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Sample records for contrast material injection

  1. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Contrast Materials What are contrast materials and how do they ... material? Pregnancy and contrast materials What are contrast materials and how do they work? Contrast materials, also ...

  2. Biphasic contrast medium injection in cardiac CT: moderate versus high concentration contrast material at identical iodine flux and iodine dose.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.; Meijs, M.F.; Vos, A.M.C.; Seidensticker, P.R.; Prokop, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the influence of contrast material concentration on enhancement in cardiac CT by using a biphasic single-injection protocol. METHODS: Sixty-four-row multidetector cardiac CT angiography was performed in 159 patients randomised to a moderate or high contrast me

  3. CT fluoroscopy-assisted cervical transforaminal steroid injection: tips, traps, and use of contrast material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Jenny K; Apostol, Marc A; Kranz, Peter G; Kilani, Ramsey K; Taylor, Jeffrey N; Gray, Linda; Lascola, Christopher D

    2010-10-01

    CT fluoroscopy-assisted cervical transforaminal steroid injection is an effective therapeutic option for cervical radiculopathy, yet it is approached with trepidation by some interventionalists. CT fluoroscopy is superior to conventional fluoroscopy for delineating complex anatomic relations in the neck but must be combined with careful technique to avoid rare but serious complications. We describe the anatomy of the neural foramen, our technique of CT fluoroscopy-assisted cervical transforaminal steroid injection, and the CT appearance of appropriate and inappropriate needle positions. Understanding anatomy will help to avoid complications and optimize the therapeutic potential of cervical transforaminal steroid injection. Use of contrast material for CT fluoroscopic guidance facilitates appropriate needle positioning and reduces the risk of complications.

  4. Factor affecting contrast enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma in CT after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast material; Parametres influencant le rehaussement parenchymateux hepatique en tomodensitometrie apres injection intraveineuse de produit de contraste iode

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    Bonaldi, V.M.; Garcia, P.; Bret, P.M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Bonaldi, V.M. [Nice Univ., 06 (France); Garcia, P. [Clinique Protestante, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-04-01

    With the widespread use of spiral CT, a complete reassessment of intravenous injection of contrast material for body computed tomography is necessary. An optimal administration of contrast material with respect to scan timing is indeed more critical with spiral CT. Numerous factors affect hepatic contrast enhancement time-attenuation curves after injection of contrast material into a peripheral vein. Some are patient related, while other result from the modalities of administration of the iodinated agent. The objective of this article is to review the most contributive factors in liver enhancement after iodine injection. Knowledge of these factors can optimize the use of spiral CT, with the expected benefit of saving costs in contrast material. (authors). 39 refs.

  5. How influential is the duration of contrast material bolus injection in perfusion CT? evaluation in a swine model.

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    Kandel, Sonja M; Meyer, Henning; Boehnert, Markus; Hoppel, Bernice; Paul, Narinder Singh; Rogalla, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of the duration of contrast material bolus injection on perfusion values in a swine model by using the maximum slope method. This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Twenty pigs (weight range, 63-77 kg) underwent dynamic volume computed tomography (CT) of the kidneys during suspended respiration. Before the CT examination, a miniature cuff-shaped ultrasonographic flow probe encircling the right renal artery was surgically implanted in each pig to obtain true perfusion values. Two sequential perfusion CT series were performed in 30 seconds, each comprising 30 volumes with identical parameters (100 kV, 200 mAs, 0.5 sec rotation time). The duration of contrast material bolus (0.5 mL/kg of body weight) was 3.8 seconds in the first series (short bolus series) and 11.5 seconds in the second series (long bolus series), and the injection flow rate was adapted accordingly. In each pig, cortical kidney volume was determined by using the volume with the highest cortical enhancement. CT perfusion values were calculated for both series by using the maximum slope method and were statistically compared and correlated with the true perfusion values from the flow probe by using linear regression analysis. Mean true perfusion and CT perfusion values (in minutes(-1)) for the short bolus series were 1.95 and 2.03, respectively (P = .22), and for the long bolus series, they were 2.02 and 1.92, respectively (P = .12). CT perfusion showed very good correlation with true perfusion in both the short (slope, 1.01; 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.11) and long (slope, 0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 1.04) series. On the basis of the regression analysis, CT perfusion values in the short bolus series were overestimated by 1% and those in the long bolus series were underestimated by 8%. Duration of contrast material bolus injection does not influence CT perfusion values substantially. The longer, clinically preferred intravenous injection

  6. Safety and feasibility in highly concentrated contrast material power injections for CT-perfusion studies of the brain using central venous catheters

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    Macht, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.macht@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Beseoglu, Kerim, E-mail: beseoglu@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Neurosurgery, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Eicker, Sven, E-mail: sven.eicker@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Neurosurgery, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Rybacki, Konrad, E-mail: rybacki@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Braun, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.braun@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Anaesthesiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Mathys, Christian, E-mail: mathys@uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Turowski, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.turowski@uni-duesseldorf.de [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Introduction: CT perfusion studies play an important role in the early detection as well as in therapy monitoring of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. High-flow injections via central venous catheters are not recommended but may sometimes be the only possibility to obtain high-quality images. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed our data for CT perfusions performed with power injection of contrast material with an iodine concentration of 400 mg/ml via the distal 16G lumen of the Arrow three and five lumen central venous catheter with preset flow rates of 5 ml/s. Results: 104 examinations with central venous catheters were evaluated (67 with five lumen and 37 with three lumen). No complications were observed. Mean flow rates were 4.4 {+-} 0.5 ml/s using the three lumen catheter and 4.6 {+-} 0.6 ml/s using the five lumen catheter respectively. The mean injection pressure measured by the power injector was 200.7 {+-} 17.5 psi for the three lumen central venous catheter and 194.5 {+-} 6.5 psi for the five lumen catheter, respectively. Conclusion: Following a strict safety protocol there were no complications associated with power injections of contrast material containing 400 mg iodine/ml with preset flow rates up to 5 ml/s via the distal 16G lumen of the Arrow multi-lumen central venous catheter. However, since power-injections are off-label use with Arrow central venous catheters, this procedure cannot be recommended until potential safety hazards have been ruled out by the manufacturer.

  7. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

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    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  8. Detection of liver metastases: usefulness of dynamic spiral CT during the portal phase with a higher IV injection rate of contrast material

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    Jeong, Youn Sin; Cho, June Sik; Youn, Wan Gyu; Ahn, Young Jun; Choi, Chang Lak; Lee, Young Hwan [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic spiral computed tomography(CT) during the portal phase with a higher IV injection rate of contrast material in detecting hepatic metastases. We reviewed two-phase dynamic spiral CT in 44 patients with hepatic metastases of pathologically proven primary malignancy. One hundred and fifty ml. of non-ionic contrast material was administered with a power injector at a rate of 5ml/sec., and two-phase images at 55-80 sec.(portal phase) and 2-5min. (equilibrium phase) were obtained after the start of bolus injection. Two phase images were compared for detectability of hepatic metastases according to size, number and enhancement pattern. In cases of metastases less than 1 cm, 113 lesions(100%) that showed clearly defined hypodense lesions were detected in the portal phase of dynamic CT. However, the equilibrium phase images showed hypodense lesions in 58 cases(51%) and isodense lesions in 55 cases(49%). In cases of metastases 1-2cm in size, the portal phase images detected 70 hypodense lesions(92%) and six hyperdense lesions(8%). In the equilibrium phase, however, the lesions were hypodense in 54 cases(71%), hyperdense in four(5%), and isodense in 18(24%). In cases of metastases larger than 2cm, portal phase images showed 29 hypodense lesions(97%) and one hyperdense lesion(3%). In the equilibrium phase, however, the lesions were hypodense in 25 cases(83%), hyperdense in two(7%), and mixed in three(10%). As compared with the portal phase, most metastatic lesions were detected as poorly defined hypodense or isodense lesions in the equilibrium phase and decrease in size due to peripheral enahncement. Dynamic spiral CT during the portal phase with a higher IV injection rate(5ml/sec) of contrast material is a useful method for detecting hepatic metastases, especially small lesions less than 1cm.

  9. Spiral CT and optimization of the modalities of the iodinated intravenous contrast material: Experimental studies in human pathology; Tomodensitometrie spiralee et optimisation des protocoles d'injection du contraste iode intra-veineux: etudes experimentales en pathologie humaine

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    Bonaldi, V

    1998-06-19

    Spiral (or helical) CT represents the most recent improvement in the field of computed assisted tomography (CAT scan). The capabilities of this new imaging modality are much superior to these of conventional CT scanning; then result from the rapid acquisition and from the volumetric nature of the derived data set. The short time of data acquisition had made mandatory the revision of protocols for intravenous administration of iodinated contrast material. By the means of several studies, carried out on pathologic and healthy patients, we have attempted to improve knowledge in factors influencing CT attenuation values after injection of contrast material, in the aim of improving contrast administration performed during spiral CT scanning. Anatomical landmarks that we have studied till now have been liver, the pancreas, the kidney and the cervical spine. In addition, a paired based methodology has been used. The volumetric set of data derived from spiral CT scanning leads to optimal post-processing tasks, the most interesting being related to cine-display and multiplanar reformatting; both modalities have been evaluated, about the pancreas and the musculo-skeletal system respectively. Conversely, this new modality, as for other imaging modalities, is responsible for additional costs derived from restless increase in the number of images to be dealt with and from the occurrence of new tasks (in post-processing particularly). The place of spiral CT in diagnostic strategies among other modern imaging modalities should be assessed, especially with respect to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). (author)

  10. [Multicenter trial for optimization of bolus tracking settings and contrast material injection protocol in arterial dominant phase of dynamic computed tomography for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shushi; Okada, Masahiro; Kondo, Hiroshi; Sou, Hironobu; Murakami, Takamichi; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Hayakawa, Akiko; Shiosakai, Kazuhito; Awai, Kazuo; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Alongside current improvements in the performance of computer tomography (CT) systems, there has been an increase in the use of bolus tracking (BT) to acquire arterial dominant phase images for dynamic CT at optimal timing for characterization of liver focal lesions. However, optimal BT settings have not been established. In the present study, methods of contrast enhancement and BT setting values were evaluated using a multicenter post-marketing surveillance study on contrast media used in patients with chronic hepatitis and/or cirrhosis who had undergone liver dynamic CT for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, conducted by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd. The results suggested the contrast injection method to be clinically useful if the amount of iodine per kilogram of body weight is set at 600 mg/kg and the injection duration at 30 s. To achieve a good arterial dominant scan under conditions where the injection duration is fixed at 30 s or the average injection duration is 34 s using the fixed injection rate method, the scan delay time should ideally to be set to longer than 13 s. If using the BT method, we recommend that the BT settings should be revalidated in reference to our results.

  11. Ultrasound guidance to perform intra-articular injection of gadolinium-based contrast material for magnetic resonance arthrography as an alternative to fluoroscopy: the time is now

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    Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Banfi, Giuseppe [IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Universita Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano (Italy); Aliprandi, Alberto [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Milano (Italy); Mauri, Giovanni [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Milano (Italy); Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Unita di Radiologia Interventistica, Milano (Italy); Secchi, Francesco; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Milano (Italy); IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Servizio di Radiologia, San Donato, Milanese (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been definitively established as the reference standard in the evaluation of joints in the body. Similarly, magnetic resonance arthrography has emerged as a technique that has been proven to increase significantly the diagnostic performance if compared with conventional MR imaging, especially when dealing with fibrocartilage and articular cartilage abnormalities. Diluted gadolinium can be injected in the joint space using different approaches: under palpation using anatomic landmarks or using an imaging guidance, such as fluoroscopy, computed tomography, or ultrasound. Fluoroscopy has been traditionally used, but the involvement of ionizing radiation should represent a remarkable limitation of this modality. Conversely, ultrasound has emerged as a feasible, cheap, quick, and radiation-free modality that can be used to inject joints, with comparable accuracy of fluoroscopy. In the present paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using fluoroscopy or ultrasound in injecting gadolinium-based contrast agents in joints to perform magnetic resonance arthrography, also in view of the new EuroSAFE Imaging initiative promoted by the European Society of Radiology and the recent updates to the European Atomic Energy Community 2013/59 directive on the medical use of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  12. Simultaneous bilateral contrast injection in computed tomography pulmonary angiography

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    Bulla, Stefan; Pache, Gregor; Langer, Mathias; Blanke, Philipp (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)), Email: stefan.bulla@uniklinik-freiburg.de; Bley, Thorsten (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Hamburg (Germany))

    2012-02-15

    Background. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has evolved as the gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. However, subsegmental arteries are often not assessed to do insufficient attenuation. Purpose. To evaluate the influence of simultaneous bilateral versus unilateral injection of a fixed amount of contrast media on pulmonary artery opacification and image quality in CTPA. Material and Methods. In this institutional review board-approved prospective study, 180 patients (91 women, mean age 61.9 +- 16.5 years) referred for CTPA (100 kV) due to suspected pulmonary embolism were randomized in groups of 45 patients each, with either unilateral (A:4 mL/s; B:6 mL/s) or bilateral (C: 6 mL/s; D: 8 mL/s) (Y-shaped line) injection of 50 mL contrast media. Attenuation was assessed including the subsegmental arteries (4th order). Image quality was evaluated by two readers in consensus using a three-point grading scale (3 = excellent image quality, no artifacts, 1 = non-diagnostic). Results. Mean pulmonary artery attenuation was significantly higher with bilateral injection (1st to 3rd order: A: 303.6 +- 8.8HU; B: 371.1 +- 11.0HU vs. C: 443.2 +- 24.1HU; D: 562.3 +- 15.3HU, P < 0.001). Evaluation of subsegmental arteries was feasible for all patients in groups B-D, but only in 36/45 (80%) patients in group A. Subsegmental attenuation was significantly higher with bilateral injection (A: 284.7 +- 12.1HU; B: 367.4 +- 12.1HU vs. C: 494.2 +- 21.5HU; D: 562.3 +- 26.7HU, P < 0.001). Image quality was diagnostic for all patients but best for group C (A: 2.15 +- 0.4; B: 2.14 +- 0.5; C: 2.92 +- 0.3, and D: 2.51 +- 0.5). Conclusion. Using the same amount of contrast media, bilateral injection yields higher pulmonary artery attenuation and better image quality than unilateral injection. This technique may improve subsegmental pulmonary artery assessment

  13. Hypersensitivity reactions and contrast medium injection: Are they always related?

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    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany); Alfke, Heiko [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Luedenscheid, Luedenscheid (Germany); Klose, Klaus Jochen [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Hypersensitivity (allergic or non-allergic) reactions that occur after contrast medium (CM) injection are usually related to the CM. Recent studies, and case reports lack the analysis of alternate causes that could be also responsible in individual cases. Patients and methods: We investigated the individual relevant factor/causative agent of adult patients with hypersensitivity reactions that occurred in radiological units during CM-enhanced procedures (CT, angiography, urography, or MR-examinations). Both immediate and non-immediate (delayed) reactions were included. To find out the relevant agent a detailed patients' history was carefully analyzed. In addition, the records were retrospectively reviewed, and if indicated and possible laboratory (e.g. basophil activation test) and skin tests (e.g. prick) and/or provocations with CM-injections under routine conditions were performed. Results: 38 patients (men n = 21) suspected for CM-hypersensitivity reactions were identified. These reactions were in most cases mild (n = 21), moderate reactions occurred in 13 cases, and four patients had severe reactions. In 28 patients the reactions were induced by the CM (iodinated CM in 25 cases). Four patients had reactions that were not CM-related (latex allergy, adenosine reaction, vasovagal reaction, unknown cause) and in six cases the reaction was partly CM-related (immunological activation was present due to the patients' diseases). Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that in CM-enhanced procedures not only contrast materials but also a broad range of other factors may also induce hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, the number of CM-induced hypersensitivity is smaller than initially suspected. The knowledge of the cause of a reaction is essential to effectively prevent its recurrence and to improve safety aspects in patients undergoing CM-injection. Larger trials should be performed to more specifically assess alternate causes in patients

  14. Usefulness of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) with a single bolus injection of contrast material for the examination of intracranial and cervical arteries in cerebrovascular disease screening

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    Takamura, Yukio [Sapporo National Hospital (Japan); Tanooka, Atsushi; Morimoto, Shigefumi

    2001-05-01

    Three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) has been gaining wide acceptance as a clinically useful tool in the field of neurosurgery. The great diagnostic value of 3D-CTA for cerebral aneurysm or other cerebrovascular diseases has been well established. However, images of the intracranial and cervical arteries have not been obtained simultaneously because of the limitation of the scanning area and the need for contrast material. In order to use 3D-CTA to screen for cerebrovascular disease, we used a helical CT scan with an intravenous single bolus injection of contrast material to perform 3D-CTA of the intracranial and cervical arteries simultaneously. A spiral computed tomographic scan was performed with a Hispeed Advantage RP (General Electric). After injection of 150 ml of nonionized contrast material at a rate of 3 mm/sec in an antecubital vein, an axial computed tomographic scan (120 kV, 200 mA) of the cranial region was performed with a delay of 20-25 seconds after starting the injection. Section thickness was 1 mm with table increments of 1 mm per rotation. The scan volume included 20-30 mm above and below the sella turcica. An axial computed tomographic scan (120 kV, 190 mA) of the cervical region was performed with a delay of 30 seconds after completion of cranial CTA. Section thickness was 3 mm with table increments of 3 mm per rotation. Image reconstruction was carried out through surface rendering and maximum intensity projection processing. From November 1995 to August 1998, we used this technique to screen 218 consecutive outpatients for cerebrovascular disease. Unruptured cerebral aneurysms were found in 20 cases (9.2%). Atherosclerotic diseases of the cervical carotid artery were found in 58 cases (26.6%), as follows: carotid artery occlusion in 2 cases, carotid bifurcation stenosis in 22 cases, and intramural calcification of the internal carotid artery in 50 cases. Atherosclerotic diseases of the intracranial artery were found in 99 cases (45

  15. The Effect of Contrast Material on Radiation Dose at CT: Part I. Incorporation of Contrast Material Dynamics in Anthropomorphic Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbaee, Pooyan; Segars, W Paul; Marin, Daniele; Nelson, Rendon C; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-06-01

    Purpose To develop a method to incorporate the propagation of contrast material into computational anthropomorphic phantoms for estimation of organ dose at computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods A patient-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of the human cardiovascular system was incorporated into 58 extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) patient phantoms. The PBPK model comprised compartmental models of vessels and organs unique to each XCAT model. For typical injection protocols, the dynamics of the contrast material in the body were described according to a series of patient-specific iodine mass-balance differential equations, the solutions to which provided the contrast material concentration time curves for each compartment. Each organ was assigned to a corresponding time-varying iodinated contrast agent to create the contrast material-enhanced five-dimensional XCAT models, in which the fifth dimension represents the dynamics of contrast material. To validate the accuracy of the models, simulated aortic and hepatic contrast-enhancement results throughout the models were compared with previously published clinical data by using the percentage of discrepancy in the mean, time to 90% peak, peak value, and slope of enhancement in a paired t test at the 95% significance level. Results The PBPK model allowed effective prediction of the time-varying concentration curves of various contrast material administrations in each organ for different patient models. The contrast-enhancement results were in agreement with results of previously published clinical data, with mean percentage, time to 90% peak, peak value, and slope of less than 10% (P > .74), 4%, 7%, and 14% for uniphasic and 12% (P > .56), 4%, 12%, and 14% for biphasic injection protocols, respectively. The exception was hepatic enhancement results calculated for a uniphasic injection protocol for which the discrepancy was less than 25%. Conclusion A technique to model the propagation of

  16. Injectable Drug Eluting Elastomeric Polymer: A Novel Submucosal Injection Material

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    Tran, Richard T.; Palmer, Michael; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Abell, Thomas L.; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodegradable hydrogels can deliver therapeutic payloads with great potentials in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to yield improvements in efficacy and foster mucosal regeneration. Objective To assess the efficacy of an injectable drug eluting elastomeric polymer (iDEEP) as a submucosal injection material. Design Comparative study among 3 different solutions using material characterization tests, ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. Setting Academic hospital. Interventions 30 gastric submucosal cushions were achieved with saline (0.9%), sodium hyaluronate (0.4%), and iDEEP (n = 10) in ex vivo porcine stomachs. Four porcine gastric submucosal cushions were then performed in vivo using iDEEP. Main outcome measurements Maximum injection pressure, Rebamipide release rate, submucosal elevation duration, and assessment of in vivo efficacy by en bloc resection. Results No significant difference in injection pressures between iDEEP (28.9 ± 0.3 PSI) and sodium hyaluronate (29.5 ± 0.4 PSI, P > .05) was observed. iDEEP gels displayed a controlled release of Rebamipide up to 2 weeks in vitro. The elevation height of iDEEP (5.7 ± 0.5 mm) was higher than saline (2.8 ± 0.2 mm, P < .01) and SH (4.2 ± 0.2 mm, P < .05). All EMR procedures were successfully performed after injection of iDEEP, and a large gel cushion was noted after the resection procedure. Limitations Benchtop, ex vivo, and non-survival pig study. Conclusions A novel injection solution was evaluated for endoscopic resection. These results suggest that iDEEP may provide a significant step towards the realization of an ideal EMR and ESD injection material. PMID:22301346

  17. CTO recanalization by intraocclusion injection of contrast: the microchannel technique.

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    Carlino, Mauro; Latib, Azeem; Godino, Cosmo; Cosgrave, John; Colombo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    To assess the utilization of microinjection of contrast for the recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTO). Microchannels in CTOs have been considered important conduits for CTO crossing, utilizing dedicated guidewires. We postulated that microinjection of contrast immediately distal to the proximal cap of the CTO could identify and enlarge these microvessels, creating a passage for crossing the CTO with a floppy guidewire. A total of 32 patients with a CTO were treated with this technique. Following few millimetres penetration of the proximal fibrous cap of the occlusion with a dedicated CTO guidewire, the over-the-wire balloon was advanced into the proximal portion of the occlusion, and 50-100 microg of nitroglycerine followed by 1 ml of contrast was gently injected into the occluded segment. Technical success of the microchannel technique was defined as the ability to visualize the distal true lumen with microinjection of contrast and thereafter cross the CTO with a floppy guidewire in the absence of any dissection. Overall, technical success of the microchannel technique was obtained in 20 (63%) with angiographic success in 19. In 12 (37%) cases there was a technical failure because of dissection, and we obtained recanalization of the artery in 7 of these 12 cases with another technique. There was only one case of periprocedural myocardial infarction in an unsuccessful procedure and no major adverse cardiac events or subacute stent thromboses were observed. Microinjection of contrast immediately distal to the proximal fibrous cap of a CTO may be an additional technique to facilitate recanalization of CTO. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Are intravenous injections of contrast media really less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial injections?

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    Nyman, Ulf [University of Lund, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Trelleborg (Sweden); Almen, Torsten [Skaane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences/Medical Radiology, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden); Jacobsson, Bo [University of Gothenburg and the Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aspelin, Peter [Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    We oppose the opinion that the intra-arterial administration of iodine-based contrast media (CM) appears to pose a greater risk of contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) than intravenous administration since (1) in intra-arterial coronary procedures and most other intra-arterial angiographic examinations, CM injections are also intravenous relative to the kidneys, (2) there is a lack of comparative trials studying the risk of CIN between intra-arterial and intravenous procedures with matched risk factors and CM doses, (3) a bias selection of patients with fewer risk factors may explain the seemingly lower rate of CIN after CT in comparison with coronary interventions, (4) the rate of CIN following intra-arterial coronary procedures may also be exaggerated owing to other causes of acute kidney failure, such as haemodynamic instability and microembolisation, (5) roughly the same gram-iodine/GFR ratio ({approx}1:1) as a limit of relatively safe CM doses has preliminarily been found for both intravenous CT and intra-arterial coronary procedures and (6) the substantially higher injected intravenous CM dose rate during CT relative to an intra-arterial coronary procedure might actually pose a higher risk of CIN following CT. Key Points circle Most intra-arterial injections of contrast media are intravenous relative to the kidneys. circle No evidence that intravenous CM injections should be less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial. circle Considerably higher dose rates of CM are used for CT relative to intra-arterial procedures. circle Higher dose rates may pose higher nephrotoxic risk for intravenous based CT studies. (orig.)

  19. Injectable hydrogels as unique biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2008-08-01

    A concentrated fish soup could be gelled in the winter and re-solled upon heating. In contrast, some synthetic copolymers exhibit an inverse sol-gel transition with spontaneous physical gelation upon heating instead of cooling. If the transition in water takes place below the body temperature and the chemicals are biocompatible and biodegradable, such gelling behavior makes the associated physical gels injectable biomaterials with unique applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering etc. Various therapeutic agents or cells can be entrapped in situ and form a depot merely by a syringe injection of their aqueous solutions at target sites with minimal invasiveness and pain. This tutorial review summarizes and comments on this soft matter, especially thermogelling poly(ethylene glycol)-(biodegradable polyester) block copolymers. The main types of injectable hydrogels are also briefly introduced, including both physical gels and chemical gels.

  20. Shoulder Magnetic Resonance Arthrography: A Prospective Randomized Study of Anterior and Posterior Ultrasonography-Guided Contrast Injections

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    Koivikko, M.P.; Mustonen, A.O.T. (Dept. of Radiology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is an accurate imaging method for internal shoulder derangements and rotator cuff pathologies. Both anterior and posterior contrast injection techniques, under palpatory, fluoroscopic, or ultrasonographic guidance have been described in the literature. However, clinical comparisons of the injection techniques remain few. Purpose: To compare the performance of anterior and posterior ultrasonography (US)-guided arthrography injections of the shoulder regarding patient discomfort and influence on diagnostic MR reading, and to illustrate the typical artifacts resulting from contrast leakage in the respective techniques. Material and Methods: 43 MR arthrographies were prospectively randomized into anterior and posterior US-guided contrast injections and performed by two radiologists, with the study of artifacts from contrast leakage. Pain from the injections was assessed by a survey utilizing a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Of the 23 anterior injections, nine caused contrast artifacts in the subscapular tendon, and in three the leakage extended further anteriorly. Of the 20 posterior injections, 12 showed injection artifacts of the rotator cuff, extending outside the cuff in seven. Two of the anterior and none of the posterior artifacts compromised diagnostic quality. In posterior injections, the leakage regularly occurred at the caudal edge of the infraspinatus muscle and was easily distinguishable from rotator cuff tears. All patients completed the pain survey. Mean VAS scores were 25.0 (median 18, SD 22) for anterior, and 25.4 (median 16, SD 25) for posterior injections. The two radiologists achieved different mean VAS scores but closely agreed as to anterior and posterior VAS scores. Conclusion: Arthrography injections were fairly simple to perform under US guidance. Patient discomfort for anterior and posterior injections was equally minor. A tailored approach utilizing anterior or posterior injections

  1. Assessment of MRI Contrast Agent Kinetics via Retro-Orbital Injection in Mice: Comparison with Tail Vein Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Nojima, Masanori; Inoue, Yusuke; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kiryu, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    It is not known whether administration of contrast agent via retro-orbital injection or the tail vein route affects the efficiency of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, we compared the effects of retro-orbital and tail vein injection on the kinetics of the contrast agent used for MRI in mice. The same group of nine healthy female mice received contrast agent via either route. An extracellular contrast agent was infused via the tail vein and retro-orbital vein, in random order. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed before and after administering the contrast agent. The contrast effects in the liver, kidney, lung, and myocardium were assessed. The average total times of venous puncture and mounting of the injection system were about 10 and 4 min for the tail vein and retro-orbital route, respectively. For all organs assessed, the maximum contrast ratio occurred 30 s after administration and the time course of the contrast ratio was similar with either routes. For each organ, the contrast ratios correlated strongly; the contrast ratios were similar. The retro-orbital and tail vein routes afforded similar results in terms of the kinetics of the contrast agent. The retro-orbital route can be used as a simple efficient alternative to tail vein injection for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of mice.

  2. Assessment of MRI Contrast Agent Kinetics via Retro-Orbital Injection in Mice: Comparison with Tail Vein Injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available It is not known whether administration of contrast agent via retro-orbital injection or the tail vein route affects the efficiency of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Therefore, we compared the effects of retro-orbital and tail vein injection on the kinetics of the contrast agent used for MRI in mice. The same group of nine healthy female mice received contrast agent via either route. An extracellular contrast agent was infused via the tail vein and retro-orbital vein, in random order. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed before and after administering the contrast agent. The contrast effects in the liver, kidney, lung, and myocardium were assessed. The average total times of venous puncture and mounting of the injection system were about 10 and 4 min for the tail vein and retro-orbital route, respectively. For all organs assessed, the maximum contrast ratio occurred 30 s after administration and the time course of the contrast ratio was similar with either routes. For each organ, the contrast ratios correlated strongly; the contrast ratios were similar. The retro-orbital and tail vein routes afforded similar results in terms of the kinetics of the contrast agent. The retro-orbital route can be used as a simple efficient alternative to tail vein injection for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of mice.

  3. A case of pulmonary edema developed after intraarterial injection of iodinated contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byoung Chol; Chun, Kang Woo; Koh, Jae Hyu; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hangang Sungsim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-06-15

    Pulmonary edema is a rare adverse reaction to the iodinated contrast medium. Complaining of huge abdominal mass, a 52 years old female was admitted to the Hangang Sungsim Hospital. On physical examination, the patient appeared to be healthy. She had stable vital signs, i.e. BP: 120/80 mmHg, pulse rate: 80/min.etc. An adult head sized mass was palpated in the left mid and lower abdomen. Otherwise nonspecific. On laboratory studies the positive findings were 8-10 WBC/HPF in urine, 25.6 mg/dl for BUN and PVC in EKG. It was negative for urine protein, serum creatinline and liver function test. We injected 100 ml and 30 ml of Urografin 60 through the abdominal aorta dividing 3 times and major branches of the abdominal aorta, respectively. Immediately after complicating angiography, interstitial pulmonary edema was found, showing blurring of the vascular margins, perivascular haziness and thickening of the interlobular septal lines in the both lower lung fields. The blood pressure was dropped to 80/60 mmHg, but pulse rate was normal. She did not complain of dyspnea, and cyanosis was not developed. The urine volume was normally maintained. She was treated for pulmonary edema, which was completely absorbed after 20 hours. And the blood pressure was also normalized. We have experienced a case of pulmonary edema developed after intraarterial injection of the iodinated contrast medium without underlying cardiac, renal and hepatic problems, and reviewed the literatures on mechanisms of pulmonary edema caused by intravascular injection of the iodinated contrast materials.

  4. Effect of injection rate on contrast-enhanced MR angiography image quality: Modulation transfer function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toshimasa J; Wilson, Gregory J; Maki, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRA optimization involves interactions of sequence duration, bolus timing, contrast recirculation, and both R1 relaxivity and R2*-related reduction of signal. Prior data suggest superior image quality with slower gadolinium injection rates than typically used. A computer-based model of CE-MRA was developed, with contrast injection, physiologic, and image acquisition parameters varied over a wide gamut. Gadolinium concentration was derived using Verhoeven's model with recirculation, R1 and R2* calculated at each time point, and modulation transfer curves used to determine injection rates, resulting in optimal resolution and image contrast for renal and carotid artery CE-MRA. Validation was via a vessel stenosis phantom and example patients who underwent carotid CE-MRA with low effective injection rates. Optimal resolution for renal and carotid CE-MRA is achieved with injection rates between 0.5 to 0.9 mL/s and 0.2 to 0.3 mL/s, respectively, dependent on contrast volume. Optimal image contrast requires slightly faster injection rates. Expected signal-to-noise ratio varies with both contrast volume and cardiac output. Simulated vessel phantom and clinical carotid CE-MRA exams at an effective contrast injection rate of 0.4 to 0.5 mL/s demonstrate increased resolution. Optimal image resolution is achieved at intuitively low, effective injection rates (0.2-0.9 mL/s, dependent on imaging parameters and contrast injection volume). Magn Reson Med 78:357-369, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Digital subtraction angiography and intraarterial contrast medium injection for coronary examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobio, R.; Kallmeyer, C.; Castello, J.

    1985-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is an established method of vasography, most extensively used as i.v. DSA. Intraarterial injection, however, applying selective or non-selective contrast medium injection, seems to be at least as important a technique although it has not yet met with corresponding interest. The article explains advantages of the technique for angiographic examinations, in particular of coronary angiography.

  6. Feasibility of ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast injection for MR arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Soo Jin; Lee, Jong Min; Kang, Duck Sick [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    To assess the feasibility of ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast injection using the posterior approach for MR arthrography. Between June 2002 and October 2004, 132 patients (29 female, 103 male: mean age, 33.6 years) underwent ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast media injection (40 ml saline + 10 ml 2% lidocaine + 0.2 ml gadopentetate dimeglumine + 0.4 ml epinephrine) for MR arthrography. The patients were classified into four groups, viz. the no leakage group, the minor leakage with successful intraarticular injection group, the major leakage with unsuccessful intraarticular injection group, and the injection failure group. The 'no leakage' and 'minor leakage' groups were considered to be technical successes, while the 'major leakage' and 'injection failure' groups were regarded as technical failures. The technical success rate of ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast injection using the posterior approach for MR Arthrography was 99.2% (131/132 patients) and one patients 0.7% (1/132 patients) was included in the 'major leakage' group. Ultrasound-guided intraarticular contrast injection using the posterior approach for MR arthrography was feasible with a high success rate.

  7. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  8. Contrast examination as a prognostic factor in the treatment of solitary bone cyst by cortisone injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capanna, R.; Campanacci, M.; Albisinni, U.; Caroli, G.C.

    1984-07-01

    Local injection of radiopaque medium demonstrated the presence of intracystic fibrous septa in 13 patients with solitary bone cyst. Contrast examination was helpful in predicting the response of solitary bone cysts to treatment by injection of methylprednisolone-acetate (MPA). As the number of septa increased, an increased difficulty in obtaining an equal distribution of MPA inside the cyst and a higher incidence of incomplete healing of the cyst was encountered.

  9. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deli, Martin, E-mail: martin.deli@web.de [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany); Fritz, Jan, E-mail: jfritz9@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Mateiescu, Serban, E-mail: mateiescu@microtherapy.de; Busch, Martin, E-mail: busch@microtherapy.de [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany); Carrino, John A., E-mail: jcarrin2@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Becker, Jan, E-mail: j.becker@microtherapy.de; Garmer, Marietta, E-mail: garmer@microtherapy.de; Groenemeyer, Dietrich, E-mail: dg@microtherapy.de [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 {+-} 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 {+-} 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  10. Injection of gadolinium contrast through pediatric central venous catheters: a safety study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, John M.; Ramos, Yanerys; Finn, J.P. [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kung, Geoffrey L. [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, Biomedical Engineering Interdepartmental Program, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Moghaddam, Abbas N. [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ennis, Daniel B. [University of California, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, Biomedical Engineering Interdepartmental Program, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, Biomedical Physics Interdepartmental Program, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Catheter rupture during CT angiography has prompted policies prohibiting the use of electronic injectors with peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) not only for CT but also for MRI. Consequently, many institutions mandate hand injection for MR angiography, limiting precision of infusion rates and durations of delivery. To determine whether electronic injection of gadolinium-based contrast media through a range of small-caliber, single-lumen PICCs would be safe without risk of catheter rupture over the range of clinical protocols and determine whether programmed flow rates and volumes were realized when using PICCs for contrast delivery. Experiments were performed and recorded using the Medrad Spectris Solaris EP MR Injection System. PICC sizes, contrast media and flow rates were based on common institutional protocols. No catheters were damaged during any experiments. Mean difference between programmed and delivered volume was 0.07 {+-} 0.10 mL for all experiments. Reduced flow rates and prolonged injection durations were observed when the injector's pressure-limiting algorithm was triggered, only in protocols outside the clinical range. PICCs commonly used in children can withstand in vitro power injection of gadolinium-based contrast media at protocols significantly above clinical levels. (orig.)

  11. Comparative analysis of anterior and posterior contrast injection approaches for shoulder MR arthrograms in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupton, Theodore B.; Cahill, Anne M. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Delgado, Jorge [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Stanford University Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Chauvin, Nancy A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    There is no consensus in the literature concerning the optimal approach for performing a fluoroscopically guided shoulder arthrogram injection in a pediatric population. To compare adequacy of capsular injection and radiation doses between fluoroscopically guided anterior and posterior glenohumeral joint contrast injections in adolescents. We evaluated imaging in 67 adolescents (39 boys, 28 girls; mean age 16.0 years; range 11.7-19.1 years) who underwent an anterior approach glenohumeral contrast injection with subsequent MR imaging, and 67 age- and gender-matched subjects (39 boys, 28 girls; mean age 16.0 years; range 11.1-19.2 years) who underwent a posterior approach injection during the period June 2010 to September 2015. Two pediatric radiologists independently evaluated all MR shoulder arthrograms to assess adequacy of capsular distention and degree of contrast extravasation. We recorded total fluoroscopic time, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative air kerma (CAK). There were no significant differences in age, gender, height, weight or body mass index between the populations (P-values > 0.6). The amount of contrast extravasation between the groups was not significantly different (P = 0.27). Three anterior injections (4.5%) and one posterior (1.5%) were suboptimal (P = 0.62). Fluoroscopy time was not different: 1.1 min anterior and 1.3 min posterior (P = 0.14). There was a significant difference in CAK (0.7 mGy anterior and 1.1 mGy posterior; P = 0.007) and DAP (5.3 μGym{sup 2} anterior and 9.4 μGym{sup 2} posterior; P = 0.008). Inter-rater agreement was excellent (Cohen kappa >0.81). Both techniques were technically successful. There was no difference in the fluoroscopy time for either approach. The radiation dose was higher with the posterior approach but this is of questionable clinical significance. (orig.)

  12. Extravasation of radiographic contrast material and compartment syndrome in the hand: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrededia Laura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiocontrast agents are a type of medical contrast material used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in X-ray based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT or radiography. Radiocontrast agents are typically iodine or barium compounds. Extravasation of contrast is a possible complication of imaging studies performed with contrasts. Most extravasations cause minimal swelling or erythema, however, skin necrosis, ulceration and compartment syndrome may occur with extravasation of large volumes of contrast. A case report is presented in which significant extravasation of contrast was caused while injecting the contrast intravenously into the back of the hand of a 50 year old patient during computed tomography. The patient was undergoing chemotherapy. The patient developed a compartment syndrome and a fasciotomy was required. Treatment options are outlined and emphasis is made on prevention of this iatrogenic complication. Some of the preventive measures to avoid these complications include use of non-ionic contrast (low osmolarity, careful choice of the site of intravenous administration, and close monitoring of the patient during injection of contrast to minimize or prevent extravasation injuries. Clear information to patients and prompt recognition of the complication can allow for other non-surgical treatment options than the one required in this case.

  13. Cadaveric feasibility study on the use of ultrasound contrast to assess spread of injectate in the serratus anterior muscle plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Daga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Serratus anterior muscle plane (SAP block has recently been described for the purpose of perioperative pain management following cases of trauma and breast surgery. It might prove a safer alternative to the other regional thoracic paravertebral and central neuraxial blockade techniques. There are no descriptive cadaveric studies in the pre-existing literature to delineate the anatomical plane for this novel technique. The main objectives for our study were to examine the location of the Serratus anterior muscle belly, assess the efficacy of achieving adequate delineation of the muscle plane utilising ultrasound imaging with agitated water as the contrast agent, and finally, to observe the extent of the cepahlo-caudal spread of the injectate in the SAP. Materials and Methods: Seven cadavers were studied. 20 mls of saline was injected into posterior axillary line (PAL at the level of the 4-5 th rib under ultrasound guidance. This was followed by injection of 10 mls of water with air (8 mls water and 2 mls of air. The presence of hyperechoic air bubbles in the fluid distended SAP (hypoechoic area demonstrated the spread of water and air. Results: In 36% of cadavers, fully formed Serratus Anterior muscle belly was identified at the midaxillary line (MAL, 14% in PAL, and remaining 50% between PAL and MAL. The lower most limit of air-water spread was identified at the subcostal margin. Cephalad spread of contrast was noted in 2 nd intercostal space ICS (7%, 3 rd ICS (71%, and 4 th ICS (22%. Conclusion: This study describes that the serratus anterior muscle is well-formed near the PAL and the injectate spread can be determined with the help of agitated water contrast on ultrasound. Furthermore, there was variability in the cephalad spread of the injectate.

  14. Optimum iodine concentration of contrast material through microcatheters: hydrodynamic analysis of experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Teiyu; Furui, Shigeru; Harasawa, Arimi; Ishimura, Makoto; Imai, Tatsuhiko; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2002-07-01

    It is important to increase the iodine delivery rate (I), that is the iodine concentration of the contrast material (C) × the flow rate of the contrast material (Q), through a catheter to obtain high quality arteriograms. The iodine delivery rate varies depending on the iodine concentration of the contrast material. The purpose of this study is to estimate the optimum iodine concentration (Copt) of contrast material (i.e. the iodine concentration at which I becomes maximum) through a microcatheter of a given length (L), inner diameter (D) and injection pressure (P). Iohexol, ioversol and iopamidol of 11-12 iodine concentrations (140-350, 160-350 or 160-370 mg cm-3) at 37 °C are used. I and Reynolds number (Re) of the flow of each contrast material through four microcatheters (0.49-0.68 mm in inner diameter, 1000-1500 mm in length) at injection pressures of 1.38, 2.76, 4.14 and 5.52 × 106 Pa (200, 400, 600 and 800 pounds per square inch) are obtained experimentally. The relationships between I and C and between I and Re are examined for each catheter and injection pressure. Copt is 160-280 mg cm-3 for iohexol, 180-280 mg cm-3 for ioversol and 200-300 mg cm-3 for iopamidol. I becomes maximum when Re approximates the critical Reynolds number (Re ≃ 2300). Utilizing this principle, we can estimate Copt and its flow rate through a microcatheter of a given L, D and P.

  15. Whole-body MR angiography: comparison of two protocols for contrast media injection; Ganzkoerper-MR-Angiographie: Vergleich von zwei Protokollen zur Kontrastmittelinjektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klessen, C.; Asbach, P.; Hein, P.A.; Lembcke, A.; Bauknecht, H.C.; Hamm, B.; Taupitz, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, A.; Nentwig, T. [Imaging Science Inst., Charite Berlin-Siemens (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: To compare two injection strategies for contrast media injection in whole-body MR angiography quantitatively and qualitatively with regard to contrast and image quality. Material and methods: 40 patients were examined at 1.5 Tesla using either a single injection protocol or a double injection protocol with two separate bolus injections. Vessel regions I (supraaortic/thoracic), II (abdominal/pelvic), III (upper legs) and IV (lower legs) were examined in the following order: single injection: I, II, III, IV, double injection: I and IV after the first injection, II and III after the second bolus injection. Quantitative evaluation: SI measurements were carried out in 2 arteries per region. Contrast values were calculated. Qualitative evaluation: Evaluation of regions I-IV regarding vessel contrast, venous overlay and image quality on a five-point scale by two reviewers in consensus. The Mann-Whitney-U test was used to test the differences for significance. Results: Quantitative evaluation: Using the double injection protocol, significantly higher contrast values in regions I and II and significantly lower contrast values in the subregions IIIa (upper part of III) and IVb (lower part of IV) were obtained (p<0.05). The mean contrast values in subregions IIIb (lower part of III) and IVa (upper part of IV) were lower using the double injection protocol, but not significantly. Qualitative evaluation: Using the double injection protocol, region II was rated significantly higher (mean ratings: 3.55, 3.45 and 3.5 versus 2.7, 2.5 and 2.55; p<0.05) and region III significantly lower (mean ratings: 3.1, 2, 2.5 versus 3.9, 3.1 and 3.55; p<0.05) for all three examined criteria. When using the double injection protocol, ratings were significantly lower in region IV regarding vessel contrast and image quality (mean ratings: 2.4 and 2.15 versus 3.45 and 3.15; p<0.05). The ratings regarding venous overlay in region IV showed no significant differences (mean ratings: 2

  16. Injection-molded nanocomposites and materials based on wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S-W; Gällstedt, M; Johansson, E; Hedenqvist, M S

    2011-01-01

    This is, to our knowledge, the first study of the injection molding of materials where wheat gluten (WG) is the main component. In addition to a plasticizer (glycerol), 5 wt.% natural montmorillonite clay was added. X-ray indicated intercalated clay and transmission electron microscopy indicated locally good clay platelet dispersion. Prior to feeding into the injection molder, the material was first compression molded into plates and pelletized. The filling of the circular mold via the central gate was characterized by a divergent flow yielding, in general, a stronger and stiffer material in the circumferential direction. It was observed that 20-30 wt.% glycerol yielded the best combination of processability and mechanical properties. The clay yielded improved processability, plate homogeneity and tensile stiffness. IR spectroscopy and protein solubility indicated that the injection molding process yielded a highly aggregated structure. The overall conclusion was that injection molding is a very promising method for producing WG objects.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of injectable bone substitute materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongio, Matilde; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Jansen, John A

    2015-03-01

    Injectable bone substitutes (IBSs) represent an attractive class of ready-to-use biomaterials, both ceramic- and polymer-based, as they offer the potential benefit of minimally invasive surgery and optimal defect filling. Although in vitro assessments are the first step in the process of development, the safety and efficacy of an IBS strongly depend on validated preclinical research prior to clinical trials. However, the selection of a suitable preclinical model for performance evaluation of an IBS remains a challenge, as no gold standard exists to define the best animal model. In order to succeed in this attempt, we identified three stages of development, including (a) proof-of-principle, (b) predictive validity and (c) general scientific legitimacy, and the respective criteria that should be applied for such selection. The second part of this review provides an overview of commonly used animals for IBSs. Specifically, scientific papers published between January 1996 and March 2012 were retrieved that report the use of preclinical models for the evaluation of IBSs in situations requiring bone healing and bone augmentation. This review is meant not only to describe the currently available preclinical models for IBS application, but also to address critical considerations of such multi-factorial evaluation models (including animal species, strain, age, anatomical site, defect size and type of bone), which can be indicative but in most cases edge away from the human reality. Consequently, the ultimate goal is to guide researchers toward a more careful and meaningful interpretation of the results of experiments using animal models and their clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Contrast media power injection using central venous port catheters - results of an in vitro study; Kontrastmitteldruckinjektion in Portkathetersysteme - Ergebnisse einer In-vitro-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, B. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Teichgraeber, U.K.M.; Hothan, T. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, H.J. [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik, Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Klinikum der Philipps-Univ., Marburg (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: are implanted central venous port catheters suitable for contrast media pressure (power) injection in computed tomography? Material and methods: in an in vitro study 100 ml of contrast medium (Ultravist 370, Schering, Berlin, Deutschland) was injected through 20 different port catheter systems using a power injector (Stellant, Medrad, Inianola, USA) with a pressure limit of 325 PSI. The injection rate was increased from 2 ml/s to 10 ml/s in increments of 2 ml/s. The maximum injection pressure and maximum injection rate were assessed. Results: an injection rate of 2 ml/s was possible in all catheter systems. Injection rates of 4 ml/s in 18 systems, 6 ml/s in 13 systems and 8 ml/s in 6 systems were achieved. With a given pressure limit of 325 PSI an injection rate of 10 ml/s was not possible in any of the port catheter systems. There were no catheter ruptures, catheter disconnections or contrast extravasations noted. (orig.)

  19. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): lesion visualization on a 3 tesla Clinical whole-body system after intraperitoneal contrast injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckl, S.; Naegele, T.; Klose, U. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Herrmann, M.; Gaertner, S.; Weissert, R. [Dept. of Neurology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Kueker, W. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical School, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, England (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the intravital visibility of CNS lesions in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal correlate of multiple sclerosis, using a 3-Tesla (T) wholebody MR system. Materials and Methods: Three healthy Dark Agouti (DA) rats and 16 DA rats with clinical signs of EAE were examined on a 3T whole body-system using a normal wrist coil. In total, 25 examinations were preformed using T2- and T1-weighted images in transverse and sagittal orientation with a slice thickness of 2 mm or 1 mm (voxel size up to 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm). Sedation was achieved by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine. In addition, T1-weighted images were obtained after the instillation of 1.0 ml of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (0.5 mmol/ml) into the peritoneal cavity. Results: T2- and T1-weighted images of the brain and spinal cord with high spatial and contrast resolution could be obtained in all animals. The anatomical details of the olfactory bulb glomeruli, cerebellum foliae, ventricles and corpus callosum were clearly visible. The EAE lesions presented as hyperintense area in T2-weighted images and could be demonstrated in all clinically affected animals by MRI and histologically verified. In total, the 16 affected rats had 28 cerebral and 2 spinal cord lesions (range 1 to 4, median 2). Contrast enhancement was noted in 12 animals and ranked as severe in ten and moderate in two cases. No adverse effects were noted due to sedation or intraperitoneal contrast injection. Conclusions: The intravital demonstration of cerebral and spinal cord EAE lesions in rats is possible on a 3T whole-body MR scanner using a normal wrist coil. Intraperitoneal injection of ketamine/xylazine and contrast agent is an easy, safe and effective procedure in rats. (orig.)

  20. Drag material change in hot runner injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋炳炎; 黄伯云

    2001-01-01

    Quick material change is often encountered for the different colors or kinds of polymer in hot runner injecting molding process. Time-costing and incompleteness of material change process often affects the quality and productivity of products. In the practical production, multi-injection or white material as the transition material is often adopted for quick material change. Based on the rheological behavior of the new and the previous plastic melt, the researches on the related problems were carried out. The concept of drag material change was originally presented. The physical and mathematical model on the simultaneous flow process of the new and the previous plastic melt in hot runner were built up, which can well explain the influence of the injection speed, pressure, viscosity difference, temperature and mold structure on the drag material change efficiency. When temperature in different position in the mold was increased and adjusted, the viscosity difference between the two kinds of melt can be controlled. Therefore the material change ability can be greatly improved during the whole material change process, getting rid of more and more difficult changing in the late stage.

  1. Injection nozzle materials for a coal-fueled diesel locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehan, R.L.; Leonard, G.L.; Johnson, R.N.; Lavigne, R.G.

    1990-12-31

    In order to identify materials resistant to coal water mixture (CWM) erosive wear, a number of materials were evaluated using both orifice slurry and dry air erosion tests. Both erosion tests ranked materials in the same order, and the most erosion resistant material identified was sintered diamond compact. Based on operation using CWM in a single-cylinder locomotive test, superhard nozzle materials such as diamond, cubic boron nitride, and perhaps TiB{sub 2} were found to be necessary in order to obtain a reasonable operating life. An injection nozzle using sintered diamond compacts was designed and built, and has operated successfully in a CWM fired locomotive engine.

  2. Hybrid material as contrast agent in magnetic resonance images

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Asunción, Pablo; Cabrera García, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a contrast agent of magnetic resonance based on a hybrid material formed by an organo-metallic core derived from Prussian blue and a silica cover, and optionally, molecules of a poly(ethylene glycol), a fluorescent agent, a radio nucleus and/or a substance that directs to specific receptors, cells or tissues, joined by covalent bonding to the surface of the inorganic cover.

  3. Hybrid material as contrast agent in magnetic resonance images

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Asunción, Pablo; Cabrera García, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a contrast agent of magnetic resonance based on a hybrid material formed by an organo-metallic core derived from Prussian blue and a silica cover, and optionally, molecules of a poly(ethylene glycol), a fluorescent agent, a radio nucleus and/or a substance that directs to specific receptors, cells or tissues, joined by covalent bonding to the surface of the inorganic cover.

  4. Self injection of foreign materials into the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, U; Freeman, A; Kirkham, A; Ralph, D J; Minhas, S; Muneer, A

    2017-02-01

    Injection of the subcutaneous tissues of the penis for enlargement of penile girth has been practised for many years by laypeople and medical practitioners alike. However, with recognition of the complications, the practice has died out. We report a series of five patients who presented having injected foreign materials into the subcutaneous tissues of their penises, including paraffin and mineral oils. Our patients had a variable time course of presentation ranging from 1 day following injection to over 26 years. Self-injection of the subcutaneous tissues of the penis is an unusual presentation for a penile mass but should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with a long latent period to presentation or with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging and histological appearances.

  5. Detection and characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma: Value of dynamic CT during the arterial dominant phase with uniphasic contrast medium injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, June-Sik; Kwag, Jin-Geun; Oh, Young-Ran; Han, Se-Dong; Song, Chang-June [Chungnam Univ. Hospital, Taejon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to assess the effect of dynamic CT during the arterial dominant phase with uniphasic injection of intravenous contrast material (5 ml/s) in the detection and characterization of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Three-phase incremental dynamic CT was performed in 66 patients with 84 HCCs diagnosed by pathologic findings, characteristic angiographic findings, and clinical manifestations. One hundred fifty milliliters of nonionic contrast medium was administered intravenously by using a power injector at a flow rate of 5 ml/s for 30 s, and three-phase images were obtained at 20-45 s (arterial dominant phase), 55-80 s (portal venous phase), and 2-4 min (equilibrium phase) after the start of uniphasic intravenous injection. Three-phase images in 66 patients were compared and assessed for the delectability and enhancement pattern of the tumors. The arterial dominant phase images of dynamic CT showed a moderate to marked hyperattenuation in 73 (87%) of the 84 HCCs, isoattenuation in 6 (7%), and hypoattenuation in 5 (6%). The portal venous phase images showed hyperattenuation in 6 (7%), isoattenuation in 45 (54%), and hypoattenuation in 33 (39%). In the equilibrium phase, CT findings showed hypoattenuation in 67 (80%) and isoattenuation in 17 (20%). The delectability of HCCs in the arterial dominant, portal venous, and equilibrium phase was 93, 46, and 80%, respectively. The delectability of HCCs in the arterial dominant phase was significantly (p < 0.0001) superior to that in both the portal venous phase and the equilibrium phase. Dynamic CT during the arterial dominant phase with uniphasic injection of intravenous contrast medium (5 ml/s) is a useful method in the detection and characterization of HCCs. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Extreme Contrast Ratio Imaging of Sirius with a Charge Injection Device

    CERN Document Server

    Batcheldor, D; Bahr, C; Jenne, J; Ninkov, Z; Bhaskaran, S; Chapman, T

    2015-01-01

    The next fundamental steps forward in understanding our place in the universe could be a result of advances in extreme contrast ratio (ECR) imaging and point spread function (PSF) suppression. For example, blinded by quasar light we have yet to fully understand the processes of galaxy formation and evolution, and there is an ongoing race to obtain a direct image of an exoearth lost in the glare of its host star. To fully explore the features of these systems we must perform observations in which contrast ratios of at least one billion can be regularly achieved with sub 0.1" inner working angles. Here we present the details of a latest generation 32-bit charge injection device (CID) that could conceivably achieve contrast ratios on the order of one billion. We also demonstrate some of its ECR imaging abilities for astronomical imaging. At a separation of two arc minutes, we report a direct contrast ratio of Delta(m_v)=18.3, log(CR)=7.3, or 1 part in 20 million, from observations of the Sirius field. The atmosp...

  7. Placement of central venous access via subclavian vein under fluoroscopic guidance with intravenous contrast injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook; Do, Young Soo; Kim, Seung Hoon; Yoh, Kyu Tong; Ro, Duk Woo; Kim, Bo Kyung [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Hickman catheter placement via the subclavian vein under fluoroscopic guidance with intravenous contrast injection. During an eleven-month period, 187 Hickman catheters were percutaneously placed in 167 consecutive patients in an interventional radiology suite. Subclavian venous puncture was made with injection of contrast medium into the peripheral venous line. After subclavian venous access had been obtained, a subcutaneous tunnel was created using a peel-away sheath or a tunneler. The Hickman catheters were inserted through a peel-away sheath, the distal tip of which was as the junction of the right atrium and the superior vena cava. One hundred and eighty-six Hickman catheters were successfully placed ; the one failure was due to anatomical tortuosity of the vein (0.53%). Complications included one case of subclavian vein occlusion (0.53%) ; three of line occlusion by thrombus (1.6%) ; one of oozing at the suture site (0.53%) ; six of infection or inflammation (3.2%) ; eight of natural removal (4.2%) ; one case of air embolism (0.53%) and two of malposition (0.1%). Major complications such as pneumothorax or arterial puncture leading to mediastinal hemorrhage did not, however, occur. The authors concluded that radiologic Hickman catheter placement offers advantages over traditional approaches in terms of safety, convenience, and time and cost savings.

  8. Sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoto; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Nagasawa, Naoki; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Suto, Takayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    To assess the incidence and types of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of five kinds of contrast media (CM) in CT examinations. 735 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) between 14 March 2016 and 5 April 2016 were enrolled. Medical staff asked patients whether they felt heat sensation and sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM (one of the following: iopromide, iomeprol, iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol) after their CE-CT. If the patients stated having felt the sensation of smell or taste, they were also asked what kind of smell or taste they sensed. Next, 30 ml of each CM was poured into high-purity pet cups for radiological technologists to smell directly. Radiological technologists were asked whether or not each CM had any smell. The sensations of smell and taste incidence for iopromide were 24.3% and 18.9%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those for other CM (p smell was medicine-ish, and the most frequently noted taste was bitterness. All radiological technologists could directly smell only iopromide, which has an ether group on a side chain and fewer hydroxyl groups. Iopromide showed a higher incidence of sensation of smell and taste than other CM. Advances in knowledge: This was the first investigation of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM, and a specific CM showed a higher incidence, which is suspected to be due to its chemical structure.

  9. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  10. Immediate reactions following iodinated contrast media injection: A study of 38 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewachter, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.dewachter@yahoo.fr [Service d' Anesthesie-Reanimation Chirurgicale and SAMU de Paris, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Universite Paris-Descartes, 149 Rue de Sevres, 75015 Paris (France); Laroche, Dominique, E-mail: laroche-do@chu-caen.fr [Service de Biophysique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Avenue de la Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Mouton-Faivre, Claudie, E-mail: claudie.mouton@wanadoo.fr [Pole d' Anesthesie-Reanimation Chirurgicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire-Hopital Central, Avenue du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, Nancy (France); Bloch-Morot, Evelyne, E-mail: ebloch-morot@club-internet.fr [Service de Medecine Interne, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 20 Rue Leblanc, Paris (France); Cercueil, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jean-pierre.cercueil@chu-dijon.fr [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital du Bocage, 2, Boulevard du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, Dijon (France); Metge, Liliane, E-mail: liliane.metge@chu-nimes.fr [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Caremeau, Place du Pr Robert Debre, Nimes (France); Carette, Marie-France, E-mail: marie-france.carette@tnn.ap-hop-paris.fr [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Tenon, 4 Rue de la Chine, Paris (France); Vergnaud, Marie-Claude, E-mail: vergnaud-mc@chu-caen.fr [Service de Medecine Polyvalente, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Avenue de la Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Clement, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.clement@inserm.fr [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, AP-HP, Universite Paris Descartes, 20 Rue Leblanc, Paris (France)

    2011-03-15

    Objectives: To investigate the pathomechanisms involved in cases of immediate hypersensitivity reactions occurring after the administration of iodinated contrast media. Materials and methods: Patients having presented clinical signs of immediate hypersensitivity suggesting allergy after iodinated contrast medium were investigated. Histamine and tryptase concentrations were measured, and/or skin tests were performed. Patients with positive skin tests to the culprit contrast agent were classified as IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity (Group I) and patients with negative skin tests as non-allergic hypersensitivity (Group II). Results: 38 patients were included. Most reactions appeared after non-ionic (n = 32). Reactions were more frequently severe following ionic than non-ionic (p = 0.014). Skin testing was not performed in 11 patients. Skin tests with the culprit contrast agent were negative in 26% of the patients (Group II, n = 7) whereas they were found positive with the contrast agent in 73% of the patients (Group I, n = 19). Latex-induced reaction was diagnosed in one patient, and was consequently excluded from the cohort. In Group I, the frequency of cross-reactivity with the other commercialized iodinated contrast media was low (7%). Cardiovascular signs were present in Group I (52.6%, n = 10), and absent in Group II (p = 0.023). Histamine and tryptase concentrations were higher in patients who had cardiovascular signs (p < 0.02). Conclusion: Immediate reactions with clinical signs suggesting allergy along with positive skin tests with the administered contrast agent confirm immediate allergic hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis) to this agent. Consequently, the culprit contrast agent should be definitely avoided as well as cross-reactive ICM in order to prevent further recurrences.

  11. Dual bolus intravenous contrast injection technique for multiregion paediatric body CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen E.; Mann, E.H.; Padfield, N.; Greco, L.; BenDavid, G. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Alzahrani, A. [King Abdulaziz Medical City, PO Box 22490, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-01

    Optimal vascular and parenchymal enhancement for multi-region paediatric body computed tomography (CT) has many challenges. A variety of approaches are currently employed, associated with varying image quality and radiation dose implications. We present a dual bolus intravenous (DBI) contrast technique for single-acquisition imaging of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, with evaluation of multi-compartmental vascular enhancement. A DBI regime was designed for use with a programmable dual head pump injector. A larger initial bolus (two-thirds volume) is followed by a smaller bolus (one-third volume) before imaging the chest, abdomen and pelvis in a single acquisition, 45-65 seconds from the start of initial injection. Flow rates and second bolus timing were tailored to patient weight and contrast volume, using five weight categories. Multi-compartmental vascular opacification was graded and image quality was assessed in a cohort of 130 patients. The DBI technique resulted in concordant multi-compartmental (thoracic aortic, pulmonary arterial, abdominal aortic and portal venous) vascular enhancement. Early splenic parenchymal enhancement artefacts and alterations to renal enhancement were observed. We present a weight-stratified dual bolus intravenous contrast technique to improve image quality in paediatric multi-region body CT. (orig.)

  12. Estimation of the Efficiency of Material Injection into the Reflex Discharge by Sputtering the Cathode Material

    CERN Document Server

    Kovtun, Yu V; Skibenko, A I; Yuferov, V B

    2012-01-01

    The processes of injection of a sputtered-and-ionized working material into the pulsed reflex discharge plasma have been considered at the initial stage of dense gas-metal plasma formation. A calculation model has been proposed to estimate the parameters of the sputtering mechanism for the required working material to be injected into the discharge. The data obtained are in good accordance with experimental results.

  13. Material flow data for numerical simulation of powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    The powder injection molding (PIM) process is a cost efficient and important net-shape manufacturing process that is not completely understood. For the application of simulation programs for the powder injection molding process, apart from suitable physical models, exact material data and in particular knowledge of the flow behavior are essential in order to get precise numerical results. The flow processes of highly filled polymers are complex. Occurring effects are very hard to separate, like shear flow with yield stress, wall slip, elastic effects, etc. Furthermore, the occurrence of phase separation due to the multi-phase composition of compounds is quite probable. In this work, the flow behavior of a 316L stainless steel feedstock for powder injection molding was investigated. Additionally, the influence of pre-shearing on the flow behavior of PIM-feedstocks under practical conditions was examined and evaluated by a special PIM injection molding machine rheometer. In order to have a better understanding of key factors of PIM during the injection step, 3D non-isothermal numerical simulations were conducted with a commercial injection molding simulation software using experimental feedstock properties. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The mold filling studies amply illustrate the effect of mold temperature on the filling behavior during the mold filling stage. Moreover, the rheological measurements showed that at low shear rates no zero shear viscosity was observed, but instead the viscosity further increased strongly. This flow behavior could be described with the Cross-WLF approach with Herschel-Bulkley extension very well.

  14. Pulmonary edema following intravenous injection of nonionic low-osmolar contrast medium - appearance on HRCT. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristedt, P.; Tylen, U. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary edema following i.v. contrast medium injection is a rare adverse reaction. We report on a 71-year-old woman who developed pulmonary edema following i.v. injection of iohexol during spiral CT of the thorax. She developed shortness of breath during the injection, and the first radiographic signs of pulmonary edema were visible on CT images 25 s after the onset of injection. On HRCT images 15 min later, marked edema was demonstrated in both lungs in a mosaic pattern of distribution. After appropriate therapy, the patient recovered without sequelae. A repeat CT 6 days later showed complete normalization. (orig.).

  15. Evaluation of a tailored injection profile (TIP) algorithm for uniform contrast-enhanced signal intensity profiles in MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gregory J; Maki, Jeffrey H

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate a contrast agent injection method that provides constant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity throughout a contrast-enhanced MR angiography acquisition. A tailored injection profile (TIP) algorithm was developed that used the signal intensity profile from a test bolus as an impulse response function, and predicted the response to various multiphasic injection profiles. Antecubital vein injections were administered via a commercially available multiphasic power injector. The TIP algorithm evaluated the predicted responses and selected the injection that best matched the desired (20-sec plateau) profile. Resulting signal intensity profiles from tailored and standard injection profiles were compared in 20 subjects (10 each). All subjects received a weight-based single-dose (0.1 mmol/kg) of gadoteridol, and abdominal aorta signal intensities were measured at 3T with a time-resolved, thick-slice, 3D spoiled-gradient-echo MR sequence with parameters approximating contrast-enhanced MR angiography. The single-phase, standard injection was injected at 1.6 mL/sec. Full-width at 80% maximum (FW80M) signal intensity was significantly longer for the tailored injection profiles (23.0 ± 2.2 vs. 9.0 ± 4.2 sec; P < 0.01). Concurrently, the profile peak signal intensity was reduced by 19% for the tailored profiles (12.0 ± 3.1 vs. 14.8 ± 2.8 times baseline; P = 0.058), nearly reaching significance. Multiphasic tailored injections from a power injector produced longer signal intensity profiles (156% increase in FW80M) with an accompanying decrease (19%) in peak signal intensity compared to a standard, single-phase injection. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1664-1672. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. USE OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY TO STUDY THE CRANIAL MIGRATION OF A LUMBOSACRAL INJECTATE IN CADAVER DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalilak, Lukas T; Tucker, Russell L; Greene, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Volumes used in lumbosacral epidural injections for anesthesia have remained unchanged since the 1960s. The goals of this cross-sectional observational study were to characterize the three-dimensional spread of a lumbosacral epidural injection, as well as confirm that the commonly used volume of 0.2 ml/kg injected into the lumbosacral epidural space reaches the thoracolumbar (TL) junction in the majority (≥80%) of dogs. Ten clinically normal, adult, nonpregnant, mixed-breed dogs were obtained within five minutes of euthanasia and 0.2 ml/kg of radiopaque contrast medium was injected into the lumbosacral epidural space. A computed tomography scan of the TL spine was performed immediately following the injection. Migration of contrast reached the TL junction in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Contrast was well visualized in all epidural planes with contrast travelling predominantly in the dorsal epidural space in 7 of 10 (70%) dogs. There was no significant difference in the weight of dogs where the epidural injectate reached the TL junction and those where it did not (P = 0.16), or in the weight of dogs where the cranial-most point of the contrast column was in the dorsal versus the ventral epidural space (P = 0.32). This preliminary study supports the use of computed tomography to characterize injectate distribution in the canine thoracolumbar epidural space and provides evidence that a 0.2-ml/kg volume is likely to reache the TL junction in most dogs. Further studies are needed in live dogs to determine if variables affecting human epidural injectate doses have similar effects in the dog.

  17. Cervical foraminal steroid injections under CT guidance: retrospective study of in situ contrast aspects in a serial of 248 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottecher, Pierre; Krause, Denis; Di Marco, Lucy; Loffroy, Romaric; Estivalet, Louis [CHU Dijon Bocage Central, Departement de Radiologie et Imagerie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle, Dijon (France); Duhal, Romain; Demondion, Xavier [CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie Musculosquelettique, CCIAL, Laboratoire d' Anatomie, Faculte de Medecine de Lille, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2015-01-15

    To describe all the CT findings after in situ contrast injection just before steroid injection and to recognize the abnormal aspects associated with intravascular contamination. We retrospectively evaluated 248 cervical transforaminal steroid injections done at the university hospital in Dijon, France, in 2008-2012, to treat cervicobrachial neuralgia inadequately improved by optimal medical treatment for at least 3 weeks. Features describing the opacification patterns were recorded. Five main nonvascular opacification patterns were identified: clumps of contrast agent outside the foramen (16 %), a crab claw pattern surrounding the ganglion (13 %), a ''French'' circumflex accent pattern (15 %), reflux along the needle (7 %), and facet joint capsule opacification (22 %). Concerning the situations requiring a change in needle position, intravenous injection occurred in 26 % of the patients, with a crab claw pattern in half the cases and a clump pattern in half the cases. Intraarteriolar injection was noted in two patients. CT after in situ contrast injection ensures proper needle positioning outside the blood vessels before steroid injection. Penetration of the needle tip into a vein is very common, whereas arteriolar puncture is extremely rare. (orig.)

  18. Injection-driven deformation of a fractured material

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, C. W.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, involves injecting fluid into a low-permeability reservoir rock at high pressure in order to open a network of fractures, which act as high-permeability pathways. However, most reservoir rocks have a pre-existing network of natural fractures. The impact of these existing fractures on the hydraulic fracturing process is difficult to predict, involving the nonlinear coupling of fluid flow with rock deformation and failure in a complex (fractured) geometry. Here, we study this problem experimentally in a model system: fluid injection into a cemented packing of soft particles, which behaves as a cohesive poroelastic material. We insert "natural" fractures into the system by manually cutting the bonds between particles in specific places. We then inject fluid into the packing at a constant rate and measure the dynamic strain field at high resolution using particle tracking. Comparison of the strain field with and without pre-existing fractures reveals their strong and nonlocal impact on both flow and deformation.

  19. Extreme Contrast Ratio Imaging of Sirius with a Charge Injection Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcheldor, D.; Foadi, R.; Bahr, C.; Jenne, J.; Ninkov, Z.; Bhaskaran, S.; Chapman, T.

    2016-02-01

    The next fundamental steps forward in understanding our place in the universe could be a result of advances in extreme contrast ratio (ECR) imaging and point-spread function (PSF) suppression. For example, blinded by quasar light we have yet to fully understand the processes of galaxy and star formation and evolution, and there is an ongoing race to obtain a direct image of an exo-Earth lost in the glare of its host star. To fully explore the features of these systems, we must perform observations in which contrast ratios (CRs) of at least one billion can be regularly achieved with sub 0.″1 inner working angles. Here, we present the details of a latest-generation 32-bit charge injection device (CID) that could conceivably achieve CRs on the order of one billion. We also demonstrate some of its ECR imaging abilities for astronomical imaging. At a separation of two arcminutes, we report a direct CR of {{Δ }}{m}v=18.3,{log}({CR})=7.3, or 1 part in 20 million, from observations of the Sirius field. The atmospheric conditions present during the collection of this data prevented less modest results, and we expect to be able to achieve higher CRs, with improved inner working angles, simply by operating a CID at a world-class observing site. However, CIDs do not directly provide any PSF suppression. Therefore, combining CID imaging with a simple PSF suppression technique like angular differential imaging could provide a cheap and easy alternative to the complex ECR techniques currently being employed.

  20. CONTRAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Krogsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon.......Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon....

  1. Automatic detection of contrast injection on fluoroscopy and angiography for image guided trans-catheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rui; You, Wei; Yan, Michelle; John, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    Presentation of detailed anatomical structures via 3-D models helps navigation and deployment of the prosthetic valve in TAVI procedures. Fast and automatic contrast detection in the aortic root on X-ray images facilitates a seamless workflow to utilize the 3-D models by triggering 2-D/3-D registration automatically when motion compensation is needed. In this paper, we propose a novel method for automatic detection of contrast injection in the aortic root on fluoroscopic and angiographic sequences. The proposed method is based on histogram analysis and likelihood ratio test, and is robust to variations in the background, the density and volume of the injected contrast, and the size of the aorta. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on 26 sequences from 5 patients and 3 clinical sites, with 16 out of 17 contrast injections correctly detected and zero false detections. The proposed method is of general form and can be extended for detection of contrast injection in other organs and/or applications.

  2. Grey scale enhancement of rabbit liver and kidney by intravenous injection of a new lipid-coated ultrasound contrast agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Liu; Yun-Hua Gao; Kai-Bin Tan; Zheng Liu; Song Zuo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the grey scale enhancement of a new lipidcoated ultrasound contrast agent in solid abdominal organs as liver and kidney.METHODS: Size distribution and concentration of the lipidcoated contrast microbubbles were analyzed by a Coulter counter. Two-dimensional (2D) second harmonic imaging of the hepatic parenchyma, the inferior vena cava and the right kidney of the rabbits were acquired before and after contrast agent injection. Images were further quantified by histogram in Adobe Photoshop 6.0. Time-intensity curves of hepatic parenchyma, inferior vena cava and renal cortex were generated from the original grey scale.RESULTS: The 2D images of hepatic parenchyma and cortex of the kidney were greatly enhanced after injection and the peak time could last more than 50 min.CONCLUSION: This new lipid ultrasound contrast agent could significantly enhance the grey scale imaging of the hepatic parenchyma and the renal cortex for more than 50 min.

  3. Experiences of using a single post-contrast CT scan of the urinary tract after triphasic contrast injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Carl Pretorius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I was alerted to an article in Radiology Vol. 255 No. 2 (May 20101 by a colleague. The article, entitled ‘Kidney and urinary tract imaging: Triple-bolus multidetector CT urography as a one-stop shop – Protocol design, opacification, and image quality analysis’, clearly describes the technique, while the quotation below, from the article, summarises the findings: ‘We have shown that triple-bolus multidetector CT urography allowed visualization of renal parenchymal, excretory, and vascular contrast-enhancement phases in a single dose-efficient acquisition and provided sufficient opacification of the UUT, with simultaneous and adequate image quality of renal parenchyma and vascular anatomy.’ The main emphasis on this technique is to reduce the number of unnecessary CT scans when assessing the urinary tract. Our previous protocol for scanning the urinary tract for pathology included four phases: a pre-contrast, corticomedullary, nephrographic and delay excretory phase.

  4. A functional form for injected MRI Gd-chelate contrast agent concentration incorporating recirculation, extravasation and excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsfield, Mark A [Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom); Thornton, John S; Jager, H Rolf [Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London WC1N 3BG (United Kingdom); Gill, Andrew; Priest, Andrew N [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Rd, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom); Morgan, Bruno [Department of Cancer Studies, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mah5@le.ac.uk

    2009-05-07

    A functional form for the vascular concentration of MRI contrast agent after intravenous bolus injection was developed that can be used to model the concentration at any vascular site at which contrast concentration can be measured. The form is based on previous models of blood circulation, and is consistent with previously measured data at long post-injection times, when the contrast agent is fully and evenly dispersed in the blood. It allows the first-pass and recirculation peaks of contrast agent to be modelled, and measurement of the absolute concentration of contrast agent at a single time point allows the whole time course to be rescaled to give absolute contrast agent concentration values. This measure of absolute concentration could be performed at a long post-injection time using either MRI or blood-sampling methods. In order to provide a model that is consistent with measured data, it was necessary to include both rapid and slow extravasation, together with excretion via the kidneys. The model was tested on T{sub 1}-weighted data from the descending aorta and hepatic portal vein, and on T*{sub 2}-weighted data from the cerebral arteries. Fitting of the model was successful for all datasets, but there was a considerable variation in fit parameters between subjects, which suggests that the formation of a meaningful population-averaged vascular concentration function is precluded.

  5. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Roman, Brian B; Jansen, Sanaz A; Macleod, Kay; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study mouse mammary gland ductal architecture based on intra-ductal injection of contrast agents. Female FVB/N mice age 12-20 weeks (n=12), were used in this study. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple. Approximately 20-25μL of a Gadodiamide/Trypan blue/saline solution was injected slowly over one minute into the nipple and duct. To prevent washout of contrast media from ducts due to perfusion, and maximize the conspicuity of ducts on MRI, mice were sacrificed one minute after injection. High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired on a 9.4T Bruker scanner after sacrifice to eliminate motion artifacts and reduce contrast media leakage from ducts. Trypan blue staining was well distributed throughout the ductal tree. MRI showed the mammary gland ductal structure clearly. In spoiled gradient echo T1-weighted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of regions identified as enhancing mammary ducts following contrast injection was significantly higher than that of muscle (pcontrast media (pcontrast agents to measure metabolism or target receptors in normal ducts and ducts with in situ cancers.

  6. Optimal scan time of dual-phase spiral CT in normal rabbit liver : effect of contrast injection rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Kook; Kim, Sang Ho; Liu, Wei Chiang [Sungae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-06-01

    To determine the effect of contrast injection rate on rabbit liver enhancement and the optimal temporal window for dual-phase spiral CT of rabbit liver at each injection rate Using spiral CT, seven New Zealand White rabbits underwent dynamic scanning at one level of liver. Three protocols of contrast injection rates were employed, namely 0.3ml/sec(group 1), 1 ml/sec(group 2) and 2 ml/sec(group 3). During 120 seconds of total scan time, the scan interval was 3 seconds. Densities of the aorta, liver and portal vein were averaged in equivalent time. The different injection rate protocols were compared for peak enhancement/time on a time density curve. Mean peak enhancement (HU) in equivalent time(secs) was 310/18(group 1), 383/9(group 2) and 357/6(group 3) in the aorta ; 34/36, 40/36 and 41/30 in the liver ; and 135/36, 153/24 and 170/21 in the portal vein. The temporal window during the arterial phase was 12-21 sec(group 1), 6-12 sec(group 2), and 6-12 sec(group 3). The temporal window during the portal phase was from 30 sec(0.3ml/sec), 21 sec(1ml/sec) and 21sec(2ml/sec). During dual-phase spiral CT, the temporal window for liver scanning should be determined according to each contrast injection rate. A slow contrast injection rate prolongs the temporal window during the arterial phase.

  7. Low-dose intra-arterial contrast-enhanced MR aortography in patients based on a theoretically derived injection protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potthast, S.; Bongartz, G.M.; Huegli, R.; Bilecen, D. [University Hospital of Basel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Schulte, A.-C. [University of Basel, Biocenter, Basel (Switzerland); Aschwanden, M. [University of Basel, Department of Angiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-11-01

    Multiple intra-arterial contrast agent injections are necessary during MR-guided endovascular interventions. In respect to the approved limits of maximum daily gadolinium dose, a low-dose injection protocol is mandatory. The objective of this study was to derive and apply a low-dose injection protocol for intra-arterial 3D contrast-enhanced MR aortography in patients. Injection rate (Q{sub inj}), concentration of injected gadolinium [Gd]{sub inj} and aortal blood flow rate (Q{sub blood}) were included for the theoretical evaluation of signal intensity (SI) of the arterial lumen. SI simulations were carried out at Q{sub inj}=2 versus 4 ml/s in the [Gd]{sub inj} range between 0-500 mM. Q{sub inj} and [Gd]{sub inj} with SI above the 75% threshold of the maximal SI were regarded as optimal injection parameters. [Gd]{sub inj}=50 mM and Q{sub inj}=4 ml/s were considered as optimal and were administered in five patients for 3D MR aortography. All images revealed clear delineation of the abdominal aorta and its major branches. Mean{+-}SD of contrast-to-noise ratios of the abdominal aorta, common iliac and renal artery were 70.2{+-}15.2, 58.6{+-}12.3 and 67.4{+-}12.3. Approximately seven intra-aortal injections would be permissible in patients during MR-guided interventions without exceeding the maximal dose of gadolinium. (orig.)

  8. Allergic-like Reactions to the MR Imaging Contrast Agent Gadobutrol: A Prospective Study of 32 991 Consecutive Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Talbot, Nancy; Kucharczyk, Walter; Mandell, Daniel M

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To determine the frequency and severity of allergic-like reactions to gadobutrol. Materials and Methods Data collection during the study period was part of a hospital quality assurance initiative to confirm the safety of gadobutrol after its introduction at this institute from 2010 to 2013. The study also included an electronic health records review approved by the institutional review board of the University Health Network, Toronto. The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. At the time of each reaction to contrast material, the patient's age and sex, whether premedication was given, the contrast agent used, the volume injected, the patient's symptoms, and the treatment administered were recorded. Allergic-like reactions from physiologic reactions were differentiated and the frequency and severity of allergic-like reactions, the prevalence of risk factors for reactions, the frequency of reactions despite the use of premedication (a "breakthrough reaction"), and the frequency of delayed reactions were calculated. A χ(2) test to determine whether there was a difference in reaction rates during the 4 years of the study was performed. Results The frequency of allergic-like reactions to gadobutrol was 0.32% (96 reactions among 30 373 gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance [MR] imaging examinations) during the study period. These 96 reactions occurred in 82 patients. There was only one severe reaction. There were identifiable risk factors in 40 of the 82 patients (48.8%). Of the 82 patients with an allergic-like reaction, 28 (34.1%) received a gadolinium-based contrast agent before and had no reaction. A total of 12 of 33 (36.4%) breakthrough reactions occurred, and there were 15 of 96 (15.6%) reactions with a delayed onset. Conclusion The frequency of allergic-like reactions to gadobutrol is very low, accounting for 96 reactions among 30 373 gadobutrol-enhanced MR imaging examinations (0.32%), and severe reactions are rare. In

  9. In an animal model nephrogenic systemic fibrosis cannot be induced by intraperitoneal injection of high-dose gadolinium based contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, R.D., E-mail: rlanger@uaeu.ac.ae [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Lorke, D.E. [Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Neidl van Gorkom, K.F. [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Petroianu, G. [Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Azimullah, S.; Nurulain, S.M.; Singh, S. [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Fuchsjäger, M. [Al Ain Hospital, MUV-VAMED, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-10-15

    Aim and objective: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been reported in humans to be most likely induced by gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA), namely by gadodiamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadoversetamide, rarely by other GBCA. The pathogenesis of NSF remains unclear; different hypotheses are under discussion. The objective of the study is to assess if in the animal model human-like NSF changes can be induced by high-dose, intraperitoneal GBCA injections over four weeks. Materials and methods: After approval by the institutional animal ethics committee, six rats each were randomly assigned to groups, and treated with seven different GBCA. Intraperitoneal (IP) injections – proven in the animal model to be effective – were chosen to prolong the animals’ exposure to the respective GBCA. GBCA doses of previous intravenous (IV) animal studies were applied. After five weeks all rats were sacrificed. Sham controls were treated with IP saline injections, employing the same regimen. Results: No findings comparable with human NSF were observed in all animals after IP treatment with all seven GBCA at daily doses of 2.5 and 5.0 mmol/kg body weight (BW). No histopathological abnormalities of all examined organs were noted. Weight loss was stated in weeks three and four with GBCA injections at doses of 5.0 mmol/kg BW, but rats regained weight after cessation of GBCA treatment. Conclusions: NSF-comparable pathological findings could not be induced by high dose intraperitoneal injection of seven GBCA.

  10. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Aslanimehr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103 comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103 were statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion: Significant reduction of candida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis.

  11. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanimehr, Masoomeh; Rezvani, Shirin; Mahmoudi, Ali; Moosavi, Najmeh

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103) comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103) were statistically significant (pcandida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis. PMID:28280761

  12. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  13. Indirect lymph node lymphangiography using an iodine-based contrast medium and projection radiography following submucosal injection in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, A; Wuttke, M; Walter, F; De Leon, I; Kloeppel, R; Schoenfelder, M

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the possibility of local lymph node detection and lymphatic mapping following submucosal injection of an iodine-based contrast medium. We established a contrast medium (oil/water emulsion on iodine basis) with a particle size of mainly 1.7+/-0.1 micro m. Ten rabbits received rectal submucosal injections of the contrast medium and underwent repeated projection radiography. Passage of the contrast medium into lymphatic vessels and storage in lymph nodes was seen in all ten animals. The best contrast was achieved within 24 and 48 h after injection. Lymph nodes were still seen in eight cases with the final radiograph on day 14. There were no clinical side effects observed. Injection sites showed mild signs of inflammation in histological examinations. Pathological signs were not detectable in lymph nodes containing the contrast media. This method appears useful when investigating local lymph nodes following submucosal injection due to its passage into lymphatic vessels and storage in lymph nodes.

  14. The use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the treatment of limb pseudoaneurysm with percutaneous prothrombin injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong CHEN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the safety and effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS-guided percutaneous injection of prothrombin for the treatment of limb pseudoaneurysm (PSA. Methods Sixteen cases of lower limb pseudoaneurysms were treated with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS-guided percutaneous injection of prothrombin, and the size of the pseudoaneurysm, width and length of the pseudoaneurysm neck, times for compression, duration of each compression, and dose of prothrombin injection were recorded. Results In 16 pseudoaneurysm patients, there were 20 pseudoaneurysm sacs in total. One pseudoaneurysm sac was present in 13 patients, 2 sacs were present in 2, and there were 3 sacs in one patient. The mean maximum diameter of the sacs was 41.1±11.9mm. The mean width and length of these pseudoaneurysm necks were 1.9±0.5mm and 4.4±2.3mm respectively. During the process of treatment, the mean duration for compression was 6.0±2.0min, and the mean number of times of compression was 1.2±0.4. The mean dose of prothrombin injection was 411.5±118.8U. The cure rate with one-injection was 100% (16/16, and the recurrence rate was 0%. No complications was observed. Conclusions CEUS-guided percutaneous injection of prothrombin for the treatment of lower limb pseudoaneurysms is safe and effective. The size of the pseudoaneurysm sac and length of the pseudoaneurysm neck are important factors that may affect the result of the treatment. Timely recompression is an important step for increasing the cure rate. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.09

  15. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111379628; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341235512; de Jong, Pim A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/287955672

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 5

  16. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 5

  17. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center); Pollard, M. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center)

    2011-09-30

    . Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  18. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) of Cadaveric Shoulders: Comparison of Contrast Dynamics in Hyaline and Fibrous Cartilage after Intraarticular Gadolinium Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, E. (Dept. of Radiology, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany)); Hodler, J.; Pfirrmann, C.W.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Orthopedic Univ. Hospital Balgrist, Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2009-01-15

    Background: Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a novel method to investigate cartilaginous and fibrocartilaginous structures. Purpose: To investigate the contrast dynamics in hyaline and fibrous cartilage of the glenohumeral joint after intraarticular injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine. Material and Methods: Transverse T1 maps were acquired on a 1.5T scanner before and after intraarticular injection of 2.0 mmol/l gadopentetate dimeglumine in five cadaveric shoulders using a dual flip angle three-dimensional gradient echo (3D-GRE) sequence. The acquisition time for the T1 maps was 5 min 5 s for the whole shoulder. Measurements were repeated every 15 min over 2.5 hours. Regions of interest (ROIs) covering the glenoid cartilage and the labrum were drawn to assess the temporal evolution of the relaxation parameters. Results: T1 of unenhanced hyaline cartilage of the glenoid was 568+-34 ms. T1 of unenhanced fibrous cartilage of the labrum was 552+-38 ms. Significant differences (P=0.002 and 0.03) in the relaxation parameters were already measurable after 15 min. After 2 to 2.5 hours, hyaline and fibrous cartilage still demonstrated decreasing relaxation parameters, with a larger range of the T1(Gd) values in fibrous cartilage. T1 and ?R1 values of hyaline and fibrous cartilage after 2.5 hours were 351+-16 ms and 1.1+-0.09/s, and 332+-31 ms and 1.2+-0.1/s, respectively. Conclusion: A significant decrease in T1(Gd) was found 15 min after intraarticular contrast injection. Contrast accumulation was faster in hyaline than in fibrous cartilage. After 2.5 hours, contrast accumulation showed a higher rate of decrease in hyaline cartilage, but neither hyaline nor fibrous cartilage had reached equilibrium

  19. Intraosseous injection of iodinated computed tomography contrast agent in an adult blunt trauma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Thomas E; Paxton, James H; Myers, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Intraosseous venous access can be life-saving in trauma patients when traditional methods for obtaining venous access are difficult or impossible. Because many blunt trauma patients require expeditious evaluation by computed tomography (CT) scans with intravenous contrast, it is important to evaluate whether intraosseous catheters can be used for administering CT contrast agents in lieu of waiting until secure peripheral intravenous or central venous catheter access can be established. Previous case reports have demonstrated that tibial intraosseous catheters can be used to safely administer CT contrast in the pediatric patient population. Here we report a case in which intraosseous access was the only means of administering intravenous contrast agent in an adult blunt trauma patient. An intraosseous catheter was placed in the standard manner in the right proximal humerus. Intravenous contrast agent was administered through the intraosseous catheter, using the standard blunt trauma protocol at our institution. CT scans were evaluated by a staff radiologist and assessed for the adequacy of diagnosis for blunt traumatic injuries. CT scans of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were considered to be adequate for diagnostic purposes and subjectively equivalent to those of studies using traditional central venous access. The intraosseous catheter was discontinued the following day. No complications of intraosseous placement or of contrast administration were identified. Intraosseous catheterization appears to be a feasible and effective alternative to traditional methods of venous access in the administration of iodinated contrast agents for CT evaluation in adult blunt trauma patients. Further study is warranted.

  20. One-dimensional simulation of fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios with PRM and Meso-NH models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, S.; Freitas, S. R.; Mari, C.; Longo, K. M.; Paugam, R.

    2013-02-01

    Wild-fires release huge amounts of aerosol and hazardous trace gases in the atmosphere. The residence time and the dispersion of fire pollutants in the atmosphere can range from hours to days and from local to continental scales. These various scenarios highly depend on the injection height of smoke plumes. The altitude at which fire products are injected in the atmosphere is controlled by fire characteristics and meteorological conditions. Injection height however is still poorly accounted in chemistry transport models for which fires are sub-grid scale processes which need to be parametrised. Only recently, physically-based approaches for estimating the fire injection heights have been developed which consider both the convective updrafts induced by the release of fire sensible heat and the impact of background meteorological environment on the fire convection dynamics. In this work, two different models are used to simulate fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios: a Mediterranean arson fire and two Amazonian deforestation fires. A Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach, formerly developed to reproduce convective boundary layer in the non-hydrostatic meteorological model Meso-NH, is compared to the 1-D Plume Rise Model. For both models, radiosonde data and re-analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have been used as initial conditions to explore the sensitivity of the models responses to different meteorological forcings. The two models predict injection heights for the Mediterranean fire between 1.7 and 3.3 km with the Meso-NH/EDMF model systematically higher than the 1-D PRM model. Both models show a limited sensitivity to the meteorological forcings with a 20-30% difference in the injection height between radiosondes and ECMWF data for this case. Injection heights calculated for the two Amazonian fires ranges from 5 to 6.5 km for the 1-D PRM model and from 2 to 4 km for the Meso-NH/EDMF model. The

  1. One-dimensional simulation of fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios with PRM and Meso-NH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild-fires release huge amounts of aerosol and hazardous trace gases in the atmosphere. The residence time and the dispersion of fire pollutants in the atmosphere can range from hours to days and from local to continental scales. These various scenarios highly depend on the injection height of smoke plumes. The altitude at which fire products are injected in the atmosphere is controlled by fire characteristics and meteorological conditions. Injection height however is still poorly accounted in chemistry transport models for which fires are sub-grid scale processes which need to be parametrised. Only recently, physically-based approaches for estimating the fire injection heights have been developed which consider both the convective updrafts induced by the release of fire sensible heat and the impact of background meteorological environment on the fire convection dynamics. In this work, two different models are used to simulate fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios: a Mediterranean arson fire and two Amazonian deforestation fires. A Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach, formerly developed to reproduce convective boundary layer in the non-hydrostatic meteorological model Meso-NH, is compared to the 1-D Plume Rise Model. For both models, radiosonde data and re-analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF have been used as initial conditions to explore the sensitivity of the models responses to different meteorological forcings. The two models predict injection heights for the Mediterranean fire between 1.7 and 3.3 km with the Meso-NH/EDMF model systematically higher than the 1-D PRM model. Both models show a limited sensitivity to the meteorological forcings with a 20–30% difference in the injection height between radiosondes and ECMWF data for this case. Injection heights calculated for the two Amazonian fires ranges from 5 to 6.5 km for the 1-D PRM model and from 2 to 4 km for the Meso

  2. Two-phase helical hepatic CT. Contrast-injection protocol, optimal timing and its usefulness in clinical cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Rie [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The usefulness of two-phase helical computed tomography (CT) of the liver was evaluated in clinical cases. First, an optimal scanning protocol was determined using time-attenuation analysis. Monophasic dynamic CT was performed with 100 ml of contrast media (iodine 300 mg/ml) injected either at 3 ml/s or at 2 ml/s. Aortic, hepatic and portal time-attenuation curves were made for each protocol. The results showed that these two different injection protocols produce equivalent enhancements and that the injection rate of 2 ml/s is satisfactorily applicable to clinical cases. The first scanning (arterial phase) must be started 40-45 s after the beginning of the injection of contrast media and the second scanning (delayed phase) 80-120 s after the beginning of injection. Using these CT protocols, 327 cases were examined. In this study 83 hepatic lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma; HCC, n=29; suspected HCC, n=30; hemangioma, n=24) were evaluated. There were 15 HCCs smaller than 30 mm in diameter (71.4%) detected by either arterial phase or delayed phase alone. This result indicates that two-phase helical hepatic CT is very useful in the detection of small HCC. Particularly, four or 5 HCCs of less than 10 mm in size (80%) showed a hyperattenuation area in the arterial phase alone. HCCs which have sufficient vascularity were also easily demonstrated. However, this two-phase helical hepatic CT could not demonstrate 11 lesions (13.3%) with almost normal blood supply. In such cases the complementary role of ultrasound (US) seems to be important. Hence as a screening of hepatic mass lesions both CT and US are necessary. Most HCC could be differentiated from hemangioma by an enhancement pattern using this protocol. But the small liver lesions of less than 15 mm in size with homogeneous hyperattenuation in the arterial phase and isoattenuation in the delayed phase included HCC, hemangioma and metastatic tumors. (author)

  3. Thermographic visualization of the superficial vein and extravasation using the temperature gradient produced by the injected materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Terashima, Kotaro; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji; Shinoto, Makoto; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nishie, Akihoro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    There are few effective methods to detect or prevent the extravasation of injected materials such as chemotherapeutic agents and radiographic contrast materials. To investigate whether a thermographic camera could visualize the superficial vein and extravasation using the temperature gradient produced by the injected materials, an infrared thermographic camera with a high resolution of 0.04 °C was used. At the room temperature of 26 °C, thermal images and the time course of the temperature changes of a paraffin phantom embedded with rubber tubes (diameter 3.2 mm, wall thickness 0.8 mm) were evaluated after the tubes were filled with water at 15 °C or 25 °C. The rubber tubes were embedded at depths of 0 mm, 1.5 mm, and 3.0 mm from the surface of the phantom. Temperature changes were visualized in the areas of the phantom where the tubes were embedded. In general, changes were more clearly detected when greater temperature differences between the phantom and the water and shallower tube locations were employed. The temperature changes of the surface of a volunteer's arm were also examined after a bolus injection of physiological saline into the dorsal hand vein or the subcutaneous space. The injection of 5 ml room-temperature (26 °C) saline into the dorsal hand vein enabled the visualization of the vein. When 3 ml of room-temperature saline was injected through the vein into the subcutaneous space, extravasation was detected without any visualization of the vein. The subtraction image before and after the injection clearly showed the temperature changes induced by the saline. Thermography may thus be useful as a monitoring system to detect extravasation of the injected materials.

  4. Acute Severe Thrombocytopenia Following Non-Ionic Low-Osmolarity Intravenous Contrast Medium Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bata Pal; Domonkos, Adam; Tamoki, David Laszio; Horvath, Evelin; Berczi, Viktor; Szalay, Ferenc [Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-07-15

    Intravenous contrast medium (ICM) rarely induces anaphylactic reactions, including urticaria, hypotension and respiratory failure. Even the most modern ICM may cause such adverse events. Thrombocytopenia has been reported as an extreme rare consequence of ICM. Here we report on a case of a 72-year-old male patient with a self-limiting severe acute thrombocytopenia following administration of intravenous non-ionic low-osmolarity contrast medium. No such low platelet count has ever been reported. We also present a review of the literature.

  5. Fractionated manganese injections: effects on MRI contrast enhancement and physiological measures in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünecker, Barbara; Kaltwasser, Sebastian F; Peterse, Yorick; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Wotjak, Carsten T; Czisch, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is an increasingly used imaging method in animal research, which enables improved T(1)-weighted tissue contrast. Furthermore accumulation of manganese in activated neurons allows visualization of neuronal activity. However, at higher concentrations manganese (Mn2+) exhibits toxic side effects that interfere with the animals' behaviour and well-being. Therefore, when optimizing MEMRI protocols, a compromise has to be found between minimizing side effects and intensifying image contrast. Recently, a low concentrated fractionated Mn2+ application scheme has been proposed as a promising alternative. In this study, we investigated effects of different fractionated Mn2+ dosing schemes on vegetative, behavioural and endocrine markers, and MEMRI signal contrast in C57BL/6N mice. Measurements of the animals' well-being included telemetric monitoring of body temperature and locomotion, control of weight and observation of behavioural parameters during the time course of the injection protocols. Corticosterone levels after Mn2+ application served as endocrine marker of the stress response. We compared three MnCl2  x 4H2O application protocols: 3 times 60 mg/kg with an inter-injection interval of 48 h, six times 30 mg/kg with an inter-injection interval of 48 h, and 8 times 30 mg/kg with an inter-injection interval of 24 h (referred to as 3 x 60/48, 6 x 30/48 and 8 x 30/24, respectively). Both the 6 x 30/48 and the 8 x 30/24 protocols showed attenuated effects on animals' well-being as compared to the 3 x 60/48 scheme. Best MEMRI signal contrast was observed for the 8 x 30/24 protocol. Together, these results argue for a fractionated application scheme such as 30 mg/kg every 24 h for 8 days to provide sufficient MEMRI signal contrast while minimizing toxic side effects and distress.

  6. Are referring clinicians aware of patients at risk from intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Eli; Konen, Osnat; Katz, Miriam; Levy, Yair; Rozenman, Judith; Hertz, Marjorie

    2002-02-01

    AIM: The purpose of our study was to assess the level of awareness of referring clinicians to populations at risk for complications of intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and three physicians from three university hospitals completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding risk factors and contraindications to the intravenous administration of iodinated contrast media. The questionnaire included medical conditions with increased risk for anaphylactoid reaction (asthma, hay fever and food allergy) as well as chemotoxic (ischaemic heart disease, phaeochromocytoma and myasthenia gravis) adverse reactions, some with dependence on renal function (metformin treatment, diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma). Two additional multiple-choice questions addressed pre-medication protocols and risk of nephrotoxicity in diabetic patients. RESULTS: Asthma, food allergy and hay fever were recognized as risk factors by 81{center_dot}3%, 77{center_dot}8% and 61{center_dot}6% of respondents respectively, while ischaemic heart disease, phaeochromocytoma and myasthenia gravis were defined as such only by 9{center_dot}8%, 30{center_dot}0% and 28{center_dot}6% respectively. Metformin treatment, diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma, in the presence of normal renal function, were considered as risk factors by 46{center_dot}3%, 38{center_dot}9% and 58{center_dot}1% of respondents respectively. One of the generally accepted pre-medication protocols was selected by 89{center_dot}8%. The risk of nephrotoxicity in a diabetic patient was correctly assessed by 63{center_dot}5% of respondents. CONCLUSION: We found a relatively high awareness among referring clinicians of a potential anaphylactoid reaction and nephrotoxicity due to iodinated contrast media. However, additional chemotoxic adverse reactions are less well known. Future efforts to improve communication between clinicians and radiologists should be focused in this direction. Konen

  7. Acute renal failure following contrast injection for head computerized tomography in two patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, H.; Sando, H.; Nunokawa, T.; Murakami, T.; Miyakawa, Y. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-10-01

    Two cases of diabetes mellitus with renal and retinal involvement developed acute renal failure after undergoing head computerized tomography. The first case was a 62-year-old male who had been diagnosed as having diabetes 25 years before. He had diabetic retinopathy of Scott IIIb. Before head computerized tomography, the serum BUN was 37 mg/dl, and creatinine was 4.1 mg/dl. Oliguria began immediately after the scanning and confinued for 48 hr. The serum levels of BUN and creatinine rose to 106 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively. Case 2 was a 49-year-old male who had been diagnosed as having diabetes 15 years before. He showed Scott IIb and IV retinopathy. The BUN and creatinine levels in the serum were 32 and 2.3 mg/dl, respectively. After receiving head computerized tomography, he developed oliguria and remained oliguric for 48 hr. During that period, the serum levels of BUN and creatinin were elevated to 112 and 7.5 mg/dl, respectively. Fortunately, both of these patients recovered from the oliguria without resorting to hemodialysis. The iodine contrast medium routinely used for contrast enhancement in the head computerized tomography was implicated in the acute renal failure of these patients. Only eleven cases have so far been reported in the literature who developed acute renal failure following computerized tomography. In view of the three or four times greater dosis of iodine contrast medium employed in computerized tomography compared to intravenous pyelography, the acute incidence of such complications might be much higher. Among the thirteen cases including the two reported here, as many as eight were diabetic. It is well recongnized that the incidence of acute renal failure after intravenous pyelography is particularly high in cases of diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 16: 4DCT simulation with synchronized contrast injection of liver SBRT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karotki, A.; Korol, R. [Department of Medical Physics, Odette Cancer Center, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Milot, L. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chu, W.; Chung, H. T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Center, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Erler, D. [Department of Radiation Therapy, Odette Cancer Center, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has recently emerged as a valid option for treating liver metastases. SBRT delivers highly conformai dose over a small number of fractions. As such it is particularly sensitive to the accuracy of target volume delineation by the radiation oncologist. However, contouring liver metastases remains challenging for the following reasons. First, the liver usually undergoes significant motion due to respiration. Second, liver metastases are often nearly indistinguishable from the surrounding tissue when using computed tomography (CT) for imaging making it difficult to identify and delineate them. Both problems can be overcome by using four dimensional CT (4DCT) synchronized with intravenous contrast injection. We describe a novel CT simulation process which involves two 4DCT scans. The first scan captures the tumor and immediately surrounding tissue which in turn reduces the 4DCT scan time so that it can be optimally timed with intravenous contrast injection. The second 4DCT scan covers a larger volume and is used as the primary CT dataset for dose calculation, as well as patient setup verification on the treatment unit. The combination of two 4DCT scans, short and long, allows visualization of the liver metastases over all phases of breathing cycle while simultaneously acquiring long enough 4DCT dataset suitable for planning and patient setup verification.

  9. Epidemiology of contrast material-induced nephropathy in the era of hydration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balemans, C.E.A.; Reichert, L.J.M.; Schelven, B.I. van; Brand, Jan van den; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of contrast material-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) who received intravenous contrast media and underwent treatment in accordance with current guidelines and to determine ri

  10. Renal effects of the non-ionic contrast medium iopentol after intravenous injection in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsen, J.A.; Berg, K.J.; Waaler, A.; Andrew, E. (Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Radiology Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Renal Section Nycomed A/S, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Clinical Research and Development)

    1990-01-01

    Renal effects of the new non-ionic contrast medium iopentol in increasing doses were assessed and compared with the effects of physiologic saline. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers, allocated to three dose groups, were given iopentol intravenously in doses of 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 g I/kg body weight, respectively. The highest dose group was also given physiologic saline separately as a control. The diuresis increased in all groups, most in the highest dose group, and with a concomitant fall of urine osmolality and increase in osmolar clearance. A slight decrease of serum osmolality, creatinine and urea occurred at 3 hours due to hemodilution. The glomerular filtration rate was unaffected by iopentol. The urinary excretion of albumin and {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin was unchanged. However, urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-glucosaminidase and alkaline phosphatase increased significantly, most in the highest dose group. All changes were reversible. (orig.).

  11. Performance Enhancement of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Electron-Injection Materials of Metal Carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong-Yeol; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Lee, Su-Min; Shrestha, Bhanu; Hong, Jin-Woong

    2016-05-01

    Performance of organic light-emitting diodes was investigated depending on the electron-injection materials of metal carbonates (Li2CO3 and Cs2CO3 ); and number of layers. In order to improve the device efficiency, two types of devices were manufactured by using the hole-injection material (Teflon-amorphous fluoropolymer -AF) and electron-injection materials; one is a two-layer reference device ( ITO/Teflon-AF/Alq3/Al ) and the other is a three-layer device (ITO/Teflon-AF/Alq3/metal carbonate/Al). From the results of the efficiency for the devices with hole-injection layer and electron-injection layer, it was found that the electron-injection layer affects the electrical properties of the device more than the hole-injection layer. The external-quantum efficiency for the three-layer device with Li2CO3 and Cs2CO3 layer is improved by approximately six and eight times, respectively, compared with that of the two-layer reference device. It is thought that a use of electron-injection layer increases recombination rate of charge carriers by the active injection of electrons and the blocking of holes.

  12. SiCp/Ti6Al4V functionally graded materials produced by laser melt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Ocelik, V.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2002-01-01

    With a well-controlled laser melt injection (LMI) process, for the first time the feasibility is demonstrated to produce SiC particles (SiCp) reinforced Ti6Al4V functionally graded materials (FGMs). SiCp are injected just behind the laser beam into the extended part of the laser melt pool that is fo

  13. Temperature Dependence and Magnetic Properties of Injection Molding Tool Materials Used in Induction Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    , in this paper, been characterized for their temperature-dependent magnetic properties. The properties have been measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer, able to reach to 350 °C. The established material database comprises the B–H loops, from which the mean B–H curve, relative permeability versus magnetic......To analyze the heating phase of an induction heated injection molding tool precisely, the temperature-dependent magnetic properties, B–H curves, and the hysteresis loss are necessary for the molding tool materials. Hence, injection molding tool steels, core materials among other materials have...

  14. Omnidirectional Photonic Band Gap Using Low Refractive Index Contrast Materials and its Application in Optical Waveguides

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal Faez, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    Researchers have argued for many years that one of the conditions for omnidirectional reflection in a one-dimensional photonic crystal is a strong refractive index contrast between the two constituent dielectric materials. Using numerical simulations and the theory of Anderson localization of light, in this work we demonstrate that an omnidirectional band gap can indeed be created utilizing low refractive index contrast materials when they are arranged in a disordered manner. Moreover, the size of the omnidirectional band gap becomes a controllable parameter, which now depends on the number of layers and not only on the refractive index contrast of the system, as it is widely accepted. This achievement constitutes a major breakthrough in the field since it allows for the development of cheaper and more efficient technologies. Of particular interest is the case of high index contrast one-dimensional photonic crystal fibers, where the propagation losses are mainly due to increased optical scattering from sidewall roughness at the interfaces of high index contrast materials. By using low index contrast materials these losses can be reduced dramatically, while maintaining the confinement capability of the waveguide. This is just one of many applications that could be proven useful for this discovery.

  15. Gadolinium contrast media are more nephrotoxic than iodine media. The importance of osmolality in direct renal artery injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmstaahl, Barbara; Leander, Peter; Almen, Torsten [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [Lasarettet Trelleborg, Department of Radiology, Trelleborg (Sweden); Chai, Chun-Ming [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Experimental Research, Malmoe (Sweden); Golman, Klaes [Biosciences, GE Health, Malmoe (Sweden); Bjoerk, Jonas [University Hospital, Lund University, Competence Center for Clinical Research, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    A study was undertaken of the role of osmotoxicity in gadolinium (Gd) and iodine contrast media (CM) nephrotoxicity in ischemic porcine kidneys. Test solutions: mannitol iso-osmotic to 0.5 M gadopentetate (1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O), 0.5 M gadodiamide (0.78 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O) and 0.5 M iohexol (190 mg I/ml, 0.42 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O). Each solution was injected [3 ml/kg body weight (BW)] into the balloon-occluded (10 min) renal artery of eight left-sided nephrectomized pigs. The plasma half-life of a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) marker was used to compare their effects on GFR 1-3 h post-injection. The median half-lives of the GFR marker after injection of gadopentetate (1,730 min) and mannitol 1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (2,782 min) did not differ statistically (P=0.28), but were significantly longer than after all other solutions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P=0.06) between gadodiamide (218 min) and mannitol 0.82 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (169 min), while there was (P=0.03) between iohexol (181 min) and mannitol 0.43 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (148 min). The difference between gadodiamide and iohexol was significant (P=0.01). Reduction in GFR, as a marker of nephrotoxicity, induced by gadopentetate correlated with its high osmolality, while the effect of gadodiamide and iohexol may include chemotoxicity. Iohexol molecules were less nephrotoxic than the Gd-CM molecules and contain three-times the number of attenuating atoms per molecule. (orig.)

  16. Fabrication of Composite Material Using Gettou Fiber by Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuda, Roy; Fukumoto, Isao; Kanda, Yasuyuki

    This study investigated the mechanical properties of composite using gettou (shell ginger) fiber as reinforcement fabricated from injection molding. Gettou fiber is a natural fiber made from gettou, a subtropical plant that is largely abundant in Okinawa, Japan. We used the stem part of gettou plant and made the gettou fiber by crushing the stem. The composite using gettou fiber contributed to low shrinkage ratio, high bending strength and high flexural modulus. The mechanical strength of composite using long gettou fiber showed higher value than composite using short gettou fiber. Next, because gettou is particularly known for its anti-mold characteristic, we investigated the characteristic in gettou plastic composite. The composite was tested against two molds: aspergillius niger and penicillium funiculosum. The 60% gettou fiber plastic composite was found to satisfy the JISZ2801 criterion. Finally, in order to predict the flexural modulus of composite using gettou fiber by Halpin-Tsai equation, the tensile elastic modulus of single gettou fiber was measured. The tendency of the experimental results of composite using gettou fiber was in good agreement with Halpin-Tsai equation.

  17. An Image-Domain Contrast Material Extraction Method for Dual-Energy Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jack W; Sun, Yuxin; Gould, Robert G; Ohliger, Michael A; Li, Zhixi; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2017-04-01

    Conventional material decomposition techniques for dual-energy computed tomography (CT) assume mass or volume conservation, where the CT number of each voxel is fully assigned to predefined materials. We present an image-domain contrast material extraction process (CMEP) method that preferentially extracts contrast-producing materials while leaving the remaining image intact. Image processing freeware (Fiji) is used to perform consecutive arithmetic operations on a dual-energy ratio map to generate masks, which are then applied to the original images to generate material-specific images. First, a low-energy image is divided by a high-energy image to generate a ratio map. The ratio map is then split into material-specific masks. Ratio intervals known to correspond to particular materials (eg, iodine, calcium) are assigned a multiplier of 1, whereas ratio values in between these intervals are assigned linear gradients from 0 to 1. The masks are then multiplied by an original CT image to produce material-specific images. The method was tested quantitatively at dual-source CT and rapid kVp-switching CT (RSCT) with phantoms using pure and mixed formulations of tungsten, calcium, and iodine. Errors were evaluated by comparing the known material concentrations with those derived from the CMEP material-specific images. Further qualitative evaluation was performed in vivo at RSCT with a rabbit model using identical CMEP parameters to the phantom. Orally administered tungsten, vascularly administered iodine, and skeletal calcium were used as the 3 contrast materials. All 5 material combinations-tungsten, iodine, and calcium, and mixtures of tungsten-calcium and iodine-calcium-showed distinct dual-energy ratios, largely independent of material concentration at both dual-source CT and RSCT. The CMEP was successful in both phantoms and in vivo. For pure contrast materials in the phantom, the maximum error between the known and CMEP-derived material concentrations was 0.9 mg

  18. The influence of different contrast medium concentrations and injection protocols on quantitative and clinical assessment of FDG–PET/CT in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Müllerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Palmowski, Moritz [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of two different contrast medium concentrations for use in computed X-ray tomography (CT) employing two different injection protocols on positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction in combined 2-{sup 18}F-desoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in patients with a suspicion of lung cancer. Methods: 120 patients with a suspicion of lung cancer were enrolled prospectively. PET images were reconstructed with the non-enhanced and venous phase contrast CT obtained after injection of iopromide 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml using either a fixed-dose or a body surface area adapted injection protocol. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the subclavian vein, ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver and kidney and in the suspicious lung lesion. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: At none of the sites a significant difference in the extent of the contrast enhancement between the four different protocols was found. However, the variability of the contrast enhancement at several anatomical sites was significantly greater in the fixed dose groups than in the BSA groups for both contrast medium concentrations. At none of the sites a significant difference was found in the extent of the SUVmax and SUVmean increase as a result of the use of the venous phase contrast enhanced CT for attenuation. Visual clinical evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT (P = 0.32). Conclusions: Contrast enhanced CT for attenuation correction in combined PET/CT in lung cancer affects neither the clinical assessment nor image quality of the PET-images. A body surface adapted contrast medium protocol reduces the interpatient variability in contrast enhancement.

  19. Cardiac MRI. Estimation of changes in normalized myocardial gadolinium accumulation over time after contrast injection in patients with acute myocarditis and healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuckmann, F.; Buhr, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine II; Maderwald, S. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Erwin L. Hahn Inst. for Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Bruder, O. [Elisabeth Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Angiology; Schlosser, T.; Nassenstein, K. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology; Erbel, R. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). West German Heart Center Essen; Barkhausen, J. [University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2011-10-15

    An increased normalized gadolinium accumulation (NGA) in the myocardium during early washout has been used for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis (AM). Due to the fact that the pharmacokinetics of contrast agents are complex, time-related changes in NGA after contrast injection are likely. Because knowledge about time-related changes of NGA may improve the diagnostic accuracy of MR, our study aimed to estimate the time course of NGA after contrast injection in patients as well as in healthy volunteers. An ECG-triggered inversion recovery SSFP sequence with incrementally increasing inversion times was repetitively acquired over the 15 minutes after injection of 0.2 Gd-DTPA per kg body weight in a 4-chamber view in 15 patients with AM and 20 volunteers. The T 1relaxation times and the longitudinal relaxation rates (R1) of the myocardium and skeletal musculature were calculated for each point in time after contrast injection. The time course of NGA was estimated based on the linear relationship between R 1 and tissue Gd concentration. NGA decreased over time in the form of a negative power function in patients with AM and in healthy controls. NGA in AM tended to be higher than in controls (p > 0.05). NGA rapidly changes after contrast injection, which must be considered when measuring NGA. Although we observed a trend towards higher NGA values in patients with AM with a maximum difference one minute after contrast injection, NGA did not allow us to differentiate patients with AM from healthy volunteers, because the observed differences did not reach a level of significance. (orig.)

  20. Biochemical aspects on adverse reactions to contrast media. Changes of kininogen levels in dog plasma after intravenous injections of iohexol, iopamidol, and iothalamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Katayama, H; Shirakata, A; Takahasi, H

    1988-09-01

    The adverse reactions to contrast media have been investigated by several authors but the exact mechanisms have not yet been established. To study whether kinin-releasing systems are involved in these adverse reactions, we determined total plasma kininogen levels at intervals up to 30 minutes after the intravenous injections of contrast media in dogs. Injections of iohexol, iopamidol, and iothalamate decreased total plasma kininogen levels. This effect increased with increasing dose of the media and suggests that they activated the kinin-releasing systems in the plasma.

  1. The properties of optimal two-dimensional phononic crystals with different material contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong-Fa; Wu, Bin; He, Cun-Fu

    2016-09-01

    By modifying the spatial distribution of constituent material phases, phononic crystals (PnCs) can be designed to exhibit band gaps within which sound and vibration cannot propagate. In this paper, the developed topology optimization method (TOM), based on genetic algorithms (GAs) and the finite element method (FEM), is proposed to design two-dimensional (2D) solid PnC structures composed of two contrasting elastic materials. The PnCs have the lowest order band gap that is the third band gap for the coupled mode, the first band gap for the shear mode or the XY 34 Z band gap for the mixed mode. Moreover, the effects of the ratios of contrasting material properties on the optimal layout of unit cells and the corresponding phononic band gaps (PBGs) are investigated. The results indicate that the topology of the optimal PnCs and corresponding band gaps varies with the change of material contrasts. The law can be used for the rapid design of desired PnC structures.

  2. Assessment of vinyl polysiloxane as an innovative injection material for the anatomical study of vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaud, Jacques; Chalvet, Laurane; Del Corso, Marco; Cerboni, Elsa; Feugier, Patrick; Mertens, Patrick; Simon, Emile

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous injection materials for the study of vasculature in anatomical specimens, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Latex and resins are the most widely used injection materials but need several days to set. The development of new materials taking shorter time to polymerize might be very useful to improve anatomic specimen study conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vinyl polysiloxane (VPS), a silicon material widely used for dental impressions with the advantage to set very rapidly, as an injection material. We assessed the preparation, use, diffusion and setting time of the product in different anatomical regions (central nervous system, external carotid/jugular, lower limb) to observe its behavior in variably sized vessels. Our results suggest that VPS might be of interest for the study of vessels in anatomical specimens. The main strengths of the product are represented by (1) simplicity of use, as it is a ready-to-use material, (2) very rapid polymerization, (3) availability in a range of viscosities making easier the exploration of small vessels, (4) its better elasticity compared to resins, (5) and finally its availability in a range of colors making it a material of choice for vascular system dissections including those with very small caliber vessels.

  3. Body surface area adapted iopromide 300 mg/ml versus 370 mg/ml contrast medium injection protocol: Influence on quantitative and clinical assessment in combined PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Apitzsch, Jonas [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lensing, Carina [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Müllerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the quantitative and qualitative differences between combined positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography (PET/CT) enhanced with contrast medium with either an iodine concentration 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml. Materials and methods: 120 consecutive patients scheduled for F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT were included. The first (second) 60 patients received contrast medium with 300 (370) mg iodine/ml. Intravenous injection protocols were adapted for an identical iodine delivery rate (1.3 mg/s) and body surface area (BSA) adapted iodine dose (22.26 g I/m{sup 2}). Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the ascending aorta, the abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava, the portal vein, the liver and the right kidney in the venous contrast medium phase. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: Both media caused significantly higher values for HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} for the enhanced PET/CT than the non-enhanced one (all p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the degree of increase of HU, SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} between the two contrast media at any anatomic site (all p > 0.05). Visual evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT or between the two different contrast media (p = 0.77). Conclusion: When using a constant iodine delivery rate and total iodine dose in a BSA adapted injection protocol, there are no quantitative or qualitative differences in either CT or PET between contrast media with an iodine concentration of 300 mg/ml and 370 mg/ml, respectively.

  4. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J.A. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Cook, N.J. [Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butzer, J.S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schleich, N. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Firsching, M. [Friedrich Alexander University, Physics Department, Erlangen (Germany); Grasset, R.; Ruiter, N. de [University of Canterbury, Hitlab NZ, Christchurch (New Zealand); Campbell, M. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Section, Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2010-09-15

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 {mu}A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct from soft tissue and bone in all six mice. Calcium, iodine and barium were displayed as separate channels on 3D colour images at <55 {mu}m isotropic voxels. Spectral CT distinguishes contrast agents with K-edges only 4 keV apart. Multi-contrast imaging and molecular CT are potential future applications. (orig.)

  5. Multi-contrast 3D X-ray imaging of porous and composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapata, Adrian; Herzen, Julia [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ruiz-Yaniz, Maite [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38000 Grenoble (France); Zanette, Irene [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38000 Grenoble (France); Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany)

    2015-04-13

    Grating-based X-ray computed tomography allows for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the full X-ray complex index of refraction and the scattering coefficient distribution inside an object in three dimensions. Its multi-contrast capabilities combined with a high resolution of a few micrometers make it a suitable tool for assessing multiple phases inside porous and composite materials such as concrete. Here, we present quantitative results of a proof-of-principle experiment performed on a concrete sample. Thanks to the complementarity of the contrast channels, more concrete phases could be distinguished than in conventional attenuation-based imaging. The phase-contrast reconstruction shows high contrast between the hardened cement paste and the aggregates and thus allows easy 3D segmentation. Thanks to the dark-field image, micro-cracks inside the coarse aggregates are visible. We believe that these results are extremely interesting in the field of porous and composite materials studies because of unique information provided by grating interferometry in a non-destructive way.

  6. Nonabsorbable radioactive material in the treatment of carcinomas by local injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhgevany, K.B.; Mobini, J.; Bassett, J.G.; Miller, E.

    1988-03-01

    Nonabsorbable radioactive material was used in treating malignant lesions by local injection. One hundred thirty-five Lewis Wistar rats were inoculated subcutaneously with tumor cells. After 7 days, the rats grew tumors of approximately 1 x 1 x 1 cm at the injection site. The rats then were divided into two groups; 50% were kept as a control group while the other 50% received single injections of 1 mCi yttrium 90 (/sup 90/Y) microspheres directly into the center of the tumor. This study shows a significant reduction of the tumor growth rate in treated animals. Tumor sizes after 4 days averaged 1.31 ml in the treated rats and 9.74 ml in the control group. Excluding animals that had complete regression of the tumor, treated rats lived an average of 30.8 days from the day of treatment compared with the control rats, which lived an average of 17.4 days. Pathology examinations showed no effects from injected radioactive materials in the liver, bone marrow or the kidney. Examination of the injected area after 6 months showed that microspheres remained locally and that the tumor was replaced with collagen tissue.

  7. Evaluation of optimized magnetic resonance perfusion imaging scanning time window after contrast agent injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Wang, Dawei; Ma, Zhenshen; Deng, Guodong; Wang, Lanhua; Zhang, Jiandong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was evaluate the 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging scanning time window following contrast injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions and to determine the optimum scanning time window for increased scanner usage efficiency and reduced diagnostic adverse risk factors. A total of 52 women with breast abnormalities were selected for conventional MR imaging and T1 dynamic-enhanced imaging. Quantitative parameters [volume transfer constant (Ktrans), rate constant (Kep) and extravascular extracellular volume fraction (Ve)] were calculated at phases 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50, which represented time windows at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min, respectively, following injection of contrast agent. The association of the parameters at different phases with benign and malignant tumor diagnosis was analyzed. MR perfusion imaging was verified as an effective modality in the diagnosis of breast malignancies and the best scanning time window was identified: i) Values of Ktrans and Kep at all phases were statistically significant in differentiating benign and malignant tumors (P0.05); ii) values of Ve in benign tumors increased with phase number, but achieved no obvious changes at different phases in malignant tumors; iii) the optimum scanning time window of breast perfusion imaging with 3.0 T MR was between phases 10 and 30 (i.e., between 5 and 15 min after contrast agent injection). The variation trend of Ve values at different phases may serve as a diagnostic reference for differentiating benign and malignant breast abnormalities. The most efficient scanning time window was indicated to be 5 min after contrast injection, based on the observation that the Ve value only had statistical significance in diagnosis at stage 10. However, the optimal scanning time window is from 5 to 15 min following the injection of contrast agent, since that the variation trend of Ve is able to serve as a diagnostic reference.

  8. Suitability of new anode materials in mammography: dose and subject contrast considerations using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, H; Spyrou, G; Costaridou, L; Tzanakos, G; Panayiotakis, G

    2006-11-01

    Mammography is the technique with the highest sensitivity and specificity, for the early detection of nonpalpable lesions associated with breast cancer. As screening mammography refers to asymptomatic women, the task of optimization between the image quality and the radiation dose is critical. A way toward optimization could be the introduction of new anode materials. A method for producing the x-ray spectra of different anode/filter combinations is proposed. The performance of several mammographic spectra, produced by both existing and theoretical anode materials, is evaluated, with respect to their dose and subject contrast characteristics, using a Monte Carlo simulation. The mammographic performance is evaluated utilizing a properly designed mathematical phantom with embedded inhomogeneities, irradiated with different spectra, based on combinations of conventional and new (Ru, Ag) anode materials, with several filters (Mo, Rh, Ru, Ag, Nb, Al). An earlier developed and validated Monte Carlo model, for deriving both image and dose characteristics in mammography, was utilized and overall performance results were derived in terms of subject contrast to dose ratio and squared subject contrast to dose ratio. Results demonstrate that soft spectra, mainly produced from Mo, Rh, and Ru anodes and filtered with k-edge filters, provide increased subject contrast for inhomogeneities of both small size, simulating microcalcifications and low density, simulating masses. The harder spectra (W and Ag anode) come short in the discrimination task but demonstrate improved performance when considering the dose delivered to the breast tissue. As far as the overall performance is concerned, new theoretical spectra demonstrate a noticeable good performance that is similar, and in some cases better compared to commonly used systems, stressing the possibility of introducing new materials in mammographic practice as a possible contribution to its optimization task. In the overall

  9. Analysis of iodinated contrast delivered during thermal ablation: is material trapped in the ablation zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Po-hung; Brace, Chris L.

    2016-08-01

    Intra-procedural contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) has been proposed to evaluate treatment efficacy of thermal ablation. We hypothesized that contrast material delivered concurrently with thermal ablation may become trapped in the ablation zone, and set out to determine whether such an effect would impact ablation visualization. CECT images were acquired during microwave ablation in normal porcine liver with: (A) normal blood perfusion and no iodinated contrast, (B) normal perfusion and iodinated contrast infusion or (C) no blood perfusion and residual iodinated contrast. Changes in CT attenuation were analyzed from before, during and after ablation to evaluate whether contrast was trapped inside of the ablation zone. Visualization was compared between groups using post-ablation contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Attenuation gradients were calculated at the ablation boundary and background to quantitate ablation conspicuity. In Group A, attenuation decreased during ablation due to thermal expansion of tissue water and water vaporization. The ablation zone was difficult to visualize (CNR  =  1.57  ±  0.73, boundary gradient  =  0.7  ±  0.4 HU mm-1), leading to ablation diameter underestimation compared to gross pathology. Group B ablations saw attenuation increase, suggesting that iodine was trapped inside the ablation zone. However, because the normally perfused liver increased even more, Group B ablations were more visible than Group A (CNR  =  2.04  ±  0.84, boundary gradient  =  6.3  ±  1.1 HU mm-1) and allowed accurate estimation of the ablation zone dimensions compared to gross pathology. Substantial water vaporization led to substantial attenuation changes in Group C, though the ablation zone boundary was not highly visible (boundary gradient  =  3.9  ±  1.1 HU mm-1). Our results demonstrate that despite iodinated contrast being trapped in the ablation zone, ablation visibility was

  10. Charge injection in thin dielectric layers by atomic force microscopy: influence of geometry and material work function of the AFM tip on the injection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C; Makasheva, K; Boudou, L; Teyssedre, G

    2016-06-17

    Charge injection and retention in thin dielectric layers remain critical issues for the reliability of many electronic devices because of their association with a large number of failure mechanisms. To overcome this drawback, a deep understanding of the mechanisms leading to charge injection close to the injection area is needed. Even though the charge injection is extensively studied and reported in the literature to characterize the charge storage capability of dielectric materials, questions about charge injection mechanisms when using atomic force microscopy (AFM) remain open. In this paper, a thorough study of charge injection by using AFM in thin plasma-processed amorphous silicon oxynitride layers with properties close to that of thermal silica layers is presented. The study considers the impact of applied voltage polarity, work function of the AFM tip coating and tip curvature radius. A simple theoretical model was developed and used to analyze the obtained experimental results. The electric field distribution is computed as a function of tip geometry. The obtained experimental results highlight that after injection in the dielectric layer the charge lateral spreading is mainly controlled by the radial electric field component independently of the carrier polarity. The injected charge density is influenced by the nature of electrode metal coating (work function) and its geometry (tip curvature radius). The electron injection is mainly ruled by the Schottky injection barrier through the field electron emission mechanism enhanced by thermionic electron emission. The hole injection mechanism seems to differ from the electron one depending on the work function of the metal coating. Based on the performed analysis, it is suggested that for hole injection by AFM, pinning of the metal Fermi level with the metal-induced gap states in the studied silicon oxynitride layers starts playing a role in the injection mechanisms.

  11. Charge injection in thin dielectric layers by atomic force microscopy: influence of geometry and material work function of the AFM tip on the injection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Makasheva, K.; Boudou, L.; Teyssedre, G.

    2016-06-01

    Charge injection and retention in thin dielectric layers remain critical issues for the reliability of many electronic devices because of their association with a large number of failure mechanisms. To overcome this drawback, a deep understanding of the mechanisms leading to charge injection close to the injection area is needed. Even though the charge injection is extensively studied and reported in the literature to characterize the charge storage capability of dielectric materials, questions about charge injection mechanisms when using atomic force microscopy (AFM) remain open. In this paper, a thorough study of charge injection by using AFM in thin plasma-processed amorphous silicon oxynitride layers with properties close to that of thermal silica layers is presented. The study considers the impact of applied voltage polarity, work function of the AFM tip coating and tip curvature radius. A simple theoretical model was developed and used to analyze the obtained experimental results. The electric field distribution is computed as a function of tip geometry. The obtained experimental results highlight that after injection in the dielectric layer the charge lateral spreading is mainly controlled by the radial electric field component independently of the carrier polarity. The injected charge density is influenced by the nature of electrode metal coating (work function) and its geometry (tip curvature radius). The electron injection is mainly ruled by the Schottky injection barrier through the field electron emission mechanism enhanced by thermionic electron emission. The hole injection mechanism seems to differ from the electron one depending on the work function of the metal coating. Based on the performed analysis, it is suggested that for hole injection by AFM, pinning of the metal Fermi level with the metal-induced gap states in the studied silicon oxynitride layers starts playing a role in the injection mechanisms.

  12. Feasibility of 320-row area detector CT coronary angiography using 40 mL of contrast material: assessment of image quality and diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Rihyeon; Park, Eun-Ah; Lee, Whal; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To assess the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of 320-row area detector CT (320-ADCT) coronary angiography using 40 mL of contrast material in comparison with 60-mL protocol. This retrospective study included 183 patients who underwent 320-ADCT coronary angiography using 40 mL of contrast and additional 183 sex- and body mass index-matched patients using 60 mL of contrast constituting the control group. Both groups used the same 5-mL/sec injection rate. Quantitative image quality measurements and diagnostic accuracies were calculated and compared. Mean attenuation and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at the aorta and all coronary arteries were lower in the 40-mL group than in the 60-mL group (all, p < 0.05), except for the CNR at proximal coronary arteries at 100 kVp (p = 0.073). However, the proportion of coronary segments with vessel attenuation >250 HU was not different between groups (all, p > 0.05), except for distal coronary arteries at 80 kVp (p = 0.001). Furthermore, there were no differences in per-patient and per-segment diagnostic accuracies between the groups (all, p > 0.05). 320-ADCT coronary angiography using 40 mL of contrast showed image quality and diagnostic accuracy comparable to the 60-mL protocol, demonstrating the clinical feasibility of lowering the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy through contrast volume reduction. (orig.)

  13. Low tube voltage and low contrast material volume cerebral CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Song [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Xuzhou Medical College, School of Medical Imaging, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Meinel, Felix G.; McQuiston, Andrew D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Zhou, Chang Sheng; Qi, Li [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy of low kVp and low contrast material volume cerebral CT angiography (CTA) in intracranial aneurysm detection. One hundred twenty patients were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40 for each): Group A, 70 ml iodinated contrast agent/120 kVp; group B, 30 ml/100 kVp; group C, 30 ml/80 kVp. The CT numbers, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured in the internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). Subjective image quality was evaluated. For patients undergoing DSA, diagnostic accuracy of CTA was calculated with DSA as reference standard and compared. CT numbers of ICA and MCA were higher in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). SNR and CNR in groups A and B were higher than in group C (both P < 0.05). There was no difference in subjective image quality among the three groups (P = 0.939). Diagnostic accuracy for aneurysm detection among these groups had no statistical difference (P = 1.00). Compared with group A, the radiation dose of groups B and C was decreased by 45 % and 74 %. Cerebral CTA at 100 or 80 kVp using 30 ml contrast agent can obtain diagnostic image quality with a low radiation dose while maintaining the same diagnostic accuracy for aneurysm detection. (orig.)

  14. Models to Predict the Viscosity of Metal Injection Molding Feedstock Materials as Function of Their Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joamin Gonzalez-Gutierrez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of feedstock materials is directly related to its processability during injection molding; therefore, being able to predict the viscosity of feedstock materials based on the individual properties of their components can greatly facilitate the formulation of these materials to tailor properties to improve their processability. Many empirical and semi-empirical models are available in the literature that can be used to predict the viscosity of polymeric blends and concentrated suspensions as a function of their formulation; these models can partly be used also for metal injection molding binders and feedstock materials. Among all available models, we made a narrow selection and used only simple models that do not require knowledge of molecular weight or density and have parameters with physical background. In this paper, we investigated the applicability of several of these models for two types of feedstock materials each one with different binder composition and powder loading. For each material, an optimal model was found, but each model was different; therefore, there is not a universal model that fits both materials investigated, which puts under question the underlying physical meaning of these models.

  15. Dose dependence and temporal evolution of the T1 relaxation time and MRI contrast in the rat brain after subcutaneous injection of manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazeeb, Mohammed Salman; Sotak, Christopher H

    2012-12-01

    Divalent manganese ion (Mn(2+)) is a widely used T(1) contrast agent in manganese-enhanced MRI studies to visualize functional neural tracts and anatomy in the brain in vivo. In animal studies, Mn(2+) is administered at a dose that will maximize the contrast, while minimizing its toxic effects. In rodents, systemic administration of Mn(2+) via intravenous injection has been shown to create unique MRI contrast in the brain at a maximum dose of 175 mg kg(-1). However, intravenous administration of Mn(2+) results in faster bioelimination of excess Mn(2+) from the plasma due to a steep concentration gradient between plasma and bile. By contrast, following subcutaneous injection (LD(50) value = 320 mg kg(-1)), Mn(2+) is released slowly into the bloodstream, thus avoiding immediate hepatic elimination resulting in prolonged accumulation of Mn(2+) in the brain via the choroid plexus than that obtained via intravenous administration. The goal of this study was to investigate MRI dose response of Mn(2+) in rat brain following subcutaneous administration of Mn(2+). Dose dependence and temporal dynamics of Mn(2+) after subcutaneous injection can prove useful for longitudinal in vivo studies that require brain enhancement to persist for a long period of time to visualize neuroarchitecture like in neurodegenerative disease studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Search for novel contrast materials in dual-energy x-ray breast imaging using theoretical modeling of contrast-to-noise ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, R; Maidment, A D A

    2014-08-01

    Contrast-enhanced (CE) dual-energy (DE) x-ray breast imaging uses a low- and high-energy x-ray spectral pair to eliminate soft-tissue signal variation and thereby increase the detectability of exogenous imaging agents. Currently, CEDE breast imaging is performed with iodinated contrast agents. These compounds are limited by several deficiencies, including rapid clearance and poor tumor targeting ability. The purpose of this work is to identify novel contrast materials whose contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is comparable or superior to that of iodine in the mammographic energy range. A monoenergetic DE subtraction framework was developed to calculate the DE signal intensity resulting from the logarithmic subtraction of the low- and high-energy signal intensities. A weighting factor is calculated to remove the dependence of the DE signal on the glandularity of the breast tissue. Using the DE signal intensity and weighting factor, the CNR for materials with atomic numbers (Z) ranging from 1 to 79 are computed for energy pairs between 10 and 50 keV. A group of materials with atomic numbers ranging from 42 to 63 were identified to exhibit the highest levels of CNR in the mammographic energy range. Several of these materials have been formulated as nanoparticles for various applications but none, apart from iodine, have been investigated as CEDE breast imaging agents. Within this group of materials, the necessary dose fraction to the LE image decreases as the atomic number increases. By reducing the dose to the LE image, the DE subtraction technique will not provide an anatomical image of sufficient quality to accompany the contrast information. Therefore, materials with Z from 42 to 52 provide nearly optimal values of CNR with energy pairs and dose fractions that provide good anatomical images. This work is intended to inspire further research into new materials for optimized CEDE breast functional imaging.

  17. Effect of a Material Contrast on a Dynamic Rupture: 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Day, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    We use numerical simulations of spontaneously propagating ruptures to examine the effect of a material contrast on earthquake dynamics. We specifically study the case of a lateral contrast whereby the fault is the boundary between two different rock-types. This scenario was previously studied in two-dimensions by Harris and Day [BSSA, 1997], and Andrews and Ben-Zion [JGR, 1997], in addition to subsequent 2-D studies, but it has not been known if the two-dimensional results are applicable to the real three-dimensional world. The addition of the third dimension implies a transition from pure mode II (i.e., plane-strain) to mixed-mode crack dynamics, which is more complicated since in mode II the shear and normal stresses are coupled whereas in mode III (i.e., anti-plane strain) they are not coupled. We use a slip-weakening fracture criterion and examine the effect on an earthquake rupture of material contrasts of up to 50 percent across the fault zone. We find a surprisingly good agreement between our earlier 2-D results, and our 3-D results for along-strike propagation. We find that the analytical solution presented in Harris and Day [BSSA, 1997] does an excellent job at predicting the bilateral, along-strike rupture velocities for the three-dimensional situation. In contrast, the along-dip propagation behaves much as expected for a purely mode-III rupture, with the rupture velocities up-dip and down-dip showing the expected symmetries.

  18. Carotid and cerebral CT angiography using low volume of iodinated contrast material and low tube voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayan, M; Demirtas, H; Türker, Y; Kayan, F; Çetinkaya, G; Kara, M; Orhan Çelik, A; Umul, A; Yılmaz, Ö; Recep Aktaş, A

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate image quality of carotid computed tomography angiography (CTA) using a low voltage (80kV) and low amount of iodinated contrast material. A total of 101 patients referred for carotid CTA were randomly assigned to receive a specific protocol. In group A patients received intravenous administration of contrast material at a dose of 1mL/kg and CTA examinations were performed at 100kV. In group B, patients received intravenous administration of contrast material at a dose of 0.5mL/kg and CTA examinations were performed at 80kV. The same nonionic iodinated contrast material containing 370mg of iodine per mL was used in both groups. Attenuation values were measured from the center of specific arterial segments using regions of interest. Attenuation values above 300HU were accepted as significant. Institutional review board approval was obtained. A total of 50 patients were included in group A (38 men, 12 women; mean age, 63.56 years±13.18 [SD]) and 51 patients in group B (33 men, 18 women; mean age, 59.60 years±16.63 [SD]). A total of 1615 arterial segments (1515 common carotid artery-middle cerebral artery and 101 aortic arches) were analyzed. Venous contamination was not observed in either group. The mean attenuation values of all arterial segments in both groups were greater than 300HU. Mean arterial attenuation value in group B (499.22HU±97.25 [SD]) was significantly greater than in group A (374.36HU±73.79 [SD]) (P70%) was detected in 2 segments in group A and in 3 segments in group B, while grade IV stenosis (occlusion) was detected in 2 segments in group B. Distal common carotid artery dissection was detected in 1 patient and aortic dissection was detected in 1 patient in group B. Total dose-length product (DLP) value was significantly greater in group A (225.74mGy·cm±21.80 [SD]) than in group B (116.60mGy·cm±21.22 [SD]) (Pmaterial. This provides good image quality with low radiation dose. Copyright © 2016 Editions françaises de radiologie

  19. Tensile Characterization of Injection-Molded Fuzzy Glass Fiber/Nylon Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so...enhanced reinforcement (CER) in a nylon matrix. A majority of the masterbatch CER material research is focused on electromagnetic shielding applications...injection molded with varying weight percentages of CER to evaluate effect of the reinforcement on the mechanical properties. Tension testing showed

  20. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the breast: Analysis of tissue simulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Phase contrast imaging, particularly of the breast, is being actively investigated. The purpose of this work is to investigate the x-ray phase contrast properties of breast tissues and commonly used breast tissue substitutes or phantom materials with an aim of determining the phantom materials best representative of breast tissues. Methods: Elemental compositions of breast tissues including adipose, fibroglandular, and skin were used to determine the refractive index, n= 1 -{delta}+i {beta}. The real part of the refractive index, specifically the refractive index decrement ({delta}), over the energy range of 5-50 keV were determined using XOP software (version 2.3, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France). Calcium oxalate and calcium hydroxyapatite were considered to represent the material compositions of microcalcifications in vivo. Nineteen tissue substitutes were considered as possible candidates to represent adipose tissue, fibroglandular tissue and skin, and four phantom materials were considered as possible candidates to represent microcalcifications. For each material, either the molecular formula, if available, or the elemental composition based on weight fraction, was used to determine {delta}. At each x-ray photon energy, the absolute percent difference in {delta} between the breast tissue and the substitute material was determined, from which three candidates were selected. From these candidate tissue substitutes, the material that minimized the absolute percent difference in linear attenuation coefficient {mu}, and hence {beta}, was considered to be best representative of that breast tissue. Results: Over the energy range of 5-50 keV, while the {delta} of CB3 and fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of that of fibroglandular tissue, the {mu} of fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material better approximated the fibroglandular tissue. While the {delta} of BR10 and adipose tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of

  1. Optimization of acquisition and contrast injection protocol for C-arm CT imaging in transcatheter aortic valve implantation: initial experience in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numburi, Uma D; Kapadia, Samir R; Schoenhagen, Paul; Tuzcu, E Murat; von Roden, Martin; Halliburton, Sandra S

    2013-02-01

    To determine the optimal C-arm computed tomography (CT) protocol for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in swine. In 6 swine, C-arm CT was performed using 5-s ungated acquisition during sinus rhythm with aortic root (Method 1) or peripheral (Method 2) injection, and during rapid ventricular pacing with root injection (Method 3). Additionally, 24-s ECG-gated acquisitions were performed during sinus rhythm with root (Method 4) or peripheral (Method 5) injection. Aortic root enhancement, presence of artifacts and contrast volumes were compared for all methods. Aortic root measurements were also compared between C-arm CT and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). The best C-arm CT image set was identified and used to predict optimal angiographic projection angles during TAVI; predictions were compared to those from MDCT. Methods 1, 3, 4, and 5 yielded sufficient root enhancement with mild or moderate artifacts and aortic annulus, sinotubular junction, and mid-ascending aorta diameters similar to MDCT. Ungated C-arm CT (Methods 1, 3) required less contrast than ECG-gated C-arm CT (Methods 4, 5). Method 3 was optimal yielding images with high attenuation, few artifacts (2.0), and root measurements similar to MDCT using minimal contrast (36 mL). Predicted angiographic projections from Method 3 were similar to MDCT. Ungated C-arm CT during rapid pacing with aortic root injection required minimal contrast, yielded high attenuation and few artifacts, and aortic root measurements and predicted angiographic planes similar to those from MDCT.

  2. A novel quantitative imaging technique for material differentiation based on differential phase contrast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhihua; Zambelli, Joseph; Bevins, Nicholas; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2010-04-01

    Compared to single energy CT, which provides information only about the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients, dual energy CT is able to obtain the electron density and effective atomic number for different materials in a quantitative way. In this study, as an alternative to dual energy CT, a novel quantitative imaging method based on phase contrast CT is described. Rather than requiring two scans with different x-ray photon energies, diffraction grating-based phase contrast CT is capable of reconstructing images of both the linear attenuation and refractive index decrement from a single scan. From the two images, quantitative information of both the electron density and effective atomic number can be extracted. Experimental results demonstrate that: (1) electron density can be accurately determined from refractive index decrement through a linear relationship; and (2) effective atomic number can be explicitly derived from the ratio of linear attenuation to refractive index decrement, using a simple function, i.e., a power function plus a constant. The presented method will shed insight into the field of material separation and find its use in medical and non-medical applications.

  3. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, NG; Firsching, M; de Ruiter, N; Schleich, N; Butzer, J S; Cook, N J; Grasset, R; Campbell, M; Scott, N J A; Anderson, N G

    2010-01-01

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 A mu A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct f...

  4. Technologies of bearings systems production from composite materials by polyester resin injection into the closed mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy M. Turenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of modern technologies for manufacturing components and bearing systems made of composite materials has been conducted. These technologies are based on the polyester resin injection method and do not require high financial costs in manufacturing. The proposed method, due to the low cost of tooling, is convenient to produce a wide range of items made of composite materials, both in large-scale and single-piece production. Composite materials are intensively used in automotive industry, especially for motor racing vehicles’ parts. These technologies allow to solve the problem of creating ultra-light assemblies for modern car bodies, energy-absorbing passive safety elements and other high-loaded parts. They provide better strength and weight characteristics and better specific energy-output ratio of passive safety elements, as compared to conventional materials (metals and plastics. Considering the above, the most appropriate technology for the automotive industry has been assessed with that choice substantiation.

  5. High-resolution Z-contrast imaging and EELS study of functional oxide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, Robert F; Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Zhu, Yimei

    2008-08-01

    Functional complex-oxide materials show a wide variety of properties and behaviors that cannot be found in any other class of materials, including high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magneto resistance. Consequently, this group of oxide materials has become the focus of many experimental as well as theoretical studies, aiming at understanding the fundamental mechanisms and properties that govern these complex structures. Here, we will review our high-resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss studies of two complex-oxide materials systems, more specifically low-angle tilt grain-boundaries in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO), and the spin-state transition in LaCoO(3). It will be shown that the O K-edge pre-peak can be used to quantify the hole-concentration in the vicinity of the dislocation core in YBCO, as well as to determine the Co(3+) spin-state in LaCoO(3).

  6. Haemostatic agents of the gelatin matrix for a large liver wound by percutaneous injection without pressure under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Teng-fei; L(U) Fa-qin; LI Zhi-yan; LIU Ling; LIU Qiang; LIU Ai-jun; HUANG Ya-qin; TANG Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background The non-operation treatment of intra-abdominal trauma guided contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is one of the hottest research topic. Gelatin/thrombin/calcium (GTC) was developed as a novel haemostatic agent for non-operable intra-abdominal trauma. We hypothesized that GTC can achieve haemostasis (without the use of pressure)within a short time in a large wound model by percutaneous injection under CEUS guidance.Methods Forty Wister rats received large liver injuries by haemostatic clamp and were randomly divided into four groups, according to the haemostatic agent used. These included normal saline (NS) group A, lyophilising thrombin powder (LTP) group B, GTC group C, and absorbable α-cyanoacrylate (ACNA) group D. Each injury site was treated with one of the above materials and total bleeding time was recorded. All liver wounds were evaluated using CEUS at three periods: pre-injury, injury and post-treatment. The liver wounds were also evaluated by histology 3, 6, and 9 days after injury and the extents of abdominal adhesions were recorded.Results The sensitivity of CEUS (100%) in detecting blunt traumatic liver lesions was significantly higher than conventional ultrasound (42.5%). Bleeding times at the injury site in the GTC group C ((129.3±14.0) seconds) and ACNA group D ((5.2±1.0) seconds) were significantly shorter than those in the NS group A ((369.5±48.8) seconds, P <0.01) and LTP group B ((324.7±52.22) seconds, P <0.01). The LTP group B showed no significant difference compared with the NS group A. Gross examination of liver tissue revealed that there were fewer intra-abdominal adhesions in the GTC group C (10%) than in the ACNA group D (100%). Histopathologic examination showed that GTC was completely absorbed after nine days.Conclusions GTC, delivered by percutaneous injection under CEUS, may achieve haemostasis (without the use of pressure) within a short time in a large wound model. GTC is absorbable and may prevent intra

  7. Applications of Secondary Electron Composition Contrast Imaging Method in Microstructure Studies on Heterojunction Semiconductor Devices and Multilayer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The principle, imaging condition and experimental method for obtaining high resolution composition contrast in secondary electron image were described. A new technique of specimen preparation for secondary electron composition contrast observation was introduced and discussed. By using multilayer P+-Si1-xGex/p-Si heterojunction internal photoemission infrared detector as an example, the applications of secondary electron composition contrast imaging in microstructure studies on heterojunction semiconducting materials and devices were stated. The characteristics of the image were compared with the ordinary transmission electron diffraction contrast image. The prospects of applications of the imaging method in heterojunction semiconductor devices and multilayer materials are also discussed.

  8. Visual evoked response changes following intrathecal injection of water-soluble contrast media: a possible method of assessing neurotoxicity and a comparison of metrizamide and iopamidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbridge, A T; Bayliss, S G; Firth, R; Farrell, G

    1984-09-01

    An investigation was carried out to ascertain if there was a change in visual evoked responses following the intrathecal injection of water-soluble contrast media for myeloradiculography and if this change provided an indication of neurotoxicity as assessed by the onset of headache during a period of 20 h following the radiological examination. The patients were unselected and examined, when facilities for measuring the visual evoked response were available, immediately before and at 1 and 20 h after the examination. Control readings were carried out before, 1 h and 20 h after lumbar puncture in patients who did not have an injection of contrast medium. The first 25 patients in the series received metrizamide; when iopamidol became available a change to the newer medium was made and iopamidol was used on all subsequent patients. All the injections were carried out by the same radiologist and the patients were kept in hospital overnight and interviewed the next morning, avoiding a specific reference to headache unless the patient denied all symptoms. It was found that the latency of the visual evoked response was affected in some cases by the presence of contrast medium in the cerebrospinal fluid and that there was a correlation between the severity of headaches and the delay in the visual evoked response at the 20 h post-myelogram measurement, but not at 1 h after the examination. It would appear, therefore, that the visual evoked response measurement is a valid method of assessing, in the short term, the neurotoxicity of intrathecal water-soluble contrast media and that, on this evidence, iopamidol is less neurotoxic than metrizamide. We are not aware of any long-term complications resulting from the use of either contrast medium.

  9. Risk of extravasation after power injection of contrast media via the proximal port of multilumen central venous catheters. Case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schummer, C.; Sakr, Y.; Reinhart, K. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Anaestesiologie und Intensivtherapie; Steenbeck, J. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Gugel, M. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany). Klinik fuer Anaesthesiologie und Intensivtherapie; Schummer, W. [SRH Zentralklinikum Suhl (Germany). Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine

    2010-01-15

    Multilumen central venous catheters (CVCs) are not commonly used for power injection. However, in critically ill patients, CVCs - most of which do not have FDA approval for power injection - may be the only available venous access. The pitfalls of multilumen CVCs are illustrated by a case report of a patient in whom extravasation of intravenously administered contrast medium occurred after power injection in a triple-lumen CVC using the lumen with the port furthest from the catheter tip. The underlying mechanisms for the displacement of the initially correctly placed right subclavian CVC could include elevation of both arms of the obese patient or the power injection itself. The distances between port openings and catheter tips of various commercially available multilumen CVCs are assessed. We examine the possible caveats of ECG-guided CVC placement for optimal tip position, discuss technical difficulties related to power injection via CVCs, and review commonly used drugs that may cause extravasation injury. Knowledge of the distances between CVC port openings and the catheter tip are essential for safe intravasal administration of fluids. (orig.)

  10. Structural Reorganization of CNC in Injection-Molded CNC/PBAT Materials under Thermal Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Marcos; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-10-04

    Composite materials were prepared by extrusion and injection molding from polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT) and high aspect ratio cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) extracted from capim dourado fibers. Three CNC contents were used, corresponding to 0.5, 1, and 2 times the theoretical percolation threshold. Small-amplitude oscillary shear (SAOS) experiments show that as the CNC content increases, a more elastic behavior is observed but no percolating network can form within the polymeric matrix as a result of the high shear rates involved during the injection-molding process. Annealing of the samples at 170 °C was performed, and the possible reorganization of the nanofiller was investigated. This reorganization was further elucidated using 2D-SAOS and creep experiments.

  11. A triphenylamine-based benzoxazole derivative as a high-contrast piezofluorochromic material induced by protonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Pengchong; Chen, Peng; Jia, Junhui; Xu, Qiuxia; Sun, Jiabao; Yao, Boqi; Zhang, Zhenqi; Lu, Ran

    2014-03-11

    A triphenylamine-based benzoxazole derivative exhibits a low contrast piezofluorochromic behavior under external pressure, and a high-contrast fluorescence change induced by protonation can be observed.

  12. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) of cadaveric shoulders: comparison of contrast dynamics in hyaline and fibrous cartilage after intraarticular gadolinium injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, E; Hodler, J; Pfirrmann, C W A

    2009-01-01

    Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a novel method to investigate cartilaginous and fibrocartilaginous structures. To investigate the contrast dynamics in hyaline and fibrous cartilage of the glenohumeral joint after intraarticular injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine. Transverse T(1) maps were acquired on a 1.5T scanner before and after intraarticular injection of 2.0 mmol/l gadopentetate dimeglumine in five cadaveric shoulders using a dual flip angle three-dimensional gradient echo (3D-GRE) sequence. The acquisition time for the T(1) maps was 5 min 5 s for the whole shoulder. Measurements were repeated every 15 min over 2.5 hours. Regions of interest (ROIs) covering the glenoid cartilage and the labrum were drawn to assess the temporal evolution of the relaxation parameters. T(1) of unenhanced hyaline cartilage of the glenoid was 568+/-34 ms. T(1) of unenhanced fibrous cartilage of the labrum was 552+/-38 ms. Significant differences (P=0.002 and 0.03) in the relaxation parameters were already measurable after 15 min. After 2 to 2.5 hours, hyaline and fibrous cartilage still demonstrated decreasing relaxation parameters, with a larger range of the T(1)(Gd) values in fibrous cartilage. T(1) and triangle Delta R(1) values of hyaline and fibrous cartilage after 2.5 hours were 351+/-16 ms and 1.1+/-0.09 s(-1), and 332+/-31 ms and 1.2+/-0.1 s(-1), respectively. A significant decrease in T(1)(Gd) was found 15 min after intraarticular contrast injection. Contrast accumulation was faster in hyaline than in fibrous cartilage. After 2.5 hours, contrast accumulation showed a higher rate of decrease in hyaline cartilage, but neither hyaline nor fibrous cartilage had reached equilibrium.

  13. Feasibility of contrast material volume reduction in coronary artery imaging using 320-slice volume CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Patrick A.; May, Juliane; Rogalla, Patrik; Hamm, Bernd; Lembcke, Alexander [Charite-University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Butler, Craig [Charite-University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Alberta, Department of Cardiology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    To assess reduced volumes of contrast agent on image quality for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) by using single-beat cardiac imaging with 320-slice CT. Forty consecutive male patients (mean age: 55.8 years) undergoing CCTA with body weight {<=}85 kg, heart rate {<=}65 bpm, and ejection fraction {>=}55% were included. Image acquisition protocol was standardized (120 kV, 400 mA, and prospective ECG-triggered single-beat nonspiral CCTA). Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups (G1: received 40 ml, G2: 50 ml, G3: 60 ml, G4: 70 ml). Groups were compared with respect to aortic attenuation, image noise, and image quality. CT values (mean {+-} standard deviation) in the aortic root were measured as 423 {+-} 38 HU in G1, and 471 {+-} 68, 463 {+-} 60, and 476 {+-} 78 HU in G2-4, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in attenuation among the groups (P > 0.068). All 40 CT datasets were rated diagnostic, and image noise and image quality were not statistically different among groups. Using 320-slice volume CT, diagnostic image quality can be achieved with 40 ml of contrast material in CCTA in patients with normal body weight, cardiac function, and low heart rate. (orig.)

  14. Converting strain maps into elasticity maps for materials with small contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the question of the quantitative reconstruction of heterogeneous distributions of isotropic elastic moduli from full strain field data. This parameter identification problem exposes the need for a local reconstruction procedure that is investigated here in the case of materials with small contrast. To begin with the integral formulation framework for the periodic linear elasticity problem, first- and second-order asymptotics are retained for the strain field solution and the effective elasticity tensor. Properties of the featured Green's tensor are investigated to characterize its decomposition into an isotropic term and an orthogonal part. The former is then shown to define a local contribution to the volume integral equations considered. Based on this property, then the combination of multiple strain field solutions corresponding to well-chosen applied macroscopic strains is shown to lead to a set of local and uncoupled identities relating, respectively, the bulk and shear moduli to the spherical and deviatoric components of the strain fields. Valid at the first-order in the weak contrast limit, such relations permit point-wise conversions of strain maps into elasticity maps. Furthermore, it is also shown that for macroscopically isotropic material configurations a single strain field solution is actually sufficient to reconstruct either the bulk or the shear modulus distribution. Those results are then revisited in the case of bounded media. Finally, some sets of analytical and numerical examples are provided for comparison and to illustrate the relevance of the obtained strain-modulus local equations for a parameter identification method based on full-field data.

  15. Injectable scaffold materials differ in their cell instructive effects on primary human myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejbøl, Eva Kildall; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Nair, Prabha Damodaran

    2017-01-01

    a minimally invasive technique. In this study, we examined in vitro the cell instructive effects of three types of injectable scaffolds, fibrin, alginate, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microparticles on primary human myoblasts. The myoblast morphology and progression in the myogenic program differed......, depending on the type of scaffold material. In alginate gel, the cells obtained a round morphology, they ceased to proliferate, and entered quiescence. In the fibrin gels, differentiation was promoted, and myotubes were observed within a few days in culture, while poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid...

  16. Contrasting glass and plastic material requirements for reflective and refractive CPV solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Steve; Krevor, David

    2012-10-01

    Concentrator PhotoVoltaic (CPV) solar energy systems concentrate the sun 500 - 1,000 times or more, in order to take economic advantage of the most advanced and efficient solar cells. The two prevalent system architectures use either reflective glass optics - such as based on a Cassegrain telescope design - or a refractive plastic system - either an acrylic or silicone-on-glass Fresnel lens - for concentration. Both systems have their advantages in areas of performance and durability. Both system designs manufacture their optics by low-cost processes that are unavailable to the other material system. These contrasts are reviewed. The refractive system embodies a simpler optical concept, requiring a single Fresnel lens rather than two concentrating mirrors. However, the reflective, glass system uses the greater design sophistication to provide a greater acceptance angle, which yields tolerance benefits in both manufacture and installation; and also provides faster optics without suffering the spectral aberrations of the refractive systems. Both glass and plastics are low-cost commodity materials. The long-term durability of optical glass is more firmly established than for optical plastics. And light transmission through optical plastics is attenuated by absorbance in both the UV and IR regions, in regions where such light is harvested by efficient multi-junction solar cells.

  17. Impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on reproducibility of volume measurements in semiautomated segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin-Roy, Florence; Hadjadj, Sofiane; Thomas, Olivier; Yang, Dan Yang [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kauffmann, Claude [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Tang, An [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Saint-Luc, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Piche, Nicolas [Object Research System, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Elkouri, Stephane [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Vascular surgery, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Therasse, Eric [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    To assess the impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) volume and maximal diameter (D-max) measurements using segmentation software. CT images of 80 subjects presenting AAA were divided into four equal groups: with or without contrast enhancement, and with or without stent-graft implantation. Semiautomated software was used to segment the aortic wall, once by an expert and twice by three readers. Volume and D-max reproducibility was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and accuracy was estimated between the expert and the readers by mean relative errors. All segmentations were technically successful. The mean AAA volume was 167.0 ± 82.8 mL and the mean D-max 55.0 ± 10.6 mm. Inter- and intraobserver ICCs for volume and D-max measurements were greater than 0.99. Mean relative errors between readers varied between -1.8 ± 4.6 and 0.0 ± 3.6 mL. Mean relative errors in volume and D-max measurements between readers showed no significant difference between the four groups (P ≥ 0.2). The feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of AAA volume and D-max measurements using segmentation software were not affected by the absence of contrast injection or the presence of stent-graft. (orig.)

  18. In situ osteoblast mineralization mediates post-injection mechanical properties of osteoconductive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialorucki, Callan; Subramanian, Gayathri; Elsaadany, Mostafa; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the temporal relationship between in situ generated calcium content (mineralization) and the mechanical properties of an injectable orthobiologic bone-filler material. Murine derived osteoblast progenitor cells were differentiated using osteogenic factors and encapsulated within an injectable polycaprolactone nanofiber-collagen composite scaffold (PN-COL +osteo) to evaluate the effect of mineralization on the mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffold. A comprehensive study was conducted using both an experimental and a predictive analytical mechanical analysis for mechanical property assessment as well as an extensive in vitro biological analysis for in situ mineralization. Cell proliferation was evaluated using a PicoGreen dsDNA quantification assay and in situ mineralization was analyzed using both an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and an Alizarin Red stain-based assay. Mineralized matrix formation was further evaluated using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and visualized using SEM and histological analyses. Compressive mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffolds were determined using a confined compression stress-relaxation protocol and the obtained data was fit to the standard linear solid viscoelastic material mathematical model to demonstrate a relationship between increased in situ mineralization and the mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffold. Cell proliferation was constant over the 21 day period. ALP activity and calcium concentration significantly increased at day 14 and 21 as compared to PN-COL -osteo with undifferentiated osteoblast progenitor cells. Furthermore, at day 21 EDS, SEM and von Kossa histological staining confirmed mineralized matrix formation within the PN-COL scaffolds. After 21 days, compressive modulus, peak stress, and equilibrium stress demonstrate significant increases of 3.4-fold, 3.3-fold, and 4.0-fold respectively due to in situ mineralization. Viscoelastic

  19. Investigation on the micro injection molding process of an overmolded multi-material micro component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro injection molding (μIM) is one of the few technologies capable of meeting the increasing demand of complex shaped micro plastic parts. This process, combined with the overmolding technique, allows a fast and cost-efficient production of multi-material micro components, saving numerous...... and difficult assembly steps, being the plastic molded directly on a metal substrate. In this scenario, an investigation on the fully automated micro overmolding manufacturing technology of a three-material micro component for acoustic applications has been carried out. Preliminary experiments allowed...... geometrical characteristics of the component. An optical CMM with sub-micrometric resolution has been employed for the measurements. Results show that the process parameters have a significant influence on some component features, while others mainly depend on the insert alignment inside the micro mold cavity....

  20. Effect of Nozzle Material on Downstream Lateral Injection Cold Spray Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Leblanc-Robert, S.; Fernández, R.; Farjam, A.; Jodoin, B.

    2016-08-01

    In cold gas dynamic spraying, the gas nature, process stagnation pressure and temperature, and the standoff distance are known to be important parameters that affect the deposition efficiency and coating quality. This investigation attempts to elucidate the effect of nozzle material on coatings produced using a downstream lateral injection cold spray system. Through experimentation, it is shown that the nozzle material has a substantial effect on deposition efficiency and particle velocity. It is proposed that the effects are related to complex interaction between the particles and the internal nozzle walls. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that during the particle/nozzle wall contact, a nozzle with higher thermal diffusivity transfers more heat to the particles. This heat transfer results in lower critical velocities and therefore higher deposition efficiencies, despite a noticeable reduction of particle velocities which is also attributed to particle-nozzle interactions.

  1. Material- and feature-dependent effects on cell adhesion to micro injection moulded medical polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Ying; Habimana, Olivier; Flood, Peter; Reynaud, Emmanuel G; Rodriguez, Brian J; Zhang, Nan; Casey, Eoin; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Two polymers, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), containing a range of nano- to micron- roughness surfaces (Ra 0.01, 0.1, 0.4, 1.0, 2.0, 3.2 and 5.0μm) were fabricated using electrical discharge machining (EDM) and replicated using micro injection moulding (μIM). Polymer samples were characterized using optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water surface contact angle. Cell adhesion tests were carried out using bacterial Pseudomonas fluorescens and mammalian Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells to determine the effect of surface hydrophobicity, surface roughness and stiffness. It is found that there are features which gave insignificant differences (feature-dependent effect) in cell adhesion, albeit a significant difference in the physicochemical properties (material-dependent effect) of substrata. In bacterial cell adhesion, the strongest feature-dependence is found at Ra 0.4μm surfaces, with material-dependent effects strongest at Ra 0.01μm. Ra 0.1μm surfaces exhibited strongest feature-dependent effects and Ra 5.0μm has strongest material-dependent effects on mammalian cell adhesion. Bacterial cell adhesion is found to be favourable to hydrophobic surfaces (COC), with the lowest adhesion at Ra 0.4μm for both materials. Mammalian cell adhesion is lowest in Ra 0.1μm and highest in Ra 1.0μm, and generally favours hydrophilic surfaces (PMMA). These findings can be used as a basis for developing medical implants or microfluidic devices using micro injection moulding for diagnostic purposes, by tuning the cell adhesion on different areas containing different surface roughnesses on the diagnostic microfluidic devices or medical implants.

  2. A study of the anatomy and injection techniques of the ovine stifle by positive contrast arthrography, computed tomography arthrography and gross anatomical dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Muylkens, Benoit; Depiereux, Eric; Clegg, Peter; Herteman, Nicolas; Lamberts, Matthieu; Bonnet, Pierre; Nisolle, Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Although ovine stifle models are commonly used to study osteoarthritis, meniscal pathology and cruciate ligament injuries and repair, there is little information about the anatomy of the joint or techniques for synovial injections. The objectives of this study were to improve anatomical knowledge of the synovial cavities of the ovine knee and to compare intra-articular injection techniques. Synovial cavities of 24 cadaver hind limbs from 12 adult sheep were investigated by intra-articular resin, positive-contrast arthrography, computed tomography (CT) arthrography and gross anatomical dissection. Communication between femoro-patellar, medial femoro-tibial and lateral femoro-tibial compartments occurred in all cases. The knee joint should be considered as one synovial structure with three communicating compartments. Several unreported features were observed, including a communication between the medial femoro-tibial and lateral femoro-tibial compartments and a latero-caudal recess of the lateral femoro-tibial compartment. No intermeniscal ligament was identified. CT was able to define many anatomical features of the stifle, including the anatomy of the tendinous synovial recess on the lateral aspect of the proximal tibia under the combined tendon of the peroneus tertius, extensor longus digitorum and extensor digiti III proprius. An approach for intra-articular injection into this recess (the subtendinous technique) was assessed and compared with the retropatellar and paraligamentous techniques. All three injection procedures were equally successful, but the subtendinous technique appeared to be most appropriate for synoviocentesis and for injections in therapeutic research protocols with less risk of damaging the articular cartilage.

  3. A contrast enhancement and scanning techniques for CT angiography of head and neck. One phase injection method for simultaneous imaging of vessels and tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yasuhiko; Indo, Hiroko; Noikura, Takenori [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dental School

    1999-09-01

    We report on a method of CT-Angiography useful for examining lesion of the head and neck using three-dimensional images and measured CT value. This study focused on some of the important blood vessels in the head and neck. The aim of this method was to obtain high-contrast enhancement for both vessels and tumors at same time. A total amount of 100 ml nonionic contrast media (Omnipaque 240, 240 mg iodine per milliliter, Daiichi seiyaku, Tokyo, Japan) was injected intravenously with a flow of 1.5 ml/sec. Spiral scans, 24 rotations with 24 seconds, were started at a time when remaining amount of contrast media had become 30 to 20 ml. All CT scans were performed using double speed spiral scan technique with a slice thickness of 2 to 3 mm and table speeds from 3 to 5 mm/rotation. The patients populations consisted of 9 men and 6 women who ranged in age from 37 to 85 years. Sixteen CT-angiography were performed according to this method. Mean CT values of major blood vessels were measured in order to find out threshold at the level of submandibular gland in 13 examinations for 12 subjects. Important vessels like the common, internal, and the external artery, internal and external jugular vein were clearly visible in all subjects. Three dimensional images of these vessels could also be reconstructed for 15 of the subjects. Mean CT values were 211 Hounsfield units (HU) and 209 HU for the right and left internal carotid artery, respectively, and 204 HU and 206 HU for the right and left external carotid artery, respectively. Mean CT values for right and left internal jugular vein were 195 HU and 194 HU respectively. Measured CT values at each important blood vessels showed this method could yields acceptable enhancements. Good enhancement effect of tumor and blood vessels in the same scan seems to be mutually incompatible. One very important trade-off is the early enhancement effect at blood vessels versus the late enhancement effect at tumors. The other important trade

  4. In vitro study on the anticoagulant effect of the water soluble contrast material: Diatrizoate, Ioxaglate and Iopromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Duk; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    It has been reported that newly developed nonionic contrast material is less effective in anticoagulation than ionic contrast media. Anticoagulation properties were studied with high osmolar ionic contrast medium (diatrizoate), low osmolar ionic medium (ioxaglate) and low osmolar nonionic contrast medium (iopromide) as well as with normal saline for control. Arterial blood was taken from 10 adults before angiography. Two ml. of the arterial blood was introduced into the plastic syringes containing 2 cc. of each contrast medium and saline . The syrings were kept undisturbed in room temperature for 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes and then the blood contrast mixture was poured on the filter paper to detect the clots formed in the syrings. Delay of the clotting time was also checked in the contrast media with various concentrations of 100%, 30%, 10%, and 3%. Chi-square test of the data shows very significant difference in anticoagulation effect between the ionic group (diatrizoate, ioxzglate) and the nonionic one (iopromide). Clotting time in the nonionic medium (iopromide) was shorter in 30% concentration than that of the ionic material (diatrizoate, ioxaglate). Nonionic contrast medium (iopromide) has anticoagulation effect, but less effective than ionic media (diatrizoate, ioxaglate)

  5. New natural injection-moldable composite material from sunflower oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouilly, A; Orliac, O; Silvestre, F; Rigal, L

    2006-03-01

    Through a twin-screw extrusion process the native structure of sunflower oil cake was completely transformed (globular protein denaturation/texturization and husk fiber defibration) into a simpler matrix-fiber structure, as could be seen on SEM micrographs. Further chemical reduction of protein disulfide bridges greatly reduced the melt viscosity of the moistened composite that it could be injection-molded. The molded specimens were tested and their tensile and flexural properties and water absorption calculated. Their water resistance appeared to be particularly high, and could be enhanced further after a thermal treatment (N2, 200 degrees C). The proteic matrix seemed to behave like a natural thermoset resin. Sunflower oil cake could be used without any additives to make biodegradable, water resistant and exceptionally cheap materials.

  6. Electronic packaging materials prepared by powder injecting molding and pressure infiltration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AlSiCp (65 vol.% SiC) electronic packaging materials were manufactured by powder injection molding (PIM) and pressure infiltration process in order to obtain near net-shaped parts. SiCp preformed compacts obtained by pre-sintering process at 1150 K have high strength and good appearance, and the ratio of open porosity to total porosiry is nearly 98%. The relative density of composites is bigger than 99%. The thermal conductivity of AlSiCp composites fabricated by this method is 198 W·m-1·K-1, and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is 8.0 × 10-6/K (298 K).

  7. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metal injection molded Ti-Nb binary alloys as biomedical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Chang, Keke; Ebel, Thomas; Qian, Ma; Willumeit, Regine; Yan, Ming; Pyczak, Florian

    2013-12-01

    The application of titanium (Ti) based biomedical materials which are widely used at present, such as commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V, are limited by the mismatch of Young's modulus between the implant and the bones, the high costs of products, and the difficulty of producing complex shapes of materials by conventional methods. Niobium (Nb) is a non-toxic element with strong β stabilizing effect in Ti alloys, which makes Ti-Nb based alloys attractive for implant application. Metal injection molding (MIM) is a cost-efficient near-net shape process. Thus, it attracts growing interest for the processing of Ti and Ti alloys as biomaterial. In this investigation, metal injection molding was applied to the fabrication of a series of Ti-Nb binary alloys with niobium content ranging from 10wt% to 22wt%, and CP-Ti for comparison. Specimens were characterized by melt extraction, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Titanium carbide formation was observed in all the as-sintered Ti-Nb binary alloys but not in the as-sintered CP-Ti. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns revealed that the carbides are Ti2C. It was found that with increasing niobium content from 0% to 22%, the porosity increased from about 1.6% to 5.8%, and the carbide area fraction increased from 0% to about 1.8% in the as-sintered samples. The effects of niobium content, porosity and titanium carbides on mechanical properties have been discussed. The as-sintered Ti-Nb specimens exhibited an excellent combination of high tensile strength and low Young's modulus, but relatively low ductility. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  9. Contrast material and gallbladder kinetics: implications for same day sonography after intravenous pyelography or CT scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, O; Naipaul, R; Rampaul, R S; Abhang, V; Archibald, A; Maharaj, P; Mohammed, S; Mohammed, L

    1999-11-01

    Sonographic examination of the gallbladder has allowed us to study the effects of various substances on this organ. A prospective study involving 77 patients was undertaken to evaluate the effects of intravenous or oral contrast agents on gallbladder volume changes in patients without known gallbladder disease. A mean volume after contraction of 24.8% was observed after administration of intravenous contrast agent (P < 0.01) and of 31.9% after oral administration (P < 0.01). This phenomenon of contraction of the gallbladder should therefore be recognized when sonographic or computed tomographic evaluation of the gallbladder is undertaken after imaging procedures that use radiographic contrast agents either intravenously or orally.

  10. Conditional-likelihood approach to material decomposition in spectral absorption-based or phase-contrast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, Pavlo

    2015-03-01

    Material decomposition in absorption-based X-ray CT imaging suffers certain inefficiencies when differentiating among soft tissue materials. To address this problem, decomposition techniques turn to spectral CT, which has gained popularity over the last few years. Although proven to be more effective, such techniques are primarily limited to the identification of contrast agents and soft and bone-like materials. In this work, we introduce a novel conditional likelihood, material-decomposition method capable of identifying any type of material objects scanned by spectral CT. The method takes advantage of the statistical independence of spectral data to assign likelihood values to each of the materials on a pixel-by-pixel basis. It results in likelihood images for each material, which can be further processed by setting certain conditions or thresholds, to yield a final material-diagnostic image. The method can also utilize phase-contrast CT (PCI) data, where measured absorption and phase-shift information can be treated as statistically independent datasets. In this method, the following cases were simulated: (i) single-scan PCI CT, (ii) spectral PCI CT, (iii) absorption-based spectral CT, and (iv) single-scan PCI CT with an added tumor mass. All cases were analyzed using a digital breast phantom; although, any other objects or materials could be used instead. As a result, all materials were identified, as expected, according to their assignment in the digital phantom. Materials with similar attenuation or phase-shift values (e.g., glandular tissue, skin, and tumor masses) were especially successfully when differentiated by the likelihood approach.

  11. Background interference on the color of dental composite materials with different thickness by digital contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Emery C.; Florez, Fernando L. E.; Portero, Priscila P.; Lizarelli, Rozane F. Z.; Oliveira, Osmir B., Jr.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2007-02-01

    In this work the color dependence of resin composites with the background color was evaluated. The objective was to measure since what thickness the color of the sample stops being influenced by the color of the background over which the resin is placed and the methodology used in experiment was based in analyzing the contrast of digital images of the sample over a black background. The results shown that since 0.8 mm the images contrast becomes almost constant; it prove that since this thickness the color of resin composite depends on the optical resin properties only. The experiment was repeated under three conditions of luminosity to evaluate the influence of it on the image contrast and the results obtained were identical.

  12. Reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth: comparison of three different materials using injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, A; Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Shrestha, P

    2010-04-01

    This in vitro study compared the reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth taken by silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin using an injection technique to determine which material produced fewer voids. Twenty impressions/patterns using this technique were made for each material and compared with each other on the basis of number, location and size of voids. Length of each dowel impression/ pattern was also compared. The percentage of void free surfaces using silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin were 90%, 100% and 85% respectively. Most of the voids were less than 1mm in size and situated in the middle third of the impression/pattern. There was no significant difference in the length of the impression/ pattern taken by the three materials. Using the injection technique to reproduce the intra-radicular anatomy of the dowel space, all three materials will show predictably good results.

  13. Nuclear fission as a tool to contrast the contraband of special nuclear material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Viesti Giuseppe; Cester Davide; Nebbia Giancarlo; Stevanato Luca; Neri Francesco; Petrucci Stefano; Selmi Simone; Tintori Carlo

    2015-09-01

    An integrated mobile system for port security is presented. The system was designed to perform passive measurements of neutrons and -rays to search and identify radioactive and special nuclear materials as well as for the active investigations by using the tagged neutron inspection technique of suspect dangerous materials. The discrimination between difficult-to-detect uranium samples and high materials as lead was specifically studied. The system has been employed in laboratory detection tests and in a seaport field test.

  14. Flat-detector computed tomography with intravenous contrast material application in experimental aneurysms: comparison with multislice CT and conventional angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struffert, Tobias; Doelken, Marc; Adamek, Edyta; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Kloska, Stephan; Ott, Sabine; Doerfler, Arnd

    2010-05-01

    Despite limited soft tissue resolution flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT) provides substantial superior spatial resolution in comparison with multislice computed tomography (MS-CT). This may add value in the visualization of small vascular structures if intravenous contrast application leads to substantial opacification and visibility of intracranial vessels or aneurysms. To evaluate the feasibility of visualization of vascular structures by FD-CT angiography (FD-CTA) after intravenous contrast injection compared with MS-CTA and intra-arterial digital subtracted angiography (IADSA) in an animal model. Aneurysms were created in the right common carotid artery in six New Zealand White Rabbits using the elastase technique. Imaging was performed using FD-CTA, MS-CTA (injection of 1 ml/kg body weight) and IADSA. Anonymized volume rendering reconstruction (VRT), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images were reconstructed and evaluated by two experienced reviewers for aneurysm geometry and vascular structure anatomy using standard tools of a dedicated workstation. Aneurysms could be successfully created in all animals. Measurements of aneurysm geometry (aneurysm height, width, neck width) and vascular structures (brachiocephalic trunk, carotid artery diameter and plane) were nearly identical in all three modalities. Intra- and inter-observer correlations of the different parameters showed high r values between 0.83 and 0.99. Our results show the feasibility of FD-CTA in comparison with MS-CTA and IADSA in an animal model. Despite limited soft tissue resolution, opacification of vascular structures with sufficient contrast to the surrounding structures was possible in all animals. Vascular structures appeared better delineated in FD-CTA than in MS-CTA, probably due to the superior spatial resolution.

  15. A Simplified Method for Upscaling Composite Materials with High Contrast of the Conductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ewing, R.

    2009-01-01

    A large class of industrial composite materials, such as metal foams, fibrous glass materials, mineral wools, and the like, are widely used in insulation and advanced heat exchangers. These materials are characterized by a substantial difference between the thermal properties of the highly conductive materials (glass or metal) and the insulator (air) as well as low volume fractions and complex network-like structures of the highly conductive components. In this paper we address the important issue for the engineering practice of developing fast, reliable, and accurate methods for computing the macroscopic (upscaled) thermal conductivities of such materials. We assume that the materials have constant macroscopic thermal conductivity tensors, which can be obtained by upscaling techniques based on the postprocessing of a number of linearly independent solutions of the steady-state heat equation on representative elementary volumes (REVs). We propose, theoretically justify, and computationally study a numerical method for computing the effective conductivities of materials for which the ratio δ of low and high conductivities satisfies δ ≪ 1. We show that in this case one needs to solve the heat equation in the region occupied by the highly conductive media only. Further, we prove that under certain conditions on the microscale geometry the proposed method gives an approximation that is O(δ)-close to the upscaled conductivity. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy and the limitations of the method on a number of numerical examples. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Reducing invasiveness, duration, and cost of magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis by omitting intravenous contrast injection -- Does it change the assessment of inflammatory and destructive joint changes by the OMERACT RAMRIS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides highly sensitive assessment of inflammatory and destructive changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints, but intravenous (IV) Gd injection prolongs examination time and increases cost, invasiveness, and patient discomfo......: Omitting IV contrast injection did not change scores of bone erosions and bone edema, but decreased the reliability of synovitis scores. However, this disadvantage may for some purposes be outweighed by the possibility to assess more joints and/or greater feasibility....

  17. Use of CO2 as an angiographic contrast material in the diagnosis of acute hepatic hemorrhage a case report; Uso del CO2 como medio de contraste angiografico en el diagnostico de hemorragia hepatica aguda: a proposito de un caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, L.; Gorriz, E.; Pardo, M. D.; Reyes, R. [Hospital General de Gran Canaria. Dr. Negrin. Canarias (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Selective abdominal arteriography with an iodinated contrast material is the method of choice for detecting the site of bleeding in patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage in whom the results of endoscopic examination were negative CO{sub 2}, has been used successfully as a contrast material for arteriography of abdomen and lower limbs. We present the case of a patient in whom suspected gastrointestinal bleeding was detected more rapidly and reliably with co{sub 2} than with an iodinated contrast material. (Author) 18 Refs.

  18. A model on liquid penetration into soft material with application to needle-free jet injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Hua; Li, Ji; Cheng, Gary J

    2010-10-01

    A mathematical model has been presented for a high speed liquid jet penetration into soft solid by a needle-free injection system. The model consists of a cylindrical column formed by the initial jet penetration and an expansion sphere due to continuous deposition of the liquid. By solving the equations of energy conservation and volume conservation, the penetration depth and the radius of the expansion sphere can be predicted. As an example, the calculation results were presented for a typical needle-free injection system into which a silicon rubber was injected into. The calculation results were compared with the experimental results.

  19. Material characterization of poly-lactic acid shelled ultrasound contrast agent and their dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shirshendu; Russakow, Daniel; Rodgers, Tyler; Sarkar, Kausik; Cochran, Michael; Wheatley, Margaret

    2011-11-01

    Micron-size gas bubbles encapsulated with lipids and proteins are used as contrast enhancing agents for ultrasound imaging. Biodegradable polymer poly-lactic acid (PLA) has recently been suggested as a possible means of encapsulation. Here, we report in vitro measurement of attenuation and scattering of ultrasound through an emulsion of PLA agent as well as theoretical modeling of the encapsulated bubble dynamics. The attenuation measured with three different transducers of central frequencies 2.25, 3.5 and 5 MHz, shows a peak around 2-3 MHz. These bubbles also show themselves to possess excellent scattering characteristics including strong non-linear response that can be used for harmonic and sub-harmonic contrast imaging. Our recently developed interfacial rheological models are applied to describe the dynamics of these bubbles; rheological model properties are estimated using measured attenuation data. The model is then applied to predict nonlinear scattered response, and the prediction is compared against experimental observation. Partially supported by NSF and NIH.

  20. Combined magnetic resonance imaging of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary arteries after a single injection of a blood pool contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansch, Andreas; Neumann, Steffi; Baltzer, Pascal; Waginger, Matthias; Kaiser, Werner A.; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Betge, Stefan; Poehlmann, Gunther [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Internal Medicine I, Jena (Germany); Pfeil, Alexander; Wolf, Gunter [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany); Boettcher, Joachim [SRH Klinikum Gera, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Gera (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Agreement rate between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler ultrasound (DUS) for the detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities was attempted by using the intravascular MRI contrast agent gadofosveset trisodium. The potential of this method to detect pulmonary embolism (PE) was also evaluated. Forty-three consecutive inpatients with ultrasound-confirmed DVT but no clinical signs of PE were prospectively enrolled in this feasibility study. MRI was performed after a single injection of gadofosveset trisodium. The pulmonary arteries were imaged using a 3D Fast Low Angle Shot (FLASH) gradient recalled echo sequence. Additionally, pulmonary arteries, abdominal veins, pelvic and leg veins were imaged using a fat-suppressed 3D gradient echo Volume Interpolated Breath-hold Examination (VIBE FS). Gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced MRI detected more thrombi in the pelvic region, upper leg and lower leg than the initial DUS. In addition, PE was detected in 16 of the 43 DVT patients (37%). This study shows the feasibility of a combined protocol for the MRI diagnosis of DVT and PE using gadofosveset trisodium. This procedure is not only more sensitive in detecting DVT compared to standard DUS, but is also able to detect PE in asymptomatic patients. (orig.)

  1. Speed and efficiency of femtosecond spin current injection into a nonmagnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofherr, M.; Maldonado, P.; Schmitt, O.; Berritta, M.; Bierbrauer, U.; Sadashivaiah, S.; Schellekens, A. J.; Koopmans, B.; Steil, D.; Cinchetti, M.; Stadtmüller, B.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Mathias, S.; Aeschlimann, M.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate femtosecond spin injection from an optically excited Ni top layer into an Au bottom layer using time-resolved complex magneto-optical Kerr effect (C-MOKE) measurements. Employing the C-MOKE formalism, we are able to follow layer-resolved demagnetization in Ni and the simultaneous spin injection into the adjacent Au film, both occurring within ˜40 fs . We confirm the ballistic to diffusive propagation of the spin transfer process with ab initio theory and superdiffusive transport calculations. In particular, our combined experimental-theoretical effort does allow us to quantify the so far elusive amount of spin injection, and therefore the spin injection efficiency at the interface.

  2. Affect of the electrical characteristics depending on the hole and electron injection materials of red organic light-emitting diodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jong-Yeol Shin; Hyun-Min Choi; Hyeon-Seok Han; Jin-Woong Hong

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the electrical and optical properties of red OLEDs (organic lightemitting diodes) with a four-layer structure, ITO/amorphous fluoropolymer (AF)/,′--diphenyl,′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1, 1-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (TPD)/R-H:R-D/lithium fluoride (LiF)/Al, containing a hole injection material, AF (amorphous fluoropolymer) and an electron injection material, LiF. Compared to the basic structure (two-layer structure), the brightness and luminous efficiency of the four-layer structure, ITO/TPD/R-H:R-D/Al, increased approximately 100 times (30,000 lm/m2) and 150 times (51 lm/W), respectively, with an applied voltage. The excellent efficiency of the external proton was also increased 150 times (0.51%). That is, the hole and electron injection layers improved the surface roughness of ITO and Al, and the interfacial physical properties. In addition, these layers allowed the smooth injection of holes and electrons. The luminance, luminous efficiency and external quantum efficiency were attributed to an increase in the recombination rates.

  3. Screening for impaired renal function in outpatients before iodinated contrast injection: Comparing the Choyke questionnaire with a rapid point-of-care-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Too, C.W., E-mail: toochowwei@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Ng, W.Y., E-mail: ng.wai.yoong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, 20 College Road, Academia, Singapore 169856 (Singapore); Tan, C.C., E-mail: tan.chin.chong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Mahmood, M.I., E-mail: muhd.illyyas.mahmood@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Tay, K.H., E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Iodinated intravenous contrast carries a low risk of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). • Patients with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} are particularly at risk for CIN. • The Choyke questionnaire is used to screen for impaired renal function in outpatients. • Choyke questionnaire is a good screening tool for eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}. • Point of care test (POCT) for serum creatinine can reduce waiting time. - Abstract: Rationale and purpose: To determine the usefulness of the Choyke questionnaire with a creatinine point-of-care test (POCT) to detect impaired renal function amongst outpatients receiving intravenous iodinated contrast in a tertiary centre. Materials and methods: Between July and December 2012, 1361 outpatients had their serum creatinine determined by POCT and answered the Chokye questionnaire just before their examination. Results: Four hundred and eighty (35.2%) patients had at least one ‘Yes’ response. Forty-four patients (3.2%) had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and 14 patients (1.0%) have eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the Choyke criteria in detecting patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} are respectively: 65.9%, 65.8%, 6.0% and 98.3% and to detect eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}: 92.9%, 65.3%, 2.7% and 99.9%. Only ‘Yes’ responses to ‘Have you ever been told you have renal problems?’ and ‘Do you have diabetes mellitus?’ were statistically significant in predicting eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, with odds ratio 98.7 and 4.4 respectively. Conclusion: The Choyke questionnaire has excellent sensitivity and moderate-to-good specificity in detecting patients with <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, below this level it has been shown that risk of contrast induced nephropathy increases significantly, making it an effective screening tool. Also the use of POCT can potentially

  4. Material híbrido como agente de contraste en imágenes de resonancia magnética

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Asunción, Pablo; Cabrera García, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a un agente de contraste de resonancia magnética basado en un material híbrido compuesto de un núcleo órgano-metálico derivado del azul de Prusia y una cubierta de sílice y, opcionalmente, moléculas de un poli(etilenglicol), un agente fluorescente, un radionúcleo y/o una sustancia directora a receptores, células o tejidos específicos, unidas por enlace covalente a la superficie de la cubierta inorgánica.

  5. Material híbrido como agente de contraste en imágenes de resonancia magnética

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Asunción, Pablo; Cabrera García, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a un agente de contraste de resonancia magnética basado en un material híbrido compuesto de un núcleo órgano-metálico derivado del azul de Prusia y una cubierta de sílice y, opcionalmente, moléculas de un poli(etilenglicol), un agente fluorescente, un radionúcleo y/o una sustancia directora a receptores, células o tejidos específicos, unidas por enlace covalente a la superficie de la cubierta inorgánica.

  6. Extractable sulphate-sulphur, total sulphur and trace-element determinations in plant material by flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heanes, D.L. (South Australian Department of Agriculture, Adelaide (Australia))

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and reproducible procedure for determining total sulphur(S) and trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese and iron) in plant material is described. Plant material is digested in culture tubes with a mixture of nitric and perchloric acids containing ammonium metavanadate and calcium chloride. In the acid digest, concentrations of total-S as sulphate are determined by turbidimetry and trace-elements by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using flow injection analysis. The results for a range of plant materials compare well with those obtained by conventional procedures for the same elements. The microprocessor controlled digestion and multielement assay procedure described here offers improved laboratory efficiencies in materials, time and cost effectiveness. The techniques should be particularly useful when plant tissues are in limited supply.

  7. Micro Engineering: Experiments conducted on the use of polymeric materials in micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Christian; Tosello, Guido; Nestler, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    To advance micro injection moulding it is necessary to study systematically the factors affecting process and tooling reliability. This paper reviews the main findings of Cardiff Universities 4M and SEMOFS research in this field. In particular, the factors affecting the manufacturability of micro...

  8. Optimized angiographic computed tomography with intravenous contrast injection: an alternative to conventional angiography in the follow-up of clipped aneurysms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölitz, Philipp; Struffert, Tobias; Ganslandt, Oliver; Saake, Marc; Lücking, Hannes; Rösch, Julie; Knossalla, Frauke; Doerfler, Arnd

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an optimized angiographic CT (ACT) program with intravenous contrast agent injection (ivACT) in the assessment of potential aneurysm remnants after neurosurgical clipping compared with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The authors report on 14 patients with 19 surgically clipped cerebral aneurysms who were scheduled to undergo angiographic follow-up. For each patient, the authors performed ivACT with dual rotational acquisition and conventional angiography including a 3D rotational run. The ivACT and 3D DSA data were reconstructed with different imaging modes, including a newly implemented subtraction mode with motion correction. Thereafter, the data sets were merged by the dual-volume technique, and freely rotatable 3D images were obtained for further analysis. Observed aneurysm remnants were electronically measured and classified for each modality by 2 experienced neuroradiologists. Digital subtraction angiography and ivACT both provided high-quality images without motion artifacts. Artifact disturbances from the aneurysm clips led to a compromised, but still sufficient, image quality in 1 case. The ivACT assessed all aneurysm remnants as true-positive up to a minimal size of 2.6×2.4 mm in accordance with the DSA findings. There was a tendency for ivACT to overestimate the size of the aneurysm remnants. All cases without aneurysm remnants on DSA were scored correctly as true-negative by ivACT. By using an optimized image acquisition protocol as well as enhanced postprocessing algorithms, the noninvasive ivACT seems to achieve results comparable to those of conventional angiography in the follow-up of clipped cerebral aneurysms. The authors have shown that ivACT can provide reliable diagnostic information about potential aneurysm remnants after neurosurgical clipping with high sensitivity and specificity, sufficient for clinical decision making, at least for aneurysms in the

  9. Innovative use of wood-plastic-composites (WPC) as a core material in the sandwich injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Martin, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The demand for materials based on renewable raw materials has risen steadily in recent years. With society's increasing interest for climate protection and sustainability, natural-based materials such as wood-plastic-composites (WPC) have gained market share thanks to their positive reputation. Due to advantages over unreinforced plastics such as cost reduction and weight savings it is possible to use WPC in a wide area of application. Additionally, an increase in mechanical properties such as rigidity and strength is achieved by the fibers compared to unreinforced polymers. The combination of plastic and wood combines the positive properties of both components in an innovative material. Despite the many positive properties of wood-plastic-composite, there are also negative characteristics that prevent the use of WPC in many product areas, such as automotive interiors. In particular, increased water intake, which may result in swelling of near-surface particles, increased odor emissions, poor surface textures and distortion of the components are unacceptable for many applications. The sandwich injection molding process can improve this situation by eliminating the negative properties of WPC by enclosing it with a pure polymer. In this case, a layered structure of skin and core material is produced, wherein the core component is completely enclosed by the skin component. The suitability of WPC as the core component in the sandwich injection molding has not yet been investigated. In this study the possibilities and limitations of the use of WPC are presented. The consideration of different fiber types, fiber contents, skin materials and its effect on the filling behavior are the focus of the presented analysis.

  10. [Study on limit detection of flavones in diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials by LC-MS and HPLC-DAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sen; Li, Yan-jing; Huang, Wen-zhe; Kang, Dan-yu; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Limit test of flavones in diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials by UV-Vis and HPLC-DAD method was studied in this essay. The HPLC-DAD method has lower LOD (about 1% of the UV-Vis), that is, the sensitivity is higher than UV-Vis method. Through the analysis of the kinds of flavonoids ingredients in the samples by LC-MS, the three compounds with highest contents are kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. Kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin were chosen as reference compounds for HPLC analysis, and the HPLC separation analysis was carried on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) with methanol and water containing 0.4% phosphoric acid (50: 50) as mobile phase, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was set at 360 nm. This method has good specificity, precision and reproducibility. The LODs of quercetin, kaempferide and isorhamnetin were 27.6, 22.3, 29.5 μg x L(-1). The average recovery was 87.9% (RSD 3.3%), 91.7% (RSD 3.1%), 88.3 (RSD 1.3%) for quercetin, kaempferide and isorhamnetin, respectively. Based on the 10 batches of sample results and sensitivity of different HPLC, the content of total flavonoids ingredients of diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials was limited no more than 2 x 10(-5). This method is simple, quick and has good maneuverability, and could be used to the limit test of flavonoids in the diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials.

  11. Microscopic identification of Chinese medicinal materials based on X-ray phase contrast imaging: from qualitative to quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y.; Liang, Z.; Tan, H.; Ni, L.; Zhao, Z.; Xiao, T.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    Although a variety of methods, ranging from simple morphological examination to physical and chemical analysis, and DNA molecular biology, exist for authenticating Chinese medicinal materials(CMMs), no methods can achieve both the source species identification and quality evaluation of CMMs simultaneously. Furthermore, the methods that are currently available for the identification of CMMs, including both optical and electronic microscopy, usually entail strict requirements for sample preparation or testing environment, such as the slicing of super-thin sections, or processing with specific chemical reagents. These treatments not only damage the CMMs but may also cause some of the original microstructures to be missed. Additionally, they may even yield false results. Owing to the unique penetrating character of X-rays, X-ray phase contrast imaging(XPCI) can be used to realize the inner microstructures of CMMs through nondestructive imaging. With the higher flux and luminance of the third generation of synchrotron radiation facility, XPCI can provides clearer and finer microstructures of CMMs, which are mainly composed of C, H, O, and N elements, with better spatial and density resolutions. For more than ten years, the X-ray imaging group at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics has investigated the microstructures of CMMs by XPCI and they have established and developed a quantitative X-ray phase contrast micro-CT for investigating the characteristic microstructures of CMMs. During this period, a variety of typical CMMs have been investigated, from two-dimensional (2D) radiography to three-dimensional (3D) micro-CT, from qualitative to quantitative. Taken together, these results verify that quantitative X-ray phase contrast micro-CT is a practical tool for the microscopic investigation of CMMs. Additionally, further efforts are being made to find the relationship between the microstructures' quantitative factors and active chemical components. At present

  12. True non-contact atomic force microscopy imaging of heterogeneous biological samples in liquids: topography and material contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Lisa; Colchero, Jaime

    2017-02-23

    The present work analyses how the tip-sample interaction signals critically determine the operation of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) set-up immersed in liquid. On heterogeneous samples, the conservative tip-sample interaction may vary significantly from point to point - in particular from attractive to repulsive - rendering correct feedback very challenging. Lipid membranes prepared on a mica substrate are analyzed as reference samples which are locally heterogeneous (material contrast). The AFM set-up is operated dynamically at low oscillation amplitude and all available experimental data signals - the normal force, as well as the amplitude and frequency - are recorded simultaneously. From the analysis of how the dissipation (oscillation amplitude) and the conservative interaction (normal force and resonance frequency) vary with the tip-sample distance we conclude that dissipation is the only appropriate feedback source for stable and correct topographic imaging. The normal force and phase then carry information about the sample composition ("chemical contrast"). Dynamic AFM allows imaging in a non-contact regime where essentially no forces are applied, rendering dynamic AFM a truly non-invasive technique.

  13. Injectable thermosensitive hydrogel composite with surface-functionalized calcium phosphate as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan RR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RangRang Fan,1 XiaoHui Deng,2 LiangXue Zhou,1 Xiang Gao,1 Min Fan,1 YueLong Wang,1 Gang Guo11State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2Department of Human Anatomy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, L-lactide was used to modify the tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP and tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP surface which can form functionalized poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA-grafted β-TCP (g-β-TCP and PLLA-grafted TTCP (g-TTCP particles. The g-β-TCP and g-TTCP obtained were incorporated into a PEG-PCL-PEG (PECE matrix to prepare injectable thermosensitive hydrogel composites. The morphology of the hydrogel composites showed that the g-β-TCP and g-TTCP particles dispersed homogeneously into the polymer matrix, and each hydrogel composite had a three-dimensional network structure. Rheologic analysis showed that the composite had good thermosensitivity. Changes in calcium concentration and pH in simulated body fluid solutions confirmed the feasibility of surface-functionalized calcium phosphate for controlled release of calcium. All the results indicate that g-β-TCP/PECE and g-TTCP/PECE hydrogels might be a promising protocol for tissue engineering.Keywords: injectable, thermosensitivity, surface functionalization, calcium phosphate, biocompatibility

  14. Creation of Polyurethane Injection Materials, Their Pilot-industrial Production, Development and Industrial Introduction of the Technology of Strengthening and Restoring the Operability of Damaged Constructions and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marukha, V.І.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane and foam polyurethane fluid injection materials not conceding foreign analogues and technology technology of restoration and strengthening the operability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures and buildings damaged by cracks were developed. Normative and technical documentation on the injection materials and technological processes was created. The diagnosticrestoring complex for implementing the above technologies was designed, installed and utilized at the construction sites. The equipment is designed and manufactured; the technology of the research and industrial production of «A» and «B» components of injecting polyurethane materials is designed and developed. The pilot-scale batch is manufactured. Technological processes of preparation and application of the «A» and «B» componentsof the injecting materials in industrial conditions are worked out and implemented.

  15. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Polyphosphoester as a Novel Injectable Alveolar Replacement Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixing ZHANG; Jing MAO; Xiangli FENG; Jianzhong XIAO; Jinjun QIU

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxieity of polyphosphoester polymer used as a novel injectable alveolar bone substitutes for controlled delivery of tetracycline. Cell culture medium was exposed to the polymer (0.01-10 mg/mL) for 24h. The L-929 mouse fibroblasts were then exposed to the treated cell culture medium for 24h. Finally, cell viability and growth were assessed by using MTT assay and Alamar Blue assay. No significant cytotoxicity of the polyphosphoester against L-929 mouse fibroblasts was observed at a concentration up to 10 mg/mL (P0.05). The two evaluation methods showed no significant differences (P0.05). This study suggests that polyphosphoester does not demonstrate any significant toxic effects to cells in vitro and has the potential to be used both as a medical device and as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications.

  16. Increased initiation and growth of tumor cell lines, cancer stem cells and biopsy material in mice using basement membrane matrix protein (Cultrex or Matrigel) co-injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Rafael; Benton, Gabriel; Aranoutova, Irina; Kleinman, Hynda K; Bonfil, R Daniel

    2012-05-17

    This protocol requires 2-4 h and presents a method for injecting tumor cells, cancer stem cells or dispersed biopsy material into subcutaneous or orthotopic locations within recipient mice. The tumor cells or biopsy are mixed with basement membrane matrix proteins (CultrexBME or Matrigel) at 4 °C and then injected into recipient animals at preferred anatomical sites. Tumor cells can also be co-injected with additional cell types, such as fibroblasts, stromal cells, endothelial cells and so on. Details are given on appropriate cell numbers, handling and concentration of the basement membrane proteins, recipient animals, injection location and techniques. This procedure enables the growth of tumors from cells or biopsy material (tumor graft) with greater efficiency of take and growth, and with retention of the primary tumor phenotype based on histology. Co-injection with additional cell types provides more physiological models of human cancers for use in drug screening and studying cancer biology.

  17. Simultaneous X-ray diffraction and phase-contrast imaging for investigating material deformation mechanisms during high-rate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, M; Sun, T; Parab, N; Guo, Z; Fezzaa, K; Luo, S; Chen, W

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-speed camera and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), a simultaneous X-ray imaging and diffraction technique has been developed for studying dynamic material behaviors during high-rate tensile loading. A Kolsky tension bar has been used to pull samples at 1000 s(-1) and 5000 s(-1) strain-rates for super-elastic equiatomic NiTi and 1100-O series aluminium, respectively. By altering the ICCD gating time, temporal resolutions of 100 ps and 3.37 µs have been achieved in capturing the diffraction patterns of interest, thus equating to single-pulse and 22-pulse X-ray exposure. Furthermore, the sample through-thickness deformation process has been simultaneously imaged via phase-contrast imaging. It is also shown that adequate signal-to-noise ratios are achieved for the detected white-beam diffraction patterns, thereby allowing sufficient information to perform quantitative data analysis diffraction via in-house software (WBXRD_GUI). Of current interest is the ability to evaluate crystal d-spacing, texture evolution and material phase transitions, all of which will be established from experiments performed at the aforementioned elevated strain-rates.

  18. Hygromorphic behaviour of cellular material: hysteretic swelling and shrinkage of wood probed by phase contrast X-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derome, Dominique; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Patera, Alessandra; Guyer, Robert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Wood is a hygromorphic material, meaning it responds to changes in environmental humidity by changing its geometry. Its cellular biological structure swells during wetting and shrinks during drying. The origin of the moisture-induced deformation lies at the sub-cellular scale. The cell wall can be considered a composite material with stiff cellulose fibrils acting as reinforcement embedded in a hemicellulose/lignin matrix. The bulk of the cellulose fibrils, forming 50% of the cell wall, are oriented longitudinally, forming long-pitched helices. Both components of cell wall matrix are displaying swelling. Moisture sorption and, to a lesser degree, swelling/shrinkage are known to be hysteretic. We quantify the affine strains during the swelling and shrinkage using high resolution images obtained by phase contrast synchrotron X-ray tomography of wood samples of different porosities. The reversibility of the swelling/shrinkage is found for samples with controlled moisture sorption history. The deformation is more hysteretic for high than for low density samples. Swelling/shrinkage due to ad/desorption of water vapour displays also a non-affine component. The reversibility of the swelling/shrinkage indicates that the material has a structural capacity to show a persistent cellular geometry for a given moisture state and a structural composition that allows for moisture-induced transitional states. A collection of qualitative observations of small subsets of cells during swelling/shrinkage is further studied by simulating the observed behaviour. An anisotropic swelling coefficient of the cell wall is found to emerge and its origin is linked to the anisotropy of the cellulose fibrils arrangement in cell wall layers.

  19. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of cholinesterase activities in biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Jiri; Bajgar, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri

    2010-09-06

    The method for automatic continual monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in biological material is described. It is based on flexible system of plastic pipes mixing samples of biological material with reagents for enzyme determination; reaction product penetrates through the semipermeable membrane and it is spectrophotometrically determined (Ellman's method). It consists of sampling (either in vitro or in vivo), adding the substrate and flowing to dialyzer; reaction product (thiocholine) is dialyzed and mixed with 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) transported to flow spectrophotometer. Flowing of all materials is realised using peristaltic pump. The method was validated: time for optimal hydratation of the cellophane membrane; type of the membrane; type of dialyzer; conditions for optimal permeation of reaction components; optimization of substrate and DTNB concentrations (linear dependence); efficacy of peristaltic pump; calibration of analytes after permeation through the membrane; excluding of the blood permeation through the membrane. Some examples of the evaluation of the effects of AChE inhibitors are described. It was demonstrated very good uniformity of peaks representing the enzyme activity (good reproducibility); time dependence of AChE inhibition caused by VX in vitro in the rat blood allowing to determine the half life of inhibition and thus, bimolecular rate constants of inhibition; reactivation of inhibited AChE by some reactivators, and continual monitoring of the activity in the whole blood in vivo in intact and VX-intoxicated rats. The method is simple and not expensive, allowing automatic determination of AChE activity in discrete or continual samples in vitro or in vivo. It will be evaluated for further research of cholinesterase inhibitors.

  20. Does gadolinium-based contrast material improve diagnostic accuracy of local invasion in rectal cancer MRI? A multireader study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Marc J; Lakhman, Yulia; McGinty, Katrina; Weiser, Martin R; Sohn, Michael; Zheng, Junting; Shia, Jinru

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare reader accuracy and agreement on rectal MRI with and without gadolinium administration in the detection of T4 rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In this study, two radiologists and one fellow independently interpreted all posttreatment MRI studies for patients with locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer using unenhanced images alone or combined with contrast-enhanced images, with a minimum interval of 4 weeks. Readers evaluated involvement of surrounding structures on a 5-point scale and were blinded to pathology and disease stage. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and AUC were calculated and kappa statistics were used to describe interreader agreement. RESULTS. Seventy-two patients (38 men and 34 women) with a mean age of 61 years (range, 32-86 years) were evaluated. Fifteen patients had 32 organs invaded. Global AUCs without and with gadolinium administration were 0.79 and 0.77, 0.91 and 0.86, and 0.83 and 0.78 for readers 1, 2, and 3, respectively. AUCs before and after gadolinium administration were similar. Kappa values before and after gadolinium administration for pairs of readers ranged from 0.5 to 0.7. CONCLUSION. On the basis of pathology as a reference standard, the use of gadolinium during rectal MRI did not significantly improve radiologists' agreement or ability to detect T4 disease.

  1. [Study thought of multi-dimensional structure quality control of Xiaoaiping injection based on material basis component structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chun-Xia; Liu, Dan; Huang, Ping; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-11-01

    The quality control over traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations has long been an important issue on the international development road of TCMs. Because of the complexity of TCM ingredients, preparation production and its quality control become a big difficulty. How to produce TCM preparations with preparation quality stability and controllability is the key problem in urgent need of solution in current TCM preparation field. The author thought that according to the characteristics of TCM preparation process, the multidimensional dynamic quality control model in the production process might become one of methods for solving quality controllability of TCM preparations. Therefore, we proposed the study through of the multi-dimensional structure quality control based on TCM material basis component structure. The study aims to control over the stability of TCM preparation quality during the whole process of dynamic changes (the component analysis monitoring on intermediates during the process of production, herbal source, intermediate production to preparation products). Xiaoaiping injection was taken as the example to expound the multidimensional quality control process of Xiaoaiping injection, in the hope of providing new ideas for the quality control over modern TCM preparations.

  2. In-flight behavior of dissimilar co-injected particles in the spraying of metal-ceramic functionally gradient materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the spraying of functionally gradient coatings the particle ensemble delivered to the substrate can vary from a relatively low melting point metallic particle to a significantly higher melting point ceramic particle. At various stages in the spray process the particle ensemble can be either predominantly metallic, ceramic, or an intermediate combination. For co-injected particles the mixtures do not behave as a simple linear superposition of the spray patterns of the individual particle types. The particle temperature, velocity, size distributions, and pattern characteristics of the resulting spray fields is examined for all ceramic particle sprays (ZrO{sub 2}), all metallic particle sprays (NiCrAlY), and for a 1:1 mixture. The major particle-particle interaction occurs in the injector itself and results in a modified spray pattern which is different from that of either material sprayed alone. The particle velocity distributions generally exhibit a bimodal nature which is dependent on the size and density of the injected particles.

  3. Effect of organic small-molecule hole injection materials on the performance of inverted organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zheng, Yifan; Zheng, Ding; Yu, Junsheng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the influence of small-molecule organic hole injection materials on the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs) as the hole transport layer (HTL) with an architecture of ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PC71BM/HTL/Ag has been investigated. A significant enhancement on the performance of OSCs from 1.06% to 2.63% is obtained by using N, N‧-bis(1-naphthalenyl)-N, N‧-bis-phenyl-(1, 1‧-biphenyl)-4, 4‧-diamine (NPB) HTL. Through the resistance simulation and space-charge limited current analysis, we found that NPB HTL cannot merely improve the hole mobility of the device but also form the Ohmic contact between the active layer and anode. Besides, when we apply mix HTL by depositing the NPB on the surface of molybdenum oxide, the power conversion efficiency of OSC are able to be further improved to 2.96%.

  4. Designing an experimental HIV/HCV intervention to promote the safe re-use of drug preparation materials by injection drug users in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles Rafaela R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Injection drug users (IDUs in San Juan, Puerto Rico are characterized by high rates of daily injecting, injection of shared drugs, re-use of injection syringes, and use of shooting galleries. They lack adequate access to new injection syringes and drug preparation equipment, and experience elevated rates of HIV and HCV infection. Between April and August, 2006, researchers and active IDUs collaborated in the development of an experimental HIV/HCV intervention aimed at identifying drug preparation items and practices that will enable IDUs to make drug solutions without potentially contaminated injection syringes contacting materials used to prepare drugs. The collaboration involved discussing and testing a variety of drug preparation items and practices in office and community settings. The process was repeated until concerns that had been raised were resolved, and a tentative set of intervention items and practices to be evaluated in a community field trial was identified. Throughout, a strong emphasis was placed on the capacity of an item or practice to address common problems confronted by IDUs (blunted needles, clogged syringes, injected particles in addition to the core aim of reducing contamination of preparation materials by blood in injection syringes. This report describes the final selection of items and practices: 1 A small water bottle that permits IDUs to add approximately .05 cc water drops directly to drug powder in cookers; 2 A preparation syringe (a type of ancillary equipment not used for injecting that permits IDUs to pull up a measurable amount of water to add to drug powder, an alternative to producing water drops; 3 A filtering device, the Sterifilt filter, attached to a preparation syringe, which eliminates the need for cotton or cigarette filters; 4 Use of a preparation syringe to distribute drug solution by backloading to injection syringe(s; 5 A small water bottle enabling IDUs to clean injection syringes by

  5. Evaluation of a novel PTFE material for separation and preconcentration of trace levels of metal ions in sequential injection (SI) and sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) systems interfaced with detection by ETAAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Chomchoei, Roongrat; Gała, Piotr

    The operational characteristics of a novel PTFE bead material, granular Algoflon®, used for separation and preconcentration of metal ions via adsorption of on-line generated non-charged metal complexes, were evaluated in a sequential injection (SI) system furnished with an external packed column...

  6. Fe-C interactions and soil organic matter stability in two tropical soils of contrasting parent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, E.; Thompson, A.; Plante, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The long residence time of soil organic matter (SOM) is a dynamic property, reflecting the diversity of stabilization mechanisms active within the soil matrix. Climate and ecosystem properties act at the broadest scale, while biochemical recalcitrance, physical occlusion and mineral association drive stability at the microscale. Increasing evidence suggests that the stability of SOM is dominated by organo-mineral interactions. However, the 2:1 clays that provide much of the stabilization capacity in temperate soils are typically absent in tropical soils due to weathering. In contrast, these soils may contain an abundance of iron and aluminium oxides and oxyhydroxides, known as short-range-order (SRO) minerals. These SRO minerals are capable of SOM stabilization through adsorption or co-precipitation, a faculty largely enabled by their high specific surface area (SSA). As such, despite their relatively small mass, SRO minerals may contribute substantially to the SOM stabilization capacity of tropical soils. The objective of this work is to characterize and quantify these Fe-C interactions. Surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were taken from 20 quantitative soil pits dug within the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory in northeast Puerto Rico. Soils were stratified across granodiorite and volcaniclastic parent materials. Four extraction procedures were used to isolate three different forms of Fe-C interactions: sodium pyrophosphate to isolate organo-metallic complexes, hydroxylamine and oxalate to isolate SRO Fe- and Al-hydroxides, and dithionite to isolate crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides. Extracts were analysed for DOC and Fe and Al concentrations to estimate the amount of SOM associated with each mineral type. Soils were subjected to SSA and solid-phase C analyses before and after extraction to determine the contribution of the various Fe mineral types to soil SSA, and therefore to potential stabilization capacity through organo-mineral complexation. Preliminary results

  7. Sodium alginate as an ideal submucosal injection material for endoscopic submucosal resection: preliminary experimental and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Tomonori; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Masaaki; Suzuki, Kosuke; Inomata, Masafumi; Shiraishi, Norio; Sato, Yuhki; Kitano, Seigo

    2011-11-01

    Sodium alginate is used clinically in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Because of its viscosity, sodium alginate could possibly become a new submucosal injection material for use in endoscopic resection. We evaluated the feasibility of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using sodium alginate. The lesion-lifting properties of sodium alginate were examined in porcine stomachs and were compared with those of normal saline solution and sodium hyaluronate solution. After confirming the proper concentration of sodium alginate, ESD using sodium alginate was performed in 11 patients with gastric mucosal cancer or adenoma. The lesion-lifting properties of sodium alginate and clinical outcomes were assessed. The thickness of the submucosal elevation created by 3% sodium alginate in porcine stomach was equivalent to that of sodium hyaluronate. ESD using sodium alginate was completed successfully in all patients without adverse effects except in 1 patient in whom transient shrinkage of the gastric wall disappeared spontaneously after approximately 30 minutes. The mean tumor size was 15.3 mm. En bloc resection and a negative resection margin were obtained in all. Histopathologic examination revealed that all tumors were confined to the mucosal layer except for 1 that was confined to the submucosal layer without lymphovascular invasion, and there were no adverse effects such as tissue damage. No patient required additional treatment, and none showed recurrence during a median follow-up period of 28 months. Small sample size. This preliminary study suggests that sodium alginate might be a novel, safe submucosal injection material for use in endoscopic resection. Further investigation of the properties of sodium alginate is warranted. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation Between CTA Image Quality and Injection Speed of Contrast Media%CTA成像质量与造影剂注射速率相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑超; 汤连志; 刘惠敏; 刘志鹏; 姜洪

    2015-01-01

    目的 讨论64层螺旋CT冠状动脉血管成像质量与造影剂注射速率间关系. 方法 整群选取该院2014 年6月—2015年4月进行冠脉血管造影的患者90例,随机分3组,每组30例,分别以4、5、6 mL/s速率进行造影剂注射,同时进行64层螺旋CT扫描.延迟时间使用团注实验进行测定.结果 心脏血管、升主动脉及降主动脉对比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01). 心脏血管对比衰减与体重指数及体重间存在明显关联,差异有统计学意义(r=-0.603,0.742,P=0.024);5 mL/s组图像质量明显优于其它两组, 差异有统计学意义 (P<0.01). 结论 在进行心脏CT血管造影(CTA)时,其它条件相同时,造影剂注射速率为5 mL/s所得图像质量最优,临床可以此为参考进行造影剂注射.%Objective To discuss the relationship between quality of 64-slice spiral CT coronary artery angiography and in-jection speed of contrast media. Methods 90 patients who underwent coronary artery angiography in our hospital from June 2014 and April 2015 were randomly divided into three groups with 30 in each one. Patients in the three groups received contrast agent injection at speed of 4ml/s, 5ml/s, 6ml/s respectively together with 64-slice spiral CT scanning. Delay time was measured using test-bolus examination. Attenuation value of ascending aorta and descending aorta was measured in the left coronary artery crosssectional region of interest, and ardiovascular attenuation value was determined using multiplannar reconstruction on orthogonal section image which located 1cm away form the outlet. Results Statistically significant differ-ence can be found in heart and blood vessels, ascending aorta, and descending aorta between the three groups,(P<0.01). Ar-diovascular attenuation value was closely related with body mass index and body mass (r=-0.603, 0.742, P=0.024). The im-age quality of patients who received contrast agent injection at speed of 5ml/s was better than those who received

  9. An Injectable Hydrogel as Bone Graft Material with Added Antimicrobial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Giacomo; Perni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the technique which provides the best chances for a successful bone graft, is the use of bone tissue from the same patient receiving it (autograft); the main limitations are the limited availability and the risks involved in removing living bone tissue, for example, explant site pain and morbidity. Allografts and xenografts may overcome these limitations; however, they increase the risk of rejection. For all these reasons the development of an artificial bone graft material is particularly important and hydrogels are a promising alternative for bone regeneration. Gels were prepared using 1,4-butanediol diacrylate as crosslinker and alpha tricalciumphosphate; ZnCl2 and SrCl2 were added to the aqueous phase. MTT results demonstrated that the addition of strontium had a beneficial effect on the osteoblast cells density on hydrogels, and zinc instead did not increase osteoblast proliferation. The amount of calcium produced by the osteoblast cells quantified through the Alizarin Red protocol revealed that both strontium and zinc positively influenced the formation of calcium; furthermore, their effect was synergistic. Rheology properties were used to mechanically characterize the hydrogels and especially the influence of crosslinker's concentration on them, showing the hydrogels presented had extremely good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of strontium and zinc in the hydrogels against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was determined. PMID:27174392

  10. An electro-optical and electron injection study of benzothiazole-based squaraine dyes as efficient dye-sensitized solar cell materials: a first principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fahdan, Najat Saeed; Asiri, Abdullah M; Irfan, Ahmad; Basaif, Salem A; El-Shishtawy, Reda M

    2014-12-01

    Squaraine dyes have attracted significant attention in many areas of daily life from biomedical imaging to semiconducting materials. Moreover, these dyes are used as photoactive materials in the field of solar cells. In the present study, we investigated the structural, electronic, photophysical, and charge transport properties of six benzothiazole-based squaraine dyes (Cis-SQ1-Cis-SQ3 and Trans-SQ1-Trans-SQ3). The effect of electron donating (-OCH3) and electron withdrawing (-COOH) groups was investigated intensively. Ground state geometry and frequency calculations were performed by applying density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. Absorption spectra were computed in chloroform at the time-dependent DFT/B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. The driving force of electron injection (ΔG (inject)), relative driving force of electron injection (ΔG r (inject)), electronic coupling constants (|VRP|) and light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of all six compounds were calculated and compared with previously studied sensitizers. The ΔG (inject), ΔG r (inject) and |VRP| of all six compounds revealed that these sensitizers would be efficient dye-sensitized solar cell materials. Cis/Trans-SQ3 exhibited superior LHE as compared to other derivatives. The Cis/Trans geometric effect was studied and discussed with regard to electro-optical and charge transport properties.

  11. Evaluation of different magnetic resonance imaging contrast materials to be used as dummy markers in image-guided brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Camila Pessoa; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rodrigues, Laura Natal, E-mail: camyps@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Radiologia; Taverna, Khallil Chaim; Pastorello, Bruno Fraccini [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia. Lab. de Ressonancia Magnetica em Neurorradiologia; Borgonovi, Arthur Felipe [Royal Philips Electronics, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to identify a contrast material that could be used as a dummy marker for magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: magnetic resonance images were acquired with six different catheter-filling materials - water, glucose 50%, saline, olive oil, glycerin, and copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) water solution (2.08 g/L) - inserted into compatible computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ring applicators placed in a phantom made of gelatin and CuSO{sub 4}. The best contrast media were tested in four patients with the applicators in place. Results: in T2-weighted sequences, the best contrast was achieved with the CuSO{sub 4}-filled catheters, followed by saline- and glycerin-filled catheters, which presented poor visualization. In addition (also in T2-weighted sequences), CuSO{sub 4} presented better contrast when tested in the phantom than when tested in the patients, in which it provided some contrast but with poor identification of the first dwell position, mainly in the ring. Conclusion: we found CuSO{sub 4} to be the best solution for visualization of the applicator channels, mainly in T2-weighted images in vitro, although the materials tested presented low signal intensity in the images obtained in vivo, as well as poor precision in determining the first dwell position. (author)

  12. Evaluation of different magnetic resonance imaging contrast materials to be used as dummy markers in image-guided brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Camila Pessoa; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Taverna, Khallil Chaim; Pastorello, Bruno Fraccini; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto; Borgonovi, Arthur Felipe; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rodrigues, Laura Natal

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify a contrast material that could be used as a dummy marker for magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance images were acquired with six different catheter-filling materials-water, glucose 50%, saline, olive oil, glycerin, and copper sulfate (CuSO4) water solution (2.08 g/L)-inserted into compatible computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ring applicators placed in a phantom made of gelatin and CuSO4. The best contrast media were tested in four patients with the applicators in place. Results In T2-weighted sequences, the best contrast was achieved with the CuSO4-filled catheters, followed by saline- and glycerin-filled catheters, which presented poor visualization. In addition (also in T2-weighted sequences), CuSO4 presented better contrast when tested in the phantom than when tested in the patients, in which it provided some contrast but with poor identification of the first dwell position, mainly in the ring. Conclusion We found CuSO4 to be the best solution for visualization of the applicator channels, mainly in T2-weighted images in vitro, although the materials tested presented low signal intensity in the images obtained in vivo, as well as poor precision in determining the first dwell position. PMID:27403016

  13. Influence of barium sulfate X-ray imaging contrast material on properties of floating drug delivery tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diós, Péter; Szigeti, Krisztián; Budán, Ferenc; Pócsik, Márta; Veres, Dániel S; Máthé, Domokos; Pál, Szilárd; Dévay, Attila; Nagy, Sándor

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to reveal the influence of necessarily added barium sulfate (BaSO4) X-ray contrast material on floating drug delivery tablets. Based on literature survey, a chosen floating tablet composition was determined containing HPMC and carbopol 943P as matrix polymers. One-factor factorial design with five levels was created for evaluation of BaSO4 (X1) effects on experimental parameters of tablets including: floating lag time, total floating time, swelling-, erosion-, dissolution-, release kinetics parameters and X-ray detected volume changes of tablets. Applied concentrations of BaSO4 were between 0 and 20.0% resulting in remarkable alteration of experimental parameters related especially to flotation. Drastic deterioration of floating lag time and total floating time could be observed above 15.0% BaSO4. Furthermore, BaSO4 showed to increase the integrity of tablet matrix by reducing eroding properties. A novel evaluation of dissolutions from floating drug delivery systems was introduced, which could assess the quantity of drug dissolved from dosage form in floating state. In the cases of tablets containing 20.0% BaSO4, only the 40% of total API amount could be dissolved in floating state. In vitro fine resolution X-ray CT imagings were performed to study the volume change and the voxel distributions as a function of HU attenuations by histogram analysis of the images. X-ray detected relative volume change results did not show significant difference between samples. After 24h, all tablets containing BaSO4 could be segmented, which highlighted the fact that enough BaSO4 remained in the tablets for their identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a novel PTFE material for separation and preconcentration of trace levels of metal ions in sequential injection (SI) and sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) systems interfaced with detection by ETAAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Chomchoei, Roongrat; Gała, Piotr

    The operational characteristics of a novel PTFE bead material, granular Algoflon®, used for separation and preconcentration of metal ions via adsorption of on-line generated non-charged metal complexes, were evaluated in a sequential injection (SI) system furnished with an external packed column...... and in a sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) system. Employed for the determination of cadmium(II), complexed with diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA), and detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), its performance was compared to that of a previously used material, Aldrich PTFE, which had...... demonstrated that PTFE was the most promising for solid-state pretreatments. By comparing the two materials, the Algoflon® beads exhibited much higher sensitivity (1.6107 versus 0.2956 μg l-1 per integrated absorbance (s)), and better retention efficiency (82% versus 74%) and enrichment factor (20.8 versus 17...

  15. Effect of different ultrasound contrast materials and temperatures on patient comfort during intrauterine and tubal assessment for infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenzl, Vanja, E-mail: vanja.radic@inet.hr [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital “Merkur”, Zajčeva 19 (Croatia); University of Applied Health Studies, Mlinarska Cesta 38, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-12-15

    Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy) is safe and easy to perform outpatient method in the evaluation of female infertility. During this procedure a certain level of discomfort and pain are experienced by patients. On the basis of reducing avoidable pain inductors the aim of this study was to compare pain sensation due to different warmth of applied contrasts (sterile saline and Echovist{sup ®}). Prospective and randomized study was performed on patients requiring tubal and uterine assessment during standard infertility work up. One group of patients was examined using both contrasts at room temperature and the other group using preheated contrasts at body temperature. Pain experience of the procedure was rated by patients for each contrast by numerical scale (0–10) immediately after the procedure. There was significant statistical difference between pain scores during application of two contrasts in each group; Echovist induces significantly less pain in comparison to sterile saline at the same temperature (P = 0.002, 0.001). Between two groups there is also statistically significant difference in pain during introduction of the same contrast at different temperature (P < 0.001). The most tolerable for the patient is body temperature of the applied contrasts although their structure and concentrations can be another factor associated with tolerability of the procedure.

  16. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI Can Monitor the Very Early Inflammatory Treatment Response upon Intra-Articular Steroid Injection in the Knee Joint: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Mikael; Kubassova, Olga; Cimmino, Marco A;

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in inflammatory arthritis, especially in conjunction with computer-aided analysis using appropriate dedicated software, seems to be a highly sensitive tool for monitoring the early inflammatory treatment response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This paper gives...... a review of the current knowledge of the emerging technique. The potential of the technique is demonstrated and discussed in the context of a case report following the early effect of an intra-articular steroid injection in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis flare in the knee....

  17. Risk of intravenous contrast material-mediated acute kidney injury: a propensity score-matched study stratified by baseline-estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer S; McDonald, Robert J; Carter, Rickey E; Katzberg, Richard W; Kallmes, David F; Williamson, Eric E

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effect of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on the causal association between intravenous iodinated contrast material exposure and subsequent development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in propensity score-matched groups of patients who underwent contrast material-enhanced or unenhanced computed tomography (CT). This retrospective study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. All patients who underwent contrast-enhanced (contrast material group) or unenhanced (non-contrast material group) CT between 2000 and 2010 were identified and stratified according to baseline eGFR by using Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative cutoffs for chronic kidney disease into subgroups with eGFR of 90 or greater, 60-89, 30-59, and less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Propensity score generation and 1:1 matching of patients were performed in each eGFR subgroup. Incidence of AKI (serum creatinine [SCr] increase of ≥0.5 mg/dL [≥44.2 μmol/L] above baseline) was compared in the matched subgroups by using the Fisher exact test. A total of 12 508 propensity score-matched patients with contrast-enhanced and unenhanced scans met all inclusion criteria. In this predominantly inpatient cohort, the incidence of AKI significantly increased with decreasing baseline eGFR (P material and non-contrast material groups in any eGFR subgroup; for the subgroup with eGFR of 90 or greater (n = 1642), odds ratio (OR) was 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38, 2.15), P = .82; for the subgroup with eGFR of 60-89 (n = 3870), OR was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.60), P = .99; for the subgroup with eGFR of 30-59 (n = 5510), OR was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.18), P = .65; and for the subgroup with eGFR of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (n = 1486), OR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.30), P = .89. Diminished eGFR is associated with an increased risk of SCr-defined AKI following CT examinations. However, the risk of AKI is independent of contrast material exposure, even in

  18. Patient selection and preparation strategies for the use of contrast material in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease and peripheral arterial disease is increasing. Thus, it is increasingly problematic to image these patients as the number of patients needing a vascular examination is increasing accordingly. In high-risk patients with impaired kidney function, intravascular...... administration of iodinated contrast media can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury and Gadolinium can induce nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). It is important to identify these high-risk patients by means of se-creatinine/e glomerular filtration rate. The indication for contrast examination should...

  19. Characterization of Small Focal Renal Lesions: Diagnostic Accuracy with Single-Phase Contrast-enhanced Dual-Energy CT with Material Attenuation Analysis Compared with Conventional Attenuation Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Daniele; Davis, Drew; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Patel, Bhavik; Gupta, Rajan T; Mileto, Achille; Nelson, Rendon C

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To determine whether single-phase contrast material-enhanced dual-energy material attenuation analysis improves the characterization of small (1-4 cm) renal lesions compared with conventional attenuation measurements by using histopathologic analysis and follow-up imaging as the clinical reference standards. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign, 33 malignant) measuring 1-4 cm underwent single-energy unenhanced and contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen. For each renal lesion, attenuation measurements were obtained; attenuation change of greater than or equal to 15 HU was considered evidence of enhancement. Dual-energy attenuation measurements were also obtained by using iodine-water, water-iodine, calcium-water, and water-calcium material basis pairs. Mean lesion attenuation values and material densities were compared between benign and malignant renal lesions by using the two-sample t test. Diagnostic accuracy of attenuation measurements and dual-energy material densities was assessed and validated by using 10-fold cross-validation to limit the effect of optimistic bias. Results By using cross-validated optimal thresholds at 100% sensitivity, iodine-water material attenuation images significantly improved specificity for differentiating between benign and malignant renal lesions compared with conventional enhancement measurements (93% [103 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 86%, 97%; vs 81% [90 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 73%, 88%) (P = .02). Sensitivity with iodine-water and calcium-water material attenuation images was also higher than that with conventional enhancement measurements, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT with material attenuation analysis improves specificity for

  20. Pulmonary 64-MDCT angiography with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material in an unselected patient population: a feasible protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trad, Henrique Simao; Boasquevisque, Gustavo Santos; Giacometti, Tiago Rangon; Trad, Catherine Yang; Zoghbi Neto, Orlando Salomao; Trad, Clovis Simao, E-mail: hsimtrad@gmail.com [Central de Diagnostico Ribeirao Preto (CEDIRP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To propose a protocol for pulmonary angiography using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material, in an unselected patient population, as well as to evaluate vascular enhancement and image quality. Materials and methods: We evaluated 29 patients (22-86 years of age). The body mass index ranged from 19.0 kg/m{sup 2} to 41.8 kg/m{sup 2}. Patients underwent pulmonary CT angiography in a 64-MDCT scanner, receiving 50 mL of iodinated contrast material via venous access at a rate of 4.5 mL/s. Bolus tracking was applied in the superior vena cava. Two experienced radiologists assessed image quality and vascular enhancement. Results: The mean density was 382 Hounsfield units (HU) for the pulmonary trunk; 379 and 377 HU for the right and left main pulmonary arteries, respectively; and 346 and 364 HU for the right and left inferior pulmonary arteries, respectively. In all patients, subsegmental arteries were analyzed. There were streak artifacts from contrast material in the superior vena cava in all patients. However, those artifacts did not impair the image analysis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pulmonary angiography using 64-MDCT with 50 mL of iodinated contrast can produce high quality images in unselected patient populations. (author)

  1. Pulmonary 64-MDCT angiography with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material in an unselected patient population: a feasible protocol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Henrique Simão; Boasquevisque, Gustavo Santos; Giacometti, Tiago Rangon; Trad, Catherine Yang; Zoghbi Neto, Orlando Salomão; Trad, Clovis Simão

    2016-01-01

    Objective To propose a protocol for pulmonary angiography using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material, in an unselected patient population, as well as to evaluate vascular enhancement and image quality. Materials and Methods We evaluated 29 patients (22-86 years of age). The body mass index ranged from 19.0 kg/m2 to 41.8 kg/m2. Patients underwent pulmonary CT angiography in a 64-MDCT scanner, receiving 50 mL of iodinated contrast material via venous access at a rate of 4.5 mL/s. Bolus tracking was applied in the superior vena cava. Two experienced radiologists assessed image quality and vascular enhancement. Results The mean density was 382 Hounsfield units (HU) for the pulmonary trunk; 379 and 377 HU for the right and left main pulmonary arteries, respectively; and 346 and 364 HU for the right and left inferior pulmonary arteries, respectively. In all patients, subsegmental arteries were analyzed. There were streak artifacts from contrast material in the superior vena cava in all patients. However, those artifacts did not impair the image analysis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that pulmonary angiography using 64-MDCT with 50 mL of iodinated contrast can produce high quality images in unselected patient populations. PMID:27141128

  2. The value of time-intensity curves obtained after microbubble contrast agent injection to discriminate responders from non-responders to anti-inflammatory medication among patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaia, Emilio; Cabibbo, Biagio; De Paoli, Luca; Toscano, William; Poillucci, Gabriele; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2013-06-01

    To assess the value of time-intensity curves obtained after sulphur hefluoride-filled microbubble contrast agent injection to discriminate responders from non-responders among patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Forty-three patients (29 male and 14 female; mean age ± SD, 48.5 ± 17.17 years) with initial diagnosis of active CD were recruited. In each patient, the therapeutic outcome was assessed after 12 weeks from the beginning of pharmacologic treatment. The terminal ileal loop was scanned after sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection, and the digital cine-clip registered during the first-pass dynamic enhancement was quantified in gray-scale levels. The percentage of maximal enhancement, time to peak enhancement, and area under the time-intensity curve in responders vs. non-responders were compared by Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test. Responders (n = 25 patients) vs. non-responders (n = 18) differed in the area under the time-intensity curve (621.58 ± 374.53 vs. 1,199.64 ± 386.39 P < 0.05), while they did not differ in percentage of maximal enhancement (41.26 ± 15.22 vs. 43.17 ± 4.41, P = 0.25) and time to peak enhancement (11.31 ± 3.06 vs. 10.12 ± 3.47, P = 0.15). The area under the time-intensity curve obtained after microbubble injection was the only parameter to discriminate responders from non-responders among patients with CD during pharmacologic treatment. • Dynamic ultrasound using microbubble contrast agents can help assess inflammatory bowel disease • Time-intensity curves can assess therapeutic outcome in Crohn's disease (CD) • The area under the time-intensity curve differentiates responders from non-responders during pharmacological treatment.

  3. CT增强中对比剂注射方案探讨%A Research about Injection Project of Contrast Media During Enhanced CT Scanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史锡腾; 郭莉; 江迅

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate a method that perfect imaging could be obtained and minimal contrast media was used. Methods The 5 cases with enhanced CT images were measured at each slice, then the Hu of aim-position was obtained and the Hu-time curve was got. At last, the valid enhanced period would be found. Results According to the experience, the enhancement threshold of aorta, portal vein and hepar were set at 70 HU. The onset and ending time of enhancement threshold were found. Conclusion The dose of contrast media should be extenuatory when new type spiral CT was operated, and the correlative parameters, such as flow rate, delay time etc. should be adjusted according to the objective condition.%目的探讨CT增强中对比剂的最少使用量,且能保证高质量图像的方案。方法对5例肝门动态扫描CT增强图像有关靶部位的CT值逐层测量,从而得到相应的“CT值-时间曲线”,最终找出有效增强周期。结果根据经验确定主动脉、门静脉及肝实质的增强阈值为70HU,并找到增强阈值达到和结束的时间。结论使用新型螺旋CT进行增强扫描,可以减少对比剂的使用量,且注射速率、延迟时间等有关参数也应根据具体情况确定。

  4. [Investigation of characteristic microstructures of adhesive interface in wood/bamboo composite material by synchrotron radiation X-ray phase contrast microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guan-Yun; Wang, Yu-Rong; Ren, Hai-Qing; Yang, Shu-Min; Ma, Hong-Xia; Xie, Hong-Lan; Deng, Biao; Du, Guo-Hao; Xiao, Ti-Qiao

    2013-03-01

    Third-generation synchrotron radiation X-ray phase-contrast microscopy(XPCM)can be used for obtaining image with edge enhancement, and achieve the high contrast imaging of low-Z materials with the spatial coherence peculiarity of X-rays. In the present paper, the characteristic microstructures of adhesive at the interface and their penetration in wood/bamboo composite material were investigated systematically by XPCM at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). And the effect of several processing techniques was analyzed for the adhesive penetration in wood/bamboo materials. The results show that the synchrotron radiation XPCM is expected to be one of the important precision detection methods for wood-based panels.

  5. Effect of Fixed-Volume and Weight-Based Dosing Regimens on the Cost and Volume of Administered Iodinated Contrast Material at Abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Matthew S; Parikh, Kushal R; Mayo-Smith, William W; Israel, Gary M; Brown, Richard K J; Ellis, James H

    2017-03-01

    To determine the magnitude of subject-level and population-level cost savings that could be realized by moving from fixed-volume low-osmolality iodinated contrast material administration to an effective weight-based dosing regimen for contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT. HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-exempt retrospective cohort study of 6,737 subjects undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT from 2014 to 2015. Subject height, weight, lean body weight (LBW), and body surface area (BSA) were determined. Twenty-six volume- and weight-based dosing strategies with literature support were compared with a fixed-volume strategy used at the study institution: 125 mL 300 mgI/mL for routine CT, 125 mL 370 mgI/mL for multiphasic CT (single-energy, 120 kVp). The predicted population- and subject-level effects on cost and contrast material utilization were calculated for each strategy and sensitivity analyses were performed. Most subjects underwent routine CT (91% [6,127/6,737]). Converting to lesser-volume higher-concentration contrast material had the greatest effect on cost; a fixed-volume 100 mL 370 mgI/mL strategy resulted in $132,577 in population-level savings with preserved iodine dose at routine CT (37,500 versus 37,000 mgI). All weight-based iodine-content dosing strategies (mgI/kg) with the same maximum contrast material volume (125 mL) were predicted to contribute mean savings compared with the existing fixed-volume algorithm ($4,053-$116,076/strategy in the overall study population, $1-$17/strategy per patient). Similar trends were observed in all sensitivity analyses. Large cost and material savings can be realized at abdominopelvic CT by adopting a weight-based dosing strategy and lowering the maximum volume of administered contrast material. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On the origin of differential phase contrast at a locally charged and globally charge-compensated domain boundary in a polar-ordered material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLaren, Ian; Wang, LiQiu; McGrouther, Damien; Craven, Alan J.; McVitie, Stephen [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schierholz, Roland [Institute of Energy and Climate Research: Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kovács, András [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Barthel, Juri [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope is applied to the study of a charged antiphase domain boundary in doped bismuth ferrite. A clear differential signal is seen, which matches the expected direction of the electric field at the boundary. However, further study by scanned diffraction reveals that there is no measurable deflection of the primary diffraction disc and hence no significant free E-field in the material. Instead, the DPC signal arises from a modulation of the intensity profile within the primary diffraction disc in the vicinity of the boundary. Simulations are used to show that this modulation arises purely from the local change in crystallographic structure at the boundary and not from an electric field. This study highlights the care that is required when interpreting signals recorded from ferroelectric materials using both DPC imaging and other phase contrast techniques. - Highlights: • We show clear differential phase contrast (DPC) at a charged boundary. • Scanning diffraction shows that the discs do not move. • Disc deflection by electric fields is not the source of the DPC signal. • Diffraction contrast within the disc is the source of the DPC signal. • DPC and holography of E fields is difficult due to diffraction contrast.

  7. Material characterization of the encapsulation of an ultrasound contrast microbubble and its subharmonic response: strain-softening interfacial elasticity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shirshendu; Katiyar, Amit; Sarkar, Kausik; Chatterjee, Dhiman; Shi, William T; Forsberg, Flemming

    2010-06-01

    Two nonlinear interfacial elasticity models--interfacial elasticity decreasing linearly and exponentially with area fraction--are developed for the encapsulation of contrast microbubbles. The strain softening (decreasing elasticity) results from the decreasing association between the constitutive molecules of the encapsulation. The models are used to find the characteristic properties (surface tension, interfacial elasticity, interfacial viscosity and nonlinear elasticity parameters) for a commercial contrast agent. Properties are found using the ultrasound attenuation measured through a suspension of contrast agent. Dynamics of the resulting models are simulated, compared with other existing models and discussed. Imposing non-negativity on the effective surface tension (the encapsulation experiences no net compressive stress) shows "compression-only" behavior. The exponential and the quadratic (linearly varying elasticity) models result in similar behaviors. The validity of the models is investigated by comparing their predictions of the scattered nonlinear response for the contrast agent at higher excitations against experimental measurement. All models predict well the scattered fundamental response. The nonlinear strain softening included in the proposed elastic models of the encapsulation improves their ability to predict subharmonic response. They predict the threshold excitation for the initiation of subharmonic response and its subsequent saturation.

  8. Beam hardening and smoothing correction effects on performance of micro-ct SkyScan 1173 for imaging low contrast density materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwayu, Wa Ode [Physics Departement, Haluoleo University Indonesia (Indonesia); Haryanto, Freddy; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar [Physics Departement, ITB Indonesia email : ayoe-fisika@yahoo.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We have designed and fabricated phantom mimicking breast cancer composition known as a region that has low contrast density. The used compositions are a microcalcifications, fatty tissues and tumor mass by using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, C{sub 27}H{sub 46}O, and hard nylon materials. Besides, phantom also has a part to calculate low cost criteria /CNR (Contrast to Noise Ratio). Uniformity will be measured at water distillation medium located in a part of phantom scale contrast. Phantom will be imaged by using micro ct-sky scan 1173 high energy type, and then also can be quantified CT number to examine SkyScan 1173 performance in imaging low contrast density materials. Evaluation of CT number is done at technique configuration parameter using voltage of 30 kV, exposure 0.160 mAs, and camera resolution 560x560 pixel, the effect of image quality to reconstruction process is evaluated by varying image processing parameters in the form of beam hardening corrections with amount of 25%, 66% and100% with each smoothing level S10,S2 and S7. To obtain the better high quality image, the adjustment of beam hardening correction should be 66% and smoothing level reach maximal value at level 10.

  9. Gate-voltage controlled spin pumping effects: spin injection from YIG and Co into metal and graphene based 2 D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitsov, Alan; Chshiev, Mairbek; Mryasov, Oleg

    2015-03-01

    Spin current injection into nonmagnetic metals, semiconductors and oxides is crucial component of spintronics. The spin pumping mechanism free from the impedance mismatch is a promising way to inject spin current into nonmagnetic materials. Here we present theory of spin current injected into non-magnetic films which arises from magnetization precession. We apply this theory to two cases (i) insulating yttrium iron garnet ferromagnet/nonmagnetic metal interfaces and (ii) hcp-Co/single layer graphene interface. The electron transport calculations are based on the non-equilibrium Green Function formalism within the tight binding Hamiltonian model. We show that magnitude of the pumped spin current can be efficiently controlled by the gate voltage.

  10. Digital subtraction angiography of the cerebral vessels by intraarterial injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Izumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Karasawa, Jun; Mitsugi, Toru; Naruo, Yoshito; Takamiya, Makoto (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1984-10-01

    Three hundred and fifty-seven digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed in 184 neurosurgical patients by intraarterial injection. Examinations consisted of 192 carotid angiography, 110 vertebral angiography, 23 aortography, 11 spinal angiography and 21 other angiography. In all examinations, visualization of the vessels was excellent and the complications were never experienced. High contrast sensitivity of DSA resulted in better visualization of tumor stains, phlebogram, and arteries in cerebral arteriovenous malformations with large shunt blood flow than conventional angiography. Selective catheterization into each cerebral arteries was not necessarily demanded for good opacification of the vessels because of high sensitivity. High contrast sensitivity also permitted low concentration of contrast material, small dose of contrast material, and slow injection rate. Low concentration of contrast material reduced pain and heat during injection especially in the external carotid and vertebral angiography. Using slow injection, recoiling of catheter into the aorta was reduced, so that injection from the innominate and subclavian arteries for visualization of origin of the cerebral arteries were always successful. Full study of cerebral arteries by Seldinger's method, if necessary, was easily achieved using DSA even in patient with high age or with severe atherosclerosis. Bolus injection of small dose of contrast material as well as serial imaging was helpful in evaluating hemodynamics in the lesion. Real time display of DSA reduced the time required for angiography and was very convenient for artificial embolization. Besides these advantages, DSA became comparable to conventional angiography in spacial resolution by use of intraarterial injection and could be a preoperative genuine examination as well as a screening method.

  11. Contrast ultrasound using SonoVue for pelvic radiation with concurrent chemotherapy monitoring in stage I B-II cervical cancer; Apport de l'echographie Doppler avec injection de contraste pour la prise en charge des cancers du col de l'uterus de stades IB et II par chimioradiotherapie concomitante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marret, H. [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Gynecologie, 37 - Tours (France); Barillot, I. [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Radiotherapie, 37 - Tours (France); Rolland, Y. [CRLCC Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France); Leveque, J. [Hopital Anne-de-Bretagne, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether angiogenic parameters as assessed by trans vaginal color Doppler ultrasound and by enhanced cervix ultrasound may predict prognostic factors of stage I B greater than 4 cm and II cervical cancer treated by radio chemotherapy. A total of 40 patients with histologically proven advanced stage invasive cervical cancer will be evaluated by color Doppler, contrast ultrasound, and MRI before radiotherapy, after the second chemotherapy cycle and prior to surgery. Subjective assessment of the amount of vessels within the tumor (scanty-moderate or abundant) and resistance index (R.I.) will be recorded for Doppler, enhancement and washout period will be studied after injection of SonoVue for contrast ultrasound. All patients will have radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Comparison with MRI results will be done. The main parameter studied will be persistence of tumor cells in the analysis of the radical hysterectomy. We expected to correlate contrast parameters with persistent disease in order to confirm ultrasound parameters that will be useful to monitor radio chemotherapy and to predict therapeutic answer of such treatment. (authors)

  12. Country of origin effects in developed and emerging markets: Exploring the contrasting roles of materialism and value consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Piyush Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing evidence about differences in the attitudes and behaviors of consumers in emerging and developed markets, there is little research on the differences in country of origin (COO) effects on their evaluation, behavioral intentions (BIs), and actual purchase of imported products. This paper introduces a new conceptual framework incorporating consumer ethnocentrism (CET), materialism (MAT), and value consciousness (VC) to hypothesize several differences in the influence of COO effe...

  13. Wind sorting affects differently the organo-mineral composition of saltating and particulate materials in contrasting texture agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri, Laura Antonela; Funk, Roger; Leue, Martin; Sommer, Michael; Buschiazzo, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    There is little information about the mineral and organic composition of sediments eroded by wind at different heights. Because of that, wind tunnel simulations were performed on four agricultural loess soils of different granulometry and their saltating materials collected at different heights. The particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter mainly smaller than 10 μm (PM10) of these soils was obtained separately by a laboratory method. Results indicated that the granulometric composition of sediments collected at different heights was more homogeneous in fine- than in sandy-textured soils, which were more affected by sorting effects during wind erosion. This agrees with the preferential transport of quartz at low heights and of clay minerals at greater heights. SOC contents increased with height, but the composition of the organic materials was different: stable carboxylic acids, aldehydes, amides and aromatics were preferentially transported close to the ground because their were found in larger aggregates, while plant debris and polysaccharides, carbohydrates and derivatives of microbial origin from organic matter dominated at greater heights for all soil types. The amount of SOC in the PM10 fraction was higher when it was emitted from sandy than from fine textured soils. Because of the sorting process produced by wind erosion, the stable organic matter compounds will be transported at low heights and local scales, modifying soil fertility due to nutrient exportation, while less stable organic compounds will be part of the suspension losses, which are known to affect some processes at regional- or global scale.

  14. Effect of radiologic contrast material on cell volume regulation in proximal renal tubules from trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, H K; Løken, M; Sakariassen, K S

    2000-11-01

    Most radiographic contrast media (CM) are hyperosmotic and pose an osmotic threat to cells they are in contact with. To study these effects at the cellular level, cell volume regulatory mechanisms were observed in proximal renal tubules following exposure to the CM iohexol, ioxaglate, and iodixanol. Isolated renal tubules from trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to 5% vol/vol iohexol (326 mOsm), ioxaglate (314 mOsm), or iodixanol (300 mOsm) or mannitol (to achieve the same osmolalities), and cell volume changes were observed videometrically. Iohexol and ioxaglate solutions induced a rapid shrinkage (12%-13%) not followed by cell volume regulation. Without CM (same osmolality), the cells shrank 11% but then showed a 77%-88% volume recovery. This reswelling was inhibited by 55% with the Na+, K+, Cl- symporter inhibitor bumetanide (50 micromol/L). Iodixanol did not significantly affect cell volume. Tubules preincubated with CM or mannitol were then stimulated with a hypoosmotic Ringer solution (160 mOsm) resulting in a 26%-36% cellular volume increase. Compared with results of experiments without mannitol and CM, preexposure to iohexol or ioxaglate almost completely inhibited the expected regulatory shrinkage phase, while previous exposure to hyperosmotic solutions with mannitol reduced the shrinkage response by 40%-53%. In this system, the hyperosmotic iohexol and ioxaglate cause cell shrinkage followed by an impaired cell volume regulatory response. Exposure to these two CM also inhibits cell volume regulation on hypoosmotic stimulation. The isosmotic iodixanol has no such effects. These changes appear to some extent to be a result of the CM's degree of hyperosmolality, but this property alone does not explain these findings.

  15. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography in patients with Crohn's disease using a negative oral contrast material: initial results of a noninvasive imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, Pia; Goritschnig, Toria; Doerfler, Otto [Department of Radiology, Karl Franzens Medical School and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Petritsch, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Thomas [Department of Internal Medicine, Karl Franzens Medical School and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Preidler, Klaus W.; Szolar, Dieter H. [Diagnostikum Graz Sued West, Weblinger Guertel 25, 8054 Graz (Austria)

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively define the role of multiplanar spiral CT enterography with a new negative oral contrast material for noninvasive assessment of the small bowel in patients with Crohn's disease. Thirty patients with established Crohn's disease prospectively underwent spiral CT enterography at 45-60 min after distension of the small bowel with 1400 ml of a negative oral contrast material (Mucofalk water enema). Spiral CT scans were obtained 50 s after administration of intravenous contrast material with the following parameters: 5-mm collimation; 7.5-mm/s table feed; and 3-mm reconstruction interval. The adequacy of bowel opacification, luminal distension, and the contribution of two-dimensional multiplanar reformatted imaging were assessed by two observers. Spiral CT imaging findings were compared with results of enteroclysis as well as endoscopic and histological findings in all patients. Spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk water enema was well tolerated in 29 of 30 patients. Findings on spiral CT enterography were comparable with those of barium studies in 25 of 30 patients, superior to those on barium studies in 4 patients, and inferior in 1 patient (p<0.05). The addition of multiplanar reformatted images to axial spiral CT scans significantly improved observers' confidence in image interpretation (p<0.05) but did not reveal additional abnormalities. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk excellently provides information in patients with Crohn's disease. This technique accurately depicts the level of small bowel obstruction and the extent of inflammatory small bowel disease and its extraluminal complications. (orig.)

  16. Hemodynamic changes in patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) demonstrated by contrast-enhanced CT examinations - implications for image acquisition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Lukas; Grus, Tomas; Balik, Martin; Fichtl, Jaromir; Kavan, Jan; Belohlavek, Jan

    2016-10-30

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an established tool for respiratory and circulatory support. In computed tomography, altered hemodynamics in ECMO patients requires special considerations and handling in contrast injection and its timing. In this article, we demonstrate changes in hemodynamics in ECMO patients captured on contrast-enhanced CT examinations and pitfalls in strategies for contrast injection in relation to the ECMO flow, cardiac function and the placement of ECMO cannulas. Contrast-enhanced CT of patients with ECMO requires prior knowledge of the ECMO cannulas, central venous lines, changes of hemodynamics induced by low cardiac output and the influence of adjustment of ECMO on blood flow in order to optimize injection of the contrast material and timing of the scan. Special considerations include temporary reduction of the ECMO flow, selection of the injection site and increasing volume or flow rate of the contrast material.

  17. Material Characterization of Strontium Ferrite Powders for Producing Sintered Magnets by Ceramic Injection Molding (MagnetPIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Dietmar Drummer; Susanne Messingschlager

    2014-01-01

    For this study, different strontium ferrite powders were mixed with a filling ratio of about 60 vol% in a binder system and formed into green compacts. During the process of injection molding, a magnetic field was generated in the tool via a magnetic coil, which enables magnetization and orientation of the ceramic particles. All powders were successfully processed by MagnetPIM. The investigations identified that it is impossible to extrapolate from the magnetic properties of a green compact t...

  18. Case Report: Management of unusual site for contrast media extravasation in right external jugular vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Imam Abdel Aleem Taha Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media extravasation is well known complication during power/pressure injection of contrast material. Despite reports of many cases of extravasation few consequences have been reported. We present a very rare case of contrast media extravasation in the neck after right external jugular vein cannulation which mandated early surgical intervention. On literature search, we did not find any similar report of such unique case.

  19. Reducing cost of repair materials for automatic melt injection furnace. Jido chutoro no hoshuyo zairyohi no sakugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasushita, Y.; Nouchi, T.; Nagano, T.; Tamaru, I.; Hasei, S.; Hamano, K.; Suimizu, T.; Okamoto, M. (Nippon Kokan Pipe Fitting Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-25

    This paper summarizes discussion intended of reducing material cost implemented at a casting department which produces materials for pipe joints covering 600 to 650 models. Targets were placed on reducing the current material cost by 30%, the currently used repair jigs by 30%, as well as reducing repair works and manpower. First, a Pareto chart was sought on monetary amount of materials used, to identify items requiring sizable material costs. Items identified include reduction of amount of heat insulating materials used for sensor protection, slug removal cost, and refractories. With respect to the heat insulating materials, the cut sizes were discussed, and as a result , difference among individuals was eliminated molten face levels were prevented from being positioned too high , and the number of replacement due to damages was reduces. The rate of heat insulating material reduction was 39%. As regards the slug removal cost, the cost was reduced by reusing waste materials, the inductor channels were changed, and the method of operating the automatic molten metal pouring furnace was improved. With regard to the refractories, the shell width of troughs was covered with steel plates to reduce the use amount, the replacement manpower was reduced, and the use of expensive refractories was minimized. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of the inflammatory potential of implant materials in a mouse model by bioluminescent imaging of intravenously injected bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, Bushra; Köster, Mario; Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Pils, Marina; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Hauser, Hansjörg; Wirth, Dagmar; Mueller, Peter P

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the inflammatory potential of implants a bioluminescent imaging assay was developed using luciferase-expressing bone marrow cells that were injected into the blood circulation of wild-type mice. After subcutaneous implantation of titanium discs as an example for a clinically established biocompatible material, the luminosity was modest. Similarly, low luminosity signals were generated by pure magnesium implants that were used to represent metallic alloys that are presently under investigation as novel degradable implant materials. Increased luminosity was observed in response to degradable polymeric PLGA implants. Surgical wounds induced a basic luminescent response even in the absence of an implant. However, the material-independent response to injury could be minimized using injectable microparticle suspensions. In parallel with the resorption of biodegradable microparticles, the signal induced by PLGA declined faster when compared to non-degradable polystyrene suspensions. By using an interferon type I inducible Mx2 promoter construct to drive luciferase gene expression, the highest luminosity was observed in response to bacteria, indicating that the system could also be employed to monitor implant infections. Overall, labeled bone marrow cells yielded specific, well-defined localized signals that correlated with the inflammatory responses to implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2149-2158, 2016.

  1. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which ...

  2. Pentamidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in ... Pentamidine injection comes as powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) ...

  3. Intravenous Contrast Material Administration at High-pitch Dual-source CT Coronary Angiography: Bolus-tracking Technique with Shortened Time of Respiratory Instruction Versus Test Bolus Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Sun; Guo-rong Liu; Yue-chun Li; Rui-juan Han; Li-fang Cui; Li-jun Ma; Li-gang Li; Chang-yong Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of acquiring the similar homogeneous enhancement using bolus-tracking techniques with shortened respiratory time in prospectively electrocardiogram-gated high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (Flash mode) coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) compared with test bolus technique.Methods One hundred and eighty-four consecutive patients with mean heart rate ≤65 beats per minute undergoing CCTA were prospectively included in this study.The patients were randomly divided into two groups.Patients in the group A (n=92) instructed to shorten respiratory time received CCTA using bolus-tracking technique with high-pitch spiral acquisition mode (Flash mode),while those in the group B (n=92) underwent CCTA with test bolus technique.The attenuation in the ascending aorta,image noise,contrast-to-noise ratio and radiation doses of the two groups were assessed.Results There were no significant differences in the mean attenuation values in the ascending aorta (483.18±59.07 HU vs.498.7±83.51 HU,P=0.183),image noise (21.4±4.5 HU vs.20.9±4.3 HU,P=0.414),contrast-to-noise ratio (12.1±4.2 vs.13.8±5.1,P=0.31) between the groups A and B.There were no significant differences in the radiation dose of dynamic monitoring scans (0.056±0.026 mSv vs.0.062±0.018 mSv,P=0.068) and radiation dose of angiography (0.94±0.07 mSv vs.0.96±0.15 mSv,P=0.926) between the two groups,while 15 mL less contrast material volume was administered in the group A than the group B.Conclusion Bolus-tracking technique with shortened time of respiratory in Flash mode of dual-source CT yields the similar homogeneous enhancement with less contrast material in comparison to the test bolus technique.

  4. 经皮注射淋巴结超声造影在乳腺癌患者前哨淋巴结中的诊断价值%The daignostic value of contrast-enhanced ultras ound with percutaneous injection of contrast agents for the sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽爱; 樊云清; 王兴田

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic values of conventional ultrasound and contrast -enhanced ultra-sound with percutaneous injection of contrast agents in the lymph nodes for the sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer pa -tients.Methods A total of79 breast cancer patients who were admitted into our hospital from February 2013 to April 2015were enrolled into the current study .They were percutaneously injected with lyophilized powders for ultrasound ex -amination of the sentinel lymph nodes ,with methylene blue as a contrast agent .Meanwhile , they were subjected to con-ventional ultrasound .Results Among 42 patients performing contrast -enhanced ultrasound were 29 patients with the sentinel lymph nodes ( 38 lymph nodes ) , including 19 sentinel lymph nodes ( where 15 nodes were pathological diag-nosed), and 19 non-metastatic lymph nodes (where 17 nodes were pathological diagnosed ), achieving 83.3%sensitiv-ity, 92.3%specificity and 93.1% accuracy.Meanwhile, 21 lymph nodes were found in 37 patients after conventional ultrasound , including 13 sentinel lymph nodes ( where 10 nodes were pathological diagnosed ) , and 8 non-metastatic lymph nodes(where 6 nodes were pathological diagnosed ), achieving 37.5%sensitivity, 42.9%specificity and 53.8%accuracy.Compared with conventional ultrasound , contrast-enhanced ultrasound could produce significant improvement in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosis of the sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients ( P<0.05 ). Conclusion Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with percutaneous injection of contrast agents in the lymph nodes can well determine the sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients , with superior clinical values to conventional ultrasound .%目的:探讨经皮注射淋巴结超声造影与常规超声对乳腺癌前哨淋巴结显像及转移的诊断价值。方法对79例乳腺癌患者进行研究,以手术过程中的亚甲蓝染色作为对比,应用经皮注射冻干粉剂对这些患者

  5. Preliminary assessing no-surgical treatment response in bronchogenic carcinoma with double-phase contrast material-enhanced computed tomography%CT增强双期扫描在肺癌非手术治疗疗效评价中的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenjiang Li; Yong Zhao; Yan Zhu; Feng Zhu; Debin Liu; Wenjie Liang; Xuefeng Cui; Wenjie Bi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of double-phase contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in assessing no-surgical treatment response in bronchogenic carcinoma preliminarily. Methods: 52 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma after no-surgical treatment underwent double-phase contrast material-enhanced computed tomography. Two spiral CT scans were obtained at 25 and 90 seconds respectively after nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4 mL/s by using an autoinjector. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded and peak height was calculated. Enhancement pattern was evaluated on the images obtained at 25 and 90 seconds after injection of contrast medium. Results: Precontrast attenuation, postcontrast attenuation at 25 and 90 seconds were 42.20±7.43 Hu, 57.35 ± 10.09 Hu and 71.85 ± 12.45 Hu, respectively. No statistically significant difference in precontrast attenuation was found between our results in the study and the results in our old study (mean precontrast attenuation 40.70 Hu) which was obtained in cases before therapy (t = 1.455, P = 0.152 > 0.05). Peak height of bronchogenic carcinoma after no-surgical treatment (29.46 ± 10.85 Hu) were significantly lower than that of bronchogenic carcinoma before therapy obtained in our old study (mean peak height 35.79 Hu; t = 4.206, P = 0.001 < 0.05). 32 of 52 cases showed homogeneous enhancement at 90 seconds. Of the 32 cases, there were 21 with inhomogeneous enhancement, 7 with inhomogeneous enhancement, 2 with central enhancement and 2 with peripheral enhancement at 25 seconds. Conclusion: Bronchogenic carcinoma after no-surgical treatment shows a gradual increase to the peak height after administration of contrast material. Peak heights can reflect the blood supply of bronchogenic carcinoma and might be index for evaluation of no-surgical treatment response in bronchogenic carcinoma.

  6. Material Characterization of Strontium Ferrite Powders for Producing Sintered Magnets by Ceramic Injection Molding (MagnetPIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Drummer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For this study, different strontium ferrite powders were mixed with a filling ratio of about 60 vol% in a binder system and formed into green compacts. During the process of injection molding, a magnetic field was generated in the tool via a magnetic coil, which enables magnetization and orientation of the ceramic particles. All powders were successfully processed by MagnetPIM. The investigations identified that it is impossible to extrapolate from the magnetic properties of a green compact to the magnetic properties of a sintered part. It became obvious, though, that, when producing very strong magnetic parts by MagnetPIM, the best results can be obtained by using powders with small particle sizes.

  7. 左右肘静脉注射对比剂对CT增强效果的影响%Effect of contrast medium by left or right side ulnar vein injection on the quality of enhanced CT images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 张欣; 张新力; 褚爱鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较左右肘静脉注射对比剂对CT增强效果的影响.方法 选择行胸部平扫加增强CT扫描患者165例,按分层抽样的方法分为青年组(60岁)70例;按照随机数字表法再分为左肘静脉注射组77例、右肘静脉注射组88例.所有病例均采用多层螺旋CT,扫描范围从肺尖至肺底,注射对比剂后60 s进行增强扫描.测量左头臂静脉横跨主动脉弓(或头臂动脉)前方与胸骨柄后缘之间的前后径线,对比分析其前后径线大小与CT增强效果的关系.结果 青年组与老年组左头臂静脉横跨主动脉弓(或头臂动脉)前方与胸骨柄后缘之间的前后径线比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).左肘静脉注射组和右肘静脉注射组CT值分别为(106±24)、(149±29)HU,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P 60 years old ) 70 cases, and then patients were divided into two groups by random digits table with left side ulnar vein injection (left vein group, 77 cases ) and right side ulnar vein injection ( right vein group, 88 cases ) . Anteroposterior dimension between posterior border of manubrium sterni and anterior border of aortic arch (or brachiocephalic artery) where left brachiocephalic vein acrossing was measured and analyzed with relation of image quality. Results The anteroposterior dimension showed a statistical significant difference between young age group and elder age group(P 0.05). The CT value in left vein group and right vein group was (106 ?24 ), (149 ?29 ) HU respectively, and there was statistical difference between two groups (P<0.05). The good quality CT image in left vein group and right vein group was 61.0% (47/77),79.5% (70/88), and there was statistical difference (P <0.05). Conclusion CT contrast enhancement examination with right ulnar vein injection rather than left side may improve the quality of images by avoiding compression of left brachiocephalic vein in some patients .

  8. Contrastive Lexicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    This paper deals with the relation between etymologically related words in different languages. A survey is made of seven stages in the development of contrastive lexicology. These are: prelinguistic word studies, semantics, lexicography, translation, foreign language learning, bilingualism, and finally contrastive analysis. Concerning contrastive…

  9. Mode size converter between high-index-contrast waveguide and cleaved single mode fiber using SiON as intermediate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lianxi; Song, Junfeng; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Luo, Xianshu; Tu, Xiaoguang; Fang, Qing; Koh, Sing-Chee; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang

    2014-09-22

    High-index-contrast (HIC) waveguide such as Si and Si3N4 has small mode size enabling compact integration. However, the coupling loss with single mode fiber is also remarkable owning to the mode mismatching. Therefore, mode size converter, as the interface between HIC waveguide and optical fiber, takes an important role in the field of integrated optics. The material with refractive index (RI) between HIC waveguide and optical fiber can be used as a bridge to reduce the mode mismatching loss. In this letter, we employ silicon oxynitride (SiON) with RI about 1.50 as the intermediate material and optimize the structure of the SiON waveguide to match with cleaved single mode fiber and HIC waveguide separately. Combined with inverse taper and suspended structure, the mismatching loss is reduced and the dependence to the dimension of the structure is also released. The coupling loss is 1.2 and 1.4 dB/facet for TE and TM mode, respectively, with 3 dB alignment tolerance of ± 3.5 μm for Si(3)N(4) waveguide with just 200 nm-wide tip. While for Si waveguide, a critical dimension of 150 nm is applied due to the higher index contrast than Si(3)N(4) waveguide. Similar alignment tolerance is realized with coupling loss about 1.8 and 2.1 dB/facet for TE and TM mode. The polarization dependence loss (PDL) for both platforms is within 0.5 dB.

  10. The scanning effect of the injection flow rate of contrast medium on magnetic resonance image dynamic contrast-enhanced of prostate cancer%造影剂流速对前列腺癌MR动态增强扫描效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 尹雪梅; 姬广海; 蔡磊; 李鹏; 陈志强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of perfusion index of the injection flow rate of contrast medium on magnetic resonance image dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI) of prostate cancer with different pathological grades. Methods Seventy patients with PCa、cardiac, normal renal function is and BMI≤25 kg/m2 were enrolled. The 2.5 mL/s, 5.0 mL/s dynamic enhanced injection velocity contrast agent was used for 35 patients and the reast 35 patients, respectively. All data was transferred to GE Advanced Workstation 4.3, and the indexes of the peripheral prostate cancerous zone were calculated by Functool2 of signal intensity time (SI-T), The time to minimum (Tmax), the whole enhancement degree (SImax%) and the maximum slope (Rmax) were calculated. The effect of different injection velocity on the dynamic enhanced perfusion index was analyzed. Results Tmax of pa-tients received 2.5 mL/s, 5.0 mL/s contrast agent injection velocity in the low risk group (Gleason score 2 to 6)、medium risk group (7 Gleason score) and high risk group (Gleason score 8 to 10) were (19.89 ± 2.76) s and (15.42 ± 1.68) s, (16.91 ± 2.34) s and (12.88 ± 1.73) s, (14.13 ± 1.81) s and (10.2 ± 1.42) s, with signifi-cant differences (t = 4.61, 3.1, 3.25, P 7分) 三组 Tmax 的均值分别为 (19.89 ± 2.76)s、(15.42 ± 1.68)s;(16.91 ± 2.34)s、(12.88 ± 1.73)s;(14.13 ± 1.81)s、(10.20 ± 1.42)s,两组 PCa 的 Tmax 的比较差异均有统计学意义(t = 4.61,3.10,3.25, P < 0.01). 两组 PCa 的 SImax%的均值分别为 (1.45 ± 0.17)%、(1.51 ± 0.27)%;(1.62 ± 0.12)%、(1.84 ± 0.18)%;(1.86 ± 0.16)%、(2.11 ± 0.28)%,两组 SImax%的比较差异均有统计学意义(t = -2.44,-4.55,-5.16,P < 0.05). 两组 PCa 的 Rmax 的平均值分别为 (6.29 ± 2.62)%、(7.64 ± 4.09)%;(8.92 ± 4.21)%、(10.24 ± 9.09)%;(10.85 ± 2.89)%、(12.43 ± 3.51)%,两组 Rmax 的比较差异均有统计学意义(t = -4.07,-3.85,-8.68,P < 0.01). 造影剂注射流速 5.0 mL/s 的 PCa 患者较注射流速为 2

  11. Differences in estimates of size distribution of beryllium powder materials using phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and liquid suspension counter techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accurate characterization of the physicochemical properties of aerosols generated for inhalation toxicology studies is essential for obtaining meaningful results. Great emphasis must also be placed on characterizing particle properties of materials as administered in inhalation studies. Thus, research is needed to identify a suite of techniques capable of characterizing the multiple particle properties (i.e., size, mass, surface area, number of a material that may influence toxicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphology and investigate the size distribution of a model toxicant, beryllium. Beryllium metal, oxides, and alloy particles were aerodynamically size-separated using an aerosol cyclone, imaged dry using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, then characterized using phase contrast microscopy (PCM, a liquid suspension particle counter (LPC, and computer-controlled SEM (CCSEM. Beryllium metal powder was compact with smaller sub-micrometer size particles attached to the surface of larger particles, whereas the beryllium oxides and alloy particles were clusters of primary particles. As expected, the geometric mean (GM diameter of metal powder determined using PCM decreased with aerodynamic size, but when suspended in liquid for LPC or CCSEM analysis, the GM diameter decreased by a factor of two (p

  12. On the dynamics of Cu ions injection into low-k nanoporous materials under oscillating applied fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel. L.; Lu, T.-M.; Gill, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Cu injection into low-k dielectrics was studied using oscillating bipolar field experiments coupled with a mass transport model. Cu/SiCOH/Si structures were stressed using an oscillating square bipolar applied field at 200 °C. Breakdown was defined experimentally as the time it takes for the leakage current to exceed 1 × 10-5 A under given stress conditions. Time to failure was found to depend on field oscillating frequency and amplitude of the applied field. It was determined that ion solubility primarily affects the magnitude of lifetime enhancement, while mobility affects its onset in the frequency domain. Overtime, the local field generated by the accumulation of Cu ions during bias temperature stress resists the action of the oscillating field thus inhibiting the ability to sweep ions from cathode to anode through reversal of the applied field and thereby limits the observed lifetime enhancement. Predictions from the model match trends for experimental data involving transport of Cu ions into SiCOH.

  13. Multiscale study of the self-organized gradient effect of novel hole injection material PEDOT:PSS:PFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min

    2016-09-01

    Conducting polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been widely used as the hole injection layer (HIL) in many applications. However, in OLEDs the commonly used PEDOT:PSS has been found to have serious problems due to its inefficient holeinjection, inefficient electron-blocking, and substantial quenching of excitons close to the PEDOT:PSS. In the literature, tetrafluoroethylene-perfluoro-3,6-dioxa-4-methyl-7-octene-sulfonic acid copolymer, one of perfluorinated ionomers (PFI), was introduced into the PEDOT:PSS layer to develop a gradient work function (WF) by self-organization of the PFI. In this contribution, the self-organized gradient effect of this novel PEDOT:PSS:PFI layer were studied using multiscale analysis and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation. The DPD inter particle repulsion parameters and intramolecular bonding parameters were obtained by reverse mapping of a series of molecular dynamics simulations similar to that used in the earlier contributions. The calculated Flory-Huggins parameters indicated that the Nafion portion of the copolymer attracts PSS while the entire PFI molecule repulses PEDOT, which results in a PFI rich interface and a vertical gradient concentration distribution of PEDOT along the vertical direction of the film layer.

  14. Contrast-to-noise ratio with different settings in a CBCT machine in presence of different root-end filling materials: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirturk Kocasarac, Husniye; Helvacioglu Yigit, Dilek; Bechara, Boulos; Sinanoglu, Alper; Noujeim, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    To compare the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of multiple acquisition settings for four types of retrograde filling materials in CBCT images taken for endodontic surgery follow-up. 20 maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated and obturated with 4 different root-end filling materials: amalgam, mineral trioxide aggregate, SuperEBA(™) (Harry J Bosworth Company, Skokie, IL) and Biodentine™ (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Faussés, France). Teeth were placed in a skull and scanned, one by one, with the Planmeca ProMax(®) 3D Max (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland); at different voltages: 66, 76, 84 and 96 kVp; with low, normal and high resolution and high definition (HD); with and without metal artefact reduction (MAR). Images were analyzed using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) to calculate the CNR. The dose-area product was registered, and the effective dose calculated. No statistically significant difference was noted between the four materials. 84 and 96 kVp with low resolution and the use of MAR-generated images that have statistically better CNR than 66 and 76 kVp with HD, normal and high resolutions and without MAR. The use of low resolution also generated the smallest value of effective dose. The best setting for radiographic follow-up in an endodontic surgery with retrograde filling on the Planmeca ProMax is 96 kVp with low resolution and high MAR; this setting produced one of the lowest effective doses.

  15. Measuring oxygen yields of a thermal conversion/elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometer for organic and inorganic materials through injection of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xijie; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    The thermal conversion/elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (TC/EA-IRMS) is widely used to measure the δ(18) O value of various substances. A premise for accurate δ(18) O measurement is that the oxygen in the sample can be converted into carbon monoxide (CO) quantitatively or at least proportionally. Therefore, a precise method to determine the oxygen yield of TC/EA-IRMS measurements is needed. Most studies have used the CO peak area obtained from a known amount of a solid reference material (for example, benzoic acid) to calibrate the oxygen yield of the sample. Although it was assumed that the oxygen yield of the solid reference material is 100%, no direct evidence has been provided. As CO is the analyte gas for δ(18) O measurement by IRMS, in this study, we use a six-port valve to inject CO gas into the TC/EA. The CO is carried to the IRMS by the He carrier gas and the CO peak area is measured by the IRMS. The CO peak area thus obtained from a known amount of the injected CO is used to calibrate the oxygen yield of the sample. The oxygen yields of commonly used organic and inorganic reference materials such as benzoic acid (C6 H5 COOH), silver phosphate (Ag3 PO4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) and silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) are investigated at different reactor temperatures and sample sizes. We obtained excellent linear correlation between the peak area for the injected CO and its oxygen atom amount. C6 H5 COOH has the highest oxygen yield, followed by Ag3 PO4 , CaCO3 and SiO2 . The oxygen yields of TC/EA-IRMS are less than 100% for both organic and inorganic substances, but the yields are relatively stable at the specified reactor temperature and for a given quantity of sample. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  18. Methotrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  19. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendamustine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  20. Caspofungin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspofungin injection is used in adults and children 3 months of age and older to treat yeast ... people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Caspofungin injection is in a class of antifungal medications ...

  1. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

  2. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain ...

  3. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like lacosamide injection to treat various conditions during ...

  4. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... breast-feeding.talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of receiving midazolam injection if you ...

  5. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  6. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  7. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be using the prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, tell your doctor if you or the person who will be injecting the medication for you are allergic to rubber or latex.tell your doctor and pharmacist what ...

  8. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclosporine injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people ...

  9. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  10. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotaxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory ... skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and ...

  11. Dithiocarbamate functionalized or surface sorbed Merrifield resin beads as column materials for on line flow injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, R S; Naidu, G R K; Prasada Rao, T

    2007-09-26

    This article describes the preparation of dithiocarbamate immobilized/functionalized and diethylammonium dithiocarbamate (DDTC) sorbed Merrifield Chloromethylated Resin (MCR) beads and comparison of these materials for on-line flow injection (FI)-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) determination of lead. The above two materials enrich lead quantitatively over an identical optimal pH range (8.0-9.0), a preconcentration/loading time (up to 4 min) and elution with acidified methanol (a minimum of 0.01 molL(-1) HNO(3) in methanol). However, the detection limit for lead using dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads is 1.3 microgL(-1) compared to 3 microgL(-1) for DDTC sorbed MCR beads. Again, the sensitivity enhancement over direct FAAS signal is 48- and 27-fold, respectively. In addition, dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads offers better precision compared to DDTC sorbed MCR beads as the corresponding relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values for five successive determinations of 0.20 microgmL(-1) are 1.44 and 4.36%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed on-line FI-FAAS procedure employing dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads as column material was tested by analyzing Certified Reference Material (CRM) of soil (IAEA soil-7) and marine sediment reference material (MESS-3) supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna and National Research Council (NRC), Canada, respectively. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been successfully tested for the analysis of surface, pond, ground and effluent water and soil samples collected from the vicinity of lead acid battery industry in India.

  12. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not inject into an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard or where you have scars or stretch marks.Your doctor or pharmacist will ... injection.you should know that ustekinumab injection may decrease your ability ... new or changing skin lesions, minor infections (such as open cuts or ...

  13. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be mixed with another fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) over 5 to 20 minutes. Ranitidine may also be injected into a muscle. It is usually given every 6 to 8 hours, but may also be given ...

  14. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  15. Differences in estimates of size distribution of beryllium powder materials using phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and liquid suspension counter techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Hoover, Mark D; Dickerson, Robert M; Day, Gregory A; Breysse, Patrick N; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2007-02-28

    Accurate characterization of the physicochemical properties of aerosols generated for inhalation toxicology studies is essential for obtaining meaningful results. Great emphasis must also be placed on characterizing particle properties of materials as administered in inhalation studies. Thus, research is needed to identify a suite of techniques capable of characterizing the multiple particle properties (i.e., size, mass, surface area, number) of a material that may influence toxicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphology and investigate the size distribution of a model toxicant, beryllium. Beryllium metal, oxides, and alloy particles were aerodynamically size-separated using an aerosol cyclone, imaged dry using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), then characterized using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), a liquid suspension particle counter (LPC), and computer-controlled SEM (CCSEM). Beryllium metal powder was compact with smaller sub-micrometer size particles attached to the surface of larger particles, whereas the beryllium oxides and alloy particles were clusters of primary particles. As expected, the geometric mean (GM) diameter of metal powder determined using PCM decreased with aerodynamic size, but when suspended in liquid for LPC or CCSEM analysis, the GM diameter decreased by a factor of two (p particles attached to the surface of larger particles and/or particle agglomerates detach in liquid, thereby shifting the particle size distribution downward. The GM diameters of the oxide materials were similar regardless of sizing technique, but observed differences were generally significant (p aerodynamic cluster size will dictate deposition in the lung, but primary particle size may influence biological activity. The GM diameter of alloy particles determined using PCM became smaller with decreasing aerodynamic size fraction; however, when suspended in liquid for CCSEM and LPC analyses, GM particle size decreased by a factor of two (p

  16. Pediatric Brain: Repeated Exposure to Linear Gadolinium-based Contrast Material Is Associated with Increased Signal Intensity at Unenhanced T1-weighted MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Thomas F; Stence, Nicholas V; Maloney, John A; Mirsky, David M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether repeated exposure of the pediatric brain to a linear gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) is associated with an increase in signal intensity (SI) relative to that in GBCA-naive control subjects at unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This single-center, retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. The authors evaluated 46 pediatric patients who had undergone at least three GBCA-enhanced MR examinations (30 patients for two-group analysis and 16 for pre- and post-GBCA exposure comparisons) and 57 age-matched GBCA-naive control subjects. The SI in the globus pallidus, thalamus, dentate nucleus, and pons was measured at unenhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. Globus pallidus-thalamus and dentate nucleus-pons SI ratios were calculated and compared between groups and relative to total cumulative gadolinium dose, age, sex, and number of and mean time between GBCA-enhanced examinations. Analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Patients who underwent multiple GBCA-enhanced examinations had increased SI ratios within the dentate nucleus (mean SI ratio ± standard error of the mean for two-group comparison: 1.007 ± 0.0058 for GBCA-naive group and 1.046 ± 0.0060 for GBCA-exposed group [P mean SI ratio for pre- and post-GBCA comparison: 0.995 ± 0.0062 for pre-GBCA group and 1.035 ± 0.0063 for post-GBCA group [P mean SI ratio for two-group comparison: 1.131 ± 0.0070 for GBCA-naive group and 1.014 ± 0.0091 for GBCA-exposed group [P = .21]; mean SI ratio for pre- and post-GBCA comparison: 1.068 ± 0.0094 for pre-GBCA group and 1.093 ± 0.0134 for post-GBCA group [P = .12]). There was a significant correlation between dentate nucleus SI and total cumulative gadolinium dose (r = 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03, 0.67; P = .03), but not between dentate nucleus SI and patient age

  17. Rebamipide solution: a novel submucosal injection material to promote healing speed and healing quality of ulcers induced by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Ai; Uraoka, Toshio; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Shimoda, Masayuki; Goto, Osamu; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Maehata, Tadateru; Akimoto, Teppei; Mitsunaga, Yutaka; Sasaki, Motoki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yahagi, Naohisa

    2017-10-06

    Rebamipide was administered perorally to protect the gastric mucosa. We assessed the efficacy and safety of a novel rebamipide solution as a submucosal injection material for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using an in vivo porcine model. An endoscopist blinded to the test agents performed ESDs of hypothetical 30 mm lesions using a 2% rebamipide solution at 2 sites (rebamipide group) and a saline solution at the two other sites (control group) in the stomachs of 8 pigs. The technical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. The gastric ulcer stages were evaluated by endoscopy once weekly for 4 weeks after the ESD to determine a healing score (1 to 6). The pigs were killed at 1 week (n=2), 2 weeks (n=2), and 4 weeks (n=4) after the ESD for pathological evaluation of the ESD-induced ulcers and scarring. There were no significant differences in any of the technical outcomes between the two groups, and no adverse events related with the ESD in any of the animals. The healing score was significantly higher in the rebamipide group than in the control group at 2 (p=0.027), 3 (p=0.034), and 4 weeks (p=0.012). In the histopathological assessment, fibrosis was significantly less extensive in the rebamipide group than in the control group at 2 weeks (p=0.02) and 4 weeks (p=0.04). The injected rebamipide solution appeared to promote both the speed and quality of healing of ESD-induced ulcers by suppressing fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Segmental Difference of the Hepatic Fibrosis from Chronic Viral Hepatitis due to Hepatitis B versus C Virus Infection: Comparison Using Dual Contrast Material-Enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Ho; Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    We wanted to identify the geographic differences in hepatic fibrosis and their associations with the atrophy-hypertrophy complex in patients with chronic viral hepatitis using the dual-contrast material-enhanced MRI (DC-MRI) with gadopentetate dimeglumine and ferucarbotran. Patients with chronic C (n = 22) and B-viral hepatitis (n = 35) were enrolled for determining the subjective grade of fibrosis (the extent and thickness of fibrotic reticulations) in the right lobe (RL), the caudate lobe (CL), the medial segment (MS) and the lateral segment (LS) of the liver, with using a 5-grade scale, on the gradient echo T2-weighted images of DC-MRI. The fibrosis grades of different segments were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post-hoc analysis to establish the segment-by-segment differences. The incidences of two pre-established morphologic signs of cirrhosis were also compared with each other between the two groups of patients. There were significant intersegmental differences in fibrosis grades of the C-viral group (p = 0.005), and the CL showed lower fibrosis grades as compared with the grades of the RL and MS, whereas all lobes were similarly affected in the B-viral group (p = 0.221). The presence of a right posterior hepatic notch was significantly higher in the patients with intersegmental differences of fibrosis between the RL and the CL (19 out of 25, 76%) than those without such differences (6 out of 32, 19%) (p < 0.001). An expanded gallbladder fossa showed no significant relationship (p = 0.327) with the segmental difference of the fibrosis grades between the LS and the MS. The relative lack of fibrosis in the CL with more advanced fibrosis in the RL can be a distinguishing feature to differentiate chronic C-viral hepatitis from chronic B-viral hepatitis and this is closely related to the presence of a right posterior hepatic notch.

  19. Micro-radiography and micro-computerized tomography with absorption and phase contrast for materials characterization; Mikro-Radiografie und Mikro-Computertomografie mit Absorptions- und Phasenkontrast fuer die Materialcharakterisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Johann [FH Oberoesterreich, Wels (Austria)

    2017-08-01

    The contribution describes modern techniques in micro-radiography and micro-computerized tomography for materials characterization using absorption and phase contrast. Using micro- and nano-focus tubes and adequate high.-resolution detectors it is possible to reach resolutions significantly below 1 micron. The CT technology allows in-situ deformation testing to study the damaging mechanism of materials. The application of the Talbot-Lau interferometer with CT a differential phase contrast tomography is available. Dark-field tomography is used to study individual carbon fiber bundles in carbon fiber reinforced laminates.

  20. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  1. Model for Electron-Beam-Induced Current Analysis of mc-Si Addressing Defect Contrast Behavior in Heavily Contaminated PV Material: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrey, H.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-06-01

    Much work has been done to correlate electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) contrast behavior of extended defects with the character and degree of impurity decoration. However, existing models fail to account for recently observed contrast behavior of defects in heavily contaminated mc-Si PV cells. We have observed large increases in defect contrast with decreasing temperature for all electrically active defects, regardless of their initial contrast signatures at ambient temperature. This negates the usefulness of the existing models in identifying defect character and levels of impurity decoration based on the temperature dependence of the contrast behavior. By considering the interactions of transition metal impurities with the silicon lattice and extended defects, we attempt to provide an explanation for these observations. Our findings will enhance the ability of the PV community to understand and mitigate the effects of these types of defects as the adoption of increasingly lower purity feedstocks for mc-Si PV production continues.

  2. Is intravenous contrast enhancement effective in improving CT diagnosis of hepatic disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsuhide; Ono, Chiaki [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Kohno, Atsushi[Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital; Sumi, Yukiharu [Juntendo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Urayasu Hospital; Honda, Masanori [Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital (Japan); Uchimura, Fumiaki [Yamagata Prefectural Nihonkai Hospital, Sakata (Japan); Ogawa, Kenji [Nihon Koukan Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ohtaki, Megu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of contrast enhancement in the diagnosis of hepatic disease. 2761 cases involving CT of the liver and abdomen were analyzed using logistic analysis. CT was either helical-CT (SDCT) or multi-detector CT (MDCT), with power injector. Contrast enhancement use was 92% in liver disease and 95% in tumor cases. A typical case involved a 66-year-old man given 2-4 ml/sec of contrast material using dual injection. CT imaging was done in the equilibrium stage. The use of contrast material was effective for the diagnosis of liver tumor except in the qualitative diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with SDCT where the odds ratio was 0.084. Intravenous contrast enhancement was effective for the CT diagnosis of hepatic tumor. Dynamic CT was effective using MDCT, and dual injection of contrast material was also valid for SDCT. Multiphasic studies were needed for detecting liver tumors not only on MDCT but also on SDCT. CT imaging during the equilibrium phase alone is inadequate to document diagnosis of metastatic liver tumors. The addition of various phasic contrast materials during CT was effective in evaluating liver tumors that showed angiogenesis. (author)

  3. Injection MD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2012-01-01

    This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

  4. [Contrast sonography of the urinary tract in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K; Jablonski, C; Fendel, H

    1986-02-01

    In 14 healthy children contrast sonography of the bladder was performed with various solutions prior to voiding cystourethrography. The solutions were introduced into the bladder via a bladder catheter. The contrast effects which occurred with iothalamate injections in the urine-filled bladder, with urine injections in the iothalamate-filled bladder, with injections of 0.9% saline solution, and with air injections into the iothalamate-filled bladder were sonographically demonstrated. In echogenicity and duration the intravesical air contrast was superior to all mixture contrasts in the bladder resulting from injections of the respective fluids.

  5. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  6. Evaluation of a novel PTFE material for use as a means for separation and preconcentration of trace levels of metal ions in sequential injection (SI) and sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) systems. Determination of cadmium (II) with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Chomchoei, Roongrat; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    The operational characteristics of a novel poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) bead material, granular Algoflon®, used for separation and preconcentration of metal ions via adsorption of on-line generated non-charged metal complexes, were evaluated in a sequential injection (SI) system furnished...

  7. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not go away: pain, redness, swelling, warmth, burning, or itching in the place mepolizumab was injected headache dry and itchy skin with or without red, scaly rashes back pain muscle spasms Some side ...

  8. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and feeling of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide injection is also used to prevent nausea ... tranylcypromine (Parnate); narcotic medications for pain; sedatives; sleeping pills; tetracycline (Bristacycline, Sumycin); tranquilizers. Your doctor may need ...

  9. Ramucirumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  10. Alemtuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemtuzumab injection is used to treat B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (a slowly developing cancer in which ... of white blood cell accumulate in the body). Alemtuzumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  11. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  12. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludarabine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during this time. Talk to your doctor for ...

  13. Insulin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or buttocks. Do not inject insulin into muscles, scars, or moles. Use a different site for each ... you are using insulin.Alcohol may cause a decrease in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the ...

  14. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  15. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... did not help or could not be tolerated. Golimumab is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  16. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will develop tumors of the thyroid gland, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). ... symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using albiglutide injection and call your doctor ...

  17. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  18. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Hydrocortisone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  19. Methylprednisolone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Methylprednisolone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  20. Glatiramer Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To inject glatiramer, follow these steps: Remove one blister pack from the carton of glatiramer syringes and place ... paper label and remove the syringe from the blister pack. Check your prefilled syringe to be sure it ...

  1. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are ...

  2. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in sunlight.Before you use evolocumab injection, look at the ... chills pain or burning during urination muscle or back pain dizziness stomach pain Some side effects can be ...

  3. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cidofovir is in a class of medications called antivirals. ...

  4. Brivaracetam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Brivaracetam in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like brivaracetam injection to treat various conditions during ...

  5. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not to use diphenhydramine injection if you are breastfeeding because of the risk of harm to infants.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma or other types of lung disease; glaucoma (a ...

  6. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  7. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  8. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  9. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available.Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... you are allergic to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  10. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Levofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... severe reaction to levofloxacin; any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  11. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Ciprofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... reaction to ciprofloxacin or any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the ...

  12. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  13. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an arm or leg sudden changes in vision pain with eye movement Chloramphenicol injection may cause a condition called gray syndrome in premature and newborn infants. There have also been reports of gray ...

  14. 个体化对比剂注射方案在256层CT冠状动脉成像中的应用%Application of the individual protocol of contrast medium injection in coronary angiography by 256-slice CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹希明; 黄美萍; 郑君惠; 巫梓斌; 温孟皇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨个体化对比剂注射方案在256层CT冠状动脉成像中的应用价值.方法 100例临床怀疑冠心病需接受冠状动脉CT(CTA)检查者,按照对比剂注射方案个体化原则,对比剂总量(ml)=患者体重(kg),对比剂流率ml/s=对比剂总量/(扫描时间+8)ml/s,同样流率追加30ml生理盐水}进行冠脉CTA检查,测量升主动脉根部左冠开口处CT值并对冠状动脉的显示进行评分,分析对比剂注射方案个体化的可行性.结果 按照个体化对比剂注射方案行冠脉CTA检查后,100例检查者升主动脉根部左冠开口处平均强化程度为(420.19±56.59) HU,冠状动脉显示评分得3分比例为88.78%,得2分比例为11.22%,无得1分者.结论 个体化对比剂注射方案在256层CT冠状动脉成像中具有良好的应用价值.%Objective To investigate the application value of individual protocol of contrast medium injection in coronary angiography by 256-slice CT. Methods 100 subjects with clinically suspected coronary disease underwent coronary artery CT inspection, according to the individual principle of contrast agent injection plan, that is, total amount of contrast agent (ml) equals to patients body weight (kg), discharge rate of contrast agent (ml/s) equals to total amount of contrast agent /(trace time +8) ml/s, and 30 ml physiological saline is supplemented if the discharge rate is similar. Subsequently, the CT value of left crown jaw opening in ascending aorta root was measured and the coronary artery's demonstration was graded so as to analyze the feasibility of individual plan of contrast agent injection. Results After the CTA inspection via the individuation of contrast agent injection plan, the mean strengthening degree of left crown jaw opening in ascending aorta root of these 100 patients was (420. 19±56. 59) HU. The coronary artery demonstrated scale was 3 in 88. 78%, 2 in 11. 22%, and 1 in none. Conclusion Individuation of contrast media injection protocol

  15. Effect of intracarotid injection of iopamidol on local cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, D; Cicciarello, R; Albiero, F; Piscitelli, G; Fiori, M G; Mesiti, M; Princi, P; d'Aquino, S

    1989-01-01

    We assessed, by means of the [14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography method, the effect of intracarotid injection of a nonionic, low-osmolar contrast medium (iopamidol) on local cerebral glucose utilization in the rat brain. Contrast medium was injected at 20 degrees C and at 37 degrees C, and the relative changes in local cerebral glucose utilization were measured. At 20 degrees C the viscosity of the contrast agent was about twice that of the same solution at 37 degrees C, and resulted in a statistically significant increase in local cerebral glucose utilization in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the side of intracarotid infusion. Saline control studies showed that the metabolic change was not related to either the solution temperature or the osmolality. These findings suggest that increased viscosity of a contrast medium may contribute to its neurotoxic effects during cerebral angiography, hence emphasizing the importance of preheating contrast material to avoid adverse reactions.

  16. Physico-chemical Stability of MabThera Drug-product Solution for Subcutaneous Injection under in-use Conditions with Different Administration Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Dietel, Elke; Heynen, Severin R; Nalenz, Heiko; Goldbach, Pierre; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Schmidt, Johannes; Grauschopf, Ulla; Schoenhamnmer, Karin

    2015-01-01

    MabThera is an essential component of the standard-of-care regimens in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia. MabThera for subcutaneous injection is a novel line extension that has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This study aimed to evaluate in-use stability data of MabThera subcutaneous drug-product solution in single-use syringes for subcutaneous administration according to the European Medicines Agency guideline. The drug-product solution was exposed to material contact surfaces of five different administration setups commonly used in subcutaneous drug delivery. MabThera subcutaneous was transferred under aseptic conditions into polypropylene and polycarbonate syringes and stored for 1, 2, and 4 weeks at 2°C to 8°C followed by 24 hours at 30°C. After storage, subcutaneous administration was simulated and MabThera subcutaneous drug-product solution quality attributes were evaluated by using compendial physico-chemical tests, as well as suitable and validated molecule- and formulation-specific analytical methods. MabThera subcutaneous vials were treated and analyzed in parallel. The physico-chemical results of MabThera subcutaneous in the different setups were comparable to the control for all timepoints. No change in drug-product quality after storage and simulated administration was found compared to the control. However, since single-dose products do not contain preservatives, microbial contamination and growth needs to be avoided and product sterility needs to be ensured. The results showed that MabThera subcutaneous remains compatible and stable, from a physico-chemical perspective, for up to 4 weeks at 2°C to 8°C followed by 24 hours at 30°C with the contact materials tested in this study. In order to avoid and minimize microbial growth, MabThera subcutaneous should be used immediately after removal from the original

  17. Advanced detection strategies for ultrasound contrast agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.G. Borsboom (Jerome)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Ultrasound contrast agent was discovered serendipitously by Gramiak and Shah in I968 when they injected indocyanine green dye into the heart and observed increased echogenicity of the blood containing the dye. Small cavitation bubbles that were formed upon injection of

  18. Non-contrast enhanced MRI for evaluation of breast lesions: comparison of non-contrast enhanced high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) images vs. contrast enhanced fat-suppressed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Milica; Fan, Xiaobing; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Wood, Abbie M.; Shimauchi, Akiko; Kulkarni, Kirti; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer without injection of contrast media: to compare the performance of pre-contrast HiSS images to conventional contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, based on image quality and in the task of classifying benign and malignant breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten benign and 44 malignant lesions were imaged at 1.5T with HiSS (pre-contrast administration) and conventional fat-suppressed imaging (3–10 min post-contrast). This set of 108 images, after randomization, was evaluated by three experienced radiologists blinded to the imaging technique. BIRADS morphologic criteria (lesion shape; lesion margin; internal signal intensity pattern) and final assessment were used to measure reader performance. Image quality was evaluated based on boundary delineation and quality of fat suppression. An overall probability of malignancy was assigned to each lesion for HiSS and conventional images separately. RESULTS On boundary delineation and quality of fat-suppression, pre-contrast HiSS scored similarly to conventional post-contrast MRI. On benign vs. malignant lesion separation, there was no statistically significant difference in ROC performance between HiSS and conventional MRI, and HiSS met a reasonable non-inferiority condition. CONCLUSION Pre-contrast HiSS imaging is a promising approach for showing lesion morphology without blooming and other artifacts caused by contrast agents. HiSS images could be used to guide subsequent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scans, to maximize spatial and temporal resolution in suspicious regions. HiSS MRI without contrast agent injection may be particularly important for patients at risk for contrast-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, or allergic reactions. PMID:21962476

  19. 改良臭氧注射法及PLD治疗腰椎间盘突出症的对照研究%Contrastive Study of the Modified Injection of Ozone and PLD in Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the therapeutic effects and complications of modified ozone injection and percutaneous lumbar disketomy(PLD) in treatment of lumbar disc herniation(LDH),and to discuss safety of the therapy. Methods 120 cases of LDH were randomly divided into two groups. Group A was treated with modified injection of ozone,group B was treated with percutaneous lumbar disketomy. The therapeutic result,operative time,day in hospital and complications were compared between the two groups at 1 week and 6 months post-operation. Results There was a significant difference in good rates between group A and B after a week (55% and 38. 3% respectively) ,however, this difference disappeared at six months after treatment. The group A has shorter operative time (18. 0±3. 7 min for group A,42. 2±6. 5 min for group B) ,quicker recovery,shorter hospital stay (4. 7±0. 6 d for group A and 6. 0± 0. 9 d for group B) ,and less postoperative complications(13. 3% group A and 33. 3% group B). Conclusion The curative effect of modified ozone injection in treatment of LDH is similar to PLD and both of them have the advantages of less invasion,but the modified ozone injection have less complication,easier operation,shorter hospital stays and lower cost than PLD,the modified ozone injection is more suitable to basic hospitals.%目的 对比观察改良臭氧注射法及经皮腰椎间盘切吸术治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效、并发症,探讨具体治疗的安全性.方法 将120例腰椎间盘突出症患者随机分成两组,应用改良臭氧注射法治疗的为A组(60例),应用经皮腰椎间盘切吸术治疗的为B组(60例),对两组患者术后1周和6个月疗效、穿刺治疗时间、住院时间及并发症进行统计学分析.结果 优良率在1周时A、B组分别为55%和38.3%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);在6个月时,A、B组分别为68.3%和70%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);并发症发生率A、B组分别为13,3%、33.3

  20. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle. Do not try to warm the medication by heating it in a microwave, placing it in warm water or in direct sunlight, or through any other method.Before injecting, check the prefilled syringe to be sure that the expiration date printed on the package has not passed. Look ...

  1. Enfuvirtide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inject enfuvirtide into any skin that has a tattoo, scar, bruise, mole, a burn site, or has ... Enfuvirtide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: itching, swelling, pain, tingling, discomfort, ...

  2. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer. Treatment with fluorouracil injection may cause serious side effects. ... this medication.If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor ... (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/ ...

  3. Lanreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  4. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body slow movements or shuffling walk painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours cough, chills and/or other signs of infection Paliperidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.If you experience a ...

  5. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffness falling confusion sweating loss of consciousness painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Ziprasidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  6. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control slow movements or shuffling walk falling painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Risperidone extended-release injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  7. 造影剂注射速率对64层螺旋CT冠状动脉血管成像质量的影响%Effect of contrast injection rates on immaging quality of coronary angiography taken by 64-slice spiral CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈栋; 潘昌杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究造影剂注射速率对64层螺旋CT冠状动脉血管成像质量的影响.方法 120 例冠状动脉血管造影患者随机均分成三组,分别用4.5、5或5.5ml/s的速率注射等量造影剂.应用64层螺旋CT进行扫描;采用团注实验测定延迟时间;分别在左冠发出层面横断面图像选择感兴趣区测量升、降主动脉衰减值(HU),利用多平面重建技术(MPR)于离出口约1cm处的正交横断面图像测量心脏血管(左主干、前降支、回旋支及右冠状动脉)的衰减值.结果 升、降主动脉及心脏血管三组间对比衰减均有统计学意义(P<0.01).心脏血管对比衰减与体重(r=-0.722)、体重指数(BMI)(r=-0.599)明显相关(P<0.05).以5ml/s速率注射造影剂获得的图像质量优于其它两组(P<0.01).结论 在心脏CT血管造影(CTA)中在扫描条件及造影剂的碘浓度一致情况下,以5ml/s注射速率给予造影剂可以获得良好的血管增强效果.%Objective To study the effect of contrast injection rates on immaging quality of coronary angiography taken by 64-slice spiral CT (64-MSCT). Methods A total of 120 patients undergoing coronary angiography was equally randomized to 3 groups, in which the contrast injection was performed at the flow rates of 4. 5, 5, and 5. 5 ml/s, respectively. The 64-MSCT scanner and scanning protocols were the same for each group. The scanning delay of CT was determined with a bolus test technique. The attenuation in Hounsfield units(HU) achieved after each injection rate was determined at regions of interest(ROIs) placed at the 1 cm origin of coronary arteries measured by multiplanar reconstructions (MPR), which included the left main artery (LMA), left anterior descending artery(LAD), left circumfiex artery(LCX) and right coronary artery(RCA). All data were analyzed with one way ANOVA. The quality of the coronary artery images was evaluated and compared. Results The mean attenuation achieved at each aortic site was

  8. Critical Questions Regarding Gadolinium Deposition in the Brain and Body After Injections of the Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents, Safety, and Clinical Recommendations in Consideration of the EMA's Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee Recommendation for Suspension of the Marketing Authorizations for 4 Linear Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Val M

    2017-06-01

    For magnetic resonance, the established class of intravenous contrast media is the gadolinium-based contrast agents. In the 3 decades since initial approval, these have proven in general to be very safe for human administration. However, in 2006, a devastating late adverse reaction to administration of the less stable gadolinium-based contrast agents was identified, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The result of actions taken by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration, stratifying the agents by risk and contraindicating specific agents in severe renal dysfunction, has led to no new cases being identified in North America or Europe. Subsequently, in 2014, long-term deposition in the brain of gadolinium was first shown, after administration of 2 nonionic linear chelates, gadodiamide, and gadopentetate dimeglumine. This has led to an intense focus on the question of in vivo distribution, possible dechelation, and subsequent deposition of gadolinium, together with substantial clarification of the phenomenon as well as stratification of the agents on this basis. This review focuses on 8 critical questions regarding gadolinium deposition in the brain and body, with the answers and discussion therein important for future regulatory decisions and clinical practice. It is now clear that dechelation of gadolinium occurs in vivo with the linear agents and is responsible for this phenomenon, with key experts in the field recommending, except where there is no suitable alternative, a shift in clinical practice from the linear to macrocyclic agents. In addition, on March 10, 2017, the Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of the marketing authorization for 4 linear gadolinium contrast agents-specifically Omniscan, Optimark, Magnevist, and MultiHance (gadodiamide, gadoversetamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadobenate dimeglumine)-for intravenous injection. Cited in the report was

  9. Contrast material and radiation dose reduction strategy for triple-rule-out cardiac CT angiography: feasibility study of non-ECG-gated low kVp scan of the whole chest following coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidoh, Masafumi; Nakaura, Takeshi; Nakamura, Shinichi; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Sakaino, Naritsugu; Harada, Kazunori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dedicated coronary computed tomography (CT) scan has been proven to be an accurate diagnostic modality in evaluating coronary artery disease. A second phase scan starting immediately after the coronary CT scan might enable visualization of the different vascular territories of the entire chest. To investigate the feasibility of a contrast material and radiation dose reduction triple-rule-out (TRO) CT angiography (CTA) protocol with serial non-ECG-gated low kVp scan of the whole chest, which utilizes a recirculated contrast agent. Thirty patients were scanned with the new TRO-CTA protocol; after the coronary scan with retrospective ECG-gating, non-ECG-gated whole-chest CTA was performed at 80 kVp to evaluate aortic arch (AAr) and pulmonary trunk (PT). Another 30 patients were scanned by our conventional TRO-CTA protocol at 120 kVp with retrospective ECG-gating. We compared the estimated effective dose (ED), contrast material (CM) dose, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the ascending aorta (AAo), and the rate of patients who could achieve adequate attenuation of the AAr and PT between the two protocols. The total ED of the new TRO-CTA protocol was 29.6% lower than that of the conventional protocol (P TRO-CTA protocol was significantly lower than in the conventional protocol (60.1 ± 9.6 mL vs. 91.8 ± 22.6 mL, P TRO-CTA protocol than with the conventional protocol (P 0.05). The new TRO-CTA protocol can reduce the total dose of radiation and the contrast dose and yield adequate vascular enhancement compared with the conventional protocol. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  11. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail: dromain@igr.fr; Balleyguier, Corinne; Adler, Ghazal [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Garbay, Jean Remi [Department of Surgery, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Delaloge, Suzette [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2009-01-15

    CEDM is a recent development of digital mammography using the intra-venous injection of an iodinated contrast agent in conjunction with a mammography examination. Two techniques have been developed to perform CEDM examinations: the temporal subtraction technique with acquisition of high-energy images before and after contrast medium injection and the dual energy technique with acquisition of a pair of low and high-energy images only after contrast medium injection. The temporal subtraction technique offered the possibility to analyze the kinetic curve of enhancement of breast lesions, similarly to breast MRI. The dual energy technique do not provide information about the kinetic of tumor enhancement but allows the acquisition of multiples views of the same breast or bilateral examination and is less sensitive to patient motion than temporal CEDM. Initial clinical experience has shown the ability of CEDM to map the distribution of neovasculature induced by cancer using mammography. Moreover, previous studies have shown a superiority of MX + CEDM, either for the assessment of the probability of malignancy than for BIRADS assessment comparing to MX alone. The potential clinical applications are the clarification of mammographically equivocal lesions, the detection of occult lesions on standard mammography, particularly in dense breast, the determination of the extent of disease, the assessment of recurrent disease and the monitoring of the response to chemotherapy. CEDM should result in a simple way to enhance the detection and the characterization of breast lesions.

  12. A Survey of Agreement Rate between Simple MTC and Post Contrast T1 Sequence MRI for Diagnosing Active Multiple Sclerosis Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farshchian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: MS is the most common disabling neurological disorder. Identifying new active MS plaques at the onset and clinical status and faster onset of treatment as well as evaluating the response to treatment is important and MRI with contrast is the best indicator for these measures. Materials & Methods: This study was cross-sectional including 62 patients with diagnosed MS. Whose clinical symptoms suggested the recurrence of MS. They were referred to the radiol-ogy department to undergo brain MRI with injection for the diagnosis of active plaques by a neurologist,The Data were analyzed using statistical tests and SPSS 21 software. Results: Based on the sequences of post contrast T1, pre contrast MTC and post contrast MTC 74, 272 and 271 plaques were respectively discovered. Detection of active MS plaques on T1 sequences after injection were in poor accordance and had significant difference with MTC before and after injection. Moreover, detection of active MS plaques on MTC sequences be-fore injection were in good accordance and did not show significant difference with MTC se-quences after injection. Conclusion: Based on these results, it seems that the purpose of MRI in MS patients is deter-mining the amount of active plaques. Sequences of pre contrast and post contrast MTC are significantly more than sequences of post contrast T1. Therefore, using sequences of MTC can be helpful in MRI. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:97-102

  13. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  14. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  15. Supplementary Material for: Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-01-01

    -eQTLs. Expression evolution of changed-tissues DE genes was rapid in tissue specifically expressed genes and those rapidly evolved changed-tissues DE genes were regulated not by cis-eQTLs, but by complicated trans-eQTLs. Conclusions Global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes had contrasting characteristics. The two contrasting types of DE genes provide possible explanations for the previous controversial conclusions about the relationships between molecular evolution and expression evolution of genes in different species, and the relationship between expression breadth and expression conservation in evolution.

  16. Accuracy of non assisted glenohumeral joint injection in the office setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidon, Eliezer, E-mail: eli.sidon@gmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Velkes, Steven, E-mail: velkes@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopedics, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Shemesh, Shai, E-mail: shai.shemesh@gmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Levy, Jakob, E-mail: Jlevy@clalit.org.il [Department of Imaging, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Glaser, Ernesto, E-mail: glaser.ernesto@gmail.com [Department of Imaging, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Kosashvili, Yona, E-mail: yonasofi@gmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The diagnostic and therapeutic success of shoulder joint injection depends on its accuracy. Two recent studies reported high success (93–96%) for non-imaging-assisted anterior injection in anesthetized patients. This study examined the accuracy of anterior shoulder injection in awake patients under conditions similar to the office setting. Methods: The study group consisted of 166 consecutive patients with shoulder pain who underwent diagnostic magnetic resonance arthrography at a tertiary medical center in 2011–2012. As part of the examination, contrast material was injected into the glenohumeral joint via an anterior approach by a certified musculoskeletal radiologist without any image assistance. Success was defined as contrast material limited to the intra-articular joint on the scan, without scatter to the periauricular tissue. Results: A successful injection was verified by magnetic resonance arthography in 163 patients (98.2%). Conclusions: Non-assisted anterior shoulder injection is highly accurate (98.2%) in the hands of an experienced radiologist, even in awake patients.

  17. Dynamics of soil organic carbon fractions in olive groves in Andalusia (Southern Spain) in soils with contrasted parent material and under different management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Vicente, Jose Luis; García-Ruiz, Roberto; Calero, Julio; Aranda, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Spain has 2.5 million hectares of olive groves, 60 % of which are situated in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The most common agricultural management consist of a conventional or reduced tillage combined with herbicides to eliminate weeds. This might lead to some ecological problems (e.g. erosion, soil nutrient and organic carbon losses). The recommended management consist of a plant cover of spontaneous herbaceous plant in the inter row of olive oil orchards which are usually mowed early in spring. In this study, we assessed the influence of: i) two soil managements: non-covered and weed-covered, and ii) soil parent material (carbonated and siliceous), on soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions. In addition, we assessed the existence of a saturation limit for the different SOC fractions by including calcareous and siliceous soils under natural vegetation. Weed-covered soils accumulated more total SOC than soils under the non-covered management and this was independent on the parent material type. Same was true for most of the SOC fractions. However, the relative proportion of the SOC fractions was not affected by the presence of weeds, but it was due to the parent material type; carbonated soils had more unprotected and physically protected SOC, whereas the siliceous soils were relatively enriched in biochemically protected pool. Otherwise, table 1 shows that the chemically protected SOC pool was best fit to a saturation function, especially in the siliceous plots. The other fractions were best fit to a linear function. Therefore, these results suggest that chemically protected pools are the only protected fractions which can be saturated considering the SOC in the natural vegetation soils as the SOC limit. Considering SOC levels in the weed-covered and non-covered managements of all protected fractions and their respective limits of total SOC, saturation deficits in the non-covered and weed-covered plots were 75% and 60% of total SOC, respectively. Table 1. Significance

  18. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA. Technique and contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Yousef W. [Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Bispebjerg, Bispebjerg (Denmark)], e-mail: ywnielsen@gmail.com; Thomsen, Henrik S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Herlev, Herlev (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast agents. Peripheral CE-MRA is defined as an MR angiogram of the arteries from the aortic bifurcation to the feet. Advantages of CE-MRA include minimal invasiveness and lack of ionizing radiation. The basic technique employed for peripheral CE-MRA is the bolus-chase method. With this method a paramagnetic MRI contrast agent is injected intravenously and T1-weighted images are acquired in the subsequent arterial first-pass phase. In order to achieve high quality MR angiograms without interfering venous contamination or artifacts, a number of factors need to be taken into account. This includes magnetic field strength of the MRI system, receiver coil configuration, use of parallel imaging, contrast bolus timing technique, and k-space filling strategies. Furthermore, it is possible to optimize peripheral CE-MRA using venous compression techniques, hybrid scan protocols, time-resolved imaging, and steady-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged intravascular stay, due to macromolecular structure or protein binding. These agents can be used for first-pass, as well as steady-state MRA. Some Gd-based contrast agents with low thermodynamic stability have been linked to development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Using optimized technique and a stable MRI contrast agent, peripheral CE-MRA is a safe procedure with diagnostic accuracy close to that of conventional catheter X

  19. Cerebral computed tomography angiography using a low tube voltage (80 kVp) and a moderate concentration of iodine contrast material: a quantitative and qualitative comparison with conventional computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Suk; Chung, Tae-Sub; Oh, Dae Kun; Choi, Hyun Seok; Suh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Hyeon-Kyeong; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility of an 80-kVp protocol using a moderate concentration contrast material (MC-CM) for cerebral computed tomography angiography by comparison with a conventional 120-kVp protocol using a high concentration contrast material (HC-CM). Attenuation values and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were determined in a head phantom for 2 tube voltages (80 and 120 kVp) and 2 different iodine concentration contrast materials (HC-CM and MC-CM). Among 90 consecutive patients, 45 patients were scanned with 120 kVp and 150 mAs(eff) after administration of 70 mL of HC-CM (370 mg iodine [mgI]/mL), whereas the other 45 patients were scanned with 80 kVp and 370 mAs(eff) after administration of 70 mL of MC-CM (300 mgI/mL). The Hounsfield units (HU) of the internal carotid artery T junction, SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), subjective degree of arterial enhancement, image noise, sharpness of the cerebral arterial boundary, and overall diagnostic image quality were compared between the 2 groups. The mean attenuation of the internal carotid artery T junction, SNR, and CNR was significantly higher in the 80 kVp with MC-CM group (379.2, 33.7, and 31.1 HU, respectively) than in the 120 kVp with HC-CM group (282.2, 31.1, and 27.2 HU, respectively). The 80-kVp protocol resulted in significantly higher score in arterial enhancement, sharpness of the cerebral arteries, and overall diagnostic image quality. The effective dose of 80 kVp (0.7 mSv) was 22.2% lower than that of 120 kVp (0.9 mSv). The use of 80 kVp with MC-CM improved arterial enhancement, SNR, and CNR and provided superior quality images using a smaller amount of iodine and a lower radiation dose than the conventional protocol of 120 kVp with HC-CM.

  20. Multimodal nanoparticulate bioimaging contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parvesh; Singh, Amit; Brown, Scott C; Bengtsson, Niclas; Walter, Glenn A; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Iwakuma, Nobutaka; Santra, Swadeshmukul; Scott, Edward W; Moudgil, Brij M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of bioimaging techniques (e.g., ultrasound, computed X-ray tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography) are commonly employed for clinical diagnostics and scientific research. While all of these methods use a characteristic "energy-matter" interaction to provide specific details about biological processes, each modality differs from another in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, anatomical and molecular details, imaging depth, as well as the desirable material properties of contrast agents needed for augmented imaging. On many occasions, it is advantageous to apply multiple complimentary imaging modalities for faster and more accurate prognosis. Since most imaging modalities employ exogenous contrast agents to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the development and use of multimodal contrast agents is considered to be highly advantageous for obtaining improved imagery from sought-after imaging modalities. Multimodal contrast agents offer improvements in patient care, and at the same time can reduce costs and enhance safety by limiting the number of contrast agent administrations required for imaging purposes. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate-based multimodal contrast agent for noninvasive bioimaging using MRI, optical, and photoacoustic tomography (PAT)-imaging modalities. The synthesis of these agents is described using microemulsions, which enable facile integration of the desired diversity of contrast agents and material components into a single entity.

  1. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Flapping Injection and Pulsed Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology Team; Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinatti Team; Swedish Defence Material Administration, Sweden Team

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft are in general noisy and there is a high demand for reducing their noise levels. The jet exhaust is in most cases the main noise source of the aircraft, especially for low bypass ratio jet engines. Fluidic injection affecting the shear layer close to the nozzle exit is a promising noise reduction technique as it can be turned of while not needed and thus the negative effect on the engine performance will be minimized. In the presented work, LES is used to compare steady-state mass flow injection with steady-state mass flow flapping jet injection. The work is a direct continuation of a previous LES study on pulsed injection which showed that the pulsed injection induced pressure pulses in the jet which caused increased tonal noise in the downstream directions. The injection system considered in the presented work consists of eight evenly distributed injectors at the nozzle exit plane with a 90° injection angle relative to the flow direction. Flapping jet injection is believed to minimize the creation of these pressure pulses since it provides steady-state mass flow. This work is funded by Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV).

  2. How to misuse echo contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Missios Anna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary intracardiac tumours are rare, there are however several entities that can mimic tumours. Contrast echocardiography has been suggested to aid the differentiation of various suspected masses. We present a case where transthoracic echocardiography completely misdiagnosed a left atrial mass, partly due to use of echo contrast. Case presentation An 80 year-old woman was referred for transthoracic echocardiography because of one-month duration of worsening of dyspnoea. Transthoracic echocardiography displayed a large echodense mass in the left atrium. Intravenous injection of contrast (SonoVue, Bracco Inc., It indicated contrast-enhancement of the structure, suggesting tumour. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed, however, a completely normal finding in the left atrium. Subsequent gastroscopy examination showed a hiatal hernia. Conclusion It is noteworthy that the transthoracic echocardiographic exam completely misdiagnosed what seemed like a left atrial mass, which in part was an effect of the use of echo contrast. This example highlights that liberal use of transoesophageal echocardiography is often warranted if optimal display of cardiac structures is desired.

  3. High Intensity Beam Test of Low Z Materials for the Upgrade of SPS-to-LHC Transfer Line Collimators and LHC Injection Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Maciariello, Fausto; Butcher, Mark; Calviani, Marco; Folch, Ramon; Kain, Verena; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Lamas Garcia, Inigo; Lechner, Anton; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Steele, Genevieve; Uythoven, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) and High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, the collimators in the SPS-to LHC transfer lines will undergo important modifications. The changes to these collimators will allow them to cope with beam brightness and intensity levels much increased with respect to their original design parameters: nominal and ultimate LHC. The necessity for replacement of the current materials will need to be confirmed by a test in the High Radiation to Materials (HRM) facility at CERN. This test will involve low Z materials (such as Graphite and 3-D Carbon/Carbon composite), and will recreate the worst case scenario those materials could see when directly impacted by High luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) or Batch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) beams. Thermo-structural simulations used for the material studies and research, the experiment preparation phase, the experiment itself, pre irradiation analysis (including ultrasound and metrology tests on the target materials), the resul...

  4. Diphenylamino-substituted bicarbazole derivative: Hole-transporting material with high glass-transition temperature, good electron and triplet exciton blocking capabilities and efficient hole injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanyong; Jiang, Shan; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    A diphenylamino-substituted bicarbazole derivative (BCZDA) with high glass-transition temperature (170 °C) has been developed. The introduction of the strongly electron-donating diphenylamino group endows this compound with high HOMO (-4.94 eV), LUMO (-1.94 eV) and triplet energy (2.65 eV) levels which are beneficial for hole injection and electron/triplet exciton blocking. By adopting this compound as the hole-transporting layer, both fluorescent and phosphorescent devices with good performance have been realized. Through the device study, the performance of this compound is proved to be comparable to that of NPB. The utility of this compound as a host has also been evaluated.

  5. Contrast-induced nephropathy after computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Selistre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast induced nephropathy is the third most prevalent preventable cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. It defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine ≥ 0.5 mg/dL and relative ≥ 25% increase. Objective: We studied the risk factors to intravenous injection contrast nephropathy after computed tomography. Methods: We studied 400 patients prospectively. Results: The incidence of contrast induced nephropathy, with an absolute or a relative increase were 4.0% and 13.9%, respectively. Diabetes and cardiac failure were independent risk factors for CIN a relative increase de serum creatinine (O.R.: 3.5 [95% CI: 1.92-6.36], p < 0.01, 2.61 [95% CI: 1.14-6.03%], p < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: We showed association between uses of intravenous injection contrast after computed tomography with acute injury renal, notably with diabetes and heart failure.

  6. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  7. 3.0 T血氧水平依赖功能MRI技术对注入碘对比剂后肾脏损害评价的实验研究%Experimental study of renal damage assessment after injection of iodine contrast medium: the role of blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI with a 3.0 T system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉品; 梁长虹; 张水兴; 刘波; 冉鹏程

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨3.0 T血氧水平依赖功能MRI(fMRI-BOLD)技术在碘对比剂大鼠肾脏损害评价中的应用价值.方法 29只SD大鼠分别于注入碘对比剂前、注入碘对比剂碘普胺后20 min、24 h、48 h、72 h不同时间点进行常规MR序列及BOLD序列扫描;注入碘对比剂前作为对照组.BOLD序列扫描图像在工作站处理后,测量大鼠肾脏皮质、外髓及内髓的T2*值,计算表观自旋-自旋弛豫率(R2*值)(R2*值=1/T2 *值).对照组大鼠双肾不同部位R2*值的比较采用方差分析,对照组和实验组不同时间、不同部位右肾和左肾R2*值的比较采用t检验.结果 对照组大鼠左、右肾脏外髓R2*值[分别为(31.76±2.73)/s和(32.77±3.07)/s]均高于相应皮质[分别为(30.20±3.48)/s和(28.84±3.11)/s]及内髓[分别为(29.54±2.42)/s和(28.37±2.80)/s],F值分别为3.357和14.961,P值均<0.05.左肾和右肾内髓、外髓和皮质的R2*值差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).注入碘对比剂后不同时间点,以外髓R2*值变化明显.在注射对比剂20 min时,肾脏外髓R2*值最高[右肾和左肾分别为(44.58±3.13)/s和(43.57±3.84)/s],24 h后R2*值逐渐降低[右肾和左肾分别为(42.89±3.40)/s和(42.07±4.82)/s].内髓及皮质R2*值仅表现为轻微改变.结论 R2*值能反映出大鼠肾脏皮、髓质氧分压的变化,判断髓质缺血缺氧程度.BOLD成像技术能反映肾脏皮髓质氧代谢情况,评估肾脏损害程度,是一种简单、可行及重复性较好的方法.%Objective To evaluate blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI on assessing renal damage after injection of iodine contrast medium with a 3.0 T system. Methods Routine MRI examination,including T1WI and T2WI, and BOLD MRI were performed in 29 SD rats with a 3.0 T system before the injection of iodine contrast agent and 20 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after the injection, respectively. T2 * and R2 * ( = 1/T2 * ) measurements were obtained in the cortex, inner and outer medulla

  8. Assessment and Monitoring Tumor Vascularity With Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Maximum Intensity Persistence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Foygel, Kira; Panje, Cedric M.; Needles, Andrew; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used in the clinic for assessment of tissue vascularity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of different contrast administration parameters on the in vivo ultrasound imaging signal in tumor-bearing mice using a maximum intensity persistence (MIP) algorithm and to evaluate the reliability of in vivo MIP imaging in assessing tumor vascularity. The potential of in vivo MIP imaging for monitoring tumor vascularity during antiangiogenic cancer treatment was further evaluated. Materials and Methods In intraindividual experiments, varying contrast microbubble concentrations (5 × 105, 5 × 106, 5 × 107, 5 × 108 microbubbles in 100 µL saline) and contrast injection rates (0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL/min) in subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice were applied and their effects on in vivo contrast-enhanced ultrasound MIP imaging plateau values were obtained using a dedicated small animal ultrasound imaging system (40 MHz). Reliability of MIP ultrasound imaging was tested following 2 injections of the same micro-bubble concentration (5 × 107 microbubbles at 1.2 mL/min) in the same tumors. In mice with subcutaneous human colon cancer xenografts, longitudinal contrast-enhanced ultrasound MIP imaging plateau values (baseline and at 48 hours) were compared between mice with and without antiangiogenic treatment (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody). Ex vivo CD31 immunostaining of tumor tissue was used to correlate in vivo MIP imaging plateau values with microvessel density analysis. Results In vivo MIP imaging plateau values correlated significantly (P = 0.001) with contrast microbubble doses. At 3 different injection rates of 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL/min, MIP imaging plateau values did not change significantly (P = 0.61). Following 2 injections with the same microbubble dose and injection rate, MIP imaging plateau values were obtained with high reliability with an intraclass correlation

  9. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.

  10. Individual contrast medium injection protocol for coronary CT angiography in atrial septal defect patients%房间隔缺损患者行冠状动脉CTA检查的个性化对比剂注射方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋会军; 王宏宇; 侯志辉; 吴言伶; 韩磊; 吕滨

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨房间隔缺损患者行冠状动脉CTA检查的理想对比剂注射方案.方法:将连续90例拟行介入治疗或外科手术治疗中老年房间隔缺损患者,于术前行冠状动脉CTA检查,依据不同的对比剂注射方案将患者随机分为3组.A组:单期相注射方案(仅注射基础量对比剂,不注射生理盐水);B组:双期相注射方案(先注射基础量对比剂,后以40mL生理盐水冲洗);C组:三期相注射方案(先注射基础量对比剂,后注射30%生理盐水与对比剂的混合物30mL,最后注射40mL生理盐水冲洗).基础量对比剂按1mL/kg计算,注射流率均为5.0mL/s.比较3组方案CTA图像上冠状动脉及左、右心系统的CT值及房间隔缺损的可评估性.结果:3组患者在平均年龄、体重及心率方面差异无显著性意义.各组患者冠状动脉、升主动脉及左心房、左心室的CT值差异无显著性意义(P>0.05),但各组右心房、右心室及肺动脉的CT值均数大于250HU;此外,B组对比剂用量明显低于其它2组(P<0.05),房间隔缺损量化评分高于C组(P<0.05).结论:双期注射方案由于对比剂用量减少,利于房间隔缺损评估,因而是房间隔缺损患者行冠状动脉CTA检查的理想的对比剂注射方案.%Objective:To determine the individual protocol for dual source CT contrast enhanced cardiac imaging for better visualization of both coronary artery and atrial septal defect. Methods; A total of ninety consecutive patients were in eluded in this prospective study. Each 30 patients were assigned to use a different contrast protocol: group Ⅰ: monophasic protocol (basic contrast injection without saline chaser) with a single syringe injector; group Ⅱ: biphasic protocol (basic contrast injection + saline chaser 40mL) with a dual syringe injector; group Ⅲ:triphasic protocol (basic contrast media+ 30% saline to contrast medium mixture 30mL+ saline chaser 40mL) with a dual syringe injector. The basic contrast media was

  11. Anatomical study to the vessels of the lower limb by using CT scan and 3D reconstructions of the injected material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Sheng-hua; Chen, Mei-mei; Xu, Da-chuan; He, Hui; Peng, Tian-hong; Tan, Jian-guo; Xiang, Yu-yan

    2011-01-01

    To find out the advantages and insufficiency of the 3D reconstruction and traditional anatomy by comparing them with each other. 1. Infused with the radio-opaque material from the arteries and veins, respectively, fresh lower extremity specimens were subjected to spiral CT scanning and then 3D recon

  12. Subdural injection: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid-Puentes, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two cases are reported of accidental subdural injection during epidural procedures for pain control. The first one was a man with chronic lumbar pain who suffered such complication during an epidural injection of steroids using the interlaminar approach. The second one was a woman with intracranial hypotension syndrome who required the application of an epidural blood patch in order to control multiple CSF fistulae. The procedure had to be aborted twice due to the subdural pattern observed after injection of the contrast medium. Accidental subdural block is a rare complication of epidural injection for analgesic or anesthetic procedures.

  13. 优化对比剂注射技术在 CT 血管造影中对肾段动脉图像质量的影响%Effect of injection contrast optimization in CT angiography of renal artery segment on image quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟彬; 冯莉; 宫凤玲; 张惠英

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨优化对比剂注射技术在256排螺旋 CT 血管造影(CTA)中对主肾动脉及肾段动脉图像质量的影响。方法选取行肾动脉 CTA 检查的98例体质量相近的患者,将其随机分为 A 组和 B 组,应用的对比剂为碘普罗胺(370 mg/ml)。A 组50例:根据患者体质量选择对比剂用量(1.0 ml/kg);B 组48例:对比剂用量在 A 组用量基础上减去10 ml。以 CT 原始横断位图像为基础,结合容积再现(VR)、最大密度投影(MIP)等重建图像对两组各级肾动脉图像质量及对比剂用量进行统计学分析。结果 A 组50例患者:共显示肾动脉100条;B 组48例患者:共显示肾动脉96条。两组主肾动脉及各肾段分支显示清晰,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。两组图像质量评分分别为(4.937±0.177)分和(4.565±0.189)分,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。对比剂用量分别为(68.76±8.17)ml 和(58.27±6.48)ml,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论256排螺旋 CT 血管造影在肾动脉造影中,与依据患者体质量选择对比剂用量比较,在此基础上再减少10 ml 的优化对比剂注射技术亦能清晰显示肾段动脉,获得满足诊断要求的图像,从而为临床诊断肾段动脉狭窄和了解肾肿瘤分支血供提供了重要的信息。%Objective To discuss the image quality of the main renal artery and renal branch on optimization injection contrast agent in 256 slice spiral CT angiography(CTA).Methods The study enrolled 98 patients in similar body mass who took the renal artery CT angiography,and they were randomly divided into A group and B group. Ultravist solution(370 mg/ml)was used as contrast media.In A group,50 cases according to patients’body mass choose contrast agent (1.0 ml/kg),in group B,there were 48 cases:the contrast media dose was subtracted 10 ml on the basis of group A

  14. Effect of Alprostadil Injection on Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients with Heart Failure after Coronary Intervention%前列地尔注射液对心功能不全患者冠脉介入术后对比剂肾病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉; 夏进东; 金川连; 沈旭峰; 毛建强

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the effect of alprostadil injection on contrast-induced nephropathy(CIN) in patients with heart failure after coronary intervention. [Methods]Totally 60 patients with heart failure undergoing coronary intervention were randomly divided into control group and alprostadil group with 30 patients in each group. Control group routinely underwent coronary intervention. Alprostadil group was given the intravenous injection of 10μg alprostadil before coronary intervention on surgery day, as followed by l0μg alprostadil per day to 1 week after surgery. Serum creatinine(SCr) was measured and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) was evaluated before, and 24 and 48h after coronary intervention in two groups. [Results]Compared with before coronary intervention and control group, alprostadil had a trend in inhibiting the increasing of SCr and the decreasing of GFR caused by usage of contrast, but the difference between two groups had no significance. The incidence of CIN in alprostadil group was significantly lower than that in control group( P <0. 05). [Conclusion] Alprostadil can obviously reduce the incidence of CIN, and be used to prevent CIN in patients with heart failure undergoing coronary intervention.%[目的] 探讨前列地尔注射液对心功能不全患者冠脉介入术后对比剂肾病(CIN)的影响.[方法] 60例心功能不全行冠脉介入术患者,随机分为对照组与前列地尔组,每组30例,对照组常规进行冠脉介入术,前列地尔组于手术日术前给予前列地尔10 μg静脉注射,随后10 μg/日静脉注射,至术后1周.检测两组患者术前、术后24h与48h血清肌酐(SCr)水平并估测肾小球滤过率(GFR).[结果] 与术前及与对照组比较,前列地尔有抑制应用对比剂后SCr升高与GFR降低的趋势,但是差异无显著性;前列地尔组CIN的发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.05).[结论] 前列地尔能显著减少CIN的发生,可用于心功能不全行冠脉介入术患者CIN的预防.

  15. Contrast media safety-an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    The value of contrast agents has for long been documented by their common daily use in imaging departments worldwide. In principle, they should be injected and leave the body immediately after use in the same condition or undergo natural metabolism without making any harm to the patient. However,...

  16. Contrast media safety-an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    The value of contrast agents has for long been documented by their common daily use in imaging departments worldwide. In principle, they should be injected and leave the body immediately after use in the same condition or undergo natural metabolism without making any harm to the patient. However...

  17. Multi-slice computed tomography urography after diuretic injection in children with urinary tract dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosucu, P.; Ahmetoglu, A.; Imamoglu, M.; Cay, A.; Ozdemir, O.; Dinc, H.; Kosucu, M.; Sari, A.; Saruhan, H.; Gumele, H.R. [Farabi Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the potential use of multi-slice computed tomography urography (MSCTU) after diuretic injection in children with urinary tract dilatation. MSCTU was performed in 19 patients (11 boys, 8 girls, mean age 5.4 years) with suspicion of urinary tract obstruction and dilatation. Furosemide, 1 mg/kg, was injected 3 min before contrast material administration and followed by a bolus of 30 ml of physiologic saline solution immediately after application of contrast material. Excretory-phase images were obtained through the abdomen and pelvis beginning 10 min after initiation of the injection of contrast material. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) images were post-processed to obtain urographic views. MSCTU revealed pathology in 16 of 19 patients, while 3 patients had normal findings. Ureteropelvic obstruction was found in 4 patients, obstructive megaureter in 8. Both ureteropelvic obstruction and obstructive megaureter were disclosed in 1 patient, partial ureteral duplication in 1 patient, and both complete ureteral duplication and ureterocele in 2 patients. In all patients, MIP and VR images could satisfactorily show the pathologies of the urinary tract. The estimated effective average doses of MSCTU were higher than IVU. Preliminary results of furosemide-enhanced MSCTU demonstrated consistently dilated urinary tracts, obstruction levels, and underlying pathologies better than US and IVU.

  18. Effect of prostaglandin E2 injection on the structural properties of the rat patellar tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Scott T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased tendon production of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has been suggested to be a potential etiologic agent in the development of tendinopathy. Repeated injection of PGE2 into tendon has been proposed as a potential animal model for studying treatments for tendinopathy. In contrast, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs which inhibit PGE2 production and are commonly prescribed in treating tendinopathy have been shown to impair the healing of tendon after acute injury in animal models. The contradictory literature suggests the need to better define the functional effects of PGE2 on tendon. Our objective was to characterize the effects of PGE2 injection on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of tendon and the activity of the animals. Our hypothesis was that weekly PGE2 injection to the rat patellar tendon would lead to inferior biomechanical properties. Methods Forty rats were divided equally into four groups. Three groups were followed for 4 weeks with the following peritendinous injection procedures: No injection (control, 4 weekly injections of saline (saline, 4 weekly injections of 800 ng PGE2 (PGE2-4 wks. The fourth group received 4 weekly injections of 800 ng PGE2 initially and was followed for a total of 8 weeks. All animals were injected bilaterally. The main outcome measurements included: the structural and material properties of the patellar tendon under tensile loading to failure, tendon collagen content, and weekly animal activity scores. Results The ultimate load of PGE2-4 wks tendons at 4 weeks was significantly greater than control or saline group tendons. The stiffness and elastic modulus of the PGE2 injected tendons at 8 weeks was significantly greater than the control or saline tendons. No differences in animal activity, collagen content, or mean fibril diameter were observed between groups. Conclusions Four weekly peritendinous injections of PGE2 to the rat patellar

  19. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel injectable and water-swelling gingival displacement materials%可注射吸水膨胀性排龈膏的制备与排龈效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓华; 祝小鹏; 宁天云; 刘巍; 李全利

    2012-01-01

    目的 研制一种新型可注射、吸水膨胀性排龈材料的膏剂.方法 将吸水膨胀性高分子载体基质与高岭土、氯化铝等药物机械混合,获得一种膏剂材料.采用Expasyl(R)作为对照,体外评价其在水中的稳定性和吸水膨胀性能,通过动物实验评价其排龈效果.结果 新型排龈膏体外吸水膨胀,但是可以维持结构的完整性,不会崩解.动物实验也显示无论在牙龈高度退缩和龈沟宽度变化方面都有良好的排龈效果.结论 获得一种新型的具有良好应用前景的可注射吸水膨胀性、遇水不崩解的排龈材料.%Objective To synthesize and evaluate a novel injectable and water-swelling gingival displacement materials. Methods A kind of water-swelling polymer, kaolin and aluminum chloride were mechanically mixed at certain ratio in water solution, resulting to a novel paste materials for gingival displacement. Then, its stability in aqueous solution and water swelling properties were evaluated in vitro. The effect on gingival displacement was evaluated by animal experiments in dogs. A commercial gingival displacement materials paste of Expasyl was used as control. Results While contacting with water, the novel gingival displacement paste did not collapse, maintained its integrity structure, and could expand for adsorbing water. Animal experiments in dogs showed that the materials could lead to displace the gingival margins from the dental root surfaces. Conclusion The novel injectable and expanded gingival displacement material is efficient to retract free gingival margin with potential clinical application.

  1. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to iron dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other ...

  2. 不同部位注射造影剂对多层螺旋CT冠状动脉成像检查图像效果的影响%Influence of different injection site of intravenous contrast media on MSCT coronary angiography imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔艳红; 王克扬; 贺文; 钟朝晖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence of different site of intravenous injection of contrast media on imaging effect of multi-slice computed tomography( MSCT)coronary angiography. Methods One hundred and fifteen patients were randomly divided into four groups( left median cubital vein group with 20 patients,right median cubital vein group with 49 patients,right basilic vein group with 23 patients,and right cephalic vein group with 23 patients)according to different site of intravenous bolus injection before undergoing MSCT coronary angiography. Then the acquired images were observed and analyzed for quality by radiologists. Results There was significant difference between the left and right median cubital vein groups( P <0. 01). The image quality was higher in the right median cubital vein group. There was significant difference a-mong the three groups of different injection sites in right arm( P <0. 01). The image quality was higher in the right median cubital vein group and the right basilic vein group than in the right radial cephalic vein group. Conclusion The right median cubital intravenous injection is suggested to be the first choice to obtain higher image quality of MSCT. The second choice is right basilic vein,while the right radial cephalic vein will be the last one.%目的:观察不同部位注射造影剂对多层螺旋CT冠状动脉成像检查图像效果的影响。方法选取115例拟行冠脉造影的患者,依造影剂注射部位,随机分为:左肘正中静脉组(20例)、右肘正中静脉组(49例)、右前臂贵要静脉组(23例)和右前臂头静脉桡侧组(23例)。观察各组冠状动脉成像质量。结果经右侧肘正中静脉团注成功后冠状动脉显影效果高于左侧,差异有统计学意义( P <0.01)。右侧肘正中静脉和右侧前臂贵要静脉团注成功后冠状动脉显影效果好,其次是右侧前臂头静脉桡侧。三组注射部位之间图像质量差

  3. 亚甲蓝法与超声造影法检测乳腺癌前哨淋巴结的对比研究%Comparison of methylene blue dye injection and contrast enhanced ultrasonography in detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付明刚; 刘莎; 郭丽英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility of contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS)in detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN)in patients with breast cancer during operation and its clinical significance. Methods 21 patients who underwent radical resection of a primary breast cancer were enrolled.During op-eration,1% methylene blue was injected around the tumor,and SLN mapping was performed.Then the SonoVue was injected at the same sites,then CEUS was performed to observe changes of SLN in real time, and marked them.The SLN detection rate and accuracy of CEUS were compared to those of conventional dye guided method.Results SLN were successfully imaged by SonoVue,the detection rate of CEUS for SLN was 80.95%,and the accuracy was 93.55%.The detection rate of dye guided method for SLN was 85.71%,and the accuracy was 93.75%,there was no statistically significant difference between CEUS and dye guided method (P >0.05).Conclusion Peritumoral injection is a good method for evaluating and pre-dicting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.When injected SonoVue in peritumoral,the good mapping of SLN in patients with breast cancer can be obtained,and it will play an important role in clinical application to map SLN in patients with breast cancer.%目的:探讨超声造影法在乳腺癌术中检测前哨淋巴结(SLN)的可行性及临床应用价值。方法选择21例乳腺癌根治术患者,术中于肿瘤周围注射1%亚甲蓝,寻找被蓝染的 SLN;于相同注射部位注射超声造影剂声诺维(SonoVue),动态观察并标记显像 SLN。对比超声造影法和亚甲蓝法对 SLN 的检出率和准确率。结果注射 SonoVue 后能够获得清晰的传人淋巴管和 SLN 图像。超声造影法对乳腺癌患者 SLN 的检出率为85.71%,准确率为89.29%;亚甲蓝法对其检出率为80.95%,准确率为93.33%,2种方法检出率和准确率比较差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论超

  4. Contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. García Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important complication associated with the use of contrast media. Favoring factors for the development of contrast-induced nephronpathy have been widely described, being diabetes mellitus and previous renal disease the greatest risk. The pathophysiology is a complex process where the medullary hypoxia represents the trigger element. Previous hydration and the use of low osmolality contrast are the most recommended measures to prevent its development.

  5. EFFICACY OF TRANSFORAMINAL EPIDURAL STEROID INJECTION IN LUMBOSACRAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lumbosacral radiculopathy is a common medical and socioeconomic problem with a lifetime prevalence estimated to be around 40%-60%. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could be treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injection for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Lumbar Transforminal Epidural Steroid Injections (TFESIs are performed to provide symptomatic relief in patients with radicular pain. A transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI using a small volume of local anaesthetic will anaesthetize the spinal nerve and also partially anaesthetize the dura, the posterior longitudinal ligament, the intervertebral disc and facet joint. For these reasons, fluoroscopy-guided TFESI has become the preferred approach to epidural space. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the role of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in management of radiculopathy. SETTINGS AND DESIGN This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics, SKIMS Medical College and Hospital, Bemina, Srinagar, J and K, India, for a 2-year period from November 2012 to October 2014; 110 cases, both male and female in the age group of 20-60 years having back pain with radiculopathy of varied types and duration without neurodeficit were enrolled in the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS After selecting a patient for giving transforaminal block, we used a local anaesthetic (2% Xylocaine. Contrast media, e.g. Iohexol was used to demarcate the correct positioning of the needle. A spinal needle (20-25 gauge and 5mL syringe were used to deliver the drug. CONCLUSION Transforaminal epidural steroid injections with long acting anaesthetic is an excellent form of conservative treatment in management of low back ache with radicular pain. It is relatively safe, simple, economical and shortens the time of recovery from severe pain, avoids risks and complications of surgery and also avoids long periods of bed

  6. Prevalencia de prácticas indirectas de compartir material para inyectarse drogas en Galicia, Madrid, Sevilla y Valencia Prevalence of indirect sharing of drug-injecting paraphernalia in Galicia, Madrid, Seville and Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Bravo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar las prácticas de riesgo de inyección de drogas, en especial compartir indirectamente material de inyección (CIMI, y de las conductas sexuales de riesgo. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Entrevista cara a cara de 1.638 usuarios de programas de intercambio de jeringas (PIJ. Se investigaron varias formas de CIMI (coger droga diluida en una jeringa usada ajena, meter la aguja en el recipiente donde se introdujeron otras usadas y reutilizar el líquido de limpieza de otros. Resultados: El 16% en Galicia, el 4,7% en Madrid, el 17,6% en Sevilla y el 13,2% en Valencia se inyectó con jeringas usadas ajenas (p Objectives: To study drug-injecting practices, particularly indirect sharing of injecting paraphernalia (ISIP, and sexual risk behavior. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 1638 users of needle exchange programs (NEPs. Different types of ISIP were studied: taking diluted drugs in a syringe used by others, placing the needle in a recipient with other used needles, and reusing cleaning liquid previously used by others. Results: The prevalence of injecting with syringes already used by others was 16% in Galicia, 4.7% in Madrid, 17.6% in Seville and 13.2% in Valencia (p < 0.001. With geographical variations, other types of ISIP (Galicia: 32.4%; Madrid: 28.5%; Seville: 42.6%; Valencia: 27.4% -p < 0.001- were more frequent than injecting with syringes already used by others (Galicia: 32.4%; Madrid: 28.5%; Seville: 42.6%; Valencia: 27.4% -p < 0.001-. The percentage not injecting with syringes used by others but performing ISIP was 21.7%, 25.3%, 28.2% and 18.1% (p < 0.01 respectively. In all geographical areas, sexual risk practices were more prevalent with steady sex partners (68.6%, 72.0%, 77.8%, 72.8% [NS] than with casual partners (36.6%, 40.9%, 37.9%, 23.9% [NS]. Among injectors with a stable partner, 81.3% in Galicia, 75.9% in Madrid, 86.1% in Seville and 79.7% in Valencia reported that his/her serological status was

  7. 仿制药注射用帕瑞昔布钠包材相容性研究%Study on the compatibility of generic drug - Parecoxib Sodium for Injection with its packing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋岩珺; 蒲旭峰; 朱鹏; 刘小双

    2016-01-01

    目的:考察仿制药注射用帕瑞昔布钠与其包材的相容性。方法通过脱片、迁移试验,影响因素下正置和倒置、加速试验,观察、测定并比较仿制药注射用帕瑞昔布钠各考察时间下性状,可见异物,不溶性微粒,杂质,含量的变化。结果脱片、迁移试验较考察初期均没有显著变化(P ﹥0.05),且各指标均在可接受的安全阈值;在影响因素各条件下,正置和倒置样品各项指标无明显差异(P ﹥0.05),在加速条件(1月、2月、3月和6月)下,包材相容性样品(倒置)和稳定性考察样品(正置)各项指标无显著差异(P ﹥0.05)。结论仿制药注射用帕瑞昔布钠与包材相容。%Objective To inspect the compatibility of generic drug - Parecoxib Sodium for Injection with its packing materials. Methods By the tests of delamination and migration,positive position and inversions under the influencing factor accelerated tests to observe,determine and compare the changes of the character visible foreign matter insoluble particles, related substances,content for generic drug - Parecoxib Sodium for Injection in their study time. Results No significant differences were found in the delamination and migration tests compared with its early study(P ﹥ 0. 05),and each index was in the acceptable safety threshold;No significant differences were found in each index for samples in positive position and inversions under the influencing factor(P ﹥ 0. 05),in the accelerated treatment(1,2,3 and 6 months)each index for sam-ples of compatibility and stability were found no significant differences(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion The packing materials had good compatibily with the generic drug - Parecoxib Sodium for Injection.

  8. Efeitos cardiovasculares e renais da injeção intra-arterial de contraste radiológico iônico em cães com restrição hídrica Efectos cardiovasculares y renales de la inyección intra-arterial de contraste radiológico iónico en perros con restricción hídrica Cardiovascular and renal effects of intra-arterial injection of ionic radiological contrast in dogs under fluid restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Lima Verderese

    2005-04-01

    potasio y temperatura rectal. Estos atributos fueron evaluados en cuatro momentos: 30 (M1, 60 (M2, 90 (M3 y 120 (M4 minutos después del inicio de la infusión de para-aminohipurato de sodio y creatinina (inicio de la experiencia. En el momento 2, en el grupo G1 fue dada una inyección intra-arterial de solución fisiológica a 0,9% (1,24 mL.kg-1, y en el grupo G2 fue inyectado contraste radiológico (1,24 mL.kg-1 por la misma vía. RESULTADOS: El grupo G1 presentó aumento de la FC, del FPER, del FSR, de la osmolaridad plasmática, de la depuración de sodio y de la excreción urinaria de sodio; presentó aún disminución de la osmolaridad urinaria, del potasio plasmático, de la depuración de potasio y de la temperatura rectal. En el grupo G2 ocurrió aumento de la FC, de la RVR, del VU, de la depuración osmolar, de la depuración de sodio y de la excreción urinaria y fraccionaria de sodio; ocurrió también reducción del (a: hematócrito ritmo de filtración glomerular, fracción de filtración, osmolaridad urinaria, depuración de agua libre, sodio y potasio urinarios, potasio plasmático y temperatura rectal. CONCLUSIONES: En este estudio, se concluye que, la inyección intra-arterial del contraste radiológico causó efecto bifásico en la función renal. Inicialmente, provocó aumento de la diuresis y de la excreción de sodio, pero, posteriormente, hubo empeoramiento de las condiciones hemodinámicas y, consecuentemente, de la función renal, con aumento de la resistencia vascular renal y disminución del ritmo de filtración glomerular.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at evaluating acute radiological contrast effects in fluid restriction situations, observing renal and cardiovascular effects after intra-arterial injection of high osmolarity radiological contrast. METHODS: Participated in this study 16 dogs anesthetized with sodium thiopental (15 mg.kg-1 and fentanyl (0.03 mL.kg-1, followed by continuous infusion of 40 µg.kg-1.min-1 (sodium

  9. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein ...

  10. 经皮下注射超声造影剂在乳腺肿块前哨淋巴结检测中的应用价值%Proto-explore of ultrasound contrast agents injected subcutaneously for enhancement in sentinel lymph nodes of breast masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米成嵘; 何雁; 王文

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss application value for detecting sentinel lymphatic node(SLN) in patients with breast mass by subcutaneous injection SonoVue. Methods Forty-two cases with breast masses who were detected by conventional techniques were injected subcutaneously with 1.25 ml Sono Vue to the borderline of breast tumor at each 3,6,9, 12 points. The changes of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the ipsilateral axillary SLN were observed and the start time of enhancement of lymphatic channel and lymph nodes, the position and numbers of enhancement of the lymph nodes, the time of regression were recorded. Compared with Methylene blue and surgicalbiopsy, the accuracy of detection of SLN by CEUS were evaluated. Results SLN were successfully detected in 30 of 42 patients, the detection rate was 71.4%. The total number of detected SLN was 40.Five nodes were detected in 5 of 10 (50%)patients with benign masses. Thirty-five nodes were detected in 25 of 32 (78.1%) patients with breast cancer. Fifty-seven SLN were successfully detected in 39 of 42 patients with Methylene blue, the accurate rate was 92.9%. Seven of 10 patients with benign masses and all 32 patients with breast cancer were Methylene blue positive. There were total 64 SLN found, including 11 with benign masses and 53 with lymph nodes metastasis of breast cancer cells. Conclusions The subcutaneous injection SonoVue is effective to detect SLN in patients with breast mass and apply clinical value for forecasting whether the lymph node metastases in patients with breast cancer.%目的 探讨经皮下注射超声造影剂(SonoVue)在检测乳腺癌患者前哨淋巴结(SLN)中的应用价值.方法 对常规超声检出的42例乳腺肿块患者经皮下肿块边缘3、6、9、12点各注射1.25 m1SonoVue,观察同侧腋窝SLN的造影增强情况,记录淋巴管开始增强时间、增强淋巴结个数、部位、淋巴结开始增强时间、消退时间.并与美兰染色及病理对照,比较造

  11. Regional contrast agent quantification in a mouse model of myocardial infarction using 3D cardiac T1 mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolay Klaas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative relaxation time measurements by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR are of paramount importance in contrast-enhanced studies of experimental myocardial infarction. First, compared to qualitative measurements based on signal intensity changes, they are less sensitive to specific parameter choices, thereby allowing for better comparison between different studies or during longitudinal studies. Secondly, T1 measurements may allow for quantification of local contrast agent concentrations. In this study, a recently developed 3D T1 mapping technique was applied in a mouse model of myocardial infarction to measure differences in myocardial T1 before and after injection of a liposomal contrast agent. This was then used to assess the concentration of accumulated contrast agent. Materials and methods Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced in 8 mice by transient ligation of the LAD coronary artery. Baseline quantitative T1 maps were made at day 1 after surgery, followed by injection of a Gd-based liposomal contrast agent. Five mice served as control group, which followed the same protocol without initial surgery. Twenty-four hours post-injection, a second T1 measurement was performed. Local ΔR1 values were compared with regional wall thickening determined by functional cine CMR and correlated to ex vivo Gd concentrations determined by ICP-MS. Results Compared to control values, pre-contrast T1 of infarcted myocardium was slightly elevated, whereas T1 of remote myocardium did not significantly differ. Twenty-four hours post-contrast injection, high ΔR1 values were found in regions with low wall thickening values. However, compared to remote tissue (wall thickening > 45%, ΔR1 was only significantly higher in severe infarcted tissue (wall thickening r = 0.81 was found between CMR-based ΔR1 values and Gd concentrations from ex vivo ICP-MS measurements. Furthermore, regression analysis revealed that the

  12. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  13. Detection of Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Multi- detector Row CT:Effect of Iodine Concentration of Contrast Material%多排螺旋CT增强扫描对比剂浓度对小肝癌检出率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田洪梓

    2012-01-01

      目的:通过多排螺旋CT动脉期及门脉期增强扫描,以评估对比剂浓度对小肝癌(≤3cm)检出率的影响.方法:95例肝癌患者随机分为2组行多排螺旋CT肝脏平扫及动脉期、门脉期增强扫描,其中1组(48例)注射碘帕醇370mg I/ml(1.5ml/kg),另外1组(47例)注射碘帕醇300mg I/ml(1.85ml/kg),均于30秒注射完毕.扫描后图像由放射科医生阅片并与病理结果进行对比,统计分析2组≤3cm的肝癌病灶的诊断敏感性.结果:95例患者中共证实有259个肝癌病灶,其中101个≤3cm.对于≤3cm的病灶动脉期370mg I/ml组诊断敏感性高于300mg I/ml组,差别有统计学意义;在门脉期2组病人的诊断敏感性无显著性差异.结论:高浓密度对比剂在动脉期可提高小肝癌(≤3cm)的检出率.%  Objective:To evaluate the effect of iodine concentration of contrast material on detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC) with multi-detector row CT by using arterial phase and portal venous phase enhanced scanning.Methods:Ninety-five patients with HCC were examined by hepatic plain CT and contrast-enhanced CT including arterial phase (AP) and hepatic parenchymal phase (HPP) scanning prospectively. Patients were randomized into two groups to receive Iopamidol 370 mg I/ml (48 patients) (1.5 ml/kg body weight) and 300 mg I/ml (47 patients) (1.85 ml/kg body weight) respectively with a fixed injection duration of 30 seconds. The images were interpreted by radiologists and the CT results were compared with the pathological results. The detection sensitivity for small tumors (≤3 cm) and iodine concentration groups were calculated and analyzed.Results:A total of 259 lesions were detected with 101 ≤3 cm in size. For AP, the sensitivity of Iopamidol 370 mg I/ml group was significantly higher than Iopamidol 300 mg I/ml. For HPP, there were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions:High iodine concentration contrast material

  14. 多排螺旋CT双动脉期增强扫描对比剂浓度对肝癌检出率的影响%Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Multi - detector Row CT by Using Double- arterial Phase Enhanced Scanning: Effect of Iodine Concentration of Contrast Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建收; 宦怡; 景建梅

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过多排螺旋CT双动脉期及门脉期增强扫描,以评估对比剂浓度对肝癌检出率的影响.方法:95例肝癌患者随机分为两组行多排螺旋CT肝脏平扫及双动脉期、门脉期增强扫描,其中一组(48例)注射碘帕醇370 mgI/ml( 1.5 ml/kg),另外一组(47例)注射碘帕醇300 mgI/ml (1.85ml/kg),均于30 s注射完毕.扫描后图像由放射科医生阅片并与病理结果进行对比,统计分析两组患者> 2cm及≤2cm的肝癌病灶的诊断敏感性.结果:95例患者中共证实有259个肝癌病灶,其中87个≤2cm,172个>2cm.对于≤2cm的病灶及所有病灶动脉早期及晚期370 mgI/ml组诊断敏感性高于300 mgI/ml组,差别有统计学意义;在门脉期两组患者的诊断敏感性无显著性差异.结论:高浓密度对比剂在动脉早期、晚期可提高肝癌的检出率,特别是对于较小的肝癌病灶(≤2cm).%Purpose: To evaluate the effect of iodine concentration of contrast material on detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with multi - detector row CT by using double - arterial phase and portal venous phase enhanced scanning. Methods: Ninety - five patients with HCC were examined by hepatic plain CT and contrast - enhanced CT including early arterial phase(EAP), late arterial phase (LAP) and hepatic parenchymal phase (HPP) scanning prospectively. Patients were randomized into two groups to receive Iopamidol 370 mgl/ml (48 patients, 1.5 ml/kg body weight) and 300 mg I/ml (47 patients, 1.85 ml/ kg body weight) respectively with a fixed injection duration of 30 seconds. The images were interpreted by radiologists and the CT results were compared with the pathological results. The detection sensitivity for tumors of two size categories (=£ 2 cm or > 2 cm) and iodine concentration groups were calculated and analyzed.Results: A total of 259 lesions were detected with 87 less than 2 cm in size and 172 larger than 2cm in size.For EAP and LAP, the sensitivity of Iopamidol 370

  15. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  16. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  17. Development of a sequential injection dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction system for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry by using a hydrophobic sorbent material: Determination of lead and cadmium in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N., E-mail: anthemid@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Ioannou, Kallirroy-Ioanna G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2010-05-23

    A novel on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for metal preconcentration in micro-scale, eliminating the laborious and time consuming procedure of phase separation with centrifugation. The potentials of the system were demonstrated for trace lead and cadmium determination in water samples. An appropriate disperser solution which contains the extraction solvent (xylene) and the chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) in methanol is mixed on-line with the sample solution (aqueous phase), resulting thus, a cloudy solution, which is consisted of fine droplets of xylene, dispersed throughout the aqueous phase. Three procedures are taking place simultaneously: cloudy solution creation, analyte complex formation and extraction from aqueous phase into the fine droplets of xylene. Subsequently the droplets were retained on the hydrophobic surface of PTFE-turnings into the column. A part of 30 {mu}L of the eluent (methyl isobutyl ketone) was injected into furnace graphite for analyte atomization and quantification. The sampling frequency was 10 h{sup -1}, and the obtained enrichment factor was 80 for lead and 34 for cadmium. The detection limit was 10 ng L{sup -1} and 2 ng L{sup -1}, while the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.8% (at 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and 4.1% (at 0.03 {mu}g L{sup -1}) for lead and cadmium respectively. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and was applied to the analysis of natural waters.

  18. Development of a sequential injection dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction system for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry by using a hydrophobic sorbent material: determination of lead and cadmium in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Ioannou, Kallirroy-Ioanna G

    2010-05-23

    A novel on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for metal preconcentration in micro-scale, eliminating the laborious and time consuming procedure of phase separation with centrifugation. The potentials of the system were demonstrated for trace lead and cadmium determination in water samples. An appropriate disperser solution which contains the extraction solvent (xylene) and the chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) in methanol is mixed on-line with the sample solution (aqueous phase), resulting thus, a cloudy solution, which is consisted of fine droplets of xylene, dispersed throughout the aqueous phase. Three procedures are taking place simultaneously: cloudy solution creation, analyte complex formation and extraction from aqueous phase into the fine droplets of xylene. Subsequently the droplets were retained on the hydrophobic surface of PTFE-turnings into the column. A part of 30 microL of the eluent (methyl isobutyl ketone) was injected into furnace graphite for analyte atomization and quantification. The sampling frequency was 10 h(-1), and the obtained enrichment factor was 80 for lead and 34 for cadmium. The detection limit was 10 ng L(-1) and 2 ng L(-1), while the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.8% (at 0.5 microg L(-1)) and 4.1% (at 0.03 microg L(-1)) for lead and cadmium respectively. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and was applied to the analysis of natural waters.

  19. Tracing Injection Fluids in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P. E.; Leecaster, K.; Mella, M.; Ayling, B.; Bartl, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The reinjection of produced fluids is crucial to the effective management of geothermal reservoirs, since it provides a mechanism for maintaining reservoir pressures while allowing for the disposal of a toxic byproduct. Tracers are essential to the proper location of injection wells since they are the only known tool for reliably characterizing the flow patterns of recirculated fluids. If injection wells are placed too close to production wells, then reinjected fluids do not have sufficient residence time to extract heat from the reservoir and premature thermal breakthrough results. If injection wells are placed too far away, then the reservoir risks unacceptable pressure loss. Several thermally stable compounds from a family of very detectable fluorescent organic compounds (the naphthalene sulfonates) were characterized and found to be effective for use as geothermal tracers. Through batch-autoclave reactions, their Arrhenius pseudo-first-order decay-rate constants were determined. An analytical method was developed that allows for the laboratory determination of concentrations in the low parts-per-trillion range. Field experiments in numerous geothermal reservoirs throughout the world have confirmed the laboratory findings. Whereas conservative tracers such as the naphthalene sulfonates are effective tools for indicating interwell flow patterns and for measuring reservoir pore volumes, 'reactive' tracers can be used to constrain fracture surface area, which is the effective area for heat extraction. This is especially important for engineered geothermal system (EGS) wells, since reactive tracers can be used to measure fracture surface area immediately after drilling and while the well stimulation equipment is still on site. The reactive properties of these tracers that can be exploited to constrain fracture surface area are reversible sorption, contrasting diffusivity, and thermal decay. Laboratory batch- and flow-reactor experiments in combination with numerical

  20. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  1. [Contrast enhancement technique in brain 3D-CTA studies: optimizing the amount of contrast medium according to scan time based on TDC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Kazuaki; Hatcho, Atsushi

    2008-06-20

    In three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA), good reproducibility can be obtained by maintaining the maximum CT numbers (HU) at a specified level. However, the correlation between the scan time and the injection time showed that the maximum CT numbers increased and varied due to the additional contrast enhancement effect from recirculation of the injected contrast medium for longer injection times when the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit time (mgI/s) was maintained at a specified level based on the time-density curve (TDC) of the phantom. The amount of contrast medium employed at our hospital has been optimized based on an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time providing a contrast enhancement effect of 300 HU in the middle cerebral artery. Using this standard, a TDC phantom was employed to obtain an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time, permitting equivalent maximum CT values (used as standard values) to be obtained by changing the injection time. A contrast-enhancement technique that accounts for the variation in the scan time was evaluated. Strong correlations were observed between the scan time and the injection time (R2=0.969) and between the injection time and the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight (R2=0.994). We conclude that adjusting the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight per unit time according to the scan time permits optimization of the contrast-enhancement technique.

  2. Late phase contrast enhanced-CT analysis of thrombosed type aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Takagi, Ryo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Seven patients with thrombosed type aortic dissection who underwent both early- and late-phase contrast enhanced (CE)-CT scans were analyzed. The image acquisition of early-phase CE-CT began 30 seconds after the intravenous administration of contrast material at an injection rate of 1.5 ml per second. Late-phase CE-CT began 6 minutes after contrast material injection. The thrombosed false lumens were not enhanced on early-phase CE-CTs in any of the cases. In five of seven cases, on the other hand, false lumens of the descending aorta were enhanced on late-phase images. Late enhancement in the false lumen was roughly divided into two patterns; a crescentic enhancement of the sub-adventitial region (3 cases), and a vague enhancement around the ulcer-like projection (2 cases). The mechanism of late enhancement in the false lumen was not fully elucidated. Although the clinical significance of late enhancement has not yet been established, it will be useful to demonstrate an unstable status of the thrombosed false lumens before organization. (author).

  3. 大输液包装材质与注射用药物相容性研究进展与思考%Research Advance and Investigation on Compatibility of Large Volume Parenteral Solution Package Material with Injectable Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐帆; 杨伶俐; 毛盼盼; 喻琼丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:促进临床合理用药。方法调研相关文献,分析不同包装材质大输液的性质、特点及其对注射用药物的吸附性作用。结果与结论大输液作为临床治疗和静脉药物治疗不可缺少的载体或溶剂,在现代临床治疗中具有极其重要的地位,临床医务人员已逐渐开始关注药物与大输液包装材质的相容性与安全性。目前,我国医疗市场多种材质包装的大输液并存。临床医务人员应更加准确地把握不同包装材质大输液的特性,静脉用药物治疗时选择适当包装材质的大输液,以确保患者输液安全。%Objective To promote the rational drug use. Methods By investigating and consulting the related literature,the properties, characteristics and adsorptive effect on injectable drugs of the large volume parenteral solution package materials were analyzed. Results and Conclusion The large volume parenteral solution as the indispensable carrier or solvent possesses the extreme important status in the modern clinical treatment. The clinical medical staffs have gradually begin to pay close attention to the compatibility and safety of drugs and the large volume parenteral solution package materials. At present,the large volume parenteral solutions packaged by various materials coexist in the medical market of our country. The clinical medical staffs should more accurately grasp the characteristics of the large volume parenteral solutions with different package materials. Intravenous medication should select the large volume parenteral solu-tions with the proper package materials for ensuring the intravenous infusion safety of patients.

  4. [Guideline 'Precautionary measures for contrast media containing iodine'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk Azn, R. van; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Dam, MA ten; Aarts, N.J.; Schimmelpenninck-Scheiffers, M.L.; Freericks, M.P.; Said, S.A.M.; Geenen, R.W.; Stuurman, A.; Everdingen, J.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Annually, 0.5-1 million injections of contrast media containing iodine are administered in the Netherlands. Almost all contrast media nowadays are low-osmolar and nonionic. Nevertheless, the development ofcontrast-induced nephropathy is still a relevant clinical problem. Through an initiative by the

  5. Secondary particle simulation analysis of high-energy56Fe ion inject various shielding material%高能56Fe离子入射屏蔽材料的次级粒子模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荀明珠; 何承发; 陆妩; 郭旗; 孙静; 刘默寒; 曾骏哲; 王信

    2016-01-01

    Background: The heavy ion in the galaxy cosmos rays with extremely high energy can be fatal to the astronaut and electronic device in the spacecraft. Purpose:This study aims to analyze the secondary particles produced by high energy heavy ion inject shielding materials of spacecraft.Methods:Based on the Monte-Carlo method simulation software Geant4, 1-GeV·u−156Fe ion incident four kinds of shielding material aluminum, aluminum carbon, polyethylene and water with 1.35-g·cm−2 mass thickness have been studied. The energy deposition in the absorber and deep-dose distribution produced by the transmitted primary particles and secondary electrons, secondary neutrons, secondary protons and secondary gamma have been analyzed. All produced secondary heavy particles and energies from four kinds of shielding materials after injected high-energy 1-GeV·u−156Fe ion have been investigated, and the shielding performance was analyzed and compared.Results:Polyethylene material absorbs the most energy, thus preserve best shielding performance whilst majority of secondary particles and energies are produced. The energy of secondary heavy ion is quadruple of that produced by aluminum material.Conclusion: Among all the secondary particles, secondary protons and secondary heavy ions with atom number between 22 and 26 make the maximal contributions.%空间辐射环境下的高能重离子入射屏蔽材料会产生大量次级粒子,为研究屏蔽材料产生的次级粒子对太空舱内辐射环境的影响,本文使用基于蒙特卡罗方法的Geant4软件模拟空间高能56Fe离子入射铝、碳、聚乙烯、水4种屏蔽材料,分析透射屏蔽体的初级粒子及由屏蔽材料产生的次级电子、次级中子、次级质子和次级γ的能谱以及水吸收体中的能量沉积和深度剂量分布。分析产生的次级重粒子类型和能量,比较4种屏蔽材料对高能Fe离子的屏蔽性能。结果表明,聚乙烯材料对高能重离子的

  6. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combivir), a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before ... inject epoetin alfa, as directed by your doctor. Write down the date, time, dose of epoetin alfa ...

  7. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath ... of tissue can be felt upon examination. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's ...

  8. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  9. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a form of in vitro fertilization in which fertilization occurs outside of the ... laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the ...

  10. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  11. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  12. Other Injectable Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... July 17, 2013 Last Edited: February 22, 2017 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: cg-infusion-sets,meds-bg-injectables,cg-injection-aids, In this section Treatment and Care Medication Insulin & ...

  13. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  14. Nonpharmacological Strategies to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Susantitaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI has been one of the leading causes for hospital-acquired AKI and is associated with independent risk for adverse clinical outcomes including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of the studies that focus on nonpharmacological strategies to prevent CI-AKI, including routine identification of at-risk patients, use of appropriate hydration regimens, withdrawal of nephrotoxic drugs, selection of low-osmolar contrast media or isoosmolar contrast media, and using the minimum volume of contrast media as possible. There is no need to schedule dialysis in relation to injection of contrast media or injection of contrast agent in relation to dialysis program. Hemodialysis cannot protect the poorly functioning kidney against CI-AKI.

  15. Describing contrast across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sohaib Ali; Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin

    2017-06-01

    Due to its sensitive nature against illumination and noise distributions, contrast is not widely used for image description. On the contrary, the human perception of contrast along different spatial frequency bandwidths provides a powerful discriminator function that can be modeled in a robust manner against local illumination. Based upon this observation, a dense local contrast descriptor is proposed and its potential in different applications of computer vision is discussed. Extensive experiments reveal that this simple yet effective description performs well in comparison with state of the art image descriptors. We also show the importance of this description in multiresolution pansharpening framework.

  16. Beam injection into RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  17. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  18. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  19. Preclinical Studies of a Kidney Safe Iodinated Contrast Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Elizabeth S.; Rowe, Vernon D.; Biswas, Sangita; Mosher, Gerold; Insisienmay, Lovella; Ozias, Marlies K.; Gralinski, Michael R.; Hunter, John; Barnett, James S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Contrast‐induced acute kidney injury (CI‐AKI) is a serious complication of the use of iodinated contrast agents. This problem is particularly acute in interventional neurology and interventional cardiology, probably due to the intra‐arterial route of injection, high contrast volumes, and preexisting risk factors of these patients. In an attempt to develop a contrast agent that is less damaging to the kidneys, we have studied the effects of adding a small amount...

  20. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...... (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...... efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, and can even enable a Reverse Phase Contrast mode where intensity patterns are converted into a phase modulation....

  1. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  2. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...... (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...... the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light...

  3. Epinephrine enhanced double contrast knee arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Mun; Choi, Byung Ihn [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    It is well known that double contrast knee arthrography is useful in diagnosis of meniscal lesion and other knee pathology. But intra-articular structures become less well delineated shortly after injection into the knee joint with water soluble contrast media because of rapid absorption and dilution of the injected media. This limits the time when sharply detailed arthrograms are obtained and precludes repeat delayed arthrogram without reinjection of contrast media. In order to overcome this major disadvantage, the authors used epinephrine which has vasoconstrictive effect and is expected to reduce fluid movement across the synovial membrane temporarily. The authors attempted to compare epinephrine enhanced double contrast arthrographic group, epinephrine (+) group, to the double contrast arthrographic group without epinephrine, epinephrine (-) group, by statistical evaluation. Each group consisted of 35 cases and 7 lateral films of knee joint were taken sequentially 2, 6, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 minutes after injection of contrast media, and were assessed by 5 certified radiologist. The results were as follows: 1. The differences of mean score of quality between epinephrine (+) group and epinephrine (-) group was statistically significant at every time interval (p value<0.01 at 2 minutes, p<0.001 at all other time interval). Epinephrine (+) group was superior to the epinephrine (-) group in quality of film. 2. Numbers of cases above score of 2 which was considered to be of diagnostic quality in evaluating meniscal lesions were larger in epinephrine (+) group than epinephrine (-) group at every time interval. And the differences between two groups was highly significant statistically (p,0.001). 3. Only 43% of cases was above score of 2 at 10 minutes in epinephrine (-) group, but 97% at 10 minutes and 80% at 20 minutes respectively in epinephrine (+) group. Therefore duration for adequate study of arthrogram is prolonged more than two times epinephrine (+) group. 4

  4. Epinephrine inhanced double contrast knee arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Mun; Choi, Byung Ihn [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    It is well known that double contrast knee arthrography is useful in diagnosis of meniscal lesions and other knee pathology. But intra-articular structures become less well delineated shortly after injection into the knee joint with water soluble contrast media because of rapid absorption and dilution of the injected media. This limits the time when sharply detailed arthrograms are obtainable and precludes repeat delayed arthrogram without reinjection of contrast media. In order to overcome this major disadvantage, the authors used epinephrine which has vasoconstrictive effect and is expected to reduce fluid movement across the synovial membrane temporarily. The authors attempted to compare epinephrine inhanced double contrast arthrographic group, epinephrine(+) group, to the double contrast arthrographic group without epinephrine, epinephrine(-) group, by statistical evaluation. Each group consisted of 35 cases and 7 lateral films of knee joint were taken sequentially 2, 6, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 60 minutes after injection of contrast media, and were assessed by 5 certified radiologists. The results were as follows: 1. The difference of mean score of quality between epinephrine(+) group and epinephrine(-) group was statistically significant at every time interval ({rho} value < 0.01 at 2 minutes, {rho} < 0.001 at all other time intervals). Epinephrine(+) group was superior to the epinephrine(-) group in quality of film. 2. Numbers of cases above score of 2 which was considered to be of diagnostic quality in evaluating meniscal lesions were larger in epinephrine(+) group than epinephrine(-) group at every time interval. And the difference between two groups was highly significant statistically ({rho} < 0.001). 3. Only 43% of cases was above score of 2 at 10 minutes in epinephrine(-) group, but 97% at 10 minutes and 80% at 20 minutes respectively in epinephrine(+) group. Therefore duration for adequate study of arthrogram is prolonged more than two times in epinephrine

  5. Flow Injection Analysis in Industrial Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) is an analytical chemical continuous-flow (CF) method which in contrast to traditional CF-procedures does not rely on complete physical mixing (homogenisation) of the sample and the reagent(s) or on attaining chemical equilibria of the chemical reactions involved. Ex...

  6. Technical Note: Contrast solution density and cross section errors in inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for breast balloon brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Leonard H.; Zhang Miao; Howell, Roger W.; Yue, Ning J.; Khan, Atif J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey: Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey: New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey: Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Recent recommendations by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 186 emphasize the importance of understanding material properties and their effect on inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for brachytherapy. Radiographic contrast is normally injected into breast brachytherapy balloons. In this study, the authors independently estimate properties of contrast solution that were expected to be incorrectly specified in a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The mass density and atomic weight fractions of a clinical formulation of radiographic contrast solution were determined using manufacturers' data. The mass density was verified through measurement and compared with the density obtained by the treatment planning system's CT calibration. The atomic weight fractions were used to determine the photon interaction cross section of the contrast solution for a commercial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy source and compared with that of muscle. Results: The density of contrast solution was 10% less than that obtained from the CT calibration. The cross section of the contrast solution for the HDR source was 1.2% greater than that of muscle. Both errors could be addressed by overriding the density of the contrast solution in the treatment planning system. Conclusions: The authors estimate the error in mass density and cross section parameters used by a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm for radiographic contrast used in a clinical breast brachytherapy practice. This approach is adaptable to other clinics seeking to evaluate dose calculation errors and determine appropriate density override values if desired.

  7. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  8. Contrast-enhanced angiographic cone-beam computed tomography without pre-diluted contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, K.I.; Kim, S.R.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Jeon, P. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Contrast-enhanced cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been introduced and accepted as a useful technique to evaluate delicate vascular anatomy and neurovascular stents. Current protocol for CBCT requires quantitative dilution of contrast medium to obtain adequate quality images. Here, we introduce simple methods to obtain contrast-enhanced CBCT without quantitative contrast dilution. A simple experiment was performed to estimate the change in flow rate in the internal carotid artery during the procedure. Transcranial doppler (TCD) was used to evaluate the velocity change before and after catheterization and fluid infusion. In addition, 0.3 cm{sup 3}/s (n = 3) and 0.2 cm{sup 3}/s (n = 7) contrast infusions were injected and followed by saline flushes using a 300 mmHg pressure bag to evaluate neurovascular stent and host arteries. Flow velocities changed -15 ± 6.8 % and +17 ± 5.5 % from baseline during catheterization and guiding catheter flushing with a 300 mmHg pressure bag, respectively. Evaluation of the stents and vascular structure was feasible using this technique in all patients. Quality assessment showed that the 0.2 cm{sup 3}/s contrast infusion protocol was better for evaluating the stent and host artery. Contrast-enhanced CBCT can be performed without quantitative contrast dilution. Adequate contrast dilution can be achieved with a small saline flush and normal blood flow. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of potential injectable polymeric biomaterials for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifke, Michael B; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the potential injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds currently being investigated for application in bone tissue regeneration. Two types of injectable biomaterial scaffolds are focused in this review, including injectable microspheres and injectable gels. The injectable microspheres section covers several polymeric materials, including poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide)-PLGA, poly(propylene fumarate), and chitosan. The injectable gel section covers alginate gels, hyaluronan hydrogels, poly(ethylene-glycol)-PEG hydrogels, and PEG-PLGA copolymer hydrogels. This review focuses on the effect of cellular behavior in vitro and in vivo in terms of material properties of polymers, such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porosity, microsphere size, and cross-linking nature. Injectable polymeric biomaterials offer a major advantage for orthopedic applications by allowing the ability to use noninvasive or minimally invasive treatment methods. Therefore, combining injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds with cells have a significant potential to treat orthopedic bone defects, including spine fusion, and craniofacial and periodontal defects.

  10. Contrast-enhanced US-guided Interventions: Improving Success Rate and Avoiding Complications Using US Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dean Y; Yusuf, Gibran T; Daneshi, Mohammad; Husainy, Mohammad Ali; Ramnarine, Raymond; Sellars, Maria E K; Sidhu, Paul S

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is an established modality for intervention. The introduction of microbubble US contrast agents (UCAs) has the potential to further improve US imaging for intervention. According to licensing, UCAs are currently approved for clinical use in restricted situations, but many additional indications have become accepted as having clinical value. The use of UCAs has been shown to be safe, and there is no risk of renal toxic effects, unlike with iodinated or gadolinium contrast medium. Broadly speaking, UCAs can be injected into the bloodstream (intravascular use) or instilled into almost any accessible body cavity (endocavitary use), either in isolation or synchronously. In microvascular applications, contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) enhances delineation of necrotic areas and the vascularized target to improve real-time targeting. The ability of CEUS to allow true assessment of vascularity has also been used in follow-up of devascularizing intervention. In macrovascular applications, real-time angiographic images can be obtained with CEUS without nephrotoxic effects or radiation. In endocavitary applications, CEUS can achieve imaging similar to that of iodinated contrast medium-based fluoroscopy; follow-up to intervention (eg, tubography and nephrostography) can be performed at the bedside, which may be advantageous. The use of UCAs is a natural progression in US-guided intervention. The aim of this article is to describe the indications, contraindications, and techniques of using UCAs as an adjunctive tool for US-guided interventional procedures to facilitate effective treatment, improve complication management, and increase the overall success of interventional procedures. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  11. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  12. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    of the mechanisms controlling topography replication. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding depends on the main elements of  Process conditions  Plastic material  Mould topography In this work, the process conditions is the main factor considered, but the impact of plastic material...

  13. Anisotropic Contrast Optical Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Peev, D; Kananizadeh, N; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-01-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by mea...

  14. Electrofluidic systems for contrast management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Keith J.; Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Tiffany, Jason E.; Brown, Christopher Y.; Maisano, Adam J.; Hagedon, Matthew A.; Heikenfeld, Jason C.

    2012-06-01

    Operating in dynamic lighting conditions and in greatly varying backgrounds is challenging. Current paints and state-ofthe- art passive adaptive coatings (e.g. photochromics) are not suitable for multi- environment situations. A semi-active, low power, skin is needed that can adapt its reflective properties based on the background environment to minimize contrast through the development and incorporation of suitable pigment materials. Electrofluidic skins are a reflective display technology for electronic ink and paper applications. The technology is similar to that in E Ink but makes use of MEMS based microfluidic structures, instead of simple black and white ink microcapsules dispersed in clear oil. Electrofluidic skin's low power operation and fast switching speeds (~20 ms) are an improvement over current state-ofthe- art contrast management technologies. We report on a microfluidic display which utilizes diffuse pigment dispersion inks to change the contrast of the underlying substrate from 5.8% to 100%. Voltage is applied and an electromechanical pressure is used to pull a pigment dispersion based ink from a hydrophobic coated reservoir into a hydrophobic coated surface channel. When no voltage is applied, the Young-Laplace pressure pushes the pigment dispersion ink back down into the reservoir. This allows the pixel to switch from the on and off state by balancing the two pressures. Taking a systems engineering approach from the beginning of development has enabled the technology to be integrated into larger systems.

  15. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    , the topography itself, and other factors were also investigated. The experimental work is based on a multi-purpose experimental injection mould with a collection of test surface inserts manufactured by EDM (electrical discharge machining). Experimental production took place with an injection moulding machine......Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...... in a clean room environment. The mould and the injection moulding machine were fitted with transducers for subsequent process analysis. A total of 13 different plastic material grades were applied. Topographical characterisation was performed with an optical laser focus detection instrument. Replication...

  16. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...... used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper...

  17. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, F R N C; Marchesini, S; Padmore, H A; Parkinson, D Y; Pien, J; Schirotzek, A; Yang, C; 10.1117/12.861946

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. In- terference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher con- trast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  18. Iopamidol as a gastrointestinal contrast agent. Lack of peritoneal reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, S L; Schreiman, J S; Rouse, J W; Rysavy, J A; Cheng, S C; Frick, M P

    1990-02-01

    The ideal contrast agent in patients suspected of having gastrointestinal perforation is an iso-osmolar, or nearly iso-osmolar substance, that causes no peritoneal reaction. Iopamidol is a nonionic water-soluble contrast medium that may be considered in such situations. Intraperitoneal injections of ionic and nonionic contrast agents were compared in rats to study potentially harmful peritoneal inflammation. Only intraperitoneal barium injection produced any significant tissue reaction, such as adhesions and ascites. There was no difference between iopamidol and the other water-soluble contrast agents. Iopamidol may satisfy the need for nonreactive and nearly iso-osmolar contrast agents for evaluating patients with possible bowel perforation. However, the high cost of this agent may make its clinical application impractical.

  19. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... be pregnant What medicines you are taking, including herbs, supplements, and other drugs you bought without a ...

  20. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  1. Underground Injection Control (UIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provide information on: individual injection well classes; regulations specific to each well class; technical guidance; compliance assistance; federal, state, and tribal/territory roles and responsibilities.

  2. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to ferric carboxymaltose injection, ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other ...

  3. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  4. Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold from Decellularized Human Lipoaspirate

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D. Adam; Ibrahim, Dina O.; Hu, Diane; Christman, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are rapidly gaining popularity for aesthetic improvements or repair of adipose tissue deficits. Several injectable biopolymers have been investigated for this purpose but often face rapid resorption or limited adipogenesis, and do not mimic the native adipose extracellular matrix (ECM). We have generated an injectable adipose matrix scaffold by efficiently removing both the cellular and lipid contents of human lipoaspirate. The decellularized material retained a complex co...

  5. Biocompatible Polyhydroxyethylaspartamide-based Micelles with Gadolinium for MRI Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyo Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biocompatible poly-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl-d,l-aspartamide]-methoxypoly(ethyleneglycol-hexadecylamine (PHEA-mPEG-C16 conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-gadolinium (DOTA-Gd via ethylenediamine (ED was synthesized as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. Amphiphilic PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd forms micelle in aqueous solution. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. Micelle size and shape were examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Micelles with PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd showed higher relaxivities than the commercially available gadolinium contrast agent. Moreover, the signal intensity of a rabbit liver was effectively increased after intravenous injection of PHEA-mPEG-C16-ED-DOTA-Gd.

  6. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant......The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...

  7. Injectable, Biodegradable Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Tan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have many different applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Biodegradable, injectable hydrogels could be utilized as delivery systems, cell carriers, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Injectable hydrogels are an appealing scaffold because they are structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of many tissues, can often be processed under relatively mild conditions, and may be delivered in a minimally invasive manner. This review will discuss recent advances in the field of injectable hydrogels, including both synthetic and native polymeric materials, which can be potentially used in cartilage and soft tissue engineering applications.

  8. A new contrast agent for radiological and dissection studies of the arterial network of anatomic specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, A; Casoli, C; Farace, F; Mazzarello, V; De Luca, L; Rubino, C; Montella, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to propose a new contrast agent that can be easily applied both to CT and dissection studies to replace lead oxide based formulas for comparative anatomical analyses of the vascularisation of cadaveric specimens. The infusion material was an epoxy resin, especially modified by the addition of barium sulphate to enhance its radiopacity. The final copolymer was toxicologically safe. To test the properties of the new material, several cadaveric limb injections were performed. The injected specimens were both CT scanned to perform 3D vascular reconstructions and dissected by anatomical planes. There was a perfect correspondence between the image studies and the dissections: even the smallest arteries on CT scan can be identified on the specimen and vice versa. The properties of the epoxy allowed an easy dissection of the vessels. The new imaging techniques available today, such as CT scan, can evaluate the vascular anatomy in high detail and 3D. This new contrast agent may help realising detailed vascular studies comparing CT scan results with anatomical dissections. Moreover, it may be useful for teaching surgical skills in the field of plastic surgery.

  9. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Torres, Lucas Rios; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-06-15

    Objective: to evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis). Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others). Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant) out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14%) cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%), steatosis (3%), adrenal nodule (0.7%) and cholelithiasis (0.3%). Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis. (author)

  10. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Manuel Cerqueira Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis. Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14% cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%, steatosis (3%, adrenal nodule (0.7% and cholelithiasis (0.3%. Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis.

  11. [Intra-articular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  12. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated...

  13. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.P. Acthar Gel® ... Corticotropin repository injection comes as a long acting gel to inject under the skin or into a ... prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, or herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

  14. 对比剂碘浓度在双源双能量CT检查中对血管和肝脏强化的影响%Effect of different iodine concentrations of contrast material on the vascu-lar and hepatic enhancement during dual-source dual-energy CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵林伟; 董国礼; 杨国庆; 赵秀华; 冯敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare vascular and parenchymal contrast enhancement in dual-energy CT of the liver using two contrast media with different iodine concentration (iopamidol 300 mgI /mL and 370 mgI /mL),use of a protocol with iodine dose adjus-ted for the patient’s body surface area com-(BSA;17.1 gI /m2 BSA)and fixed injection duration (25 s).Methods:300 patients were prospectively randomized into four groups.Patients in groups A and C received iopamidol with an iodine concentration of 300mg I /mL, B and D received iopamidol with an iodine concentration of 370mg I /mL respectively.Iodine dose was adjusted according to BSA,with a fixed injection duration of 25 s.Dual-energy acquisition mode was performed during late hepatic-arterial phase(A,B)and portal ve-nous phase(C,D).Enhancement of the abdominal aorta,liver and portal vein were compared between high-concentration contrast medi-um and low-concentration contrast medium at 80kVp,140kVp and color-coded iodine overlay images.The Mann-Whitney U test was used to enhance the difference between group.Results:At 80kVp,140kVp or color-coded iodine overlay images,the mean contrast en-hancement of the aorta was a trend towards higher contrast enhancement during the hepatic arterial phase,which was not statistically sig-nificant,when the higher concentration contrast medium was injected.And there was no significant difference between two iodine con-centration contrast medium for the mean contrast enhancement of the portal vein during the hepatic portal venous phase and for the mean contrast enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma during each acquisition phase (P >0.05).Conclusion:With fixed injection duration (25 s)and iodine load being tailored according to BSA,comparable contrast enhancement can be achieved with 300mg I /mL and 370mg I /mL being injected in liver enhanced DECT imaging.%目的:根据体表面积(body surface area,BSA)调整碘剂量(17.1 gI /m2 BSA)、固定注射时间(25 s

  15. Percutaneous therapy of hemostatics of injected gelatin matrix under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for splenic trauma in canine%超声造影引导下注射明胶基止血剂治疗犬脾脏创伤的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田江克; 谢霞; 武荣; 吕发勤; 罗渝昆; 唐杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efifcacy and safety of hemostatics of injected gelatin matrix (HIGM) under the guidance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for treating splenic trauma in canine model. Methods A total of 24 commercial hybrid dogs underwent celiotomy with creation of uniformly blunt splenic trauma lesion of 4.0 cm×4.0 cm×2.5 cm (length, width and depth, respectively) by hemostatic clamp. Subjects were prospectively randomized into two groups. The treatment group was treated with HIGM under the guidance of CEUS and the positive control group received thrombin solution. Conventional ultrasound and CEUS were performed to record the ascites and the splenic lesion areas at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st day. The ifne needle biopsy and splenectomy were performed for histopathologic examination. The weight, free intraperitoneal lfuid and injury site were compared with t test between HIGM and postive group. Results All animals in two groups survived. All dogs stopped hemorrhage after injection of HIGM under CEUS guidance. The area of injury site was (12.91±0.89) cm2, (4.45±0.75) cm2 and (1.38±0.23) cm2 at 1st, 3rd and 7th day and splenic lesions were not found at 14th and 21st day in all dogs (n=12) of HIGM group. The splenic lesion was (16.74±0.91) cm2, (11.26±0.99) cm2, (8.02±0.82) cm2 and (1.58±0.36) cm2 in the postive group at 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day and splenic lesions were not found at 21st day in all dogs (n=12). At 7th and 14th day post-injection, lesion areas were statistically significant between two groups (t=27.162, P=0.008;t=15.129, P=0.001). Free intraperitoneal lfuid was (0.91±0.05) cm at 1st day detected by conventional ultrasound and free intraperitoneal fluid was not found at 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st day in all dogs (n=12) of HIGM group. The free intraperitoneal fluid in thepositive group was (1.96±0.17) cm, (1.30±0.11) cm and (0.81±0.12) cm at 1st, 3rd and 7th day and free intraperitoneal lfuid was not found at 14th and 21st day

  16. Potential use of microbubbles (MBs) as contrast material in x-ray dark field (DF) imaging: How does the DF signal change with the characteristic parameters of the MBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Qin, Bin; Ge, Yongshuai; Whiting, Bruce; Li, Ke; Villanueva, Flordeliza; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    One of the most exciting aspects of the grating based x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) acquisition method is the concurrent generation of the so-called dark field (DF) signal, along with the classical absorption signal and the novel DPC signal. The DF signal is associated with local distribution of small angle scatterers in an image object, while the absorption signal and DPC signal are often used to characterize the relatively uniform structure of the image object. Besides the endogenous image contrast, exogenous contrast media are often used in x-ray imaging to locally enhance the image signal. This paper proposes a potential contrast medium for DF signal enhancement: microbubbles (MBs). MBs have already been developed for clinical use in ultrasound imaging, and recent experimental studies have shown that MBs may also enhance the DF signal, although it remained unclear how the physical characteristics of the MBs quantitatively impact the DF signal. In this paper, a systematic study was performed to investigate the quantitative relationships between the DF signal and the following properties of MBs: size, concentration, shell thickness, size uniformity, and whether gold nanoparticles were attached. The experimental results demonstrated that, an increased MB size (about 4 microns) may generate a stronger DF signal for our DPC imaging system; additionally, a moderately increased shell thickness and the use of gold nanoparticles on the shell surface also resulted in further enhancement of the DF signal. These findings may provide critical information needed for using MBs as the contrast agent of x-ray DF imaging.

  17. Polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A., E-mail: king@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Reischig, P. [Xnovo Technology ApS, 4600 Køge (Denmark); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628 CD (Netherlands); Adrien, J. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Peetermans, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ludwig, W. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France)

    2014-11-15

    This tutorial review introduces the use of polychromatic radiation for 3D grain mapping using X-ray diffraction contrast tomography. The objective is to produce a 3D map of the grain shapes and orientations within a bulk, millimeter-sized polycrystalline sample. The use of polychromatic radiation enables the standard synchrotron X-ray technique to be applied in a wider range of contexts: 1) Using laboratory X-ray sources allows a much wider application of the diffraction contrast tomography technique. 2) Neutron sources allow large samples, or samples containing high Z elements to be studied. 3) Applied to synchrotron sources, smaller samples may be treated, or faster measurements may be possible. Challenges and particularities in the data acquisition and processing, and the limitations of the different variants, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a tutorial review of polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography techniques. • The use of polychromatic radiation allows the standard synchrotron DCT technique to be extended to a range of other sources. • The characteristics and limitations of all variants of the techniques are derived, discussed and compared. • Examples using laboratory X-ray and cold neutron radiation are presented. • Suggestions for the future development of these techniques are presented.

  18. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  19. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    effects of DME in high pressure injection have also been observed. DME has a higher compressibility than diesel fuel, resulting in larger pressure oscillations in the injection system during the injection process. The oscillations with DME also have a slower delay rate than those of diesel fuel......A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump...... in the same system. As a first attempt to simulate combustion of DME in Diesel engines, the results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a simplified spray combustion model. A turbulent jet structure was adjusted to fit the penetration rates of the observed sprays. The observed spray widths agreed...

  20. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D.; Hofmann, T.; Kananizadeh, N.; Beeram, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Wimer, S.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Herzinger, C. M.; Kasputis, T.; Pfaunmiller, E.; Nguyen, A.; Korlacki, R.; Pannier, A.; Li, Y.; Schubert, E.; Hage, D.; Schubert, M.

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  1. Anterior approach v. posterior approach - ultrasound-guided shoulder arthrogram injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Neethling-du Toit

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Anterior approach ultrasound guided arthrogram injections are a quick reliable way of injecting contrast prior to MRI scan. We did a retrospective study on patients, previously injected and scanned at our clinic, to compare the more manifested posterior approach with the anterior approach. The success rate for successful intra-articular injections for the anterior approach far outweighs the posterior approach. Also the anterior approach is more tolerable for patients as the injections are much quicker and seemingly less painful. In our knowledge it is thus far better to perform anterior approach shoulder arthrogram injections than posterior approach injections

  2. High Contrast CRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    r AD’ A076 235 WATKINS—JOHNSON Co SCOTYS VAL LEY CA F/S 9/5 N HIGH CONTRAST CRT.CU) AUG 79 6 A HOLNQUIST DAABO7—77—C—263 9 UNCLASSIFIED DEL.ET—TR—77...Air Force Systems Command A t t n : l) l . CA 2w) U I f iee ’ of \\ iva l Re ’~.ea r ch Andr ews AFI4 ( • ~~ii 4.~7 001 Washington , l ) .C. 20331

  3. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  4. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...... index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures...

  5. ALICE Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE (point 2) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for ALICE are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the ALICE vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  6. LHCb Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb (point 8) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for LHCb are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the LHCb vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  7. Effect of intravenous contrast agent volume on colorectal cancer vascular parameters as measured by perfusion computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, V. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, London (United Kingdom); Bartram, C. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, S. [Department of Academic Radiology, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.halligan@ucl.ac.uk

    2009-04-15

    Aim: To determine the effect of two different contrast agent volumes on quantitative and semi-quantitative vascular parameters as measured by perfusion computed tomography (CT) in colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: Following ethical approval and informed consent, eight prospectively recruited patients with proven colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent two separate perfusion CT studies on the same day after (a) 100 ml and (b) 50 ml of a 340 mg/ml iodinated contrast medium, respectively. Quantitative (blood volume, blood flow, permeability surface area product) and semi-quantitative (peak enhancement, time to peak enhancement) tumour vascular parameters were determined using commercial software based on distributed parameter analysis and compared using t-testing. Results: Tumour blood volume, blood flow, and permeability surface area product were not substantially different following the injection of 100 ml and 50 ml contrast medium: 6.12 versus 6.23 ml/100 g tissue; 73.4 versus 71.3 ml/min/100 g tissue; 15.6 versus 15.3 ml/min/100 g tissue for 100 and 50 ml, respectively; p > 0.05. Tumour peak enhancement and time to peak were significantly greater following the injection of 100 ml versus 50 ml contrast medium: 41.2 versus 28.5 HU; 16.1 versus 11.8 s for 100 ml and 50 ml, respectively; p = 0.002; p = 0.0003. Conclusion: Quantitative parameters do not appear to change substantially with a higher contrast agent volume suggesting a combined diagnostic staging-perfusion CT study following a single injection is feasible for colorectal cancer.

  8. Focal Liver Lesions: Real-time 3-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Compared With 2-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Chieh; Yan, Kun; Lee, San-Kan; Yang, Wei; Chen, Min-Hua

    2017-06-24

    This study sought to evaluate the application of real-time 3-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) to diagnose focal liver lesions and to compare these results with those from 2-dimensional (2D) contrast-enhanced US and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with focal liver lesions were examined by 2D contrast-enhanced US, 3D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI for lesion characterization, and biopsies and comprehensive clinical diagnoses served as reference standards. The sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and intermodality agreement were assessed. The number of contrast agent injections and lesions observed per injection were calculated for 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US. The number and display quality of the feeding arteries observed with 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US were assessed. A total of 117 patients with 151 focal liver lesions were enrolled, including 67 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 51 cases of liver metastasis, and 33 cases of benign liver lesions. No significant differences were found among the modalities. The sensitivity values for 3D contrast-enhanced US, 2D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI were 96%, 95%, and 93%, respectively; the specificity values were 87%, 84%, and 89%; and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were 0.92, 0.90, and 0.92. The intermodality agreement was excellent (κ > 0.77). Fewer contrast agent injections were needed, and more lesions and feeding arteries were more clearly displayed on 3D than 2D contrast-enhanced US (P < .001). Real-time 3D contrast-enhanced US is useful for diagnosing focal liver lesions and for observing feeding arteries with fewer contrast agent injections. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  10. MO-E-17A-02: Incorporation of Contrast Medium Dynamics in Anthropomorphic Phantoms: The Advent of 5D XCAT Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahbaee, P [NC State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Samei, E [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Segars, W [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a unique method to incorporate the dynamics of contrast-medium propagation into the anthropomorphic phantom, to generate a five-dimensional (5D) patient model for multimodality imaging studies. Methods: A compartmental model of blood circulation network within the body was embodied into an extended cardiac-torso (4D-XCAT) patient model. To do so, a computational physiologic model of the human cardiovascular system was developed which includes a series of compartments representing heart, vessels, and organs. Patient-specific cardiac output and blood volume were used as inputs influenced by the weight, height, age, and gender of the patient's model. For a given injection protocol and given XCAT model, the contrast-medium transmission within the body was described by a series of mass balance differential equations, the solutions to which provided the contrast enhancement-time curves for each organ; thereby defining the tissue materials including the contrastmedium within the XCAT model. A library of time-dependent organ materials was then defined. Each organ in each voxelized 4D-XCAT phantom was assigned to a corresponding time-varying material to create the 5D-XCAT phantom in which the fifth dimension is blood/contrast-medium within the temporal domain. Results: The model effectively predicts the time-varying concentration behavior of various contrast-medium administration in each organ for different patient models as function of patient size (weight/height) and different injection protocol factors (injection rate and pattern, iodine concentration or volume). The contrast enhanced XCAT patient models was developed based on the concentration of iodine as a function of time after injection. Conclusion: Majority of medical imaging systems take advantage of contrast-medium administration in terms of better image quality, the effect of which was ignored in previous optimization studies. The study enables a comprehensive optimization of contrast

  11. Contrast enhanced two-phase spiral CT of urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeung Uk; Cha, Seong Sook; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Oh, Jeong Geun; Chang, Seung Kuk; Choi, Seok Jin; Eun, Choong Kie [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Chang Hye [Daedong General Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To determine optimal scan time for the early phase of two-phase spiral CT and to evaluate its usefulness in the detection and assessment of extension of urinary bladder lesions. In four normal adults, we performed dynamic scanning and obtained time-density curves for internal and external iliac arteries and veins, and the wall of the urinary bladder. Sixty patients with 68 lesions of the urinary bladder or prostate underwent precontrast and two-phase spiral CT scanning. After injection of 100ml of noninonic contrast material, images for the early and delayed phases were obtained at 60 seconds and 5 minutes, respectively. We measured CT H. U. of the wall, the lesion, and lumen of urinary bladder as seen on axial scanning, in each image in which the lesion was best shown. For the detection of bladder lesions and assessment of their extension, precontrast, early-, and delayed phsed images were compared. Dynamic study of normal adults showed maximum enhancement of bladder wall between 60 and 100 seconds. The difference of CT H. U. between bladder wall and the lesion was greatest in the early phase. The best detection rate(98.5%) was seen during this phase, and for the detection of bladder lesion, this same phase was superior or equal (66/68, 97.1%) to the delayed phase. The precontrast image was also superior or equal (31/68, 45.6%) to that of the delayed phase. For the assessment of extension of bladder lesion, the early phase was superior (36/68, 52.9%) to the delayed phase, and precontrast image was superiour (1/68, 1.5%) to that of the delayed phase. For determining the stage of bladder cancer, the early phase was most accurate if the stages was below B{sub 2} or D, while for stage C, the delayed phase was most accurate. In two-hpase spiral CT scanning, we consider the optimal time for the early phase to be between 60 and 100 seconds after injection of contrast material. For the detection and assessment of extension of urinary bladder lesion, the early phase was

  12. Contrast MR imaging of acute cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogame, Saeko; Syakudo, Miyuki; Inoue, Yuichi (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-04-01

    Thirty patients with acute and subacute cerebral infarction (13 and 17 deep cerebral infarction) were studied with 0.5 T MR unit before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA. Thirteen patients were studied within 7 days after neurological ictus, 17 patients were studied between 7 and 14 days. Two types of abnormal enhancement, cortical arterial and parenchymal enhancement, were noted. The former was seen in 3 of 4 cases of very acute cortical infarction within 4 days after clinical ictus. The latter was detected in all 7 cases of cortical infarction after the 6th day of the ictus, and one patient with deep cerebral infarction at the 12th day of the ictus. Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging seems to detect gyral enhancement earlier compared with contrast CT, and depict intra-arterial sluggish flow which was not expected to see on contrast CT scans. (author).

  13. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging for tumor delineation in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korporaal, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging is frequently used for the detection and localization of prostate tumors. After injection of a bolus of contrast agent into the blood circulation, the behavior of the contrast agent in the prostate can be measured by repetitive imaging of the prostate. Pros

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging for tumor delineation in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korporaal, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging is frequently used for the detection and localization of prostate tumors. After injection of a bolus of contrast agent into the blood circulation, the behavior of the contrast agent in the prostate can be measured by repetitive imaging of the prostate. Pros

  15. INJECTION BOTULINUM IN PARALYTIC STRABISMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kishore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist muscle in paralytic strabismus. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of botulinum toxin a injection into the antagonist muscle in cases of paralytic strabismus to alleviate diplopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a tertiary eye care hospital based prospective interventional study in the department of Orthoptics over a period from October 2011 to October 2013. 36 patients with paralytic strabismus of recent onset within 3 months, with chief complaint of double vision were included. RESULTS: The study data analysis of 36 patients of paralytic strabismus of recent onset (within 3 months with chief complaints of double vision showed a ge wise distribution as 3(8.33% in 0 - 20 years, 16(44.44% in 21 - 40 years, 16(44.44% in 41 - 60 years, 1(2.78% > 60 years. g ender wise 26(72.22% males, 10 (27.28% females, a etiology wise 15(41.67% were diabetic, 4(11.11% were traumatic, 11(30.56% were Id iopathic, 2(5.56% were due to CSOM and 4(11.11% due to Diabetes and Hypertension. All patients were treated with botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist nonoperatic muscle and were followed at an interval of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. Thorough cli nical examination and Diplopia charting were done before and after treatment. CONCLUSION: Injection botulinum into the antagonist muscle during the first three months after the onset allows the patients to enjoy and appreciate fusion in primary gaze without necessity for head turn, Prevents contracture of antagonist muscle. Thus botulinum toxin is useful in the treatment of acute paretic loss of ocular muscle function when surgical treatment of the ocular muscles is not yet possible but the patient is obviously disturbed by diplopia or forced head posture. The procedure is simple, safe and effective method.

  16. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  17. [Comparison of the acute cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol, metrizamide and amidotrizoate after intracoronary and left ventricular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schräder, R; Wolpers, H G; Hoeft, A; Korb, H; Hellige, G

    1984-05-01

    The acute cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol (osmolality: 0.8 osmol/kg), metrizamide (0.6 osmol/kg), and amidotrizoate (2.1 osmol/kg) during coronary arteriography (n = 30) and left ventriculography (n = 9) have been compared in anesthetized closed-chest dogs (n = 5). The influences of these contrast media on hemodynamics, coronary circulation, ECG and physicochemical properties of coronary sinus blood were evaluated. Following intracoronary injection, iopamidol and metrizamide cause positive inotropism while amidotrizoate initially induces cardiodepression. All contrast solutions lead to marked increase of myocardial blood flow. Electrocardiographic changes are greater after amidotrizoate (P less than 0.05). A fall of cationic content in coronary sinus blood is seen after each contrast medium. Amidotrizoate leads to more decrease of potassium (P less than 0.01) and both ionized and total calcium (P less than 0.001). Increase of osmolality and hydrogen ionic content is greater after amidotrizoate than after iopamidol and metrizamide (P less than 0.01). Following left ventricular injection, marked peripheral vasodilation, as seen after amidotrizoate, does not occur after low osmolality compounds. There are no significant differences between iopamidol and metrizamide in spite of the slightly higher osmolality of the former. Thus, both contrast materials should be equivalent with respect to their acute cardiovascular side effects under clinical conditions. Advantages of low osmolality radiological contrast media are discussed.

  18. Application of Contrast Echocardiography in Invasive Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bulut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast echocardiography by rendering better imaging of the borders of cardiac chambers is a useful tool for evaluating cardiac function, mass, myocardial vascularization, microvascular structure (small vessel vasculature and viability. Contrast was first started to be used for patients with suboptimal image quality. It can be used in detecting defects in myocardial blood supply in patients with chest pain and determining the success of interventionalprocedures. It can also be of help in demonstrating myocardial viability after reperfusion treatment in patients who had myocardial infarction. It is expected to be used more widely in invasive cardiology for decision making, guiding and determining the success of the procedures. Advances in imaging techniques , development of contrast materials for evaluation of left system, contrast echocardiography may become a routine clinical practice.

  19. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  20. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of the ... any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  1. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lining of the spinal cord and brain) and visceral leishmaniasis (a parasitic disease that usually affects spleen, ... complex injection: fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, flushing, back pain with or without chest tightness, chest pain, shortness ...

  2. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  3. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  4. Signal intensity of normal breast tissue at MR mammography on midfield: applying a random coefficient model evaluating the effect of doubling the contrast dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, Mette; Christensen, Robin; Torp-Pedersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate the effect on signal intensity (SI) of healthy breast parenchyma on magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) when doubling the contrast dose from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Informed consent and institutional review board approval were...... and an axial dynamic T1W FFED, with a total of seven frames. At day 1, an i.v. gadolinium (Gd) bolus injection of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight (Omniscan) (low) was administered. On day 2, the contrast dose was increased to 0.2 mmol/kg (high). Injection rate was 2 mL/s (day 1) and 4 mL/s (day 2). Any use of estrogen...

  5. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    with a simple one-to-one mapping between resolution elements of a spatial phase modulator and resolution elements of the generated intensity pattern is provided. According to the invention a method is provided for synthesizing an intensity pattern with low loss of electromagnetic energy, comprising spatial...... modulation of electromagnetic radiation with a spatial phase mask for modulation of the phase of the incident eletromagnetic radiation by phasor values of individual resolution elements of the spatial phase mask, each phasor value being determined in such a way that the values of the Fourier transformed......The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...

  6. A cadaveric study on sacroiliac joint injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Cong; Li, Yi-Kai; Yu, Cheng-Fu; Yang, Xian-Wen; Chen, Run-Qi

    2015-02-01

    The scope of this study was to explore the possibility as well as the feasibility of sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location. For the cadaveric study, 10 fixed sacroiliac joint (SIJ) sectional specimens, 4 dried cadaveric pelvises and 21 embalmed adult cadaveric pelvises were dissected, followed by an injection of contrast agent into the joint. The irrigation of the agent was observed through CT scanning. For the radiologic study, 188 CT scans of ankylosing spondylitis patients (143 male, 45 female) were collected from 2010 to 2012, in Nanfang Hospital. What was measured was (1) Distance between the posterior midline and sagittal synovium; (2) Length of the sagittal synovium; (3) Distance between the midpoint of the sagittal synovium and posterior superior iliac spine; and (4) Distance between the superficial skin vertical to the sagittal synovium point were measured. For the practice-based study: 20 patients (17 males and 3 females) with early ankylosing spondylitis, from Nanfang Hospital affiliated with Southern Medical University were recruited, and sacroiliac joint unguided injections were done on the basis of the cadaveric and radiologic study. Only the inferior 1/3(rd) portion parallel to the posterior midline could be injected into since the superior 2/3(rd) portion were filled with interosseous ligaments. Thirteen of the 20 patients received successful injections as identified by CT scan using the contrast agent. Sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location is possible and feasible if the operation is performed by trained physicians familiar with the sacroiliac joint and its surrounding anatomic structures.

  7. Exploiting the bead-injection approach in the integrated sequential injection Lab-on-Valve format using hydrophobic packing materials for on-line matrix removal and preconcentration of trace levels of cadmium in environmental and biological samples via formation of non-charged chelates prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Jonczyk, Sylwia; Wang, Jianhua;

    2003-01-01

    The concept of renewable microcolumns within the conduits of an automated single injection lab-on-valve system was exploited in a sorption/elution fashion using sorbents of hydrophobic nature. The scheme's practical applicability was demonstrated for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrome...

  8. Evaluation of a novel PTFE material for use as a means for separation and preconcentration of trace levels of metal ions in sequential injection (SI) and sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) systems. Determination of cadmium (II) with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Chomchoei, Roongrat; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    with an external packed column and in a sequential injection lab-on-valve (SI-LOV) system. Employed for the determination of cadmium(II), complexed with diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA), and detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), its performance was compared to that of a previously used...

  9. Correlation between contrast enhancement of portal vein and spleen size in dual-phase spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Seung Eon; Choi, Jong Cheol; Nam, Kyung Jin; Jung, Won Jung; Goo, Bong Sik; Park, Byung Ho; Lee, Young Ii; Chung, Duck Hwan [Donga Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate using spiral CT the effect of spleen size on blood flow in the portal venous system and to know the usefulness of this evaluation. Fifty-one patients without evidence on spiral CT scan of abnormality thought to affect portal venous flow presented between December 1994 and June 1995. We measured spleen size and Hounsfield units of portal vein in dual-phase, and calculated the ratio of the unit in the portal phase to that in the arterial phase. Spleen size was measured, using the length of X-axis by that of Z-axis on spiral CT scan. We then measured the correlation between the two values. CT was performed with a Somatom Plus-S scanner(Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). A total dose of 120ml of non-ionic contrast material(Ultravist) was administered at a rate of 3 ml/sec. Arterial and portal phase were obtained after 30 seconds and 60 seconds from the begining of the contrast agent injection. The correlation between spleen size and contrast enhancement of the portal vein was relatively significant(Pearson's correlation coefficient(r)=0.41801). Spleen size significantly affects portal venous flow on spiral CT scan. The evaluation of spleen size and contrast enhancement of the portal vein could be useful in the differential diagnosis of diseases which affect portal venous flow.

  10. In which patients should serum creatinine be measured before iodinated contrast medium administration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Henrik S. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev (Denmark). Department of Diagnostic Radiology; Morcos, Sameh K. [Northern General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Routine measurement of serum creatinine before injection of intravascular iodinated contrast material in all patients would be cumbersome and have an associated cost. There is doubt about whether serum creatinine should be measured routinely in all patients or selectively. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and draw up guidelines on this important practical issue. A literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information and discussions amongst the members of the Committee, guidelines were produced. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. The practice for identifying patients at risk of contrast medium induced nephropathy varies considerably from one institution to another. Patients at risk constitute only a small percentage of all cases referred for contrast enhanced imaging examination. However, it is important to identify them and take the necessary precautions. Recent serum creatinine level should be available in patients with an increased probability of a raised serum creatinine level (renal disease, renal surgery, proteinuria, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gout, current intake of nephrotoxic drugs). A simple guideline has been produced. (orig.)

  11. An optimization of injecting system in die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    After many years of development, die casting technology of metallic materials has been matured. In this paper,the lower-support and its injecting system were created with commercial software. And then the simulation software FLOW3D was applied to study the flow behavior of the melt during injection filling process. Both temperature field and defect distribution were simulated. Based on these results, the better injecting system with two additional overflows was adopted.

  12. An optimization of injecting system in die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available After many years of development, die casting technology of metallic materials has been matured. In this paper,the lower-support and its injecting system were created with commercial software. And then the simulation software FLOW3D was applied to study the flow behavior of the melt during injection filling process. Both temperature field and defect distribution were simulated. Based on these results, the better injecting system with two additional overflows wasadopted.

  13. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Roberta; dell'Aprovitola, Nicoletta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), Gd-DTPA (Magnevist), Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist), Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist). Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%), 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%), 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%), 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%), and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%). Twenty-four reactions (75.0%) were mild, four (12.5%) moderate, and four (12.5%) severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives. PMID:27652261

  14. Consideration of Adverse Reaction to MDCT Contrast Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Seok; Shin, Seong Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Dong A University Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In this experiment, we investigated 82 patients who suffered adverse reactions due to contrast medium. We selected the subjects out of 21,178 people who had an intravenous injection of contrast medium to undergo MDCT examination at one university hospital in Busan in 2007. As a result, the largest groups of the patients were as follows. 52.4% of the patients were male when classify by gender; 28.0% of the patients were 50's by age; 45% of the patients got when it was spring(April and March); 75.6% of the patients had a side effects when the speed of injection is 2.5 mL/sec; 58.5% of the patients were suffered when the volume of injected contrast medium is over 130 mL. Urticaria was the main symptom of side effect as 26.8%. And the main treatment for the effect was alleviating the symptoms before making patients to return home. Thus, practical preventive measures are needed as follows: use the OCS system to observe warning signs at risky patients, secure warming spaces for patients to cope with season changing, prepare enough emergency kits for the patients in danger, and establish CPR call systems, explain the risk of contrast medium and get agree about using contrast medium.

  15. Optimal timing by contrast media of deep venous thrombosis. Study of whole body contrast media by helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniyama, Hidemi; Seto, Kazuto [Kagoshima City Hospital (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    The contrast media of deep veins in the lower extremities reaches there more slowly and is more variable than the arrival time in an artery. Therefore, it was worried about the contrast media by CT of deep venous thrombosis (suspect) due to the injection speed and the setup of delay time. On this occasion, before examining deep venous thrombosis, I refer to the data of CT volume of each department place and the arrival time contrast media by whole body CT and has applied to delay time examination of deep venous thrombosis (suspect). (author)

  16. Infrared Contrast Analysis Technique for Flash Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the infrared flash thermography inspection to detect and analyze delamination-like anomalies in nonmetallic materials. It provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast verses time evolutions from the flash thermography infrared video data. The paper provides the analytical model used in the simulation of infrared image contrast. The contrast evolution simulation is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat bottom holes in the subject material. The paper also provides formulas to calculate values of the thermal measurement features from the measured contrast evolution curve. Many thermal measurement features of the contrast evolution that relate to the anomaly characteristics are calculated. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography inspection data in order to characterize the delamination-like anomalies. In addition, the contrast evolution prediction is matched to the measured anomaly contrast evolution to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width in terms of depth and diameter of the corresponding equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) or equivalent uniform gap (EUG). The paper provides anomaly edge detection technique called the half-max technique which is also used to estimate width of an indication. The EFBH/EUG and half-max width estimations are used to assess anomaly size. The paper also provides some information on the "IR Contrast" software application, half-max technique and IR Contrast feature imaging application, which are based on models provided in this paper.

  17. Power port contrast medium flushing and trapping: impact of temperature, an in vitro experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiffant G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Guiffant,1 Jean Jacques Durussel,1 Patrice Flaud,1 Laurent Royon,1 Pierre Yves Marcy,2 Jacques Merckx1,31University Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology Department, Caen, France; 3University Teaching Hospital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, FrancePurpose: The use of totally implantable venous access devices (TIVADs certified as "high pressure resistant" or "power port" has begun to spread worldwide as a safe procedure for power contrast injection. Owing to the thermo-rheological properties of the contrast media, the primary aim of this work is to present an in vitro experimental impact study concerning the impact of the temperature level on flushing efficiency after contrast medium injection. Moreover, we report experimental data that confirms the role of needle bevel orientation. The secondary aim is to answer the following questions: Is there significant device contrast medium trapping after contrast medium injection? Is saline flushing efficient? And, finally, is it safe to inject contrast medium through an indwelled port catheter?Results: The experimental results show that in addition to hydrodynamics, temperature is a key parameter for the efficiency of device flushing after contrast medium injection. It appears that this is the case when the cavity is incompletely rinsed after three calibrated flushing volumes of 10 mL saline solution, even by using the Huber needle bevel opposite to the port exit. This leads to a potentially important trapped volume of contrast medium in the port, and consequently to the possibility of subsequent salt precipitates and long term trisubstituted benzene nuclei delivery that might impair the solute properties, which may be further injected via the power port later on.Conclusion: We thus suggest, in TIVADS patients, the use of a temporary supplementary intravenous line rather than the port to perform contrast medium injections in daily radiology routine practice

  18. Effect of Doll Injection Display on Pain Intensity due to Intramuscular Injection in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Irani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pains caused by the invasive actions such as intramuscular injection lead to the physical and mental tensions in the children. Therefore, such pains should be given relief. One of the main priorities in the nursing is to notice methods that reduce pains due to the invasive actions in the children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of injection displayed on a doll on the pain intensity due to the intramuscular injection in the preschool children. Materials & Methods: In the randomized controlled clinical trial, 62 kids aged between 4 and 6 years with pharyngitis were studied in the clinic of the health network of Khalil-abad Township in 2015. The intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 was administrated for the kids. The subjects, selected by simple lottery, were divided into two groups including experimental and control groups (n=31 per group. Data was collected using a demographic characteristic collecting form and Oucher standard pain assessment tool. In experimental group, the kid watching, one intramuscular injection was displayed on a doll by a nurse; then, the kid underwent an intramuscular injection. In control group, the routine injection method was done. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Mann-Whitney, independent T, and Chi-square tests. Findings: Mean pain intensity after injection in experimental group (3.22±0.90 was significantly lower than control group (4.19±0.83; p<0.001. Conclusion: The injection displayed on a doll before the intramuscular injection might lead to pain reduction in the preschool kids.

  19. Enhanced magnetic resonance contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in a porous silicon nanoparticle host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Joseph; Ananda, Shalini; Andrew, Jennifer; Grondek, Joel; Chien, Miao-Ping; Scandeng, Miriam; Gianneschi, Nathan; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Sailor, Michael

    2013-02-01

    In this report, we prepared a porous Si nanoparticle with a pore morphology that facilitates the proximal loading and alignment of magnetite nanoparticles. We characterized the composite materials using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and MRI. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the composite materials was tested using cell viability assays on human liver cancer cells and rat hepatocytes. An in vivo analysis using a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Sprague Dawley rat model was used to determine the biodistribution properties of the material, while naïve Sprague Dawley rats were used to determine the pharmocokinetic properties of the nanomaterials. The composite material reported here demonstrates an injectable nanomaterial that exploits the dipolar coupling of superparamagnetic nanoparticles trapped within a secondary inorganic matrix to yield significantly enhanced MRI contrast. This preparation successfully avoids agglomeration issues that plague larger ferromagnetic systems. A Fe3O4:pSi composite formulation consisting of 25% by mass Fe3O4 yields an maximal T2* value of 556 mM Fe-1 s-1. No cellular (HepG2 or rat hepatocyte cells) or in vivo (rat) toxicity was observed with the formulation, which degrades and is eliminated after 4-8 h in vivo. The ability to tailor the magnetic properties of such materials may be useful for in vivo imaging, magnetic hyperthermia, or drug-delivery applications.

  20. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sperm must attach to the outside of the egg. Once attached, the sperm pushes through the outer layer to the inside ... in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help fertilize the egg. During ICSI, a single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm the egg. ...

  1. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  2. Giving an insulin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an alcohol wipe on your injection site. The insulin needs to go into the fat layer under the skin. Pinch the skin and put the needle in at a 45º angle. If your tissues are thick enough, you may be able to ...

  3. Phase-contrast X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan). Advanced Research Lab.

    1996-08-01

    X-ray transmission imaging that creates image contrast from the distribution of the X-ray absorption coefficient is not sensitive to materials consisting of light elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. On the other hand, the X-ray phase shift caused by the light elements is substantial enough to be detected even when absorption is almost zero. Hence, phase-contrast X-ray imaging is a promising technique for observing the structure inside biological soft tissues without the need for staining and without serious radiation exposure. Using fringe scanning X-ray interferometry, the X-ray phase shift caused by an object was measured. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of cancerous tissues using the measured phase shifts was enabled under tomographic configuration phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT). (author)

  4. 降纤酶与前列地尔脂微球注射液治疗糖尿病足的临床效果对比%Clinical effect contrast of defibrase and lipo prostaglandin E1 injection in the treatment of diabetic foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effect of defibrase and lipo prostaglandin E1 injection in the treatment of diabetic foot. Methods 52 patients with diabetic foot admitted into our hospital from August 2012 to August 2013 were selected as research object.They were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group according to the single and double random distribution method, with 26 cases in each group.The two groups were given conventional therapy,such as diabetes education,injection of insulin to lower blood sugar and diabetes diet.On the basis of the con-ventional therapy,the observation group was treated with lipo prostaglandin E1 injection,the control group was treated with defibrase.The therapy effect in two groups was compared. Results After treatment,foot artery blood flow velocity in two groups than before treatment were obviously improved (P<0.05).Improvement in observation group was better than that of control group,the difference was significant (P<0.05).The effective treatment rate in observation group was 92.31%,which was higher than 80.77% of control group,with significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion Compare with defibrase,the application of lipo prostaglandin E1 injection in the treatment of diabetic foot can better promote the heal-ing of foot ulcers,which has good result,it is worth clinical application and promotion.%目的:对比降纤酶与前列地尔脂微球注射液治疗糖尿病足的临床效果。方法选取2012年8月~2013年8月在我院接受治疗的52例糖尿病足患者作为研究对象,将其按照单双号随机分配法分为对照组与观察组,各26例。两组患者均接受糖尿病教育、注射胰岛素降低血糖以及糖尿病饮食等常规治疗。在此基础上,观察组加用前列地尔脂微球注射液进行治疗,对照组加用降纤酶进行治疗,比较两组的治疗效果。结果治疗后,两组足部动脉血流速度较治疗前均有明显改善(P<0.05),且

  5. Concentration-discharge relationships during an extreme event: Contrasting behavior of solutes and changes to chemical quality of dissolved organic material in the Boulder Creek Watershed during the September 2013 flood: SOLUTE FLUX IN A FLOOD EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, Garrett P. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Rock, Nathan D. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Gabor, Rachel S. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Pitlick, John [Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; McKnight, Diane M. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA

    2017-07-01

    During the week of September 10-17, 2013, close to 20 inches of rain fell across Boulder County, Colorado, USA. This rainfall represented a 1000-year event that caused massive hillslope erosion, landslides, and mobilization of sediments. The resultant stream flows corresponded to a 100-year flood. For the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC-CZO), this event provided an opportunity to study the effect of extreme rainfall on solute concentration-discharge relationships and biogeochemical catchment processes. We observed base cation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at two sites on Boulder Creek following the recession of peak flow. We also isolated three distinct fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for chemical characterization. At the upper site, which represented the forested mountain catchment, the concentrations of the base cations Ca, Mg and Na were greatest at the peak flood and decreased only slightly, in contrast with DOC and K concentrations, which decreased substantially. At the lower site within urban corridor, all solutes decreased abruptly after the first week of flow recession, with base cation concentrations stabilizing while DOC and K continued to decrease. Additionally, we found significant spatiotemporal trends in the chemical quality of organic matter exported during the flood recession, as measured by fluorescence, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and FTICR-MS. Similar to the effect of extreme rainfall events in driving landslides and mobilizing sediments, our findings suggest that such events mobilize solutes by the flushing of the deeper layers of the critical zone, and that this flushing regulates terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages during the flow recession.

  6. Long-Lasting and Efficient Tumor Imaging Using a High Relaxivity Polysaccharide Nanogel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Minnie; Lux, Jacques; Nishimura, Tomoki; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Almutairi, Adah

    2015-09-14

    Clinically approved small-molecule magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are all rapidly cleared from the body and offer weak signal enhancement. To avoid repeated administration of contrast agent and improve signal-to-noise ratios, agents with stronger signal enhancement and better retention in tumors are needed. Therefore, we focused on hydrogels because of their excellent water accessibility and biodegradability. Gadolinium (Gd)-chelating cross-linkers were incorporated into self-assembled pullulan nanogels to both impart magnetic properties and to stabilize this material that has been extensively studied for medical applications. We show that these Gd-chelating pullulan nanogels (Gd-CHPOA) have the highest reported relaxivity for any hydrogel-based particles and accumulate in the 4T1 tumors in mice at high levels 4 h after injection. This combination offers high signal enhancement and lasts up to 7 days to delineate the tumor clearly for longer imaging time scales. Importantly, this long-term accumulation does not cause any damage or toxicity in major organs up to three months after injection. Our work highlights the clinical potential of Gd-CHPOA as a tumor-imaging MRI contrast agent, permitting tumor identification and assessment with a high signal-to-background ratio.

  7. The Value of Contrast Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon C. Treiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is much evidence-based research proving the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography, but there are still questions and concerns about its specific uses. This study tested the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography in defining the left ventricular endocardial border. Methods: From 30 patients, a total of 60 echocardiograms –– 30 with and 30 without use of contrast –– were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded cardiologists with advanced training in echocardiography. No single cardiologist reviewed contrast and noncontrast images of the same patient. Each set of 30 echocardiograms was then studied for wall-motion scoring. Visualization of left ventricular wall segments and a global visualization confidence level of interpretation were recorded. Results: Of all wall segments (N = 510, 91% were visualized in echocardiograms with use of contrast, whereas 75% of the walls were visualized in echocardiograms without contrast (P < 0.001. Of 30 examinations, 17 contrast echocardiograms were read with high confidence compared to 6 without contrast use (P = 0.004. The number of walls visualized with contrast was increased in 18 patients (60%, whereas noncontrast echocardiograms yielded more visualized walls in 6 patients (20%, P = 0.002. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that contrast is valuable to echocardiographic imaging. Its use should be supported throughout echocardiography clinics and encouraged in certain patients for whom resting and stress echocardiography results without contrast often prove uninterpretable.

  8. Modified Right Heart Contrast Echocardiography Versus Traditional Method in Diagnosis of Right-to-Left Shunt: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jie; Yin, Lixue; Zhang, Mei; Hou, Dailun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability, effectiveness, and safety of modified right heart contrast transthoracic echocardiography (cTTE) in comparison with the traditional method. Material/Methods We performed a modified right heart cTTE using saline mixed with a small sample of patient’s own blood. Samples were agitated with varying intensity. This study protocol involved microscopic analysis and patient evaluation. 1. Microscopic analysis: After two contrast samples had been agitated 10 or 20 times, they underwent a comparison of bubble size, bubble number, and red blood cell morphology. 2. Patient analysis: 40 patients with suspected RLS (right- to-left shunt) were enrolled. All patients underwent right heart contrast echocardiography. Oxygen saturation, transit time and duration, presence of RLS, change in indirect bilirubin and urobilinogen concentrations were compared afterward. Results Modified method generated more bubbles (Pbubble size were not significant (P>0.05). Twenty-four patients were diagnosed with RLS (60%) using the modified method compared to 16 patients (40%) with the traditional method. The transit time of ASb20 group was the shortest (P<0.05). However, the duration time in this group was much longer (P<0.05). Also, in semi-quantitative analysis mean rank of RLS was higher after injecting the modified contrast agent agitated 20 times (P<0.05). Conclusions Modified right heart contrast echocardiography is a reliable, effective and safe method of detecting cardiovascular RLS. PMID:27668027

  9. Combined dynamic contrast-enhancement and serial 3D-subtraction analysis in magnetic resonance imaging of osteoid osteomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, T. von; Winkler, P. [Klinikum Stuttgart Olgahospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Stuttgart (Germany); Langendoerfer, M.; Fernandez, F.F. [Klinikum Stuttgart Olgahospital, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively correlate the results of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with histological and clinical diagnoses in patients with osteoid osteomas. Fifty-four patients with the MR diagnosis of osteoid osteoma were studied. MRI (1.5 Tesla) consisted of thin-section STIR sequences, dynamic 3D T1 gradient echo sequences during application of contrast material, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation (maximum voxel size 0.6 x 0.6 x 3.0 mm). Evaluation was focused on serial image subtraction during the early phase after contrast injection and on time-intensity curves. The surrounding edema was helpful in finding the nidus in each lesion. In 49 of 54 patients (90.7%), the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was certain or highly probable (sensitivity 1.0, positive predictive value 0.91). A total of 38 of 54 osteoid osteomas were histologically proven. Five MRI diagnoses were regarded as false positives. A similar proportion has been reported for computed tomography. Tailored high-resolution MR examinations with dynamic contrast enhancement can reliably diagnose osteoid osteomas and exactly localize the nidus without radiation exposure. We propose a stepwise approach with STIR sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced scanning, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation. (orig.)

  10. Gadolinium Contrast Agent is of Limited Value for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Synovial Hypertrophy in Hemophiliacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, B.; Berntorp, E.; Pettersson, H.; Wirestam, R.; Jonsson, K.; Staahlberg, F.; Ljung, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ Hospital of Lund, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine the influence of different doses of gadolinium contrast agent on synovial enhancement, to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of synovial hypertrophy and radiographic joint changes in hemophiliacs, and to investigate the value of gadolinium in MRI assessment of synovial hypertrophy in hemophiliacs using dynamic MRI and MRI scoring. Material and Methods: Twenty-one hemophiliacs on prophylactic factor treatment without recent bleeds were subjected to radiography and gadolinium contrast-enhanced dynamic and static MRI of the knee using a standard dose of 0.1 mmol/kg b.w. gadoteridol. In 17 of the patients, the MRI procedure was repeated after a triple dose of gadoteridol. Results: MRI findings of synovial hypertrophy were significantly correlated with Pettersson radiographic scores. In 19 of the 21 MRI investigated joints, administration of contrast agent did not alter the result of the evaluation of synovial hypertrophy. Conclusion: The optimal time interval for volume assessment of synovial hypertrophy after injection of gadolinium contrast agent is dose dependent. Hemophiliacs without recent bleeds have minor to abundant synovial hypertrophy in joints with pronounced radiographic changes. Dynamic MRI is not useful for evaluating hemophilic arthropathy, and gadolinium contrast agent is not routinely indicated for MRI scoring of joints in hemophiliacs.

  11. Memory and Spin Injection Devices Involving Half Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shaughnessy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest memory and spin injection devices fabricated with half-metallic materials and based on the anomalous Hall effect. Schematic diagrams of the memory chips, in thin film and bulk crystal form, are presented. Spin injection devices made in thin film form are also suggested. These devices do not need any external magnetic field but make use of their own magnetization. Only a gate voltage is needed. The carriers are 100% spin polarized. Memory devices may potentially be smaller, faster, and less volatile than existing ones, and the injection devices may be much smaller and more efficient than existing spin injection devices.

  12. Two Contrasting Phenomena in Textile Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ As the two traditional markets for China's textile and clothing exports,the U.S.and Europe have recently shown a huge contrast. The 103rd China Import and Export Fair,also known as the Canton Fair,the largest trade fair in China,has closed its closed its doors,impacted by the rising costs of raw materials,appreciation of the RMB,decreased demand from U.S.customers and other factors.

  13. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  14. Optical transverse injection in laser-plasma acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehe, R; Lifschitz, A F; Davoine, X; Thaury, C; Malka, V

    2013-08-23

    Laser-wakefield acceleration constitutes a promising technology for future electron accelerators. A crucial step in such an accelerator is the injection of electrons into the wakefield, which will largely determine the properties of the extracted beam. We present here a new paradigm of colliding-pulse injection, which allows us to generate high-quality electron bunches having both a very low emittance (0.17 mm·mrad) and a low energy spread (2%), while retaining a high charge (~100 pC) and a short duration (3 fs). In this paradigm, the pulse collision provokes a transient expansion of the accelerating bubble, which then leads to transverse electron injection. This mechanism contrasts with previously observed optical injection mechanisms, which were essentially longitudinal. We also specify the range of parameters in which this new type of injection occurs and show that it is within reach of existing high-intensity laser facilities.

  15. Clinical observation of Danshen Chuanxiong Injection on the Contrast-induced nephropathy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients of coronary heart disease%丹参川芎嗪防治冠心病患者对比剂肾损伤的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段娜; 侯爱洁; 李占全

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the CI-AKI prevention strategies of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with diabetes mellitus after interventional treatment. Methods The clinical data of 100 cases CHD patients with diabetes mellitus by CAG+PCI were retrospectively analyzed.According to whether the application of Danshen Chuanxiong Injection was divided into hydration treatment group 50 cases and hydration on the basis of application of Danshen Chuanxiong Injection treatment group 50 cases. Results The study found that the treatment group compared with preoperative and postoperative 24 hours,Serum CysC,Scr,eGFR were no significant differences,no tatistical significance(P > 0.05);Compared with the preoperative of the control group after 24 hours,serum CysC increased significantly,the difference had statistical significance (t=5.87,P < 0.05);Compared with the postoperative of the treatment group after 24 hours,serum CysC decreased significantly,the difference had statistical significance(t=6.01, P<0.05). Conclusion Serum CysC can be more early than Scr prediction CI-AKI.Danshen Chuanxiong Injection can improve the early renal function of CHD patients with diabetes mellitus after PCI.%目的:探讨合并糖尿病的冠心病患者介入术后对比剂肾损伤(CI-AKI)的防治策略。方法回顾性分析2010年12月~2013年11月我院心脏中心明确诊断为“冠心病及糖尿病”,并同意行CAG+PCI患者共100例。根据是否应用丹参川芎嗪分为水化治疗组50例和水化基础上应用丹参川芎嗪治疗组50例。结果研究发现治疗组术后24h与术前比较,血清CysC、Scr、eGFR指标均未见明显差异,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);而对照组术后24h与术前比较,血清CysC明显升高,差异有统计意义(t=5.87,P<0.05);治疗组术后24h血清CysC水平明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(t=6.01,P<0.05)。结论血清CysC可较Scr更早期预测CI-AKI,同时对于拟

  16. Wavelet Packet Decomposition to Characterize Injection Molding Tool Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Kek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents measurements of acoustic emission (AE signals during the injection molding of polypropylene with new and damaged mold. The damaged injection mold has cracks induced by laser surface heat treatment. Standard test specimens were injection molded, commonly used for examining the shrinkage behavior of various thermoplastic materials. The measured AE burst signals during injection molding cycle are presented. For injection molding tool integrity prediction, different AE burst signals’ descriptors are defined. To lower computational complexity and increase performance, the feature selection method was implemented to define a feature subset in an appropriate multidimensional space to characterize the integrity of the injection molding tool and the injection molding process steps. The feature subset was used for neural network pattern recognition of AE signals during the full time of the injection molding cycle. The results confirm that acoustic emission measurement during injection molding of polymer materials is a promising technique for characterizing the integrity of molds with respect to damage, even with resonant sensors.

  17. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  18. Ultrasonido con contraste de masas hepáticas Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in hepatic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojun Yu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El ultrasonido (US con contraste constituye una poderosa herramienta diagnóstica en la caracterización de masas hepáticas. Las modernas técnicas de ultrasonido con contraste presentan alta sensibilidad con dosis bajas de contraste, lo que juntamente con la técnica de supresión de ecos resulta en imágenes de muy alta resolución temporal y espacial, propiciando el resurgimiento de la ultrasonografía en la era de la tomografía computada (TC y de la resonancia magnética (RM. El agente de contraste utilizado es muy seguro, sin efectos de nefrotoxicidad y apropiado para pacientes con función renal disminuida. La posibilidad de utilizar múltiples inyecciones de micro burbujas y de realizar observaciones reiteradas de patrones de vascularización de las masas hepáticas, la convierten en una herramienta diagnóstica segura y confiable en la resolución de lesiones hepáticas indeterminadas previo a la TC y RM. En este artículo describimos los principios básicos del US con contraste, consideraciones prácticas en la realización de los estudios, debilidades y fortalezas del método en comparación con la TC y RM y patrones de vascularización en las cinco masas hepáticas más comunes: hemangioma, hiperplasia nodular focal, adenoma, carcinoma hepatocelular y metástasis.Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS is a powerful tool in the characterization of various liver masses. Modern techniques of contrast ultrasonography are highly sensitive to minute doses of the contrast agent and with the suppression of background tissue echoes result in images with very high contrast resolution. Added to this advantage are the high temporal and spatial resolution intrinsic to sonography in general, which have resulted in a robust resurgence of sonography in this era of CT and MRI. The excellent safety profile of the contrast agent with no nephrotoxicity allows for multiple injections of microbubble in deciphering the vascular structure and enhancement

  19. Liver dysplasia: US molecular imaging with targeted contrast agent enables early assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouls, Christoph; Hatting, Maximillian; Rix, Anne; Pochon, Sibylle; Lederle, Wiltrud; Tardy, Isabelle; Kuhl, Christiane K; Trautwein, Christian; Kiessling, Fabian; Palmowski, Moritz

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the ability of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2)-targeted ultrasonographic (US) microbubbles for the assessment of liver dysplasia in transgenic mice. Animal experiments were approved by the governmental review committee. Nuclear factor-κB essential modulator knock-out mice with liver dysplasia and wild-type mice underwent liver imaging by using a clinical US system. Two types of contrast agents were investigated: nontargeted, commercially available, second-generation microbubbles (SonoVue) and clinically translatable PEGylated VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles (BR55). Microbubble kinetics was investigated over the course of 4 minutes. Targeted contrast material-enhanced US signal was quantified 5 minutes after injection. Competitive in vivo binding experiments with BR55 were performed in knock-out mice. Immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin staining of liver sections was performed to validate the in vivo US results. Groups were compared by using the Mann-Whitney test. Peak enhancement after injection of SonoVue and BR55 did not differ in healthy and dysplastic livers (SonoVue, P = .46; BR55, P = .43). Accordingly, immunohistochemical findings revealed comparable vessel densities in both groups. The specificity of BR55 to VEGFR2 was proved by in vivo competition (P = .0262). While the SonoVue signal decreased similarly in healthy and dysplastic livers during the 4 minutes, there was an accumulation of BR55 in dysplastic livers compared with healthy ones. Furthermore, targeted contrast-enhanced US signal indicated a significantly higher site-specific binding of BR55 in dysplastic than healthy livers (P = .005). Quantitative immunohistologic findings confirmed significantly higher VEGFR2 levels in dysplastic livers (P = .02). BR55 enables the distinction of early stages of liver dysplasia from normal liver. © RSNA, 2013.

  20. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets, view of the complete tank. First proton beam from the PS was injected into the SPS in 1976, at a beam momentum of 10 GeV/c. These kickers served until the end of 1979 and were replaced at the beginning of 1980 by stronger ones, in preparation for the SPS as a proton-antiproton collider. For this, transfer momentum from the PS to the SPS was raised to 26 GeV/c, so as to avoid acceleration of the dense p and pbar bunches through SPS transition energy. Bearded Roland Tröhler is at the left, Giacomo Busetta smiles at the right. See also 7502073X, 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, 162.

  1. Continuous Dynamic Registration of Microvascularization of Liver Tumors with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Philipp Beyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the diagnostic value of quantification of liver tumor microvascularization using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS measured continuously from the arterial phase to the late phase (3 minutes. Material and Methods. We present a retrospective analysis of 20 patients with malignant (n=13 or benign (n=7 liver tumors. The tumors had histopathologically been proven or clearly identified using contrast-enhanced reference imaging with either 1.5 T MRI (liver specific contrast medium or triphase CT and follow-up. CEUS was performed using a multifrequency transducer (1–5 MHz and a bolus injection of 2.4 mL sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles. A retrospective perfusion analysis was performed to determine TTP (time-to-peak, RBV (regional blood volume, RBF (regional blood flow, and Peak. Results. Statistics revealed a significant difference (P<0.05 between benign and malignant tumors in the RBV, RBF, and Peak but not in TTP (P=0.07. Receiver operating curves (ROC were generated for RBV, RBF, Peak, and TTP with estimated ROC areas of 0.97, 0.96, 0.98, and 0.76, respectively. Conclusion. RBV, RBF, and Peak continuously measured over a determined time period of 3 minutes could be of valuable support in differentiating malignant from benign liver tumors.

  2. Residual stress distribution in injection molded parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Postawa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of the investigations of influence of the amorphous polystyrene (PSprocessing on the diversity of the internal stresses observed in the injection moulded piece.Design/methodology/approach: For the tests, the standardized mould piece designed for the investigations ofthe processing shrinkage of thermoplastics materials has been used. The samples have been prepared using theDesign of Experiment (DoE theory.The state of internal stresses has been analysed by means of photoelastic method (used stress viewer equipmenton the basis of the layout and size of the isochromatics (fields with the same colour, which determine the mouldpiece’s areas where the same value for the difference of main tensions. In the article the results of investigationsof influence of 5 chosen processing parameters such as injection temperature Tw, mould temperature Tf,clamping pressure pd, cooling time tch and the injection speed vw on the changes in isochromatics layout as adeterminant for diversity of internal stresses in injection moulded pieces have been presented.Findings: The performed investigations of the influence of injection conditions on the state of internal stressesreached for injection mould pieces were to determine the parameters of injection at which the achieved state ofthe stresses in the mould piece (described by the difference of main tensions will show the lowest values.Practical implications: Effects of examinations of influence of processing conditions on residual stress ininjection molded parts (presented in the article could find practical application in polymer industry, both smalland large enterprises.Originality/value: New approach to fast estimation of value of residual stresses were present in the paper.

  3. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  4. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents. Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion. In the future, these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion, to assess...

  5. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  6. Injection-induced earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  7. Autologus Blood Injection for Recurrent Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dehghani, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Tennis elbow is a common complaint. Several treatment strategies, such as corticosteroid injections and physical terapy and braces have been described with no predictable efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the result of refractory lateral epicondylitis with autologus blood injections.Materials and Methods: Twenty two patients with lateral epicondylitis were injected with 2 mL of autologous blood under the extensor carpi radialis brevis. All patients had failed the two previous non surgical treatments including all or combination of physical therapy, splintinge, non steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and prior steroid injection. The patients were evaluated with patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE.Results: The average fallow-up period was 7.3 months (range, 4-10mo. After autologus blood injection, the average pain score decreased from 43.7 to 9.1 (P-value < 0.001. The average functional score decreased from 42.4 to 10.1 (P-value <0.001.Conclusion: On the basis of this study, this minimally invasive treatment advocates refractory Tennis elbow.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF CELLULAR INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbacz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a study of cellular injection, molding process uses polyvinylchloride PVC. Polymers modified with introducing blowing agents into them in the Laboratory of the Department of Technologies and Materiase of Technical University of Kosice. For technological reasons, blowing agents have a form of granules. In the experiment, the content of the blowing agent (0–2,0 % by mass fed into the processed polymer was adopted as a variable factor. In the studies presented in the article, the chemical blowing agents occurring in the granulated form with a diameter of 1.2 to 1.4 mm were used. The view of the technological line for cellular injection molding and injection mold cavity with injection moldings are shown in Figure 1. The results of the determination of selected properties of injection molded parts for various polymeric materials, obtained with different content of blowing agents, are shown in Figures 4-7. Microscopic examination of cross-sectional structure of the moldings were obtained using the author's position image analysis of porous structure. Based on analysis of photographs taken (Figures 7, 8, 9 it was found that the coating containing 1.0% of blowing agents is a clearly visible solid outer layer and uniform distribution of pores and their sizes are similar.

  9. Arterial enhancement at abdominal CT angiography: Low- versus high-osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouviere, O.; Berger, P.; Pangaud, C.; Lyonnet, D. [Hopital E. Herriot, Lyon (France). Dept. of Vascular and Genitourinary Radiology; Ecochard, R. [Hospices Civils de Lyon (France). Dept of Biostatistics; Fontaine, B. [Laboratoire Guerbet, Roissy (France)

    2000-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of contrast media pharmokinetic differences on aortic enhancement at abdominal CT angiography and to determine whether these effects are of clinical relevance. Material and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients referred for abdominal CT angiography were included in the study. All abdominal CT angiograms were performed with the same parameters (collimation 3 mm, pitch ratio 1.7, scan delay 30 s) after i.v. injection of 120 ml of contrast medium at 3 ml/s. After randomization, patients received either iobitridol 300 (low-osmolar, 300 mg I/ml), iobitridol 350 (low-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml) or ioxithalamate 350 (high-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml). The time attenuation curves obtained with the three contrast media were compared. Results: The time attenuation curve obtained with ioxithalamate 350 was not parallel to those obtained with iobitridol 300 and iobitridol 350. Mean peak enhancements obtained with iobitridol 350 and ioxithalamate 350 were not significantly different but iobitridol 350 provided higher mean peak enhancement than iobitridol 300. Mean delays of the peak enhancements were the same with the three contrast media. After peak enhancement, the decrease of aortic opacification under a selected threshold of 200 HU was significantly slower with iobitridol 350 than with iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350, whereas iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350 showed no significant differences. Conclusion: For a given iodine concentration, low-osmolality contrast media provide longer aortic opacification and may be recommended for CT angiography when long acquisition times are needed.

  10. Discourse Theory and "Contrastive Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Lev, Zev

    1986-01-01

    Appraises R. Kaplan's "contrastic rhetoric" in the light of a multilanguage research project on discourse structure. Concludes that Kaplan's specific analyses are in need of substantive revision. (FL)

  11. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  12. Fundus artery occlusion caused by cosmetic facial injections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyun; Wang Wenying; Li Jipeng; Yu Yajie; Li Lin; Lu Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background With the increasing popularity of cosmetic facial filler injections in recent years,more and more associated complications have been reported.However,the causative surgical procedures and preventative measures have not been studied well up to now.The aim of this stady was to investigate the clinical characteristics and visual prognosis of fundus artery occlusion resulting from cosmetic facial filler injections.Methods Thirteen consecutive patients with fundus artery occlusion caused by facial filler injections were included.Main outcome measures were filler materials,injection sites,best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA),fundus fluorescein angiography,and associated ocular and systemic manifestations.Results Eleven patients had ophthalmic artery occlusion (OAO) and one patient each had central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION).Injected materials included autologous fat (seven cases),hyaluronic acid (five cases),and bone collagen (one case).Injection sites were the frontal area (five cases),periocular area (two cases),temple area (two cases),and nose area and nasal area (4 cases).Injected autologous fat was associated with worse final BCVA than hyaluronic acid.The BCVA of seven patients with autologous fat injection in frontal area and temple area was no light perception.Most of the patients with OAO had ocular pain,headache,ptosis,ophthalmoplegia,and no improvement in final BCVA.Conclusions Cosmetic facial injections can cause fundus artery occlusion.Autologous fat injection tends to be associated with painful blindness,ptosis,ophthalmoplegia,and poor visual outcomes.The prognosis is much worse with autologous fat injection than hyaluronic acid injection.

  13. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on ... painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider inserts ...

  14. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...