences were detected in lateral cephalometric analysis measurements following adjustment of the image enhancement brightness and contrast. The limit value of adjustments of the image enhancement brightness and contrast associated with incremental 10-point changes (-30, -20, -10, 0, +10, +20, +30) does not affect the results of Steiner analysis.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy and tolerability of contrast enhanced CT colonoscopy in symptomatic patients with increased risk for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsunar, Yelda; Coskun, Guelten; Delibas, Naciye; Uz, Burcin; Yuekselen, Vahit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We compared the accuracy and tolerability of intravenous contrast enhanced spiral computed tomography colonography (CTC) and optical colonoscopy (OC) for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic patients for colorectal neoplasia. Methods: A prospective study was performed in 48 patients with symptomatic patients with increased risk for colorectal cancer. Spiral CTC was performed in supine and prone positions after colonic cleansing. The axial, 2D MPR and virtual endoluminal views were analyzed. Results of spiral CTC were compared with OC which was done within 15 days. The psychometric tolerance test was asked to be performed for both CTC and colonoscopy after the procedure. Results: Ten lesions in 9 of 48 patients were found in CTC and confirmed with OC. Two masses and eight polyps, consisted of 1 tubulovillous, 1 tubular, 2 villous adenoma, 4 adenomatous polyp, 4 adenocarcinoma, were identified. Lesion prevalence was 21%. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were found 100%, 87%, 89%, 67% and 100%, respectively. Psychometric tolerance test showed that CTC significantly more comfortable comparing with OC (p = 0.00). CTC was the preferred method in 37% while OC was preferred in 6% of patients. In both techniques, the most unpleasant part was bowel cleansing. Conclusion: Contrast enhanced CTC is a highly accurate method in detecting colorectal lesions. Since the technique was found to be more comfortable and less time consuming compare to OE, it may be preferable in management of symptomatic patients with increased risk for colorectal cancer.

  10. In vitro selection of salinity tolerant variants from triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x C. dactylon) and their physiological responses to salt and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyun; Peng, Xinxiang; Guo, Zhenfei; Zhang, Gengyun; Wang, Zhongcheng; Wang, Congying; Pang, Chaoshu; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Jihua

    2007-08-01

    A protocol was established for in vitro selection of salinity tolerant somaclonal variations from suspension cultured calli of triploid bermudagrass cv. TifEagle. To induce somaclonal variations the calli were subcultured for 18 months and were then subject to three-round selections for salt-tolerant calli by placing on solid medium containing 0.3 M NaCl for 10 days followed by a recovery for 2 weeks. The surviving calli were regenerated on regeneration medium containing 0.1 M NaCl. Three somaclonal variant lines (2, 71, and 77) were obtained and analyzed. The selected somaclonal lines showed higher relative growth and less injury than TifEagle under salt stress, indicating that they increased salt tolerance. In addition, they had higher relative water content and lower electrolyte leakage than TifEagle after withholding irrigation, indicating that they also increased drought tolerance. The three somaclonal variant lines had higher proline content than TifEagle under normal growth condition. The line 71 had a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio, whereas the lines 2 and 77 had higher CAT activity under control and salt stress conditions, indicating that different mechanisms for salt tolerance might exist in these three lines.

  11. Larval salinity tolerance of the South American salt-marsh crab, Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata: physiological constraints to estuarine retention, export and reimmigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, Klaus; Spivak, Eduardo; Luppi, Tomás; Bas, Claudia; Ismael, Deborah

    2008-06-01

    The semiterrestrial crab Neohelice (= Chasmagnathus) granulata (Dana 1851) is a predominant species in brackish salt marshes, mangroves and estuaries. Its larvae are exported towards coastal marine waters. In order to estimate the limits of salinity tolerance constraining larval retention in estuarine habitats, we exposed in laboratory experiments freshly hatched zoeae to six different salinities (5 32‰). At 5‰, the larvae survived for a maximum of 2 weeks, reaching only exceptionally the second zoeal stage, while 38% survived to the megalopa stage at 10‰. Shortest development and negligible mortality occurred at all higher salt concentrations. These observations show that the larvae of N. granulata can tolerate a retention in the mesohaline reaches of estuaries, with a lower limit of ca. 10 15‰. Maximum survival at 25‰ suggests that polyhaline conditions rather than an export to oceanic waters are optimal for successful larval development of this species. In another experiment, we tested the capability of the last zoeal stage (IV) for reimmigration from coastal marine into brackish waters. Stepwise reductions of salinity during this stage allowed for moulting to the megalopa at 4 10‰. Although survival was at these conditions reduced and development delayed, these results suggest that already the zoea-IV stage is able to initiate the reimmigration into estuaries. After further salinity reduction, megalopae survived in this experiment for up to >3 weeks in freshwater, without moulting to juvenile crabs. In a similar experiment starting from the megalopa stage, successful metamorphosis occurred at 4 10‰, and juvenile growth continued in freshwater. Although these juvenile crabs showed significantly enhanced mortality and smaller carapace width compared to a seawater control, our results show that the late larval and early juvenile stages of N. granulata are well adapted for successful recruitment in brackish and even limnetic habitats.

  12. Screening of salinity tolerant jute (corchorus capsularis and c. olitorius) genotypes via phenotypic and phsiology-assisted procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongyu, M.A.; Wang, Z.; Wang, X.

    2011-01-01

    To obtain salt tolerant genotypes, salt tolerance of 10 jute genotypes of different origins was evaluated by relative salt harm rate at germination stage and by index of salt harm at seedling stage, respectively. The results indicated that salt tolerance of germination stage of jute was consistent with that of seedling stage, with a markedly significant (P < 0.01) correlation of 0.8432 (n =10). Two high salt tolerant genotypes (Huang No.1 and 9511) and two salt sensitive genotypes (Mengyuan and 07-21) were screened out by these methods. Further activity analysis of POD, SOD and CAT and determination of MDA content at seedling stage validated that genotypes Huang No.1 and 9511 were more salt tolerant than genotypes Mengyuan and 07-21. Our results indicated that the combination of relative salt harm rate at germination stage and index of salt harm at seedling stage can be used to evaluate salt tolerance of jute genotypes. (author)

  13. Comprehensive list of metabolites measured by DI-FTICR mass spectrometry in thyme plants with contrasting tolerance to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the main research entitled “Metabolomic approach reveals the biochemical mechanisms underlying drought stress tolerance in Thyme” (Moradi et al., 2017 [1]. Two thyme populations with contrasting drought tolerance were subjected to long term water deficit. Leaf samples harvested at the end of stress period and bi-phasic extraction carried out to get polar and non-polar fractions. Extracted samples were analyzed through Direct Infusion FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Date files comprise of four separate tables for all the putatively identified metabolites and their intensities in watered and droughted plants. P-values beside each m/z values indicate significances of difference between peak intensities of stressed and control conditions.

  14. Proteome dynamics of cold-acclimating Rhododendron species contrasting in their freezing tolerance and thermonasty behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available To gain a better understanding of cold acclimation in rhododendron and in woody perennials in general, we used the 2D-DIGE technique to analyze the rhododendron proteome during the seasonal development of freezing tolerance. We selected two species varying in their cold acclimation ability as well as their thermonasty response (folding of leaves in response to low temperature. Proteins were extracted from leaves of non-acclimated (NA and cold acclimated (CA plants of the hardier thermonastic species, R. catawbiense (Cata., and from leaves of cold acclimated plants of the less hardy, non-thermonastic R. ponticum (Pont.. All three protein samples (Cata.NA, Cata.CA, and Pont.CA were labeled with different CyDyes and separated together on a single gel. Triplicate gels were run and protein profiles were compared resulting in the identification of 72 protein spots that consistently had different abundances in at least one pair-wise comparison. From the 72 differential spots, we chose 56 spots to excise and characterize further by mass spectrometry (MS. Changes in the proteome associated with the seasonal development of cold acclimation were identified from the Cata.CA-Cata.NA comparisons. Differentially abundant proteins associated with the acquisition of superior freezing tolerance and with the thermonastic response were identified from the Cata.CA-Pont.CA comparisons. Our results indicate that cold acclimation in rhododendron involves increases in abundance of several proteins related to stress (freezing/desiccation tolerance, energy and carbohydrate metabolism, regulation/signaling, secondary metabolism (possibly involving cell wall remodeling, and permeability of the cell membrane. Cold acclimation also involves decreases in abundance of several proteins involved in photosynthesis. Differences in freezing tolerance between genotypes can probably be attributed to observed differences in levels of proteins involved in these functions. Also

  15. Potential application of metabolic engineering to tune the production of compatible solutes for enhancing tolerance of crop plants to salinity/drought (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, P.; Saradhi, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Essential need to develop genotypes of crop plants that can substantially withstand salinity and drought with little yield losses is being increasingly felt, as the cultivable agricultural lands is increasingly being exposed to these stresses. In-spite of gains in productivity, conventional plant breeding methods have their limitations either due to limited gene pool or due to species barrier for gene transfer. Modern molecular tools have paved ways for identification of genes imparting abiotic stress tolerance in unrelated species/organisms and to transfer the selected genes into desirable crop plant species by conquering the incompatibility barriers. In fact, now genetic engineering has been widely realized to be in important tool for developing abiotic stress tolerant crop plants. Abiotic stress tolerance is a complex phenomenon involving simultaneous expression of a number of genes coupled with an interaction of varying weather variables and crop phonology. However, in order to tackle the issue, successful attempts have been made in identifying genes enhancing abiotic stress tolerance. The genes for biosynthesis of various compatible solutes (viz., mtlD for mannitol: P5CS or P5CSF129A for proline; coda/cox or belA/beIB for glycinebetaine' lpsl for trehalose; PINOI for inositol) have been demonstrated to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of plants. We have isolated the codA gene (Accession number AY589052) for choline oxidase from an Indian strain of Arthrobacter sp. from IMTECH (Chandigarh) and the mtlD genes from local strains of E. coli (accession number A Y523630) and halobacterium sp. (Accession number A Y52363 1). We have enhanced the tolerance of Brassica juncea to salt, drought and low temperature stresses by introducing the codA gene from Arthrobacter globiformis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. Presenting our research team is busy developing genotypes of chickpea black gram, peanut and sorghum besides mustard with enhanced

  16. Interpopulation differences in expression of candidate genes for salinity tolerance in winter migrating anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Dennis S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Winter migration of immature brown trout (Salmo trutta into freshwater rivers has been hypothesized to result from physiologically stressful combinations of high salinity and low temperature in the sea. Results We sampled brown trout from two Danish populations entering different saline conditions and quantified expression of the hsp70 and Na/K-ATPases α 1b genes following acclimation to freshwater and full-strength seawater at 2°C and 10°C. An interaction effect of low temperature and high salinity on expression of both hsp70 and Na/K-ATPase α 1b was found in trout from the river entering high saline conditions, while a temperature independent up-regulation of both genes in full-strength seawater was found for trout entering marine conditions with lower salinities. Conclusion Overall our results support the hypothesis that physiologically stressful conditions in the sea drive sea-run brown trout into freshwater rivers in winter. However, our results also demonstrate intra-specific differences in expression of important stress and osmoregulative genes most likely reflecting adaptive differences between trout populations on a regional scale, thus strongly suggesting local adaptations driven by the local marine environment.

  17. Interpopulation differences in expression of candidate genes for salinity tolerance in winter migrating anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Koed, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Background: Winter migration of immature brown trout (Salmo trutta) into freshwater rivers has been hypothesized to result from physiologically stressful combinations of high salinity and low temperature in the sea. Results: We sampled brown trout from two Danish populations entering different...... conditions in the sea drive sea-run brown trout into freshwater rivers in winter. However, our results also demonstrate intra-specific differences in expression of important stress and osmoregulative genes most likely reflecting adaptive differences between trout populations on a regional scale, thus...... was found in trout from the river entering high saline conditions, while a temperature independent up-regulation of both genes in full-strength seawater was found for trout entering marine conditions with lower salinities. Conclusion: Overall our results support the hypothesis that physiologically stressful...

  18. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  19. Durum wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) confers salinity tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants through the regulation of proline metabolism and ROS scavenging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibi, Walid; Feki, Kaouthar; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-11-01

    The wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) gives birth to salinity tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants by the regulation of proline metabolism and the ROS scavenging system. Dehydrins (DHNs) are involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we reported that salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing durum wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) was closely related to the activation of the proline metabolism enzyme (P5CS) and some antioxidant biocatalysts. Indeed, DHN-5 improved P5CS activity in the transgenic plants generating a significant proline accumulation. Moreover, salt tolerance of Arabidopsis transgenic plants was accompanied by an excellent activation of antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxide dismutase (POD) and generation of a lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaves compared to the wild-type plants. The enzyme activities were enhanced in these transgenic plants in the presence of exogenous proline. Nevertheless, proline accumulation was slightly reduced in transgenic plants promoting chlorophyll levels. All these results suggest the crucial role of DHN-5 in response to salt stress through the activation of enzymes implicated in proline metabolism and in ROS scavenging enzymes.

  20. Accumulation and tolerance of lead in two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Dianthus carthusianorum is one of the dominant plant species colonising the Zn-Pb waste deposits in Bolesław, Southern Poland. It differs in terms of morphology and genetics from ecotypes inhabiting non-metal-polluted areas. The response of waste-heap (metallicolous, M) and reference (nonmetallicolous, NM) ecotypes of D. carthusianorum to Pb in hydroponics was investigated and compared in this study. The plants of the M ecotype were more tolerant to Pb than these of the NM ecotype in spite of accumulation of higher concentrations of Pb. In both ecotypes, about 70-78% of Pb was retained in roots. In non Pb-treated plants, a higher glutathione (GSH) level was found in the M ecotype. After the Pb exposure, the GSH level decreased and was similar in both ecotypes. Lead treatment induced synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) only in the plant roots, with significantly higher concentrations thereof detected in the NM ecotype. Malate and citrate concentrations were higher in the M ecotype; however, they did not change significantly upon any Pb treatment in either ecotype. The results indicated that neither PCs nor organic acids were responsible for the enhanced Pb tolerance of the waste-heap plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken S Moriuchi

    Full Text Available High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within

  2. Hongos ectomicorrícicos y la tolerancia a la salinidad en plantas Ectomycorrhizal fungi and tolerance to salinity in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SELENE AGUILAR-AGUILAR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de salinización de los suelos constituye un problema generalizado a nivel global. En este sentido, los hongos ectomicorrícicos tienen una importante participación en la recuperación de suelos forestales ya que involucran una serie de mecanismos celulares que pueden contribuir a la tolerancia a la salinidad en plantas que habitan los bosques templados o boreales. La participación de los hongos ectomicorrícicos en la tolerancia a la salinidad involucra la regulación homeostática de los iones, la mejora de captación de agua y la inducción de genes específicos en las raíces colonizadas. Los hongos ectomicorrícicos pueden estimular la presencia de osmolitos como la prolina, azúcares y polioles que contribuyen en la protección de las células vegetales. Además, estos organismos inducen la síntesis de enzimas antioxidantes y glutatión que participan en la disminución de especies reactivas de oxígeno. Esta revisión ofrece una descripción de la participación de los hongos ectomicorrícicos en la tolerancia a la salinidad en plantas.The process of salinization of the soil is a widespread problem at the global level. In this sense, ectomycorrhizal fungi have an important role in the recovery of forest soil, as it involves a number of cellular mechanisms that may contribute to the salinity tolerance in plants that inhabit temperate and boreal forests. The participation of ectomycorrhizal fungi on the salinity tolerance involves the ion-homeostasis regulation, improving uptake water and inducing specific gene in roots colonized. Likewise ectomycorrhizal fungi can stimulate the presence of osmolytes as proline, sugars and polyols that contribute to the protection of plant cells. Additionally, these organisms stimulate the synthesis of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes involved in the decrease of reactive oxygen species. This review provides an overview of participation of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the salinity tolerance in

  3. Genetic, physiological and modelling approaches towards tolerance to salinity and low nitrogen supply in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manneh, B.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords:   Rice, O ryza sativa , yield potential, yield gap, salinity, nitrogen supply, agro-ecosystems, Recombinant Inbred Line, genotype × environment interaction, yield components, adaptability, molecular markers, QTL, biomass, leaf area, leaf N, dry matter

  4. Overexpression of GmDREB1 improves salt tolerance in transgenic wheat and leaf protein response to high salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Qiyan Jiang; Zheng Hu; Hui Zhang; Youzhi Ma

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB) is able to improve tolerance to abiotic stress in plants by regulating the expression of downstream genes involved in environmental stress resistance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the salt tolerance of GmDREB1 transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and to evaluate its physiological and protein responses to salt stress. Compared with the wild type, the transgenic lines overexpressing GmDREB1 showed...

  5. A receptor-like kinase gene (GbRLK) from Gossypium barbadense enhances salinity and drought-stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Gao, Yulong; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Tianzi; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2013-08-06

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is widely cultivated due to the important economic value of its fiber. However, extreme environmental degradation impedes cotton growth and production. Receptor-like kinase (RLK) proteins play important roles in signal transduction and participate in a diverse range of processes in response to plant hormones and environmental cues. Here, we introduced an RLK gene (GbRLK) from cotton into Arabidopsis and investigated its role in imparting abiotic stress tolerance. GbRLK transcription was induced by exogenously supplied abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, mock drought conditions and high salinity. We cloned the promoter sequence of this gene via self-formed adaptor PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the promoter region contains many cis-acting stress-responsive elements such as ABRE, W-Box, MYB-core, W-Box core, TCA-element and others. We constructed a vector containing a 1,890-bp sequence in the 5' region upstream of the initiation codon of this promoter and transformed it into Arabidopsis thaliana. GUS histochemical staining analysis showed that GbRLK was expressed mainly in leaf veins, petioles and roots of transgenic Arabidopsis, but not in the cotyledons or root hairs. GbRLK promoter activity was induced by ABA, PEG, NaCl and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic Arabidopsis with constitutive overexpression of GbRLK exhibited a reduced rate of water loss in leaves in vitro, along with improved salinity and drought tolerance and increased sensitivity to ABA compared with non-transgenic Col-0 Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of stress-responsive genes in GbRLK Arabidopsis revealed that there was increased expression of genes involved in the ABA-dependent signaling pathway (AtRD20, AtRD22 and AtRD26) and antioxidant genes (AtCAT1, AtCCS, AtCSD2 and AtCSD1) but not ion transporter genes (AtNHX1, AtSOS1). GbRLK is involved in the drought and high salinity stresses pathway by activating or participating in the ABA signaling

  6. Studying the possibility of isolating and characterizing genes responsible for salinity tolerance in some gamma irradiation-induced potato mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Daoude, A; Al-Safadi, B; Al-Nabulsi, I; Mir Ali, N [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic), Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

    2008-07-15

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) were deployed to study the genetic relatedness of nineteen different potato lines previously obtained by gamma irradiation and believed to be salt tolerant. The lines which belong to three different cultivars, Spunta, Draga and Diamant were confirmed to be salt tolerant in comparison with their controls. Twenty seven random primers and twenty five ISSR oligonucleotides were utilized to determine the genetic relatedness and to amplify DNA fragments involved in salt tolerance. ISSR clustering and Percent disagreement values (PDV) resembled that of the RAPDs for all studied lines. Consequently, RAPD and ISSR were reliable and could be used to determine the genetic relatedness of potato lines belonging to the same cultivar. Moreover, twenty unique DNA fragments were amplified using RAPD or ISSR in the tolerant mutant lines but not in their respective controls. The fragments were gel excised, reamplified and cloned in a cloning vector using QIAGEN A-addition and PCR cloning Kits. However, Blast data base search with the fragments sequences did not reveal any significant homology indicating the weakness of both the RAPD and ISSR techniques in identifying specific targets.(Authors)

  7. Studying the possibility of isolating and characterizing genes responsible for salinity tolerance in some gamma irradiation-induced potato mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Daoude, A.; Al-Safadi, B.; Al-Nabulsi, I.; Mir Ali, N.

    2008-07-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) were deployed to study the genetic relatedness of nineteen different potato lines previously obtained by gamma irradiation and believed to be salt tolerant. The lines which belong to three different cultivars, Spunta, Draga and Diamant were confirmed to be salt tolerant in comparison with their controls. Twenty seven random primers and twenty five ISSR oligonucleotides were utilized to determine the genetic relatedness and to amplify DNA fragments involved in salt tolerance. ISSR clustering and Percent disagreement values (PDV) resembled that of the RAPDs for all studied lines. Consequently, RAPD and ISSR were reliable and could be used to determine the genetic relatedness of potato lines belonging to the same cultivar. Moreover, twenty unique DNA fragments were amplified using RAPD or ISSR in the tolerant mutant lines but not in their respective controls. The fragments were gel excised, reamplified and cloned in a cloning vector using QIAGEN A-addition and PCR cloning Kits. However, Blast data base search with the fragments sequences did not reveal any significant homology indicating the weakness of both the RAPD and ISSR techniques in identifying specific targets.(Authors)

  8. Mode of inheritance of low-N tolerance adaptive traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under contrasting nitrogen environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. M. Al Naggar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of essential economic and ecological concerns, there is increased interest worldwide in developing wheat cultivars that are more efficient in utilizing nitrogen (N and better suited to N limitations. The objective of the present investigation was to get information on the type of gene action controlling the inheritance of wheat low-N tolerance traits in order to start a breeding program for improving such traits. Six parents of contrasting low-N tolerance were crossed in a diallel fashion. Evaluation of 6 parents, 15 F1crosses and 15 F2 crosses was done using a randomized complete block design with three replications under two levels of soil N, i.e. low-N (0 kg N/ha and high-N (180 kg N/ha.The magnitude of dominance variance inF2's for all studied traits was much greater than that of additive variance under both high N and low N, suggesting that selection should be postponed to later segregating generations in order to eliminate masking effects of dominance variance and take advantage of the additive variance for the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield traits. Narrow-sense heritability (h2n in F2's was generally of higher magnitude under low-N than high-N, suggesting that it is better to practice selection for studied nitrogen efficiency and grain yield traits under low-N conditions to obtain higher values of selection gain.

  9. Mode of inheritance of low-N tolerance adaptive traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under contrasting nitrogen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Naggar, A.M.M.; Shabana, R.; Abd-El-Aleem, M.M.; El-Rashidy, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Because of essential economic and ecological concerns, there is increased interest worldwide in developing wheat cultivars that are more efficient in utilizing nitrogen (N) and better suited to N limitations. The objective of the present investigation was to get information on the type of gene action controlling the inheritance of wheat low-N tolerance traits in order to start a breeding program for improving such traits. Six parents of contrasting low-N tolerance were crossed in a diallel fashion. Evaluation of 6 parents, 15 F1crosses and 15 F2 crosses was done using a randomized complete block design with three replications under two levels of soil N, i.e. low-N (0 kg N/ha) and high-N (180 kg N/ha).The magnitude of dominance variance inF2's for all studied traits was much greater than that of additive variance under both high N and low N, suggesting that selection should be postponed to later segregating generations in order to eliminate masking effects of dominance variance and take advantage of the additive variance for the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield traits. Narrow-sense heritability (h2n) in F2's was generally of higher magnitude under low-N than high-N, suggesting that it is better to practice selection for studied nitrogen efficiency and grain yield traits under low-N conditions to obtain higher values of selection gain.

  10. Mode of inheritance of low-N tolerance adaptive traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under contrasting nitrogen environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Naggar, A.M.M.; Shabana, R.; Abd-El-Aleem, M.M.; El-Rashidy, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Because of essential economic and ecological concerns, there is increased interest worldwide in developing wheat cultivars that are more efficient in utilizing nitrogen (N) and better suited to N limitations. The objective of the present investigation was to get information on the type of gene action controlling the inheritance of wheat low-N tolerance traits in order to start a breeding program for improving such traits. Six parents of contrasting low-N tolerance were crossed in a diallel fashion. Evaluation of 6 parents, 15 F1crosses and 15 F2 crosses was done using a randomized complete block design with three replications under two levels of soil N, i.e. low-N (0 kg N/ha) and high-N (180 kg N/ha).The magnitude of dominance variance inF2's for all studied traits was much greater than that of additive variance under both high N and low N, suggesting that selection should be postponed to later segregating generations in order to eliminate masking effects of dominance variance and take advantage of the additive variance for the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield traits. Narrow-sense heritability (h2n) in F2's was generally of higher magnitude under low-N than high-N, suggesting that it is better to practice selection for studied nitrogen efficiency and grain yield traits under low-N conditions to obtain higher values of selection gain.

  11. High tolerance to temperature and salinity change should enable scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta from marginal environments to persist under future climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apple Pui Yi Chui

    Full Text Available With projected changes in the marine environment under global climate change, the effects of single stressors on corals have been relatively well studied. However, more focus should be placed on the interactive effects of multiple stressors if their impacts upon corals are to be assessed more realistically. Elevation of sea surface temperature is projected under global climate change, and future increases in precipitation extremes related to the monsoon are also expected. Thus, the lowering of salinity could become a more common phenomenon and its impact on corals could be significant as extreme precipitation usually occurs during the coral spawning season. Here, we investigated the interactive effects of temperature [24, 27 (ambient, 30, 32°C] and salinity [33 psu (ambient, 30, 26, 22, 18, 14 psu] on larval settlement, post-settlement survival and early growth of the dominant coral Platygyra acuta from Hong Kong, a marginal environment for coral growth. The results indicate that elevated temperatures (+3°C and +5°C above ambient did not have any significant effects on larval settlement success and post-settlement survival for up to 56 days of prolonged exposure. Such thermal tolerance was markedly higher than that reported in the literature for other coral species. Moreover, there was a positive effect of these elevated temperatures in reducing the negative effects of lowered salinity (26 psu on settlement success. The enhanced settlement success brought about by elevated temperatures, together with the high post-settlement survival recorded up to 44 and 8 days of exposure under +3°C and +5°C ambient respectively, resulted in the overall positive effects of elevated temperatures on recruitment success. These results suggest that projected elevation in temperature over the next century should not pose any major problem for the recruitment success of P. acuta. The combined effects of higher temperatures and lowered salinity (26 psu could

  12. Polyamines contribute to salinity tolerance in the symbiosis Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti by preventing oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Miguel; Hidalgo-Castellanos, Javier; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Rubén; Marín-Peña, Agustín J; Lluch, Carmen; Herrera-Cervera, José A

    2017-07-01

    Polyamines (PAs) such as spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are small ubiquitous polycationic compounds that contribute to plant adaptation to salt stress. The positive effect of PAs has been associated to a cross-talk with other anti-stress hormones such as brassinosteroids (BRs). In this work we have studied the effects of exogenous Spd and Spm pre-treatments in the response to salt stress of the symbiotic interaction between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti by analyzing parameters related to nitrogen fixation, oxidative damage and cross-talk with BRs in the response to salinity. Exogenous PAs treatments incremented the foliar and nodular Spd and Spm content which correlated with an increment of the nodule biomass and nitrogenase activity. Exogenous Spm treatment partially prevented proline accumulation which suggests that this polyamine could replace the role of this amino acid in the salt stress response. Additionally, Spd and Spm pre-treatments reduced the levels of H 2 O 2 and lipid peroxidation under salt stress. PAs induced the expression of genes involved in BRs biosynthesis which support a cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the salt stress response of M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis. In conclusion, exogenous PAs improved the response to salinity of the M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis by reducing the oxidative damage induced under salt stress conditions. In addition, in this work we provide evidences of the cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the adaptive responses to salinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Overexpression of a Plasma Membrane-Localized SbSRP-Like Protein Enhances Salinity and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An obligate halophyte, Salicornia brachiata grows in salt marshes and is considered to be a potential resource of salt- and drought-responsive genes. It is important to develop an understanding of the mechanisms behind enhanced salt tolerance. To increase this understanding, a novel SbSRP gene was cloned, characterized, over-expressed, and functionally validated in the model plant Nicotiana tabacum. The genome of the halophyte S. brachiata contains two homologs of an intronless SbSRP gene of 1,262 bp in length that encodes for a stress-related protein. An in vivo localization study confirmed that SbSRP is localized on the plasma membrane. Transgenic tobacco plants (T1 that constitutively over-express the SbSRP gene showed improved salinity and osmotic stress tolerance. In comparison to Wild Type (WT and Vector Control (VC plants, transgenic lines showed elevated relative water and chlorophyll content, lower malondialdehyde content, lower electrolyte leakage and higher accumulation of proline, free amino acids, sugars, polyphenols, and starch under abiotic stress treatments. Furthermore, a lower build-up of H2O2 content and superoxide-radicals was found in transgenic lines compared to WT and VC plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of Nt-APX (ascorbate peroxidase, Nt-CAT (catalase, Nt-SOD (superoxide dismutase, Nt-DREB (dehydration responsive element binding factor, and Nt-AP2 (apetala2 genes was higher in transgenic lines under stress compared to WT and VC plants. The results suggested that overexpression of membrane-localized SbSRP mitigates salt and osmotic stress in the transgenic tobacco plant. It was hypothesized that SbSRP can be a transporter protein to transmit the environmental stimuli downward through the plasma membrane. However, a detailed study is required to ascertain its exact role in the abiotic stress tolerance mechanism. Overall, SbSRP is a potential candidate to be used for engineering salt and osmotic

  14. Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrasco, Karina; Antognoni, Fabiana; Coulibaly, Amadou Konotie; Lizardi, Susana; Covarrubias, Adriana; Martínez, Enrique A; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Biondi, Stefania; Zurita-Silva, Andrés

    2011-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) is an Andean plant showing a remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses. In Chile, quinoa populations display a high degree of genetic distancing, and variable tolerance to salinity. To investigate which tolerance mechanisms might account for these differences, four genotypes from coastal central and southern regions were compared for their growth, physiological, and molecular responses to NaCl at seedling stage. Seeds were sown on agar plates supplemented with 0, 150 or 300mM NaCl. Germination was significantly reduced by NaCl only in accession BO78. Shoot length was reduced by 150mM NaCl in three out of four genotypes, and by over 60% at 300mM (except BO78 which remained more similar to controls). Root length was hardly affected or even enhanced at 150mM in all four genotypes, but inhibited, especially in BO78, by 300mM NaCl. Thus, the root/shoot ratio was differentially affected by salt, with the highest values in PRJ, and the lowest in BO78. Biomass was also less affected in PRJ than in the other accessions, the genotype with the highest increment in proline concentration upon salt treatment. Free putrescine declined dramatically in all genotypes under 300mM NaCl; however (spermidine+spermine)/putrescine ratios were higher in PRJ than BO78. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of two sodium transporter genes, CqSOS1 and CqNHX, revealed that their expression was differentially induced at the shoot and root level, and between genotypes, by 300mM NaCl. Expression data are discussed in relation to the degree of salt tolerance in the different accessions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of the optimum number of cardiac cycles to differentiate intra-pulmonary shunt and patent foramen ovale by saline contrast two- and three-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Nirmanmoh; Abushora, Mohannad Y; Donneyong, Macarius M; Stoddard, Marcus F

    2014-03-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) and intra-pulmonary shunt (IPS) are potential causes of stroke. The most optimum cardiac cycle cutoff for bubbles to appear in the left heart on saline contrast transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as criteria to differentiate the 2 entities is unknown. Ninety-five adult patients had saline contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), two-dimensional (2D) and 3DTTE. Sensitivity and specificity of each cardiac cycle as cutoff to differentiate a PFO and IPS were obtained. Transesophageal echocardiography showed IPS in 28 and PFO in 15 patients. If bubbles appeared in the left heart within the first 4 cardiac cycles (the 4th cardiac cycle rule) as compared to alternate cutoffs, a PFO was most accurately diagnosed by both 2D and 3DTTE. Bubbles appearing at or after the 5th cardiac cycle most accurately determined an IPS. 3D versus 2DTTE had a trend for a higher sensitivity (61% vs. 36%, P = 0.06), but similar specificity (94% vs. 91%) for IPS. Accuracy of 3DTTE was 84% and 2DTTE was 75% (P = 0.08) for IPS. For PFO, 2DTTE sensitivity (87%) and specificity (98%) did not differ (P = NS) from that of 3DTTE sensitivity (73%) and specificity (100%). This study demonstrates for the first time that the 4th cardiac cycle rule differentiates PFO and IPS most optimally by 2D and 3DTTE. 3DTTE appears to have higher sensitivity for diagnosing IPS. These data suggest that 3DTTE is preferable when IPS is to be diagnosed. Both methods are similar for diagnosing PFO. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Tolerância de juvenis do pampo Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae ao choque agudo de salinidade em laboratório Acute salinity tolerance of juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Sampaio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O pampo Trachinotus marginatus é uma espécie com potencial para piscicultura, mas a sua utilização pode ser limitada pelas variações de salinidade comuns em estuários ou em ambientes super-salinos. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a tolerância à salinidade de juvenis de T. marginatus em laboratório. Foram testadas 12 salinidades em duplicata (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65 e 75‰ e um tratamento controle (35‰. Dez peixes (comprimento total: 20,7±2,3mm e peso úmido: 427±113mg foram colocados em tanques plásticos de 3L. A temperatura da água foi mantida em 24ºC com um banho termostatisado, aeração constante e, a cada 24 horas, os meios experimentais foram completamente renovados. Após 96 horas de exposição, as salinidades letais médias inferior e superior, com os respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC 95%, foram estimadas em 6,99‰ (IC 95% = 6,86-7,13‰ e 58,50‰ (IC 95% = 56,81-60,24‰, respectivamente. Estes resultados permitem caracterizar esta espécie como eurialina. O estudo da influência da salinidade sobre T. marginatus deve ser aprofundado, buscando avaliar principalmente os efeitos sobre o crescimento, de modo que seja possível determinar o potencial do seu cultivo em ambientes com diferentes salinidades.The pompano Trachinotus marginatus shows good potential for aquaculture, but the success of its culture might be limited by the salinity fluctuations common in estuaries or in hyper-saline environments. The objective of this work was to establish the salinity tolerance of juvenile T. marginatus under laboratory conditions. Twelve salinities (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65, and 75‰ plus a control (35‰ were tested in duplicate. Groups of ten fish (total length: 20.7±2,3mm and wet weight: 427±113mg were placed in plastic tanks with 3L of water. A water bath was set to control the temperature at 24ºC, water was continuously aerated, and completely exchanged

  17. Tolerance of Ruppia sinensis Seeds to Desiccation, Low Temperature, and High Salinity With Special Reference to Long-Term Seed Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruiting; Zhou, Yi; Song, Xiaoyue; Xu, Shaochun; Zhang, Xiaomei; Lin, Haiying; Xu, Shuai; Yue, Shidong; Zhu, Shuyu

    2018-01-01

    Seeds are important materials for the restoration of globally-threatened marine angiosperm (seagrass) populations. In this study, we investigated the differences between different Ruppia sinensis seed types and developed two feasible long-term R. sinensis seed storage methods. The ability of R. sinensis seeds to tolerate the short-term desiccation and extreme cold had been investigated. The tolerance of R. sinensis seeds to long-term exposure of high salinity, cold temperature, and desiccation had been considered as potential methods for long-term seed storage. Also, three morphological and nine physiological indices were measured and compared between two types of seeds: Shape L and Shape S. We found that: (1) wet storage at a salinity of 30-40 psu and 0°C were the optimal long-term storage conditions, and the proportion of viable seeds reached over 90% after a storage period of 11 months since the seeds were collected from the reproductive shoots; (2) dry condition was not the optimal choice for long-term storage of R. sinensis seeds; however, storing seeds in a dry condition at 5°C and 33 ± 10% relative humidity for 9 months had a relatively high percentage (74.44 ± 2.22%) of viable seeds, consequently desiccation exposure could also be an acceptable seed storage method; (3) R. sinensis seeds would lose vigor in the interaction of extreme cold (-27°C) and desiccation; (4) there were significant differences in seed weight, seed curvature, and endocarp thickness between the two types of seeds. These findings provided fundamental physiological information for R. sinensis seeds and supported the long-term storage of its seeds. Our results may also serve as useful reference for seed storage of other threatened seagrass species and facilitate their ex situ conservation and habitat restoration.

  18. Tolerance of Ruppia sinensis Seeds to Desiccation, Low Temperature, and High Salinity With Special Reference to Long-Term Seed Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiting Gu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are important materials for the restoration of globally-threatened marine angiosperm (seagrass populations. In this study, we investigated the differences between different Ruppia sinensis seed types and developed two feasible long-term R. sinensis seed storage methods. The ability of R. sinensis seeds to tolerate the short-term desiccation and extreme cold had been investigated. The tolerance of R. sinensis seeds to long-term exposure of high salinity, cold temperature, and desiccation had been considered as potential methods for long-term seed storage. Also, three morphological and nine physiological indices were measured and compared between two types of seeds: Shape L and Shape S. We found that: (1 wet storage at a salinity of 30–40 psu and 0°C were the optimal long-term storage conditions, and the proportion of viable seeds reached over 90% after a storage period of 11 months since the seeds were collected from the reproductive shoots; (2 dry condition was not the optimal choice for long-term storage of R. sinensis seeds; however, storing seeds in a dry condition at 5°C and 33 ± 10% relative humidity for 9 months had a relatively high percentage (74.44 ± 2.22% of viable seeds, consequently desiccation exposure could also be an acceptable seed storage method; (3 R. sinensis seeds would lose vigor in the interaction of extreme cold (-27°C and desiccation; (4 there were significant differences in seed weight, seed curvature, and endocarp thickness between the two types of seeds. These findings provided fundamental physiological information for R. sinensis seeds and supported the long-term storage of its seeds. Our results may also serve as useful reference for seed storage of other threatened seagrass species and facilitate their ex situ conservation and habitat restoration.

  19. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH.

  20. Dehydrins from wheat x Thinopyrum ponticum amphiploid increase salinity and drought tolerance under their own inducible promoters without growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu-Xiang; Qin, Fangyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dehydrins confer abiotic stress tolerance in seedlings, but few dehydrins have been studied by transgenic analysis under their own promoters in relation to abiotic stress tolerance. Also the inducible promoters for transgenic engineering are limited. In this study, we isolated from wheat three salt-induced YSK2 dehydrin genes and their promoters. The cDNA sequences were 711, 785, and 932 bp in length, encoding proteins containing 133, 166 and 231 amino acids, respectively, and were named TaDHN1, TaDHN2, and TaDHN3. TaDHN2 doesn't contain introns, while the other two genes each contain one. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed all three dehydrin genes are substantially induced by ABA and NaCl, but only TaDHN2 is induced in seedlings by PEG and by cold (4 °C). Regulatory sequences upstream of the first translation codon (775, 1615 and 889 bp) of the three dehydrin genes were also cloned. Cis-element prediction indicated the presence of ABRE and other abiotic-stress-related elements. Histochemical analysis using GUS expression demonstrated that all three promoters were induced by ABA, cold or NaCl. Ectopic over-expression of TaDHN1 or TaDHN3 in Arabidopsis under their own inducible promoters enhanced NaCl- and drought-stress tolerance without growth retardation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Salinity stress effects on [14C-1]- and [14C-6]-glucose metabolism of a salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible variety of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaraj, S.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of salt (sodium sulfate) on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a salt-tolerant (Kharchia-65) variety and a salt-susceptible (Fielder) variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by comparing their responses under control and stress conditions. Leaf segments of Kharchia-65 showed increased activity through both the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the glycolytic pathway of glucose oxidation, with the former being comparatively more active in response to salt. In Fielder, there was an increase in PPP activity at the expense of glycolytic pathway activity. Label from glucose was found in the lipid, neutral sugar, amino acid, organic acid, and phosphate ester fractions in all treatments. On the basis of the label distribution patterns, it appears that Fielder leaves incubated with [ 14 C-6]-glucose were not able to utilize glucose efficiently under saline conditions. This finding was further supported by decreased label incorporation into all the fractions, especially the amino acid and organic acid fractions. Adenosine phosphate and reduced pyridine nucleotide concentrations were consistent with these observations. We conclude therefore that the salt-tolerant variety had an enhanced metabolic activity compared with the salt-susceptible variety, which contributed to its ability to overcome the adverse effects of salt. (author)

  2. A high-quality genome assembly of quinoa provides insights into the molecular basis of salt bladder-based salinity tolerance and the exceptional nutritional value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changsong; Chen, Aojun; Xiao, Lihong; Muller, Heike M; Ache, Peter; Haberer, Georg; Zhang, Meiling; Jia, Wei; Deng, Ping; Huang, Ru; Lang, Daniel; Li, Feng; Zhan, Dongliang; Wu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Hui; Bohm, Jennifer; Liu, Renyi; Shabala, Sergey; Hedrich, Rainer; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots. The genome is highly repetitive (64.5% repeat content) and contains 54 438 protein-coding genes and 192 microRNA genes, with more than 99.3% having orthologous genes from glycophylic species. Stress tolerance in quinoa is associated with the expansion of genes involved in ion and nutrient transport, ABA homeostasis and signaling, and enhanced basal-level ABA responses. Epidermal salt bladder cells exhibit similar characteristics as trichomes, with a significantly higher expression of genes related to energy import and ABA biosynthesis compared with the leaf lamina. The quinoa genome sequence provides insights into its exceptional nutritional value and the evolution of halophytes, enabling the identification of genes involved in salinity tolerance, and providing the basis for molecular breeding in quinoa. PMID:28994416

  3. Polyamine metabolism influences antioxidant defense mechanism in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) cultivars with different salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Chinta; Veeranagamallaiah, Gounipalli; Nareshkumar, Ambekar; Sudhakarbabu, Owku; Sivakumar, M; Pandurangaiah, Merum; Kiranmai, K; Lokesh, U

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines can regulate the expression of antioxidant enzymes and impart plants tolerance to abiotic stresses. A comparative analysis of polyamines, their biosynthetic enzymes at kinetic and at transcriptional level, and their role in regulating the induction of antioxidant defense enzymes under salt stress condition in two foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) cultivars, namely Prasad, a salt-tolerant, and Lepakshi, a salt-sensitive cultivar was conducted. Salt stress resulted in elevation of free polyamines due to increase in the activity of spermidine synthase and S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase enzymes in cultivar Prasad compared to cultivar Lepakshi under different levels of NaCl stress. These enzyme activities were further confirmed at the transcript level via qRT-PCR analysis. The cultivar Prasad showed a greater decrease in diamine oxidase and polyamine oxidase activity, which results in the accumulation of polyamine pools over cultivar Lepakshi. Generation of free radicals, such as O 2 (·-) and H2O2, was also analyzed quantitatively. A significant increase in O 2 (·-) and H2O2 in the cultivar Lepakshi compared with cultivar Prasad was recorded in overall pool sizes. Further, histochemical staining showed lesser accumulation of O 2 (·-) and of H2O2 in the leaves of cultivar Prasad than cultivar Lepakshi. Our results also suggest the ability of polyamine oxidation in regulating the induction of antioxidative defense enzymes, which involve in the elimination of toxic levels of O 2 (·-) and H2O2, such as Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The contribution of polyamines in modulating antioxidative defense mechanism in NaCl stress tolerance is discussed.

  4. On the Use of Molecular Weight Cutoff Cassettes to Measure Dynamic Relaxivity of Novel Gadolinium Contrast Agents: Example Using Hyaluronic Acid Polymer Complexes in Phosphate-Buffered Saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Kasraie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine whether standard extracellular contrast agents of Gd(III ions in combination with a polymeric entity susceptible to hydrolytic degradation over a finite period of time, such as Hyaluronic Acid (HA, have sufficient vascular residence time to obtain comparable vascular imaging to current conventional compounds and to obtain sufficient data to show proof of concept that HA with Gd-DTPA ligands could be useful as vascular imaging agents. We assessed the dynamic relaxivity of the HA bound DTPA compounds using a custom-made phantom, as well as relaxation rates at 10.72 MHz with concentrations ranging between 0.09 and 7.96 mM in phosphate-buffered saline. Linear dependences of static longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 on concentration were found for most measured samples, and the HA samples continued to produce high signal strength after 24 hours after injection into a dialysis cassette at 3T, showing superior dynamic relaxivity values compared to conventional contrast media such as Gd-DTPA-BMA.

  5. Tissue Culture Technique and Gamma Irradiation Used in Evaluation of Five Genotypes of Bread Wheat to Salinity Tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL Jibouri, A. A. M.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Dallul, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Callus has been induced from immature embryos of five genotypes of Triticum aestivum L (i.e. Maxipak, IPA99, 113, Tamus 3 and Babylon) on MS culture media. The calli were irradiated by Gamma ray at doses (0,15, 30,45, And 60) Gray, and cultured on MS media supplemented with salt mixture consist of sodium, calcium and magnesium chlorides in portions 3; 3; 1 respectively.The results showed significant differences in genotype responses to irradiation and salinity . A significant reduction in fresh and dry weights with increasing of irradiation dose and salt concentration in culture media in all genotypes. The genotype IPA99 showed a highest fresh and dry weight than the other genotypes . The proline contents increased significantly in callus with irradiation doses and concentration increases. On the other hand callus carbohydrate content reduced significantly with increased salt concentration in culture media. The capability of callus regeneration was reduced by increasing irradiation doses and salt concentration in culture media. (author)

  6. Report on the consultants meeting on identification of crop species/cultivars for drought and salinity tolerance for sustained crop yields by using nuclear techniques, in particular the carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Consultants Meeting on Identification of Crop Species/Cultivars for Drought and Salinity Tolerance for Sustained Crop Yields by Using Nuclear Techniques, in Particular the Carbon Isotope Discrimination. was held in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from 12-16 November 2001. This meeting was conducted in conjunction with a Group Meeting on Novel Approaches for Improving Crop Tolerance to Salinity and Drought. Five consultants from Australia, Mexico, Pakistan, UK and the USA and one representative from FAO attended the Consultant Meeting and nine participants from Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, Israel, Pakistan, South Africa and the USA attended the Group Meeting. First two days of the meeting consisted of five technical sessions during which the participants presented papers on various approaches for improving crop tolerance to salinity and drought and the role of nuclear techniques in identification of plants tolerant to the above abiotic stresses. After the presentations, two working groups were formed: one consisting of the participants of the Consultants Meeting and the other the participants of the Group Meeting. The consultants proposed various strategies for using the carbon isotope discrimination technique as a selection tool for identifying higher yielding crop genotypes especially in wheat and rice cropping systems under drought and saline conditions. A proposal was formulated to address the above issues in a framework of a CRP. The participants of the Group Meeting reviewed conventional and molecular approaches for improving crop tolerance to salinity and drought and research priorities were identified for future work on crop productivity improvement under the above stress factors. Recommendations of both working groups were presented at the final session of the meeting. This report provides the details of the proposal formulated by the consultants. Refs

  7. Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum Potencial de biocontrole de mutantes sal-tolerantes de Trichoderma harzianum contra Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11. Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth media containing up to 69 mM NaCl. In comparison with their parent strain, characterization of both mutants confirmed that they have reinforced contents of proline and hydroxyproline, relatively higher sodium content compared to potassium, calcium or magnesium contents, higher level of total phenols. Electrophoretic analysis of total soluble proteins in the salt tolerance mutant Th50M6 showed different bands accumulated in response to 69 mM NaCl. Data also showed that mutants produce certain active metabolites, such as chitinases, cellulases, beta-galactosidases, as well as, some antibiotics i.e., trichodermin, gliotoxin and gliovirin. Trichoderma mutants significantly reduced wilt disease incidence and improved yield and mineral contents of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions, as well as, under infested and natural conditions. T. harzianum mutants were also more efficient in dropping the F. oxysporum growth in rhizosphere compared to the wild type strain. Population density of both mutants in rhizosphere far exceeded that of T. harzianum wild type strain.A exposição de uma cepa selvagem de Trichoderma harzianum à irradiação gama induziu dois mutantes tolerantes a sal (Th50M6 e Th50M11. Em condições salinas, os dois mutantes foram muito superiores à cepa selvagem em relação à velocidade de multiplicação, esporulação e eficiência contra Fusarium oxysporum, o agente causador da doença wilt do tomate. Os mutantes tolerantes foram capazes de multiplicação e esporulação em

  8. Comparison of trans-perineal ultrasound-guided pressure augmented saline colostomy distension study and conventional contrast radiographic colostography in children with anorectal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwunife, Okechukwu Hyginus; Umeh, Eric Okechukwu; Ugwu, Jideofor Okechukwu; Ebubedike, Uzoamaka Rufina; Okoli, Chinedu Christian; Modekwe, Victor Ifeanyichukwu; Elendu, Kelechi Collins

    2016-01-01

    In children with high and intermediate anorectal malformation, distal colostography is an important investigation done to determine the relationship between the position of the rectal pouch and the probable site of the neo-anus as well as the presence or absence of a fistula. Conventionally, this is done using contrast with fluoroscopy or still X-ray imaging. This, however, has the challenges of irradiation, availability and affordability, especially in developing countries. This study compared the accuracy of trans-perineal ultrasound-guided pressure augmented saline colostomy distension study (SCDS) with conventional contrast distal colostography (CCDC) in the determination of the precise location of the distal rectal pouch and in detecting the presence and site of fistulous communication between the rectum and the urogenital tract was studied. Trans-perineal ultrasound-guided pressure augmented SCDS, CCDC and intra-operative measurements were done sequentially for qualified infants with anorectal malformation and colostomy. Pouch skin distance and presence or absence of recto urinary or genital fistula was measured prospectively in each case. Statistical significance was inferred at P-value of 0.01. On its ability to detect presence or absence of a fistula: SCDS had a sensitivity of 50.0%, specificity of 100.0%, accuracy of 69.2%, negative predictive value of fistulas of 55.6% and a positive predictive value of fistulas of 100.0%. Ultrasound-guided pressure augmented SCDS can safely and reliably be used to assess the distal colonic anatomy and the presence of fistula in infants with Anorectal malformation who are on colostomy.

  9. Trichoderma-Plant Root Colonization: Escaping Early Plant Defense Responses and Activation of the Antioxidant Machinery for Saline Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity

  10. Unraveling the mechanism responsible for the contrasting tolerance of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to Cr(VI): Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Alka [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ballal, Anand, E-mail: aballal@barc.gov.in [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 40085 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) accumulation generates higher ROS in Synechocystis than in Synechococcus. • Synechococcus exhibits better photosynthetic activity in response to Cr(VI). • Synechococcus has higher enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants than Synechocystis. • Synechococcus shows better tolerance to other oxidative stresses than Synechocystis. • Differential detoxification of ROS is responsible for the contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI) - Abstract: Two unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, showed contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI); with Synechococcus being 12-fold more tolerant than Synechocystis to potassium dichromate. The mechanism responsible for this differential sensitivity to Cr(VI) was explored in this study. Total content of photosynthetic pigments as well as photosynthetic activity decreased at lower concentration of Cr(VI) in Synechocystis as compared to Synechococcus. Experiments with {sup 51}Cr showed Cr to accumulate intracellularly in both the cyanobacteria. At lower concentrations, Cr(VI) caused excessive ROS generation in Synechocystis as compared to that observed in Synechococcus. Intrinsic levels of enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase and 2-Cys-peroxiredoxin were considerably higher in Synechococcus than Synechocystis. Content of total thiols (both protein as well as non-protein) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was also higher in Synechococcus as compared to Synechocystis. This correlated well with higher content of carbonylated proteins observed in Synechocystis than Synechococcus. Additionally, in contrast to Synechocystis, Synechococcus exhibited better tolerance to other oxidative stresses like high intensity light and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The data indicate that the disparity in the ability to detoxify ROS could be the primary mechanism responsible for the differential tolerance of these cyanobacteria to Cr(VI)

  11. Salt exclusion and mycorrhizal symbiosis increase tolerance to NaCl and CaCl2 salinity in ‘Siam Queen’ basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on growth and nutrient uptake in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Plants were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution and exposed to no, low, or moderate levels of salinity from NaCl or CaCl2. Plants in the control and moderate salinity tre...

  12. Seleção de genótipos de arroz tolerantes à salinidade durante a fase vegetativa Selection of genotypes of salinity tolerance rice during the vegetative phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Cabral Sales de Melo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de tolerância e sensibilidade à salinidade de genótipos de arroz durante a fase vegetativa da planta. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de telado, nas dependências da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária-IPA (Recife-PE, em 1996. Foram avaliados doze genótipos de arroz, sendo dez tolerantes e dois sensíveis à salinidade no estádio de desenvolvimento vegetativo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com arranjo fatorial (doze genótipos x quatro níveis de NaCl, em três repetições. Os resultados constataram existência de variabilidade entre os genótipos de arroz na população estudada para tolerância e sensibilidade à salinidade. As linhagens PR492, PR504, CNA8250, CNA8262 e CNA8267 são tolerantes e a CNA8270, CNA8258, CNA8269, PR475 e PR477 são sensíveis à salinidade dos solos durante a fase vegetativa.The objective of this work was to evaluate the degree of tolerance and sensibility to the salinity of genoty,pes of rice (Oryza sativa L. during the vegetative phase of the plant. The experiment was lead under greenhouse conditions at IPA (Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária, in 1996. Twelve genotypes of rice had been evaluated, being ten tolerant and two sensible ones to salinity in the vegetative development stadium. The randomized blocks design were performed into three repetitions of factorials arrangements (twelve genotypes x four levels of NaCl. Results had evidenced variability existence among the genotypes of rice, in the specific population, for tolerance and sensitivity to the salinity. Samples PR492, PR504, CNA8250, CNA8262 and CNA8267 can be considered tolerant to salinity, while the genotypes CNA8270, CNA8258, CNA8269, PR475 and PR477 are sensible to salinity of soil during the vegetative phase.

  13. Are the tolerabilities of nonionic contrast media identical? Outcome of a double-blind, randomized multicentre study with Iomeprol and lopromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, E.

    1997-01-01

    Since a larger number of nonionic contrast media is available for the radiologist, the question arises as to whether they differ in their clinical tolerability. A double-blind, randomized, two-group comparison of phase IV with Iomeprol and Iopromide was carried out at 6 hospitals involving a total of 1.200 patients with the indication for computed tomography. The contrast media doses and the flow in computed tomography of the skull, thorax, and abdomen were, depending on the centre, between 50 and 200 ml and 0.5 to 3.0 ml/s, respectively. The biostatistical evaluation of adverse events which were probably contrast medium-related produced a highly significant difference between the two contrast media in favor of Iomeprol (p=0.0005). The difference in the reactions of heat, nausea, and vomiting is of clinical relevance as such adverse events may negatively affect the examination procedure and the opacification in spiral computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  14. Stress Sensitivity Is Associated with Differential Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Maize Genotypes with Contrasting Levels of Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Fountain, Jake C.; Wang, Hui; Ni, Xinzhi; Ji, Pingsheng; Lee, Robert D.; Kemerait, Robert C.; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress decreases crop growth, yield, and can further exacerbate pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Tolerance and adaptation to drought stress is an important trait of agricultural crops like maize. However, maize genotypes with contrasting drought tolerances have been shown to possess both common and genotype-specific adaptations to cope with drought stress. In this research, the physiological and metabolic response patterns in the leaves of maize seedlings subjected to drought stress were investigated using six maize genotypes including: A638, B73, Grace-E5, Lo964, Lo1016, and Va35. During drought treatments, drought-sensitive maize seedlings displayed more severe symptoms such as chlorosis and wilting, exhibited significant decreases in photosynthetic parameters, and accumulated significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) than tolerant genotypes. Sensitive genotypes also showed rapid increases in enzyme activities involved in ROS and RNS metabolism. However, the measured antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the tolerant genotypes than in the sensitive genotypes in which increased rapidly following drought stress. The results suggest that drought stress causes differential responses to oxidative and nitrosative stress in maize genotypes with tolerant genotypes with slower reaction and less ROS and RNS production than sensitive ones. These differential patterns may be utilized as potential biological markers for use in marker assisted breeding. PMID:26492235

  15. Stress Sensitivity Is Associated with Differential Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Maize Genotypes with Contrasting Levels of Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress decreases crop growth, yield, and can further exacerbate pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Tolerance and adaptation to drought stress is an important trait of agricultural crops like maize. However, maize genotypes with contrasting drought tolerances have been shown to possess both common and genotype-specific adaptations to cope with drought stress. In this research, the physiological and metabolic response patterns in the leaves of maize seedlings subjected to drought stress were investigated using six maize genotypes including: A638, B73, Grace-E5, Lo964, Lo1016, and Va35. During drought treatments, drought-sensitive maize seedlings displayed more severe symptoms such as chlorosis and wilting, exhibited significant decreases in photosynthetic parameters, and accumulated significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS than tolerant genotypes. Sensitive genotypes also showed rapid increases in enzyme activities involved in ROS and RNS metabolism. However, the measured antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the tolerant genotypes than in the sensitive genotypes in which increased rapidly following drought stress. The results suggest that drought stress causes differential responses to oxidative and nitrosative stress in maize genotypes with tolerant genotypes with slower reaction and less ROS and RNS production than sensitive ones. These differential patterns may be utilized as potential biological markers for use in marker assisted breeding.

  16. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrã o, Só nia; Schmö ckel, S. M.; Tester, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making

  17. Accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography in detection of endometrial polyps and submucosal leiomyomas in women of reproductive age with abnormal uterine bleeding: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, C A; Dos Santos Simões, R; Bernardo, W M; Fuchs, L F P; Soares Júnior, J M; Pastore, A R; Baracat, E C

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of two- (2D) and three- (3D) dimensional saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) in the detection of endometrial polyps and submucosal uterine leiomyomas in women of reproductive age with abnormal uterine bleeding compared with gold standard hysteroscopy. A systematic review of diagnostic studies that compared 2D- and/or 3D-SCSH with hysteroscopy and anatomopathology was conducted according to PRISMA and SEDATE recommendations. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically using specific terms with no restriction on language or publication year. Quality assessment of included studies was performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Meta-analysis was performed with the Meta-DiSk program and data presented as forest plots and summary receiver-operating characteristics (SROC) curves. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios of SCSH in the detection of uterine cavity abnormalities were calculated. A total of 1398 citations were identified and five studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 2D-SCSH in detecting endometrial polyps were 93% (95% CI, 89-96%) and 81% (95% CI, 76-86%), respectively, with pooled LR+ of 5.41 (95% CI, 2.60-11.28) and LR- of 0.10 (95% CI, 0.06-0.17). In the detection of submucosal uterine leiomyomas, pooled sensitivity and specificity were 94% (95% CI, 89-97%) and 81% (95% CI, 76-86%), respectively, with pooled LR+ of 4.25 (95% CI, 2.20-8.21) and LR- of 0.11 (95% CI, 0.05-0.22). 2D-SCSH had good accuracy in detecting endometrial polyps and submucosal uterine leiomyomas, with areas under the SROC curves of 0.97 ± 0.02 and 0.97 ± 0.03, respectively. Studies that analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of 3D-SCSH could not be compared due to high heterogeneity related to menopausal status, type of technique used and primary outcome being investigation of infertility. 2D

  18. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Sardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  19. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Russo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  20. Comparing Enchytraeus albidus populations from contrasting climatic environments suggest a link between cold tolerance and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Anamarija; Holmstrup, Martin; Simčič, Tatjana; Debeljak, Barabara; Slotsbo, Stine

    2018-06-06

    Basal metabolic activity and freezing of body fluids create reactive oxygen species (ROS) in freeze-tolerant organisms. These sources of ROS can have an additive negative effect via oxidative stress. In cells, antioxidant systems are responsible for removing ROS in order to avoid damage due to oxidative stress. Relatively little is known about the importance of metabolic rate for the survival of freezing, despite a good understanding of several cold tolerance related physiological mechanisms. We hypothesized that low basal metabolism would be selected for in freeze-tolerant organisms where winter survival is important for fitness for two reasons. First, avoidance of the additive effect of ROS production from metabolism and freezing, and second, as an energy-saving mechanism under extended periods of freezing where the animal is metabolically active, but unable to feed. We used the terrestrial oligochaete, Enchytraeus albidus, which is widely distributed from Spain to the high Arctic and compared eight populations originating across a broad geographical and climatic gradient after they had been cold acclimated at 5 °C in a common garden experiment. Cold tolerance (lower lethal temperature: LT50) and the potential metabolic activity (PMA, an estimator of the maximal enzymatic potential of the mitochondrial respiration chain) of eight populations were positively correlated amongst each other and correlated negatively with latitude and positively with average yearly temperature and the average temperature of the coldest month. These results indicate that low PMA in cold tolerant populations is important for survival in extremely cold environments. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Proteomic analysis reveals contrasting stress response to uranium in two nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains, differentially tolerant to uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Bandita; Basu, Bhakti; Acharya, Celin; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree Kumar, E-mail: aptesk@barc.gov.in

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Response of two native cyanobacterial strains to uranium exposure was studied. • Anabaena L-31 exhibited higher tolerance to uranium as compared to Anabaena 7120. • Uranium exposure differentially affected the proteome profiles of the two strains. • Anabaena L-31 showed better sustenance of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. • Anabaena L-31 displayed superior oxidative stress defense than Anabaena 7120. - Abstract: Two strains of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena, native to Indian paddy fields, displayed differential sensitivity to exposure to uranyl carbonate at neutral pH. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Anabaena sp. strain L-31 displayed 50% reduction in survival (LD{sub 50} dose), following 3 h exposure to 75 μM and 200 μM uranyl carbonate, respectively. Uranium responsive proteome alterations were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis, followed by protein identification by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. The two strains displayed significant differences in levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, and oxidative stress alleviation, commensurate with their uranium tolerance. Higher uranium tolerance of Anabaena sp. strain L-31 could be attributed to sustained photosynthesis and carbon metabolism and superior oxidative stress defense, as compared to the uranium sensitive Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Significance: Uranium responsive proteome modulations in two nitrogen-fixing strains of Anabaena, native to Indian paddy fields, revealed that rapid adaptation to better oxidative stress management, and maintenance of metabolic and energy homeostasis underlies superior uranium tolerance of Anabaena sp. strain L-31 compared to Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

  2. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lopik, J.H.; Hartog, N.; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity

  3. Susceptibility and tolerance of rice crop to salt threat: Physiological and metabolic inspections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyuk Ling Ma

    Full Text Available Salinity threat is estimated to reduce global rice production by 50%. Comprehensive analysis of the physiological and metabolite changes in rice plants from salinity stress (i.e. tolerant versus susceptible plants is important to combat higher salinity conditions. In this study, we screened a total of 92 genotypes and selected the most salinity tolerant line (SS1-14 and most susceptible line (SS2-18 to conduct comparative physiological and metabolome inspections. We demonstrated that the tolerant line managed to maintain their water and chlorophyll content with lower incidence of sodium ion accumulation. We also examined the antioxidant activities of these lines: production of ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT were significantly higher in the sensitive line while superoxide dismutase (SOD was higher in the tolerant line. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA score plots show significantly different response for both lines after the exposure to salinity stress. In the tolerant line, there was an upregulation of non-polar metabolites and production of sucrose, GABA and acetic acid, suggesting an important role in salinity adaptation. In contrast, glutamine and putrescine were noticeably high in the susceptible rice. Coordination of different strategies in tolerant and susceptible lines show that they responded differently after exposure to salt stress. These findings can assist crop development in terms of developing tolerance mechanisms for rice crops.

  4. Regulation of cation transporter genes by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in rice plants subjected to salinity suggests improved salt tolerance due to reduced Na(+) root-to-shoot distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Rosa; Aroca, Ricardo; Azcon, Rosario; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Rice is a salt-sensitive crop whose productivity is strongly reduced by salinity around the world. Plants growing in saline soils are subjected to the toxicity of specific ions such as sodium, which damage cell organelles and disrupt metabolism. Plants have evolved biochemical and molecular mechanisms to cope with the negative effects of salinity. These include the regulation of genes with a role in the uptake, transport or compartmentation of Na(+) and/or K(+). Studies have shown that the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alleviates salt stress in several host plant species. However, despite the abundant literature showing mitigation of ionic imbalance by the AM symbiosis, the molecular mechanisms involved are barely explored. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of the AM symbiosis on the expression of several well-known rice transporters involved in Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis and measure Na(+) and K(+) contents and their ratios in different plant tissues. Results showed that OsNHX3, OsSOS1, OsHKT2;1 and OsHKT1;5 genes were considerably upregulated in AM plants under saline conditions as compared to non-AM plants. Results suggest that the AM symbiosis favours Na(+) extrusion from the cytoplasm, its sequestration into the vacuole, the unloading of Na(+) from the xylem and its recirculation from photosynthetic organs to roots. As a result, there is a decrease of Na(+) root-to-shoot distribution and an increase of Na(+) accumulation in rice roots which seems to enhance the plant tolerance to salinity and allows AM rice plants to maintain their growing processes under salt conditions.

  5. TEMPERATURE TOLERANCES AND OSMOREGULATION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The salinity and temperature tolerances of some burrowiq bivalves which oc:eur ... Along most of the estuary the salinity normally remains close to that of seawater (35'/.) ...... grapsoid crabs, Hemigrapsus nudus and Hemigrapsus oregonensis.

  6. Plasticity to salinity and transgenerational effects in the nonnative shrub Baccharis halimifolia: Insights into an estuarine invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caño, Lidia; Fuertes-Mendizabal, Teresa; García-Baquero, Gonzalo; Herrera, Mercedes; González-Moro, M Begoña

    2016-05-01

    Abiotic constraints act as selection filters for plant invasion in stressful habitats. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and transgenerational effects play a major role in colonization of heterogeneous habitats when the scale of environmental variation is smaller than that of gene flow. We investigated how plasticity and parental salinity conditions influence the performance of the invasive dioecious shrub Baccharis halimifolia, which replaces heterogeneous estuarine communities in Europe with monospecific and continuous stands. In two greenhouse experiments, we grew plants derived from seeds and cuttings collected through interspersed patches differing in edaphic salinity from an invasive population. We estimated parental environmental salinity from leaf Na(+) content in parental plants, and we measured fitness and ion homeostasis of the offspring grown in contrasting salinity conditions. Baccharis halimifolia tolerates high salinity but experiences drastic biomass reduction at moderate salinity. At moderate salinity, responses to salinity are affected by the parental salinity: flowering initiation in seedlings and male cuttings is positively correlated with parental leaf Na(+) content, and biomass is positively correlated with maternal leaf Na(+) in female cuttings and seedlings. Plant height, leaf production, specific leaf area, and ionic homeostasis at the low part of the gradient are also affected by parental salinity, suggesting enhanced shoot growth as parental salinity increases. Our results support plasticity to salinity and transgenerational effects as factors with great potential to contribute to the invasive ability of B. halimifolia through estuarine communities of high conservation value. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the antioxidative system of Coffea sp. under cold conditions in genotypes with contrasting tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Ana S; Lidon, Fernando C; Batista-Santos, Paula; Leitão, António Eduardo; Pais, Isabel P; Ribeiro, Ana I; Ramalho, José Cochicho

    2010-03-15

    Low positive temperature (chilling) is frequently linked to the promotion of oxidative stress conditions, and is of particular importance in the coffee plant due to its severe impact on growth, development, photosynthesis and production. Nevertheless, some acclimation ability has been reported within the Coffea genus, and is possibly related to oxidative stress control. Using an integrated biochemical and molecular approach, the characterization of the antioxidative system of genotypes with different cold acclimation abilities was performed. Experiments were carried out using 1.5-year-old coffee seedlings of Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã, C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. dewevrei and 2 hybrids, Icatu (C. arabicaxC. canephora) and Piatã (C. dewevreixC. arabica) subjected to a gradual cold treatment and a recovery period. Icatu showed the greatest ability to control oxidative stress, as reflected by the enhancement of several antioxidative components (Cu,Zn-SOD and APX activities; ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) contents) and lower reactive oxygen species contents (H(2)O(2) and OH). Gene expression studies show that GRed, DHAR and class III and IV chitinases might also be involved in the cold acclimation ability of Icatu. Catuaí showed intermediate acclimation ability through the reinforcement of some antioxidative molecules, usually to a lesser extent than that observed in Icatu. On the other hand, C. dewevrei showed the poorest response in terms of antioxidant accumulation, and also showed the greatest increase in OH values. The difference in the triggering of antioxidative traits supports the hypothesis of its importance to cold (and photoinhibition) tolerance in Coffea sp. and could provide a useful probe to identify tolerant genotypes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR for inducing salinity tolerance in mung bean under field condition of semi arid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress severely affects the growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.. However, its growth can be improved under salinity stress by inoculation/co-inoculation with rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase enzyme. ACC-deaminase containing bacteria regulate the stress induced ethylene production by hydrolyzing the ACC (immediate precursor of ethylene into ammonia and ketobutyric acid, thus improve plant growth by lowering the ethylene level. A study was conducted under salt affected field conditions where pre-isolated strains of Rhizobium and PGPR were used alone as well as in combination for mitigating the salinity stress on growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean by following the randomized complete block design (RCBD. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically to see the difference among treatments.

  9. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  10. The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F

    2014-11-15

    Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Different transcriptional response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between kumquat and sweet orange with contrasting canker tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Zheng Fu

    Full Text Available Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future.

  12. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Kaffka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV. We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. growth, quality, and use by cattle. Simulations based on field measurements and a related container study indicate that although soil chemical composition is affected by irrigation water quality, irrigation timing and frequency can be used to mitigate salt and trace mineral accumulation. Bermuda grass yields of up to 12 Mg dry matter (DM·ha−1 were observed at the field site and predicted by the model. Forage yield and quality supports un-supplemented cattle stocking rates of 1.0 to 1.2 animal units (AU·ha−1. However, a balance must be achieved between stocking rate, desired average daily gain, accumulation of salts in the soil profile, and potential pollution of ground water from drainage and leaching. Using available weather data, crop-specific parameter values and field scale measurements of soil salinity and nitrogen levels, the model can be used by farmers growing forages on saline soils elsewhere, to sustain forage and livestock production under similarly marginal conditions.

  13. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  15. Comparison of inhibition of N2 fixation and ureide accumulation under water deficit in four common bean genotypes of contrasting drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleto, I; Pineda, M; Rodiño, A P; De Ron, A M; Alamillo, J M

    2014-05-01

    Drought is the principal constraint on world production of legume crops. There is considerable variability among genotypes in sensitivity of nitrogen fixation to drought, which has been related to accumulation of ureides in soybean. The aim of this study was to search for genotypic differences in drought sensitivity and ureide accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) germplasm that may be useful in the improvement of tolerance to water deficit in common bean. Changes in response to water deficit of nitrogen fixation rates, ureide content and the expression and activity of key enzymes for ureide metabolism were measured in four P. vulgaris genotypes differing in drought tolerance. A variable degree of drought-induced nitrogen fixation inhibition was found among the bean genotypes. In addition to inhibition of nitrogen fixation, there was accumulation of ureides in stems and leaves of sensitive and tolerant genotypes, although this was higher in the leaves of the most sensitive ones. In contrast, there was no accumulation of ureides in the nodules or roots of stressed plants. In addition, the level of ureides in the most sensitive genotype increased after inhibition of nitrogen fixation, suggesting that ureides originate in vegetative tissues as a response to water stress, probably mediated by the induction of allantoinase. Variability of drought-induced inhibition of nitrogen fixation among the P. vulgaris genotypes was accompanied by subsequent accumulation of ureides in stems and leaves, but not in nodules. The results indicate that shoot ureide accumulation after prolonged exposure to drought could not be the cause of inhibition of nitrogen fixation, as has been suggested in soybean. Instead, ureides seem to be produced as part of a general response to stress, and therefore higher accumulation might correspond to higher sensitivity to the stressful conditions.

  16. Effect of Underground Saline Water on the Growth Characteristic of Tamarix austromongolica in Halomorphic Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Kenji; Kobayashi, Koji; Kaneki, Ryoichi; Furukawa, Masayuki; Odani, Hiromichi

    It is important to evaluate the salt tolerance of native plants in order to utilize them for improving halomorphic soil in arid regions. Tamarix austromongolica, a dominant species in Inner Mongolia, China, has the property of salt absorption and expected soil desalinization. The effect of salt concentration in groundwater on the growth of stock diameter and shoot length were evaluated by cultivation experiments, growing the plants from cuttings for two years. Though the plants grew well in 1% salt concentration of groundwater, the evapotranspiration in the second year was reduced because of the growth of the root system. The growth of the plants and evapotranspiration were reduced with increasing groundwater salinity of 3 to 5%, but most plants did not die. In contrast, the plants which were supplied with groundwater of 7% salt concentration in the second year started to die in about a month, and two thirds of them died within five months. Thus the results showed that the tolerant limit of salinity of the plants in groundwater was 7%, and the growth was constrained with groundwater salinity of 3 to 5% concentration. The plants that survived with 7% salinity in the second year, however, were grown in groundwater salt concentration of 3% to 5% in the first year. This result indicated that saline stress might have changed the characteristic of salinity tolerance of the plant.

  17. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  18. Salicylic acid improves salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by restoring membrane potential and preventing salt-induced K+ loss via a GORK channel

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakannan, Maheswari; Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Rengel, Zed; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous reports implicating salicylic acid (SA) in plant salinity responses, the specific ionic mechanisms of SA-mediated adaptation to salt stress remain elusive. To address this issue, a non-invasive microelectrode ion flux estimation technique was used to study kinetics of NaCl-induced net ion fluxes in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to various SA concentrations and incubation times. NaCl-induced K+ efflux and H+ influx from the mature root zone were both significantly decreased...

  19. Foliar spray of sodium antagonistic essential mineral elements- a technique to induce salt tolerance in plants growing under saline environment (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Jabeen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Plants growing at saline substrate practice deficiencies in absorption of some essential mineral elements through roots due to presence of excessive sodium in rhizosphere. Sodium being antagonistic to other cations does not let them enter in roots and hence apart from its own toxicity in metabolism, the plants suffer with deficiencies of some mineral elements, which are necessary for growth. Potassium being essential mineral element is much effected due to this antagonistic behavior of sodium ion. Lagenaria siceraria (var. Loki) being a broad leaf vegetable was selected for these experiments. Plant growing at saline substrate was sprayed with specially prepared spray materials containing different dilutions of potassium nitrate. The anatomy of leaf with special reference to that of stomata was also studied to ensure absorption of required minerals. Growth of plants in terms of leaf area is being monitored at present. Some preliminary experiments show betterment in production of fruits in plants undergoing foliar spray. This hypothesis has opened a new chapter demanding series of experiments dealing with recipe of spray materials, mechanism of minerals uptake through stomata, participation of absorbed minerals in metabolic activities around palisade tissue probably by activating potassium dependent enzyme system which otherwise is blocked by replaced sodium, translocation of these minerals from leaves through petiole in rest of plants and overall effect of such spray on vegetative as well as reproductive growth in plants under saline environment. Some of this work is in progress. (author)

  20. Salinity tolerance of Dodonaea viscosa L. inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: assessed based on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefi Sonia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the potential of different strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR to reduce the effects of salinity stress on the medicinal hopbush plant. The bacterium factor was applied at five levels (non-inoculated, inoculated by Pseudomonas putida, Azospirillum lipoferum + Pseudomonas putida, Azotobacter chroococcum + Pseudomonas putida, and Azospirillum lipoferum + Azotobacter chroococcum + Pseudomonas putida, and the salinity stress at six levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 dS m-1. The results revealed that Pseudomonas putida showed maximal germination percentage and rate at 20 dS m-1 (18.33% and 0.35 seed per day, respectively. The strongest effect among the treatments was obtained with the treatment combining the given 3 bacteria at 15 dS m-1 salinity stress. This treatment increased the root fresh and dry weights by 31% and 87.5%, respectively (compared to the control. Our results indicate that these bacteria applied on hopbush affected positively both its germination and root growth. The plant compatibility with the three bacteria was found good, and the treatments combining Pseudomonas putida with the other one or two bacteria discussed in this study can be applied in nurseries in order to restore and extend the area of hopbush forests and akin dry stands.

  1. Effect of low dose of X rays about the tolerance to the salinity and the agricultural yield in cultivations of economic importance for Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro; Gonzalez Nunnez, Luis Manuel; Garcia Rodriguez, Blanca; Licea Castro, Luis; Porras Leon, Elia

    1999-01-01

    The effect of low dose of X rays on rice and lettuce plant salt tolerance and on the agricultural yield in plants of cucumber and tomato was studied. The results showed a meaningful increase in the tolerance of the plants to salt stress in both crops for some of the applied dose and were determined the better doses for the increment of the crop yield of the studied varieties. Also was carried out an analysis of regression that showed a high correlation between the variables of the growth and the agricultural yield and on this base it is discussed the possibility of selecting the stimulant dose range during the early plants growth stages

  2. The tolerance to salinity and nutrient supply in four European Bolboschoenus species (B. maritimus, B. laticarpus, B. planiculmis and B. yagara) affects their vulnerability or expansiveness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hroudová, Zdenka; Zákravský, Petr; Flegrová, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, Jan. 2014 (2014), s. 66-75 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : halophytes * stress tolerance * wetlands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2014

  3. Valsalva maneuver procedures in the diagnosis of right-to-left shunt by contrast-enhanced transcranial doppler using agitated saline solution with blood as a contrast agent Manobra de Valsalva no diagnóstico de embolia paradoxal pelo doppler transcraniano contrastado com o uso de solução salina agitada associada a sangue como meio de contraste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Christiano Lange

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare two different timings for the performance of the Valsalva maneuver (VM using an infusion of agitated saline solution with blood as contrast agent (CA to right-to-left shunt (RLS screening. METHOD: 42 patients were submitted to a standardized contrast-enhanced transcranial doppler (cTCD to screen for right-to-left shunt (RLS. cTCD technique was done with two different moments of the VM: [1] the CA injection during the VM (CAduringVM test; [2] the CA injection before the VM (CApreVM test. RESULTS: Positive MCA tests were observed in 47 (56% CAduringVM tests and in 50 (59.5% CApreVM tests, p=0.64. There was an almost perfect agreement for the positive tests between the CAduringVM and CApreVM test, r s=0.829 (95% CI 0.61-1.00, pOBJETIVO: Comparar dois momentos diferentes da manobra de Valsalva (MV com o uso de solução salina com sangue como meio de contraste (MC para investigação de embolia paradoxal (EP. MÉTODO: 42 pacientes foram submetidos a protocolo padronizado de DTCc com a MV em dois momentos diferentes: [1] injeção do MC durante a MV (teste ACduranteMV; [2] injeção de MC antes da MV (teste ACpreMV. RESULTADOS: Exames positivos foram observados em 47 (56% ACMs testes ACduranteMV e 50 (59.5% testes ACpreMV, p=0.64. Houve uma correlação quase perfeita entre ambos os testes, r s=0.829 (95% CI 0.61-1.00, p<0.001. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo demonstra que não existe diferença significativa na positividade de EP pelo DTCc quando são comparados dois momentos diferentes da MV.

  4. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  5. Laboratory experiment to study the effect of salinity variations on benthic foraminiferal species - Pararotalia nipponica (Asano)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.; Kurtarkar, S.R.

    Culture experiment has been carried out to observe the response of Pararotalia nipponica (Asano) to different salinities and its salinity tolerance limits. The specimens of P. nipponica kept in 33‰ saline water achieved optimum growth, while rest...

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase salt tolerance of apple seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shou-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Xue, Yuan-Xia; Zhang, Zhi-Fen; Shi, Shu-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Apple trees are often subject to severe salt stress in China as well as in the world that results in significant loss of apple production. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate the response of apple seedlings inoculated with abuscular mycorrhizal fungi under 0, 2‰, 4‰ and 6‰ salinity stress levels and further to conclude the upper threshold of mycorrhizal salinity tolerance. The results shows that abuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased the root length colonization of mycorrhizal apple plants with exposure time period to 0, 2‰ and 4‰ salinity levels as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, however, percent root colonization reduced as saline stress increased. Salinity levels were found to negatively correlate with leaf relative turgidity, osmotic potential irrespective of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, but the decreased mycorrhizal leaf turgidity maintained relative normal values at 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations. Under salt stress condition, Cl - and Na + concentrations clearly increased and K + contents obviously decreased in non-mycorrhizal roots in comparison to mycorrhizal plants, this caused mycorrhizal plants had a relatively higher K + /Na + ratio in root. In contrast to zero salinity level, although ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in non-inoculated and inoculated leaf improved under all saline levels, the extent of which these enzymes increased was greater in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. The numbers of survived tree with non-mycorrhization were 40, 20 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 33.3% and 0) on the days of 30, 60 and 90 under 4‰ salinity, similarly in mycorrhization under 6‰ salinity 40, 30 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 50% and 0) respectively. These results suggest that 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations may be the upper thresholds of salinity tolerance in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, respectively.

  7. Leaf gas films delay salt entry and enhance underwater photosynthesis and internal aeration of Melilotus siculus submerged in saline water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teakle, Natasha Lea; Colmer, Timothy David; Pedersen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A combination of flooding and salinity is detrimental to most plants. We studied tolerance of complete submergence in saline water for Melilotus siculus, an annual legume with superhydrophobic leaf surfaces that retain gas films when under water. M. siculus survived complete submergence of 1 week...... at low salinity (up to 50 mol m(-3) NaCl), but did not recover following de-submergence from 100 mol m(-3) NaCl. The leaf gas films protected against direct salt ingress into the leaves when submerged in saline water, enabling underwater photosynthesis even after 3 d of complete submergence. By contrast......, leaves with the gas films experimentally removed suffered from substantial Na(+) and Cl(-) intrusion and lost the capacity for underwater photosynthesis. Similarly, plants in saline water and without gas films lost more K(+) than those with intact gas films. This study has demonstrated that leaf gas...

  8. Salinity stress and some physiological relationships in Kochia (Kochia scoparia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nabati

    2018-06-01

    index was also increased in Isfahan while it was decreased in the other ecotypes with the highest reduction in Birjand ecotype. An increasing trend of shoot Na+ content at anthesis was observed in all ecotypes showing the highest increase in Boroujerd and Isfahan and the lowest in Birjand ecotypes. A lower shoot K+ content at anthesis was observed in all ecotypes except Urmia in higher salinity levels. In contrast to Sabzevar soluble carbohydrates was decreased in Urmia, Isfahan, Boroujerd and Birjand in higher salinity levels. Increasing salinity intensity caused an increase in leaf proline content in Birjand and Isfahan ecotypes while it had no effect on Boroujerd and an additive effect on this parameter in Urmia and Sabzevar ecotypes. A higher osmotic potential was found in Boroujerd, Birjand and Sabzevar in higher EC levels. Phenol content was lower in Urmia, Boroujerd and Birjand in higher salinity levels while it was higher in Sabzevar. No significant difference was observed in Isfahan ecotype according to this parameter. DPPH radical scavenging activity was decreased in Birjand, Urmia and Boroujerd while it was increased in the other two ecotypes. Conclusion Regarding higher biomass and lower physiological indices such as soluble carbyhydrates, total phenol, DPPH radical scavenging activities in Birjand and Urmia ecotypes, it may be cocluded that higher amounts of these parameters might not be suitable traits in salinity tolerant genotypes selection.

  9. Monitoring the Short-Term Response to Salt Exposure of Two Genetically Distinct Phragmites australis Clones with Different Salinity Tolerance Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Luciana; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    work was conducted at the laboratory of the Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Denmark. Methods: The light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax), stomata conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) were measured over different periods of salt exposure (15, 70 and 240 minutes) and at different...... in the 15-minute experiment. The Greeny-type also recovered after the 70-minute exposure, but not the Land-type. We conclude that the response to osmotic stress is genotype-dependent and that the salt-tolerant clone possesses very efficient signaling pathways to detect changes in the soil water potential...

  10. Isolation and characterization of a metallothionein-1 protein in Chloris virgata Swartz that enhances stress tolerances to oxidative, salinity and carbonate stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Shunsaku; Liu, Shenkui; Takano, Tetsuo

    2007-08-01

    Chloris virgata Swartz (C. virgata) is a gramineous wild plant that is found in alkaline soil areas in northeast China and is highly tolerant to carbonate stress. We constructed a cDNA library from C. virgata seedlings treated with NaHCO(3), and isolated a type 1 metallothionein (MT1) gene (ChlMT1: AB294238) from the library. The amino acid sequence of ChlMT1 contained 12 cysteine residues that constituted the Cys-X-Cys (X = amino acid except Cys) motifs in the N- and C-terminal regions. Northern hybridization showed that expression of ChlMT1 was induced by several abiotic stresses, from salts (NaCl and NaHCO(3)), a ROS inducer (paraquat), and metals (CuSO(4), ZnSO(4), and CoCl(2)). ChlMT1 expression in leaf was induced by 200 mM NaCl and 100 mM NaHCO(3). About 5 microM Paraquat, 500 microM Zn(2+), and 500 microM Co(2+) also induced expression of ChlMT1 in leaf after 6 h, and 100 microM Cu(2+) induced it after 24 h. Saccharomyces cerevisiae when transformed with the ChlMT1 gene had dramatically increased tolerances to salts (NaCl and NaHCO(3)) and ROS.

  11. Metabolic engineering of the chloroplast genome reveals that the yeast ArDH gene confers enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sarwar Khan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osmoprotectants stabilize proteins and membranes against the denaturing effect of high concentrations of salts and other harmful solutes. In yeast, arabitol dehydrogenase (ArDH reduces D-ribulose to D-arabitol where D-ribulose is derived by dephosphorylating D-ribulose-5-PO4 in the oxidized pentose pathway. Osmotolerance in plants could be developed through metabolic engineering of chloroplast genome by introducing genes encoding polyols. Here, we report that ArDH expression in chloroplasts confers tolerance to NaCl (up to 400 mM. Transgenic plants compared to wild type survived for four to five weeks on 400 mM NaCl. Nevertheless, plants remained green and grew normal on concentrations up to 350 mM NaCl. Further, a-week-old seedlings were also challenged with poly ethylene glycol (PEG, up to 6% in the liquid medium, considering that membranes and proteins are protected under stress conditions due to accumulation of arabitol in chloroplasts. Seedlings were tolerant to 6% PEG, suggesting that ARDH enzyme maintains integrity of membranes in chloroplasts under drought conditions via metabolic engineering. Hence, the gene could be expressed in agronomic plants to withstand abiotic stresses.

  12. The Effect of Exogenous Spermidine Concentration on Polyamine Metabolism and Salt Tolerance in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud) Subjected to Short-Term Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shucheng; Jin, Han; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress, particularly short-term salt stress, is among the most serious abiotic factors limiting plant survival and growth in China. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to salt stress. The present study utilized two zoysiagrass cultivars commonly grown in China that exhibit either sensitive (cv. Z081) or tolerant (cv. Z057) adaptation capacity to salt stress. The two cultivars were subjected to 200 mM salt stress and treated with different exogenous Spd concentrations for 8 days. Polyamine [diamine putrescine (Put), tetraamine spermine (Spm), and Spd], H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and polyamine metabolic (ADC, ODC, SAMDC, PAO, and DAO) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) enzyme activities were measured. The results showed that salt stress induced increases in Spd and Spm contents and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), and diamine oxidase (DAO) activities in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd application did not alter polyamine contents via regulation of polyamine-degrading enzymes, and an increase in polyamine biosynthetic enzyme levels was observed during the experiment. Increasing the concentration of exogenous Spd resulted in a tendency of the Spd and Spm contents and ODC, SAMDC, DAO, and antioxidant enzyme activities to first increase and then decrease in both cultivars. H2O2 and MDA levels significantly decreased in both cultivars treated with Spd. Additionally, in both cultivars, positive correlations between polyamine biosynthetic enzymes (ADC, SAMDC), DAO, and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT), but negative correlations with H2O2 and MDA levels, and the Spd + Spm content were observed with an increase in the concentration of exogenous Spd.

  13. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  14. Constitutive over-expression of rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 results in enhanced growth, salinity and osmotic stress tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Lalit Dev; Mittal, Dheeraj; Chandra Mishra, Ratnesh; Grover, Anil

    2015-07-01

    Protease inhibitors are involved primarily in defense against pathogens. In recent years, these proteins have also been widely implicated in response of plants to diverse abiotic stresses. Rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is highly induced under salt and osmotic stresses. The construct containing the complete coding sequence of OCPI2 cloned downstream to CaMV35S promoter was transformed in Arabidopsis and single copy, homozygous transgenic lines were produced. The transgenic plants exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to NaCl, PEG and mannitol stress as compared to wild type plants. Importantly, the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic plants under unstressed, control conditions was also enhanced: transgenic plants were more vigorous than wild type, resulting into higher yield in terms of silique number. The RWC values and membrane stability index of transgenic in comparison to wild type plants was higher. Higher proline content was observed in the AtOCPI2 lines, which was associated with higher transcript expression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase and lowered levels of proline dehydrogenase genes. The chymotrypsin protease activities were lower in the transgenic as against wild type plants, under both unstressed, control as well as stressed conditions. It thus appears that rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is a useful candidate gene for genetic improvement of plants against salt and osmotic stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2016-09-01

    Salinity is the major environmental constraint that affects legume productivity by inducing oxidative stress. Individually, both silicon (Si) nutrition and mycorrhization have been reported to alleviate salt stress. However, the mechanisms adopted by both in mediating stress responses are poorly understood. Thus, pot trials were undertaken to evaluate comparative as well as interactive effects of Si and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in alleviating NaCl toxicity in modulating oxidative stress and antioxidant defence mechanisms in two Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes-HC 3 (salt-tolerant) and CSG 9505 (salt-sensitive). Plants subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial increase in the rate of superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), H2O2, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which induced leakage of ions and disturbed Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in roots and leaves. Individually, Si and AM reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX)). Si was relatively more efficient in reducing accumulation of stress metabolites, while mycorrhization significantly up-regulated antioxidant machinery and modulated ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle. Combined applications of Si and AM complemented each other in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up by further enhancing the antioxidant defence responses. Magnitude of ROS-mediated oxidative burden was lower in HC 3 which correlated strongly with more effective AM symbiosis, better capacity to accumulate Si and stronger defence response when compared with CSG 9505. Study indicated that Si and/or AM fungal amendments upgraded salt tolerance through a dynamic shift from oxidative destruction towards favourable antioxidant defence system in stressed chickpea plants.

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly of a Chinese locoweed (Oxytropis ochrocephala species provides insights into genes associated with drought, salinity and cold tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eHe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Locoweeds (toxic Oxytropis and Astraglus species, containing the toxic agent swainsonine, pose serious threats to animal husbandry on grasslands in both China and the US. Some locoweeds have evolved adaptations in order to resist various stress conditions such as drought, salt and cold. As a result they replace other plants in their communities and become an ecological problem. Currently very limited genetic information of locoweeds is available and this hinders our understanding in the molecular basis of their environmental plasticity, and the interaction between locoweeds and their symbiotic swainsonine producing endophytes. Next-generation sequencing provides a means of obtaining transcriptomic sequences in a timely manner, which is particularly useful for non-model plants. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of Oxytropis ochrocephala plants followed by a de nove assembly. Our primary aim was to provide an enriched pool of genetic sequences of an Oxytropis sp. for further locoweed research. Results: Transcriptomes of four different O. ochrocephala samples, from control (CK plants, and those that had experienced either drought (20% PEG, salt (150 mM NaCl or cold (4 °C stress were sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. From 232,209,506 clean reads 23,220,950,600 (~23 G nucleotides, 182,430 transcripts and 88,942 unigenes were retrieved, with an N50 value of 1,237. Differential expression analysis revealed putative genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins, enzymes in secondary metabolite and plant hormone biosyntheses, and transcription factors which are involved in stress tolerance in O. ochrocephala. In order to validate our sequencing results, we further analyzed the expression profiles of nine genes by quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we discuss the possible mechanism of O. ochrocephala’s adaptations to stress environment. Conclusion: Our

  17. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairnar, S.A.; Tian, X.; Dong, S.; Fang, Z.; Solanki, B.V.; Shanthanagouda, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days) of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of tongue sole were highly tissue-specific during the varying salinity fluctuations. In all tissues, ACP and AKP activity was found to be highest at moderate salinity fluctuations compared to the control, low and high salinity treatments (p<0.05). SOD and CAT activities had significant effect due to salinity fluctuations in all tissues (p<0.05), except in hepatic and renal tissues. Variations in branchial SOD activity proved that salinity fluctuations had greater impact on tongue sole at moderate and high fluctuating salinities compared to the control and low fluctuating salinities, whereas the branchial CAT activities showed contrasting trend. Further, cortisol levels were significantly affected in lower and higher salinity fluctuations. However, plasma cortisol levels remained low in moderate salinity fluctuations and control (p<0.05). Taken together, the results indicated that salinity fluctuations could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle of the juvenile tongue sole, thus effectively eliminating the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the body damage in tongue sole or could be for any other euryhaline teleosts. (Author)

  18. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  19. Overexpression of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) AhERF or AhDOF Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis thaliana Increases Water Deficit- and Salt-Stress Tolerance, Respectively, via Contrasting Stress-Amelioration Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massange-Sánchez, Julio A.; Palmeros-Suárez, Paola A.; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A.; Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF) genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS) in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites. However, microarray and GO data did not indicate an obvious correlation between WS tolerance, stomatal closure, and abscisic acid (ABA)-related signaling. This scenario suggested that stomatal closure during WS in these plants involved ABA-independent mechanisms, possibly involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). WS tolerance may have also involved other protective processes, such as those employed for methyl glyoxal detoxification. The second, coding for a class A and cluster I DNA binding with one finger TF (i.e., AhDof-AI) provided salt-stress (SS) tolerance with no evident fitness penalties. The lack of an obvious development-related phenotype contrasted with microarray and GO data showing an enrichment of categories and genes related to developmental processes, particularly flowering. SS tolerance also correlated with increased superoxide dismutase activity but not with augmented stomatal closure. Additionally, microarray and GO data indicated that, contrary to AhERF-VII, SS tolerance conferred by AhDof-AI in Arabidopsis involved ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress amelioration mechanisms. PMID:27749893

  20. Overexpression of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus AhERF or AhDOF Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis thaliana Increases Water Deficit- and Salt-Stress Tolerance, Respectively, via Contrasting Stress-Amelioration Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A Massange-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites. However, microarray and GO data did not indicate an obvious correlation between WS tolerance, stomatal closure, and abscisic acid (ABA-related signaling. This scenario suggested that stomatal closure during WS in these plants involved ABA-independent mechanisms, possibly involving reactive oxygen species (ROS. WS tolerance may have also involved other protective processes, such as those employed for methyl glyoxal detoxification. The second, coding for a class A and cluster I DNA binding with one finger TF (i.e., AhDof-AI provided salt-stress (SS tolerance with no evident fitness penalties. The lack of an obvious development-related phenotype contrasted with microarray and GO data showing an enrichment of categories and genes related to developmental processes, particularly flowering. SS tolerance also correlated with increased superoxide dismutase activity but not with augmented stomatal closure. Additionally, microarray and GO data indicated that, contrary to AhERF-VII, SS tolerance conferred by AhDof-AI in Arabidopsis involved ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress amelioration mechanisms.

  1. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yongzhe; Xu, Yanhua; Teng, Wan; Li, Bin; Lin, Tongbao

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl co...

  2. Multicenter analysis of tolerance and clinical safety of the extracellular MR contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance {sup registered}); Multizentrische Analyse der Vertraeglichkeit und klinischen Sicherheit des extrazellulaeren MR-Kontrastmittels Gadobenat-Dimeglumin (MultiHance {sup registered})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, Christoph U.; Jaeger-Booth, I.; Goyen, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Medizinisches PraeventionsCentrum Hamburg (MPCH) (Germany); Lodemann, K.P. [R und D, Altana Pharma (Germany); Spinazzi, A. [Marketing, BRACCO Ltd (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the occurrence of adverse events and the diagnostic efficacy of a paramagnetic contrast agent with weak intermittent protein binding and high relaxivity. Materials end methods: Postmarketing surveillance studies for gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance, BRACCO Altana Pharma, Constance) were conducted in Germany between 1998 and 2006 and then retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, relevant comorbidities, and allergies were recorded. The safety and tolerability of MultiHance were logged on a standardized data sheet. Results: A total of 38568 patients were included in the study. 829 patients (2.1%) had a known intolerance against contrast media. The examined regions included the central nervous system, the liver, and the vascular bed. The injection rate with automated injectors (n = 10456) varied between 1.0 und 3.0 ml/sec in 86.5% of patients. Adverse events totaled 1.2%. 11 patients (0.03%) experienced serious adverse events. The most frequent findings were nausea, vomiting and a feeling of warmth. Conclusion: MultiHance is a safe and very well tolerated contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a profile and frequency of adverse events similar to other extracellular MR contrast materials. (orig.)

  3. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  4. N2-fixation in fababean (vicia faba l.) grown in saline and non saline conditions using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Kurdali, F.

    2002-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing fababean and barley under saline conditions, in terms of, dry matter yield, total nitrogen and, percentages and amount of N derived from soil, fertilizer and atmosphere using 15 N isotope dilution method. Three saline treatments were performed: First, plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss), Second, Plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss); and Third, Plants grown in non saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Sn). Furthermore, a control treatment was performed by using non-saline soil and non-saline water (Wn Sn). The different salinity treatments reduced plant growth and the reduction was more pronounced in fababean than in barley. However, under conditions of either saline soil-soft irrigation water or non saline soil-salty irrigation water, the relative growth reduction did not exceed 50% of the control; whereas, a significant negative effect was obtained when plants were grown under completely saline conditions of both soil and irrigation water. Percentage of N 2 -fixed (% Ndfa) was not negatively affected by saline conditions. However, our results clearly demonstrated that the effect of salinity in fababean was more evident on plant growth than on N 2 -fixing activity. Further studies are needed to obtain more salt tolerant faba bean genotypes in terms of growth and yield. This could be simultaneously improve yield and N 2 -fixation under sever saline conditions. (author)

  5. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic me....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  6. Stress tolerant crops from nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Saunders, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Notes are given on the nutritional quality and uses of: pods of Geoffroea decorticans, a species tolerant of saline and limed soils and saline water; seeds of Olneya tesota which nodulates readily and fixes nitrogen and photosynthesizes at low water potential; and pods of Prosopis chilensis and P. tamarugo which tolerate long periods without rain. 3 references.

  7. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  8. Effect of Salinity Stress on Concentrations of Nutrition Elements in Almond (Prunus Dulcis 'Shokofeh', 'Sahand' Cultivars and '13-40' Genotype Budded on GF677 Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Momenpour

    2016-02-01

    , this cultivar could compare with control plants at levels of salinity 3.6 and 4.8 g/l by increasing the percentage of K+and concentration of Fe++ ,and it could tolerate the harmful effects of Na+ more than other genotypes. Conclusion: Overall, the results showed that both rootstock and type of scion were effective in tolerance to salinity. GF677 rootstocks (non-budded tolerated salinity of 2.4 g/l (4.9 ds/m, but withincreasingsalt concentration, plants were severely damaged. The results showed that the type of scion affected tolerance to salinity. In this research,at base concentration of nutritional elements,‘Shokofeh’ cultivar was the most tolerant cultivar against salinity stress. This cultivar could well tolerate salinity of 3.6 g/l (7.3 ds/m and partly salinity 4.8 g/l (9.8 ds/m. In contrast, Sahand cultivar was the most sensitive cultivar to salinity stress. These cultivar as GF677 rootstocks (non-budded as control only could tolerate salinity of 2.4 g/l.

  9. Impact of fresh and saline water flooding on leaf gas exchange in two Italian provenances of Tamarix africana Poiret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Jaoudé, R; de Dato, G; Palmegiani, M; De Angelis, P

    2013-01-01

    In Mediterranean coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns and seawater levels are leading to increased frequency of flooding and to salinization of estuaries and freshwater systems. Tamarix spp. are often the only woody species growing in such environments. These species are known for their tolerance to moderate salinity; however, contrasting information exists regarding their tolerance to flooding, and the combination of the two stresses has never been studied in Tamarix spp. Here, we analyse the photosynthetic responses of T. africana Poiret to temporary flooding (45 days) with fresh or saline water (200 mm) in two Italian provenances (Simeto and Baratz). The measurements were conducted before and after the onset of flooding, to test the possible cumulative effects of the treatments and effects on twig aging, and to analyse the responses of twigs formed during the experimental period. Full tolerance was evident in T. africana with respect to flooding with fresh water, which did not affect photosynthetic performances in either provenance. Saline flooding was differently tolerated by the two provenances. Moreover, salinity tolerance differently affected the two twig generations. In particular, a reduction in net assimilation rate (-48.8%) was only observed in Baratz twigs formed during the experimental period, compared to pre-existing twigs. This reduction was a consequence of non-stomatal limitations (maximum carboxylation rate and electron transport), probably as a result of higher Na transport to the twigs, coupled with reduced Na storage in the roots. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Adaptation to high temperature mitigates the impact of water deficit during combined heat and drought stress in C3 sunflower and C4 maize varieties with contrasting drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killi, Dilek; Bussotti, Filippo; Raschi, Antonio; Haworth, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Heat and drought stress frequently occur together, however, their impact on plant growth and photosynthesis (P N ) is unclear. The frequency, duration and severity of heat and drought stress events are predicted to increase in the future, having severe implications for agricultural productivity and food security. To assess the impact on plant gas exchange, physiology and morphology we grew drought tolerant and sensitive varieties of C3 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and C4 maize (Zea mays) under conditions of elevated temperature for 4 weeks prior to the imposition of water deficit. The negative impact of temperature on P N was most apparent in sunflower. The drought tolerant sunflower retained ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activity under heat stress to a greater extent than its drought sensitive counterpart. Maize exhibited no varietal difference in response to increased temperature. In contrast to previous studies, where a sudden rise in temperature induced an increase in stomatal conductance (G s ), we observed no change or a reduction in G s with elevated temperature, which alongside lower leaf area mitigated the impact of drought at the higher temperature. The drought tolerant sunflower and maize varieties exhibited greater investment in root-systems, allowing greater uptake of the available soil water. Elevated temperatures associated with heat-waves will have profound negative impacts on crop growth in both sunflower and maize, but the deleterious effect on P N was less apparent in the drought tolerant sunflower and both maize varieties. As C4 plants generally exhibit water use efficiency (WUE) and resistance to heat stress, selection on the basis of tolerance to heat and drought stress would be more beneficial to the yields of C3 crops cultivated in drought prone semi-arid regions. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Utilization of saline water and land: Reclaiming lost resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Mujtaba

    2001-01-01

    There is an abundance of saline water on the globe. Large tracts of land are arid and/or salt-affected, and a large number of plant species are known to be salt-tolerant. It would seem obvious that salt tolerant plants (halophytes) have a role in utilizing the two wasted resources, saline water and wastelands. We will briefly describe how these resources can be fruitfully utilized and how the IAEA has helped several countries to demonstrate the possibility of cultivating salt tolerant plant species on arid saline wastelands for economic and environmental benefit. After some brief introductory remarks we will discuss the results of the project

  12. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K+/Na+ ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K+/Na+ ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT, a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K+/Na+ ratio and chlorophyll accumulation.

  13. MR enterography with oral contrast agent composed of methylcellulose, low-dose barium sulfate, sorbitol, and lactulose: assessment of diagnostic performance, reliability, image quality, and patient tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrimler, Sehnaz; Algin, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to show efficiency of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) with our previously assessed new oral contrast agent. Each bowel segments was evaluated for luminal distension, wall conspicuity, wall thickening, and hyperintensity on fat-saturated (FS) T2-weighted and contrast enhancement on postcontrast FS T1-weighted images. Also, consensus scoring results of MRE exams were compared with the gold standard tests in terms of active inflammatory bowel disease detection. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRE for active inflammatory bowel disease detection were 62%, 98%, 80%, 96%, and 71.4%, respectively. MRE obtained with the new mixture has a high reliability and shows good correlation with endoscopic examination±biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. RNA-seq for gene identification and transcript profiling in relation to root growth of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Li, Huiying; Chen, Liang; Lou, Yanhong; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-08-04

    Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses affecting plant shoots and roots growth. The adjustment of root architecture to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in salinity is particularly critical for plant growth and survival. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used turf and forage perennial grass with a high degree of salinity tolerance. Salinity appears to stimulate the growth of roots and decrease their mortality in tolerant bermudagrass. To estimate a broad spectrum of genes related to root elongation affected by salt stress and the molecular mechanisms that control the positive response of root architecture to salinity, we analyzed the transcriptome of bermudagrass root tips in response to salinity. RNA-sequencing was performed in root tips of two bermudagrass genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance. A total of 237,850,130 high quality clean reads were generated and 250,359 transcripts were assembled with an average length of 1115 bp. Totally, 103,324 unigenes obtained with 53,765 unigenes (52 %) successfully annotated in databases. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that major transcription factor (TF) families linked to stress responses and growth regulation (MYB, bHLH, WRKY) were differentially expressed in root tips of bermudagrass under salinity. In addition, genes related to cell wall loosening and stiffening (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, peroxidases) were identified. RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes encoding TFs involved in the regulation of lignin synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis controlled by peroxidases, and the regulation of phytohormone signaling that promote cell wall loosening and therefore root growth under salinity.

  15. Salt acclimation process: a comparison between a sensitive and a tolerant Olea europaea cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Bazihizina, Nadia; Giordano, Cristiana; Mancuso, Stefano; Azzarello, Elisa

    2017-03-01

    Saline soils are highly heterogeneous in time and space, and this is a critical factor influencing plant physiology and productivity. Temporal changes in soil salinity can alter plant responses to salinity, and pre-treating plants with low NaCl concentrations has been found to substantially increase salt tolerance in different species in a process called acclimation. However, it still remains unclear whether this process is common to all plants or is only expressed in certain genotypes. We addressed this question by assessing the physiological changes to 100 mM NaCl in two contrasting olive cultivars (the salt-sensitive Leccino and the salt-tolerant Frantoio), following a 1-month acclimation period with 5 or 25 mM NaCl. The acclimation improved salt tolerance in both cultivars, but activated substantially different physiological adjustments in the tolerant and the sensitive cultivars. In the tolerant Frantoio the acclimation with 5 mM NaCl was more effective in increasing plant salt tolerance, with a 47% increase in total plant dry mass compared with non-acclimated saline plants. This enhanced biomass accumulation was associated with a 50% increase in K+ retention ability in roots. On the other hand, in the sensitive Leccino, although the acclimation process did not improve performance in terms of plant growth, pre-treatment with 5 and 25 mM NaCl substantially decreased salt-induced leaf cell ultrastructural changes, with leaf cell relatively similar to those of control plants. Taken together these results suggest that in the tolerant cultivar the acclimation took place primarily in the root tissues, while in the sensitive they occurred mainly at the shoot level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... improve plant growth and enhance stress tolerance (Piccolo et al., 1992). ..... shoot of pepper seedling, but the reverse was the case with Na, Fe and Zn of .... salinity, and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for.

  17. Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Cold stratification was reported to release seed dormancy and enhance plant tolerance to salt stress. ... Key words: Cold stratification, salt stress, seedling emergence, ... methods used to cope with salinity, seed pre-sowing.

  18. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Seed germination and growth parameters of seedlings of cauliflower were observed after 5, 10 and 15 ... Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of ..... induced accumulation of free proline in a metal-tolerant.

  19. Effects of long-term salinity on the growth of the halophyte Spartina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... studies of the salinity tolerance of salt marsh plants are very important and ... In April 2009, seeds were rinsed with fresh water to remove salts, sown into ..... EP, Guntenspergen GP, Brown JJ, Nelson SG (2006). Salt tolerance.

  20. Effect of different ultrasound contrast materials and temperatures on patient comfort during intrauterine and tubal assessment for infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzl, Vanja

    2012-01-01

    Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy) is safe and easy to perform outpatient method in the evaluation of female infertility. During this procedure a certain level of discomfort and pain are experienced by patients. On the basis of reducing avoidable pain inductors the aim of this study was to compare pain sensation due to different warmth of applied contrasts (sterile saline and Echovist ® ). Prospective and randomized study was performed on patients requiring tubal and uterine assessment during standard infertility work up. One group of patients was examined using both contrasts at room temperature and the other group using preheated contrasts at body temperature. Pain experience of the procedure was rated by patients for each contrast by numerical scale (0–10) immediately after the procedure. There was significant statistical difference between pain scores during application of two contrasts in each group; Echovist induces significantly less pain in comparison to sterile saline at the same temperature (P = 0.002, 0.001). Between two groups there is also statistically significant difference in pain during introduction of the same contrast at different temperature (P < 0.001). The most tolerable for the patient is body temperature of the applied contrasts although their structure and concentrations can be another factor associated with tolerability of the procedure.

  1. Effect of different ultrasound contrast materials and temperatures on patient comfort during intrauterine and tubal assessment for infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenzl, Vanja, E-mail: vanja.radic@inet.hr [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital “Merkur”, Zajčeva 19 (Croatia); University of Applied Health Studies, Mlinarska Cesta 38, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-12-15

    Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy) is safe and easy to perform outpatient method in the evaluation of female infertility. During this procedure a certain level of discomfort and pain are experienced by patients. On the basis of reducing avoidable pain inductors the aim of this study was to compare pain sensation due to different warmth of applied contrasts (sterile saline and Echovist{sup ®}). Prospective and randomized study was performed on patients requiring tubal and uterine assessment during standard infertility work up. One group of patients was examined using both contrasts at room temperature and the other group using preheated contrasts at body temperature. Pain experience of the procedure was rated by patients for each contrast by numerical scale (0–10) immediately after the procedure. There was significant statistical difference between pain scores during application of two contrasts in each group; Echovist induces significantly less pain in comparison to sterile saline at the same temperature (P = 0.002, 0.001). Between two groups there is also statistically significant difference in pain during introduction of the same contrast at different temperature (P < 0.001). The most tolerable for the patient is body temperature of the applied contrasts although their structure and concentrations can be another factor associated with tolerability of the procedure.

  2. Contrasting root and photosynthesis traits in a large-acreage Canadian durum variety and its distant parent of Algerian origin for assembling drought/heat tolerance attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Paula; Shaterian, Hamid; Akhov, Leonid; Kulkarni, Manoj; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2017-12-01

    In Canada, the world’s top exporter of high-protein durum, varietal development over its nearly six-decade history has been driven by a quest for yield improvement without compromise on grain protein content and other quality aspects. Pelissier, a landrace selection from Algeria that was introduced into North America more than a century ago and the variety Strongfield that was released in 2004 are notable. Pelissier, known to elaborate more roots and considered as drought tolerant, has been cultivated commercially and thus deemed adapted. Strongfield has Pelissier in its pedigree, and it remains a high-acreage variety. Strongfield was found to elaborate only about half of the root biomass of Pelissier at maturity in greenhouse trials under well-watered conditions. Extended drought stress caused a significant reduction in the root biomass of both lines. However, Pelissier under drought maintained at least as much root biomass as that of Strongfield under well-watered conditions. In comparison to Pelissier, it had a superior photosynthesis rate (27.16 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), capacity for carboxylation (Vcmax: 132.83 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and electron transport/ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration (Jmax: 265.40 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1); the corresponding values for Pelissier were 19.62 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1, 91.87 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1, and 163.83 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively, under well-watered conditions. Under short-term/mild drought conditions, the carbon assimilation rate remained stable in Pelissier while it declined in Strongfield to the Pelissier level. However, Strongfield succumbed to extended drought sooner than Pelissier. Photosynthesis in Strongfield but not Pelissier was found to be sensitive to high temperature stress. These results provide encouraging prospects for further exploitation of beneficial physiological traits from Pelissier in constructing climate-resilient, agronomically favourable wheat ideotypes.

  3. Effect of salinity on growth of juvenile silver kob, Argyrosomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude that silver kob perform at least as well at reduced salinities as in full strength seawater. This could lead to significant cost savings when rearing fish inland using artificial seawater. Keywords: fish physiology; mariculture; mulloway; osmolality; salinity tolerance. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2008, 33(2): ...

  4. Irrigation and drainage in agriculture: a salinity and environmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Stofberg, S.F.; Yang, X.; Liu, Y.; Islam, M.N.; Hu, Yin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Whereas irrigation and drainage are intended to address the shortage and surplus of soil water, respectively, an important aspect to address is also the management of salinity. Plants have a limited tolerance for soil water salinity, and despite significant gaps in our practical knowledge, an

  5. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  6. In vitro response of promising tomato genotypes for tolerance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... cellular-level functions (osmoregulation) (Mohamed et al.,. 2000). ... impact on whole plant tolerance (Mohamed et al., 2000; .... biotechnological application to improving salinity tolerance. ... Proline metabolic pathways in calli.

  7. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) response to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Pires, Inês S.

    2015-07-22

    Increase in soil salinity levels is becoming a major cause of crop yield losses worldwide. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most salt-sensitive cereal crop, and many studies have focused on rice salinity tolerance, but a global understanding of this crop\\'s response to salinity is still lacking. We systematically analyzed phenotypic data previously collected for 56 rice genotypes to assess the extent to which rice uses three known salinity tolerance mechanisms: shoot-ion independent tolerance (or osmotic tolerance), ion exclusion, and tissue tolerance. In general, our analyses of different phenotypic traits agree with results of previous rice salinity tolerance studies. However, we also established that the three salinity tolerance mechanisms mentioned earlier appear among rice genotypes and that none of them is predominant. Against the pervasive view in the literature that the K+/Na+ ratio is the most important trait in salinity tolerance, we found that the K+ concentration was not significantly affected by salt stress in rice, which puts in question the importance of K+/Na+ when analyzing rice salt stress response. Not only do our results contribute to improve our global understanding of salt stress response in an important crop, but we also use our results together with an extensive literature research to highlight some issues commonly observed in salinity stress tolerance studies and to propose solutions for future experiments.

  8. Transcriptome and Cell Physiological Analyses in Different Rice Cultivars Provide New Insights Into Adaptive and Salinity Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elide Formentin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its agricultural importance. Several features, such as the regulation of ionic transporters and metabolic adjustments, have been identified as salt tolerance hallmarks. Nevertheless, due to the complexity of the trait, the results achieved to date have met with limited success in improving the salt tolerance of rice plants when tested in the field, thus suggesting that a better understanding of the tolerance mechanisms is still required. In this work, differences between two varieties of rice with contrasting salt sensitivities were revealed by the imaging of photosynthetic parameters, ion content analysis and a transcriptomic approach. The transcriptomic analysis conducted on tolerant plants supported the setting up of an adaptive program consisting of sodium distribution preferentially limited to the roots and older leaves, and in the activation of regulatory mechanisms of photosynthesis in the new leaves. As a result, plants resumed grow even under prolonged saline stress. In contrast, in the sensitive variety, RNA-seq analysis revealed a misleading response, ending in senescence and cell death. The physiological response at the cellular level was investigated by measuring the intracellular profile of H2O2 in the roots, using a fluorescent probe. In the roots of tolerant plants, a quick response was observed with an increase in H2O2 production within 5 min after salt treatment. The expression analysis of some of the genes involved in perception, signal transduction and salt stress response confirmed their early induction in the roots of tolerant plants compared to sensitive ones. By inhibiting the synthesis of apoplastic H2O2, a reduction in the expression of these genes was detected. Our results indicate that quick H2O2 signaling in the roots is part of a coordinated response that leads to adaptation instead of senescence in salt-treated rice plants.

  9. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  10. Mapping of HKT1;5 Gene in Barley Using GWAS Approach and Its Implication in Salt Tolerance Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzouri, Khaled M.; Khraiwesh, Basel; Amiri, Khaled M. A.; Pauli, Duke; Blake, Tom; Shahid, Mohammad; Mullath, Sangeeta K.; Nelson, David; Mansour, Alain L.; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Purugganan, Michael; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Sodium (Na+) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5-like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2. In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na+ and K+ were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These results provide

  11. Mapping of HKT1;5 Gene in Barley Using GWAS Approach and Its Implication in Salt Tolerance Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Hazzouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sodium (Na+ accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5-like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2. In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare. A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na+ and K+ were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These

  12. Proteomic response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to salinity stress: Similarities and differences between a glycophyte and a halophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Maršálová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley Hordeum marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defence-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA family, several chaperones from heat shock protein (HSP family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper (bZIP and nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H

  13. Comparative study of SOS2 and a novel PMP3-1 gene expression in two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines differing in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadia, Mubshara; Jamil, Amer; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2013-06-01

    Gene expression pattern of two important regulatory proteins, salt overly sensitive 2 (SOS2) and plasma membrane protein 3-1 (PMP3-1), involved in ion homeostasis, was analyzed in two salinity-contrasting sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines, Hysun-38 (salt tolerant) and S-278 (moderately salt tolerant). The pattern was studied at selected time intervals (24 h) under 150 mM NaCl treatment. Using reverse transcription PCR, SOS2 gene fragment was obtained from young leaf and root tissues of opposing lines while that for PMP3-1 was obtained only from young root tissues. Both tolerant and moderately tolerant lines showed a gradual increase in SOS2 expression in sunflower root tissues. Leaf tissues showed the gradually increasing pattern of SOS2 expression in tolerant plants as compared to that for moderately tolerant ones that showed a relatively lower level of expression for this gene. We found the highest level of PMP 3-1 expression in the roots of tolerant sunflower line at 6 and 12 h postsalinity treatment. The moderately tolerant line showed higher expression of PMP3-1 at 12 and 24 h after salt treatment. Overall, the expression of genes for both the regulator proteins varied significantly in the two sunflower lines differing in salinity tolerance.

  14. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  15. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  16. Differential response to soil salinity in endangered key tree cactus: implications for survival in a changing climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joie Goodman

    Full Text Available Understanding reasons for biodiversity loss is essential for developing conservation and management strategies and is becoming increasingly urgent with climate change. Growing at elevations <1.4 m in the Florida Keys, USA, the endangered Key tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii experienced 84 percent loss of total stems from 1994 to 2007. The most severe losses of 99 and 88 percent stems occurred in the largest populations in the Lower Keys, where nine storms with high wind velocities and storm surges, occurred during this period. In contrast, three populations had substantial stem proliferation. To evaluate possible mortality factors related to changes in climate or forest structure, we examined habitat variables: soil salinity, elevation, canopy cover, and habitat structure near 16 dying or dead and 18 living plants growing in the Lower Keys. Soil salinity and elevation were the preliminary factors that discriminated live and dead plants. Soil salinity was 1.5 times greater, but elevation was 12 cm higher near dead plants than near live plants. However, distribution-wide stem loss was not significantly related to salinity or elevation. Controlled salinity trials indicated that salt tolerance to levels above 40 mM NaCl was related to maternal origin. Salt sensitive plants from the Lower Keys had less stem growth, lower root:shoot ratios, lower potassium: sodium ratios and lower recovery rate, but higher δ (13C than a salt tolerant lineage of unknown origin. Unraveling the genetic structure of salt tolerant and salt sensitive lineages in the Florida Keys will require further genetic tests. Worldwide rare species restricted to fragmented, low-elevation island habitats, with little or no connection to higher ground will face challenges from climate change-related factors. These great conservation challenges will require traditional conservation actions and possibly managed relocation that must be informed by studies such as these.

  17. Salt tolerance of estuarine benthic macroalgae in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tolerance of benthic marine macroalgae to low salinities is believed to be a main determinant of their vertical distribution across the marine coastline and their horizontal distribution from oceanic regions into low-saline bays, fjords and estuaries. Salt tolerance should also be important......, Denmark (salinity: 16 psu, tide 10 cm) to maintain photosynthesis after 4 days exposure to declining salinities (16 to 0 psu). Overall, the algal community had a high short-term tolerance to low salinities because 35 of 44 species maintained more than half the photosynthetic capacity at salinities lower...

  18. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  19. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Takahashi

    Full Text Available Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  20. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  1. Comparison of soft tissue effects of conventional ionic, low osmolar ionic and nonionic iodine containing contrast material in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlister, W.H.; Kissane, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional, low osmolar, and non-ionic iodine containing contrast media and saline controls were placed in the paws, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues of Sprague-Dawley rat thighs. The paw injections were observed and photographed, while the thighs were examined histologically. Results showed that although the low osmolar and non-ionic agents did produce inflammatory reactions and focal necrosis in the soft tissues, they were much better tolerated than were the conventional ionic agents. A non-ionic or low osmolar ionic contrast agent should be strongly considered when a possibility for extravasation exists. (orig.)

  2. Physiological responses to salinity in solanum lycopersicum l. varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, B.M.; Montiel, L.G.H.; Perez, J.J.R.; Puente, E.O.R.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide over 30% of irrigated and 7% of rainfed agriculture has been limited by salinity stress. Tolerance of crops to salinity varies and negatively affects agricultural productivity. Despite the plethora of information on NaCl tolerance mechanisms, it is still not completely elucidated. The purpose of this research was to determine NaCl tolerance of eight tomato varieties (Tropic, Feroz, Ace, Super Rio Grande, Yaqui, Missouri, Vita and Floradade) by evaluating their physiological traits. These varieties were exposed to salinity stress by the addition of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). The physiological variables measured were stomatal conductance, water potential, chlorophyll a, b, total, indirect chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, transpiration and relative water content. The results showed differences in tolerance between varieties in terms of NaCl concentrations and there was interaction between varieties * NaCl in the majority of physiological variables. Symptoms of NaCl stress in the tomato plants were leaf wilting, desiccation, necrosis, and death. All measured variables decreased as salinity increased, except for relative water content and leaf temperature, values of both these variables increased with higher concentrations of NaCl. Physiological traits may be used as an effective means for screening for salinity tolerance in tomato varieties. Amongst the tomato varieties evaluated were Missouri the most tolerant, and Rio Grande the least tolerant. The results indicate that the varieties best tolerant to NaCl conditions from most to least tolerant in successive orderare: Missouri, followed by Ace, Yaqui, Tropic, Floradade, Feroz, Vita and Rio Grande. (author)

  3. High-quality forage production under salinity by using a salt-tolerant AtNXH1-expressing transgenic alfalfa combined with a natural stress-resistant nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzler, Margarita; Elba, Pagano; Berini, Carolina; Gomez, Cristina; Ayub, Nicolás; Soto, Gabriela

    2018-06-20

    Alfalfa, usually known as the "Queen of Forages", is the main source of vegetable protein to meat and milk production systems worldwide. This legume is extremely rich in proteins due to its highly efficient symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing strains. In the last years, alfalfa culture has been displaced to saline environments by other important crops, including major cereals, a fact that has reduced its biomass production and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In this short communication, we report the high forage production and nutrient quality of alfalfa under saline conditions by alfalfa transformation with the AtNHX1 Na + /H + antiporter and inoculation with the stress-resistant nitrogen-fixing strain Sinorhizobium meliloti B401. Therefore, the incorporation of transgenic traits into salt-sensitive legumes in association with the inoculation with natural stress-resistant isolates could be a robust approach to improve the productivity and quality of these important nitrogen-fixing crops. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Adriamycin nephrosis and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Golman, K.; Hemmingsen, L.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P.; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Centralsygehuset, Nykoebing Falster; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1990-01-01

    Urine profiles (albumin, glucose, NAG, LDH, GGT and sodium) were followed for 9 days after intravenous injection of either diatrizoate, iohexol, or saline in 27 Wistar rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin 42 days before. Another 9 rats exposed to neither Adriamycin nor contrast media served as controls. None of the contrast media caused further increased albuminuria of significance, whereas both induced significantly increased excretion of all 5 tubular components. The excretion of NAG and sodium was significantly higher following diatrizoate than following iohexol. From 24 h post injection there was no significantly greater excretion of any of the components after either diatrizoate or iohexol than after saline among the rats given Adriamycin. At the end of day 9 after contrast medium injection neither serum sodium, potassium, glucose, urea, creatinine, nor albumin revealed any contrast media related changes. Kidney histology showed quantitatively larger lesions in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and contrast media than in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and saline. There were no differences between the two contrast media groups. It is thus concluded, that both high osmolar ionic and low osmolar non-ionic contrast media cause temporary tubular dysfunction but no further glomerular dysfunction in rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin. The histologic findings indicate that both media may worsen non-reversible renal lesions. (orig.)

  5. Salinity and pH effects on floating and emergent macrophytes in a constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, H R; Mufarrege, M M; Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A

    2017-04-01

    Salvinia herzogii, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes (floating species) were the dominant macrophytes in a constructed wetland (CW) over the first years of operation. Later, the emergent Typha domingensis displaced the floating species, becoming dominant. The industrial effluent treated at this CW showed high pH and salinity. The aim of this work was to study the tolerance of floating species and T. domingensis exposed to different pH and salinity treatments. Treatments at pH 8, 9, 10 and 11 and salinities of 2,000; 3,000; 4,000; 6,000; and 8,000 mg L -1 were performed. Floating macrophytes were unable to tolerate the studied pH and salinity ranges, while T. domingensis tolerated higher pH and salinity values. Many industrial effluents commonly show high pH and salinity. T. domingensis demonstrated to be a suitable macrophyte to treat this type of effluents.

  6. Genetic Approaches to Develop Salt Tolerant Germplasm

    KAUST Repository

    Tester, Mark A.

    2015-08-19

    Forty percent of the world\\'s food is produced under irrigation, and this is directly threatened by over-exploitation and changes in the global environment. One way to address this threat is to develop systems for increasing our ability to use lower quality water, in particular saline water. Low cost partial desalination of brackish water, use of saline water for cooling and increases in the salinity tolerance of crops can all contribute to the development of this new agricultural system. In this talk, the focus will be on the use of forward genetic approaches for discovery of genes related to salinity tolerance in barley and tomatoes. Rather than studying salinity tolerance as a trait in itself, we dissect salinity tolerance into a series of components that are hypothesised to contribute to overall salinity tolerance (following the paradigm of Munns & Tester, 2008). For example, one significant component of tolerance of most crop plants to moderate soil salinity is due to the ability to maintain low concentrations of Na+ in the leaves, and much analysis of this aspect has been done (e.g. Roy et al., 2013, 2014). A major site for the control of shoot Na+ accumulation is at the plasma membrane of the mature stele of the root. Alleles of HKT, a major gene underlying this transport process have been characterized and, in work led by Dr Rana Munns (CSIRO), have now been introgressed into commercial durum wheat and led to significantly increased yields in saline field conditions (Munns et al., 2012). The genotyping of mapping populations is now highly efficient. However, the ability to quantitatively phenotype these populations is now commonly limiting forward progress in plant science. The increasing power of digital imaging and computational technologies offers the opportunity to relieve this phenotyping bottleneck. The Plant Accelerator is a 4500m2 growth facility that provides non-destructive phenotyping of large populations of plants (http

  7. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is mixed with water before administration liquid paste tablet When iodine-based and barium-sulfate contrast materials ... for patients with kidney failure or allergies to MRI and/or computed tomography (CT) contrast material. Microbubble ...

  8. Classification of some Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes for Salinity Tolerance using Germination, Seedling Growth, and Ion Content Clasificación de algunos Genotipos de Linaza (Linum usitatissimum L. para Tolerancia a Salinidad usando Germinación, Crecimiento de Plántulas y Contenido de Iones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir Kaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity reduces germination, delays emergence, and inhibits seedling growth of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. while some varieties are less affected by salinity than others. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of NaCl levels (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 on germination and seedling growth of 10 linseed genotypes (lines 87, 89, 104, 114, 193, 194, 209, 215, C-90 and cv. San-85 and to classify the genotypes for salinity tolerance using germination and seedling characteristics. Germination percentage, mean germination time, root and shoot length, seedling fresh and dry weight, Na+ content and Na:K ratio of seedlings were investigated. Classification of linseed genotypes for salinity tolerance was done according to (i combination of Principal Component and Cluster Analysis, (ii Na+ content, and (iii Na:K ratio of seedling. The results showed that the highest values were obtained from lines 193, 194 and 215 except for mean germination time, while germination percentage was not adversely influenced by NaCl up to 20 dS m-1. Seedling growth was inhibited at 20 dS m-1 although genotypes exhibited varying responses. Na+ content was enhanced by NaCl, but seedling from lines 194, 193 and 215 had the lowest Na+ content at all NaCl levels. Cluster analysis performed by multiple parameters revealed three groups for salinity tolerance. It was concluded that lines 193, 194, and 215 were tolerant, lines 87, 209, C-90, and cv. Sari-85 were moderately tolerant and lines 89, 104, and 114 were salt-sensitive genotypes. Classification of genotypes for Na+ content and Na:K ratio showed similar result for tolerant genotypes while different genotypes for sensitive group were detected.La salinidad reduce germinación, retrasa emergencia, e inhibe el crecimiento de plántulas de lino (Linum usitatissimum L. mientras algunas variedades son menos afectadas por la salinidad que otras. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los efectos de niveles de NaCl (0, 5

  9. Dextrose saline compared with normal saline rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Norazilah, Mat Jin; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-02-01

    To compare 5% dextrose-0.9% saline against 0.9% saline solution in the intravenous rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum. Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled on admission to the ward and randomly assigned to receive either 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline by intravenous infusion at a rate 125 mL/h over 24 hours in a double-blind trial. All participants also received thiamine and an antiemetic intravenously. Oral intake was allowed as tolerated. Primary outcomes were resolution of ketonuria and well-being (by 10-point visual numerical rating scale) at 24 hours. Nausea visual numerical rating scale scores were obtained every 8 hours for 24 hours. Persistent ketonuria rates after the 24-hour study period were 10 of 101 (9.9%) compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) (P>.99; relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.2) and median (interquartile range) well-being scores at 24 hours were 9 (8-10) compared with 9 (8-9.5) (P=.73) in the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline and 0.9% saline arms, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale score as assessed every 8 hours during the 24-hour study period showed a significant difference in favor of the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline arm (P=.046) with the superiority apparent at 8 and 16 hours, but the advantage had dissipated by 24 hours. Secondary outcomes of vomiting, resolution of hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia, length of hospitalization, duration of intravenous antiemetic, and rehydration were not different. Intravenous rehydration with 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline solution in women hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum produced similar outcomes. ISRCTN Register, www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn, ISRCTN65014409. I.

  10. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Its Relationship with Vegetative growth in Bromus danthoniae Genotypes from Saline and Non-Saline Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus danthoniae Trin. is an annual grass species that is well adapted to harsh climates and could be considered as an important genetic resources for tolerance to environmental stresses such as salinity. In this study, 24 genotypes collected from Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah (non-saline areas and West Azerbaijan (saline area: shores of Uremia Salt Lake provinces of Iran were investigated at the germination stage under salt treatments with concentrations of 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mM sodium chloride. Germination percentage, germination rate index, seed vigor, root length, shoot length and seedling fresh and dry weights were measured. In addition, the relationship between the percentage of germination in 300 mM sodium chloride and the survival rate (% after four weeks in 350 mM sodium chloride at the vegetative stage was evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that salinity treatments caused significant reductions in all the studied traits. Genotypic variation and the interaction of genotype × salt treatments were also significant. Genotypes USLN3 and KER4 were found to be the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes to salinity stress, with 13% and 98% reduction in germination percentage at 300 mM NaCl, respectively. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into three groups, with one group containing only tolerant genotypes from Uremia Salt Lake, another one comprising only sensitive genotypes from non-saline regions, and the third one containing genotypes from both regions. The correlation between the germination percentage and the survival rate at the vegetative stage was not significant, indicating that different mechanisms are, perhaps, responsible for salinity tolerance at the germination and vegetative stages in B. danthoniae.

  11. Low-P tolerance mechanisms and differential gene expression in contrasting wheat genotypes Mecanismos de tolerância à deficiência de fósforo e expressão diferenciada de genes em genótipos de trigo contrastantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laize Fraga Espindula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine low-P tolerance mechanisms in contrasting wheat genotypes and to evaluate the association of these mechanisms to differential gene expression. Wheat seedlings of cultivars Toropi (tolerant to low-P availability and Anahuac (sensitive were evaluated. Seedlings were hydroponically grown in the absence or presence of P (1.0 mmol L-1 during three different time periods: 24, 120 and 240 hours. Free phosphate (Pi and total P contents were measured in shoots and roots. The experiment's design was in randomized blocks with three replicates, each formed by ten plants. The relative expression of genes encoding the malate transporter TaALMT1 and the transcription factor PTF1 was evaluated. Phosphorus starvation beyond ten days increased the expression of TaALMT1 only in 'Toropi'. PTF1's expression was early induced in both genotypes under P starvation, but remained significant after ten days only in 'Toropi'. Shoot Pi concentration in 'Toropi' was independent from P availability; under starvation, 'Toropi' favored the maintenance of shoot Pi concentration. The low-P tolerance of Toropi cultivar at initial growth stages is mainly due to its ability to maintain constant the Pi shoot level.Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar os mecanismos da tolerância à deficiência de P em genótipos de trigo contrastantes e avaliar a associação desses mecanismos à expressão diferenciada de genes. Foram avaliadas plântulas das cultivares de trigo Toropi (tolerante à deficiência de P e Anahuac (sensível. As plântulas foram cultivadas em hidroponia, na ausência ou presença (1,0 mmol L-1 de P, durante três períodos de tempo: 24, 120 e 240 horas. Os teores de fosfato livre (Pi e P total foram medidos na parte aérea e nas raízes. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, cada uma formada por dez plantas. Foi avaliada a expressão relativa dos genes que codificam o

  12. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  13. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Salinity effects on behavioural response to hypoxia in the non-native Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus from Florida Everglades wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P J; Loftus, W F; Fontaine, J A

    2009-04-01

    This study quantified the hypoxia tolerance of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus over a range of salinities. The species was very tolerant of hypoxia, using aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and buccal bubble holding when oxygen tensions dropped to <20 mmHg (c. 1.0 mg l(-1)) and 6 mmHg, respectively. Salinity had little effect on the hypoxia tolerance of C. urophthalmus, except that bubble holding was more frequent at the higher salinities tested. Levels of aggression were greatest at the highest salinity. The ASR thresholds of C. urophthalmus were similar to native centrarchid sunfishes from the Everglades, however, aggression levels for C. uropthalmus were markedly higher.

  15. Hypertonic saline for cystic fibrosis: worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralski, Jennifer L; Donaldson, Scott H

    2014-06-01

    Airway dehydration in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to chronic inflammation, ongoing infection and progressive lung disease. Restoration of airway hydration by inhalation of an osmotic agent (hypertonic saline) has been shown to be safe, effective and well-tolerated in adults with CF. Although the safety of hypertonic saline in infants and young children with CF has also been established, recent studies have reported inconclusive evidence about its efficacy. In this editorial, we discuss the evidence behind hypertonic saline use for adults, children and infants with CF.

  16. Genotypic variation in response to salinity in a new sexual germplasm of Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Mariana; Tommasino, Exequiel; Griffa, Sabrina; Ribotta, Andrea; Colomba, Eliana López; Carloni, Edgardo; Grunberg, Karina

    2016-05-01

    As part of a breeding program for new salt-tolerant sexual genotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris L., here we evaluated the salt-stress response of two new sexual hybrids, obtained by controlled crosses, at seedling and germination stages. A seedling hydroponic experiment with 300 mM NaCl was performed and physiological variables and growth components were evaluated. While salt-treated sexual material did not show a decrease in productivity with respect to control plants, a differential response in some physiological characteristics was observed. Sexual hybrid 1-9-1 did not suffer oxidative damage and its proline content did not differ from that of control treatment. By contrast, sexual hybrid 1-7-11 suffered oxidative damage and accumulated proline, maintaining its growth under saline stress. At the germination stage, sexual hybrid 1-9-1 presented the highest Germination Rate Index at the maximum NaCl concentration assayed, suggesting an ecological advantage in this genotype. These new sexual resources are promising maternal parental with differential response to salt and could be incorporated in a breeding program of C. ciliaris in the search of new genotypes tolerant to salinity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Salt sensitivity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): ions in reproductive tissues and yield components in contrasting genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotula, Lukasz; Khan, Hammad A; Quealy, John; Turner, Neil C; Vadez, Vincent; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Clode, Peta L; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    The reproductive phase in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is affected by salinity, but little is known about the underlying cause. We investigated whether high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the reproductive structures influence reproductive processes. Chickpea genotypes contrasting in tolerance were subjected to 0, 35 or 50 mm NaCl applied to soil in pots. Flower production and abortion, pod number, percentage of empty pods, seed number and size were evaluated. The concentrations of Na(+) , K(+) and Cl(-) were measured in various plant tissues and, using X-ray microanalysis, in specific cells of developing reproductive structures. Genotypic variation in reproductive success measured as seed yield in saline conditions was associated with better maintenance of flower production and higher numbers of filled pods (and thus seed number), whereas seed size decreased in all genotypes. Despite the variation in reproductive success, the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the early reproductive tissues of developing pods did not differ between a tolerant (Genesis836) and a sensitive (Rupali) genotype. Similarly, salinity tolerance was not associated with the accumulation of salt ions in leaves at the time of reproduction or in seeds at maturity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in safflower (carthamus tinctorius l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.; Bukhari, S.A.; Mahmood, S.; Iftikhar, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori-78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties. (author)

  20. Saline agriculture: A technology for economic utilization and improvement of saline environments (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Z.; Malik, K.A.; Khurshid, S.J.; Awan, A.R.; Akram, M.; Hashmi, Z.; Ali, Y.; Gulnaz, A.; Hussain, M.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    The salinity problem is one of the severe constraints for agriculture in Pakistan. In a socio-economic and salinity and drainage survey over an area of about 25000 acres of salt-affected land recently, crop production is found to be very low. Livestock is underfed and malnourished. Pakistan has spent and allocated over one billion US dollars on Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARP), of course, with dubious results. Over the years, a Saline Agriculture Technology has been developed as a cheap alternative at NIAB for comfortably living with salinity and to profitably utilize saline land rather than its reclamation. The soil improvement is a fringe benefit in this approach. The Saline Agriculture Technology has been tested at laboratory level, at field stations and at farms of some progressive farmers. Now we are sharing this technology with farming communities through a 'Saline Agriculture Farmer Participatory Development Project in Pakistan', with assistance from the National Rural Support Programme. The new project has been launched simultaneously in all four provinces of Pakistan on 25000 acres of salt-affected land. Under this project seeds of salt tolerant crop varieties wheat, cotton, rice, castor, brassica and barley and saplings of trees/shrubs, e.g. Acacia ampliceps, A. nilotica, Casuarina glauca, ber, jaman, etc selected for development work in various institutions of Pakistan are being provided to farmers. Know-how on new irrigation techniques like bed-and-corrugation and bed-and-furrow, agronomic practices like laser land leveling, planting on beds and in auger holes and soil/water amendment practices (use of gypsum and mineral acids) are being shared with farmers. These interventions are quite efficient, save water up to 40% and enable farmers to utilize bad quality water. In general, farmers are being familiarized with prevalent animal diseases, nutritional problems and prophylactic techniques. They are being helped in developing Saline

  1. Overexpression of a Panax ginseng tonoplast aquaporin alters salt tolerance, drought tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanhui; Lin, Wuling; Cai, Weiming; Arora, Rajeev

    2007-08-01

    Water movement across cellular membranes is regulated largely by a family of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Since several abiotic stresses such as, drought, salinity and freezing, manifest themselves via altering water status of plant cells and are linked by the fact that they all result in cellular dehydration, we overexpressed an AQP (tonoplast intrinsic protein) from Panax ginseng, PgTIP1, in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test its role in plant's response to drought, salinity and cold acclimation (induced freezing tolerance). Under favorable conditions, PgTIP1 overexpression significantly increased plant growth as determined by the biomass production, and leaf and root morphology. PgTIP1 overexpression had beneficial effect on salt-stress tolerance as indicated by superior growth status and seed germination of transgenic plants under salt stress; shoots of salt-stressed transgenic plants also accumulated greater amounts of Na(+) compared to wild-type plants. Whereas PgTIP1 overexpression diminished the water-deficit tolerance of plants grown in shallow (10 cm deep) pots, the transgenic plants were significantly more tolerant to water stress when grown in 45 cm deep pots. The rationale for this contrasting response, apparently, comes from the differences in the root morphology and leaf water channel activity (speed of dehydration/rehydration) between the transgenic and wild-type plants. Plants overexpressed with PgTIP1 exhibited lower (relative to wild-type control) cold acclimation ability; however, this response was independent of cold-regulated gene expression. Our results demonstrate a significant function of PgTIP1 in growth and development of plant cells, and suggest that the water movement across tonoplast (via AQP) represents a rate-limiting factor for plant vigor under favorable growth conditions and also significantly affect responses of plant to drought, salt and cold stresses.

  2. Towards a theory of ecotone resilience: coastal vegetation on a salinity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Gao, Daozhou; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2012-08-01

    Ecotones represent locations where vegetation change is likely to occur as a result of climate and other environmental changes. Using a model of an ecotone vulnerable to such future changes, we estimated the resilience of the ecotone to disturbances. The specific ecotone is that between two different vegetation types, salinity-tolerant and salinity-intolerant, along a gradient in groundwater salinity. In the case studied, each vegetation type, through soil feedback loops, promoted local soil salinity levels that favor itself in competition with the other type. Bifurcation analysis was used to study the system of equations for the two vegetation types and soil salinity. Alternative stable equilibria, one for salinity-tolerant and one for salinity intolerant vegetation, were shown to exist over a region of the groundwater salinity gradient, bounded by two bifurcation points. This region was shown to depend sensitively on parameters such as the rate of upward infiltration of salinity from groundwater into the soil due to evaporation. We showed also that increasing diffusion rates of vegetation can lead to shrinkage of the range between the two bifurcation points. Sharp ecotones are typical of salt-tolerant vegetation (mangroves) near the coastline and salt-intolerant vegetation inland, even though the underlying elevation and groundwater salinity change very gradually. A disturbance such as an input of salinity to the soil from a storm surge could upset this stable boundary, leading to a regime shift of salinity-tolerant vegetation inland. We showed, however, that, for our model as least, a simple pulse disturbance would not be sufficient; the salinity would have to be held at a high level, as a 'press', for some time. The approach used here should be generalizable to study the resilience of a variety of ecotones to disturbances. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Liberation of plasma histamine after application of non-ionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.D.; Jansen, O.; Schallock, J.

    1989-01-01

    In 94 patients the levels of plasmahistamine have been measured after application of three non-ionic contrast media (Iopromid, Iopamidol, Iohexol) and after application of blood-isotonic saline solution. A significant liberation of histamine could be observed after administration of contrast media and also after administration of saline solution. Neither between the three nonionic contrast media nor between the contrast media and the saline solution significant differences could be measured. Administering contrast media after subsequently saline solution the levels of histamine were lower than in case of pure contrast media application. A psychogen induced histamine liberation is discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Properties of conventional contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muetzel, W.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive overview is given of the properties of contrast media currently used in computed tomography (CT). The chemical structure of the compounds and the physicochemical properties derived therefrom are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of the physicochemical properties of contrast media for tolerance and the pharmacokinetic behavior of compounds in the body. An outline is given of the basic ideas governing rational use of contrast media in CT, which result from complex, time-dependent distribution of contrast media in different tissue spaces. (Auth.)

  5. Tolerance of soil flagellates to increased NaCl levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    The ability of heterotrophic flagellates to survive and adapt to increasing salinities was investigated in this study. Whole soil samples were subjected to salinities corresponding to marine conditions and clonal cultures were used to perform growth and adaptation experiments at a wide range...... of different salinities (0-50 ppm). More morphotypes tolerant to elevated NaCl levels were found in road verge soil that was heavily exposed to de-icing salt than in less exposed soils, though there were fewer tolerant than intolerant morphotypes in all soils examined. Heterotrophic flagellates isolated...... on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1-5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long...

  6. Crafting tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Antje; Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing changes in social structures, orientation, and value systems confront us with the growing necessity to address and understand transforming patterns of tolerance as well as specific aspects, such as social tolerance. Based on hierarchical analyses of the latest World Values Survey (2005......–08) and national statistics for 28 countries, we assess both individual and contextual aspects that influence an individual's perception of different social groupings. Using a social tolerance index that captures personal attitudes toward these groupings, we present an institutional theory of social tolerance. Our...

  7. Growth and Physiological Responses of Phaseolus Species to Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bayuelo-Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the changes on growth, photosynthesis, water relations, soluble carbohydrate, and ion accumulation, for two salt-tolerant and two salt-sensitive Phaseolus species grown under increasing salinity (0, 60 and 90 mM NaCl. After 20 days exposure to salt, biomass was reduced in all species to a similar extent (about 56%, with the effect of salinity on relative growth rate (RGR confined largely to the first week. RGR of salt-tolerant species was reduced by salinity due to leaf area ratio (LAR reduction rather than a decline in photosynthetic capacity, whereas unit leaf rate and LAR were the key factors in determining RGR on salt-sensitive species. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased gradually with salinity, showing significant reductions only in salt-sensitive species at the highest salt level. There was little difference between species in the effect of salinity on water relations, as indicated by their positive turgor. Osmotic adjustment occurred in all species and depended on higher K+, Na+, and Cl− accumulation. Despite some changes in soluble carbohydrate accumulation induced by salt stress, no consistent contributions in osmotic adjustment could be found in this study. Therefore, we suggest that tolerance to salt stress is largely unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation in Phaseolus species.

  8. Marker assisted selection and crop management for salt tolerance: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Accepted 4 July, 2011. Salinity is one of the major abiotic constraints for crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas ... INTRODUCTION. Salt tolerance is ... arid and arid climates (Asch et al.,1997) in general, and.

  9. Effect of Salinity on the Growth Parameters of Halotolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    inoculation there was no significant difference in the pigment content per cell in all strains (p ≤ 0.05). This study ... carotene production costs, it is essential to identify ..... cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 69, 177-180. Rai, A. K. and Abraham, G. (1993) 'Salinity tolerance and growth analysis of the cyanobacterium.

  10. Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling growth of wheat under salt treatment. L Wang, HL Wang, CH Yin, CY Tian. Abstract. Cold stratification was reported to release seed dormancy and enhance plant tolerance to salt stress. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cold ...

  11. Silicon mediated biochemical changes in wheat under salinized and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silicon (Si) can alleviate salinity damage, a major threat to agriculture that causes instability in wheat production. We report on the effects of silicon (150 mg L-1) on the morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) differing ...

  12. Genetic adaptability of durum wheat to salinity level at germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Keys words: Durum wheat, genetic-adaptability, salinity level. ... tolerance of crop proves the first way to overcome the limitation of crops ... Analysis of variance using GLM procedures (SAS, 1990) were used ... Additive, dominance and environmental variance components were ..... Breeding for stability of.

  13. Müllerian duct anomalies diagnosed by saline contrast sonohysterography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Eva; Stampe Sørensen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    (S): The shape of the uterus was dynamically evaluated in the transversal and longitudinal planes during SCSH and classified in accordance with American Fertility Society as normal, arcuate, septate (partial, complete), bicorn (partial, complete), or unicorn. History of previous miscarriage and menstrual cycle...

  14. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdia, M. A; Shaddad, M. A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies) and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different pla...

  15. Effects of application timing of saline irrigation water on broccoli production and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation with moderately saline water is a necessity in many semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean Basin, and requires adequate irrigation management strategies. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a crop moderately tolerant to salinity stress, was used to evaluate the effects of the applica...

  16. Genetic transformation of Populus tomentosa to improve salt tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningxia Du; Xin Liu; Yun Li; Shouyi Chen; Jinsong Zhang; Da Ha; Wenguang Deng; Chunkui Sun; Yingzhi Zhang; Paula M Pijut

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity can be a limiting factor for productivity in agriculture and forestry. In order to fully utilize saline lands productively in plantation forestry for pulp production, the genetic modification of tree species for salt tolerance may be required. The AhDREB1 gene, a DREB-like transcription factor gene, was transferred into ...

  17. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  18. Contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decazes, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The Guerbet firm, which holds 69% of the capital on the contrast media for medical imagery, could sale about 20% of this capital in order to accelerate its development in the United States, one of its next market with the Japan. (O.M.)

  19. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhe Ren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl concentration using a recombinant inbred line population (Xiaoyan 54×Jing 411. Values of wheat seedling traits including maximum root length (MRL, root dry weight (RDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, total dry weight (TDW and the ratio of TDW of wheat plants between salt stress and control (TDWR were evaluated or calculated. A total of 19QTLs for five traits were detected through composite interval mapping method by using QTL Cartographer version 2.5 under normal and salt stress conditions. These QTLs distributed on 12 chromosomes explained the percentage of phenotypic variation by individual QTL varying from 7.9% to 19.0%. Among them, 11 and six QTLs were detected under normal and salt stress conditions, respectively and two QTLs were detected for TDWR. Some salt tolerance related loci may be pleiotropic. Chromosome 1A, 3A and 7A may harbor crucial candidate genes associated with wheat salt tolerance. Our results would be helpful for the marker assisted selection to breed wheat varieties with improved salt tolerance.

  20. Salt tolerance in wheat - an overview. (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the past few years to overcome the problem of salinity through the development of salt tolerant lines of important crop species using screening, breeding and molecular biology techniques. In view of considerable importance of spring wheat as a major staple food crop of many countries, plant scientists have directed there attention to identify and develop salt tolerant genotypes that can be of direct use on salt-affected soils. Although considerable progress in understanding individual phenomenon and genes involved in plant response to salinity stress has been made over the past few years, underlying physiological mechanisms producing salt tolerant plants is still unclear. It has been suggested that salt tolerance of plants could be improved by defining genes or characters. Twenty years ago, it was suggested that genes located on the D genome of bread wheat confer salinity tolerance to hexaploid wheat by reducing Na/sup +/ accumulation in the leaf tissue and increasing discrimination in favour of K/sup +/. However, recently, low Na/sup +/ accumulation and high K/sup +/Na/sup +/ discrimination, of similar magnitude to bread wheat, in several selections of durum wheat has been observed, supporting the notion that salt tolerance is controlled by multiple genes, which are distributed throughout the entire set of chromosomes. In addition, various physiological selection criteria such as compatible osmolytes (glycinebetaine, proline, trehalose, mannitol etc.), antioxidants, carbon discrimination, high K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio etc. have been discussed. Although tolerance to salinity is known to have a multigenic inheritance, mediated by a large number of genes, knowledge of heritability and the genetic mode of salinity tolerance is still lacking because few studies have yet been conducted in these areas. Indeed, genetic information is lagging behind the physiological information. Modern methods such as recombinant DNA technology

  1. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  2. The ecological genomic basis of salinity adaptation in Tunisian Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Maren L; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Badri, Mounawer; Moriuchi, Ken S; Barhoumi, Fathi; Chang, Peter L; Cuellar-Ortiz, Sonia; Cordeiro, Matilde A; Vu, Wendy T; Arraouadi, Soumaya; Djébali, Naceur; Zribi, Kais; Badri, Yazid; Porter, Stephanie S; Aouani, Mohammed Elarbi; Cook, Douglas R; Strauss, Sharon Y; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2014-12-22

    As our world becomes warmer, agriculture is increasingly impacted by rising soil salinity and understanding plant adaptation to salt stress can help enable effective crop breeding. Salt tolerance is a complex plant phenotype and we know little about the pathways utilized by naturally tolerant plants. Legumes are important species in agricultural and natural ecosystems, since they engage in symbiotic nitrogen-fixation, but are especially vulnerable to salinity stress. Our studies of the model legume Medicago truncatula in field and greenhouse settings demonstrate that Tunisian populations are locally adapted to saline soils at the metapopulation level and that saline origin genotypes are less impacted by salt than non-saline origin genotypes; these populations thus likely contain adaptively diverged alleles. Whole genome resequencing of 39 wild accessions reveals ongoing migration and candidate genomic regions that assort non-randomly with soil salinity. Consistent with natural selection acting at these sites, saline alleles are typically rare in the range-wide species' gene pool and are also typically derived relative to the sister species M. littoralis. Candidate regions for adaptation contain genes that regulate physiological acclimation to salt stress, such as abscisic acid and jasmonic acid signaling, including a novel salt-tolerance candidate orthologous to the uncharacterized gene AtCIPK21. Unexpectedly, these regions also contain biotic stress genes and flowering time pathway genes. We show that flowering time is differentiated between saline and non-saline populations and may allow salt stress escape. This work nominates multiple potential pathways of adaptation to naturally stressful environments in a model legume. These candidates point to the importance of both tolerance and avoidance in natural legume populations. We have uncovered several promising targets that could be used to breed for enhanced salt tolerance in crop legumes to enhance food security

  3. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  4. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  5. Using growth-based methods to determine direct effects of salinity on soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Kristin; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinization is a widespread agricultural problem and increasing salt concentrations in soils have been found to be correlated with decreased microbial activity. A central challenge in microbial ecology is to link environmental factors, such as salinity, to responses in the soil microbial community. That is, it can be difficult to distinguish direct from indirect effects. In order to determine direct salinity effects on the community we employed the ecotoxicological concept of Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance (PICT). This concept is built on the assumption that if salinity had an ecologically relevant effect on the community, it should have selected for more tolerant species and strains, resulting in an overall higher community tolerance to salt in communities from saline soils. Growth-based measures, such as the 3H-leucine incorporation into bacterial protein , provide sensitive tools to estimate community tolerance. They can also provide high temporal resolution in tracking changes in tolerance over time. In our study we used growth-based methods to investigate: i) at what levels of salt exposure and over which time scales salt tolerance can be induced in a non-saline soil, and (ii) if communities from high salinity sites have higher tolerance to salt exposure along natural salinity gradients. In the first part of the study, we exposed a non-saline soil to a range of salinities and monitored the development of community tolerance over time. We found that community tolerance to intermediate salinities up to around 30 mg NaCl per g soil can be induced at relatively short time scales of a few days, providing evidence that microbial communities can adapt rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. In the second part of the study we used soil samples originating from natural salinity gradients encompassing a wide range of salinity levels, with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.1 dS/m to >10 dS/m. We assessed community tolerance to salt by

  6. Reactive oxygen species dynamics in roots of salt sensitive and salt tolerant cultivars of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Shivani; Kaur, Navdeep; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Salinity stress is one of the major constraints for growth and survival of plants that affects rice productivity worldwide. Hence, in the present study, roots of two contrasting salinity sensitive cultivars, IR64 (IR64, salt sensitive) and Luna Suvarna (LS, salt tolerant) were compared with regard to the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to derive clues for their differential salt stress adaptation mechanisms. In our investigation, the tolerant cultivar exhibited longer primary roots, more lateral roots, higher root number leading to increased root biomass, with respect to IR64. It was observed that LS roots maintained higher level of H 2 O 2 in comparison to IR64. The activities of various enzymes involved in enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanism (SOD, CAT, GPX, DHAR and MDHAR) were found to be greater in LS roots. Further, the higher transcript level accumulation of genes encoding ROS generating (RbohA, RbohD and RbohE) and scavenging enzymes (Fe-SOD, Chloroplastic Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and DHAR) were noticed in the roots of tolerant cultivar, LS. Moreover, the content of other stress markers such as total protein and proline were also elevated in LS roots. While, the expression of proline biosynthesis gene (P5CS) and proline catabolism gene (PDH) was observed to be lower in LS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Long term salinity stress in relation to lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase activity and proline content of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant wheat cultivars Estrés salino a largo plazo en relación con peroxidación lipídica, actividad superóxido dismutasa y contenido de prolina de cultivares de trigo sensibles y tolerantes a la salinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Borzouei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a widespread root medium problem limiting productivity of cereal crops worldwide. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Therefore, the ability of salt-sensitive ('Tajan' and salt-tolerant cultivar ('Bam' of Triticum aestivum L. to adapt to a saline environment were evaluated in a set of greenhouse experiments under salt stress during three growth stages (tillering, 50% anthesis, and 10 d after anthesis. Plants were irrigated by different saline waters with electrical conductivities of 1.3, 6, 8, 10, and 12 dS m-1, which were obtained by adding NaCl:CaCl2 in 10:1 molar ratio to fresh water. Differences in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and proline accumulation were tested in order to put forward the relative tolerance or sensitivity of cultivars. Results indicated that both parameters differ according to the cultivar's ability in coping oxidative stress caused by salinity. We observed a greater decline in the growth parameters and grain yield under salt stress in 'Tajan' than in 'Bam'. Malondialdehyde content was also higher in 'Tajan'. The improved performance of the 'Bam' under high salinity was accompanied by an increase in SOD (EC 1.15.1.1 activity and proline content at all growth stages. Growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation results are also in good correlation with supporting this cultivar is being relatively tolerant.La salinidad es un problema del medio radical ampliamente distribuido que limita la productividad de los cultivos de cereal en todo el mundo. La capacidad de las plantas para tolerar la sal está determinada por multiples vías bioquímicas que facilitan la retención y/o adquisición de agua, protegen las funciones del cloroplasto, y mantienen la homeostasis iónica. Por lo tanto, se

  8. Scottish saline lagoons: Impacts and challenges of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    The majority of Scotland's saline lagoons are located on the low-lying coastlines of the Western Isles and the northern archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland, where recorded annual relative sea level rise rates are among the highest in Scotland. The sediment-impounded lagoons of Orkney and Shetland will either lose their impoundment and become incorporated in marine coastal waters, or become increasingly saline, as relative sea levels rise. The rock-basin lagoons of the Western Isles will retain their restricted exchange with the sea but will also become more saline with rising sea level. Specialist lagoonal organisms tend to have wide salinity tolerances but may succumb to competition from marine counterparts. In all areas, there are sufficient fresh-water inland water bodies with potential to be captured as lagoons to compensate for loss of extent and number, but the specialist lagoon biota tend to have limited dispersal powers. It is thus possible that they will be unable to transfer to their analogue sites before existing lagoons become fully marine, giving conservation managers the problem of deciding on management options: leave natural processes to operate without interference, manage the saline inflow to maintain the current salinity regime, or translocate lagoon organisms perceived as threatened by rising salinities. Timing of conversion and capture is unpredictable due to local topography and complications caused by variable stratification.

  9. Direct and indirect controls on organic matter decomposition in four coastal wetland communities along a landscape salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Camille L.; Baustian, Melissa M.; Perry, Carey L.; Carruthers, Tim J.B.; Hall, Courtney T.

    2018-01-01

    Coastal wetlands store more carbon than most ecosystems globally. As sea level rises, changes in flooding and salinity will potentially impact ecological functions, such as organic matter decomposition, that influence carbon storage. However, little is known about the mechanisms that control organic matter loss in coastal wetlands at the landscape scale. As sea level rises, how will the shift from fresh to salt-tolerant plant communities impact organic matter decomposition? Do long-term, plant-mediated, effects of sea-level rise differ from direct effects of elevated salinity and flooding?We identified internal and external factors that regulated indirect and direct pathways of sea-level rise impacts, respectively, along a landscape-scale salinity gradient that incorporated changes in wetland type (fresh, oligohaline, mesohaline and polyhaline marshes). We found that indirect and direct impacts of sea-level rise had opposing effects on organic matter decomposition.Salinity had an indirect effect on litter decomposition that was mediated through litter quality. Despite significant variation in environmental conditions along the landscape gradient, the best predictors of above- and below-ground litter decomposition were internal drivers, initial litter nitrogen content and initial litter lignin content respectively. Litter decay constants were greatest in the oligohaline marsh and declined with increasing salinity, and the fraction of litter remaining (asymptote) was greatest in the mesohaline marsh. In contrast, direct effects of salinity and flooding were positive. External drivers, salinity and flooding, stimulated cellulytic activity, which was highest in the polyhaline marsh.Synthesis. Our results indicate that as sea level rises, initial direct effects of salinity will stimulate decay of labile carbon, but over time as plant communities shift from fresh to polyhaline marsh, litter decay will decline, yielding greater potential for long-term carbon storage

  10. A genome-wide transcriptome map of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) provides novel insights into salinity-related genes and marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzzam Jazi, Maryam; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Ebrahimi, Mansour; De Moro, Gianluca; Botanga, Christopher

    2017-08-17

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important commercial nut crops worldwide. It is a salt-tolerant and long-lived tree, with the largest cultivation area in Iran. Climate change and subsequent increased soil salt content have adversely affected the pistachio yield in recent years. However, the lack of genomic/global transcriptomic sequences on P. vera impedes comprehensive researches at the molecular level. Hence, whole transcriptome sequencing is required to gain insight into functional genes and pathways in response to salt stress. RNA sequencing of a pooled sample representing 24 different tissues of two pistachio cultivars with contrasting salinity tolerance under control and salt treatment by Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform resulted in 368,953,262 clean 100 bp paired-ends reads (90 Gb). Following creating several assemblies and assessing their quality from multiple perspectives, we found that using the annotation-based metrics together with the length-based parameters allows an improved assessment of the transcriptome assembly quality, compared to the solely use of the length-based parameters. The generated assembly by Trinity was adopted for functional annotation and subsequent analyses. In total, 29,119 contigs annotated against all of five public databases, including NR, UniProt, TAIR10, KOG and InterProScan. Among 279 KEGG pathways supported by our assembly, we further examined the pathways involved in the plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling as well as those to be contributed to secondary metabolite biosynthesis due to their importance under salinity stress. In total, 11,337 SSRs were also identified, which the most abundant being dinucleotide repeats. Besides, 13,097 transcripts as candidate stress-responsive genes were identified. Expression of some of these genes experimentally validated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) that further confirmed the accuracy of the assembly. From this analysis, the contrasting expression pattern

  11. Tolerance to and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A C; Burch, J B; de Fiebre, C M; Marks, M J

    1988-02-01

    Female DBA mice were subjected to one of four treatments: ethanol-containing or control diets, nicotine (0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg/hr) infusion or saline infusion. After removal from the liquid diets or cessation of infusion, the animals were challenged with an acute dose of ethanol or nicotine. Chronic ethanol-fed mice were tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature and open field activity and were cross tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and heart rate. Nicotine infused animals were tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and rotarod performance and were cross tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature. Ethanol-induced sleep time was decreased in chronic ethanol- but not chronic nicotine-treated mice. Chronic drug treatment did not alter the elimination rate of either drug. Chronic ethanol treatment did not alter the number or affinity of brain nicotinic receptors whereas chronic nicotine treatment elicited an increase in the number of [3H]-nicotine binding sites. Tolerance and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine is discussed in terms of potential effects on desensitization of brain nicotinic receptors.

  12. Om tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik.......Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik....

  13. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore,